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Sample records for foie gras

  1. Les trois traditions du foie gras dans la gastronomie française Foie Gras as represented by three traditional protagonists in French gastronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Mognard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La promulgation du foie gras comme patrimoine gastronomique et culturel français en janvier 2006, nous invite à questionner le processus de patrimonialisation du foie gras en France. La patrimonialisation est habituellement étudiée dans les interactions entre les acteurs des filières courte et longue. Des travaux récents invitent à renouveler cette approche en ajoutant les professionnels des métiers de bouche à l’analyse et à en inscrire l’étude dans la longue durée. Les trajectoires sur le long terme de trois catégories d’acteurs sont ici retracées par l’étude des traditions et des métiers de bouche, industrielle et fermière. Cette analyse fait notamment ressortir des relations entre chefs cuisiniers et industriels et la mobilisation de la cuisine du gras dans l’offre agritouristique. Ces aspects confirment l’intérêt d’envisager l’analyse des patrimonialisations en passant du système binaire des acteurs de la production (filières courtes et longues à un système ternaire des acteurs de la valorisation (industriels, producteurs fermiers et professionnels des métiers de bouche.In January 2006, the production of foie gras was declared «patrimoine gastronomique et culturel français » (French gastronomic and cultural heritage. But how has foie gras become food heritage in France? Foie gras as food heritage is usually analyzed through interactions between the actors of the food-processing industry and farming networks. Recent works re-use this approach in a long-term perspective, adding the professionals of catering trade to the analysis. Long-term trajectories of three categories of actors are described here through the study of catering trade, food-processing industry and farmer traditions. This analysis brings out the relations between chefs and industrialists and the implication of the cuisine du gras in the agrotourism experience. It confirms the interest in renewing the analyses of food heritage

  2. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Salem, F. M.; Abu Arab, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning fatty liver, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 degree centigrade were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 degree centigrade. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 degree centigrade could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 degree centigrade). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of

  3. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras. Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA or sorbic acid (SA and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C. This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras. A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In

  4. Development, terroir and welfare: a case study of farm-produced foie gras, in south west France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Techoueyres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Le foie gras et les produits de palmipèdes gavés font partie du patrimoine culinaire et culturel régional de la France et tout particulièrement du Sud Ouest. A ce titre ils sont ce que l’on appelle des produits de terroir. Ce travail, en retraçant le développement récent et l’internationalisation de ces produits avec les problèmes qui les accompagnent, tente de déchiffrer ce que de tels phénomènes signifient pour les producteurs au plan local, dans l’aire délimitée par l’IGP Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. A travers l’exemple d’une famille de producteurs à la ferme, on observera concrètement des points d’articulation entre global et local : comment cohabitent développement économique et protection de savoir-faire traditionnels ; comment des producteurs s’approprient de nouvelles technologies pour améliorer la productivité et les conditions de travail ; comment son réactualisés certains aspects traditionnels et ancestraux; et comment se développent de nouvelles sociabilités.Foie gras and fat duck products are part of the French culinary and cultural heritage, particularly of South West France. As such they belong to the produits de terroir category. Starting by tracing the recent developments and globalisation of such products with subsequent challenges, this paper assumes a local perspective, in the geographical area delimited by the PGI Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. Through the observation of a family of farmers, meeting points between local and global are analyzed, particularly tensions between economic development and the protection of traditional knowledge but also the way contemporary changes promote new sociabilities.

  5. Effects of dietary protein level during rearing period and age at overfeeding on magret and foie gras quality in male mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Julien; Molette, Caroline; Lavigne, Franck; Margetyal, Carole; Amador, Olivier; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of dietary protein content during the rearing period on the performance of mule ducks, according to age at overfeeding (O). Ducks (n = 612) were divided into four groups differing in the protein content in the diet offered during the starting period (S, 0-20 days; S l vs. S h : 150 vs. 175 g/kg crude protein (CP)) and growing-finishing period (GF; 21-67 or 81 days, depending on age at O; GF l vs. GF h : 133 vs. 152 g/kg CP). The relative weight of pectoral muscle was lower when ducks were fed a low protein diet during S (-5%, P ducks of the S l GF h group (+6%; P ducks were fed S l or GF l (P ducks fed the S l diet and overfed at late age (7.4% vs. 0%; P ducks overfed at a late age. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Influence of the incorporation mode of sugar beet pulp in the finishing diet on the digestive tract and performances of geese reared for foie gras production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Lavigne, F; Bannelier, C; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of incorporating sugar beet pulp (SBP) into the diet of geese in two feeding systems (complete pelleted feed or loose-mix feeding system) on crop development and performance. A total of 480 1-d-old male geese were divided into three groups whose diet differed from d 56 to 90: a complete pelleted diet containing 50% corn (control diet: AMEn 11.5 MJ/kg; CP 161 g/kg), and no SBP; a complete pelleted diet containing 50% corn and 10% SBP (SBPcp diet: AMEn: 11.5 MJ/kg; CP: 161 g/kg); and a mix in the same feeder (SBPlm diet) of 500 g/kg of protein-rich pellets containing 20% SBP (SBPprp: AMEn: 9.0 MJ/kg; CP: 250 g/kg) and 500 g/kg of whole corn (WC: AMEn: 14.0 MJ/kg; CP: 72 g/kg). Body traits, including crop volume, were measured at d 91. From d 91 to 106, 88 birds/group were overfed with a mixture containing mainly corn and water before slaughter to measure fatty liver performance. Feed intake from d 56 to 90 was higher (+10%; P = 0.004) in the SBPcp group than the other two, but at d 90, the body weight (BW) of the birds was higher (+7%; P = 0.002) in the SBPlm group than the other two. At d 91, the volume of the crop was greater in the SBPcp group (80.4 mL/kg of BW, P 0.05) between the three groups. In conclusion, the use of sugar beet pulp in the diet of finishing geese helps the adaptation of the digestive tract to the overfeeding period, even in a loose-mix feeding system based on whole corn. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Letter to the editor regarding "GRAS from the ground up: Review of the Interim Pilot Program for GRAS notification" by.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewalt, Vincent; LaMarta, James; Shanahan, Diane; Gregg, Lori; Carrillo, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Present letter is aimed at clarifying some critical points highlighted by Hanlon et al. regarding the common knowledge element of the safety of food enzymes in support of their GRAS designation. Particularly, we outline the development of peer-reviewed, generally recognized safety evaluation methodology for microbial enzymes and its adoption by the enzyme industry, which provides the US FDA with a review framework for enzyme GRAS Notices. This approach may serve as a model to other food ingredient categories for a scientifically sound, rigorous, and transparent application of the GRAS concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Baisse de la transmission de la douve du foie dans le nord-est de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mortelle de cancer du foie liée à l'O. viverrini. Dans cer- taines régions, près de 85 % de la population est porteuse du parasite. Les villages du nord-est de la Thaïlande, où l'on raffole du poisson cru, ont des taux d'infection parmi les plus élevés du pays. Les personnes infectées peuvent porter le parasite adulte pendant ...

  9. Comportement mécanique du foie en contexte traumatique : Rupture et endommagement des tissus

    OpenAIRE

    CONTE, Cécile

    2012-01-01

    Chaque année en France, on dénombre environ 2000 cas de lésions de la région abdominale lors d'accidents de la route. Ces lésions sont très souvent sévères, mortelles dans 20% des cas, et nécessitent un traitement médical délicat, long et coûteux car il fait appel à la chirurgie dans un cas sur deux. Parmi ces lésions, celles du foie font partie des plus fréquentes mais aussi des plus graves à cause de leur risque hémorragique et sceptique élevé. Une voie d'amélioration de leur prévention pas...

  10. Maïs beperkt nitraatverlies van gras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.; Boumans, L.

    2006-01-01

    Maïs staat bekend als een gewas dat veel nitraat naar het grondwater lekt. Maar maïs heeft ook goeie kanten. Nieuw in dit rijtje is dat maïs, in vruchtwisseling met gras, ook het nitraatverlies van grasland beperkt. Dit blijkt uit de metingen van het RIVM op De Marke.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Wu, P Z; Chen, Y P; Li, M R; Wu, G J; Jiang, H W

    2015-12-29

    GRAS proteins play vital roles in plant growth and development. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) was found to have a total of 48 GRAS family members (JcGRAS), 15 more than those found in Arabidopsis. The JcGRAS genes were divided into 12 subfamilies or 15 ancient monophyletic lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from both flowering and lower plants. The functions of GRAS genes in 9 subfamilies have been reported previously for several plants, while the genes in the remaining 3 subfamilies were of unknown function; we named the latter families U1 to U3. No member of U3 subfamily is present in Arabidopsis and Poaceae species according to public genome sequence data. In comparison with the number of GRAS genes in Arabidopsis, more were detected in physic nut, resulting from the retention of many ancient GRAS subfamilies and the formation of tandem repeats during evolution. No evidence of recent duplication among JcGRAS genes was observed in physic nut. Based on digital gene expression data, 21 of the 48 genes exhibited differential expression in four tissues analyzed. Two members of subfamily U3 were expressed only in buds and flowers, implying that they may play specific roles. Our results provide valuable resources for future studies on the functions of GRAS proteins in physic nut.

  12. Le rôle de l'IL6 dans le cancer du foie lié à l'hépatopathie métabolique

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le cancer du foie est souvent mortel. Il n'existe que très peu d'options de traitement, et il s'agit de l'un des cancers dont l'incidence augmente dans le monde entier. L'obésité ou les maladies métaboliques (comme le diabète et la stéatose hépatique) constituent des facteurs de risque du cancer du foie qui sont mal compris.

  13. Liver and water metabolism; Foie et metabolisme de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallot, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de Grenoble, 38 (France)

    1959-07-01

    The causes for the disturbance of hydro-electrolytic equilibrium observed in cirrhosis patients are far from clear. Studies on the static distribution of liquid in the organism and also on anomalies in the distribution of deuterium oxide and tritiated water provide no direct explanation of the nature of the water retaining mechanism. At the period when the illness is established, endocrine factors and electrolytic perturbations contribute to maintaining or increasing oliguresis, but they cannot be held solely responsible in the initial stages of evolution. An explanation of the ascites should therefore be looked for in a non-functioning of the polygonal or Kupffer cells. The hypothesis of an insufficient rejection of water outside the lymph spaces of the liver during cirrhosis is put forward, but the experimental demonstration of such a phenomenon proves very difficult. (author) [French] Les causes du desequilibre hydroelectrolytique observe chez les malades cirrhotiques sont loin d'etre elucidees. Les etudes de la repartition du liquide de l'organisme ainsi que celles des anomalies de la distribution de l'oxyde de deuterium et de l'eau tritiee n'apportent aucune explication directe sur la nature du mecanisme de la retention de l'eau. A la periode d'etat de la maladie, les facteurs endocriniens et les perturbations electrolytiques contribuent a entretenir ou a accroitre l'oligurie mais ils ne peuvent etre seuls invoques lors des stades initiaux de l'evolution. Il faudrait donc rechercher dans un dysfonctionnement des cellules polygonales ou kupfferiennes l'explication de l'ascite. L'hypothese d'une insuffisance du rejet de l'eau hors des espaces lymphatiques du foie au cours de la cirrhose est evoquee mais la demonstration d'un tel phenomene s'avere tres difficile sur le plan experimental. (auteur)

  14. Liver and water metabolism; Foie et metabolisme de l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallot, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de Grenoble, 38 (France)

    1959-07-01

    The causes for the disturbance of hydro-electrolytic equilibrium observed in cirrhosis patients are far from clear. Studies on the static distribution of liquid in the organism and also on anomalies in the distribution of deuterium oxide and tritiated water provide no direct explanation of the nature of the water retaining mechanism. At the period when the illness is established, endocrine factors and electrolytic perturbations contribute to maintaining or increasing oliguresis, but they cannot be held solely responsible in the initial stages of evolution. An explanation of the ascites should therefore be looked for in a non-functioning of the polygonal or Kupffer cells. The hypothesis of an insufficient rejection of water outside the lymph spaces of the liver during cirrhosis is put forward, but the experimental demonstration of such a phenomenon proves very difficult. (author) [French] Les causes du desequilibre hydroelectrolytique observe chez les malades cirrhotiques sont loin d'etre elucidees. Les etudes de la repartition du liquide de l'organisme ainsi que celles des anomalies de la distribution de l'oxyde de deuterium et de l'eau tritiee n'apportent aucune explication directe sur la nature du mecanisme de la retention de l'eau. A la periode d'etat de la maladie, les facteurs endocriniens et les perturbations electrolytiques contribuent a entretenir ou a accroitre l'oligurie mais ils ne peuvent etre seuls invoques lors des stades initiaux de l'evolution. Il faudrait donc rechercher dans un dysfonctionnement des cellules polygonales ou kupfferiennes l'explication de l'ascite. L'hypothese d'une insuffisance du rejet de l'eau hors des espaces lymphatiques du foie au cours de la cirrhose est evoquee mais la demonstration d'un tel phenomene s'avere tres difficile sur le plan experimental. (auteur)

  15. Les kystes hydatiques du foie rompus dans les voies biliaires: à propos de 120 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moujahid, Mountassir; Tajdine, Mohamed Tarik

    2011-01-01

    Etude rétrospective rapportant une série de kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires colligés dans le service de chirurgie de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne à Marrakech. Entre 1990 à 2008, sur 536 kystes hydatiques du foie opérés dans le service, 120 étaient compliqués de rupture dans les voies biliaires soit 22,38%. Il y avait 82hommes et 38 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 10 à 60 ans. La clinique était dominée par la crise d'angiocholite ou une douleur du flanc droit. L'ictère était isolé dans huit cas. La fistule biliokystique était latente dans plus de 50% des cas. Le traitement a consisté en une résection du dôme saillant dans103cas (85,84%), une périkystectomie chez 11 malades (9,16%) et une lobectomie gauche dans six cas (5%). Le traitement de la fistule bilio kystique a consisté en une suture chez 36malades et un drainage bipolaire dans 25 cas, La déconnexion kysto-biliaire ou cholédocotomie trans hépatico kystique selon Perdomo était pratiquée dans 49cas et une anastomose bilio-digestive cholédoco-duodénale dans 10 cas. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 20jours. Nous déplorons deux décès par choc septique et un troisième par encéphalopathie secondaire à une cirrhose biliaire. La morbidité était représentée par huit abcès sous phrénique, douze fistules biliaires prolongées et deux occlusions intestinales. Les kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires représentent la complication la plus grave de cette pathologie bénigne. Le traitement repose sur des méthodes radicales qui sont d'une efficacité reconnue, mais de réalisation dangereuse et les méthodes conservatrices, en particulier la déconnexion kysto-biliaire qui est une méthode simple et qui donne de bons résultats à court et à long terme. PMID:22384289

  16. Genome-wide identification and characterization of GRAS transcription factors in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yiling; Zhao, Tingting; Xu, Xiangyang; Li, Jingfu

    2017-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum , belonging to Solanaceae, is one of the commonly used model plants. The GRAS genes are transcriptional regulators, which play a significant role in plant growth and development, and the functions of several GRAS genes have been recognized, such as, axillary shoot meristem formation, radial root patterning, phytohormones (gibberellins) signal transduction, light signaling, and abiotic/biotic stress; however, only a few of these were identified and functionally characterized. In this study, a gene family was analyzed comprehensively with respect to phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern; the 54 GRAS members were screened from tomato by bioinformatics for the first time. The GRAS genes among tomato, Arabidopsis , rice, and grapevine were rebuilt to form a phylogenomic tree, which was divided into ten groups according to the previous classification of Arabidopsis and rice. A multiple sequence alignment exhibited the typical GRAS domain and conserved motifs similar to other gene families. Both the segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in tomato; the expression patterns across a variety of tissues and biotic conditions revealed potentially different functions of GRAS genes in tomato development and stress responses. Altogether, this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis for improving the resistance of tomato growth.

  17. Les indications de la biopsie de foie dans le bilan d'extension de la maladie de Hodgkin

    OpenAIRE

    Rémond Pla , Anne

    2000-01-01

    Non disponible / Not available; Le bilan d'extension lors de la maladie de Hodgkin s'est considérablementsimplifié depuis les années 1970. La biopsie de foie reste un des deux seulsexamens invasifs, avec la lymphographie bipédieuse.Il nous a paru intéressant, en l'absence de consensus sur ce point, de définir àquelles indications doit être réservée la biopsie.Au terme de notre étude rétrospective et à partir des données de la littérature,il nous semble que la seule indication valable soit de ...

  18. Nanocarriers from GRAS Zein Proteins to Encapsulate Hydrophobic Actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Lu, Hoang D; Hurley, Amanda; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-11-14

    One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nanoencapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP. The four-stream FNP configuration allows the encapsulation of very hydrophobic compounds in a way that is not possible with previous precipitation processes. We present the encapsulation of several model active compounds with as high as 45 wt % drug loading with respect to zein concentration into ∼100 nm nanocarriers. Three examples are presented: (1) the pro-drug antioxidant, vitamin E-acetate, (2) an anticholera quorum-sensing modulator CAI-1 ((S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one; CAI-1 that reduces Vibrio cholerae virulence by modulating cellular communication), and (3) hydrophobic fluorescent dyes with a range of hydrophobicities. The specific interaction between zein and the milk protein, sodium caseinate, provides stabilization of the NCs in PBS, LB medium, and in pH 2 solutions. The stability and size changes in the three media provide information on the mechanism of assembly of the zein/active/casein NC.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuxing; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-02-01

    Prunus mume is an ornamental flower and fruit tree in Rosaceae. We investigated the GRAS gene family to improve the breeding and cultivation of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees. The GRAS gene family encodes transcriptional regulators that have diverse functions in plant growth and development, such as gibberellin and phytochrome A signal transduction, root radial patterning, and axillary meristem formation and gametogenesis in the P. mume genome. Despite the important roles of these genes in plant growth regulation, no findings on the GRAS genes of P. mume have been reported. In this study, we discerned phylogenetic relationships of P. mume GRAS genes, and their locations, structures in the genome and expression levels of different tissues. Out of 46 identified GRAS genes, 45 were located on the 8 P. mume chromosomes. Phylogenetic results showed that these genes could be classified into 11 groups. We found that Group X was P. mume-specific, and three genes of Group IX clustered with the rice-specific gene Os4. We speculated that these genes existed before the divergence of dicotyledons and monocotyledons and were lost in Arabidopsis. Tissue expression analysis indicated that 13 genes showed high expression levels in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and were related to plant growth and development. Functional analysis of 24 GRAS genes and an orthologous relationship analysis indicated that many functioned during plant growth and flower and fruit development. Our bioinformatics analysis provides valuable information to improve the economic, agronomic and ecological benefits of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

  20. 21 CFR 570.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), it may be used in food only within such limitation(s) (including the category of food(s), the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 570.30 Section 570.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 78 FR 36662 - Safety Zone; Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras, Lake Erie, Fairport, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... the Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie...

  2. Tracking and orbit determination performance of the GRAS instrument on MetOp-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenbruck, O.; Andres, Y.; Bock, H.; Van Helleputte, T.; Van den IJssel, J.; Loiselet, M.; Marquardt, M.; Silvestrin, P.; Visser, P.; Yoon, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The global navigation satellite system receiver for atmospheric sounding (GRAS) on MetOp-A is the first European GPS receiver providing dual-frequency navigation and occultation measurements from a spaceborne platform on a routine basis. The receiver is based on ESA’s AGGA-2 correlator chip, which

  3. Processing of GRAS/METOP radio occultation data recorded in closed-loop and raw-sampling modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gorbunov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Instrument GRAS (Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding on-board of the Metop-A satellite was activated on 27 October 2006. Currently, Metop-A is a fully operational satellite with GRAS providing from 650–700 occultations per day. We describe our processing of GRAS data based on the modification of our OCC software, which was modified to become capable of reading and processing GRAS data. We perform a statistical comparison of bending angles and refractivities derived from GRAS data with those derived from ECMWF analyses. We conclude that GRAS data have error characteristics close to those of COSMIC data. In the height range 10–30 km, the systematic refractivity difference GRAS–ECMWF is of the order of 0.1–0.2 %, and the standard deviation is 0.3–0.6 %. In the lower troposphere GRAS refractivity and bending angle indicate a negative bias, which reaches its maximum value in the tropics. In particular the retrieved refractivity is biased by up to 2.5 %. The negative bias pattern is similar to that found in the statistical validation of COSMIC data. This makes it probable that the bias should not be attributed to the instrument design or hardware.

  4. INDUSTRIE ET ENVIRONNEMENT Les préoccupations environnementales de l’industrie des corps gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations environnementales de l’industrie des corps gras sont principalement rythmées par le renforcement des contraintes réglementaires et concernent tous les aspects environnementaux : effluents gazeux et aqueux, déchets, management, énergie. Ces aspects sont inégalement présents dans les différents sous-secteurs de l’industrie des corps gras ; quelques exemples sont présentés. La réduction des émissions de COV (composés organiques volatils et les nuisances olfactives sont une problématique concernant principalement l’activité de trituration, la lipochimie et la fonte de corps gras animaux. Des valeurs limites de consommation de solvant sont maintenant imposées réglementairement en extraction; la prise en compte de problèmes de nuisance olfactive donnent lieu à l’amélioration des procédés de traitement d’air (corps gras animaux ou à leur mise en place progressive (trituration de colza. La gestion des déchets reste une préoccupation essentielle pour l’ensemble de la profession et tout particulièrement pour les secteurs des corps gras animaux et la lipochimie, en raison de la remise en cause des filières d’élimination due au renforcement des contraintes réglementaires, mais aussi en raison des coûts de traitement. Ce poste ne doit pas être négligé par les entreprises : réduction à la source, recherche de filières pérennes, valorisation énergétique ou matière sont des éléments permettant également une réduction significative des coûts. La maîtrise de la consommation d’énergie est un élément important, voir stratégique, notamment dans le secteur de la trituration des graines oléagineuses. Des actions de sensibilisation permettent de poursuivre également l’effort auprès des PME, actuellement moins impliquées. En matière de traitement d’eau, des avancées notables sont observées depuis une décennie ; néanmoins certaines difficultés persistent, notamment dans les

  5. Transcriptional regulators of legume-rhizobia symbiosis: nuclear factors Ys and GRAS are two for tango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rípodas, Carolina; Clúa, Joaquín; Battaglia, Marina; Baudin, Maël; Niebel, Andreas; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors are DNA binding proteins that regulate gene expression. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis established between legume plants and soil bacteria is a complex interaction, in which plants need to integrate signals derived from the symbiont and the surrounding environment to initiate the developmental program of nodule organogenesis and the infection process. Several transcription factors that play critical roles in these processes have been reported in the past decade, including proteins of the GRAS and NF-Y families. Recently, we reported the characterization of a new GRAS domain containing-protein that interacts with a member of the C subunit of the NF-Y family, which plays an important role in nodule development and the progression of bacterial infection during the symbiotic interaction. The connection between transcription factors of these families highlights the significance of multimeric complexes in the fabulous capacity of plants to integrate and respond to multiple environmental stimuli.

  6. Effect of different GRAS compounds in the control of apples blue mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2013-01-01

    The most important pathogen for apples is Penicillium expansum that is the causal organism of blue mould. Postharvest losses are controlled with chemical fungicides such as TBZ but a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In the search of new environment and consumer friendly technologies that can reduce toxic residues, the use of GRAS compounds represent a valid alternative to the use of synthetic postharvest fungicides. The aims of the present work were: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of different GRAS compounds in the control of P. expansum in artificially inoculated fruit; (2) To assess the capability of injured and treated fruit with GRAS compounds, used alone or combined, to heal the wounds in order to resist to infection. Fruit was injured with a steel rod and after 1 hour was (1) Inoculated with the pathogen and after 24 hours treated or (2) Treated and after 24 hours inoculated. Treatments were performed with the following compounds: sodium bicarbonate (SBC), boric acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CC) by using a 1% solution for all of them. After 9 or 14 days fruit lesion diameters were assessed. In the trial (1) the combined treatment with BA and SBC was the most effective reducing the lesion diameter by 86.5% with respect to untreated fruit, after 9 days from infection. A good pathogen control was also obtained with BA used alone or combined with CC. When the treatment was performed before infection the best results were achieved with the combination of SBC and CC, with 87% of reduction of the lesion diameter. The addition of CC also reduced the lesion if combined with BA (66.8%). These preliminary results showed that GRAS compounds can be effective in reducing blue mold by a direct effect on the pathogen, and by modulating fruit responses enhancing host resistance.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  8. Réalité augmentée pour la chirurgie minimalement invasive du foie utilisant un modèle biomécanique guidé par l'image

    OpenAIRE

    Haouchine , Nazim; Cotin , Stéphane; Dequidt , Jérémie; Kerrien , Erwan; Berger , Marie-Odile

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Cet article présente une méthode de réalité augmentée pour la chirurgie minimalement invasive du foie. Le réseau vasculaire et les tumeurs internes reconstruites à partir des données pré-opératoires (IRM ou CT) peuvent ainsi être visualisées dans l'image laparoscopique afin de guider les gestes du chirurgien pendant l'opération. Cette méthode est capable de propager les déformations 3D de la surface du foie à ses structures internes grâce à un modèle biomécanique sous-jacen...

  9. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  10. Positron Scanning of Liver and Pancreas; Exploration de Foie et du Pancreas par les Positrons; Pozitronoskopiya pecheni i podzheludochnoj zhelezy; Exploracion del higado y del pancreas mediante positrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronow, S; Thors, R; Brownell, G L [Physics Research Laboratory and Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    The success of the positron scanning technique in the localization of brain tumors has suggested its application to other organs. Zinc-62 is used in an attempt to delineate the pancreas and copper-64 in various forms is used to delineate the liver. The problem of visualizing the pancreas is particularly difficult because of its small size and the presence of large organs in the vicinity which concentrate zinc. Several approaches to this problem are discussed. Copper-64 in simple ionic form and in the form of copper versenate concentrate to a marked degree in the liver. Positron scans of the liver would seem to offer considerable promise for successful 'diagnosis of various liver disorders. Data is presented on the distribution of several isotopes and compounds in animals. (author) [French] Devant le succes avec lequel la technique de detection par les positrons a ete utilisee pour la localisation des tumeurs du cerveau, on a ete amene a l'appliquer a d'autres organes. On s'est servi de zinc-62 pour tenter de determiner le contour du pancreas, et de cuivre-64, sous diverses formes, pour le contour du foie. Il est particulieremen t difficile de rendre visible le pancreas en raison de sa petite taille et de la presence d'organes voisins de grandes dimensions, qui concentrent le zinc. Les auteurs etudient plusieurs procedes par lesquels on s'est efforce de resoudre ce probleme. Le cuivre-64 sous forme ionique simple et sous forme de sel de l'acide ethylene-diamino-tetra-acetique se ooncentre fortement dans le foie. L'exploration du foie a l'aide des positrons parait devoir faciliter considerablemen t le diagnostic de differents troubles hepatiques. Les auteurs donnent des indications sur la repartition de plusieurs isotopes et composes chez des animaux. (author) [Spanish] El exito de la tecnica de exploracion mediante positrones en la localization de tumores cerebrales aconseja su aplicacion a otros organos. El zinc-62 y el cobre-64 en diferentes formas se utilizan

  11. The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  12. The FEMA GRAS assessment of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; Taylor, S.V.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  13. The FEMA GRAS assessment of a,b-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Lucas-Gavin, C.; Taylor, S.V.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  14. Data archiving and serving system implementation in CLEP's GRAS Core System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Zeng, Xingguo; Zhang, Zhoubin; Geng, Liang; Li, Chunlai

    2017-04-01

    The Ground Research & Applications System(GRAS) is one of the five systems of China's Lunar Exploration Project(CLEP), it is responsible for data acquisition, processing, management and application, and it is also the operation control center during satellite in-orbit and payload operation management. Chang'E-1, Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3 have collected abundant lunar exploration data. The aim of this work is to present the implementation of data archiving and Serving in CLEP's GRAS Core System software. This first approach provides a client side API and server side software allowing the creation of a simplified version of CLEPDB data archiving software, and implements all required elements to complete data archiving flow from data acquisition until its persistent storage technology. The client side includes all necessary components that run on devices that acquire or produce data, distributing and streaming to configure remote archiving servers. The server side comprises an archiving service that stores into PDS files all received data. The archiving solution aims at storing data coming for the Data Acquisition Subsystem, the Operation Management Subsystem, the Data Preprocessing Subsystem and the Scientific Application & Research Subsystem. The serving solution aims at serving data for the various business systems, scientific researchers and public users. The data-driven and component clustering methods was adopted in this system, the former is used to solve real-time data archiving and data persistence services; the latter is used to keep the continuous supporting ability of archive and service to new data from Chang'E Mission. Meanwhile, it can save software development cost as well.

  15. Acides gras oméga 3 et maladies cardiovasculaires : approches épidémiologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducimetiere Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La prise alimentaire d’acides gras oméga 3 a de nombreuses conséquences biologiques en particulier dans les domaines intéressant le risque cardiovasculaire (thrombose, métabolisme lipidique, inflammation. A partir de l’énorme littérature épidémiologique sur le sujet, on peut conclure que la consommation de poisson « gras » ou d’oméga 3 à longue chaîne a un effet protecteur sur la mortalité coronaire et plus généralement sur les maladies cardiovasculaires. Il existe des indications en faveur d’un effet similaire de l’apport en alphalinolénique (ALA. Les essais de prévention secondaire avec des oméga 3 à longue chaîne ont confirmé ces résultats mais les essais de conseils nutritionnels favorisant la consommation d’ALA ne sont qu’indicatifs. Il n’existe guère « d’evidence » en faveur du rôle des oméga sur le développement quantitatif de l’athérome alors que leur effet protecteur sur la vulnérabilité cardiaque aux arythmies est bien établie. Ces données expérimentales et cliniques fournissent une base biologique à la relation observée entre un apport augmenté de poisson ou d’oméga 3 et un risque abaissé de mort subite dans plusieurs études de cohortes.

  16. Acides gras polyinsaturés trans : aspects métaboliques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebedio Jean-Louis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras trans polyinsaturés sont formés à partir des acides gras indispensables (acides linoléique et a-linolénique au cours des traitements technologiques comme par exemple le raffinage des huiles ou la friture [1, 2]. L’acide linolénique est plus sensible à l’isomérisation que l’acide linoléique. En effet, comme l’a montré Wolff dans une revue récente [3], le degré d’isomérisation de l’acide linolénique peut atteindre 30 à 35 %. On retrouve également ces pourcentages dans les formules infantiles et le lait de femme [1]. Les principaux isomères formés sont les composés monotrans, à savoir les 18 :2-9trans,12cis, 18 :2-9cis,12trans, 18 :3-9trans,12cis,15cis, et le 18 :3-9cis,12cis,15-trans. Cependant, une température de désodorisation supérieure à 220 °C entraîne la formation d’isomères di-trans [4]. À titre d’exemple, nous avons représenté dans le tableau le contenu de quelques huiles végétales en isomères des acides linoléique et a-linolénique. Compte tenu de leur présence dans l’alimentation, on peut s’interroger sur les conséquences nutritionnelles et biochimiques de leur ingestion.

  17. ASPECTS NUTRITIONNELS DES ACIDES GRAS TRANS : Consommation en acides gras trans et risque cardio-vasculaire : Étude Aquitaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de cette dernière décennie, les études sur la consommation d’acides gras trans (AGT se sont multipliées pour en préciser l’impact éventuel sur le risque de maladies cardio-vasculaires (MCV. À l’origine, se trouve l’étude américaine de Willett et al. [1], conduite sur une cohorte de 85 000 infirmières suivies pendant 8 ans. Cette étude épidémiologique rapportait l’existence d’une corrélation positive entre la consommation d’AGT d’origine végétale et l’apparition de MCV. Ont suivi d’autres études que l’on peut classer en trois catégories selon leur approche expérimentale : les études épidémiologiques [2-5] longitudinales ou transversales, les comparaisons « cas-témoins » [6-11] et les interventions nutritionnelles [12-15]. Des deux premières catégories d’études, il n’émerge aucun consensus quant à l’implication éventuelle des AGT alimentaires dans le risque de MCV. Les divergences observées pourraient, en partie tout au moins, être liées à la méthode utilisée pour estimer la consommation d’AGT qui, dans certains cas, est fondée sur des enquêtes alimentaires et, dans d’autres cas, sur la teneur en AGT du tissu adipeux des sujets, connue pour refléter l’apport alimentaire en AGT des années précédentes. En effet, au-delà de considérations sur de possibles biais méthodologiques [16], comme le non-ajustement des résultats à des facteurs de confusion tels que l’âge, la consommation de tabac ou certaines pathologies, on peut faire le constat suivant : les études qui ont conclu à un effet négatif des AGT alimentaires étaient fondées, pour la plupart, exclusivement sur des enquêtes alimentaires [1-3, 11] ; celles qui ne montraient aucun effet utilisaient, le plus souvent, la composition en AGT du tissu adipeux [4, 6-9]. La carence, dans les bases de données, vis-à-vis des teneurs en AGT des aliments augmente, en outre, la difficulté à déterminer la

  18. Analysis of GPS radio occultation data from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and Metop/GRAS missions at CDAAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schreiner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the noise level and mission-to-mission stability of Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO neutral atmospheric bending angle data at the UCAR COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center (CDAAC. Data are used from two independently developed RO instruments currently flying in orbit on the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3C and Metop/GRAS (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding missions. The F3C 50 Hz RO data are post-processed with a single-difference excess atmospheric phase algorithm, and the Metop/GRAS 50 Hz closed loop and raw sampling (down-sampled from 1000 Hz to 50 Hz data are processed with a zero-difference algorithm. The standard deviations of the F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angles from climatology between 60 and 80 km altitude from June–December 2009 are approximately 1.78 and 1.13 μrad, respectively. The F3C standard deviation reduces significantly to 1.44 μrad when single-difference processing uses GPS satellites on the same side of the spacecraft. The higher noise level for F3C bending angles can be explained by additional noise from the reference link phase data that are required with single-difference processing. The F3C and Metop/GRAS mean bending angles differences relative to climatology during the same six month period are statistically significant and have values of −0.05 and −0.02 μrad, respectively. A comparison of ~13 500 collocated F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angle profiles over this six month period shows a similar mean difference of ~0.02 ± 0.02 μrad between 30 and 60 km impact heights that is marginally significant. The observed mean difference between the F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angles of ~0.02–0.03 μrad is quite small and illustrates the high degree of re-produceability and mission independence of the GPS RO data at high altitudes. Collocated bending angles between two F3C satellites from early in the mission differ on average by up to 0.5% near the surface due to systematically

  19. Problématiques des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les corps gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La présence des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP dans les huiles végétales peut provenir de différentes sources, mais généralement les huiles contaminées sont issues de matières premières nécessitant d’être séchées telles que les pépins de raisin, le coprah ou les grignons d’olive. Actuellement, il n’y a pas de réglementation européenne limitant la teneur en HAP dans les produits alimentaires mais un Code de Bonnes Pratiques a été établi par FEDIOL 1. La détermination de la totalité des HAP présents dans les corps gras est rendue délicate par le faible niveau de chaque PAH à quantifier et la complexité des étapes d’extraction et de purification. La seule méthode faisant l’objet d’une norme (NF EN ISO 15302 concerne la détermination de la teneur en benzo[a]pyrène. Un projet de méthode fourni par l’ITERG est en cours d’évaluation dans le cadre des travaux du Sous-Comité ISO\\\\TC34\\\\SC11 des « Corps gras d’origines animale et végétale ». Cette méthode permet la quantification de 12 HAP dans les corps gras, avec une limite de quantification de 0,2 μg\\\\kg pour tous les composés analysés, à l’exception des fluoranthène et benzo[g,h,i]pérylène où celle-ci est de 0,3 μg\\\\kg, ainsi que de l’indéno[1,2,3-cd]pyrène pour lequel la limite de quantification atteint 1 μg\\\\kg. Depuis quatre ans, les travaux de l’ITERG sur les HAP ont été centrés sur l’optimisation et la normalisation d’une procédure d’analyse (ISO\\\\CD 15753, sur l’estimation du niveau de contamination des huiles végétales produites en France et sur l’effet du raffinage sur le niveau en HAP. Chaque étape de ce travail est développée ici.

  20. ASPECTS NUTRITIONNELS DES ACIDES GRAS POLYINSATURES n-3 Augmentation sélective de la sensibilité des tumeurs à la chimiothérapie par les acides gras polyinsaturés n-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bougnoux Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available L’alimentation intervient à différents niveaux dans le déroulement de la maladie cancéreuse : au niveau du risque [1] et au niveau de l’évolution en modifiant le risque de survenue des métastases. L’alimentation influence-t-elle aussi la réponse aux traitements anticancéreux ? À l’appui de cette hypothèse viennent deux observations indirectes réalisées dans le cancer du sein : nos données [2, 3] ainsi que les observations épidémiologiques provenant d’autres travaux [4] ont apporté des arguments supportant l’hypothèse que les lipides alimentaires peuvent influencer la réponse des tumeurs mammaires aux traitements. On sait que la composition des lipides membranaires n’est pas génétiquement déterminée, mais qu’elle dépend des acides gras disponibles aux tissus périphériques. Le type d’acides gras disponibles est influencé par les apports alimentaires. Comme les tumeurs incorporent dans leurs lipides les acides gras disponibles de façon similaire aux autres tissus [5], il est plausible que les habitudes alimentaires (apports alimentaires en acides gras polyinsaturés, vitamines anti ou pro-oxydantes puissent influencer leur chimiosensibilité en apportant aux cellules tumorales des substrats de peroxydation.

  1. The Medicago truncatula GRAS protein RAD1 supports arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis and Phytophthora palmivora susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Thomas; Bonhomme, Maxime; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Gavrin, Aleksandr; Toulotte, Justine; Yang, Weibing; André, Olivier; Jacquet, Christophe; Schornack, Sebastian

    2017-12-16

    The roots of most land plants are colonized by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi. To facilitate this symbiosis, plant genomes encode a set of genes required for microbial perception and accommodation. However, the extent to which infection by filamentous root pathogens also relies on some of these genes remains an open question. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify genes contributing to colonization of Medicago truncatula roots by the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora palmivora. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers most significantly associated with plant colonization response were identified upstream of RAD1, which encodes a GRAS transcription regulator first negatively implicated in root nodule symbiosis and recently identified as a positive regulator of AM symbiosis. RAD1 transcript levels are up-regulated both in response to AM fungus and, to a lower extent, in infected tissues by P. palmivora where its expression is restricted to root cortex cells proximal to pathogen hyphae. Reverse genetics showed that reduction of RAD1 transcript levels as well as a rad1 mutant are impaired in their full colonization by AM fungi as well as by P. palmivora. Thus, the importance of RAD1 extends beyond symbiotic interactions, suggesting a general involvement in M. truncatula microbe-induced root development and interactions with unrelated beneficial and detrimental filamentous microbes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Liver Scanning with Colloidal Radiogold; Exploration du foie a l'aide de l'or radioactif colloidal; Issledovanie pecheni pri pomoshchi radioaktivnogo kolloidal'nogo zolota; Exploracion del higado con oro coloidal radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, L; Becchini, M F; Panichi, S [Centro di Medicina Nucleate, University of Pisa (Italy)

    1959-07-01

    discussed. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent la facon dont ils ont utilise l'Au{sup 198} pour l'exploration du foie. On se sert generalement d'une dose indicatrice de 2,5 {mu}C/kg pour distinguer nettement le foie des organes et tissus environnants. L'ensemble de l'exploration, qui commence 30 minutes apres l'injection intraveineuse, dure environ 90 minutes lorsqu'elle est faite avec un materiel entierement automatique. Les contours superieurs et lateraux du foie apparaissent d'ordinaire plus clairement que le contour inferieur; en se servant de collimateurs a focalisation (du type alveolaire) on accroit beaucoup la resolution. Normalement, le foie est le seul organe qui ressorte clairement; la rate peut egalement apparaitre dans certains cas de splenomegalie et de cirrhose du foie, probablement a cause de la reduction du systeme reticulo-endothelia l du foie. Les auteurs ont constate que cette technique ne permet guere de deceler les metastases du foie de petite dimension qui n'entrainent aucun changement dans le volume et la forme de l'organe. En fait, les resultats sont incertains meme dans les cas de diffusion metastatique micronodulaire confirmee par l'intervention operatoire. En cas d'hypertrophie diffuse ou zonale, quelle qu'en soit l'origine, l'exploration a l'aide de l'Au{sup 198} peut servir a determiner si les changements sont dus a l'hypertrophie de tissus fonctionnant normalement ou a la presence de corps pathologiques a l'interieur du foie. Les auteurs ont constate qu'il etait tres utile de combiner l'exploration du foie avec l'examen radiologique des contours de l'organe apres un pneumoperitoine, de facon a comparer le schema anatomique et le schema fonctionnel. Normalement, les scintigrammes et la radiographie des contours doivent coincider, et tout ecart important peut aider a determiner la possibilite d'une intervention chirurgicale ou radiotherapeutiqu e chez les patients qui souffrent de tumeurs, notamment dans l'appareil gastro-intestinal. Bien

  3. GS6, a member of the GRAS gene family, negatively regulates grain size in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianjun; Li, Xiaojiao; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Xianyou; Sun, Xuewen; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-10-01

    Grain size is an important yield-related trait in rice. Intensive artificial selection for grain size during domestication is evidenced by the larger grains of most of today's cultivars compared with their wild relatives. However, the molecular genetic control of rice grain size is still not well characterized. Here, we report the identification and cloning of Grain Size 6 (GS6), which plays an important role in reducing grain size in rice. A premature stop at the +348 position in the coding sequence (CDS) of GS6 increased grain width and weight significantly. Alignment of the CDS regions of GS6 in 90 rice materials revealed three GS6 alleles. Most japonica varieties (95%) harbor the Type I haplotype, and 62.9% of indica varieties harbor the Type II haplotype. Association analysis revealed that the Type I haplotype tends to increase the width and weight of grains more than either of the Type II or Type III haplotypes. Further investigation of genetic diversity and the evolutionary mechanisms of GS6 showed that the GS6 gene was strongly selected in japonica cultivars. In addition, a "ggc" repeat region identified in the region that encodes the GRAS domain of GS6 played an important historic role in the domestication of grain size in rice. Knowledge of the function of GS6 might aid efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control grain development and evolution in rice plants, and could facilitate the genetic improvement of rice yield. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. The GraS Sensor in Staphylococcus aureus Mediates Resistance to Host Defense Peptides Differing in Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaili, Siyang; Cheung, Ambrose L; Bayer, Arnold S; Xiong, Yan Q; Waring, Alan J; Memmi, Guido; Donegan, Niles; Yang, Soo-Jin; Yeaman, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the two-component regulatory system GraRS to sense and respond to host defense peptides (HDPs). However, the mechanistic impact of GraS or its extracellular sensing loop (EL) on HDP resistance is essentially unexplored. Strains with null mutations in the GraS holoprotein (ΔgraS) or its EL (ΔEL) were compared for mechanisms of resistance to HDPs of relevant immune sources: neutrophil α-defensin (human neutrophil peptide 1 [hNP-1]), cutaneous β-defensin (human β-defensin 2 [hBD-2]), or the platelet kinocidin congener RP-1. Actions studied by flow cytometry included energetics (ENR); membrane permeabilization (PRM); annexin V binding (ANX), and cell death protease activation (CDP). Assay conditions simulated bloodstream (pH 7.5) or phagolysosomal (pH 5.5) pH contexts. S. aureus strains were more susceptible to HDPs at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5, and each HDP exerted a distinct effect signature. The impacts of ΔgraS and ΔΕL on HDP resistance were peptide and pH dependent. Both mutants exhibited defects in ANX response to hNP-1 or hBD-2 at pH 7.5, but only hNP-1 did so at pH 5.5. Both mutants exhibited hyper-PRM, -ANX, and -CDP responses to RP-1 at both pHs and hypo-ENR at pH 5.5. The actions correlated with ΔgraS or ΔΕL hypersusceptibility to hNP-1 or RP-1 (but not hBD-2) at pH 7.5 and to all study HDPs at pH 5.5. An exogenous EL mimic protected mutant strains from hNP-1 and hBD-2 but not RP-1, indicating that GraS and its EL play nonredundant roles in S. aureus survival responses to specific HDPs. These findings suggest that GraS mediates specific resistance countermeasures to HDPs in immune contexts that are highly relevant to S. aureus pathogenesis in humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Melanie K.; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorr...

  6. The importance of GRAS to the functional food and nutraceutical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdock, George A.; Carabin, Ioana G.; Griffiths, James C.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when 150 million Americans spend over $20.5 billion on functional foods, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing little to ensure that all the safe and efficacious products that could come to the market are allowed to do so. FDA has only responded slowly and reluctantly to Congressional action and to mandates from the Courts to implement the law. Additionally, FDA had set the bar too high for Health Claims and was forced by the Courts to implement a more reasonable standard, but the response, Qualified Health Claims, has failed to gain the confidence of the public because of the confusing wording of the claims demanded by FDA. Congressional efforts to assure consumer access to dietary supplements have been met with similar resistance from FDA. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was the product of a compromise with a lower threshold for demonstration of safety (reasonable expectation of no harm) that would be met by consumer self-policing and assumption of some risk. FDA has thwarted this effort by raising the bar for New Dietary Ingredient Notifications (NDIN) to what appears to be the higher threshold for the safety of food ingredients (reasonable certainty of no harm)-FDA apparently sees these two safety thresholds as a distinction without a difference. As a result, increasing numbers of dietary supplement manufacturers, unwilling to gamble the future of their products to a system that provides little hope for the FDA's response of 'no objection', have committed the additional resources necessary to obtain Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status for their supplements. The pressure on FDA and Congress for change is again building with increased dissatisfaction among consumers as the result of confusing labels. A second force for change will be a need to uncouple the FDA mandated substance-disease relationship and return to the substance-claim relationship to allow for progress in

  7. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Water in the Cratonic Mantle: Insights from FTIR Data on Lac De Gras Xenoliths (Slave Craton, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Griffin, William L.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The mantle lithosphere beneath the cratonic part of continents is the deepest (> 200 km) and oldest (>2-3 Ga) on Earth, remaining a conundrum as to how these cratonic roots could have resisted delamination by asthenospheric convection over time. Water, or trace H incorporated in mineral defects, could be a key player in the evolution of continental lithosphere because it influences melting and rheology of the mantle. Mantle xenoliths from the Lac de Gras kimberlite in the Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR. The cratonic mantle beneath Lac de Gras is stratified with shallow (water contents extending to higher values than those from the shallow ones. The FTIR spectra of olivines from the shallow samples have more prominent Group II OH bands compared to the olivines from the deep samples, consistent with a more oxidized mantle environment. The range of olivine water content is similar to that observed in Kaapvaal craton peridotites at the same depths (129-184 km) but does not extend to as high values as those from Udachnaya (Siberian craton). The Slave, Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons will be compared in terms of water content distribution, controls and role in cratonic root longevity.

  9. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-08-08

    Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots. We have carried out a transcript profiling experiment by RNAseq of mycorrhizal plants vs. non-mycorrhizal controls in wild type and ram1 mutants. The results show that the expression of early genes required for AM, such as the strigolactone biosynthetic genes and the common symbiosis signalling genes, is independent of RAM1. In contrast, genes that are involved at later stages of symbiosis, for example for nutrient exchange in cortex cells, require RAM1 for induction. RAM1 itself is highly induced in mycorrhizal roots together with many other transcription factors, in particular GRAS proteins. Since RAM1 has previously been shown to be directly activated by the common symbiosis signalling pathway through CYCLOPS, we conclude that it acts as an early transcriptional switch that induces many AM-related genes, among them genes that are essential for the development of arbuscules, such as STR, STR2, RAM2, and PT4, besides hundreds of additional RAM1-dependent genes the role of which in symbiosis remains to be explored. Taken together, these results indicate that the defect in the morphogenesis of the fungal arbuscules in ram1 mutants may be an indirect consequence of functional defects in the host, which interfere with nutrient exchange and possibly other functions on which the fungus depends.

  10. Identification and characterization of dwarf 62, a loss-of-function mutation in DLT/OsGRAS-32 affecting gibberellin metabolism in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqiang; Wu, Jianguo; Weng, Shili; Zhang, Yujiang; Zhang, Dapeng; Shi, Chunhai

    2010-11-01

    A dwarf mutant, dwarf 62 (d62), was isolated from rice cultivar 93-11 by mutagenesis with γ-rays. Under normal growth conditions, the mutant had multiple abnormal phenotypes, such as dwarfism, wide and dark-green leaf blades, reduced tiller numbers, late and asynchronous heading, short roots, partial male sterility, etc. Genetic analysis indicated that the abnormal phenotypes were controlled by the recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. Using molecular markers, the D62 gene was fine mapped in 131-kb region at the short arm of chromosome 6. Positional cloning of D62 gene revealed that it was the same locus as DLT/OsGRAS-32, which encodes a member of the GRAS family. In previous studies, the DLT/OsGRAS-32 is confirmed to play positive roles in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Sequence analysis showed that the d62 carried a 2-bp deletion in ORF region of D62 gene which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The function of D62 gene was confirmed by complementation experiment. RT-PCR analysis and promoter activity analysis showed that the D62 gene expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, leaves and panicles of rice plant. The d62 mutant exhibited decreased activity of α-amylase in endosperm and reduced content of endogenous GA(1). The expression levels of gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic genes including OsCPS1, OsKS1, OsKO1, OsKAO, OsGA20ox2/SD1 and OsGA2ox3 were significantly increased in d62 mutant. Briefly, these results demonstrated that the D62 (DLT/OsGRAS-32) not only participated in the regulation of BR signaling, but also influenced GA metabolism in rice.

  11. Comparative analysis of the expression level of recombinant ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase in GRAS hosts and mass production of the ginsenoside Rh2-Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Cui, Chang-Hao; Park, Seul-Ki; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Sun-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rh2, a pharmaceutically active component of ginseng, is known to have anticancer and antitumor effects. However, white ginseng and red ginseng have extremely low concentrations of Rh2 or Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3]. To enhance the production of food-grade ginsenoside Rh2, an edible enzymatic bioconversion technique was developed adopting GRAS host strains. A β-glucosidase (BglPm), which has ginsenoside conversion ability, was expressed in three GRAS host strains (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococus lactis) by using a different vector system. Enzyme activity in these three GRAS hosts were 75.4%, 11.5%, and 9.3%, respectively, compared to that in the E. coli pGEX 4T-1 expression system. The highly expressed BglPm_C in C. glutamicum can effectively transform the ginsenoside Rg3-Mix [20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, Rg5] to Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, Rh3] using a scaled-up biotransformation reaction, which was performed in a 10-L jar fermenter at pH 6.5/7.0 and 37°C for 24 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which 50 g of PPD-Mix (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, and Rd) as a starting substrate was converted to ginsenoside Rg3-Mix by acid heat treatment and then 24.5-g Rh2-Mix was obtained by enzymatic transformation of Rg3-Mix through by BglPm_C. Utilization of this enzymatic method adopting a GRAS host could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rh2-Mix in cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries, thereby replacing the E. coli expression system. PMID:28423055

  12. Évolution de la normalisation dans le domaine des oléagineux et des corps gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinsac Alain

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La normalisation joue un grand rôle dans les échanges économiques en participant à l’ouverture et à la transparence des marchés. La filière des Oléagineux et des Corps Gras a intégré depuis longtemps la normalisation dans sa stratégie. Élaborés à partir des besoins de la profession et notamment au niveau de la relation client-fournisseur, les programmes ont concerné principalement l’échantillonnage et l’analyse. Depuis quelques années, une forte évolution du contexte socio-économique et réglementaire (utilisation non-alimentaire, sécurité alimentaire, assurance qualité, a élargi le champ de la normalisation. La démarche normative adoptée dans le cas des bio-diesels et de la détection des OGM dans les oléagineux est expliquée. Les conséquences de l’évolution de la normalisation et les enjeux pour la profession des oléagineux dans le futur sont évoqués.

  13. The Petunia GRAS Transcription Factor ATA/RAM1 Regulates Symbiotic Gene Expression and Fungal Morphogenesis in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K.

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutual symbiosis that involves a complex symbiotic interface over which nutrients are exchanged between the plant host and the AM fungus. Dozens of genes in the host are required for the establishment and functioning of the interaction, among them nutrient transporters that mediate the uptake of mineral nutrients delivered by the fungal arbuscules. We have isolated in a genetic mutant screen a petunia (Petunia hybrida) GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR of GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, and SCARECROW (GRAS)-type transcription factor, ATYPICAL ARBUSCULE (ATA), that acts as the central regulator of AM-related genes and is required for the morphogenesis of arbuscules. Forced mycorrhizal inoculations from neighboring wild-type plants revealed an additional role of ATA in restricting mycorrhizal colonization of the root meristem. The lack of ATA, which represents the ortholog of REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA1 in Medicago truncatula, renders the interaction completely ineffective, hence demonstrating the central role of AM-related genes for arbuscule development and function. PMID:25971550

  14. The Petunia GRAS Transcription Factor ATA/RAM1 Regulates Symbiotic Gene Expression and Fungal Morphogenesis in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K; Schorderet, Martine; Bapaume, Laure; Falquet, Laurent; Morel, Patrice; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Reinhardt, Didier

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutual symbiosis that involves a complex symbiotic interface over which nutrients are exchanged between the plant host and the AM fungus. Dozens of genes in the host are required for the establishment and functioning of the interaction, among them nutrient transporters that mediate the uptake of mineral nutrients delivered by the fungal arbuscules. We have isolated in a genetic mutant screen a petunia (Petunia hybrida) Gibberellic Acid Insensitive, Repressor of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive, and Scarecrow (GRAS)-type transcription factor, Atypical Arbuscule (ATA), that acts as the central regulator of AM-related genes and is required for the morphogenesis of arbuscules. Forced mycorrhizal inoculations from neighboring wild-type plants revealed an additional role of ATA in restricting mycorrhizal colonization of the root meristem. The lack of ATA, which represents the ortholog of Required For Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1 in Medicago truncatula, renders the interaction completely ineffective, hence demonstrating the central role of AM-related genes for arbuscule development and function. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Libération des acides gras par autolyse enzymatique des triglycérides des graines oléoprotéagineuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibert Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras produits par hydrolyse chimique des lipides des plantes sont des matériaux de base pour l’industrie des biocarburants, des lubrifiants, des plastiques, des détergents et également des adjuvants de préparations commerciales d’herbicides. Cependant les procédés actuels de production des acides gras sont hautement polluants et coûteux en énergie. Dans ce travail nous développons un nouveau procédé de production des acides gras mettant en œuvre des plantes génétiquement modifiées. Nous avons introduit dans le tabac, retenu comme plante modèle, une construction génétique comprenant un gène de lipase (de la levure Geotrichum candidum sous le contrôle d’un promoteur graine spécifique (promoteur AtEm1 d’Arabidopsis thaliana. Ce promoteur devrait permettre l’expression du gène de lipase au niveau de l’axe embryonnaire tandis que les lipides s’accumulent dans les corps lipidiques des cotylédons. Dans ces conditions, les lipides de la graine devraient être séparés de la lipase par une compartimentation tissulaire et ne pas interférer. Après broyage des graines on peut penser que la mise en contact des lipides et de la lipase conduira à la libération d’acides gras. Plusieurs transformants ont été produits par transfert de gène à l’aide d’Agrobacterium tumefaciens, quelques-uns d’entre eux exprimant, comme attendu, la lipase dans leurs graines. Trois clones (2, 19 et 43 présentent une activité lipase significative et ont été retenus pour des études complémentaires. Cependant l’activité enzymatique observée est faible et certains clones présentent un défaut de compartimentation entre l’enzyme et les lipides se traduisant par la production d’acides gras dans la graine intacte. Lorsque les graines du clone 43 sont broyées dans un tampon, des acides gras sont produits dans le milieu réactionnel, validant le procédé imaginé. De nouvelles constructions réalisées, soit

  16. Apports spontanés en acides gras oméga 3 chez des diabétiques de type 2 tunisiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamoussi Henda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il est admis à l’unanimité que les acides gras oméga 3 ont de multiples bénéfices pour la santé et plus précisément des effets protecteurs contre les maladies cardiovasculaires et neurodégénératives. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer les apports spontanés en acides alphalinolénique (ALA, docosahexaénoïque (DHA, éicosapentaénoïque (EPA et linoléique (LA. Cette étude d’observation a été réalisée auprès de 42 diabétiques de type 2 (21 hommes et 21 femmes âgés de 30 à 75 ans. L’estimation des apports en acides gras a été réalisée en utilisant la méthode d’enregistrement sur sept jours. Les résultats ont montré que l’apport moyen en ALA était de 0,99 ± 0,40 g/j soit 0,42 ± 0,13 % de l’apport énergétique total (AET. Aucun de nos patients n’avait un apport suffisant en ALA. Les apports quotidiens moyens en DHA et en EPA étaient respectivement de 90,0 ± 85 mg/j et de 83,5 ± 80 mg/j. Quant à la contribution des aliments aux apports en EPA et en DHA, les poissons et les fruits de mer représentaient la part la plus importante (57 % de ces deux acides gras. Nos résultats appellent à renforcer l’éducation nutritionnelle des diabétiques afin d’augmenter les apports en acides gras oméga 3 et d’assurer un rapport LA/ALA optimal qui contribuerait à la prévention des maladies cardiovasculaires.

  17. Pre-announcement of symbiotic guests: transcriptional reprogramming by mycorrhizal lipochitooligosaccharides shows a strict co-dependency on the GRAS transcription factors NSP1 and RAM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnjec, Natalija; Czaja-Hasse, Lisa F; Hogekamp, Claudia; Küster, Helge

    2015-11-23

    More than 80 % of all terrestrial plant species establish an arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis with Glomeromycota fungi. This plant-microbe interaction primarily improves phosphate uptake, but also supports nitrogen, mineral, and water aquisition. During the pre-contact stage, the AM symbiosis is controled by an exchange of diffusible factors from either partner. Amongst others, fungal signals were identified as a mix of sulfated and non-sulfated lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs), being structurally related to rhizobial nodulation (Nod)-factor LCOs that in legumes induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LCO signals are transduced via a common symbiotic signaling pathway (CSSP) that activates a group of GRAS transcription factors (TFs). Using complex gene expression fingerprints as molecular phenotypes, this study primarily intended to shed light on the importance of the GRAS TFs NSP1 and RAM1 for LCO-activated gene expression during pre-symbiotic signaling. We investigated the genome-wide transcriptional responses in 5 days old primary roots of the Medicago truncatula wild type and four symbiotic mutants to a 6 h challenge with LCO signals supplied at 10(-7/-8) M. We were able to show that during the pre-symbiotic stage, sulfated Myc-, non-sulfated Myc-, and Nod-LCO-activated gene expression almost exclusively depends on the LysM receptor kinase NFP and is largely controled by the CSSP, although responses independent of this pathway exist. Our results show that downstream of the CSSP, gene expression activation by Myc-LCOs supplied at 10(-7/-8) M strictly required both the GRAS transcription factors RAM1 and NSP1, whereas those genes either co- or specifically activated by Nod-LCOs displayed a preferential NSP1-dependency. RAM1, a central regulator of root colonization by AM fungi, controled genes activated by non-sulfated Myc-LCOs during the pre-symbiotic stage that are also up-regulated in areas with early physical contact, e.g. hyphopodia and

  18. De l’oléochimie à la bioraffinerie : continuité de développement pour le secteur des corps gras ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rous Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available L’oléochimie est une science très ancienne dont l’objectif est de transformer les corps gras animaux ou les huiles végétales pour produire des molécules chimiques, telles que des alcools gras, des acides gras, des esters plus ou moins complexes, entrant dans de multiples applications telles que les savons, les lubrifiants, les tensio-actifs, les agents de rhéologie, et bien d’autres applications. Depuis le début des années 90, grâce au développement des technologies et notamment à la transposition dans le domaine des huiles et corps gras de technologies préalablement développées pour la pétrochimie (comme la métathèse par exemple (Poels EK, Moulijn JA, Sibeijn MJ. 1994. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71 : 553, cette science évolue pour produire des molécules de plus en plus complexes, et notamment des intermédiaires de synthèse qui entrent dans la préparation de polymères (par exemple des acides dimères, ou des diacides, qui sont modifiés -ou pas- en diols ou diamines ou autres molécules bifonctionnelles de type amino-acides. La bioraffinerie quant à elle, à l’instar de la raffinerie, vise à développer le meilleur usage possible des différentes fractions d’une plante. Le premier exemple (et meilleur à ce jour est l’amidonnerie, qui au-delà du développement des dérivés de l’amidon, fractionne complètement la graine de blé ou de maïs afin d’en tirer le maximum de valeur possible. Bien qu’un certain nombre de développements aient été menés depuis quelques années, les unités de trituration et raffinage des graines oléagineuses sont encore loin de s’apparenter à ce degré de fractionnement. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que même si les développements successifs des usages faisables à partir des corps gras et des huiles ont suivi des choix parfois politiques, il n’en reste pas moins que ces choix ne peuvent être considérés que comme des « déclencheurs » et qu’à termes c

  19. Marché des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation des corps gras Market of Hydrogenation Catalysts for Fats and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraque M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'institut Français du Pétrole (IFP ayant acquis une grande expérience dans le domaine des catalyseurs, notamment d'hydrogénation, le Département Evaluation a effectué à diverses reprises des études qui en évaluent les marchés potentiels. L'analyse qui suit a été réalisée en vue de déterminer les débouchés possibles des catalyseurs utilisés dans l'hydrogénation des corps gras; elle couvre l'industrie alimentaire, l'hydrogénation des acides gras d'origine animale ou végétale, la production d'alcools gras et d'amines grasses. Ce marché dépasse 60 millions de dollars/an et correspond à près de 11 000 t/an de catalyseurs utilisés. Ces valeurs tiennent compte des consommations captives de catalyseurs produits par les compagnies utilisatrices. Ce chiffre d'affaires est du même ordre que celui des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation utilisés dans la synthèse des grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Plus de 64 % des applications concernent l'industrie alimentaire : production de margarine et shortening, hydrogénation d'huiles de salade et de friture aux États-Unis. Alors que la consommation de catalyseurs utilisés en lipochimie est très fortement concentrée dans les principales régions industrialisées : États-Unis, Europe occidentale et Japon, celle de I'lindustrie alimentaire est beaucoup plus dispersée : les 3 régions précitées représentent moins de 64 % de la consommation mondiale. Les débouchés estimés représentent des chiffres d'affaires annuels de 41×10·6 dollars pour l'industrie alimentaire, 8,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'acide gras, 11×10·6 dollars pour la production d'alcools gras et 1,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'amines grasses. Ces hydrogénations sont effectuées en présence de nickel sur support (industrie alimentaire, production d'acides gras et d'amines secondaires et tertiaires, en présence de nickel de Raney (production d'amines primaires ou de chromite de cuivre

  20. Apports spontanés en acides gras oméga 3 chez des diabétiques de type 2 tunisiens

    OpenAIRE

    Jamoussi Henda; Chaabouni Salma; Gammoudi Amel; Mahjoub Faten; Ounaissa Kamilia; Berriche Olfa; Amrouche Chiraz; Blouza Samira

    2014-01-01

    Il est admis à l’unanimité que les acides gras oméga 3 ont de multiples bénéfices pour la santé et plus précisément des effets protecteurs contre les maladies cardiovasculaires et neurodégénératives. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer les apports spontanés en acides alphalinolénique (ALA), docosahexaénoïque (DHA), éicosapentaénoïque (EPA) et linoléique (LA). Cette étude d’observation a été réalisée auprès de 42 diabétiques de type ...

  1. The Use of Technetium-99m as a Clinical Scanning Agent for Thyroid, Liver and Brain; Utilisation du {sup 99m}Tc comme Agent d'Exploration Clinique de la Thyroide, du Foie et du Cerveau; Ispol'zovanie Tc{sup 99m} kak klinicheskogo agenta pri skennirovanii shchitovidnoj zhelezy, pecheni i mozga; Empleo del {sup 99m}Tc como Agente para la Exploracion Clinica de la Tiroides, el Higado y el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, P. V.; Lathrop, K. A.; McCardle, R. J.; Andros, G. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital and Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    habituelle ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), il se repartit dans le corps d'une facon tres semblable a CIO{sub 4}{sup -} et I{sup -}, c'est-a-dire qu'il est rapidement disperse dans l'espace extra-cellulaire et accumule selectivement par la thyroiede, l'estomac et les glandes salivaires. Les donnees fournies par les excreta indiquent que la periode biologique est d'environ deux jours. On peut faire d'excellents scintigrammes de la thyroiede; avec une irradiation evaluee a 100 mrad pour la thyroiede, et a 5 mrad pour l'ensemble du corps, une demi-heure a une heure apres administration de 1 mc de {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, ce qui represente un tres grand progres par rapport a l'utilisation de {sup 131}I. TcO{sub 4} ne traverse pas librement la barriere sang-cerveau, de sorte que l'on a obtenu des scintigrammes spectaculaires du cerveau avec un temps de balayage de 2 a 5 min grace au taux de comptage eleve fourni par des doses de 5 a 10 me de 99mTc. Comme le thiocyanate pentavalent se dissout dans une emulsion de corps gras, {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} se localise en grande partie dans le foie; la aussi, le taux de comptage eleve permet des explorations rapides avec une meilleure resolution. On espere qu'il sera possible de faite de nouveaux progres avec ce radioisotope grace a l'utilisation de sondes plus efficaces et a une manipulation plus poussee des parametres biologiques et chimiques. (author) [Spanish] El {sup 99m}Tc es uno de los isotopos que mas ventajas ofrecen para la exploracion cen- telleografica. Emite rayos gamma limpios de 140 keV (9% de conversion) sin radiacion corpuscular, tiene un periodo fisico de 6 h y puede obtenerse facilmente a un precio razonalbe como descendiente del {sup 99}Mo, (periodo: 2,7 d) del que se separa sin dificultad en una columna de alumina. En su forma usual ({sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) se distribuye por el cuerpo de manera muy parecida al CIO{sub 4}{sup -} y al I{sup -}, penetra rapidamente en el espacio extra- celular y es captado

  2. Two rice GRAS family genes responsive to N -acetylchitooligosaccharide elicitor are induced by phytoactive gibberellins: evidence for cross-talk between elicitor and gibberellin signaling in rice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R Bradley; Tanabe, Shigeru; Koshioka, Masaji; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Minami, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present data showing that two members of the GRAS family of genes from rice, CIGR1 and CIGR2 (chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive), inducible by the potent elicitor N -acetylchitooligosaccharide (GN), are rapidly induced by exogenous gibberellins. The pattern of mRNA accumulation was dependent on the dose and biological activity of the gibberellins, suggesting that the induction of the genes by gibberellin is mediated by a biological receptor capable of specific recognition and signal transduction upon perception of the phytoactive compounds. Further pharmacological analysis revealed that the CIGR1 and CIGR2 mRNA accumulation by treatment with gibberellin is dependent upon protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. In rice calli derived from slender rice 1, a constitutive gibberellin-responsive mutant, or d1, a mutant deficient in the alpha -subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein, CIGR1 and CIGR2 were induced by a GN elicitor, yet not by gibberellin. Neither gibberellin nor GN showed related activities in defense or development, respectively. These results strongly suggested that the signal transduction cascade from gibberellin is independent of that from GN, and further implied that CIGR1 and CIGR2 have dual, distinct roles in defense and development.

  3. Importance and Limitations of Scintigraphy of the Pancreas: Results of 200 Examinations involving Electronic Subtraction of the Image of the Liver; Interet et Limites de la Scintigraphie Pancreatique: Resultats de 200 Examens Pratiques avec Soustraction Electronique de l'Image du Foie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanquet, P.; Beck, C.; Pigneux, J.; Hecquet, M. F. [Hopital Saint-Andre, Unite de Recherches INSERM, Bordeaux (France)

    1969-05-15

    scintigraphies pancreatiques avec suppression de l'image du foie. Les examens ont ete realises a l'aide d'une camera d'Anger couplee a un analyseur a memoire integratrice de 4096 canaux. Cet ensemble a permis la soustraction des donnees fournies par les gros colloiedes d'or-198 fixes au niveau du foie de celles fournies par la selenomethionine marquee au selenium-75 fixee danslesglandeshepatiquesetpancreatiques. La technique est simple dans son execution; elle immobilise le sujet examine pendant une heure environ. Elle a pour objet la realisation d'une image pancreatique debarrassee de toute superposition hepatique et l'etude de la vitesse de stockage du produit marque dans la glande. La dose absorbee par le pancreas est minime etant donne le court sejour du radioelement dans la glande. Celle recue par l'organisme entier n'est pas negligeable; ainsi, le nombre des examens effectues chez des sujets a pancreas cliniquement normal a ete limite a cinq. Critiquable dans son principe, la technique de soustraction a donne entiere satisfaction dans la pratique. L'effacement de l'image du foie n'est pas toujours complete mais dans tous les cas l'image pancreatique est suffisamment isolee pour pouvoir etre interpretee dans son ensemble. Il faut pourtant remarquer que la zone de projection commune aux deux organes est souvent, apres soustraction, un peu inhomogene. Chez les sujets indemnes d'affection pancreatique, le scintigramme a toujours ete normal. Dans les cas de pancreatite chronique confirmee, le tableau est univoque. Les tumeurs peuvent avoir des traductions scintigraphiques variees, mais la definition des images parait satisfaisante puisqu'un des scintigrammes a mis en evidence une formation tumorale evaluee a 2 cm lors de l'intervention. (author)

  4. Fractioneren van gras en luzerne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Gewasfractionering is de mechanische scheiding van gewassen in een aantal fracties voor een betere benutting van het oorspronkelijke materiaal. Het is een proces waarbij de bladrijke plant sterk gekneusd en samengeperst wordt. Hierdoor ontstaat een relatief eiwitrijke en een vezelarme sapfractie en

  5. Effects of replacing corn with sorghum on the performance of overfed mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Brachet, M; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of replacing yellow corn (C) with condensed tannin-free sorghum (S) during the finishing period (F period; age 53 to 79 d) and/or overfeeding period (O period; age 80 to 91 d) on the performance of overfed mule ducks. 192 ducks were divided into 4 groups (48 in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the F and/or the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments : SS, SC, CS, CC. At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and magret qualities. Mortality (1%; P > 0.05) and weight gain (2,030 g; P > 0.05) during the O period were similar in the 4 groups. At the end of the O period, birds overfed with sorghum had foie gras that was heavier (723 vs. 694 g in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P 0.05), but the foie gras was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum (14.84 vs. 26.01 for b* in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P 0.05) but the color of the breast muscle and skin of magret was less yellow in birds overfed with sorghum compared with corn (12.26 vs. 12.92 and 13.84 vs. 18.30 in CS+SS vs. CC+SC, respectively; P duck foie gras production system because it increases foie gras weight without decreasing the weight of magret However, it changes the quality of the products, mainly their color. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Régulation de la biosynthèse des acides gras polyinsaturés lors de l’hypertension artérielle associée aux diabètes de type 1 et 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comte Céline

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons étudié les effets de l’association des pathologies hypertensive et diabétiques sur la conversion des acides linoléique et alpha-linolénique en acides gras plus longs et plus insaturés. Pour cela, nous avons mis en place deux modèles de rats : le premier combinant hypertension artérielle (HTA et diabète de type 2, grâce à l’administration d’un régime enrichi en fructose à des rats SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat adultes \\; le deuxième combinant HTA et diabète de type 1, induit par une injection de streptozotocine à des rats SHR adultes, traités (STZI ou non (STZ à l’insuline. Après mesure de la pression artérielle et de la glycémie au sacrifice des animaux, nous avons déterminé la composition des lipides totaux hépatiques en acides gras, les activités de delta-6 désaturation microsomales hépatiques ainsi que l’expression du gène codant la delta-6 désaturase. Les résultats de l’expérience 1 mettent en évidence une diminution des teneurs en 18 : 2 n-6 et en produits de désaturation à longue chaîne, chez les animaux du lot fructose. L’activité de delta-6 n-3 désaturation est augmentée significativement, alors que l’expression génique a tendance à diminuer. Dans l’expérience 2, une augmentation de la teneur en 18 : 2 n-6 est observée dans le lot STZ, alors que le lot STZI présente des teneurs semblables à celles des témoins. De plus, les teneurs en 20 : 4 n-6 et 22 : 6 n-3 sont augmentées dans le lot STZI. L’activité delta-6 n-3 désaturante est partiellement inhibée dans le lot STZI, et l’expression génique de la delta-6 désaturase est diminuée dans les deux lots traités. Ces résultats mettent en évidence que l’association de l’HTA et des différentes formes de diabète entraîne des perturbations de la biosynthèse des acides gras polyinsaturés qui sont différentes, voire opposées, selon le type de diabète. Leurs répercussions sur

  7. Use of the Scintigraphic Method In Morphological Exploration of the Liver during Amoebiasis; Application de la Methode Scintigraphique a l'Exploration Morphologique du Foie au Cours de l'Amibiase; Primenenie stsintigraficheskogo metoda dlya morfologicheskogo issledovaniya pecheni pri amebiaze; Aplicacion de la Centelleografia a la Exploracion Morfologica del Higado en Casos de Amibiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora, R.; Jammet, H. [Fondation Curie, Paris (France)

    1964-10-15

    Increasing recourse is being had to the scintigraphic method of morphological exploration of the amoebic liver owing to the frequency of hepatic localizations of amoebiasis and to the difficulties of clinical and paraclinical diagnosis of amoebic abscess of the organ. The method yields data of great importance in this field. The authors quote the statistics of examinations they have carried out and endeavour to draw conclusions from them. They describe the examination technique from the following points of view: (a) The choice of materials (I{sup 131}-labelled Rose Bengal and Au{sup 198} in colloidal solution) with their advantages and disadvantages; (b) The apparatus used, with special reference to the problem of collimation; (c) Actual performance of the examination, involving a functional study and the scintigram itself, which has to be carried out from different angles; (d) Repetition of the examination after an interval of several months. The authors then deal with the scintigraphic semiology of hepatic localizations of amoebiasis; they analyse the elementary abnormal images, study their topography, and describe their associations in the case of hepatitis and in cases of amoebic abscess. They then study the development of these images with time and report a number of cases for which the scintigraphic examination was repeated after an interval of several weeks or months. Finally, they enunciate the indications for application of the method, which provides essential data for the positive diagnosis of amoebic abscess of the liver and for topographical and morphological diagnosis (of particular interest surgically), and which makes it possible to observe the progress of the disease and the healing of the abscess after medical treatment. (author) [French] La methode scintigraphique est de plus en plus sollicitee pour l'exploration morphologique du foie amibien en raison de la frequence des localisations hepatiques de l'amibiase et des difficultes du diagnostic

  8. The study of the digestive absorption of water in patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, by using two hydrogen tracers; etude de l'absorption digestive de l'eau chez les malades atteints de cirrhose du foie a l'aide de deux indicateurs de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine-Boszormenyi, M. [Institut National d' Hygiene (France); Fallot, P.; Masson, J.; Calvet, P. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de, CEA Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    We have studied the rate of appearance of ingested water in the peripheral blood of four patients suffering from cirrhosis of the liver with ascites. For this purpose, oral administration of deuterium oxide and intravenous administration of tritiated water were made simultaneously. This double experiment enables the phenomenon of diffusion of the tracer outside the vascular regions to be observed and calculation to be made of the amounts absorbed by the digestive tract and transferred to the peripheral circulation. The rate of absorption observed under the above conditions proves to be distinctly less (1.2 percent per minute of the ingested dose) than that observed by Scholer and Code in normal subjects (9 percent per minute of the ingested dose). Hypotheses are advanced which could account for the facts observed and which offer a satisfactory explanation of Gilbert's opsiuria. Reprint of a paper published in International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 7, p. 233-243, 1960 [French] Nous avons etudie chez quatre malades atteints de cirrhose du foie avec ascite, la vitesse d'apparition dans le sang peripherique de l'eau ingeree. A cet effet, nous avons administre simultanement a nos malades de l'oxyde de deuterium par voie orale et de l'eau tritiee par voie intraveineuse. Cette double epreuve permet de faire la part du phenomene de diffusion de 11 indicateur hors des territoires vasculaires et de calculer les quantites absorbees par le tube digestif et transferees dans la circulation peripherique. La vitesse d'absorption appreciee dans les conditions precedentes (1,2 pour cent par minute de la dose ingeree) s'avere notablement inferieure a celle observee par SCHOLER et CODE chez les sujets normaux (9 pour cent par minute de la dose ingeree). Nous avons evoque des hypotheses susceptibles de rendre compte des faits observes qui apportent une explication satisfaisante a l'opsiurie de Gilbert. Reproduction d'un article publie dans International Journal

  9. Impact environnemental des corps gras et de leurs dérivés formulés ou non : biodégradabilité et écotoxicité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Vincent

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Les risques encourus par l’environnement à cause de la libération d’un produit chimique particulier dépendent essentiellement du potentiel et de la durée d’exposition de ce produit à l’environnement et de sa toxicité. Les corps gras et leurs dérivés sont utilisés dans des domaines très variés tels que les lubrifiants, les solvants, les agents de surface, les détergents… L’impact environnemental de ces composés peut être mis en évidence par des essais normalisés de biodégradabilité et de toxicité. La biodégradabilité est évaluée par diverses mesures : disparition de la substance, évolution de la demande biochimique en oxygène (DBO, consommation d’oxygène, production de dioxyde de carbone et évolution de la composition gazeuse autour du phénomène de biodégradation. La toxicité est évaluée sur divers organismes tels que les bactéries, les algues, les crustacés, les poissons, les mammifères… L’ensemble de ces mesures, expliquées dans cet article, est d’autant plus important qu’il intervient dans les classifications, les réglementations et les écolabels.

  10. Christmas feast in Prévessin

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Restaurant No3 was invaded by a happy bunch of Santa Clauses last Wednesday. It has become a tradition for the restaurant staff to dress up to serve a real Christmas feast. In the menu : Foie gras des Landes, scallops, salmon tartar and of course the traditional Christmas turkey. And a special extra - an aperitif graciously offered by the restaurant. Places were laid for 450 people for this exceptional lunch.

  11. Contrast Enhancement by Multicolour Print-Out of Thyroid, Kidney, Liver and Brain Scans; Accentuation des Contrastes dans les Scintigrammes Polychromes du Cerveau, du Foie, du Rein et de la Thyroide; Kontrastnoe usilenie s pomoshch'yu mnogotsvetnogo otpechatka skennogramm shchitovidnoj zhelezy, pochek, pecheni i golovnogo mozga; Aumento del Contraste en los Centelleogramas Policromos de la Tiroides, el Rinon, el Higado y el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hine, G. J.; Patten, D. H.; Burrows, B. A. [Radioisotope Service, Veterans Administration Hospital Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    contour de zones ou les differences de taux de comptage sont faibles. Des rubans de machines a ecrire de diverses couleurs sont montes sur un chariot unique; un stylet, dont le mouvement est commande par un debitmetre, avec une constante de temps de 0 ,3 s, frappe l'un des rubans. Le premier ruban, qui correspond a la gamme des taux de comptage la plus basse, n'est pas encre; ainsi, il n'y a pas de marques colorees pour les taux de comptage inferieurs a 12, 5% du maximum, qui est ajuste pour chaque scintigramme lorsque les huit rubans colores sont utilises en meme temps. Toutefois, tous les coups sont enregistres en noir sur des copies carbone. Du point de vue clinique, le scintigramme polychrome a l'avantage de faire apparaitre immediatement les differences de taux de comptage qui delimitent des zones oue la concentration du radioisotope n'est pas la meme. La suppression de la couleur, pour les taux de comptage peu eleves, permet de mieux distinguer certaines zones difficiles a localiser par suite de l'intensite du bruit de fond du aux tissus, par exemple les lesions cerebrales. Le scintigramme polychrome fait apparaitre les contours correspondant a l'epaisseur du tissu hepatique qui participe aux fonctions du foie et qu'il est difficile de voir autrement. Il permet d'identifier plus aisement les zones de fibrose et d'infiltration neoplasique, en le comparant avec des scintigrammes de foies normaux. Il en est de meme pour des scintigrammes de reins, oiei une modification de la couleur peut indiquer la presence de zones ischemiques, cystiques ou tumorales. Le scintigramme polvchrome de la thyroiede permet de proceder a des comparaisons semi-quantitatives de la fixation du radioiode entre les differentes zones. (author) [Spanish] Un centelleograma puede proporcionar datos cuantitativos si el color de la impresion varia segun el indice de recuento. La estructura de la impresion indica entonces la reparticion de los radioisotopos; su color sirve de clave para la evaluacion

  12. Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, acides gras insaturés Un exemple : l’acide linoléique et les récepteurs du LDL-cholestérol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, et acides gras poly-insaturés. Il deviendra impossible dans le futur de poser le problème des apports nutritionnels conseillés sans se poser la question : Conseillés dans quel but ? Comptable, humanitaire, épanouissement individuel ? Obtenir une croissance, une reproduction, un gain de masse musculaire dans le plus court temps sont des objectifs de nutritionnistes zoo-techniciens. Dans ce système, l’objectif final est la mort programmée dans un abattoir dans le délai le plus court et le plus rentable possible. En nutrition humaine, l’objectif est d’obtenir la meilleure adaptabilité possible dans n’importe quelle situation et le plus longtemps possible. L’objectif n’est plus comme à la fin du xviiie et xixe siècle, d’obtenir une main-d’oeuvre pouvant se développer et se reproduire le plus rapidement possible, assurer un travail physique efficace au moindre coût. Peut-être est-il la transmission des connaissances anciennes, l’acquisition et la transmission de connaissances nouvelles, durant le plus lontemps possible. Pour l’homme, la définition des apports nutritionnels conseillés devrait être la définition des marges de sécurités entre les apports minimaux acceptables et les apports maximaux tolérables. Ces marges de sécurité devraient permettre d’obtenir une fonctionnalité réelle, soit la meilleure conformation récepteurs-enzymes, malgré des status génétiques variés (mutations, polymorphisme, etc., un environnement aléatoire, d’obtenir la résislience, l’adaptabilité individuelle, maximale, durant le plus longtemps possible (maintenance. Il n’existe pas d’autres possibilités de prévention des maladies conformationnelles nouvellement décrites. À titre d’exemple, les conditions d’obtention du niveau de régulation optimale du récepteur LDL, la dégradation sécrétoire de l’ApoB par le récepteur LDL sur le chemin de la s

  13. Préférence et sensibilité aux aliments apportant les goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer et état pondéral [Preference and sensitivity to food providing fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes, and weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouassila ALLAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé Introduction. Le goût est une modalité sensorielle chimique qui permet d'apprécier les saveurs d'une substance ingérée. Il joue un rôle essentiel dans la sélection des aliments. Objectif. Déterminer le niveau de sensibilité gustative aux goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer, à travers les préférences alimentaires et étudier le lien possible avec l’état pondéral. Matériel et méthodes. L’étude a porté sur 210 jeunes adultes (F/H, 157/53 âgés de 18 à 30 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques concernent le poids et la taille. Le questionnaire utilisé a permis l'évaluation des préférences alimentaires en relation avec différentes saveurs. Le niveau de sensibilité est estimé à partir des scores moyens de préférence attribués à chaque groupe d’aliments apportant le goût étudié. L’analyse statistique est réalisée avec le logiciel StatView. Résultats. Notre population compte 45,7% de sujets en surpoids dont 20% d’obèses. Le pourcentage du surpoids est plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes (p=0,04. Une relation significative est trouvée entre la préférence au gras rajouté et l’état pondéral des adultes (p=0,0003. Aucune différence significative n’est trouvée entre le niveau de préférence ou de sensibilité pour les aliments sucrés, salés ou amers et l’état pondéral des adultes. Conclusion. Les adultes en surpoids présentent le niveau de préférence le plus faible et sont les moins sensibles par rapport au gras rajouté, ce qui peut influencer l’état pondéral par une consommation excessive d’aliments riches en gras. [ Abstract Introduction. Taste is a chemical sensory modality allowing to appreciate the flavors of an ingested substance. It plays an essential role in food choice. Objective. To define the level of taste sensitivity to fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes through food preferences and to study the possible link with weight status. Material and

  14. Experience with a New Colour-Scintillographic Method for Diagnosing Liver Tumours and Inflammatory Liver Disorders; Experience d'une Nouvelle Methode d'Enregistrement Scintigraphique en Couleurs, pour le Diagnostic des Tumeurs Hepatiques et des Affections Inflammatoires du Foie; Opyt ispol'zovaniya novogo metoda tsvetnoj'' stsintigrafii dlya diagnostiki pechenochnykh opukholej i vospalitel'nykh protsessov pecheni; Ensayo de un Nuevo Metodo de Registro Centelleografico Policromo, para el Diagnostico de Tumores Hepaticos y de Inflamaciones del Higado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparchez, T.; Gheorghescu, B.; Steclaci, A.; Merculiev, E.; Popovici, M. [Clinique Medicale, Bucarest (Romania)

    1964-10-15

    que le noir represente l'activite maximum, situee au centre du foie ou le parenchyme est plus epais. Les couleurs intermediaires correspondent aux differentes zones d'isoradioactivite. Les auteurs ont etudie, a l'aide de cette methode, 150 cas de tumeurs hepatiques malignes (primitives et secondaires) et de tumeurs benignes, 80 cas d'hepatite chronique et de cirrhose et 50 cas normaux. Dans la majorite descas, ils ont utilise l'or-198 colloiedal (Amersham-Angleterre) injecte par voie intraveineuse. Ils ont effectue parallelement, dans un grand nombre de cas, des mecanogrammes, photoscintigrammes en blanc et noir et scintigrammes en couleurs. Le diagnostic a ete verifie par ponction, laparoscopie, laparophoto ou cinematographie, ponction biopsique, intervention chirurgicale ou necropsie. La methode scintigraphique en couleurs permet de mieux distinguer les variations d'intensite de la radioactivite, c'est-a-dire la desorganisation ou la substitution du parenchyme hepatique par processus tumoraux. (author) [Spanish] Para obtener imagenes que reflejasen mejor los detalles de la estructura del parenquima hepatico modificado por la enfermedad, los autores adaptaron al aparato Scanner-Tracerlab un dispositivo gracias al cual se pueden obtener diagramas hepaticos en siete colores. Cada color, elegido arbitrariamente, corresponde a un numero dado de impulsos y representa zonas de isorradiactividad, es decir, de tejido hepatico de volumen relativamente igual. En el centelleograma policromo, el blanco representa la radiactividad de fondo, mientras que el negro representa la actividad maxima, situada en el centro del higado, donde el parenquima es mas espeso. Los colores intermedios corresponden a las diferentes zonas de isorradiactividad. Recurriendo a este metodo, los autores estudiaron 150 casos de tumores hepaticos malignos (primitivos y secundarios) y de tumores benignos, 80 casos de hepatitis cronica y de cirrosis, y 50 casos normales. En la mayoria de los casos utilizaron

  15. INTERFON

    CERN Multimedia

    Interfon

    2009-01-01

    Les membres du Conseil d’Administration ainsi que le personnel de la Coopérative et de la Mutuelle vous souhaitent un Joyeux Noël et une Bonne Année 2010 ! Nos bureaux seront fermés : Au technoparc du 23 décembre au 4 janvier Au CERN du 18 décembre au 4 janvier Pour préparer les Fêtes… Si vous avez manqué votre commande de foie gras chez notre fournisseur habituel, vous avez encore l’occasion de vous approvisionner auprès de notre partenaire « Aux Bonheurs Landais » présent chaque semaine sur les marchés : le samedi à Ferney et le dimanche à Divonne. Vous y découvrirez ses traditionnels foies gras landais de canards et d’oies et autres spécialités à base de foie gras, ses plats cuisinés ainsi que ses fromages fermiers basco-b&a...

  16. Rôle du Liver X Receptor dans la régulation transcriptionnelle de la lipogenèse

    OpenAIRE

    Ducheix, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Chez les mammiferes, la lipogenese ou synthese de novo des acides gras joue un rôle essentiel a l'homeostasie energetique. Elle est particulierement active dans le foie. Le Liver X Receptor (LXR) est un recepteur nucleaire de classe II qui est implique dans la regulation de l'expression de genes importants dans cette voie metabolique. Au niveau hepatique, LXR regule directement l'expression de certains genes de la lipogenese et aussi l'expression des facteurs de transcription SREBP-1c et ChRE...

  17. In vivo NMR spectroscopy of the liver. Spectroscopie RMN du foie in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehenson, P.; Cuenod, C.A.; Syrota, A. (CEA, 91 - Orsay (FR). Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot)

    1989-01-01

    The application of in vivo MR spectroscopy to the study of the liver is currently an expanding field of research. Owing to technical difficulties, the results obtained thus far were mainly those of animal observations. Several nuclei have been considered: hydrogen, phosphorus, carbon or fluorine. This non-traumatic method allows following and quantifying the various metabolic pathways, especially during hepatic diseases. The major metabolic pathways, i.e. neoglycogenesis, glycogenolysis, Krebs' cycle, etc., are studied, as well as their alterations during diseases such as ischemia, diabetes or alcoholism. The development of this promising technique requires the cooperation of various clinical and fundamental disciplines.

  18. Liver late effects of ionizing radiation; Effets tardifs des radiations sur le foie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mornex, F.; Ramuz, O. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Gerard, F. [Laboratoire Marcel-Merieux, 69 - Lyon (France); Van Houtte, P. [Institut Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-01

    Until recently, the liver was classified as a radioresistant organ, although it is in fact highly radiosensitive. The realization that the whole liver could be treated safety only with low doses of radiation led to the conclusion that radiation therapy had an extremely limited role in the treatment of intrahepatic malignancies. A resurgence of interest has been observed with the advent of conformal radiotherapy and the introduction of bone marrow transplantation with total body irradiation. The radiation-induced liver disease, often called radiation hepatitis, is a syndrome characterized by the development of anicteric ascites, approximately 2 weeks to 4 months after hepatic irradiation. Immediate tolerance is generally surprisingly good, and the subacute radiation injury is followed by a complete asymptomatic healing, although the late lesions may be associated with signs of chronic radiation hepatitis. Radiation hepatitis must be distinguished from chemo-radiation-induced-hepatitis occurring in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation and total body irradiation. Both syndromes demonstrate the same pathological lesion: veno-occlusive disease. The main treatment for radiation hepatitis is diuretics, although soma advocate steroids for severe cases. (authors)

  19. Microparticules magnetiques therapeutiques pour la chimio-embolisation ciblee du foie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouponneau, Pierre

    The proposed project introduces a therapeutic vector for the liver tumor treatment based on a new magnetic targeting strategy. The hypothesis of this thesis is that it is possible to design a therapeutic vector compatible with the constraints of liver chemoembolization and MRN in the hepatic artery to target the right/left lobe of the liver. This vector, referred to as therapeutic magnetic microcarriers (TMMC) is loaded with an antitumor drug and magnetic nanoparticles. A design study, based on a mathematical modeling of microparticle steering and a literature review on the chemoembolization, was done to optimize TMMC properties (diameter, Ms, nanoparticle choice and loading). Iron-cobalt (FeCo) nanoparticles were synthesized and annealed under inert conditions to improve their magnetic properties. These ferromagnetic nanoparticles possessed a mean diameter of 200 nm, measured by transmission electronic microscopy, and an Ms of 205 emu g-1, determined with a vibrating sample magnetometer. These nanoparticles, by their high Ms, allowed reducing by half the magnetic material loading in TMMC compared with the encapsulation of iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles coated with 10-nm graphite shell were protected from oxidation and thus they maintained their excellent magnetic properties. The design study was experimentally confirmed by the encapsulation of FeCo nanoparticles into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) biodegradable microparticles. The latter were steered in vitro in a phantom mimicking the hepatic artery and its right/left bifurcation. The steering efficiency was determined by steering video analysis and the iron and cobalt ion concentrations were assayed by atomic absorption spectrometry in each bifurcation. FeCo nanoparticles were then co-encapsulated with doxorubicin (DOX) into PLGA microparticles. DOX is an antitumor drug widely used for HCC treatments. TMMC possessed a mean diameter of 52 mum, an Ms of 72 emu g-1 and they were loaded with 37% (w/w) of nanoparticles and 3% (w/w) of DOX. In vitro, after 3 days of elution in phosphate buffered saline solution, 54% of the DOX encapsulated remained in the TMMC. The elution was characterized by a fast release phase during one hour and then a slow kinetics. The steering was evaluated in vitro in a phantom mimicking the hepatic artery under physiological and interventional radiology conditions (injection by catheter, variation of distance between the catheter and the bifurcation from 30 to 20 mm, magnetic gradient from 200 to 400 mT m -1, flow velocity from 7.5 to 12 cm s-1). Steering efficiency was defined as the reduction of the TMMC (or drug) dose in the untargeted area in the presence of magnetic steering versus the negative control (no steering). The steering efficiency increased when the magnetic gradient increased. The efficiency decreased when the flow velocity increased and the catheter was closer to the bifurcation. The efficiency decreased with microparticles with lower steering properties (diameter of 30 mum and Ms of 49 emu g-1). This result confirmed that the TMMC properties were specific to the vascular network being targeted. In the optimal conditions, the steering efficiency reached 70%. The steering of TMMC was measured in vivo. An interventional radiology protocol compatible with MRN was developed to place the catheters, to reduce the hepatic artery blood velocity during the steering and to determine the MRI sequence parameters. TMMC induced signal loss on T2*-weighted magnetic resonance images because of their high Ms which allowed their easy localization in the tissues. The embolization of the hepatic artery branches by TMMC was confirmed by histological analysis. The sustained release of DOX was verified by measuring its plasmatic concentration. TMMC distribution in the tissues was determined by the histological analysis and DOX and cobalt concentration measurements. A significant difference in the TMMC distribution in the liver lobes between the group with MRN and the control group was obtained. The MRN allowed reducing the microparticle concentration in the untargeted area. In the optimal conditions, the steering efficiency reached 50%. The parameters influencing the steering efficiency in vitro were confirmed during in vivo tests. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Isikuvabadus seab meediale piirid / Frederic Gras ; interv. Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gras, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    ETV meediakonverentsil esinev Euroopa Nõukogu meediaekspert vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema esinemisteemat, ajakirjaniku käitumist oma allika avaldamata jätmisel, tänapäevast tsensuurivormi, ajakirjanike kohtussekaebamist, BBC ja Briti valitsuse Iraagi-tüli

  1. Nanoformulation des corps gras. Nanocapsules, nanoémulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonnet Jean-Thierry

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocapsules (submicron particles, of diameter 250 nm, with an oily core enclosed in a solid polymeric shell were prepared using a controlled nanoprecipitation process with preformed polymers (for example poly-E caprolactone, polyethylene adipate. Nanocapsules formed by this method contain up to 7.5% oil (1% polymer. The following properties are observed using nanocapsules : improved oxygen stability of active ingredients (retinol, β carotene, significantly improved vectorisation (up to 3 times in skin and a reservoir effect. Due to their solid polymer shell nanocapsules are stable when formulated and penetrate intact into the superficial layers of the epidermis. Nanoemulsions wich are very fine oil-in-water dispersions having droplet diameter smaller than 100 nanometers, were prepared with a high shear device. Two major sources of unstability were identified and extensively studied: Ostwald ripening and depletion induced floculation following the addition of thickening polymers. The control of these two mechanisms allowed the industrial production of a large variety of cosmetic products. The nanoemulsions are easily valued in skin care due to their good sensorial properties and their biophysical properties.

  2. Importance des corps gras dans le domaine des tensioactifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilbot Jérôme

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is willing to show through different industrial examples the role played by the oleochemistry in the development of new surfactants. This field offers indeed a large choice of alkyl chains that can be transformed. Linked to a polar head such as a polyol, a carbohydrate or a protein derivative, these alkyl chains lead to performing bio-surfactants that show interesting toxicological and ecotoxicological profiles. This natural lipophilic source allows thus to adjust some physico-chemical parameters of the surfactant such as its geometry, its hydrophilic lipophilic balance, the type of functional groups linking its hydrophilic part to its lipophilic part, its molecular weight, etc. The emulsifying, foaming, solubilizing, biological properties can be valued in cosmetics (as excipients or actives, in the areas of veterinary additives, of detergents, in the food industry, etc.

  3. Relations entre acides gras oméga-3, oméga-9, structures et fonctions du cerveau. Le point sur les dernières données. Le coût financier alimentaire des oméga-3 « Je chercherai à connaître les différences qui existent entre les huiles de faine, de colza, d’olive, de noix ». Honoré de Balzac. « Histoire de César Birotteau ».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour ce qui concerne le cerveau, les acides gras ω3 ont été plus spécialement étudiés que les acides gras ω6 ou ω9. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique (18 :3 ω3 altère la structure et la fonction des membranes, et entraîne de légers dysfonctionnements cérébraux, comme cela a été montré sur les modèles animaux puis chez les nourrissons humains. Les résultats récents ont montré que son déficit alimentaire induit des anomalies plus marquées dans certaines structures cérébrales que dans d’autres, le cortex frontal et l’hypophyse étant les plus touchés. Ces singularités sont accompagnées de perturbations comportementales qui touchent plus particulièrement certains tests (habituation, adaptation à une situation nouvelle. Les anomalies biochimiques et comportementales sont partiellement réversées par une supplémentation avec des phospholipides, notamment extraits d’oeuf enrichis en ω3 ou de cervelle de porc. Une étude effet-dose montre que les phospholipides d’origine animale sont plus efficaces que ceux d’origine végétale pour réverser les conséquences du déficit, dans la mesure, entre autres, où ils apportent les très longues chaînes pré-formées. La déficience en acide alpha-linolénique se traduit au niveau du cortex frontal de rat par des perturbations de la neurotransmission mono-aminergique. Mais ne sont touchées ni la densité ni la fonction des transporteurs de la dopamine. Chez l’animal carencé, la réversibilité dans la neurotransmission dopaminergique (dans le cortex préfrontal, entre autres n’est que partielle après arrêt du déficit alimentaire. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique diminue la perception du plaisir, en altérant légèrement l’efficacité des organes sensoriels et en affectant certaines structures cérébrales. Cette carence modifie le métabolisme énergétique du cerveau en perturbant le transport du glucose. Au cours du vieillissement, la baisse

  4. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-01-01

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  5. Adding local flavor to world class imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbhen, Carl L

    2007-01-01

    Chicago, the host city for the annual meeting of the RSNA (Radiological Society of North America), is the quintessential place to obtain certain foods, among them deep dish pizza, the Italian beef sandwich, and the Chicago-style hot dog. Given some appropriate nutritional concerns about these items, it is important to realize that healthier alternatives are grown, produced, and sold regionally. Chicago has also for years been known as one of America's great restaurant towns. However, the French delicacy foie gras cannot be found on the menu of any of its five-star establishments, as the sale of this dish became illegal in 2006. Diagnostic imaging offers a unique perspective on the local Chicago cuisine. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  6. Development of the Gender Role Attitudes Scale (GRAS amongst young Spanish people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo García-Cueto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los roles de género dependen de las actitudes y creencias acerca de los mismos, lo que al mismo tiempo facilita la formación de estereotipos que favorecerán la violencia en las relaciones interpersonales de pareja. Los instrumentos de evaluación utilizados tienden a representar la actitud sexista hacia las mujeres sin tener presente que los hombres pueden ser también receptores del mismo comportamiento por parte de su pareja. El objetivo del estudio es crear una escala mejorada para la evaluación de las actitudes de rol de género, tomando como base la perspectiva teórica de la igualdad de género. La muestra está formada por 2,136 jóvenes españoles de ambos sexos, estudiantes de Formación Profesional (FP y Universitarios, cuyas edades están en el rango de 15 a 26 años. Los resultados muestran la existencia de un único factor bipolar -actitudes trascendentes vs. actitudes sexistas- cumpliendo los índices de ajuste psicométricos, y ofreciendo las bases de la modificación de las actitudes en función de la dificultad de los ítems para dicho cambio. Las implicaciones para la intervención se orientan en base a la perspectiva de la prevención y el cambio de actitudes sexistas de género.

  7. Raffinage des huiles et des corps gras et élimination des contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Refining is a powerful technology to guarantee a high food grade quality of the refined oils and fats. This overview of many of the safety challenges related to different contaminant residues, the refining processes have to and actually do respond to, focuses for each contaminant (pesticides, polycyclic hydrocarbons, other compounds as extraction solvent, metallic element traces, aflatoxins, dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls, and new appearing contaminants like phthalates and 3-monochloropropanediol esters on their nature, origin, occurrence and regulatory status before describing the required conditions of their elimination by chemical and “physical” refining with the mention of the most efficient refining step as known from the GMP or identified from original experimental works. Identifying the physicochemical characteristics (hydro-solubility, lipophilic property, molecular weight and vapour pressure indicative of a potential contaminant behaviour during refining is an interesting preliminary orientation tool. The quality target for refined oils and fats include on one hand the control and optimisation of organoleptic and nutritional characteristics as well as stability during further storage, and on the other hand, the elimination of contaminants avoiding or controlling the formation of new undesirable compounds. For each contaminant to be eliminated, the technological issues have to be found at the crossroads of these demands.

  8. titre : arial, 14 points, gras, majuscules, centré, interligne simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francine

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... conditions: helium was used as carrier gas with a linear velocity of. 35 cm/s; 1 µL samples ..... The impurities may cause engine failures due to ... oxidation stability induction period is determined when a sudden increase in ...

  9. Acides gras oméga-3 et déclin cognitif : la controverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barberger-Gateau Pascale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic research suggests a protective effect of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids – eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA – against brain aging. In humans, many epidemiological studies have found an inverse association between fish consumption or high blood levels of EPA and DHA, and cognitive decline or risk of dementia. However, most randomized controlled trials with EPA and/or DHA supplements have failed to show any impact on cognitive decline. This paper analyses several reasons for such inconsistent results, including the time and duration of the supplementation, the cognitive and dietary inclusion criteria, the optimal doses of EPA and DHA, the interaction with genetic polymorphisms, and the need to consider synergistic effects between nutrients as they are provided by healthy diets.

  10. GRAS: A Group Reliant Authentication Scheme for V2V Communication in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auxeeliya Jesudoss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fixed or wired networks, mobile ad-hoc networks pose a number of challenges for peer-to-peer communication due to their dynamic nature. This paper presents a novel framework for vehicleto- vehicle communication controlled and facilitated by a group leader within a group of vehicles. A communication model for a pure ad-hoc network is developed with much concern about the privacy and security of the system, for the ease of effective communication between vehicles with a reduced communication and computational overhead when no fixed infrastructure is present in the roadsides. In the proposed protocol, vehicles within a radio frequency form a group. They elect their leader based on some criteria who is then responsible for generating a group public and private key pair. Each vehicle is equipped with a tamper resistant OBU which is capable of generating public/private keys pairs and also self-certifies the generated keys based on one way hash chaining technique. Any vehicle joins the group communicates the group leader, authenticates itself to obtain the group key. Later, the vehicle uses the group key to send traffic related messages to the group leader who is responsible for batch verifying the authenticity of the message from different sources and one hop broadcast them to reduce the computation overhead on message verification in each vehicle. In addition, our scheme adopts the k-anonymity approach to protect user identity privacy, where an attacker cannot associate a message with the sending vehicle. Extensive analysis and simulations show that the proposed architecture provides an efficient and fully self organized system management for car-to-car communication without the need of any external infrastructure.

  11. ETUDE EXPLORATOIRE DES ACIDES GRAS POLYINSATURÉS DES AIGUILLES DE PIN

    OpenAIRE

    KADARI, Abdelhamid

    2012-01-01

    Depuis les temps les plus anciens, l’utilisation des plantes dans le domaine de la santé est toujours d’actualité (1), dans la mesure où elle représente une alternative sérieuse ou tout au moins un complément appréciable à la pharmacie classique issue de la chimie moderne. En effet, plus de 25 % des médicaments prescrits dans le monde entier dérivent directement ou indirectement des plantes (2). Cependant, en tant que sources de médicaments, les plantes restent encore sous plusieurs études, s...

  12. Verkennende studie : inpassing van gras uit natuurbeheer in rantsoenen van melkvee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braker, M.J.E.; Duinkerken, van G.; Durksz, D.L.; Mheen, van der H.J.C.J.; Plomp, M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bannink, A.; Valk, H.

    2005-01-01

    The area of grasslands used for nature conservation is increasing substantially in the Netherlands. To maintain these grasslands, harvesting and removal of the grass is an important aspect. Utilization of this type of grass in the ration of lactating dairy cows has been subject of a pilot study.

  13. Bodemkwaliteit en ziektewering in de veehouderij: gras en maïs : inventarisatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, S.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the questions: What is soil quality and soil health according to different perspectives? For what has the soil quality or is the soil healthy; for production, environment, living soil itself? Which management affects soil quality and health? How to investigate soil health for

  14. Conduite à tenir à propos d'une série de 15 abcès du foie au CHU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and methods: Descriptive study, retrospective of 15 files of hepatic abscesses seen in the teaching hospital Campus of Lome of 1er January, 1999 has in December 31st, 2010. Results: Cosmopolitan affection the hospitable frequency of which is 1.63 and in the privilege of the young adults (46.66%) and low ...

  15. Effet-dose de l’acide oléique alimentaire. Cet acide est-il conditionnellement essentiel ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans un travail précédent [1] nous avons montré que, globalement, au terme de la période de gestation-lactation chez des rats de 21 jours, la carence alimentaire en acide oléique entraîne une diminution de la concentration en 18:1(n-9; la synthèse endogène ne compense donc pas l’absence d’acide oléique dans les aliments. Afin de déterminer exactement l’effet de la présence et de la concentration de l’acide oléique dans l’alimentation sur la composition en acides gras de divers organes, les huiles végétales commerciales n’étant pas utilisables (car contenant toujours de l’acide oléique, des triglycérides ont été synthétisés par voie chimique et enzymologique; ils ont été formés soit d’acide oléique, soit d’acide alpha-linolénique, soit d’acide linoléique. La détermination de l’effet-dose a été réalisée avec un protocole expérimental portant sur 7 groupes de rats ayant reçu chacun des aliments de composition identique (en particulier au niveau des acides gras indispensables : les acides linoléique et alpha-linolénique mais dont la teneur, variable, en acide oléique était située entre 0 et 6 000 mg pour 100 g d’aliments. Les rates ont été nourries avec les régimes à partir de 2 semaines avant l’accouplement, leurs portées ont été sacrifiées soit à 21, soit à 60 jours. Quand la teneur de l’acide oléique augmente dans les aliments, les principales modifications observées chez les animaux de 21 jours sont les suivantes.– Concernant le 18:1(n-9 : dans le foie, le muscle, le coeur, les reins et les testicules, sa concentration constante (le plateau de la courbe est atteinte aux environs de 4 g d’acide oléique pour 100 g d’alimentation. En deçà de cette dose, la réponse est croissante. Dans le cerveau, la myéline et les terminaisons nerveuses (mais non le nerf sciatique, la teneur en acide oléique reste optimale et constante.– La concentration du 16:1(n-7 diminue

  16. Influence des acides gras polyinsaturés n-3 et des antioxydants alimentaires sur les acides gras de la viande et la lipoperoxydation chez le bovin en finition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauchart Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze, on beef lipids and FA and on beef colour, the impact of extruded linseed (rich in n-3 PUFA given alone or with rapeseed (rich in n-3 and n-6 PUFA and in 18:1 n-9 in association or not with antioxidants given to Normand (fat breed cull cows during the finishing period. Dietary linseeds significantly increased proportions of 18:3 n-3 (+56 and +36 % respectively, total trans 18:1 (+66 and +105 %; and of 9cis, 11trans 18:2 (CLA (+50 and +41 % in LT muscle of which 18:3 n-3 and CLA are known to be beneficial for the human health. Addition of antioxidants (vitamin E plus plant extracts rich in polyphenols, PERP reinforced the stimulating effect of lipid supplements on proportions of the three considered FA (18:3 n-3, total trans 18:1, 9cis, 11trans 18:2 in total lipids of both muscles. Dietary n-3 PUFA reduced the resistance capacity of plasma against lipoperoxidation (–11 % favouring peroxidized products formations such as conjugated dienes (×1.75 and malonedialdehyde (MDA, ×2. Intensity of beef lipoperoxidation (estimated by MDA level tended to be higher in meats packaged under modified atmosphere rich in oxygen (70 % in the linseed group (2.96 μg/g of tissue compared to that of the control group (2.19 μg/g of tissue, P = 0.1. Dietary vitamin E provided with PERP effectively protected beef against lipoperoxidation, even in beef packagings with O2. Beef under air packaging from cows given the linseed supplement had a higher redness value than that from control cows. In the case of animals given lipid supplemented diets and submitted to an emotional stress, beef packaged under air or modified atmosphere rich in O2 had a lower redness than that of the same animals given lipids associated to antioxidant supplements. We concluded that the dietary strategy combining addition of n-3 PUFA and of the antioxidant mixture in diets would avoid major risks of lipoperoxidation and alteration of colour in beef products whatever: 1 the conditions of meat ageing and packaging (especially those with contact with oxygen; 2 the degree of emotional stress of animals just prior slaughter.

  17. Les acides gras hydroxylés : agro-tensioactifs aux propriétés moussantes originales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fameau Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants, which are molecules bearing a hydrophobic part and a hydrophilic part, are widely used in many daily life products (detergent, cosmetic, pharmaceutical... because of their foaming properties. Indeed, they spontaneously go to the interface between air and water, which stabilizes the thin water films surrounding air bubbles to obtain foams. Currently, since the most used surfactants come from derivatives from petroleum-based products, their replacement by biomolecules is a major issue in the current context of sustainable development and green chemistry. This could promote the use of molecules from agricultural resources, such as hydroxyl fatty acids that can be extracted from oil or from the tegument of fruits and vegetables, as new agro-based surfactants. Here, we present recent research on the surfactant properties of the 12-hydroxy stearic acid coming from the castor oil. This fatty acid has very advantageous foaming properties compared to conventional synthetic surfactant systems: it enables the production of foams which are at the same time very abundant and, remarkably, stables over a span lasting more than 6 months. Moreover, these foams are thermoresponsive because the foam stability can be easily modulated by a simple modification of the temperature.

  18. Substâncias GRAS no controle do crescimento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Fusarium guttiforme in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskálath Morganna Silva Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Fusarium guttiforme são fungos fitopatogênicos causadores de diversas doenças pós-colheita em frutos. As substâncias “GRAS”- (Generally d Regarded As Safe, são uma alternativa no controle de micro-organismos na fase pós-colheita, devido seus efeitos fungistáticos e fungicidas comprovados. O presente estudo observou os efeitos de cinco substâncias “GRAS” no controle de crescimento dos fungos fitopatogênicos C. gloeosporioides e F. guttiforme in vitro. Meios de cultura (BDA foram suplementados com 1%, 3% e 5% de bicarbonato de sódio, carbonato de sódio, carbonato de cálcio, cloreto de cálcio e 0,1%, 0,5% 1% de cloreto de potássio. Foram inoculados 10µl de solução de esporo na concentração de 5x103 esporo/ml. Das cinco substâncias utilizadas nos testes, bicarbonato de sódio e carbonato de sódio inibiram 100% o crescimento do fungo C. gloeosporioides, as demais não foram limitantes para o desenvolvimento do fungo quando comparado ao controle. Carbonato de sódio inibiu em 100% o crescimento de F. guttiforme em todas as concentrações. Foram positivos também, bicarbonato de sódio nas concentrações de 3% e 5%. O tratamento utilizando 5% de cloreto de cálcio reduziu em 51% o crescimento deste fitopatógeno. As outras substâncias não reduziram ou inibiram o crescimento micelial do fitopatógeno quando comparado com o controle. Das cinco substâncias “GRAS” testadas neste trabalho, carbonato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio, foram eficazes em inibir o crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides. Carbonato de sódio, bicarbonato de sódio e cloreto de cálcio se mostraram capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial F. guttiforme.

  19. Impact de la cristallisation des corps gras sur les propriétés des produits finis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansell Maud

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In various food products, the fat phase which is almost essentially composed of triacylglycerols is found in a crystallized form at temperature of use or of storage. The fat physical characteristics influence the rheological properties and the stability of the products. In food, the fat phase is frequently found in a dispersed form either as oil in water emulsions (ice cream, whipped topping or as water in oil emulsion (butter, margarine. The mechanism of fat crystallisation is different in the bulk phase and in emulsified systems so that the fat behaviour in emulsion can not simply be deduced from that in the bulk phase. In particular, crystallization in emulsion depends on various parameters such as the fat globule size and the presence of surfactants (proteins and low molecular weight emulsifiers. Moreover, fat crystals play a major role in the emulsion stability, i.e., by stabilizing water in oil emulsions and destabilizing oil in water emulsions. Conversely, crystals are implied in the formation of a fat network of partially coalesced droplets that participates to the foam stabilization in aerated food products based on oil in water emulsions.

  20. Huiles et corps gras végétaux : ressources fonctionnelles et intérêt nutritionnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morin Odile

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of oleaginous resources potentially provides to industrial users a wide range of fats and oils, and so, a large range of properties. But less than 10 vegetable fats and oils – such as palm and its fractions, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, cotton, peanut and olive oils – represent more than 90 % of the world production. So, these few vegetable fats and oils will have to respond simultaneously to numerous expectations, depending on the user, such as providing optimized nutrients and offering the texture looked forward or resisting to an established cooking temperature. Innovation (use of new variety with modified compositions, existing “niche” oil or completely new resource could be an option to solve a specific issue, even if economical or regulatory constraints may not favor such alternatives. After summarizing vegetable fats and oils composition and the properties of fatty acids, this paper presents not only optimized processes allowing extraction of compounds of interest, but also processes for the conversion and enlargement of oils and fats functionalities in order to answer to the different and specific expectations of industrial users and consumers.

  1. Synergie et acides gras – XXIe siècle : une ère nouvelle pour les lipides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The various disciplins of Science reveal a complex, consistent, and flexible world of lipids, which moreover allows for most of the biological world resilience. Marketing of Science, Commercial and Political marketing, have wanted to simplify this complex world at the most, reaching the limits of binary reduction of black and white, of Opposition and Exclusion. The Communication Mediatory Mask has ceased fulfilling its social function of interpreter, transmitter of truth. It became reducer, letting appearance to be confused with reality, disinformer by fact. Thus, the way to cognitive dissociation and repeated inconsistencies, was fully mapped out. Children of the century, researchers became heavily contaminated, and scientists were accused of inconsistancy. In the food and agri-business field, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, the sanction has been, is or will be severe (animal flours and new variants of prion disease, coxiBs or anti-Cox2. The real scientific discourse is actually very consistant, provided no acquisition, no question, neither from past nor for present time, is ignored, provided one’s accepts its complexity. Several ignored questions or problems about to be solved or renewed, are raised :- Tendency to take a part for the whole, the concept of flux speed, of endogenous synthesis speed, concept of the influence of a different man made environment – Excess of exogenous or endogenous oleic acid, danger of cholesterol oleate, but requirement for a little amount of endogenous oleic acid - Phytosterols and 25-OH vitamin D- Requirement for a saturated fatty acids minimal amount. -Confusion between Vaccenic acid :-C18 :1n-7trans, natural parent of Rumenic acid, and Elaidic acid (C18 :1n-9trans product of industrial hydrogenation. Furthermore new and old data on the confusion between alphalinolenic acid (in general and alpha-linolenic in sn-2 position, the only one to be indispensable, are emerging together with the consequences of this confusion. It is logical to acknowledge Rapeseed oil as the best source of alpha-linolenic acid in sn-2 position bioavailable. It is more than questionnable for Soybean oil. The knowledge explosion last quarter of the 20 th century has made the Opposition- Eclusion of the P/S ratio completely obsolete. The 21 st century is opening up with three themes which are as completely different as consistent this time, Competition, Balance, Synergy. Competition can take place between five unsaturated fatty acids families : Palmitoleic, Oleic, Vaccenic n-7trans, Linoleic, Alpha-Linolenic, using common enzymatic systems of selective esterification, elongation, desaturation, deacylation-reacylation, and for the upper derivatives of LA and ALA using numerous oxygenases. Competition can also take place intra-family, e.g. The homeostatic Thromboxane (n-6 family and Prostacycline (n-6 family balance in the cardiovascular field, which thus makes the exclusive interest for the phospholipids LC n-6, n-3 (resident drugs somewhat insufficient. Moreover when LCn-3 inhibit COX2 which syntethise Prostacycline, Lauric acid is an inducter. The concept of Balance is fundamental, the low fat /high carbohydrate diet following, the advice of the P/S « vulgate » transforming 36 %of the protective A phenotype into the dangerous B phenotype (small LDLs, doubling the vascular risk. Thus the principle of precaution creates an artificial risk in 36 % of the population to improve 10 % of the same population! The concept of Synergy is the third theme of the 21 st century. It became indispensable with the discovery of cotranscriptionnally myristoylated proteins or peptides which play a major rôle at the phospholipidic membranes. In vitro myristic acid increases delta-6 desaturase activity, a key step in unsaturated fatty acid métabolism. In vivo in human, the presence in the diet of myristic acid in sn-2 position, and alpha-linolenic in sn-2 position, at a precise range, is correlated with a rise of DHA in cholesterol esters and in phospholipids. Similarly LCAT activity is synergistically increased in humans by 153 % by the same combination of alpha-linolenic and myristic acid both at the sn-2 position. Opposition-exclusion are the marks of the 20 th century. Competition, balance, synergy are the bases of a new era for lipids in the 21 st century.

  2. Dénutrition cancéreuse et inflammation : effet des acides gras polyinsaturés n-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Undernutrition is frequently seen in cancer and is considered as a bad prognostic factor. The mechanisms involved in this complex syndrome are not fully understood. Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the occurrence and/or development of cancer-associated undernutrition. Although it is essential to counteract cancer-associated undernutrition, modalities for nutritional treatment are still discussed. It has been shown that nutritional supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid could be beneficial in patients.

  3. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS domain regulators, one of which is functionally conserved in a non-legume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    and then increased following infection by M. loti. In hairy root transformations, LjNSP1 and MtNSP1 complemented both Mtnsp1-1 and Ljnsp1-1 mutants, demonstrating that these orthologous proteins have a conserved biochemical function. A Nicotiana benthamiana NSP1-like gene (NbNSP1) was shown to restore nodule...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food(s), the technical effect(s... within such limitation(s), including the category of food(s), the functional use(s) of the ingredient... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as...

  5. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient, one or more of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food-contact...(s), it shall be used in food-contact surfaces only within such limitation(s), including the category... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed...

  6. Bioenergy, protein and fibres from grass - biogas process monitoring; Bioenergie, Protein und Fasern aus Gras - Monitoring des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, U.; Delavy, P.

    2003-07-01

    Starting in Summer 2001 the first full scale Swiss Bio-refinery for grass processing took up operation in Schaffhausen. Grass processing covers the production of technical fibres and protein concentrate as well as anaerobic digestion of residual slops for the production of biogas and 'green' electricity. The refinery is operated by the company Bioenergie Schaffhausen as a P+D (pilot + demonstration) project of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. Under full load it will deliver 2,000 MWh of 'green' electricity (10% own needs) and 3,000 MWh heat (50% own needs). Prior to start up the Swiss technology holder 2B Biorefineries AG mandated the University of Applied Sciences HSW with lab scale testing of the mesophilic biogas potential and anaerobic degradability of residual grass processing slops. Nutrient limitations and possible inhibition risks were evaluated. During the initial 8 months of full scale operation of the refinery in Schaffhausen an intensive monitoring of the anaerobic digester's performance was carried out. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances have been set up and the development of the granular EGSB sludge was characterised. From operational data a set of performance values was elaborated. The first year of operation was characterised by only partial exploitation of the refinery's grass processing capacity. Furthermore the protein separation and production unit has not yet been incorporated. Consequently, the EGSB biogas reactor showed a significant hydraulic underload when compared to dimensioning basics. Raw residuals were characterised by a higher particulate protein fraction. Operational conditions for the EGSB reactor were worked out to allow stable operation at elevated load conditions and with protein separation in operation. (author)

  7. Bioenergy, protein and fibres from grass - biogas process monitoring; Bioenergie, Protein und Fasern aus Gras - Monitoring des Biogasprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, U; Delavy, P

    2003-07-01

    Starting in Summer 2001 the first full scale Swiss Bio-refinery for grass processing took up operation in Schaffhausen. Grass processing covers the production of technical fibres and protein concentrate as well as anaerobic digestion of residual slops for the production of biogas and 'green' electricity. The refinery is operated by the company Bioenergie Schaffhausen as a P+D (pilot + demonstration) project of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. Under full load it will deliver 2,000 MWh of 'green' electricity (10% own needs) and 3,000 MWh heat (50% own needs). Prior to start up the Swiss technology holder 2B Biorefineries AG mandated the University of Applied Sciences HSW with lab scale testing of the mesophilic biogas potential and anaerobic degradability of residual grass processing slops. Nutrient limitations and possible inhibition risks were evaluated. During the initial 8 months of full scale operation of the refinery in Schaffhausen an intensive monitoring of the anaerobic digester's performance was carried out. Carbon and nitrogen mass balances have been set up and the development of the granular EGSB sludge was characterised. From operational data a set of performance values was elaborated. The first year of operation was characterised by only partial exploitation of the refinery's grass processing capacity. Furthermore the protein separation and production unit has not yet been incorporated. Consequently, the EGSB biogas reactor showed a significant hydraulic underload when compared to dimensioning basics. Raw residuals were characterised by a higher particulate protein fraction. Operational conditions for the EGSB reactor were worked out to allow stable operation at elevated load conditions and with protein separation in operation. (author)

  8. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  9. Interfon

    CERN Document Server

    Interfon

    2013-01-01

    www.interfon.fr   Rendez-vous sur notre site pour toutes les « News » Interfon « News »   Préparez dès aujourd'hui vos fêtes de Noël Les fêtes de fin d’année approchent à grand pas, pensez à vos cadeaux. Bons de commande sur demande ou téléchargeables sur notre site internet (onglet « News ») Clôture des commandes (par mail ou courrier) avant le dimanche 10 novembre 2013 5 % de remise aux sociétaires Interfon (À déduire de votre montant TTC. Règlement à la livraison début décembre) Dégustez ou offrez les coffrets cadeaux (assortiment varié) ou du foie gras, confits, magrets, etc. Eleveur de canards depuis 1945 Production directe du Gers (à la ferme). Le...

  10. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  11. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment in food industry: Theory and practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Boué, Géraldine

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this article is to bring scientific background as well as practical hints and tips to guide risk assessors and modelers who want to develop a quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) in an industrial context. MRA aims at determining the public health risk associated with biological hazards in a food. Its implementation in industry enables to compare the efficiency of different risk reduction measures, and more precisely different operational settings, by predicting their effect on the final model output. The first stage in MRA is to clearly define the purpose and scope with stakeholders, risk assessors and modelers. Then, a probabilistic model is developed; this includes schematically three important phases. Firstly, the model structure has to be defined, i.e. the connections between different operational processing steps. An important step in food industry is the thermal processing leading to microbial inactivation. Growth of heat-treated surviving microorganisms and/or post-process contamination during storage phase is also important to take into account. Secondly, mathematical equations are determined to estimate the change of microbial load after each processing step. This phase includes the construction of model inputs by collecting data or eliciting experts. Finally, the model outputs are obtained by simulation procedures, they have to be interpreted and communicated to targeted stakeholders. In this latter phase, tools such as what-if scenarios provide an essential added value. These different MRA phases are illustrated through two examples covering important issues in industry. The first one covers process optimization in a food safety context, the second one covers shelf-life determination in a food quality context. Although both contexts required the same methodology, they do not have the same endpoint: up to the human health in the foie gras case-study illustrating here a safety application, up to the food portion in the

  12. Modeling the relationships between quality and biochemical composition of fatty liver in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, L; Cullere, M; Bouillier-Oudot, M; Manse, H; Dalle Zotte, A; Molette, C; Fernandez, X; Vitezica, Z G

    2012-09-01

    The fatty liver of mule ducks (i.e., French "foie gras") is the most valuable product in duck production systems. Its quality is measured by the technological yield, which is the opposite of the fat loss during cooking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether biochemical measures of fatty liver could be used to accurately predict the technological yield (TY). Ninety-one male mule ducks were bred, overfed, and slaughtered under commercial conditions. Fatty liver weight (FLW) and biochemical variables, such as DM, lipid (LIP), and protein content (PROT), were collected. To evaluate evidence for nonlinear fat loss during cooking, we compared regression models describing linear and nonlinear relations between biochemical measures and TY. We detected significantly greater (P = 0.02) linear relation between DM and TY. Our results indicate that LIP and PROT follow a different pattern (linear) than DM and showed that LIP and PROT are nonexclusive contributing factors to TY. Other components, such as carbohydrates, other than those measured in this study, could contribute to DM. Stepwise regression for TY was performed. The traditional model with FLW was tested. The results showed that the weight of the liver is of limited value in the determination of fat loss during cooking (R(2) = 0.14). The most accurate TY prediction equation included DM (in linear and quadratic terms), FLW, and PROT (R(2) = 0.43). Biochemical measures in the fatty liver were more accurate predictors of TY than FLW. The model is useful in commercial conditions because DM, PROT, and FLW are noninvasive measures.

  13. Risques et bénéfices pour la santé des acides gras trans apportés par les aliments. Recommandations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léger Claude-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Food Safety Agency (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, AFSSA has recently adopted a definite position on risks and benefits of food trans fatty acids (TFA for human health. After considering available data on origins and biological activities of all types of TFA, including conjugated fatty acids (CLA, it has been proposed a regulatory definition of these fatty acids which is the chemical one : « the trans fatty acids are all unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one double bond in a trans configuration ». This definition includes the CLA and TFA of animal origin. Daily intakes of TFA (except CLA in France was found to be 3 g/d in adults, i.e. 1.3 % total energy intake (E %. The male children are the most exposed to high TFA intakes which culminate at 2.5 E % for the 95 th percentile of the 12-14 year-old male children. Consumption of usual foods (not including the consumption of synthetic CLA supplements leads to a rumenic acid daily intake inferior to 200 mg/d (0.08 E %. The contribution of TFA of animal origin is 60 % in adult (55 % for milk and dairy products and 55 % (44 % for male children, showing a higher consumption of TFA of technological origin in the form of bakery products in children than in adults. According to epidemiological data, TFA intakes (except CLA of 2 E % are associated to a 25 % increased risk of the coronary heard disease. Clinical studies show that the CLA 10t,12c at the dose of 2.6 g/d should be considered potentially proatherogenic. The loss of body fat mass (the anti-obesity effect with the administration of CLA mixture 9c,11t + 10t,12c (or 10t,12c alone is obtained at a daily doses ranging from 1.6 to 6.8 g/d (2.6 g/d, but the loss is generally low even in the case of long term administration and adverse effects are observed in particular with 2.6 g/d CLA 10t,12c regarding insuline resistance, insulinemia, C-peptide, glycemia, HDL-C, enzymatic and non enzymatic peroxydations. The main AFSSA’s recommendations (non exhaustive list are as follows : people should decrease their consumption of bakery products by 30 %, TFA contents of bakery products should not exceed 1 g per 100 g of the commercialized product, TFA contents of every types of margarines bought by the consumer should be lower than 1% of total fatty acids. Because of the prevalence of calcium deficiency particularly in children, declining consumption of dairy products is not recommended, but consumption of (half-skimmed milk or products elaborated with (half-skimmed milk should be preferred. Considering the lack of information on the relationship between animal traditional feeding and TFA contents of animal products that people consume, no content upper-limit is proposed for animal (or more specifically dairy products. AFSSA points out that administration of the synthetic CLA supplement is not justified in humans and animals as well. Information on trans fatty acid in nutrition labeling should be mandatory for contents higher than 0.1 g/100 g in bakery and dairy products, and 0.1% for vegetable oils, margarines and butter. Given the very low levels of CLA in foods usually consumed, the CLA labeling is assumed to be purposeless.

  14. Acides gras inhabituels des organismes marins : une illustration de la biodiversité moléculaire marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Gilles

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the common polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA such as those of the n-3 and n-6 series with major interest in health and nutrition, marine organisms (invertebrates and algae produce unique FA including branched, methoxylated, halogenated, acetylenic and non-methylene-interrupted structures. The biosynthetic pathways, and the structural and functional roles of these uncommon FA are often not yet known. This short overview wishes to be an outline on the particular FA classes possessing uncommon structures, especially those of increasing interest regarding their promising biological activities.

  15. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS domain regulators, one of which is functionally conserved in a non-legume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    A new nodulation-defective mutant of Lotus japonicus does not initiate nodule cortical cell division in response to Mesorhizobium loti, but induces root hair deformation, Nod factor-induced calcium spiking, and mycorrhization. This phenotype, together with mapping data, suggested that the mutation...... could be in the ortholog of the Medicago truncatula NSP1 gene (MtNSP1). The sequence of the orthologous gene (LjNSP1) in the L. japonicus mutant (Ljnsp1-1) revealed a mutation causing a premature stop resulting in loss of the C-terminal 23 amino acids. We also sequenced the NSP2 gene from L. japonicus...

  16. Lotus japonicus nodulation requires two GRAS-domain regulators, NSP1 and NSP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, Anne Birgitte Lau; Lombardo, Fabien; Miwa, Hiroki

    A nodulation-defective mutant of Lotus japonicus does not initiate nodule cortical cell division in response to Mesorhizobium loti, but induces root hair deformation, Nod factor-induced calcium spiking, and mycorrhization. We have shown that this mutant has a premature stop in the NSP1 (Nodulation...... Signalling Pathway 1) gene (Ljnsp1-1) resulting in loss of the C-terminal 23 amino acids (aa) and we recently identified another mutant in NSP1 (Ljnsp1-2) with a truncated protein of 341 aa. Additionally, we have sequenced and isolated a mutant in LjNSP2 (Ljnsp2-3) that has a premature stop codon showing...

  17. Apports en DHA (acide gras oméga-3 par les poissons et les fruits de mer consommés en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work measures the contributions of seafood (finfish and shellfish, wild and farmed to the intakes of DHA in France, year 2005, and consequently to the French recommended daily intakes (RDA of DHA. For this purpose, we measured the concentrations of DHA in each individual seafood by analysis of many published data. We also determined the exact consumption of the main products of seafood (fishing and farming in France (year 2005 using the modified method of the dietary intake measurement defined by the FAO. For year 2005, the 34 species of finfish and shellfish whose DHA contents are known account for 150% of the RDA of this omega-3 fatty acid. Taking all the species individually and extrapolating to include those whose DHA contents are not known, gives 156% of the RDA. The 10 greatest contributors to the DHA intake in the present diet are: salmon (47.6 mg/day/person, sardine (28.4, tuna (20.5, mackerel (15.7, herring (12.4, Alaskan pollock (8.9, cod (6.9, trout (6.5, hake (4.7, saithe (4.6. The 5 species of oily fish (salmon, sardine, tuna, mackerel and herring provide 63% of the DHA intake, and thus approx 95% of the French RDA. Besides DHA, seafood contains low amounts of ALA, but it can very high in farmed fish fed on rapeseed or linseed products. Omega-3 fatty acids (including EPA and DHA have an important role in human diet, both for prevention and the therapy of different pathologies. Data from many epidemiological studies has shown an inverse association between fish consumption, generally oily fish, and reductions in certain diseases. Although number of people do not lack dietary DHA, others, mainly pregnant women and nursing mothers and those people whose life styles or socio-economic positions restrict their seafood intakes, would benefit greatly from an increased intake of this omega-3 fatty acid.

  18. Lutte contre les zoonoses helminthiques et élimination de ces ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les infections par des parasites du genre Schistosoma et la douve du foie peuvent entraîner des maladies graves, notamment l'anémie, un retard de croissance, la malnutrition, ainsi que le cancer du foie. Les parasites qui causent ces maladies ont des cycles de vie complexes. Ils se transmettent entre humains, animaux ...

  19. Oscillococcinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also questionable due to flaws in the study design and bias related to the company that ... Avian Liver Extract, Cairina moschata, Canard de Barbarie, Duck Liver Extract, Extrait de Foie de Canard, Muscovy ...

  20. Pan African Medical Journal - Vol 10 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kyste hydatique du foie rompu dans la paroi abdominale et dans le muscle psoas .... practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco .... A rare cause of proximal intestinal obstruction in adults - annular pancreas: A ...

  1. Sex impact on the quality of fatty liver and its genetic determinism in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Etancelin, C; Retailleau, B; Alinier, A; Vitezica, Z G

    2015-09-01

    Recent changes to French regulations now allow farmers to produce "foie gras" from both male and female mule ducks. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of female fatty liver and to compare, from a phenotypic and genetic point of view, liver quality in males and females. A total of 914 mule ducks (591 males and 323 females), hatched in a single pedigree batch, were reared until 86 d of age and then force-fed for 12 d, before being slaughtered. Carcasses and livers were weighed and liver quality was assessed by grading the extent of liver veining and measuring the liver melting rate, either after sterilization of 60 g of liver or pasteurization of 180 g of liver. Sexual dimorphism was observed in favor of males, with a difference of approximately 10% in carcass and liver weights and up to 54% for the liver melting rate. Moreover, one-third of female livers showed moderate to high veining, whereas this was not the case for male livers. The fatty livers of female mule ducks are, therefore, of poorer quality and could not be transformed into a product with the appellation "100% fatty liver." According to sex and parental line, heritability values ranged from 0.12 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.07 for fatty liver weight and from 0.09 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.05 for the 2 melting rate traits. The genetic correlations between the fatty liver weight and both melting rates were high (greater than +0.80) in the Muscovy population, whereas in the Pekin population, the liver weight and melting rates were less strongly correlated (estimates ranging from +0.36 ± 0.30 to +0.45 ± 0.28). Selection for lower liver melting rates without reducing the liver weight would, therefore, be easier to achieve in the Pekin population. Finally, as the 2 melting rate measurements are highly correlated (0.91 and over 0.95 for phenotypic and genetic correlations, respectively), we suggest using the easiest method, that is, sterilization of 60 g of liver.

  2. Résultats de recherche | Page 14 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le rôle de l'IL6 dans le cancer du foie lié à l'hépatopathie métabolique. Le cancer du foie est souvent mortel. Il n'existe que très peu ... Chaire de recherche trilatérale Canada – Afrique du Sud sur les changements climatiques et les interactions entre l'humain et la faune. La diminution de la nourriture disponible à la faune ...

  3. Scintigraphic survey of liver grafts in acute phase: influence of choledoco-choledocian anastomosis realized in 13 cases with and in 13 other cases without Kehr drain. Surveillance scintigraphique des greffes du foie a la phase aigue: incidence de l'anastomose choledoco-choledocienne realisee dans 13 cas avec et dans 13 autres cas Sans drain de Kehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunot, B.; Constantinesco, A.; Altieri, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1992-12-01

    This work shows that hepato-biliary scintigraphy is of great interest to keep track of patients just liver transplanted. This investigation is easy to realize without any constraint for the patient and provide data to detect principal complications of transplantation. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Increased Production of Food-Grade d-Tagatose from d-Galactose by Permeabilized and Immobilized Cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a GRAS Host, Expressing d-Galactose Isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Sim, Dong-Hyun; Seo, Min-Ju; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-11-02

    The generally recognized as safe microorganism Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing Geobacillus thermodenitrificans d-galactose isomerase (d-GaI) was an efficient host for the production of d-tagatose, a functional sweetener. The d-tagatose production at 500 g/L d-galactose by the host was 1.4-fold higher than that by Escherichia coli expressing d-GaI. The d-tagatose-producing activity of permeabilized C. glutamicum (PCG) cells treated with 1% (w/v) Triton X-100 was 2.1-fold higher than that of untreated cells. Permeabilized and immobilized C. glutamicum (PICG) cells in 3% (w/v) alginate showed a 3.1-fold longer half-life at 50 °C and 3.1-fold higher total d-tagatose concentration in repeated batch reactions than PCG cells. PICG cells, which produced 165 g/L d-tagatose after 3 h, with a conversion of 55% (w/w) and a productivity of 55 g/L/h, showed significantly higher d-tagatose productivity than that reported for other cells. Thus, d-tagatose production by PICG cells may be an economical process to produce food-grade d-tagatose.

  5. Comment protéger les acides gras polyinsaturés à longues chaînes oméga 3 (AGPI -- LC ω3 vis-à-vis de l’oxydation ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genot Claude

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Increase the consumption of long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC ω3 PUFA is highly recommended for their health benefits. However, these fatty acids are very prone to oxidation, which can impair sensory, nutritional and functional properties of foods. In this paper the various ways that increase LC ω3 PUFA stability during processing and storage of food products are reviewed. To efficiently protect LC ω3 PUFA during processing and storage of foods, a combined strategy, taking into account both the matrix and the process should be undertaken. First the quality of the raw materials should be rigorously controlled by, for example, increasing contents of in situ antioxidants and decreasing length of storage. Then, during processing and storage of LC ω3 PUFA concentrates and LC ω3 PUFA enriched foods all pro-oxidant factors, such as oxygen and temperature, has to be carefully managed. An other way is to encapsulate the oils and add antioxidant substances, but the influence of the structure of the matrix and its organisation on antioxidants partition and their activity and on the oxidability of the fatty material as function of its chemical structure should be also taken into account.

  6. Substances toxiques persistantes (PTS dans les corps gras : État des lieux d’après le rapport du programme des Nations-Unies pour l’environnement (PNUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbonne Jean François

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Depuis plus de trente ans, une attention croissante a été portée sur les risques pour la santé humaine posés par la contamination de l’environnement par les substances toxiques persistantes (PTS. Ces composés persistent pendant de longues périodes dans les compartiments abiotiques et biotiques, sont transportés sur de longues distances depuis leurs points sources et s’accumulent chez l’homme et les organismes via les chaînes alimentaires. En 1997, le PNUE propose une liste initiale de 12 substances appelées polluants organiques persistants (POPs : aldrine, endrine, dieldrine, chordane, DDT, heptachlore, toxaphène, mirex, hexachlorobenzène, PCBs, dioxines (PCDDs, furanes (PCDFs. En 2001, de nouveaux composés sont ajoutés sur la liste des PTS en fonction de leurs caractéristiques comme la liposolubilité, leur résistance à la dégradation, leur forte toxicité ou la constance des apports : hexachlorohexane, PAHs, endosulfan, pentachlorophénol, formes organiques des métaux lourds : mercure, étain et plomb, phtalates, PBDEs\\\\PBBs, chlordécone, alkyl phénols, atrazine. Les sources de PTS sont diverses : (1 Utilisation de produits chimiques industriels comme les pesticides ou les emballages, (2 Réservoirs historiques déjà présents dans l’environnement essentiellement dans les sols et les sédiments ou sous forme de stocks périmés, (3 Sous-produits de process, en particulier comme contaminants indésirables de procédés industriels et de combustion. La France a été associée au rapport de la région IV méditerranéenne. Les niveaux dans les compartiments de l’environnement sont rapportés et l’exposition de l’homme via l’alimentation (vecteur essentiel est estimée en fonction des données collectées. Une évaluation des risques associés a été faite quand les données étaient suffisantes (PAHs, PCBs, PCDD\\\\F, Me Hg. Les lipides apparaissent comme vecteurs majeurs des PTS à travers la chaîne alimentaire. Toutefois, les données sur les niveaux de contamination et leur évolution dans le temps sont souvent absentes pour certains composés et\\\\ou certaines zones comme le Sud et le Sud-Est du bassin. Une évaluation scientifique des risques associant de façon cohérente la population, les activités, les émissions, les transports et les effets dans un réseau de coopération internationale est fortement souhaitable.

  7. Déterminants nutritionnels précoces du neurodéveloppement des enfants de l'étude EDEN : rôle des acides gras polyinsaturés

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard , Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Context: From conception to adulthood, many environmental determinants influence neurodevelopment. Studies showed that in late pregnancy and the first months of life, a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA), accretes in the brain. Optimal intake during these critical periods could support the brain development and its cognitive functions.Aims: To investigate the relationships between pre- and early postnatal exposures to PUFA, and neurodevelop...

  8. Onderzoek naar de luchtkwaliteit tijdens en na de brand op 8 juli 1992 bij Nevcin Polymers te Uithoorn. Onderzoek van gras, grond en neergedaalde verbrandingsresten afkomstig van percelen weiland te Amstelveen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann FJJ; Kliest JJG; Bloemen HJT; Knol-de Vos T; Michel FJ; van de Wiel HJ; Vaessen HAMG; de Boer JLM; Berkhoff CJ

    1992-01-01

    July 8th 1992 an explosion in a production vessel followed by a conflagration took place at a polymer-plant in Uithoorn, the Netherlands. This disaster resulted in an enormous havoc and an emission of combustion products and volatile compounds. Half burned materials were blown away and deposited

  9. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  10. detection des residus d'antibiotiques dans les denrees alimentaires

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans le but d'investiguer sur la présence des résidus d'antibiotiques dans les denrées alimentaires d'origine animale, une étude a été réalisée sur les résidus d'antibiotiques dans le muscle et le foie des bovins ainsi que dans le gésier et le foie des poulets dans différents points d'abattage et de commerce de Lubumbashi ...

  11. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    autres causes d'hémorragies ont été décrites. Il s'agit de: une blessure ou un embrochage du foie par un écarteur ou un instrument; une plaie vasculaire; un mauvais contrôle de l'artère cystique ou un mauvais décollement de la ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H Elbahraoui, H Bouziane, J Akrouch, D Ferhati. Vol 23, No 1 (2016), Rupture post traumatique d'un kyste hydatique du foie dans le peritoine, Abstract PDF. Hedfi Mohamed, Charfi Mehdi. Vol 21, No 1 (2015), Rupture post traumatique de la membrane de Bruch: à propos d'un cas, Abstract PDF. S. Ahbeddou, J Ahmimeche ...

  13. Voir tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    causant les tumeurs) qui vise à interrompre l'expansion des cellules ayant un potentiel de malignité. Région(s): Canada, Israel, Brazil. Financement total : CA$ 669,800.00. Le rôle de l'IL6 dans le cancer du foie lié à l'hépatopathie métabolique.

  14. original articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the highly vascular nature of the tumours (Fig, 2, c), but did not stain sinusoids .... patients with chronic liver disease_ N Engl JMed 1993; 328, 797-801. 9. Shiina 5, Yasua ... Couinaud C. u Foie: Etudes Anatomiques

  15. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    30 janv. 2017 ... dominés respectivement par le cancer du sein dans 27,6% des cas, les cancers digestifs dans 15,8% .... vessie, de l'utérus (corps ou col) et du sein qui métastasent au foie .... Distant metastases from head and neck cancer.

  16. Towards a Microbial Production of Fatty Acids as Precursors of Biokerosene from Glucose and Xylose Vers une production microbienne d’acides gras en vue de l’application biokérosène à partir de glucose et xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babau M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aviation industry considers the development of sustainable biofuels as one of the biggest challenges of the next ten years. The aim is to lower the environmental impact of the steadily increasing use of fossil fuels on climate change, yielding greater energy independence and fuel security. Thus, the development of a new route for the production of lipids from renewable non-food resources is now being promoted with the recent ASTM certification of hydrotreated oils. Our study focuses on the potential of growth of the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis using glucose and xylose which can come from renewable lignocellulosic substrates and of lipid accumulation using glucose as substrate. Experiments were carried out in fed-batch mode which allowed feed flux management. Carbon fluxes were controlled with modifying xylose/glucose ratios to quantify metabolism in optimal growth condition. Besides, the management of carbon and nitrogen fluxes allowed characterizing lipid accumulation. Thus, it has been shown that the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis can simultaneously consume glucose and xylose. When the ratio xylose/glucose increased, the growth rate and the carbon conversion yield into biomass decreased: it was of 0.36 h-1 and 0.64 Cmol x*.Cmol glu-1 for pure glucose, it was of 0.15 h-1 and 0.56 Cmol.Cmol-1 for 10% xylose and it was of 0.037 h-1 and 0.18 Cmol.Cmol-1 for pure xylose. The necessity to maintain residual growth and to manage carbon fluxes to optimize lipid accumulation performance was revealed. Lipid accumulation on glucose engendered a final biomass concentration of 150 gCDW.L-1, microbial production (72% of lipids and maximal productivity over 1.48 glip.L-1.h-1. The culture temperature is an important parameter to modulate the lipid profile. The results were encouraging. Lipid accumulation using lignocellulosic feedstock was shown to be a highly promising route. Le développement de filières de production de molécules énergétiques en substitution au kérosène constitue un défi majeur pour l’industrie aéronautique afin de minimiser l’impact environnemental de son activité et de répondre à ses besoins en énergie, dont la demande est croissante. Le développement d’une nouvelle voie de production de lipides à partir de ressources renouvelables non alimentaires ouvre des perspectives prometteuses avec la certification ASTM des huiles hydrotraitées. Les travaux expérimentaux consistent en l’étude, d’une part, des potentialités de croissance de la levure oléagineuse Rhodotorula glutinis à partir de glucose et/ou xylose, substrats osidiques issus des ressources lignocellulosiques, et d’autre part, des potentialités d’accumulation de lipides à partir de glucose. Des cultures en mode fed-batch ont permis le contrôle des flux d’alimentation : en carbone, en condition de croissance, selon un ratio xylose/glucose variable pour la quantification du métabolisme, et en azote, en condition de production de lipides. Il a été montré que la levure Rhodotorula glutinis est capable de consommer simultanément le glucose et le xylose. Le taux de croissance et le rendement de conversion du carbone en biomasse diminuent en fonction de la composition du mélange xylose/glucose : à savoir 0,36 h-1 et 0,43 Cmol. x*.Cmol glu-1 sur glucose pur, 0,15 h-1 et 0,56 Cmol.Cmol-1 sur 10 % de xylose, 0,037 h-1 et 0,18 Cmol.Cmol-1 sur xylose pur. Par ailleurs, lors d’expérimentation en condition. d’accumulation lipidique, il a été mis en évidence la nécessité de maintenir une croissance résiduelle par le contrôle des flux d’azote et de carbone. Lors de la phase de production de lipides sur glucose, il a été ainsi obtenu une concentration finale en biomasse de 150 gCDW.L-1 contenant 72 % de lipides en masse; la productivité volumétrique maximale atteint 1,5 glip.L-1.h-1, avec un rendement de conversion du glucose en lipides égal à 95 % du rendement théorique limite La température de culture se révèle un paramètre opératoire important pour la modulation du profil lipidique. Ces résultats sont originaux et ils ont permis l’obtention de très hautes performances, en culture intensive. Ils argumentent des potentialités de développement d’une stratégie de production de lipides par conversion de toutes les fractions osidiques des substrats lignocellulosiques pour des usages biokérosène après hydrotraitement.

  17. Impacts de la déficience maternelle modérée en fer sur le développement des fonctions auditives et le métabolisme des acides gras et eicosanoïdes de la progéniture

    OpenAIRE

    Jougleux, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Tableau d'honneur de la Faculté des études supérieures et postdorales, 2014-2015 Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer les impacts de la l’anémie ferriprive (AF) modérée durant la gestation et la lactation, sur les fonctions neurophysiologiques des voies auditives, ainsi que sur les fonctions métaboliques de la progéniture du cochon d’Inde (Cavia porcellus). Elle s’articule selon 2 volets d’études distincts (protocoles 1 et 2), basés tant sur la composition en fer des diètes, que sur l...

  18. Teneurs en acides gras polyinsaturés essentiels du lait maternel en France : évolution du contenu en acides linoléique et alphalinolénique au cours des 10 dernières années

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boué-Vaysse Carole

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are nutritionally important constituents of breast milk to support normal growth, immune function and central nervous system development of newborn infants. Both linoleic acid (18:2 n-6; LA and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3; ALA, the essential fatty acids, precursors of n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFA, are also present in breast milk. Although the total amount of fat in human milk is fairly constant, the fatty acid composition can vary substantially depending on the diet of the mother. Large variations in the LA, ALA and DHA (22:6 n-3 contents are observed among countries. As reported by previous studies (1993-2001, the ALA consumption of the French population was 2-3 times lower than the recommended value. Since this period, the food industry offers more food products enriched in n-3 fatty acids. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether current recommendations and improved n-3 PUFA content of food products comply with the actual breast-milk PUFA composition. For this purpose, the PUFA content of a large number of human milk samples collected in 2007 in different French regions were compared with previous data obtained in studies conducted in the nineties years (1993-1998. Moreover, this study aimed to confirm expected reduction of the trans fatty acid (TFA intake resulting from decreased level of TFA in margarine and other dietary fats during the same period. Study design and methods: Mature (postpartum day ≥ 30 human milk samples (n = 145 were provided in 2007 by eight French regional human milk banks (Bordeaux : n = 20; Dijon: n = 21; Ile-de-France: n = 18; Lyon: n = 20; Montpellier: n = 18; Nantes: n = 21; St Etienne: n = 6; Tours: n = 21, from healthy women volunteers with no particular health history. The fatty acid composition of breast milk was analysed by high-resolution gas-liquid chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann and Whitney U tests (p < 0.05. Results: Fatty acid composition of human milk samples did not differ significantly among the eight French regions. The proportions of saturated fatty acids were relatively similar (means ranging from 44.9% to 48.7% of total fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids also varied little, from 36.9% to 39.7%. Total n-6 and n-3 PUFA accounted for 12.5%-15.2%, with an n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio close to 10, similar among the collect centers. Considering the overall results, LA represented between 10.4% and 12.7%, and ALA varied from 0.72% to 0.95%. Comparison of our results to previous data (1993-1998 showed opposite changes for LA and ALA. During the last decade, the LA level has decreased by 17%, whereas the ALA level has increased by 45%, and hence in 2007, the LA/ ALA ratio was close to 14 versus 24 in 1993-1998. The LC-PUFA content remained unchanged. Concerning total TFA, their content was lower (– 37%; p < 0.0001 in 2007 than in 1997, respectively 1.3% and 2.1% of total fatty acids of breast milk. Conclusion: Basing on the PUFA composition of human milk, this large French study shows favourable changes in consumption of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid precursors, and in TFA, in the course of last decade.

  19. Effet d’un régime riche en acides gras ω3 et en CLA 9-cis, 11-trans sur l’insulinorésistance et les paramètres du diabète de type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a pathology mainly induced by nutrition is increasing. In vivo studies on rat have demonstrated the interest of n-3 long chains polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA in the diet to improve insulin sensibility. This study investigates the effect of a diet with products (linseed enriched livestock diet products and linseed bread naturally enriched in n-3 PUFA and CLA 9-cis, 11-trans on glycemic parameters of type 2 diabetics. 44 type 2 diabetics were randomised in three parallel groups and followed a particular diet during 100 days. The three diets: diet A (n = 13, enriched in n-3 PUFA via bread, eggs and pastas, diet B (n = 13, enriched in n-3 PUFA and richer in conjugated linoleic acids (CLA via bread, eggs, pastas, beef meat and dairy products and diet T (n = 18, standard, were otherwise similar in energy (1970 kcal per day and type of food. The serum value of the ALA is significantly higher for group A and B and the CLA serum value is significantly higher for the group B only at the end of the study. At the end of the study, fasting insulinemia is lower in group B compared with group A (p = 0,06 and T (p < 0,05 while glycemia does not differ between groups. Insulin resistance is also lower in group B compared with groups A and T, but the differences do not reach significance (p = 0,08 and p = 0,1 respectively. These results suggest the potential implication of CLA 9-cis, 11-trans in a diet rich in ALA in the improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  20. Des dérivés d’acides gras dans la résistance des plantes aux attaques microbiennes : à la recherche d’acyle hydrolases impliquées dans la synthèse des oxylipines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitz Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Les plantes sont soumises constamment à des agressions multiples, provenant d’attaques par une grande variété de virus, bactéries, champignons, nématodes, ou encore d’herbivores. Face à cette pression, et devant l’impossibilité de fuir ces conditions hostiles, les plantes ont développé des systèmes de détection sophistiqués leur permettant d’opposer le plus souvent un état de résistance. L’agriculture a, de tous temps, cherché à associer aux qualités agronomiques des plantes cultivées les propriétés de résistance aux maladies de leurs parents sauvages. Les recherches actuelles visent une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes de défense naturels des plantes pour développer de nouvelles méthodes de lutte. Quand l’agresseur surmonte les barrières préexistantes à l’attaque, certaines plantes mettent en place, après une étape critique de reconnaissance, une cascade d’événements cellulaires complexes aboutissant à la résistance, et connue sous le nom de réaction d’hypersensibilité, ou RH (figure 1. La RH est caractérisée par la mort programmée des premières cellules infectées puis par l’induction d’altérations métaboliques intenses dans les tissus entourant les lésions nécrotiques [1]. Ces réponses de défense comprennent notamment : - un renforcement des parois végétales par le dépôt de polysaccharides, de composés phénoliques insolubles et de protéines; - la stimulation de voies métaboliques secondaires, certaines conduisant à la synthèse de composés antimicrobiens appelés phytoalexines; - la synthèse d’un large spectre de protéines de défense attaquant directement les structures du microorganisme, en général leurs parois ou membranes cellulaires. Cette superposition de réponses de la plante résulte généralement en un confinement de l’agent pathogène inducteur au niveau du site d’attaque [2]. Cette résistance locale est également accompagnée d’un phénomène appelé « résistance systémique acquise » (SAR et procurant une protection durable, et à large spectre, à l’ensemble de la plante envers une infection secondaire. La perception spécifique par la plante d’un agresseur de type biotique (c’est-à-dire se nourrissant sur des cellules végétales vivantes nécessite la présence simultanée d’un gène d’avirulence chez le parasite et celle d’un gène de résistance chez la plante (figure 1. En cas d’absence de l’un ou l’autre de ces gènes, la reconnaissance nécessaire à la RH n’a pas lieu, et la maladie se développe. D’autres types de microbes sont qualifiés de nécrotrophes, car leur stratégie de colonisation implique la secrétion de toxines et d’enzymes de macération qui tuent les cellules végétales et dégradent leurs structures avant de s’en nourrir. La reconnaissance de l’agresseur par l’hôte déclenche une série de processus cellulaires rapides incluant notamment des flux d’ions, des phosphorylations, et la production de formes activées de l’oxygène. Ces réponses ne seront pas décrites ici (revue in [3, 4]. La séquence précise des réactions déclenchant la mort cellulaire restemystérieuse, comme l’est la relation de cette mort avec la production de signaux secondaires de défense.

  1. ''The manure now is here.'' Only the cows get grass and maize while the Novatech farm biogas plant gets the manure; ''Die Guelle ist ja da.'' Gras und Mais bekommen nur die Kuehe, die Novatech-Hofbiogasanlage nur Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Dorothee

    2013-04-01

    Actually biogas was out of the question for the dairy farmer Marco Friedrich farming about 200 acres of land. But then, the EEG 2012 (Energy Economy Law) came with the new category 'Manure - Farm - Biogas plant', enabling 25 Cents per kilowatt hour of electricity fed into the grid. In cooperation with the plant manufacturer Novatech GmbH (Wolpertshausen, Federal Republic of Germany), a biogas plant was built, which is described in detail in the contribution under consideration.

  2. Effecten van wintergewassen op verliezen en benutting van stikstof bij de teelt van snijmaos; verslag van onderzoek op ROC Aver-Heino tussen voorjaar 1991 en najaar 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van W.; Schröder, J.J.; Holte, ten L.; Groot, de W.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Tussen 1988 en 1994 is onderzoek verricht naar de effecten van wintergewassen (winterrogge en onderzaai van gras) op de verliezen en benutting van stikstof bij continuteelt van snijmaos op zandgrond. Gemiddeld over de gehele onderzoeksperiode nam zowel rogge als gras 30-40 kg/ha op in de

  3. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Enzyme-modified milk powder may be prepared with GRAS enzymes from reconstituted milk powder, whole milk, condensed or concentrated whole milk, evaporated milk...

  4. Research article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    En plus de la viande, du poisson et des produits laitiers, il existe pour un ... ragout de haricots rouges avec sauce d'arachides et graines de mais) ainsi que le ... meilleure composition d'acides gras (taux élevé d'acides gras insaturés) que les ...

  5. Een nieuw voersysteem voor versgras : Netwerk: Vers en veilig in de pens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, A.P.; Duinkerken, van G.

    2006-01-01

    De melkveehouders binnen het netwerk 'Vers en veilig in de pens' staan voor het voeren van vers gras, willen dat graag blijven doen, maar willen liever niet twee maal per dag hoeven te voeren. Daarvoor moet het gras wel langer vers blijven. Nu kan het met een halve dag al warm worden door broei. Het

  6. A validation study of the psychometric properties of the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Bjerre; O'Neill, Lotte; Gormsen, Lise Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    Background Reflection, the ability to examine critically one’s own learning and functioning, is considered important for ‘the good doctor’. The Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) is an instrument measuring student reflection, which has not yet been validated beyond the original Dutch study....... The aim of this study was to adapt GRAS for use in a Danish setting and to investigate the psychometric properties of GRAS-DK. Methods We performed a cross-cultural adaptation of GRAS from Dutch to Danish. Next, we collected primary data online, performed a retest, analysed data descriptively, estimated...... measurement error, performed an exploratory and a confirmatory factor analysis to test the proposed three-factor structure. Results 361 (69%) of 523 invited students completed GRAS-DK. Their mean score was 88 (SD = 11.42; scale maximum 115). Scores were approximately normally distributed. Measurement error...

  7. RECHERCHES Distribution anormale des apolipoprotéines CIII et diminution de la capacité d’efflux de cholestérol du plasma de sujets normolipidémiques présentant une maladie coronarienne précoce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Il est maintenant bien établi que les triglycérides plasmatiques représentent un facteur de risque indépendant d’athérosclérose et des maladies cardiovasculaires qui en découlent [1]. L’hypertriglycéridémie est connue pour être associée à une surexpression des apolipoprotéines CIII (apoCIII. Les quantités et la distribution de ces apoCIII dans le plasma sont essentielles dans le métabolisme des triglycérides, et il existe de nombreuses études épidémiologiques mettant en évidence leur association avec le développement et la progression des lésions d’athérosclérose dans les maladies cardio-vasculaires (MCV. Les apoCIII et plus particulièrement les apoCIII liées aux particules riches en triglycérides sont considérées comme de nouveaux marqueurs/facteurs de risque des MCV associés aux triglycérides comme cela a été étudié et rapporté par P. Alaupovic dans l’article précédent [2]. En outre, un certain nombre de sujets jeunes ayant fait un accident ischémique grave, présentent un bilan lipidique considéré comme normal et qui ne permet pas de les identifier. Mais on sait aussi que des sujets coronariens, normolipidémiques à jeun, peuvent présenter un retard d’épuration postprandiale des triglycérides, détectable seulement après un repas test riche en graisses [3-5]. Les retards d’épuration postprandiaux et leur toxicité sont imputés aux chylomicrons remnants qui persistent trop longtemps dans la circulation et sont considérés comme très athérogènes [6]. Dans un travail préliminaire [7], nous avions comparé un petit groupe de sujets normolipidémiques à jeun (n = 10 mais présentant une maladie coronarienne précoce (groupe CAD et montré l’existence d’anomalies du métabolisme lipidique postprandial par comparaison à un groupe de sujets contrôles. Quatre à six heures après un repas gras (1 000 kcal et 60% de lipides, la réponse de la triglycéridémie

  8. Fibrose hépatique : lien force mécanique et génotoxicité

    OpenAIRE

    Langouët , Sophie

    2014-01-01

    En 2012, en France, il y a eu 6.867 nouveaux cas de cancer du foie chez l’homme et 1.586 chez la femme. On soupçonne que les maladies du foie sont associées à un dysfonctionnement sévère des fonctions hépatiques et susceptibles d’entraîner une sensibilité accrue des patients vis-à-vis des contaminants environnementaux. Comment évaluer cette susceptibilité individuelle au cours de maladies chroniques, qui se prolongent dans le temps ? L’objectif du projet Mécagénotox est de caractériser et mod...

  9. Caractérisation locale de la rupture de tissu hépatique

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNON, A

    2008-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de prédire numériquement l'apparition de lésions dans le foie humain, sous l'effet d'un impact. Elle se base sur des essais expérimentaux qui tendent vers une sollicitation aussi réaliste que possible, et conduisent à un modèle de comportement et des critères de rupture implantables dans un code numérique qui intégrerait à la fois la structure - complexe - du foie et le comportement de ses différents constituants. Mémoire de Master 2 MEGA, INSA de Lyon, ss la dir...

  10. Asie centrale | Page 86 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C'est en Thaïlande que l'on observe la plus forte incidence de cholangiocarcinome, forme mortelle de cancer du foie notamment attribuable à une infection parasitaire par l'opisthorchiase (Opisthorchis viverrini). À certains endroits du nord-est de la Thaïlande, près de 85 % des habitants sont infectés par l'opisthorchiase.

  11. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    3 janv. 2013 ... Abstract. La maladie de Wilson ou dégénérescence hépato-lenticulaire est une affection génétique autosomique récessive caractérisée par une accumulation toxique de cuivre dans l'organisme, essentiellement dans le foie, le système nerveux central et la cornée. L'objectif de ce travail était de soulever.

  12. Pattern of chronic liver disease in Omani children – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Déterminer la tendance de la maladie du culin foie chronique chez des enfants Omani. Plan d'étude: Soixante quartoze enfant (43M:33F)âgés entre 4 jours et 10 ans envoyés au service de la Pédiatrie gastroentrologie de centre hospitalier universitaire du Sultant Qaboos, Muscat, Oman entre 1995 -2000. Pour une ...

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    22 avr. 2016 ... tomodensitométrie permettent de confirmer l'augmentation de la taille du foie et parfois peuvent orienter le diagnostic étiologique. [3]. La ponction biopsie hépatique (PBH) est réalisée soit pour confirmer le diagnostic étiologique, soit pour apprécier le caractère évolutif d'une maladie hépatique chronique.

  14. 2271-IJBCS-Article-Dr Boudié Guel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    consommateurs à la concentration de 0,03 mg/L (Raveendran et al., 2001). Une surcharge de l'organisme humain en fer peut entraîner une hémochromatose primitive. (mauvaise régulation de l'absorption du fer par l'intestin) et même une cancérisation hépatique (risque de cancer du foie). Le manganèse peut également ...

  15. 1514-IJBCS-Article-Melima Mamatchi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    déterminées dans le sang humain à Gbodjomé (zone de référence) et à Kpémé où les populations consomment des aliments ... Cd et du Pb, qui provoquent un stress oxydatif dans l'organisme humain qui présente une disponibilité à la bioaccumulation de ces ..... reins, le foie, le système nerveux, le sang et peuvent être ...

  16. REVUE GENERALE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MIN

    Le trophoblaste humain se compose d'une population cellulaire hétérogène qui peut donner naissance à une variété de lésions trophoblastiques que l'on regroupe sous le terme de maladies .... cerveau et le foie sont les sites métastatiques les plus fréquents suggérant une dissémination hématogène prédominante.

  17. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    21 juin 2012 ... jour de tissu paraganglionnaire intra orbitaire chez l'être humain. Pour certain auteur cette prolifération proviendrait du tissu ... des métastases qui siègent préférentiellement au niveau des ganglions lymphatiques régionaux, l'os, le foie et le poumon [5]. L´excision totale de la lésion, grâce à l'orbitotomie ...

  18. 2185-IJBCS-Article-Aduayi-Akue Adote

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    différentes parties de l'organisme humain en entraînant des effets chroniques ou aigus sur la santé de l'homme (Were et al., 2008). La pollution par les métaux ... de certaines maladies liées à la contamination aux métaux lourds telles que les affections du foie et des reins, les maladies cardio- vasculaires, les cancers, la ...

  19. Redhead (Rubiaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Thèse de Doctorat 3è cycle, UFR. Biosciences, Université, Cocody-Abidjan,. 2003; p 144. 19. Xavier L. Rôle du foie dans le métabolisme des nutriments en nutrition artificielle. Nutrition clinique et métabolisme, 1999; 13(4):. 225-231. 20. Eastham RD. Abrégé de constantes biologiques. Edition Masson, Paris-France; 1978;.

  20. Extrême-Orient | Page 91 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C'est en Thaïlande que l'on observe la plus forte incidence de cholangiocarcinome, forme mortelle de cancer du foie notamment attribuable à une infection parasitaire par l'opisthorchiase (Opisthorchis viverrini). À certains endroits du nord-est de la Thaïlande, près de 85 % des habitants sont infectés par l'opisthorchiase.

  1. Health | Page 7 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C'est en Thaïlande que l'on observe la plus forte incidence de cholangiocarcinome, forme mortelle de cancer du foie notamment attribuable à une infection parasitaire par l'opisthorchiase (Opisthorchis viverrini). À certains endroits du nord-est de la Thaïlande, près de 85 % des habitants sont infectés par l'opisthorchiase.

  2. En Asie du Sud-Est, la recherche en écosanté contribue à la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... C'est en Thaïlande que l'on observe la plus forte incidence de cholangiocarcinome, forme mortelle de cancer du foie notamment attribuable à une infection parasitaire par l'opisthorchiase (Opisthorchis viverrini). À certains endroits du nord-est de la Thaïlande, près de 85 % des habitants sont infectés par ...

  3. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    22 nov. 2011 ... Abstract. Etude rétrospective rapportant une série de kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires colligés dans le service de chirurgie de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne à Marrakech. Entre 1990 à 2008, sur 536 kystes hydatiques du foie opérés dans le service, 120 étaient compliqués de rupture dans les ...

  4. Central Asia | Page 86 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    C'est en Thaïlande que l'on observe la plus forte incidence de cholangiocarcinome, forme mortelle de cancer du foie notamment attribuable à une infection parasitaire par l'opisthorchiase (Opisthorchis viverrini). À certains endroits du nord-est de la Thaïlande, près de 85 % des habitants sont infectés par l'opisthorchiase.

  5. Characterization of in vitro healthy and pathological human liver tissue periodicity using backscattered ultrasound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque; Meziri, Mahmoud; Laugier, Pascal

    2006-05-01

    This work studied the periodicity of in vitro healthy and pathologic liver tissue, using backscattered ultrasound (US) signals. It utilized the mean scatterer spacing (MSS) as a parameter of tissue characterization, estimated by three methods: the spectral autocorrelation (SAC), the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and the quadratic transformation method (SIMON). The liver samples were classified in terms of tissue status using the METAVIR scoring system. Twenty tissue samples were classified in four groups: F0, F1, F3 and F4 (five samples for each). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (applied on group pairs) resulted as nonsignificant (p > 0.05) for two pairs only: F1/F3 (for SSA) and F3/F4 (for SAC). A discriminant analysis was applied using as parameters the MSS mean (MSS) and standard deviation (sigmaMSS), the estimates histogram mode (mMSS), and the speed of US (mc(foie)) in the medium, to evaluate the degree of discrimination among healthy and pathologic tissues. The better accuracy (Ac) with SAC (80%) was with parameter group (MSS, sigmaMSS, mc(foie)), achieving a sensitivity (Ss) of 92.3% and a specificity (Sp) of 57.1%. For SSA, the group with all four parameters showed an Ac of 75%, an Ss of 78.6% and an Sp of 66.70%. SIMON obtained the best Ac of all (85%) with group (MSS, mMSS, mc(foie)), an Ss of 100%, but with an Sp of 50%.

  6. Evaluation of Short-Term Bioassays to Predict Functional Impairment, Development of Neurobehavioral Bioassays in Laboratory Animals, Directory of Institutions/Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    SPONTANEOUS MOTOR ACTIVITY (PHOTOCELL, OPEN FIELD) TEST SYSTEMS UTILIZED: RATS, DOGS, MONKEYS COMPOUNDS TESTED: ABUSE DRUGS - CANNABIS , COCAINE METABOLITES...TEST SYSTEMS UTILIZED: RATS, DOGS, PIGS COMPOUNDS TESTED: GRAS COMPOUNDS FOOD ADDITIVES CNS STIMULANTS: AMPHETAMINE CAFFEINE MYCOTOXINS ACRYLAMIIE

  7. 21 CFR 184.1890 - α-Tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherols. 184.1890 Section 184.1890 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1890 α-Tocopherols. (a) The α-tocopherols that are the subject of this GRAS affirmation regulation are limited to the following: (1) d-α-Tocopherol (CAS Reg. No. 59-02-9) is the chemical...

  8. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Clara G.; Hart, Joy L.; Walker, Kandi L.; Robertson, Rose Marie

    2017-01-01

    Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-v...

  9. Changing gender roles and attitudes and their implications for well-being around the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Bhaskar, Abita; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank; Hunt, Kate

    2014-05-01

    Given evidence that gender role attitudes (GRAs) and actual gender roles impact on well-being, we examine associations between GRAs, three roles (marital status, household chore division, couple employment) and psychological distress in working-age men and women. We investigate time-trends reflecting broader social and economic changes, by focusing on three age groups at two dates. We used British Household Panel Survey data from 20- to 64-year-olds in heterosexual couple households in 1991 (N = 5,302) and 2007 (N = 6,621). We examined: levels of traditional GRAs according to gender, age, date, household and employment roles; associations which GRAs and roles had with psychological distress (measured via the GHQ-12); whether psychological distress increased when GRAs conflicted with actual roles; and whether any of these associations differed according to gender, age or date. Gender traditionalism was lower among women, younger people, those participating in 2007 and in 'less traditional' relationships and households. Psychological distress was higher among those with more traditional GRAs and, particularly among men, for those not employed, and there was some evidence of different patterns of association according to age-group. There was limited evidence, among women only, of increased psychological distress when GRAs and actual roles conflicted and/or reductions when GRAs and roles agreed, particularly in respect of household chores and paid employment. Although some aspects of gender roles and attitudes (traditionalism and paid employment) are associated with well-being, others (marital status and household chores), and attitude-role consistency, may have little impact on the well-being of contemporary UK adults.

  10. Effets antibactériens du surnageant de culture neutralisé d'une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'évolution de la flore contaminante de différents poissons [maigre (P. jubelini) moyennement gras (P. quadrifilis), et gras (A. heudeloti)] achetés dans un marché local de Dakar, filetés, et conservés (100 g) à 10°C dans 100 ml de surnageant de culture (SCN) de la souche Lactococcus lactis CWBI-B1410 productrice de ...

  11. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    14 oct. 2015 ... hématies foetales; 5) déclenchement de la maladie hémolytique avec ses conséquencespour le fœtus ou pour le nouveau-né. Les macrophages de la rate et du foie qui vont capter les globules rouges fœtaux fixant les IgG-antiD, entrainant leur hémolyse intra tissulaire et par conséquent une anémie fœtale ...

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 oct. 2012 ... péritoine, le foie et la rate [7]. Il s'agit d'une localisation péritonéale dans la première observation, d'une ... à des lésions pulmonaires très bacillifères par voie hématogène ou lymphatique [8]. L'agent bactérien est le plus souvent le bacille de Kokh bovin ou humain, exceptionnellement ce sont les.

  13. Détermination des propriétés mécaniques en cisaillement de la rate et du pancréas de porc

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUER, L

    2011-01-01

    Le réalisme des simulations chirurgicales, dans le domaine biomédical, et des simulations de crash tests, dans celui de la sécurité des transports, est étroitement lié à une bonne connaissance des propriétés mécaniques des organes, en particulier, des organes mous du corps humain. L'abdomen est une région anatomique sur laquelle se focalisent actuellement d'importants efforts de recherche et alors que de nombreuses données sur le comportement mécanique du foie et du rein sont rapportées depui...

  14. 2101-IJBCS-Article-Abdelkrim Berroukche

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    élaborée par l'équipe de Silvina et al. (2004), au cours de leur expérience sur les modifications morphologiques et le stress oxydatif opérés au niveau des différents tissus. (foie, poumons et reins) exposés à une dose non carcinogène du Cd. Préparation des solutions des sels de zinc et de cadmium. Des quantités de 15 ...

  15. Prise e Yopou en charge ugon, Abid e multidi djan-Côte sciplinair e ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    confirmé, à l'échographie, le diagnostic d'abcès collecté du foie, a recherché des signes de complications péritonéales et pleurales, a prélevé 10 cc de pus dans une seringue stérile et a évacué la collection suppurée sous guidage échographique. La technique de ponction et d'évacuation de l'abcès était celle décrite par ...

  16. Détermination de la contamination par l'Aflatoxine B1 de la pâte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de déterminer par CCM si les niveaux de contamination naturelle par l'AFB1 des pâtes d'arachide vendues sur les marchés d'Abidjan étaient supérieurs aux limites maximales de résidus autorisées. ... l'Hépatite C, le risque de développer un cancer du foie est extrêmement élevé lorsqu'ils sont exposés aux Aflatoxines.

  17. Evaluation Of Antibody Elisa, Coproscopy And Serum Enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le titrage avec immunoadsorbant lié à une enzyme (ELISA), la sédimentation fécale et les tests de l'action de l'enzyme du sérum ont été faits sur des échantillons de fèces et de sérum recueillis de 134 bovins (55 positifs et 79 négatifs pour les lésions dues à la douve du foie) lors de l'inspection de viande en Ethiopie.

  18. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G. Sears

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-values and multivariable logistic regression were employed to compare perceptions among participants considering e-cigarette flavorings as safe and those considering e-cigarette flavorings to be unsafe. The total sample size was 567 participants. Only 22% knew that GRAS designation meant that a product is safe to ingest, not inhale, inject, or use topically. Of participants who considered flavorings to be GRAS, the majority recognized that the designation meant a product is safe to ingest but also considered it safe to inhale. Although scientific uncertainty on the overall safety of flavorings in e-cigarettes remains, health messaging can educate the public about the GRAS designation and its irrelevance to e-cigarette safety.

  19. Louisiana, we’ve got a situation (yes, again….

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hernandez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are only three seasons in Louisiana: football season, Mardi Gras season, and hurricane season. 1 The beginning of each is marked by civic rituals (knocking on wood comes to mind, heated discussions, expert strategizing, and complicated chart-supported predictions. Just as Mardi Gras represents a major event on the Louisiana calendar (whereas it is just another Tuesday for the rest of the American nation, the first day of June—the date instituted as the start of the hurricane ...

  20. Cubist angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Savage Brosman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For ten days or so there had been Carnival parades along St. Charles Avenue almost every weekday evening and on Saturday and Sunday afternoons, and we were still in the pre-Mardi Gras weekend, to be followed by Lundi Gras, with its two elaborate parades, and then Carnival Day itself, given over entirely to revelry, from the marching clubs waking us up at dawn, through Zulu, Rex, and the truck parades. Sounds of the street activity, both organized and spontaneous, had risen to my windows again...

  1. Improvement of nutritional quality and antioxidant activities of yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... This study evaluated the potential use and improves the health beneficial properties of the soybean waste manufacturing products by solid-state fermentation of six GRAS ... Key words: Solid state fermentation, yeast, waste soybean manufacturing products, antioxidant, protein, fiber.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil...

  3. Pilotstudie Groene Dollard Dijk : een verkenning naar de haalbaarheid van een brede groene dijk met flauw talud en een voorland van kwelders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon-Steensma, van J.M.; Schelfhout, H.A.; Reintsema, R.; Jolink, E.; Leij, van der H.

    2013-01-01

    In dit rapport worden de mogelijkheden voor een Groene Dollard Dijk verkend. Deze dijken hebben een met gras bekleed flauw buitentalud dat op natuurlijke wijze overgaat in de voorliggende kwelders. Door het golfreducerend vermogen van het kweldervoorland en een verflauwd dijktalud, is er geen harde

  4. Gas chromatographic analysis of plant sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytosterols are well-known for their ability to lower blood cholesterol by competing with absorption of cholesterol from the diet and reabsorption of bile cholesterol. Phytosterols as food ingredients are “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) by the FDA, and they are increasingly incorporated into ...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous...

  6. 1386-IJBCS-Article-Dominique C K Sohouhfove

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ester déterminés par les normes françaises révèlent la bonne qualité des échantillons d'huiles. L'analyse des esters méthyliques des acides gras de l'huile est faite par Chromatographie en Phase Gazeuse (CPG) et montre la prédominance ...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1400 - Lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lecithin. 184.1400 Section 184.1400 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1400 Lecithin. (a) Commercial lecithin is a naturally occurring mixture of... isolated as a gum following hydration of solvent-extracted soy, safflower, or corn oils. Lecithin is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1545 - Nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrous oxide. 184.1545 Section 184.1545 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1545 Nitrous oxide. (a) Nitrous oxide (empirical formula N2O, CAS Reg. No.... Nitrous oxide is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Higher oxides of nitrogen...

  9. Editorial Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Bean

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The winter months bring us festivities like Mardi Gras. Here at the Code4Lib Journal, we present you with a veritable feast to indulge in as our mid-winter festival offering. Consume slowly, to fully appreciate the myriad flavors and enjoy the richness of the fare.

  10. Consumption, Not CO2 emissions: Reframing Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, Robert; Shui, Bin

    2010-12-01

    A stunning documentary film titled “Mardi Gras: Made in China” provides an insightful and engaging perspective on the globalization of desire for material consumption. Tracing the life cycle of Mardi Gras beads from a small factory in Fuzhou, China to the streets of the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans the viewer grasps the near universal human desire to strive for an affluent lifestyle. David Redmon, an independent film maker, follows the beads' genealogy back to the industrial town of Fuzhou, China, to the factory that is the world's largest producer of Mardi Gras beads and related party trinkets. He explores how these frivolous and toxic products affect the people who make them and those who consume them. Redmon captures the daily reality of a Chinese manufacturing facility. It’s workforce of approximately 500 teenage girls, and a handful of boys, live like prisoners in a fenced-in compound. These young people, often working 16-hour days, are constantly exposed to styrene, a chemical known to cause cancer — all for about 10 cents an hour. In addition to indoor pollution, the decrepit coal-fired manufacturing facilities are symbolic of China’s fast rise to the world’s top producer of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.1 The process of industrialization and modernization in China is happening at an unprecedented rate and scale.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme..., nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains the enzyme urease (CAS Reg. No. 9002-13-5), which...

  12. 78 FR 17358 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Organizational Reports, the New England and South Atlantic Liaison Reports, the Executive Director's Report, the... December 2012 and February 2013 minutes, receive Organizational Reports, the New England and South Atlantic... recommendation on the workshop results to include control dates, roll-over provisions, GRAs, port meetings, etc...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 18...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  15. Safety assessment of allylalkoxybenzene derivatives used as flavouring substances - methyl eugenol and estragole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, R.L.; Adams, T.B.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.; Rogers, A.E.; Caldwell, J.; Sipes, I.G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication is the seventh in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavouring substances under conditions of

  16. Evaluation of food additives as alternative or complementary chemicals to conventional fungicides for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit for the control of major postharvest diseases of stone fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among more than twenty food additives and GRAS (generally regarded as safe) compounds that were tested at three concentrations in in vivo primary screenings with several cultivars of California peaches, nectarines, and plums that had been artificially inoculated with seven major postharvest pathogen...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained...

  19. The production of exopolysaccharides by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobben, G.

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria have gained great popularity in the food industry because of their thickening and stabilizing properties. Since lactic acid bacteria have the GRAS ( G enerally R ecognized

  20. 21 CFR 184.1027 - Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product. 184... RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1027 Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product. (a) Mixed carbohydrase and protease enzyme product is an enzyme preparation that includes...

  1. Monitoring van nitraatconcentraties in het grondwater in grondwaterbeschermingsgebieden van de provincie Utrecht; meetresultaten van 1992 t/m 1995, een vergelijking met berekeningen van het model RENLEM en een literatuuroverzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de W.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In de grondwaterbeschermingsgebieden Groenekan, Beerschoten en Leersum is van 1992 t/m 1995 op zeventien locaties de nitraatconcentratie van bodemvocht en grondwater gemeten. Nitraatconcentraties op zandgronden met gras- en maosland waren meestal hoger dan 50 mg/l. Voor naaldbos op zandgrond gold

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate...

  7. Growth phase of orally administered Lactobacillus strains differentially affects T helper-cell pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen, C.B.M.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Holten-Neelen, van J.C.P.A.; Claassen, E.A.W.; Laman, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Lactobacillus strains with probiotic activity are major constituents of numerous common food products. Due to their `generally regarded as safe¿-status (GRAS-status), Lactobacillus strains can also be genetically engineered for use in oral immunotherapeutic applications, such as vaccination and T

  8. EXTRACTION DE L’HUILE À PARTIR DU GRIGNON D’OLIVE AVEC LE MELANGE : ACETONE – TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MOUSSAOUI

    2005-06-01

    teneurs en insaponifiables et en phospholipides. L’analyse par chromatographie en phase gazeuse montre que les huiles extraites sont riches en acides gras insaturés et sont composées principalement d’acide oléique

  9. Constructing and Role-Playing Student Avatars in a Simulation of Teaching Algebra for Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Brown, Irving A.; Kulm, Gerald; Davis, Trina J.; Lewis, Chance W.; Allen, G. Donald

    2016-01-01

    From the perspectives of Graduate Research Assistants (GRAs), this study examines the design and implementation of a simulated teaching environment in "Second Life" (SL) for prospective teachers to teach algebra for diverse learners. Drawing upon the Learning-for-Use framework, the analyses provide evidence on the development of student…

  10. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  11. 1479-IJBCS-Article-Seydou Sourabie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KODJIO NORBERT

    radical libre hautement réactif qui va initier une lipoperoxydation (peroxydation lipidique) autrement dit l'oxydation des acides gras polyinsaturés des phosphomembranes lipidiques des hépatocytes. Une conséquence de cette activité radicalaire est la désagrégation des membranes des hépatocytes dont les enzymes.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1540 - Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrogen. 184.1540 Section 184.1540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1540 Nitrogen. (a) Nitrogen (empirical formula N2, CAS Reg. No. 7727-37-9...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1012 α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from the culture...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1388 - Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1388 Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces lactis. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the nonpathogenic...

  15. Testing the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale using Affection Exchange Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Grandchildren's Received Affection Scale (GRAS) using Affection Exchange Theory (Floyd, 2006). In accordance with Affection Exchange Theory, it was hypothesized that grandchildren's scores on the Trait Affection Received Scale (i.e., the extent to which individuals by nature receive affection) would be related significantly and positively to their reports of received affection from their grandparents (i.e., their scores on the GRAS). Additionally, a research question was asked to explore if grandchildren's received affection from their grandparents is dependent on their grandparent's biological sex or lineage (i.e., maternal vs paternal). Thus, young adult grandchildren (N = 422) completed the GRAS and the Trait Affection Received Scale. The results of zero-order Pearson correlational analyses provided support for the hypothesis, whereas the results of MANOVAs tests only partially support extant grandparent-grandchild theory and research. These findings broaden the scope of Affection Exchange Theory and also bolster the GRAS's utility in future grandparent-grandchild affectionate communication research.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b) The...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1835 - Sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sorbitol. 184.1835 Section 184.1835 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1835 Sorbitol. (a) Sorbitol is the chemical 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol.... Sorbitol is produced by the electrolytic reduction, or the transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1979a - Reduced lactose whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced lactose whey. 184.1979a Section 184.1979a... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979a Reduced lactose whey. (a) Reduced lactose whey is the substance obtained by the removal of lactose from whey. The lactose content of the finished...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1979 - Whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Whey. 184.1979 Section 184.1979 Food and Drugs FOOD... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979 Whey. (a)(1) Whey. Whey is the liquid substance obtained by separating the coagulum from milk, cream, or skim milk in cheesemaking. Whey obtained from a procedure, in which...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1979b - Reduced minerals whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced minerals whey. 184.1979b Section 184.1979b... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979b Reduced minerals whey. (a) Reduced minerals whey is the substance obtained by the removal of a portion of the minerals from whey. The dry product...

  1. Pectinases of Aspergillus niger : a molecular and biochemical characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parenicová, L.

    2000-01-01

    The major topics of this thesis are the microfilamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and the pectinases a group of extracellular enzymes. Many 'products' of this species hold the GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and thus pectinases find a broad range of

  2. 21 CFR 184.1588 - Pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific.... Pectin is produced commercially by extracting citrus peel, apple pomace, or beet pulp with hot dilute... affirmation of these ingredients as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as direct human food ingredients is...

  3. In vitro and in vivo characterization of DNA delivery using recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing a mutated form of L. monocytogenes Internalin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, de M.; Karczewski, J.; Lefevre, F.; Azevedo, V.; Miyoshi, A.; Wells, J.; Langella, P.; Chatel, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of food-grade Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as DNA delivery vehicles represents an attractive strategy to deliver DNA vaccines at the mucosal surfaces as they are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). We previously showed that either native Lactococcus lactis (LL) or recombinant

  4. Hapklaar bermgras voor bacteriën

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoek naar biobutanol leverde naast een methode om de veelbelovende biobrandstof te produceren ook kennis op over milde technieken waarmee suikers en andere voedingsstoffen vrijgemaakt kunnen worden uit stro en gras. Die kennis wordt nu toegepast bij de bouw van een grote proeffabriek die onder

  5. Paardenhouderij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkgroep,

    1987-01-01

    Bundel van 4 artikelen als bewerkingen van een wetenschappelijk artikel plus 2 artikelen met een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het trainings- en voedingsonderzoek met de volgende titels: Paarden eten het liefst kort, bladrijk gras; Voeding van het paard; De samenstelling van paardemelk;

  6. A carvacrol wash and/or a chitosan based coating reduced Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wingettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease in humans, largely associated with consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. With increasing consumer demand for natural and minimally processed foods, the use of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status plant derived com...

  7. New Approach to Solid Lipid Microparticles USING Biocompatible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tallowation refers to the modification of lipid molecules using tallow fat while P90Gylation is the modification of lipid molecules by one or more phospholipid chains. Phospholipon® 90G (P90G) contains about 94.0 % of phosphatidylcholine stabilized with 0.1 % ascorbyl palmitate and is parenterally safe (GRAS) FDA ...

  8. Comparative evaluation of 13 yeast species in the Yarrowia clade on lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate and genetic engineering of inhibitor tolerant strains for lipid and biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast that has garnered interest for commercial production of single cell oil and other fatty acid-derived chemicals because of its GRAS status and genetic tractability. Three recent peer-reviewed studies have highlighted the possibility of lipid production by th...

  9. INTERACTION OF GRASS COMPETITION AND OZONE STRESS ON C/N RATIO IN PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings were grown with three levels of blue wild-rye grass (Elymus glaucus Buckl.) (0,32, or 88 plants m-2) to determine if the presence of a natural competitor altered ponderosa pine seedling response to ozone. Gras...

  10. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in food, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (d) Testing and certification of batches of a color... for humans or animals on FDA's initiative or in response to a petition, under parts 182, 184, 186, or... for humans or animals to use as animal feeds. (i) Approval of a food additive petition or GRAS...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or...

  12. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, Bogumila C.; Trip, Hein; van-der Veek, Patricia J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marciniak, Bogumiła C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large

  13. Koeien in de klaver, melkgift stijgt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefman, R.

    2007-01-01

    Vers gras maximaal benutten staat voor Alfons Lubbers voorop. Dat bleef zo na aanschaf van de melkrobot. De koeien zijn maximaal buiten. Van eind maart tot in november halen de koeien een groot deel van het rantsoen zelf op. Tot volle tevredenheid van boer en koe

  14. Use of a chitosan based natural coating materials to reduce spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan is a natural compound with proven antimicrobial activity having GRAS status (generally recognized as safe) as determined by the United States Food and Drug Administration (Smith et al., 2014). Efforts are underway to develop and improve the use of chitosan based films as packaging material...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase (bovine liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1472 - Menhaden oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Menhaden oil. 184.1472 Section 184.1472 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1472 Menhaden oil. (a) Menhaden oil. (1) Menhaden oil is prepared from fish of the genus Brevoortia, commonly known as menhaden, by cooking and pressing. The resulting crude oil...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1702 - Sheanut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sheanut oil. 184.1702 Section 184.1702 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1702 Sheanut oil. (a) Sheanut oil is produced from sheanuts derived from...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1555 - Rapeseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Rapeseed oil. 184.1555 Section 184.1555 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1555 Rapeseed oil. (a) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil. (1) Fully hydrogenated rapeseed oil is a mixture of triglycerides in which the fatty acid composition is a mixture of...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1551 - Hydrogenated fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogenated fish oil. 186.1551 Section 186.1551... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1551 Hydrogenated fish oil. (a) Hydrogenated fish oil (CAS Reg. No. 91078-95-4) is a class of oils produced by partial hydrogenation of oils expressed...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  4. Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Les rapports d'oléiques au linoléiques (O/L) et les valeurs d'iode ont été calculées à partir des données des acides gras. ... complex lipids, play a number of key roles in metabolism, as major ... hydroxide, followed by transmethylation with.

  5. Wat zijn de mogelijkheden om een leverbotinfectie van melkvee te voorkomen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca; Verwer, Cynthia; Verkaik, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Infecties met leverbot zijn in toenemende mate een knelpunt in de diergezondheid van grazende (of vers gras gevoerde) herkauwers. Leverbotinfectie leidt tot ziekte met economische gevolgen en voor melkgevende dieren zijn geen anthelmintica vrij beschikbaar. In dit project is het leverbotinstrument

  6. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose... partial enzymatic conversion of glucose (dextrose) to fructose using an insoluble glucose isomerase enzyme...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1848 Starter distillate. (a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1351 - Gum tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gum tragacanth. 184.1351 Section 184.1351 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1351 Gum tragacanth. (a) Gum tragacanth is the exudate from one of several...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1655 - Propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1655 Propane. (a) Propane (empirical formula C3H8, CAS Reg. No. 74-98-6) is also known as dimethylmethane or propyl hydrid. It is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas at normal...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1165 - n-Butane and iso-butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1165 n-Butane and iso-butane. (a) n-Butane and iso..., odorless, flammable gases at normal temperatures and pressures. They are easily liquefied under pressure at...

  11. What's Happening in February?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Ron; And Others

    Brief information is given on 12 February events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Groundhog Day; Candlemas; St. Valentine's Day; Mardi Gras; Ash Wednesday; Black History; and the birthdays of Thomas Alva Edison, Abraham Lincoln, Susan B. Anthony, Julia de Burgos, Luis Munoz Marin, and George Washington. Designed as a teacher resource, the booklet…

  12. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-13

    Jun 13, 2013 ... Such cases encourage th use of high yielding forage crops like Napier gras ... fodder crop per unit area of land as compared other grass .... wheat bran. All bags were consistently incubated 1 h after the sheep were offered feed and withdrawn after 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. Immediately after ...

  13. C:\\Users\\AISA\\Desktop\\B. DIALLO.xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Pistacia vera L.). Comptes Rendus Biologies. Volume 332 ; (8) : 752 - 758. Borg P., Lê G., Lebrun S., Pées B. 2009. Example of industrial valorisation of derivative products of Castor oil. Innovation-. Technologie. Oléagineux, Corps Gras,. Lipides. Vol.

  14. Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Valerio, Luis G.; Taylor, Sean V.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angbo-Kouakou, Cho Euphrasie Monique. Vol 9, No 4 (2015) - Articles Essai préliminaire de production d'oeufs des poules pondeuses (ISA Warren) enrichis en acides gras polyinsaturés oméga 3 avec les graines de Euphorbia heterophylla L. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traore, Gnantro Cheick. Vol 9, No 4 (2015) - Articles Essai préliminaire de production d'oeufs des poules pondeuses (ISA Warren) enrichis en acides gras polyinsaturés oméga 3 avec les graines de Euphorbia heterophylla L. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1415 - Animal lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Animal lipase. 184.1415 Section 184.1415 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1415 Animal lipase. (a) Animal lipase (CAS Reg. No. 9001-62-1) is an enzyme preparation obtained from edible forestomach tissue of calves, kids, or lambs, or from animal pancreatic...

  18. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  1. Acetone, butanone, pentanone, hexanone and heptanone in the headspace of aqueous solution and urine studied by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, T.; Pysanenko, A.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 8 (2009), s. 1097-1104 ISSN 0951-4198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : trace gras-analysis * breath analysis * exhaled breath Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2009

  2. La lipogenèse chez le lapin. Importance pour le contrôle de la teneur en lipides de la viande

    OpenAIRE

    Gondret, Florence

    1999-01-01

    La teneur en lipides d’un tissu est la résultante de plusieurs flux métaboliques (dépôt, synthèse, utilisation). Cet article présente les principales caractéristiques de la synthèse des lipides chez le lapin, dans le muscle comparativement aux tissus adipeux visibles et au foie. Le potentiel de synthèse de novo exprimé par le muscle augmente avec l’âge de l’animal, en parallèle à l’accumulation des triglycérides dans les adipocytes intramusculaires. L’activité des enzymes qui fournissent le N...

  3. Effets d'un hydrocarbure aromatique polycyclique et d'un PCB sur les activités de métabolisation des xénobiotiques de la truite arc-en-ciel (O. mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRAVEDI J. P.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Des truites arc-en-ciel immatures ont été soumises à des conditions statiques d'exposition à 10 et 100 µg/l de 3,3', 4,4'-tétrachlorobiphényle (TCB ou de benzo(apyrène (BaP dissous dans l'acétone, pendant 72 h, puis transférées en eau courante non contaminée. Parallèlement un groupe de poissons a servi de lot témoin. Une partie des poissons a été sacrifiée en fin de période d'exposition, l'autre partie faisant l'objet d'un abattage après 2 semaines en eau propre. Le foie, les rosettes olfactives, les branchies et le rein ont été prélevés sur les poissons et, des microsomes et cytosols ont été préparés pour chacun des tissus par ultracentrifugation dans un tampon approprié. Les activités éthoxyrésorufine-o-dééthylase (EROD, glucuronosyl transférase (UDPGT et glutathion-Stransférase (GST ont été mesurées. Les résultats de l'exposition au BaP montrent qu'aux deux concentrations testées, l'activité EROD a été significativement augmentée par rapport au lot témoin, pour le foie (x 11 à 33 fois et la branchie (x 5 à 7 fois. Seule la dose la plus élevée a permis d'augmenter l'activité de cette enzyme dans le rein et la rosette olfactive. A la fin de la période de dépuration, il n'est observé aucune différence significative entre les lots traités et témoins. Les transferases apparaissent peu sensibles au B(aP. Après 72 h d'exposition au TCB, l'activité EROD du foie, des branchies, des rosettes et du rein est très significativement augmentée (5 à 50 fois selon le tissu par rapport au témoin, aux deux concentrations testées. Cette induction est encore plus nette après la période de 2 semaines en eau propre. L'activité UDPGT hépatique est doublée en fin de traitement pour les deux doses et se maintient à ce niveau au cours de la période de dépuration. Les GST sont légèrement induites dans le foie après les 15 jours de dépuration. Ce travail confirme la grande sensibilité de l

  4. Popcorn-worker lung caused by corporate and regulatory negligence: an avoidable tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David; Mailloux, Caroline; Valentin, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Diacetyl-containing butter flavor was identified as the cause of an outbreak of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and other lung diseases in popcorn-plant workers. Litigation documents show that the outbreak was both predictable and preventable. The industry trade organization was aware of BO cases in workers at butter-flavoring and popcorn-manufacturing plants but often failed to implement industrial hygiene improvements and actively hid pertinent warning information. Due to weaknesses in the organization and mandates of regulatory bodies, organizations such as NIOSH, OSHA, the FDA, particularly the "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) system, and the EPA failed to detect and prevent the outbreak, which highlights the need for systemic changes in food-product regulation, including the need for corporations to act responsibly, for stronger regulations with active enforcement, for a restructuring of the GRAS system, and for criminal penalties against corporations and professionals who knowingly hide information relevant to worker protection.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn sugar. 184.1857 Section 184.1857 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6H12O6, CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7), commonly... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn gluten. 184.1321 Section 184.1321 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1321 Corn gluten. (a) Corn gluten (CAS Reg. No. 66071-96-3), also known as corn gluten meal, is the principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1697 - Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (sodium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Riboflavin-5â²-phosphate (sodium). 184.1697 Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1697 Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (sodium). (a) Riboflavin-5′-phosphate (sodium) (C17H20N4O9PNa·2H2O, CAS Reg. No 130-40-5) occurs as the dihydrate in yellow...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1210 - Calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium oxide. 184.1210 Section 184.1210 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1210 Calcium oxide. (a) Calcium oxide (CaO, CAS Reg. No. 1305-78-8) is also known as lime, quick lime, burnt lime, or calx. It is produced from calcium carbonate, limestone, or...

  10. Characterization of the molecular mechanism underlying gibberellin perception complex formation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Mayuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    The DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) is a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), and most of the GA-associated responses are induced upon SLR1 degradation. It is assumed that interaction between GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the N-terminal DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 triggers F-box protein GID2-mediated SLR1 degradation. We identified a semidominant dwarf mutant, Slr1-d4, which contains a mutation in the region encoding the C-terminal GRAS domain of SLR1 (SLR1(G576V)). The GA-dependent degradation of SLR1(G576V) was reduced in Slr1-d4, and compared with SLR1, SLR1(G576V) showed reduced interaction with GID1 and almost none with GID2 when tested in yeast cells. Surface plasmon resonance of GID1-SLR1 and GID1-SLR1(G576V) interactions revealed that the GRAS domain of SLR1 functions to stabilize the GID1-SLR1 interaction by reducing its dissociation rate and that the G576V substitution in SLR1 diminishes this stability. These results suggest that the stable interaction of GID1-SLR1 through the GRAS domain is essential for the recognition of SLR1 by GID2. We propose that when the DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 binds with GID1, it enables the GRAS domain of SLR1 to interact with GID1 and that the stable GID1-SLR1 complex is efficiently recognized by GID2.

  11. Characterization of the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Gibberellin Perception Complex Formation in Rice[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Mayuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) is a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), and most of the GA-associated responses are induced upon SLR1 degradation. It is assumed that interaction between GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the N-terminal DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 triggers F-box protein GID2-mediated SLR1 degradation. We identified a semidominant dwarf mutant, Slr1-d4, which contains a mutation in the region encoding the C-terminal GRAS domain of SLR1 (SLR1G576V). The GA-dependent degradation of SLR1G576V was reduced in Slr1-d4, and compared with SLR1, SLR1G576V showed reduced interaction with GID1 and almost none with GID2 when tested in yeast cells. Surface plasmon resonance of GID1-SLR1 and GID1-SLR1G576V interactions revealed that the GRAS domain of SLR1 functions to stabilize the GID1-SLR1 interaction by reducing its dissociation rate and that the G576V substitution in SLR1 diminishes this stability. These results suggest that the stable interaction of GID1-SLR1 through the GRAS domain is essential for the recognition of SLR1 by GID2. We propose that when the DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 binds with GID1, it enables the GRAS domain of SLR1 to interact with GID1 and that the stable GID1-SLR1 complex is efficiently recognized by GID2. PMID:20716699

  12. 21 CFR 184.1923 - Urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urea. 184.1923 Section 184.1923 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1923 Urea. (a) Urea (CO(NH2)2, CAS Reg. No. 57-13-6) is the diamide of...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1930 - Vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin A. 184.1930 Section 184.1930 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1930 Vitamin A. (a)(1) Vitamin A (retinol; CAS Reg. No. 68-26-8) is the... odorless or have a mild fishy odor. Vitamin A is extracted from fish liver oils or produced by total...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1945 - Vitamin B12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin B12. 184.1945 Section 184.1945 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1945 Vitamin B12. (a) Vitamin B12, also known as cyanocobalamin (C63H88Co... is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Vitamin B12 also may be...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is the...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1256 - Clay (kaolin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Clay (kaolin). 186.1256 Section 186.1256 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1256 Clay (kaolin). (a) Clay (kaolin) Al2O3.2SiO2.nH2O, Cas Reg. No. 1332-58-7) consists of hydrated aluminum silicate. The commercial products of clay (kaolin) contain...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1063 - Enzyme-modified lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Enzyme-modified lecithin. 184.1063 Section 184.1063... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1063 Enzyme-modified lecithin. (a) Enzyme-modified lecithin is prepared by treating lecithin with either phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4) or pancreatin. (b) The...

  18. Development of the Flameless Ration Heater for the Meal, Ready-to-Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    DRHD FB FED FTA FDTE FED-STD FPU FSC FY GRAS HDPE HHAR JSR JWG IDPE MANFRDTT MIL-H-44398 MILrR-44398 MORE MRE MRHD MSDS MSR...Bragg, NO Again, the CRH consisted of the ZT Energy Pad and an instruction card , with the MRE meal bag being used as the heating container...pack and assemble MRE menus with the following new items: FRH, pork chow mein, smokey links, sugar free beverage base, potato sticks, chew mein

  19. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095) is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any... calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1206 - Calcium iodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium iodate. 184.1206 Section 184.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1206 Calcium iodate. (a) Calcium iodate [Ca(IO3)2·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7789-80...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  5. Kunnen biologische herkauwers zonder synthetische vitaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Smolders, E.A.A.; Kan, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Uit berekeningen blijkt dat er voor koeien in de stalperiode soms een tekort dreigt aan vitamine D en E. Voor vitamine A geldt dat alleen in rantsoenen met uitsluitende hooi. Gehalten van vitamine A in voordroogkuilen van gras/klaver op Bioveembedrijven komen redelijk overeen met literatuurgegevens. Die van vitamine E waren de helft van wat verwacht werd en het gehalte aan vitamine D was in de Nederlandse kuilen veel hoger dan wat elders gevonden is.

  6. Drug‑Drug and Drug‑Nutraceutical Cocrystal/Salt as Alternative Medicine for Combination Therapy: A Crystal Engineering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjit Thakuria; Bipul Sarma

    2018-01-01

    The pre-formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals and salts is a concept of crystal engineering that has emerged as a promising technique for drug development in pharmaceutical industry. Recent introduction of pharmaceutical cocrystals in regulatory guidelines of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made them one of the potential alternatives when salt preparation is not feasible. Apart from generally regarded as safe (GRAS) coformers, drug‑drug and drug‑nutraceutical cocrystals are recent ad...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1271 - L-Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true L-Cysteine. 184.1271 Section 184.1271 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1271 L-Cysteine. (a) L-Cysteine is the chemical L-2-amino-3... of total L-cysteine per 100 parts of flour in dough as a dough strengthener as defined in § 170.3(o...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1272 - L-Cysteine monohydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. 184.1272 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1272 L-Cysteine monohydrochloride. (a) L-Cysteine... ingredient is used to supply up to 0.009 part of total L-cysteine per 100 parts of flour in dough as a dough...

  9. Promouvoir des systèmes alimentaires sains

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    d'hypertension, de maladie cardiaque, de diabète et d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux. Le CRDI contribut aux efforts déployés pour réduire la consommation de sel, de sucre et de gras : Au Costa Rica, des objectifs de réduction de la consommation de sel ont été établis en s'appuyant sur les résultats de la recherche.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1695 - Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Riboflavin. 184.1695 Section 184.1695 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1695 Riboflavin. (a) Riboflavin (C17H20N4O6, CAS Reg. No. 83-88-5) occurs...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium carbonate. It occurs as transparent crystals or a white... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS...

  12. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships, and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    Dietary Allowance EPO - Erythropoietin SMP - Skim Milk Powder EVOH - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol FFM - Fat Free Mass GRAS - General Recognized As Safe...loss in lean muscle mass, and impaired physical and cognitive performance (Marriott 1995). A loss of fat free mass ( FFM ) can also be interpreted as...reported that the soldiers lost an average of 4.02kg +/- 1.42kg in FFM during the first three months of the experiment. This portion of the

  13. Fluctuations Saisonnieres Du Poids Vif D\\'ovins Djallonke Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La production totale d\\'acides gras volatils (AGV) présente également des différences significatives (p < 0,1 %) avec la saison. Les valeurs les plus élevées sont enregistrées pendant la saison de pluies en juin, juillet et août-septembre soit respectivement 24,25 ; 27,10 et 26,66 mmol/l. Des variations significatives (p < 0,1 ...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1240 - Carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbon dioxide. 184.1240 Section 184.1240 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Carbon dioxide (empirical formula CO2, CAS Reg. No.... The solid form, dry ice, sublimes under atmospheric pressure at a temperature of −78.5 °C. Carbon...

  15. The quantification of carbon dioxide in humid air and exhaled breath by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Pysanenko, A.; Španěl, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 10 (2009), s. 1419-1425 ISSN 0951-4198 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256; GA ČR GA202/09/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : trace gras-analysis * quantitative analysis * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.695, year: 2009

  16. 21 CFR 184.1560 - Ox bile extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ox bile extract. 184.1560 Section 184.1560 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1560 Ox bile extract. (a) Ox bile extract (CAS Reg. No. 8008-63-7), also..., partly bitter, disagreeable taste. It is the purified portion of the bile of an ox obtained by...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1061 - Lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactic acid. 184.1061 Section 184.1061 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1061 Lactic acid. (a) Lactic acid (C3H6O3, CAS Reg. Nos.: dl mixture, 598... hydrogen cyanide and subsequent hydrolysis to lactic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of...

  18. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: purification, properties and use as biopreservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Parada,José Luis; Caron,Carolina Ricoy; Medeiros,Adriane Bianchi P.; Soccol,Carlos Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Biopreservation systems in foods are of increasing interest for industry and consumers. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria and/or their isolated bacteriocins are considered safe additives (GRAS), useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoiling microorganisms in foods and feed. The spreading of bacterial antibiotic resistance and the demand for products with fewer chemicals create the necessity of exploring new alternatives, in order to reduce the abusive use of therap...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  2. Evidence for the safety of gum tragacanth (Asiatic Astragalus spp.) and modern criteria for the evaluation of food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D M

    1989-01-01

    Gum tragacanth (GT), affirmed as GRAS within the USA since 1961, was evaluated as 'ADI not specified' by JECFA in 1985. Within the EEC, GT has been permitted temporarily as a food additive (E413), without an ADI, since 1974; a decision regarding its permanent status must be reached before the end of 1988. This review collates the dietary, toxicological, immunological and chemical data available and presents the pre-requisite data concerning the 'Need' and low levels of utilization of GT.

  3. Operational Implementation Design for the Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC): A First-Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-20

    developed column model containing 4 bulk soil layers described by their water and ice content and their temperature. The vegetation cover information...time-integration scheme to numerically integrate the governing equations of the physical processes of the soil- vegetation -snowpack medium. Noah has...GRACE-A ii. 5 COSMIC FM1-6 (FM3 has failed) iii. 2 GRAS iv. Terra and TanDEM SAR-X v. CORISS e. IR Sounding Radiances i. IASI ii. AIRS iii

  4. 21 CFR 186.1374 - Iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron oxides. 186.1374 Section 186.1374 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1374 Iron oxides. (a) Iron oxides (oxides of iron, CAS Reg. No. 1332-37-2) are undefined mixtures of iron (II) oxide (CAS Reg. No. 1345-25-1, black cubic crystals) and iron (III...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  6. Les fruits de Cycas (Cycadacea) des Comores : utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gras mono et polyinsaturés. L'analyse des protéines a permis d'identifier une diversité d'acides aminés dans ces amandes. La prédominance glucidique, 89% dont 72% d'amidon, fait du fruit de Cycas une ressource amylacée potentielle. Mots-clés : Cycas, amandes, amidon, analyse nutritionnelle, farine, transformation.

  7. 21 CFR 186.1316 - Formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Formic acid. 186.1316 Section 186.1316 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1316 Formic acid. (a) Formic acid (CH2O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-18-6) is also referred to as methanoic acid or hydrogen carboxylic acid. It occurs naturally in some insects and is...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1069 - Malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malic acid. 184.1069 Section 184.1069 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1069 Malic acid. (a) Malic acid (C4H6O5, CAS Reg. No. of L-form 97-67-6, CAS Reg. No. of DL-form 617-48-1) is the common name for 1-hydroxy-1, 2-ethanedicarboxylic acid. L...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propionic acid. 184.1081 Section 184.1081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1081 Propionic acid. (a) Propionic acid (C3H6O2, CAS Reg. No. 79-09-4) is...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1021 - Benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Benzoic acid. 184.1021 Section 184.1021 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1021 Benzoic acid. (a) Benzoic acid is the chemical benzenecarboxylic acid (C7H6O2), occurring in nature in free and combined forms. Among the foods in which benzoic acid occurs...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1065 - Linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Linoleic acid. 184.1065 Section 184.1065 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1065 Linoleic acid. (a) Linoleic acid ((Z, Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid (C17H31COOH) (CAS Reg. No. 60-33-3)), a straight chain unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.5...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1091 - Succinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Succinic acid. 184.1091 Section 184.1091 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1091 Succinic acid. (a) Succinic acid (C4H6O4, CAS Reg. No. 110-15-6), also referred to as amber acid and ethylenesuccinic acid, is the chemical 1,4-butanedioic acid. It is...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1090 - Stearic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stearic acid. 184.1090 Section 184.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1090 Stearic acid. (a) Stearic acid (C18H36O2, CAS Reg. No. 57-11-4) is a...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1093 - Sulfamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfamic acid. 186.1093 Section 186.1093 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1093 Sulfamic acid. (a) Sulfamic acid (H3NO3S, CAS Reg. No. 5329-14-6) is a white crystalline solid manufactured from urea, sulfur trioxide, and sulfuric acid. It is soluble and...

  17. Effects of soybean oil on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecerf Jean-Michel

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Indépendamment des phytostérols et des autres composants de la graine (protéines, isoflavones, l’huile de soja présente plusieurs autres atouts qui lui confèrent des effets préventifs vis-à-vis du risque cardiovasculaire et des maladies coronariennes. Elle contient 61% d’acides gras polyinsaturés et seulement 15% de saturés, et ne comporte pas d’acide gras trans : sa consommation peut donc permettre une réduction du cholestérol total et du cholestérol LDL. C’est également une huile riche en vitamine E, et particulièrement en gamma tocophérol dont l’activité antioxydante connaît aujourd’hui un regain d’intérêt. Enfin, sa teneur élevée en acide alpha-linolénique est compatible avec des propriétés antithrombotique et antiarrythmique, mais la faible biodisponibilité de cet acide gras dans l’huile de soja en limite peut-être les effets.

  18. Fiches techniques Les triacylglycérols des huiles de graines de quatre Cucurbitacées tropicales des genres Lagenaria et Luffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grondin Isabelle

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Les huiles de graines de quatre Cucurbitacées tropicales de l’île de la Réunion, provenant respectivement de deux variétés de l’espèce Lagenaria leucaritha (calebasses bouteille et la gale et de deux espèces du genre Luffa (pipangailles lisse et à côtes, ont été analysées aussi bien pour la fraction saponifiable que pour la fraction insaponifiable. L’étude de la fraction saponifiable a été consacrée, d’une part, à la détermination de la composition quantitative et qualitative en acides gras des différentes huiles dont les résultats ont fait l’objet d’une publication antérieure [1] et, d’autre part, à celle de leurs triacylglycérols. Une comparaison des compositions en acides gras des deux genres étudiés a permis de mettre en évidence les spécificités propres à chaque genre. Les genres Lagenaria et Luffa, présentant une composition en acides gras qualitativement similaire, contiennent ainsi les AG couramment rencontrés dans le règne végétal, à savoir les acides palmitique, stéarique, oléique et linoléique. Ce dernier est, par ailleurs, l’acide gras majoritaire avec des teneurs supérieures à 50%. La présence de cet acide gras essentiel confère ainsi à ces huiles de bonnes propriétés diététiques et nutritionnelles. Au sein du genre Lagenaria, les huiles des graines des variétés bouteille et la gale se caractérisent par leur teneur élevée en acide linoléique (71,5% pour la variété bouteille, et 81,5% pour la variété la gale. Les huiles de Lagenaria leucaritha sont du type palmitique-linoléique car ces deux acides gras représentent quantitativement plus de 85% des AG totaux. Contrairement à ces deux huiles, celles du genre Luffa se différencient, d’une part, par une teneur moindre en acide linoléique avec 55,3% pour l’espèce Luffa acutangula et 51,2% pour l’espèce Luffa cylindrica. D’autre part, elles sont du type palmitique-oléique-linoléique puisque ces trois

  19. Synthesis, Purification, and Quantification of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters After trans-Esterification of Large Batches of Tobacco Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf-Khorassani Mehdi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de la présente étude était de quantifier les esters éthyliques d'acides gras (FAEE produits à partir de deux grands lots d'huile de graines de tabac soumis à une transéstérification éthanolique en présence d'un catalyseur d'acide sulfurique. La purification des produits combinés de la réaction des esters éthyliques visait la suppression, autant que faire se peut, de la couleur et de l'odeur du produit final et fut accomplie via une chromatographie sur colonne conventionnelle avec silice sublimée et une élution en tandem de l'hexane, dans un premier temps et de l'alcool éthylique, dans un deuxième temps, en guise de phase mobile. La chromatographie en phase gazeuse fut utilisée afin de quantifier les esters éthyliques des acides gras spécifiques dans la matière purifiée. Le pourcentage d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras purs récupérés dans le lot n°1 s'éleva à près de 87% tandis que le pourcentage d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras purs récupérés dans le lot n°2 fut supérieur à 89% avec des rendements à la préparation supérieurs à 400 g d'esters éthyliques par essai d'estérification. Les esters éthyliques d'acides gras ne possédaient pas d'arome détectable et ne présentaient qu'une légère coloration jaune à l'issue de ce traitement chromatographique. Pour caractériser la pureté de chaque lot d'esters éthyliques d'acides gras produits, une chromatographie en phase supercritique dont la phase mobile était un fluide composé de dioxyde de carbone modifié au méthanol/acétonitrile et une phase fixe composée d'une silice greffée avec groupement fonctionnel octadécyle furent utilisées. Aucune impureté liée au glycérol ou à des acides gras libres ne fut détectée dans le produit transestérifié purifié. Notre article est le premier rapport décrivant la transestérification optimisée de l'huile de graines de tabac à une échelle relativement grande, ladite transest

  20. The fate of chylomicron cholesterol in the rat. 1. research into the storing of chylomicrons (1961); Destinee du cholesterol des chylomicrons chez le rat. 1. recherches sur le stockage des chylomicrons (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, F; Maurice, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Rats conditioned to take their dally meal between midnight and 2 a.m. are given at midnight, by stomach tubing, 0,5 mg 4-{sup 14}C-cholesterol, and are sacrificed in the following hours. During the most active phase of intestinal absorption, specific radioactivities of free and esterified liver cholesterol and of serum cholesterol are practically equal. Consequently, captation of absorbed cholesterol by the liver is not detectable. The results obtained exclude, on the other hand, the possibility that the lungs might play a similar role. The problem of the fate of chylomicron cholesterol is discussed. In order to avoid any ambiguity in this discussion, we have determined the concentration and specific radioactivity of free and esterified cholesterol in chylomicrons and lymph obtained by continuous drainage of chyle. 5 p. 100 of the radioactive cholesterol of chyle are found in lymph: in chylomicrons, the radioactivity of free cholesterol is higher than that of esterified cholesterol. (authors) [French] Des rats, conditionnes a ingerer leur repas quotidien entre minuit et 2 heures, recoivent a minuit, par tubage gastrique 0,5 mg de cholesterol 4-C{sup 14} et sont sacrifies dans les heures qui suivent. Pendant la phase la plus active de l'absorption intestinale les valeurs des radioactivites specifiques du cholesterol libre et esterifie du foie, et du cholesterol du serum sont pratiquement egales. En consequence, la captation par le foie du cholesterol d'absorption n'est pas decelable. Les resultats obtenus permettent, par contre, d'exclure la possibilite pour les poumons de jouer un role analogue. Le probleme de la destinee du cholesterol des chylomicrons est discute. Pour ecarter toute ambiguite dans cette discussion, on a determine la concentration et la radioactivite specifique du cholesterol libre et esterifie dans les chylomicrons et la lymphe obtenus par le drainage continu du chyle. 5 p. 100 du cholesterol radioactif du chyle se trouve dans la lymphe; dans les

  1. Applications of nano-structured metal oxides for treatment of arsenic in water and for antimicrobial coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadu, Rakesh Babu

    Dependency of technology has been increasing radically through cellular phones for communication, data storage devices for education, drinking water purifiers for healthiness, antimicrobial-coated textiles for cleanliness, nanomedicines for deadliest diseases, solar cells for natural power, nanorobots for engineering and many more. Nanotechnology develops many unprecedented products and methodologies with its adroitness in this modern scientific world. Syntheses of nanomaterials play a significant role in the development of technology. Solution combustion and hydrothermal syntheses produce many nanomaterials with different structures and pioneering applications. Nanometal oxides, like titania, silver oxide, manganese oxide and iron oxide have their unique applications in engineering, chemistry and biochemistry. Likewise, this study talks about the syntheses and applications of nanomaterials such as magnetic graphene nanoplatelets (M-Gras) decorated with uniformly dispersed NPs, manganese doped titania nanotubes (Mn-TNTs), and silver doped titania nanopartcles (nAg-TNPs) and their polyurethane based polymer nanocomposite coating (nAg-TiO2 /PU). Basically, M-Gras, and Mn-TNTs were applied for the treatment of arsenic contaminated water, and nAg- TiO2/PU applied for antimicrobial coatings on textiles. Adsorption of arsenic over Mn- TNTs, and M-Gras was discussed while considering all the regulations of arsenic contamination in drinking water and oxidation of arsenic over Mn-TNTs also discussed with the possible surface reactions. Silver doped titania and its polyurethane nanocomposite was coated on polyester fabric and examined the coated fabric for bactericidal activity for gram-negative (E. coli) and gram-positive ( S. epidermidis) bacteria. This study elucidates the development of suitable nanomaterials and their applications to treat or rectify the environmental hazards while following the scientific standards and regulations.

  2. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis; Rose bengale marque. Epreuve dynamique a doses tracantes; sa valeur dans le diagnostic des icteres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C; Desgrez, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service Frederic Joliot, Service de Biologie, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Caroli, J [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Delaloye, B [Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1961-07-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [French] Les auteurs font un rappel historique de l'etude differentielle des icteres grace aux pentes semi-logarithmiques d'epuration de la bromesulfonephtaleine et grace au temps d'apparition de cette substance dans la bile recueillie par tubage duodenal. Ils resument egalement les travaux etrangers qui tendent a substituer a cette epreuve le comptage externe au niveau de la tete, du foie et de l'abdomen, apres injection intraveineuse d'une dose tracante de rose bengale marque. Ils precisent les conditions techniques de cette epreuve et rapportent une experience qui confirme sa valeur, son exactitude et l'interet de son utilisation dans les differentes categories d'icteres par hepatite et par obstruction. (auteur)

  3. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  4. Preparation, extraction and dosage of labelled cholesterol (D and C{sup 14}); Preparation, extraction et dosage de cholesterol marque (D et C{sup 14})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugnard, L; Chevallier, F; Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    We returned in this note the techniques that we used for the preparation of labelled cholesterol. The chemical exchange of hydrogen enabling to contain deutero-cholesterol until 4 percent deuterium. The biologic synthesis, done on living rats or on their liver maintained in survival, permits, on the other hand, to get active cholesterol from acetate of containing sodium of the carbon 14. We indicated the techniques of extraction and dosage of the marked cholesterol. The radioactivity is measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. (M.B.) [French] Nous avons rapporte dans cette note les techniques que nous avons utilisees pour la preparation de cholesterol marque. L'echange chimique d'hydrogene conduit a du deuterio-cholesterol pouvant contenir jusqu'a 4 pour cent de deuterium. La synthese biologique, effectuee sur des rats vivants ou sur leur foie maintenu en survie, permet, d'autre part, d'obtenir du cholesterol radio-actif a partir d'acetate de sodium contenant du carbone 14. Nous avons indique les techniques d'extraction et de dosage du cholesterol marque. Sa radioactivite est mesuree au compteur de Geiger-Muller. (M.B.)

  5. The cellular origin of the hepatic cholesterol synthesis (1961); Origine cellulaire du cholesterol hepatique de synthese (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    If rats are sacrificed within minutes after an injection of acetate 1 - {sup 14}C the specific radioactivities of sterols precipitable with digitonine, extracted from liver parenchyma cells and from Kupffer cells are very close to each other, whatever the duration of the experiment may be. It follows that cholesterol synthesis probably occurs in both types of cells. A validation of this conclusion requires that the validity of certain assumptions be established. (authors) [French] Si l'on sacrifie des rats dans les minutes qui suivent une injection d'acetate 1- {sup 14}C, les valeurs des radioactivites specifiques des sterols, precipitables par la digitonine, extraits des cellules parenchymateuses du foie et des cellules de Kupffer sont tres proches l'une de l'autre quelle que soit la duree de l'experience. On en deduit que la synthese du cholesterol s'effectue probablement dans les deux types de cellules. Cette conclusion pour etre valable, exige que le bien fonde de certaines hypotheses soit verifie. (auteurs)

  6. Gamma-scintigraphy; La gammascintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgrez, H.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-06-15

    Gamma-scintigraphy is a medical technique making it possible to fix the image of certain organs after the concentration in these of emitting radioactive products. It is already widely used in the case of the thyroid gland with iodine-132 by applying the isotope iodine 131. The study of the liver and gall bladder is carried out using colloidal gold 198 and Bengal pink marked with iodine 131. Serum albumin marked with iodine 131 makes it possible to study rachidian blockages. Other applications can already be foreseen in this direction. (author) [French] La gammascintigraphie est une technique medicale permettant de faire l'image de certains organes apres concentration dans ceux-ci de produits radioactifs emetteurs. Son utilisation deja repandue en ce qui concerne la thyroidine et l'iode-131 est possible avec l'iode-132 pour cette meme glande. Avec l'or colloidal 198 et le rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, on pratique des etudes du foie et de la vesicule biliaire. La serumalbumine marquee a l'iode-131 permet d'etudier les blocages rachidiens. D'autres possibilites sont des maintenant envisageables dans cette direction. (auteur)

  7. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis; Rose bengale marque. Epreuve dynamique a doses tracantes; sa valeur dans le diagnostic des icteres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service Frederic Joliot, Service de Biologie, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Caroli, J. [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Delaloye, B. [Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1961-07-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [French] Les auteurs font un rappel historique de l'etude differentielle des icteres grace aux pentes semi-logarithmiques d'epuration de la bromesulfonephtaleine et grace au temps d'apparition de cette substance dans la bile recueillie par tubage duodenal. Ils resument egalement les travaux etrangers qui tendent a substituer a cette epreuve le comptage externe au niveau de la tete, du foie et de l'abdomen, apres injection intraveineuse d'une dose tracante de rose bengale marque. Ils precisent les conditions techniques de cette epreuve et rapportent une experience qui confirme sa valeur, son exactitude et l'interet de son utilisation dans les differentes categories d'icteres par hepatite et par obstruction. (auteur)

  8. Gamma-scintigraphy; La gammascintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgrez, H A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-06-15

    Gamma-scintigraphy is a medical technique making it possible to fix the image of certain organs after the concentration in these of emitting radioactive products. It is already widely used in the case of the thyroid gland with iodine-132 by applying the isotope iodine 131. The study of the liver and gall bladder is carried out using colloidal gold 198 and Bengal pink marked with iodine 131. Serum albumin marked with iodine 131 makes it possible to study rachidian blockages. Other applications can already be foreseen in this direction. (author) [French] La gammascintigraphie est une technique medicale permettant de faire l'image de certains organes apres concentration dans ceux-ci de produits radioactifs emetteurs. Son utilisation deja repandue en ce qui concerne la thyroidine et l'iode-131 est possible avec l'iode-132 pour cette meme glande. Avec l'or colloidal 198 et le rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, on pratique des etudes du foie et de la vesicule biliaire. La serumalbumine marquee a l'iode-131 permet d'etudier les blocages rachidiens. D'autres possibilites sont des maintenant envisageables dans cette direction. (auteur)

  9. Land Treatment Research and Development Program, Synthesis of Research Results,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Recreatlon alea . Appication .hlorraiion 1a.-r cia. enriched i. m u"rn oI raie matched summel F T hi leaching under other tpe of lain hs sand and gras...organic materials to biodegrade, nutrients to east of the Rocky Mountains varies from about be absorbed by plants, or other chemical reactions 100 days...from 150 to 180 days in most of the A common problem during wastewater applica- Corn Belt. In mountainous regions the frost-free tion is that the

  10. ”Something that most of us do anyway”: Personal reflection and medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    The use of reflection as a learning approach is increasing in medical education, often based on the assumption that students will not reflect without being encouraged to. Personal reflection is used to describe students’ ability to critically reflect on own learning and functioning. The assumption...... here is also that medical students seem not to reflect spontaneously. We explored students’ level of personal reflection and validated a questionnaire that attempt to measure personal reflection. We translated and adapted the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) to use in a Danish context...... ‘reflective’ outcomes of educational interventions....

  11. Impacts analysis regarding partially hydrogenated oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ellen D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Jr., Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zimmerman, Gregory P.. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bast, Cheryl B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the responsibility under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) [21 United States Code (U.S.C.) 301 et seq.] for assuring that the U.S. food supply is safe, sanitary, wholesome, and honestly labeled. Toward that end, FDA exercised approval authority over substances permitted for use as food additives. Substances that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) are not subject to regulation as food additives under the FD&C Act.

  12. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by representatives of the genus Mortierella on brewers’ spent grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucorales and Mortierellales (Cavalier- Smith 1998; Dyal & Narine 2005). The oil produced by these fungi has the GRAS (generally recognised as safe) status (Cohen & Ratledge 2005) and Mortierella species have found industrial applications... fermentation (Shimizu et al. 1989; Jang et al. 2000; Dyal & Narine 2005). Linseed c©2009 Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2 A. Jacobs et al. oil (LSO), which contains ∼57% of the ω-3 precursor α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), could...

  13. Elections to the Senior Staff Advisory Committee (“The Nine”) 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2010-01-01

    The electronic voting process for the Senior Staff Advisory Committee (“The Nine”) was closed on Monday 7 June. Of the 443 Senior Staff members eligible to vote, 197 voted. This represents a participation of 44% compared to 57% in 2009, 53% in 2008, 63% in 2007, 64% in 2006 and 66% in 2005. The results are: Electoral group 1 Candidate Dept Votes   Michael Doser PH 130 Elected Electoral group 2 Candidate Dept Votes   Sylvain Weisz DG 91 Elected Jean-Jacques Gras BE 66 Elected Miguel Marquina IT 46   Mauro Nonis EN ...

  14. Hurricane Katrina as a "teachable moment"

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Glantz

    2008-01-01

    By American standards, New Orleans is a very old, very popular city in the southern part of the United States. It is located in Louisiana at the mouth of the Mississippi River, a river which drains about 40% of the Continental United States, making New Orleans a major port city. It is also located in an area of major oil reserves onshore, as well as offshore, in the Gulf of Mexico. Most people know New Orleans as a tourist hotspot; especially well-known is the Mardi Gras season at the beginni...

  15. Development and Validation of a Light Weight, Energy Dense, Ready to Eat (RTE) Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Erythropoietin SMP – Skim Milk Powder EVOH - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol FFM – Fat Free Mass GRAS – General Recognized As Safe HFCS – High Fructose Corn Syrup...to loss in lean muscle mass, and impaired physical and cognitive performance (Marriott 1995). A loss of fat free mass ( FFM ) can also be interpreted...was reported that the soldiers lost an average of 4.02kg +/- 1.42kg in FFM during the first three months of the experiment. This portion of the

  16. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  17. Science, law, and politics in the Food and Drug Administration's genetically engineered foods policy: FDA's 1992 policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L

    2005-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) 1992 policy statement was developed in the context of critical gaps in scientific knowledge concerning the compositional effects of genetic transformation and severe limitations in methods for safety testing. FDA acknowledged that pleiotropy and insertional mutagenesis may cause unintended changes, but it was unknown whether this happens to a greater extent in genetic engineering compared with traditional breeding. Moreover, the agency was not able to identify methods by which producers could screen for unintended allergens and toxicants. Despite these uncertainties, FDA granted genetically engineered foods the presumption of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) and recommended that producers use voluntary consultations before marketing them.

  18. Producción y caracterización de biocatalizadores implicados en la obtención de ácido siálico y compuestos relacionados = Production and characterization of biocatalysts involved in obtaining sialic acid and related compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    García García, María Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Palabras claves: Enzymes Biocatalysts N-acetyl neuraminte lyase N-acetyl neuraminate synthase Sialic acid Kinetic parameters CLEAs GRAS microorganism Aldolase Protein Cloning N-acetyl-D-mannosamine Pyruvate Resumen El ácido siálico y sus derivados son un grupo importante de biomoléculas implicadas en muchos fenómenos biológicos. Su síntesis y aplicación es de gran interés en la industria farmacéutica para la obtención de fármacos co...

  19. Metabolic Engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Microbial Cell Factories for Succinic Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    anhydride. There are several biomass platforms, all prokaryotic, for succinic acid production; however, overproduction of succinic acid in S. cerevisiae offers distinct process advantages. For example, S. cerevisiae has been awarded GRAS status for use in human consumables, grows well at low p......H significantly minimizing purification and acidification costs associated with organic acid production, and can utilize diverse carbon substrates in chemically defined medium. S. cerevisiae offers the unique advantage of being the most well characterized eukaryotic expression system. Here we describe the use...

  20. Discovery and development of a novel class of phenoxyacetyl amides as highly potent TRPM8 agonists for use as cooling agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noncovich, Alain; Priest, Chad; Ung, Jane; Patron, Andrew P; Servant, Guy; Brust, Paul; Servant, Nicole; Faber, Nathan; Liu, Hanghui; Gonsalves, Nicole S; Ditschun, Tanya L

    2017-08-15

    The paper presents the activity trends for a novel series of phenoxyacetyl amides as human TRPM8 receptor agonists. This series encompasses in vitro activity values ranging from the micromolar to the picomolar levels. Sensory evaluation of these molecules highlights their relevance as cooling agents for oral applications. The positive outcome of the complete evaluation of N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-N-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-2-(p-tolyloxy)acetamide resulted in its approval for Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status by the Flavor & Extract Manufacturer Association (FEMA) as FEMA 4809. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aplicação do agente biológico Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries “Cladosporin” como bioprotetor da qualidade do café (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Angélico, Caroline Lima

    2013-01-01

    O produto à base do agente bioprotetor da qualidade do café Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries é uma alternativa promissora para a aplicação nos frutos de café ainda na lavoura, por se tratar de um produto biológico contendo um micro-organismo com características GRAS (General Regarded as Safe) e com reconhecida ação deletéria sobre fungos prejudiciais à qualidade do produto final. A aplicação do produto nos frutos poderia promover a manutenção ou a melhoria da qualidade de cafés ...

  2. Enhancing Nitrification at Low Temperature with Zeolite in a Mining Operations Retention Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Miazga-Rodriguez, Misha; Han, Sukkyun; Yakiwchuk, Brian; Wei, Kai; English, Colleen; Bourn, Steven; Bohnert, Seth; Stein, Lisa Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate explosives are used in mining operations at Diavik Diamond Mines Inc. in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Residual nitrogen is washed into the mine pit and piped to a nearby retention pond where its removal is accomplished by microbial activity prior to a final water treatment step and release into the sub-Arctic lake, Lac de Gras. Microbial removal of ammonium in the retention pond is rapid during the brief ice-free summer, but often slows under ice cover that persists up ...

  3. Pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-technological approaches of actinides decorporation by an in vivo sequestering agent. Application to the development of new treatments; Approches pharmacocinetique et pharmacotechnique de la decorporation d'actinides par un agent complexant in vivo. Application a la mise au point de nouveaux traitements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, G.

    2005-05-24

    modulate the pharmacokinetic parameters by prolonging their circulation time. Stealth liposomes of diameters reduced to around 100 nm (SL-100 nm) displayed a more convenient distribution which may improve the pharmacological effect of DTPA. Indeed, the administration of a single dose of approximately 3 {mu}mol.kg{sup -1} of DTPA encapsulated in SL-100 nm induced an excretion of more than 90% of the Pu injected activity after 16 days while one free DTPA dose of 30 {mu}mol.kg{sup -1} induced only less than 50% of excretion of Pu under the same conditions. Moreover, one weekly administration of the SL-100 nm makes it possible to reduce significantly the retention of plutonium in the liver to less than 2% of Pu injected activity and that in the skeleton to less than 0.2%, only 30 days after Pu contamination. All these improvements may be attributed to the increase in the aria under the curve of the DTPA concentrations (AUC) and to an increased distribution of DTPA to the liver and the skeleton by the SL-100 nm. Contrary to the injection of free DTPA, SL-100 nm liposomes seem to be able to interact with the macrophages and the hepatocytes in the liver, then to intercept plutonium and to prevent the deposition of the actinide in the skeleton in the rats. Liposomal formulations of DTPA and their pharmacokinetic studies thus make it possible to optimize the treatment of decorporation of Pu. (author) [French] Apres contamination interne par les actinides transuraniens, l'acide diethylene-triamine-pentaacetique (DTPA) est le seul traitement disponible pour accelerer la decorporation c'est-a-dire l'excretion hors de l'organisme de ces radiocontaminants par les voies naturelles (urinaire et fecale). Cependant, l'efficacite du DTPA est variable et semble limitee pour mobiliser les toxiques a partir de leurs sites de dEpot et de retention qui sont principalement le foie et le squelette. La molecule presente en effet une pharmacocinetique defavorable (faible

  4. Editorial: Alimentation méditerranéenne et santé [Mediterranean diet and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika BOUCHENAK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ce numéro de Nutrition & Santé est un retour sur le 2 Congrès International de la Société Algérienne de Nutrition qui s'est tenu du 13 au 15 octobre 2015, à Alger, et dont la thématique principale portait sur l'Alimentation méditerranéenne et la santé. L'alimentation méditerranéenne représente un véritable trésor culturel et culinaire, prônant la consommation de certains aliments, comme les fruits, les légumes, les légumineuses, les grains entiers, les noix, le poisson. De plus, l'un de ses piliers repose sur la consommation de l'huile d'olive, dont les avantages sont nombreux. A cet effet, l'OMS et la FAO ont reconnu le régime méditerranéen comme un modèle d'alimentation de qualité, sain et durable. Par ailleurs, les régimes méditerranéens traditionnels sont nutritionnellement appropriés, avec des teneurs variées en graisses totales, faibles en acides gras saturés et très faibles en acides gras Trans, et riches en fibres et en vitamines et flavonoïdes antioxydants.

  5. Synergy of a combination of nisin and citric acid against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingchen; Zhen, Zhen; Wang, Xinyang; Guo, Na

    2017-12-01

    Food-borne diseases caused by pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, have long attracted attention globally from researchers, food industries, and food safety authorities. Nisin (NS) is the only bacteriocin used worldwide as a generally recognised as safe (GRAS) food preservative, while citric acid (CA) has an unrestricted use in foods since it has GRAS status. In this study, synergistic interactions of NS combined with CA against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were studied by the chequerboard microdilution method, with fractional inhibitory concentration index values ranging from 0.25 to 0.375 and 0.19 to 0.375, respectively. The positive interactions were verified by time-kill studies in pasteurised milk and disk diffusion assays. The mechanism of the synergistic antibacterial of NS and CA is proposed following SEM analysis and the determination of release of cell constituents. These results suggest that the cell walls and membrane are the probable main targets of this antimicrobial combination. These findings indicated that the combination of NS and CA not only could be used as a new promising naturally sourced food preservative, but may also reduce the problem of bacterial resistance.

  6. Preserving third year medical students' empathy and enhancing self-reflection using small group "virtual hangout" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Pamela; Grosseman, Suely; Novack, Dennis H; Rosenzweig, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Medical student professionalism education is challenging in scope, purpose, and delivery, particularly in the clinical years when students in large universities are dispersed across multiple clinical sites. We initiated a faculty-facilitated, peer small group course for our third year students, creating virtual classrooms using social networking and online learning management system technologies. The course emphasized narrative self-reflection, group inquiry, and peer support. We conducted this study to analyze the effects of a professionalism course on third year medical students' empathy and self-reflection (two elements of professionalism) and their perceptions about the course. Students completed the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS) and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) before and after the course and provided anonymous online feedback. The results of the JSE before and after the course demonstrated preservation of empathy rather than its decline. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in GRAS scores (p < 0.001), suggesting that the sharing of personal narratives may foster reflective ability and reflective practice among third year students. This study supports previous findings showing that students benefit from peer groups and discussion in a safe environment, which may include the use of a virtual group video platform.

  7. Drug‑Drug and Drug‑Nutraceutical Cocrystal/Salt as Alternative Medicine for Combination Therapy: A Crystal Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Thakuria

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The pre-formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals and salts is a concept of crystal engineering that has emerged as a promising technique for drug development in pharmaceutical industry. Recent introduction of pharmaceutical cocrystals in regulatory guidelines of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA made them one of the potential alternatives when salt preparation is not feasible. Apart from generally regarded as safe (GRAS coformers, drug‑drug and drug‑nutraceutical cocrystals are recent additions to pharmaceutical cocrystal family that have additional health benefits. Indeed, preparation of salt forms is a routine practice to deal with inadequacies associated with the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API and happens to be a potentially reliable method. Amongst them, drug-drug and drug-nutraceutical cocrystals have drawn significant importance in the recent past as they reduce drug load and cost effects during multiple disease diagnosis. However, one has to be prudent in the selection of drug molecules, the presence of complementary hydrogen bond synthon, disease management during multiple disease therapy, etc. that play important roles in their preparation. That is the reason why drug–drug cocrystals are scarce in the literature compared to pharmaceutical cocrystals containing GRAS coformers and salt forms. Herein, we discuss case studies preferably the reported drug‑drug, drug‑nutraceutical cocrystals, and a few salts with an emphasis on their role in physicochemical property modulation.

  8. Les microalgues marines : source alternative d’acide eicosapentaènoïque (EPA et d’acide docosahexaènoïque (DHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencreac’h Gaëlle

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les lipides de microalgues marines sont riches en acide eicosapentaènoïque (EPA, C20 :5 et en acide docosahexaènoïque (DHA, C22 :6, deux acides gras hautement insaturés de la série ω3 (AGHI-ω3, et représentent aujourd’hui une source alternative potentielle face aux huiles de poissons. Les microalgues synthétisent de l’EPA et\\\\ou du DHA dans des proportions relatives variables selon leur classe taxonomique. D’autre part, pour une même espèce, les teneurs en ces acides gras dépendent fortement des conditions de culture. De part leur métabolisme photoautotrophe, la production de biomasse microalgale à grande échelle nécessite la conception de bioréacteurs spécifiques, les photobioréacteurs, qui représentent encore aujourd’hui un défi technologique. La poursuite de travaux de recherche, dans des domaines très divers, reste nécessaire pour confirmer la viabilité économique des procédés industriels de production d’EPA et de DHA par les microalgues.

  9. Effect of Low Shear Modeled Microgravity (LSMMG) on the Probiotic Lactobacillus Acidophilus ATCC 4356

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, S.; Voorhies, A.; Lorenzi, H.; Castro-Wallace, S.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) probiotic microbes into the spaceflight food system has the potential for use as a safe, non-invasive, daily countermeasure to crew microbiome and immune dysregulation. However, the microgravity effects on the stress tolerances and genetic expression of probiotic bacteria must be determined to confirm translation of strain benefits and to identify potential for optimization of growth, survival, and strain selection for spaceflight. The work presented here demonstrates the translation of characteristics of a GRAS probiotic bacteria to a microgravity analog environment. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 was grown in the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) orientation and the control orientation in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) to determine the effect of LSMMG on the growth, survival through stress challenge, and gene expression of the strain. No differences were observed between the LSMMG and control grown L. acidophilus, suggesting that the strain will behave similarly in spaceflight and may be expected to confer Earth-based benefits.

  10. Restoring efficiency of hemopoietic cell transplantation in a mouse lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays; L'efficacite restauratrice de la greffe de cellules hemopoietiques chez la souris letalement irradiee par une exposition totale aux rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Gino

    1959-10-15

    This research thesis reports the study of possibility of treatments (or restoration) of a mouse which has been submitted to a lethal dose of X rays. More particularly, the author compared the restoring efficiency of bone marrow and fetal liver injected in a mouse which had been lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays. He also studied the functional status of the hemopoietic graft, and the emergence of the secondary disease in mice which had been as well lethally irradiated and then restored by injection of bone marrow and fetal liver. The author then addressed the influence of the induction of immune tolerance of the host with respect to the donor on the survival of a mouse lethally irradiated and restored by homologue bone marrow [French] Des resultats des recherches que nous avons conduites permettent, dans les limites de nos conditions experimentales, d'eclaircir certains aspects du probleme de la restauration des animaux irradies par la greffe de cellules hemopoietiques. On peut admettre que la moelle osseuse de 30 jours est 2 fois plus efficace que le foie foetal de 16 jours, pour ce qui concerne la survie 30 jours; ceci aussi bien en cas de restauration isologue que homologue. En outre, le foie foetal de 16 jours permet une survie d'environ 50 pc plus elevee que les foies foetaux de 13 ou 19 jours; ceci en cas de restauration isologue. On a aussi montre que les degres de capacite restauratrice des differents tissus hemopoietiques dependent du nombre de cellules souches, progenitrices des granulocytes polynucleaires. Nous avons mis en evidence, en cas de restauration par la moelle osseuse homologue, que la presence d'un greffon hemopoietique fonctionnel est necessaire et suffisante pour l'apparition de la maladie secondaire et que celle-ci est une cause suffisante et non necessaire de la mortalite tardive. La constatation experimentale que la viabilite du greffon est une cause suffisante et non necessaire de la mortalite tardive en est la preuve

  11. Place de la splénectomie dans la prise en charge de l’hypertension portale non cirrhotique: à propos de 3 cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhamidi, Mohamed Said; Hammi, Salah Eddine; Bouzroud, Mohamed; Benmoussa, Mustapha; ali, Abdelmounaim Ait; Bounaim, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    L’hypertension portale non cirrhotique est une affection décrite pour la première fois par Guido BANTI en 1898 comme une affection associant une hypertension portale avec splénomégalie et anémie sur foie sain. Le diagnostic repose sur l’échographie abdominale, la splénoportographie et la biopsie hépatique. Le but de notre travail est d’évaluer la place de la splénectomie dans l’hypertension portale non cirrhotique à travers une étude rétrospective portant sur 3 malades dont 2 femmes et un homme pris en charge dans notre formation entre Janvier 2010 et Septembre 2016. Le diagnostic de l’hypertension portale idiopathique a été basé sur les critères suivants : une hypertension portale, la présence des varices oesophagiènnes avec une splénomégalie, l’absence de cirrhose ou d’autres affections hépatiques responsables de l’hypertension portale. La splénectomie a été réalisée chez les 3 malades. L’évolution après la splénectomie était marquée par la normalisation des signes cliniques, radiologiques et biologiques de cette affection, avec absence de récidive des varices œsophagiennes. La splénectomie associée à la ligature des varices œsophagiennes pourraient être suffisantes pour traiter ce syndrome et surtout ses conséquences sans avoir recours à une dérivation spléno-rénale. PMID:29255554

  12. Metabolism of cerium 144 in rat. Distribution - elimination - dosimetry; Metabolisme du cerium 144 chez le rat. Distribution - elimination - dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, Jacques

    1959-07-01

    This academic report concerns a study during which cerium 144 has been intravenously injected to three-month old rats under the form of cerium chloride in aqueous solution with pH of 9,5. Rats have then been sacrificed at different times after the injection, and organ or tissue samplings have been performed to study the isotope distribution in their bodies. This allowed the calculation of internal irradiation doses locally received by the animal, and also to identify critical organs with respect to cerium 144. Thus, until the twentieth day after injection, liver is the critical organ. After, it is the skeleton, for the rest of the animal's life. The bone internal irradiation is the highest danger for an internal cerium 144 contamination, due to threats on body hematopoietic functions [French] Le Cerium 144 est injecte a des rats de trois mois par voie intraveineuse, sous forme de chlorure en solution aqueuse a pH = 9,5. Une telle solution est colloidale. Les rats sont sacrifies par groupe de 5 a des temps differents apres l'injection et des prelevements d'organes ou de tissus sont effectues qui permettent d'etudier la distribution de l'isotope dans l'organisme. Cette etude de la distribution du Cerium 144 dans l'organiqme du rat a permis egalement le calcul des doses d'irradiation interne recues localement par l'animal. Ces donnees permettent de definir les organes critiques de l'organisme pour le Cerium 144: Jusqu'au 20eme jour l'organe critique est le foie. Ce sera ensuite le squelette, et ce, pendant toute la vie de l'animal. L'irradiation interne de l'os constitue, en raison des menaces qu'elle comporte pour les fonctions hematopoietiques de l'organisme, le plus grand danger d'une contamination interne par le Cerium 144.

  13. Approvisionnement en porcs vifs et viande porcine de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiendrebeogo Timbilfou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé : L’étude a évalué l’approvisionnement en porcs et viande de porc de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso. Les données ont été collectées par enquête transversale et rétrospective  auprès de 623 éleveurs en 2003, de 34 commerçants/transformateurs en 2005 et 2006 et auprès de l’Abattoir Frigorifique de Bobo-Dioulasso (AFB en 2009. Les résultats ont montré que les porcs provenaient des élevages urbains et périurbains (38% et des villages au-delà de la périphérie de Bobo-Dioulasso (62%. La production de viande de porc à l’AFB s’est accrue entre 2001 et 2006. Les carcasses, les poumons et le foie ont été surtout saisis aux motifs de tuberculose, de congestions et de cysticerques. Sur 982kg de viande traitée quotidiennement par les acteurs (35, 80% l’a été par des rôtisseurs (88,24% des acteurs, 17% par des charcutiers (5,88%, 2% par les bouchers (2,94% et 1% par les restaurateurs (2,94%. Des études complémentaires sur la rémunération de la production et de la commercialisation et sur la qualité des produits (porcs, viande et produits transformés seront nécessaires pour impulser l’accroissement de la part des viandes porcines dans l’approvisionnement de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso Mots clés : Approvisionnement, porcs,  viande de porc, Ville de Bobo-Dioulasso

  14. Les individus face à l’événement « cancer » Individuals facing cancer : an acute crisis becoming chronical within the family and the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Pourtau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Notre analyse porte sur les effets du cancer sur les temporalités collectives que sont la vie familiale et le travail. Cette pathologie a toujours engendré une crise biographique au moment de son apparition. Cependant sa chronicisation, produit de l’évolution de la cancérologie ces quarante dernières années, a modifié les effets sociaux qu’elle engendre. À part quelques cancers comme celui de l’œsophage, du foie ou du pancréas, le cancer n’est plus une maladie aiguë induisant une forte mortalité à court terme. Cependant, des traitements à l’issue incertaine peuvent souvent durer des années et se montrer handicapants et stigmatisants. Les temporalités collectives, partagées entre les malades et leur entourage, se disloquent, entraînant des disjonctions temporelles et l’isolement social du malade. La dimension écliptique de la maladie, avec ses rémissions et ses rechutes, engendre des répétitions de la crise biographique.In this article, we present arguments on the impact of cancer on the collective experience of time within two main social institutions, family and the workplace. This disease always provokes a biographic crisis when it appears. Nevertheless, as medical technology progresses, cancer is becoming a chronic disease, and the social effects of cancer are changing. It is no longer the same disease with a short-term risk of death. Treatments can last for years with uncertain results and induce handicap or social stigma. The collective experiences of time, shared between the sick person and her family and friends, tend to break up, entailing time breaks and leading to the social isolation of the patient. The ecliptic dimension of the disease, with its remissions and relapses, gives rise to repeated biographic crisis.

  15. Gold-198 and rose bengal marked with iodine-131 in the diagnostic of hepatic vesicular affections; L'or{sup 198} et le rose bengale marque a l'iode{sup 131} dans le diagnostic des affections hepatovesiculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manambelona Razafimalaza, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-06-15

    Colloidal gold-198 makes it possible to obtain clear images of hepatic parenchyma; the examination can be repeated from different angles thus demonstrating the presence of pathologically inert regions, whether they be hydatic cysts, abscesses or neoplasia. The study of the disappearance curve for the colloid, together with a measurement of the blood volume, makes it possible also to calculate the hepatic flow. Using Rose Bengal marked with iodine-131, it is possible to obtain images of the liver and of the bile ducts, and to follow the elimination of the dye in the intestines. The simultaneous recording of the disappearance curves for the blood and of the appearance of the dye in the intestines constitutes an useful working test which is particularly sensible for evaluating the permeability of the bile ducts and, to a certain degree, the site of an obstruction. (author) [French] L'or colloidal-198 permet d'obtenir avec nettete des images du parenchyme hepatique; l'examen peut etre repete sous plusieurs incidences mettant ainsi en evidence les zones muettes pathologiques, qu'il s'agisse de kystes hydatiques, d'abces ou de neoplasies. L'etude de la courbe d'epuration du colloide completee par une mesure du volume sanguin offre en outre la possibilite de calculer le debit hepatique. A l'aide du rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, il est possible d'obtenir des images du foie et de la vesicule biliaire, et de suivre l'elimination intestinale du colorant. L'enregistrement simultane des courbes d'epuration sanguine et d'apparition intestinale constitue une epreuve fonctionnelle particulierement sensible pour apprecier la permeabilite des voies biliaires et dans une certaine mesure le site d'une obstruction. (auteur)

  16. Animal vaccines based on orally presented yeast recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Kyoung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2013-09-13

    In veterinary vaccinology, the oral route of administration is an attractive alternative compared to the commonly used parenteral route. Yeasts have a number of properties that make them potential live delivery systems for oral vaccination purposes such as their high expression levels, their GRAS status, adjuvant properties, and post-translational modification possibilities. Consequently, yeasts have been employed for the expression of heterologous genes and for the production of therapeutic proteins. Yeast-based vaccines are reviewed with regard to their ability to express and produce antigens from pathogens for veterinary use. Many of these vaccines have been shown to elicit protective immune responses following oral immunization in animals. Ultimately, yeast-based oral vaccines may offer a potential opportunity for the development of novel ideal vaccines in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the safety of Aspergillus niger - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, E.; Dunn-Coleman, N.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug...... retrieval reasons and there is a taxonomical consensus based on molecular data that the only other common species closely related to A. niger in the Aspergillus series Nigri is A. tubingensis. A. niger, like other filamentous fungi, should be treated carefully to avoid the formation of spore dust. However...... Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste treatment. In the last two decades, A. niger has been developed as an important transformation host to over-express food enzymes. Being pre-dated by older names, the name A. niger has been conserved for economical and information...

  18. Androgynous ethical intervention and living history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baden Offord

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how narratives of Australian belonging are formed through a quilted matrix of myth, history and memory. This is done through looking at the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras and the beach, tracing the mythology of the Surf Life Saver, the surfer and contemporary sexual and ethnic identities. I suggest that life is lived through layers of the past, organised in formal and informal, conscious and unconscious ways, connected in asymmetrical and symmetrical fashion. The aim here is not to add to the measurable, instrumental canon of history, but to activate what Greg Denning has referred to as “living histories”, by exploring androgynous moments of belonging.

  19. Biotechnological and molecular approaches for vanillin production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar

    2013-02-01

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavoring agents in the world. As the annual world market demand of vanillin could not be met by natural extraction, chemical synthesis, or tissue culture technology, thus biotechnological approaches may be replacement routes to make production of bio-vanillin economically viable. This review's main focus is to highlight significant aspects of biotechnology with emphasis on the production of vanillin from eugenol, isoeugenol, lignin, ferulic acid, sugars, phenolic stilbenes, vanillic acid, aromatic amino acids, and waste residues by applying fungi, bacteria, and plant cells. Production of biovanillin using GRAS lactic acid bacteria and metabolically engineered microorganisms, genetic organization of vanillin biosynthesis operons/gene cassettes and finally the stability of biovanillin generated through various biotechnological procedures are also critically reviewed in the later sections of the review.

  20. Comparative analysis of solid-state bioprocessing and enzymatic treatment of finger millet for mobilization of bound phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Singh, Anshu; Bhattacharya, Patrali; Yuvraj, Jude; Banerjee, Rintu

    2013-11-01

    The present work investigates the probable bioprocessing technique to mobilize the bound phenolics naturally found in finger millet cell wall for enriching it with dietary antioxidants. Comparative study was performed between the exogenous enzymatic treatment and solid-state fermentation of grain (SSF) with a food grade organism Rhizopus oryzae. SSF results indicated that at the 6th day of incubation, total phenolic content (18.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/gds) and antioxidant property (DPPH radical scavenging activity of 39.03 %, metal chelating ability of 54 % and better reducing power) of finger millet were drastically enhanced when fermented with GRAS filamentous fungi. During the enzymatic bioprocessing, most of the phenolics released during the hydrolysis, leached out into the liquid portion rather than retaining them within the millet grain, resulting in overall loss of dietary antioxidant. The present study establishes the most effective strategy to enrich the finger millet with phenolic antioxidants.

  1. Alternatives for biosurfactants and bacteriocins extraction from Lactococcus lactis cultures produced under different pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N; Salgado, J M; Cortés, S; Domínguez, J M

    2010-08-01

    Study of the potential of Lactococcus lactis CECT-4434 as a biosurfactants and nisin (the only bacteriocin allowed to be used in the food industry) producer for industrial applications, exploiting the possibility of recovering separately both metabolites, taking into account that L. lactis is an interesting micro-organism with several applications in the food industry because it is recognized as GRAS. The results showed the ability of this strain to produce cell-bound biosurfactants, under controlled pH, and cell-bound biosurfactants and bacteriocins, when pH was not controlled. Three extraction procedures were designed to separately recover these substances. The strain L. lactis CECT-4434 showed to be a cell-bound biosurfactants and bacterocins producer when fermentations were carried out under uncontrolled pH. Both products can be recovered separately. Development of a convenient tool for the extraction of cell-bound biosurfactants and bacteriocins from the fermentation broth.

  2. A abordagem socioantropológica de Sophie Poirot-Delpech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ramos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the work of Sophie Poirot-Delpech. Through her research, the author has contributed to the development of a specific tradition in the sociological domain – the social-anthropology of technique. In this approach (that has benefited from the contributions of other authors, particularly Alain Gras, Gérard Dubey, Caroline Moricot, Victor Scardigli we try to identify convergence points with organizational psychologists´ practice, namely, the centrality of the real; participative action; and the importance of context. Particular attention is paid to the concepts and methods adopted, in order to emphasize the contributions that this tradition brings to the research on organizational psychology. Also accentuated is the exercise of contextualizing human activity, its historical character and the relevance of its continuous (reconstruction as imperatives to the understanding of it.

  3. 25 years of service at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The 28 staff members having achieved 25 years of service at CERN in 2014 were invited by the Director-General to a reception in their honour on 25 November 2014.       Alberto AIMAR IT   Patrick BERLINGHI  GS   Horst  BREUKER  PH   Paolo  CHIGGIATO  TE   Jorgen  CHRISTIANSEN PH   Ivan  DELOOSE  IT   Martine   DESNYDER-IVESDAL  PH   Laurent  DUCIMETIERE   TE   Bruno  DUPUY  BE   Alan James  FINDLAY  BE   Jean-Jacques   GRAS BE   Michael  HAUSCHILD PH   Erk  JENSEN  BE   Michael  LAMONT&...

  4. Korpusbasierte Analyse der Semantik von Idiomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathi, Katerina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Idioms are usually defined in semantic terms as non-compositional units whose meaning does not result from the meaning of their parts. This definition implies that idioms have exactly one meaning. But if we examine idioms in context in large electronic corpora, we observe that the meaning of idioms is contextually variable, like that of words. We observe uses that exceed the range of the conventionalized and (lexicographically codified meaning. A case study (the German idiom ins Gras beißen, literally "to bite into the grass", 'to die, to bite the dust' is used as an illustration of the relation between core meaning and contextual variability or meaning extension in idioms and the underlying mechanisms of this process.

  5. Les oméga 3 : de l’alimentation animale à la nutrition humaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La dernière édition des Apports nutritionnels conseillés (ANC- éd. 2001 souligne la nécessité d’accroître la consommation d’acide alpha-linolénique (ALA. Celle-ci devrait au minimum doubler et représenter 0,8 % (par rapport à l’énergie totale contre 0,34 % actuellement. Or, l’étude Aquitaine [1] a montré que les lipides d’origine animale contribuaient à près de 75 % de l’apport alimentaire en ALA. Ainsi, parmi les stratégies envisageables pour accroître notre consommation d’ALA, sans changer fondamentalement les habitudes alimentaires des Français, on note un intérêt croissant pour augmenter la teneur en oméga 3 des produits animaux via l’alimentation de ces derniers. Quelques exemples de modification de la composition en acides gras des produits animaux sont exposés. Chez les espèces monogastriques (volaille, porc, le profil des lipides de carcasse est un bon reflet des lipides alimentaires. Ainsi, chez le porc, le niveau d’oméga 3 peut être augmenté d’un facteur 2 à 4, lorsque les animaux reçoivent dans leur alimentation de l’huile de colza, des graines de lin ou de la farine de poissons. En revanche, chez les animaux ruminants, le transfert des acides gras polyinsaturés alimentaires vers les tissus est faible en raison de l’hydrogénation qu’ils subissent dans le rumen. Certaines stratégies qui consistent à protéger ces acides gras de la biohydrogénation permettent néanmoins d’accroître le taux d’ALA dans les tissus et le lait. Ainsi, il apparaît possible d’augmenter la consommation d’oméga 3 de la population, via la consommation de produits issus d’animaux nourris avec des sources d’oméga 3. Cependant, au niveau de la production, ces changements doivent être maîtrisés \\; ils ne peuvent se faire sans un contrôle des qualités d’une part organoleptiques, en raison du degré élevé d’oxydabilité de ces acides gras, d’autre part de texture, en raison

  6. Cinematic slowness, political paralysis? Animal life in ‘Bovines’, with Deleuze and Guattari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McMahon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Deleuze elaborates accounts of cinematic time and of becoming-animal quite separately, without addressing potential links between these accounts. Drawing on a range of works by Deleuze and Guattari, this article allows these accounts to intersect through a reading of the aesthetics of slowness in the documentary art film Bovines ou la vraie vie des vaches (The True Life of Cows, Emmanuel Gras, 2012 and its generative focus on (deterritorialisation, becoming, and affect. In privileging what Peter Hallward calls ‘virtual creatings’ over ‘actual creatures’, Bovines implicitly proposes a celebration of biovitality rather than an interrogation of biopolitics, pointing to the possible political limitations of the film and of the Deleuzo-Guattarian framework deployed here.

  7. Inulin: Properties, health benefits and food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Shehzad, Aamir; Omar, Mukama; Rakha, Allah; Raza, Husnain; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Shakeel, Azam; Ansari, Anum; Niazi, Sobia

    2016-08-20

    Inulin is a water soluble storage polysaccharide and belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans. Inulin has attained the GRAS status in USA and is extensively available in about 36,000 species of plants, amongst, chicory roots are considered as the richest source of inulin. Commonly, inulin is used as a prebiotic, fat replacer, sugar replacer, texture modifier and for the development of functional foods in order to improve health due to its beneficial role in gastric health. This review provides a deep insight about its production, physicochemical properties, role in combating various kinds of metabolic and diet related diseases and utilization as a functional ingredient in novel product development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emissions of major gaseous and particulate species during experimental burns of southern African biomass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Keene, WC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Lo catio n B ur n Co nd iti on c M CE , gC gC � 1 CC , g g� 1 Moistur e, % Elem enta lC ontent ,g kg � 1 El em en ta lE m iss io n, % C N Cl B r S P K Ca N a M g C N Cl B r S P K Ca N... CC , g g� 1 Moi sture , % El em en ta lC on te nt ,g kg � 1 El em en ta lE m iss io n, % C N Cl B r S P K Ca N a M g C N Cl B r S P K Ca N a M g 15 gras sd Sa tar a mix ed 0.9 6 0.9 9...

  9. Andrographolide: solving chemical instability and poor solubility by means of cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Kuthuru; Goud, N Rajesh; Nangia, Ashwini

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive agent andrographolide was screened with pharmaceutically acceptable coformers to discover a novel solid form that will solve the chemical instability and poor solubility problems of this herbal medicine. Liquid-assisted grinding of andrographolide with GRAS (generally regarded as safe) coformers in a fixed stoichiometry resulted in cocrystals with vanillin (1:1), vanillic acid (1:1), salicylic acid (1:1), resorcinol (1:1), and guaiacol (1:1). All the crystalline products were characterized by thermal, spectroscopic, and diffraction methods. Interestingly, even though the cocrystals are isostructural, their physicochemical properties are quite different. The andrographolide-salicylic acid cocrystal completely inhibited the chemical transformation of andrographolide to its inactive sulfate metabolite, and moreover, the cocrystal exhibited a dissolution rate that was three times faster and a drug release that was two times higher than pure andrographolide. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Youngren, Susanne R. (Purdue)

    2012-07-11

    Nutraceuticals are important due to their inherent health benefits. However, utilization and consumption are limited by their poor water solubility and instability at normal processing and storage conditions. Herein, we propose an elegant and novel approach for the delivery of nutraceuticals in their active form using hydrocolloid matrices that are inexpensive and non-toxic with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. Iota-carrageenan and curcumin have been chosen as models of hydrocolloid and nutraceutical compounds, respectively. The iota-carrageenan network maintains a stable organization after encapsulating curcumin molecules, protects them from melting and then releases them in a sustained manner. These findings lay a strong foundation for developing value-added functional and medicinal foods.

  11. Nouveaux procédés verts d'oxydation de l'acide oléique

    OpenAIRE

    Godard, Anaïs

    2012-01-01

    Dans un contexte de raréfaction des ressources pétrolières et de pressions environnementales, l’industrie chimique a besoin d'innover en développant de nouvelles filières destinées à l'élaboration de bioproduits, à partir de matières premières d'origine végétale. Les acides gras insaturés obtenus à partir des huiles végétales, constituent ainsi une ressource renouvelable à fort potentiel permettant de diversifier les approvisionnements d'origine pétrolière. Notre intérêt s'est porté sur la ré...

  12. Elections to the Senior Staff Advisory Committee ("The Nine") 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Untitled Document The electronic voting process for the Senior Staff Advisory Committee ("The Nine") was closed on Friday, 5 June. Of the 433 Senior Staff members eligible to vote, 247 voted. The results are: Electoral Group 2 Name Department Votes Marco Cattaneo PH 62 Edmond Ciapala BE 57 Jean-Jacques Gras BE 33 Sorin Ilie TE 9 Erk Jensen BE 69 Jose Miguel Jimenez TE 67 Yacine Kadi EN 37 Paul Lecoq PH 39 Miguel Marquina IT 47 Hans Muller PH 33 James Purvis HR 113 Gerard Tranquille BE 16 Electoral Group 5 Name Department Votes Sudeshna Datta Cockerill HR 127 Jens Vigen GS 88 The elected persons are James Purvis (HR), Erk Jensen (BE), and Jose Miguel Jimenez (TE) for Electoral Gro...

  13. De l’intuition à l’audace, l’œuvre de Pierre Potier

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Fabien; Roux, Muriel Le

    2007-01-01

    À 71 ans, après plus de quarante années vouées à la recherche de médicaments, à l’Institut de Chimie des substances naturelles du CNRS, Pierre Potier s’est éteint alors qu’il espérait voir aboutir ses travaux pour le traitement du diabète de type 2 (« diabète gras »). Pharmacien et chimiste, ses travaux ont permis la diffusion mondiale de deux agents thérapeutiques majeurs, la Navelbine® et le Taxotère®. Ces médicaments sont des anti-cancéreux parmi les plus actifs et les plus vendus dans le ...

  14. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...... from animals supplemented with mate extract has not been investigated so far. Addition of extract of mate to a standard maize/soy feed at a level of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% w/w to the diet of feedlot for cattle resulted in increased levels of inosine monophosphate, creatine and carnosine in the fresh meat....... The content of total conjugated linoleic acid increased in the meat as mate extract concentration was increased in the feed. The tendency to radical formation in meat slurries as quantified by EPR spin-trapping decreased as increasing mate extract addition to feed, especially after storage of the meat...

  15. Reducing antibiotic use in marine larviculture by probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; D'Alvise, Paul; Grotkjær, Torben

    2014-01-01

    control strategies,especially at the larval stages.The objective of our work is to reduce the need for antibiotics in marine larviculture by developingprobiotic strategies; probiotics being defined by WHO as “live microbial cultures that excert a beneficialeffect on the host”. Rearing of marine larvae......-antagonism. However, othermolecules and mechanisms are likely also involved. Understanding the spectrum of mechanisms of action isimportant to determine where and how the probionts should be applied and also in determining potentialside effects that could arise for the probiotic bacteria.Other studies have focused...... on fish pathogens and it has been suggested that introducing lactic acidbacteria that are used as human probiotics (and have GRAS status) could be a way forward. However, webelieve that re-introducing (or boosting) a potential probiotic bacterium already present in the fish larvaefeed and rearing...

  16. Article n_TOF : rectificatif

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Une erreur s’est malencontreusement glissée dans la version française de la dernière édition du Bulletin papier. L’introduction (en gras) de l’article « Les neutrons sur la piste de décollage » était celle de l’article sur le Linac 4 paru dans l’édition précédente. Le paragraphe correct est le suivant : « Au repos depuis quatre ans, les neutrons volent à nouveau dans l’installation n_TOF (mesure du temps de vol des neutrons), qui vient d’être remise en service avec une nouvelle cible. » Veuillez nous excuser pour cette erreur.

  17. Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

    The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

  18. Analysis of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bioethanol production in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    and solar resources in Mali 5) Screening of feasible applications of wind and solar energy in Mali: Assessment using the wind and solar maps for Mali The project is being carried out by a group of university departments, research institutions and consultants led by the UNEP Risø Centre (URC......The present project is covered in five main reports: 1) Analyses of the potential for sustainable, cassava-based bio-ethanol production in Mali 2) Agricultural residues for energy production in Mali 3) Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw 4) Estimation of wind......) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and conducted in cooperation with Direction Nationale de l’Energie (DNE) and Centre National de l’Energie Solaire et des Energies Renouvelables (CNESOLER) in Mali. The subcontracted institutions comprise Geographic Resource Analysis & Science A/S (GRAS), Department...

  19. Methylsulfonylmethane: Applications and Safety of a Novel Dietary Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Butawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has become a popular dietary supplement used for a variety of purposes, including its most common use as an anti-inflammatory agent. It has been well-investigated in animal models, as well as in human clinical trials and experiments. A variety of health-specific outcome measures are improved with MSM supplementation, including inflammation, joint/muscle pain, oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity. Initial evidence is available regarding the dose of MSM needed to provide benefit, although additional work is underway to determine the precise dose and time course of treatment needed to provide optimal benefits. As a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS approved substance, MSM is well-tolerated by most individuals at dosages of up to four grams daily, with few known and mild side effects. This review provides an overview of MSM, with details regarding its common uses and applications as a dietary supplement, as well as its safety for consumption.

  20. Rhizopus oryzae - Ancient microbial resource with importance in modern food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño-Hernández, Liliana; Ramírez-Toro, Cristina; Ruiz, Héctor A; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2017-09-18

    Filamentous fungi are microorganisms widely known for their diverse biochemical features. Fungi can efficiently invade a wide variety of substrates under operational conditions producing numerous bioproducts of interest, such as enzymes, organic acids, aromatic compounds and colorants. An additional interesting characteristic of some fungi is their safety classification for different uses, which guarantees that the bioproducts obtained from them do not contain any toxic component deleterious to humans. Rhizopus oryzae is among this group of fungi and is classified as a GRAS filamentous fungus, commonly used for production of some oriental traditional foods. It is mainly recognized as a good producer of lactic acid; however, its potential for other biotechnological processes is under study. This review analyzes and discusses the current scientific and technical contributions which may maximize the potential of R. oryzae as a producer of different compounds of industrial interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Métabolisme et fonctions de l’acide myristique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rioux Vincent

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available L’acide myristique (C:14:0 est un acide gras saturé d’origine alimentaire ou d’origine endogène, encore peu connu. Il a des spécificités métaboliques et fonctionnelles qui sont présentées ici. Il possède un avenir court dans la cellule puisqu’il est majoritairement beta-oxydé et/ou allongé en acide palmitique. Il a également, en acylant plusieurs protéines (myristoylation, des rôles fonctionnels très importants dans la régulation de certaines fonctions cellulaires.

  2. Kinetic models for supercritical CO2 extraction of oilseeds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nagy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds is gaining increasing interest in commercial application for the last few decades, most particularly thanks to technical and environmental advantages of supercritical fluid extraction technology compared to current extraction methods with organic solvents. Furthermore, CO2 as a solvent is generally recognized as safe (GRAS. At present moment, supercritical fluid extractions on a commercial scale are limited to decaffeination, production of soluble hops extracts, sesame seed oil production and extraction of certain petroleum products. When considering industrial application, it is essential to test the applicability of the appropriate model for supercritical fluid extraction of oilseeds used for scale up of laboratory data to industrial design purposes. The aim of this paper is to review the most significant kinetic models reported in the literature for supercritical fluid extraction.

  3. How to supplement Social Security fairly and effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilarducci, Teresa

    2010-04-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the base upon which Americans obtain income for retirement has become increasingly tied to fluctuations in the financial markets. Because Social Security provides a small percentage of pre-retirement income in retirement, most of the nation's workers need a supplement to Social Security. This study demonstrates the failure of the 401(k) system and advances a bold, but realistic, solution to America's crumbling retirement system: guaranteed retirement accounts (GRAs), a universal government program that supplements Social Security by providing guaranteed rates of return, by locking up balances until retirement, and by mandating annuities at retirement-with survivor's benefits. The GRA plan is compared to other proposals, including President Obama's, which aims to expand the voluntary, commercial, individually directed account-based system.

  4. Biocatalytic strategies for the production of high fructose syrup from inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Chauhan, Kanika; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2018-04-03

    The consumption of natural and low calorie sugars has increased enormously from the past few decades. To fulfil the demands, the production of healthy sweeteners as an alternative to sucrose has recently received considerable interest. Fructose is the most health beneficial and safest sugar amongst them. It is generally recognised as safe (GRAS) and has become an important food ingredient due its sweetening and various health promising functional properties. Commercially, high fructose syrup is prepared from starch by multienzymatic process. Single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin using inulinase has emerged as an alternate to the conventional approach to reduce complexity, time and cost. The present review, outlines the enzymatic strategies used for the preparation of high fructose syrup from inulin/inulin-rich plant materials in batch and continuous systems, and its conclusions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloning and Characterization of ThSHRs and ThSCR Transcription Factors in Taxodium Hybrid 'Zhongshanshan 406'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiquan; Yin, Yunlong; Hua, Jianfeng; Fan, Wencai; Yu, Chaoguang; Xuan, Lei; Yu, Fangyuan

    2017-07-20

    Among the GRAS family of transcription factors, SHORT ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) are key regulators of the formation of root tissues. In this study, we isolated and characterized two genes encoding SHR proteins and one gene encoding an SCR protein: ThSHR1 (Accession Number MF045148), ThSHR2 (Accession Number MF045149) and ThSCR (Accession Number MF045152) in the adventitious roots of Taxodium hybrid 'Zhongshanshan'. Gene structure analysis indicated that ThSHR1 , ThSHR2 and ThSCR are all intron free. Multiple protein sequence alignments showed that each of the corresponding proteins, ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR, contained five well-conserved domains: leucine heptad repeat I (LHRI), the VHIID motif, leucine heptad repeat II (LHR II), the PFYRE motif, and the SAW motif. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that ThSCR was positioned in the SCR clade with the SCR proteins from eight other species, while ThSHR1 and ThSHR2 were positioned in the SHR clade with the SHR proteins from six other species. Temporal expression patterns of these genes were profiled during the process of adventitious root development on stem cuttings. Whereas expression of both ThSHR2 and ThSCR increased up to primary root formation before declining, that of ThSHR1 increased steadily throughout adventitious root formation. Subcellular localization studies in transgenic poplar protoplasts revealed that ThSHR1, ThSHR2 and ThSCR were localized in the nucleus. Collectively, these results suggest that the three genes encode Taxodium GRAS family transcription factors, and the findings contribute to improving our understanding of the expression and function of SHR and SCR during adventitious root production, which may then be manipulated to achieve high rates of asexual propagation of valuable tree species.

  6. Carbonic acid salts at 25 or 45 degrees C to control loquat decay under shelf life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Serusi, A; Venditti, T; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    Generally recognised as save compounds (G.R.A.S) are attractive substitutes to synthetic chemicals in postharvest control diseases. They meet safety requirements, are cheap and able to be integrated with other disease control technologies. Among G.R.A.S compounds, carbonic acid salts have been investigated on carrots, bell pepper, melons, sweet cherries and their efficacy was also evaluated when combined with biological control agents. Moreover, the possibility to use sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate to prevent P. digitatum an P. italicum spread on Citrus fruit was studied since the begin of the 20th century. We explored the possibility to extend the use of carbonate-bicarbonate salts on loquat fruit in order to control the pathogens and to extend postharvest life. Loquat is a very perishable fruit, susceptible to decay, mechanical damage, moisture and nutritional losses during its postharvest life. We tested the combined effect of temperature and sodium or potassium carbonate-bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate. The fruit was dipped in the salt solutions at variable concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2% w/v) at 25 or 45 degrees C for two minutes and than stored under shelf life conditions (25 degrees C and 70% RH). Decay, weight loss, pH, titrable acidity and sugar content were detected after twelve days. Preliminary data show that the combined treatments were effective in decay control depending on salts. Best results were obtained with 2% potassium and sodium carbonate solution at 25 degrees C. Weight losses were related to treatment temperature and salts concentrations whereas, no differences were detected in the chemical parameters compared to the control.

  7. Upgrading the antioxidant potential of cereals by their fungal fermentation under solid-state cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja Dey, T; Kuhad, R C

    2014-11-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) at 30°C for 72 h with four generally recognized as safe (GRAS) filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 1212, Aspergillus awamori MTCC No. 548, Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 and Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012) showed high efficiency for the improvement of water-soluble total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties including ABTS(●+) [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] and DPPH(●) (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacities of four whole grain cereals, namely wheat, brown rice, maize and oat. A maximum 14-fold improvement in TPC (11·61 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) grain) was observed in A. oryzae fermented wheat, while extract of R. oryzae fermented wheat (ROFW) showed maximum of 6·6-fold and fivefold enhancement of DPPH(●) scavenging property (8·54 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain) and ABTS(●+) scavenging activity (19·5 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain), respectively. The study demonstrates that SSF is an efficient method for the improvement of antioxidant potentials of cereals and R. oryzae RCK2012 fermented wheat can be a powerful source of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant-rich food products are getting popularity day by day. In this study, potential of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for the improvement of antioxidant potential of different cereals by GRAS micro-organisms. The comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of various fungal fermented products derived from whole grain cereals, such as wheat, brown rice, oat and maize, has been carried out. Among these, Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012-fermented wheat was observed as a potent source of natural antioxidants. A diet containing fermented cereals would be useful for the prevention of free radical-mediated diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Packaging/fatty food interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desobry Stéphane

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Les contaminants résiduels ou les micro-organismes présents dans les emballages industriels peuvent migrer dans les aliments et les altérer. Les améliorations techniques et la meilleure connaissance des matériaux d’emballage permettront bientôt de voir disparaître la contamination microbiologique des emballages. Le principal problème sécuritaire concerne la migration moléculaire de composés de l’emballage vers l’aliment gras en raison de l’affinité importante des principaux contaminants pour les milieux hydrophobes. De plus, la matière grasse interagit souvent avec les emballages hydrophobes, pénètre dans le matériau et accélère la migration. Les perméabilités de l’emballage à l’oxygène et à la vapeur d’eau doivent être strictement contrôlées pour préserver les qualités nutritionnelles et organoleptiques des aliments gras. Les interactions entre l’eau et l’emballage modifient les perméabilités ce qui implique que les mesures de perméabilités doivent être réalisées dans les conditions réelles d’utilisation des emballages. Toutes ces interactions entre aliment et emballage font l’objet d’une attention soutenue et seront étudiées durant les dix prochaines années pour parvenir à leur maîtrise.

  9. Do employed and nonemployed Korean mothers experience different levels of psychological well-being in relation to their gender role attitudes and role qualities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H

    1998-06-01

    This study explored the association of gender role attitudes (GRAs) and the quality of roles with the psychological well-being among employed and nonemployed mothers in Korea. Evidence supports the thesis that employed mothers with more liberal GRAs will report higher levels of psychological well-being. All role qualities were expected to be related to women's psychological well-being regardless of work status. Maternal role was expected to be more important in determining a working mothers well-being, but wife role was in fact the most important. Among nonemployed mothers, both the maternal and wife role affected well-being. Participants were recruits from a variety of institutional settings in Seoul, Korea, in 1995. The sample included 700 mothers, of whom 263 were working mothers; 295 were nonemployed mothers. Most were highly educated and affluent. The first model included only social structural variables, which were unrelated to the relationship between employment status and well-being. Gender of children was the only significant variable. Nonemployed mothers with a son had greater well-being than those without a son. The model excluding all social structural variables showed that GRA was unrelated to employed mothers' well-being. But, inclusion of the interaction between attitude and group suggests that well-being was related to agreement with whatever their role was. A model that included role qualities found that roles as wife, mother, and employee were positively related to well-being. The role of wife was significantly related to well-being among employed mothers. The wife and mother roles were significantly related to well-being among nonemployed mothers.

  10. High-resolution reconstruction of Arctic paleoclimate derived from 53 million year old kimberlite-hosted Metasequoia wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. J.; Halfar, J.; Schulze, D.; Gedalof, Z.; Moore, G. W. K.

    2009-04-01

    The recovery of exceptionally well preserved Eocene wood from kimberlite pipes in the Lac de Gras region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, has allowed for the characterization of the local temperature and hydrologic patterns on an annual scale for this arctic ecosystem (present day latitude: 64 deg N). Wood fragments of ancient Metasequoia sp. trees mixed into the crater facies during kimberlite emplacement were recovered from the Ekati and Diavik diamond mines. Wood recovered from the Ekati "Panda" pipe, which has been dated using Rb-Sr age determination at 53.3 +/- 0.6 million years, is unique in that it exhibits extremely low vitrinite reflectance values, comparable to that of modern near-surface peats. The implication is that the wood has undergone minimal thermal or compressional alteration, thus preserving the geochemical signatures originally formed during growth. Ring width measurements representing over 100 years of climate data show congruence between multiple samples, thus enabling the development of a floating master chronology. Patterns contained in this chronology are of particular interest as the early Eocene was characterized by a period of unusual warming that has been compared to modern day climate change. Wood cellulose does not exchange atoms with its surroundings after formation, making it an ideal candidate for stable isotope analysis once it has been separated from associated whole-wood components. A robotic micromilling device was used to collect whole wood samples of latewood from annual tree rings. The α-cellulose in the samples will be isolated and analyzed for δ13C and δ18O, generating a 34-year floating chronology that can be used to reconstruct decadal scale temperature and humidity patterns. Successful application of this technique suggests that a longer Eocene chronology, using additional wood samples recovered from the Panda pipe as well as samples from neighbouring pipes in the Lac de Gras region, can be developed.

  11. Scientific data products and the data pre-processing subsystem of the Chang'e-3 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xu; Liu Jian-Jun; Li Chun-Lai; Feng Jian-Qing; Ren Xin; Wang Fen-Fei; Yan Wei; Zuo Wei; Wang Xiao-Qian; Zhang Zhou-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission is China's first exploration mission on the surface of the Moon that uses a lander and a rover. Eight instruments that form the scientific payloads have the following objectives: (1) investigate the morphological features and geological structures at the landing site; (2) integrated in-situ analysis of minerals and chemical compositions; (3) integrated exploration of the structure of the lunar interior; (4) exploration of the lunar-terrestrial space environment, lunar surface environment and acquire Moon-based ultraviolet astronomical observations. The Ground Research and Application System (GRAS) is in charge of data acquisition and pre-processing, management of the payload in orbit, and managing the data products and their applications. The Data Pre-processing Subsystem (DPS) is a part of GRAS. The task of DPS is the pre-processing of raw data from the eight instruments that are part of CE-3, including channel processing, unpacking, package sorting, calibration and correction, identification of geographical location, calculation of probe azimuth angle, probe zenith angle, solar azimuth angle, and solar zenith angle and so on, and conducting quality checks. These processes produce Level 0, Level 1 and Level 2 data. The computing platform of this subsystem is comprised of a high-performance computing cluster, including a real-time subsystem used for processing Level 0 data and a post-time subsystem for generating Level 1 and Level 2 data. This paper describes the CE-3 data pre-processing method, the data pre-processing subsystem, data classification, data validity and data products that are used for scientific studies

  12. Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Holmes

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max of 5 min and a C(max of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results

  13. Quality control of commercial bovine lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki

    2018-06-01

    Herein we review commercial bovine lactoferrin quality issues by describing an example of industrial production, the current status of global quality standardization, and quality-activity concerns for further discussion. Morinaga Milk Industry has been industrially producing bovine lactoferrin in Milei GmbH, Germany, since 1989. We delineate its production and quality as an example of safe and high-quality manufacturing. Currently, global standardization in the quality of bovine lactoferrin is progressing through Novel Food and GRAS in the EU and USA, respectively. Novel Food was applied or notified to seven lactoferrin manufacturers and GRAS was notified to three manufacturers, two of which are for infant use and one is for adult use, by the end of 2017. The specifications of these regulations are relatively high, including more than 95% lactoferrin purity in protein, which means that such companies can supply relatively high-grade lactoferrin. There appear to be several concerns regarding lactoferrin quality affecting activities, including contamination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and angiogenin, purity, and degradation of lactoferrin sample. Although LPS is immunologically toxic when invading the body, it is distributed normally in foods and the gut. However, an industrial lactoferrin sample may contain LPS at a maximum LPS/lactoferrin molecule ratio = 1/1724, which means 99.9% of the lactoferrin molecule is LPS-free. It is difficult to speculate that LPS contained in a lactoferrin sample affects its activities. Finally in order to achieve good and reproducible results, we make proposals to researchers a use of high-grade lactoferrin, careful storage, and indication the manufacturers' names and specifications in the paper.

  14. Recombinant invasive Lactococcus lactis can transfer DNA vaccines either directly to dendritic cells or across an epithelial cell monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Marcela; Meijerink, Marjolein; Taverne, Nico; Pereira, Vanessa Bastos; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Langella, Philippe; Wells, Jerry M; Chatel, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-11

    Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) bacterium has recently been investigated as a mucosal delivery vehicle for DNA vaccines. Because of its GRAS status, L. lactis represents an attractive alternative to attenuated pathogens. Previous studies showed that eukaryotic expression plasmids could be delivered into intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) by L. lactis, or recombinant invasive strains of L. lactis, leading to heterologous protein expression. Although expression of antigens in IECs might lead to vaccine responses, it would be of interest to know whether uptake of L. lactis DNA vaccines by dendritic cells (DCs) could lead to antigen expression as they are unique in their ability to induce antigen-specific T cell responses. To test this, we incubated mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) with invasive L. lactis strains expressing either Staphylococcus aureus Fibronectin Binding Protein A (LL-FnBPA+), or Listeria monocytogenes mutated Internalin A (LL-mInlA+), both strains carrying a plasmid DNA vaccine (pValac) encoding for the cow milk allergen β-lactoglobulin (BLG). We demonstrated that they can transfect BMDCs, inducing the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12. We also measured the capacity of strains to invade a polarized monolayer of IECs, mimicking the situation encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. Gentamycin survival assay in these cells showed that LL-mInlA+ is 100 times more invasive than L. lactis. The cross-talk between differentiated IECs, BMDCs and bacteria was also evaluated using an in vitro transwell co-culture model. Co-incubation of strains in this model showed that DCs incubated with LL-mInlA+ containing pValac:BLG could express significant levels of BLG. These results suggest that DCs could sample bacteria containing the DNA vaccine across the epithelial barrier and express the antigen. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The interplay of climate and land use change affects the distribution of EU bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leon; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Rasmont, Pierre; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Dvorak, Libor; Fitzpatrick, Una; Francis, Frédéric; Neumayer, Johann; Ødegaard, Frode; Paukkunen, Juho P T; Pawlikowski, Tadeusz; Reemer, Menno; Roberts, Stuart P M; Straka, Jakub; Vray, Sarah; Dendoncker, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Bumblebees in Europe have been in steady decline since the 1900s. This decline is expected to continue with climate change as the main driver. However, at the local scale, land use and land cover (LULC) change strongly affects the occurrence of bumblebees. At present, LULC change is rarely included in models of future distributions of species. This study's objective is to compare the roles of dynamic LULC change and climate change on the projected distribution patterns of 48 European bumblebee species for three change scenarios until 2100 at the scales of Europe, and Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg (BENELUX). We compared three types of models: (1) only climate covariates, (2) climate and static LULC covariates and (3) climate and dynamic LULC covariates. The climate and LULC change scenarios used in the models include, extreme growth applied strategy (GRAS), business as might be usual and sustainable European development goals. We analysed model performance, range gain/loss and the shift in range limits for all bumblebees. Overall, model performance improved with the introduction of LULC covariates. Dynamic models projected less range loss and gain than climate-only projections, and greater range loss and gain than static models. Overall, there is considerable variation in species responses and effects were most pronounced at the BENELUX scale. The majority of species were predicted to lose considerable range, particularly under the extreme growth scenario (GRAS; overall mean: 64% ± 34). Model simulations project a number of local extinctions and considerable range loss at the BENELUX scale (overall mean: 56% ± 39). Therefore, we recommend species-specific modelling to understand how LULC and climate interact in future modelling. The efficacy of dynamic LULC change should improve with higher thematic and spatial resolution. Nevertheless, current broad scale representations of change in major land use classes impact modelled future distribution patterns.

  16. Alimentation animale et valeur nutritionnelle induite sur les produits dérivés consommés par l’homme : Les lipides sont-ils principalement concernés ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans quelle mesure la nourriture reçue par les animaux induit-elle une modification (amélioration ou au contraire dégradation de la valeur nutritionnelle des aliments qui en sont issus pour la nourriture de l’homme ? La réponse à cette question varie selon la nature des nutriments (vitamines, minéraux, acides gras poly-insaturés indispensables des graisses, acides aminés indispensables des protéines, et aussi de l’espèce considérée. Le problème est de rechercher l’impact réel des formulations des rations utilisées dans les élevages sur la valeur nutritionnelle des produits (viandes, lait et laitages, fromages et œufs, etc., et donc leur influence sur la santé du consommateur, évidemment dans un sens favorable. Les acides gras poly-insaturés oméga-3 (ω3 bénéficient de deux grands axes de valorisation. Le premier réside dans leur importance quantitative et leurs rôles dans le cadre de la mise en place et du maintien de divers organes, le cerveau au premier chef. Le second se trouve dans la prévention de diverses pathologies, les maladies cardio-vasculaires occupant une place prépondérante \\; avec, depuis peu, les maladies neuro-psychiatriques, stress, dépression et démence. Compte tenu des implications en termes de maladies, cardio-cérébro-vasculaires entre autres, le contrôle de la nature des acides gras constitutifs des graisses représente donc un enjeu considérable en ce qui concerne les viandes issues d’animaux terrestres, maritimes et aériens, du lait, des laitages, fromages et des œufs. Car la qualité des graisses données en nourriture animale détermine fondamentalement la valeur nutritionnelle des aliments qui en sont dérivés, pour la consommation humaine. Bien évidemment, il est relativement difficile de modifier la composition en acides gras des phospholipides constitutifs des membranes biologiques intégrées dans la multitude de types cellulaires, dont la spécificité est largement

  17. Compounds Labelled with Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Emitters for Medical Isotope Scanning; Gammagraphie au Moyen de Composes Marques avec des Emetteurs Gamma de Faible Energie; Soedineniya, ispol'zuemye pri meditsinskom izotopnom skennirovanii, mechennye s pomoshch'yu gamma-izluchatelej nizkoj ehnergii; Compuestos Marcados con Emisores Gamma de Baja Energia para la Exploracion Medica Mediante Isotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, K. E.; Zum Winkel, K.; Georgi, M. [Czerny-Krankenhaus der Universitat Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-10-15

    detecter de petites lesions. 2. L'absorption du rayonnement par les tissues limite la profondeur a laquelle les lesions sont 'visibles'. Dans de grands organes comme le foie, on evite la superposition des rayonnements provenant de la partie posterieure de l'organe, d'ou une meilleure detection des lesions superficielles. Le plus important emetteur gamma de faible energie est l'iode-125. Pour l'exploration de la thyroiede on l'utilise sous forme d'iodure. Pour le foie, le rose bengale marque avec {sup 125}I convient parfaitement, mais on peut aussi utiliser de l'albumine alteree par la chaleur et marquee avec {sup 125}I. Pour le rein, on a constate que l'hippuran marque avec {sup 125}I donne de bons resultats en injection intra-musculaire, si on le melange a de l'hyaluronidase pour assurer un niveau uniforme de radioactivite dans cet organe. Un autre emetteur gamma de faible energie tres utile en gammagraphie est le mercure-197, qui peut etre utilise sous forme de chlorure pour l'exploration du rein et de la rate. On doit prendre des precautions speciales pour eviter la superposition de ces organes. On obtient un meilleur scintigramme avec de la neo- hydrine marquee avec {sup 197}Hg; ce produit peut servir aussi a localiser les tumeurs du cerveau. Les auteurs donnent des details sur des cas typiques d'exploration de tumeurs de la thyroiede, du foie, de la rate, du rein et du cerveau, d'une part avec des emetteurs gamma de faible energie et d'autre part avec des nucleides et des composes classiques; ils comparent les resultats obtenus. (author) [Spanish] Los emisores gamma de baja energia presentan ventajas especiales para la exploracion medica por centelleografia. He aquilas razonest . 1. El blindaje de plomo de los colimadores es mucho mas eficaz. Por tanto, pueden utilizarse colimadores enfocados con canales de tabiques delgados, lo que da un mayor grado de resolucion geometrica y permite, por consiguiente, detectar lesiones'mas pequenas. 2. La absorcion de la radiacion

  18. Clinical Photoscintillography: Technique and Applications; Photoscintigraphie Clinique: Methode et Applications; Klinicheskaya fotostsintillografiya: metodika i primenenie; Fotocentelleografia Clinica: Tecnicas y Aplicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ephraim, K. H. [Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1964-10-15

    For clinical applications of photoscintillography, collimation, contrast-amplification and data storing are of great importance. For the detection of space-occupying lesions in thick organs such as liver and brain, a special 36-channel multifocus collimator was developed. The isoresponse lines of this collimator are shown. Its response hardly changes from the surface to a depth equal to the thickest part of the liver. A special contrast-amplifier was built: a small incandescent ''primary'' bulb, triggered via a pulseamplifier by the output of a single-channel analyser, is monitored by a light dependent resistor (L.D.R.). The resistance of the L.D.R. varies with the count rate. In series with the L.D.R. is a scanning ''secondary'' incandescent bulb. The brightness as well as the frequency of the flashes of the latter vary with the count rate and thus a non-linear response is obtained without the introduction of the inertia of a ratemeter circuit. The ''secondary'' flashes are recorded on film. To prevent loss of information by registering in the saturation region of the film-sensitivity curve, a moderate contrast-amplification is used and the film is viewed on a closed-circuit television system. The necessity is stressed of adapting the collimation to the clinical problem to be solved. Clinical applications of the above technique in the study of diseases of the thyroid, kidneys, livei and the skeleton are discussed. (author) [French] La collimation, le renforcement du contraste et le stockage des donnees jouent un role tres important dans les applications cliniques de la photoscintigraphie. On a mis au point un collimateur special a focalisation, a 36 canaux, pour detecter les lesions en volume dans de grands organes comme le foie et le cerveau. L'auteur presente les courbes d'isoreponse de ce collimateur. La reponse varie tres peu entre la partie superficielle et la partie la plus profonde du foie. On a construit un amplificateur special de contraste: une petite

  19. The cholesterol space of the rat; L'espace cholesterol du rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    majeure partie les molecules de cholesterol contenues dans les organes suivants: rate, coeur, tissu adipeux, surrenales, poumons, moelle osseuse, foie, hematies. Pour un deuxieme groupe d'organes: peau, testicules, reins, colon, os, muscles, seule une fraction de leur cholesterol est renouvelable par ce processus. Aucun transfert n'est decelable au niveau du cerveau. 3) Les vitesses relatives des differents modes d'appartition (absorption, synthese) et de disparition (excretion, transformation) du cholesterol de son espace sont telles qu'un etat stationnaire isotopique s'y etablit vers le huitieme jour, lorsque l'animal ingere quotidiennement 5 milligrammes de cholesterol radioactif. (auteur)

  20. Study of the contamination of live-stock during periods of radio-active fall-out (1963); Essai d'etude de la contamination du cheptel en periode de retombees radioactives (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michon, G; Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The authors have tried, during the radioactive period corresponding, to the nuclear tests of the autumn 1961, to follow under natural conditions the contamination of a herd of cattle made up 9 cows and 7 calves. The observations concern I{sup 131}, which was studied in particular, and the mixture of fission products. As far as the excretion of iodine in milk is concerned, the equilibrium is established slowly and the amount found in the milk is about 1 per cent of the daily intake. This figure is lower than those based on experimental studies (given in the literature). For the mixture of products, only a small number of elements is metabolised. The fraction found in 1 kilo of liver is about 5 x 10{sup -5} of the amount of Zr-Nb taker up per day, and about 4 x 10{sup -4} of the daily intake of Ru. These elements are not found afterwards in muscle. (authors) [French] Les auteurs ont tente pendant la periode de retombees consecutives aux tirs nucleaires de l'automne 1961 de suivre dans des conditions naturelles la contamination d'un troupeau de bovins constitue de 9 vaches et 7 veaux. Les observations portent sur l'{sup 131}I plus particulierement etudie et sur le melange des produits de fission. En ce qui concerne l'excretion d'iode dans le lait l'equilibre s'etablit lentement et la quantite retrouvee dans un litre est de l'ordre de 1 pour cent de la quantite ingeree journellement. Cette valeur est inferieure a celles trouvees dans la litterature et resultant d'etudes experimentales. En ce qui concerne le melange de produits un petit nombre d'elements seulement sont metabolises La fraction que l'on retrouve dans un kilo de foie est de l'ordre de 5.10{sup -5} de la quantite de Zr-Nb ingeree par jour et de l'ordre de 4.10{sup -4} de la quantite de Ru ingeree par jour. Ces elements ne se retrouvent pas dans le muscle. (auteurs)

  1. Assessment of the risk of foodborne transmission and burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Collineau, Lucie; Stephan, Roger; Müller, Andrea; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>10 5 genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from 50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased reporting and higher awareness among medical

  2. Geomorphological stability of Permo-Triassic albitized profiles - case study of the Montseny-Guilleries High (NE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcerisa, D.; Casas, L.; Franke, C.; Gomez-Gras, D.; Lacasa, G.; Nunez, J. A.; Thiry, M.

    2010-05-01

    albitization. Biotites are not or weakly chloritized. However, these "unaltered" (or primary) granites are strongly weathered into granite boulders embedded in grus by the present-day climatic conditions. The maturest paleoprofiles occur at the northern part of the Catalan Coastal Ranges (i.e. the Montseny-Guilleries High) where the Variscan basement remained exposed during Triassic times. Towards the South the profiles progressively disappear and Triassic sediments acquire their maximum thickness here. The alteration profiles are related with the Permo-Triassic paleosurface still outcroping on wide areas [Gómez-Gras and Ferrer, 1999]. They are partially covered by Triassic fluvial sandstones (Buntsandstein facies) in the South [Gómez-Gras, 1993] and by Palaeocene alluvial conglomerates in the West [Anadón et al., 1979]. The Triassic paleosurface shows a remarkable stability successively outcropping during Mesozoic and Tertiary times, the pre-Tertiary exhumation and even the present day weathering affected very little these albitized profiles. The hardness and thus preservation of the Triassic paleosurface is mainly related to the albitization. The albitized granites are entirely lacking anorthitic plagioclase, which is much more sensitive to chemo-mechanical weathering. Development of albite and additional chloritization of the primary biotite crystals render the rocks much more resistant to weathering and erosion. This stability is particularly well expressed in case of the Montseny-Guilleries High, which is limited by a high fault scarp at the south-eastern margin. The albitized top of the scarp shows remarkably hard fresh rocks, whereas the base of the scarp (formed of primary, non-albitized facies) is deeply weathered into gruss. This is causing much smother landscape reliefs in the valleys and thalwegs. Since a long time the remarkable persistence of the Triassic paleosurface expressed in the Paleozoic massifs has been highlighted by geomorphologists. Only recently we

  3. A Clinical Radioisotope Scanner for Cylindrical and Section Scanning; Dispositif de Scintigraphie pour l'Exploration en Spirale et dans Plusieurs Plans; Tsilindricheskij radioizotopnyj ckehhep dlya tsilindricheskogo i sektsionnogo skennirovaniya; Aparato Gammagrafico para Exploraciones Cilindricas y por Secciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, D. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1964-10-15

    The scanner described was built to explore potential advantages of modifying the motion of the radiation detector over the patient. In the study of a round organ, such as the liver, a cylindrical scanning motion is used to expose more of the organ to survey. Another modification is section scanning which permits the separation of images of radioactive structures according to specific planes in body depth. This mode of scanning can be of particular use when images of body structures overlap in the recording and are confusing. During scanning the patient is supported on a cantilever platform between two opposed scintillation detectors mounted at the extremities of a yoke. The yoke is powered to provide three motions of the detectors about the patient: longitudinal, transverse, and rotary. Particular attention has been paid to the precise control of detector position and speed by incorporating servo-mechanical control mechanisms. The recording system includes: (1) Non-destructive data storage on punched paper tape; (2) provision for rapid regeneration of scanning images on a cathode-ray oscilloscope-, and (3) facility for electronic operations on the image signal. Examples of the clinical applications of this instrument are described, with particular emphasis on cylindrical scanning of the liver and section scanning of the brain. (author) [French] Le dispositif decrit dans le memoire a ete construit en vue d'etudier les avantages qui pourraient resulter de la modification du deplacement du detecteur de rayonnement au-dessus du patient. Dans l'etude d'un organe a peu pres rond tel que le foie, on procede a l'exploration par un mouvement en spirale afin d'examiner une plus grande portion de l'organe. On peut egalement faire une exploration par 'tranches' , qui permet de separer les images des structures radioactives dans des plans determines en profondeur. Ce mode d'exploration peut se reveler particulierement utile lorsque les images des diverses structures se

  4. Phage Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on San Daniele Dry-Cured Ham and Elimination of Biofilms from Equipment and Working Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Comi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-05

    The anti-listerial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) bacteriophage Listex P100 (phage P100) was demonstrated in broths and on the surface of slices of dry-cured ham against 5 strains or serotypes (i.e., Scott A, 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) of Listeria monocytogenes. In a broth model system, phage P100 at a concentration equal to or greater than 7 log PFU/mL completely inhibited 2 log CFU/cm² or 3 log CFU/cm² of L. monocytogenes growth at 30 °C. The temperature (4, 10, 20 °C) seemed to influence P100 activity; the best results were obtained at 4 °C. On dry-cured ham slices, a P100 concentration ranging from 5 to 8 log PFU/cm² was required to obtain a significant reduction in L. monocytogenes. At 4, 10, and 20 °C, an inoculum of 8 log PFU/cm² was required to completely eliminate 2 log L. monocytogenes/cm² and to reach the absence in 25 g product according to USA food law. Conversely, it was impossible to completely eradicate L. monocytogenes with an inoculum of approximately of 3.0 and 4.0 log CFU/cm² and with a P100 inoculum ranging from 1 to 7 log PFU/cm². P100 remained stable on dry-cured ham slices over a 14-day storage period, with only a marginal loss of 0.2 log PFU/cm² from an initial phage treatment of approximately 8 log PFU/cm². Moreover, phage P100 eliminated free L. monocytogenes cells and biofilms on the machinery surfaces used for dry-cured ham production. These findings demonstrate that the GRAS bacteriophage Listex P100 at level of 8 log PFU/cm² is listericidal and useful for reducing the L. monocytogenes concentration or eradicating the bacteria from dry-cured ham.

  5. MANAJEMEN UKM BERBASIS JEJARING PRODUK SEJENIS DALAM RANGKA MENGHADAPI PASAR GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supardal Supardal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNetwork models of UKM based similar products are grouping UKM agent based similar produc¬tion business, so that it can synergize the various forces in the production and marketing of UKM products. The purpose of research to find a model of UKM based grouping similar products in District Umbulharjo, Yogyakarta. The research method was descriptive qualitative attempted to describe in depth the phenomenon of UKM in developing business group. The data collected with interviews and focus group discussions to collect data and information direct from UKM. The results showed that the formation of groups of UKM largely goverment follow the instructions in order for the distribution of grants to UKM. However, this model is prone UKM group disbanded, due to the formation of groups of motives for wanting to get help, then when the help runs out group disbanded. While the formation of group-based UKM and similar products tend to be initiated from the gras¬sroots can thrive as Batik Studio Jenggolo Pandean Village, Batik Jumputan Batikan (BJB group at the Annual Village, District Umbulharjo. With a group of similar products can synergize the strengths of UKM, so as to increase production and ready to face the global market.Keywords: UKM agent, networking, similar products, global marketsAbstrakModel UKM berbasis jejaring produk sejenis adalah pengelompokan pelaku UKM berbasis produk sejenis sehingga bisa mensinergikan berbagai kekuatan dalam produksi dan pemasaran produk UKM. Tujuan penelitian untuk menemukan model pengelompokan pelaku UKM berbasis produk sejenis di Kecamatan Umbulharjo, Kota Yogyakarta. Metode penelitian adalah deskriptif kualitatif yang berusaha menggambarkan secara mendalam fenomena UKM dalam mengembangkan kelom¬pok usaha. Dengan teknik pengumpulan data interview dan FGD untuk menggali data dan infor¬masi langsung dari pelaku UKM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan kelompok UKM sebagian besar mengikuti petunjuk

  6. Screening-Level Safety Assessment of Personal Care Product Constituents Using Publicly Available Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest S. Fung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations recommend evaluating individual ingredients when assessing the safety of personal care or cosmetic products. The goal of this study was to present a screening-level safety assessment methodology to evaluate the safety of a product by identifying individual ingredients, determining their frequency of use in on-market products, and examining published safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient. As a case study, we evaluated WEN by Chaz Dean (WCD cleansing conditioners since there have been claims of adverse health effects associated with product use. We evaluated 30 ingredients in three on-market WCD cleansing conditioners. We then analyzed the National Library of Medicine’s Household Products Database and the Environmental Working Group’s (EWG Skin Deep Cosmetic Database, two of the largest publicly available databases, for other on-market personal care and cosmetic products that contained these ingredients. Safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient was obtained by reviewing peer-reviewed literature, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA generally recognized as safe (GRAS database, available Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR publications, and available product safety publications. The results of this analysis showed that more than 20,000 personal care and cosmetic products contained one or more of the evaluated ingredients used in WCD cleaning conditioners. Published safety information was available for 21 of the 30 evaluated ingredients: seven identified ingredients were designated as GRAS by the FDA and 16 ingredients had safe-level-of-use information available from the CIR. This study presents a screening-level safety assessment methodology that can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the safety of an ingredient intended for use in personal care and cosmetic products before a product is launched onto the market. This study provides evidence that the evaluated WCD cleansing conditioner ingredients

  7. Developing a xylanase XYNZG from Plectosphaerella cucumerina for baking by heterologously expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Fei Xiang; Wang, Qin Hong; Jiang, Si Jing; Zhou, Yu Ling; Zhang, Gui Min; Ma, Yan He

    2014-12-16

    Xylanase can replace chemical additives to improve the volume and sensory properties of bread in the baking. Suitable baking xylanase with improved yield will promote the application of xylanase in baking industry. The xylanase XYNZG from the Plectosphaerella cucumerina has been previously characterized by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. However, P. pastoris is not a suitable host for xylanase to be used in the baking process since P. pastoris does not have GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and requires large methanol supplement during the fermentation in most conditions, which is not allowed to be used in the food industry. Kluyveromyces lactis, as another yeast expression host, has a GRAS status, which has been successfully used in food and feed applications. No previous work has been reported concerning the heterologous expression of xylanase gene xynZG in K. lactis with an aim for application in baking. The xylanase gene xynZG from the P. cucumerina was heterologously expressed in K. lactis. The recombinant protein XYNZG in K. lactis presented an approximately 19 kDa band on SDS-PAGE and zymograms analysis. Transformant with the highest halo on the plate containing the RBB-xylan (Remazol Brilliant Blue-xylan) was selected for the flask fermentation in different media. The results indicated that the highest activity of 115 U/ml at 72 h was obtained with the YLPU medium. The mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the hydrolytic products of xylan by XYNZG were mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. The results of baking trials indicated that the addition of XYNZG could reduce the kneading time of dough, increase the volume of bread, improve the texture, and have more positive effects on the sensory properties of bread. Xylanase XYNZG is successfully expressed in K. lactis, which exhibits the highest activity among the published reports of the xylanase expression in K. lactis. The recombinant XYNZG can be used to improve the volume and sensory

  8. NUTRITION 91e Congrès de l’AOCS : l’essentiel du programme nutrition (San Diego, 25-28 avril 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La densité du programme de la Division Health and Nutrition rendait cette fois très difficile le suivi même partiel du programme des autres divisions. Après l’impressionnante entrée en lice des functionnal foods et des nutraceuticals en 1999, il semble que la Division Health and Nutrition ait choisi de traiter de façon approfondie des thèmes importants. Les trois thèmes choisis cette année étaient : * L’acide gamma-linolénique : 22 communications auxquelles il faut sûrement ajouter les 5 communications d’une matinée sur « lipides bioactifs et transduction des signaux ». * Acide gras mono-insaturés versus polyinsaturés dans la gestion du risque de maladies cardio-vasculaires : Que devons-nous choisir ? 6 communications seulement, mais importantes, susceptibles d’avoir un gros impact et témoignant d’un vrai malaise. Selon la remarque de M. Bieber : « si ceci continue, que nous restera-t-il à dire ? ». * Lipides et désordres psychiatrique : 7 communications sur le thème de l’influence des acides gras polyinsaturés en n-3. Enfin la Division Health and Nutrition présentait 18 communications sur le thème Nutrition and General Health, son thème habituel. Parmi celles-ci, il faut relever deux Honored Student Award Winner français : S. Bellenger-Germain de l’équipe de J.-P. Poisson à Dijon, dont nous parlerons, et B. Nay de Bordeaux-II. Ceci ne s’était jamais produit jusqu’ici surtout si l’on ajoute le Herbert J. Dutton Award décerné par la Division analytique à J.-L. Sebedio. À ces 53 communications, il faut ajouter 36 posters pour la Nutrition and Health Division, soit 89 présentations au total. Pour terminer ce tour d’horizon, il faut signaler deux conférences remarquables sur des thèmes majeurs en nutrition lipidique : * celle du Stephen S. Chang Award de B. Herslof : From drug delivery to functionnal food. A lipid story; * celle du Supelco/Nicholas Research Award de H. Sprecher : The

  9. Macrocrystal phlogopite Rb-Sr dates for the Ekati property kimberlites, Slave Province, Canada: evidence for multiple intrusive episodes in the Paleocene and Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creaser, Robert A.; Grütter, Herman; Carlson, Jon; Crawford, Barbara

    2004-09-01

    New Rb-Sr age determinations using macrocrystal phlogopite are presented for 27 kimberlites from the Ekati property of the Lac de Gras region, Slave Province, Canada. These new data show that kimberlite magmatism at Ekati ranges in age from at least Late Paleocene (∼61 Ma) to Middle Eocene time (∼45 Ma). Older, perovskite-bearing kimberlites from Ekati extend this age range to Late Cretaceous time (∼74 Ma). Within this age range, emplacement episodes at ∼48, 51-53, 55-56 and 59-61 Ma can be recognized. Middle Eocene kimberlite magmatism of the previously dated Mark kimberlite (∼47.5 Ma) is shown to include four other pipes from the east-central Ekati property. A single kimberlite (Aaron) may be younger than the 47.5 Ma Mark kimberlite. The economically important Panda kimberlite is precisely dated in this study to be 53.3±0.6 Ma using the phlogopite isochron method, and up to six additional kimberlites from the central Ekati property have Early Eocene ages indistinguishable from that of Panda, including the Koala and Koala North occurrences. Late Paleocene 55-56 Ma kimberlite magmatism, represented by the Diavik kimberlite pipes adjacent to the southeastern Ekati property, is shown to extend onto the southeastern Ekati property and includes three, and possibly four, kimberlites. A precise eight-point phlogopite isochron for the Cobra South kimberlite yields an emplacement age of 59.7±0.4 Ma; eight other kimberlites from across the Ekati property have similar Late Paleocene Rb-Sr model ages. The addition of 27 new emplacement ages for kimberlites from the Ekati property confirms that kimberlite magmatism from the central Slave Province is geologically young, despite ages ranging back to Cambrian time from elsewhere in the Slave Province. With the available geochronologic database, Lac de Gras kimberlites with the highest diamond potential are currently restricted to the 51-53 and 55-56 Ma periods of kimberlite magmatism.

  10. Phage Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on San Daniele Dry-Cured Ham and Elimination of Biofilms from Equipment and Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilla Iacumin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-listerial activity of generally recognized as safe (GRAS bacteriophage Listex P100 (phage P100 was demonstrated in broths and on the surface of slices of dry-cured ham against 5 strains or serotypes (i.e., Scott A, 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b of Listeria monocytogenes. In a broth model system, phage P100 at a concentration equal to or greater than 7 log PFU/mL completely inhibited 2 log CFU/cm2 or 3 log CFU/cm2 of L. monocytogenes growth at 30 °C. The temperature (4, 10, 20 °C seemed to influence P100 activity; the best results were obtained at 4 °C. On dry-cured ham slices, a P100 concentration ranging from 5 to 8 log PFU/cm2 was required to obtain a significant reduction in L. monocytogenes. At 4, 10, and 20 °C, an inoculum of 8 log PFU/cm2 was required to completely eliminate 2 log L. monocytogenes/cm2 and to reach the absence in 25 g product according to USA food law. Conversely, it was impossible to completely eradicate L. monocytogenes with an inoculum of approximately of 3.0 and 4.0 log CFU/cm2 and with a P100 inoculum ranging from 1 to 7 log PFU/cm2. P100 remained stable on dry-cured ham slices over a 14-day storage period, with only a marginal loss of 0.2 log PFU/cm2 from an initial phage treatment of approximately 8 log PFU/cm2. Moreover, phage P100 eliminated free L. monocytogenes cells and biofilms on the machinery surfaces used for dry-cured ham production. These findings demonstrate that the GRAS bacteriophage Listex P100 at level of 8 log PFU/cm2 is listericidal and useful for reducing the L. monocytogenes concentration or eradicating the bacteria from dry-cured ham.

  11. Risk-based Strategy to Determine Testing Requirement for the Removal of Residual Process Reagents as Process-related Impurities in Bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Li, Kim; Miller, Karen; Raghani, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to recommend a risk-based strategy for determining clearance testing requirements of the process reagents used in manufacturing biopharmaceutical products. The strategy takes account of four risk factors. Firstly, the process reagents are classified into two categories according to their safety profile and history of use: generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and potential safety concern (PSC) reagents. The clearance testing of GRAS reagents can be eliminated because of their safe use historically and process capability to remove these reagents. An estimated safety margin (Se) value, a ratio of the exposure limit to the estimated maximum reagent amount, is then used to evaluate the necessity for testing the PSC reagents at an early development stage. The Se value is calculated from two risk factors, the starting PSC reagent amount per maximum product dose (Me), and the exposure limit (Le). A worst-case scenario is assumed to estimate the Me value, that is common. The PSC reagent of interest is co-purified with the product and no clearance occurs throughout the entire purification process. No clearance testing is required for this PSC reagent if its Se value is ≥1; otherwise clearance testing is needed. Finally, the point of the process reagent introduction to the process is also considered in determining the necessity of the clearance testing for process reagents. How to use the measured safety margin as a criterion for determining PSC reagent testing at process characterization, process validation, and commercial production stages are also described. A large number of process reagents are used in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing to control the process performance. Clearance testing for all of the process reagents will be an enormous analytical task. In this article, a risk-based strategy is described to eliminate unnecessary clearance testing for majority of the process reagents using four risk factors. The risk factors included

  12. High level expression and characterization of tannase tan7 using Aspergillus niger SH-2 with low-background endogenous secretory proteins as the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengling; Wang, Bin; Ye, Yanrui; Pan, Li

    2018-04-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase, EC3.1.1.20) catalyzes the hydrolysis of hydrolyzable tannins. It is used in the manufacture of instant tea and in the production of gallic acid. In this study, we reported that the overexpression, purification and characterization of an Aspergillus niger tannase. The tannase gene was cloned from A. niger SH-2 and expressed in the A. niger strain Bdel4 which is low-background of secreted proteins. The recombinant tannase was purified by desalting, followed by gel filtration for characterization. The tannase activity achieved 111.5 U/mL at 168 h, and the purity of the enzyme in the broth supernatant was estimated to be over 70%. The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant tannase was ∼40 °C and 7.0, respectively. The tannase activity was inhibited by Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ba 2+ , Ni 2+ and EDTA, and was enhanced by Mn 2+ and Co 2+ . Since A. niger is a GRAS microorganism, the recombinant tannase could be purification-free due to its high purity. The results of this study suggested that this recombinant strain could be subjected to large-scale production of A. niger tannase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Remoción de formas parasitarias intestinales en una laguna facultativa de estabilización en Lima, Perú Removal of intestinal parasitic forms in a facultative stabilization pond in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Iannacone

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a waste stabilization pond, to remove intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan cysts was studied in San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru. From September to October 2000 four collections of samples were performed from raw domestic wastewater and from contends of primary, secondary and tertiary ponds. A comparative study of performance of the concentrations methods of Ritchie and Faust was also done. The overall average removal of parasitic forms was as follow: 69.37% from raw water and primary pond; 48.34% from primary to secondary pond; 85.45% from secondary to tertiary pond and 97.69% from raw water to tertiary pond. There was no significant difference in the quantitative performance of Ritchic and Faust methods. Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859 Alexeieff, 1914, Entamoeba coli (Gras, 1879 Casagrandi & Barbagallo, 1895 and Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758 were detected with both methods. Three other parasites were detected only by Ritchie method: Taenia sp., Rodentolepis nana (von Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954 and Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus, 1771 Stiles, 1901 and only Faust detected Isospora belli Wenyon, 1923. Overall number of protozoa cysts was higher than the number of helminth eggs. At the end, wastewater had a concentration of 1.5 parasitic forms L¹ what is considered inappropríate for ultimate use in agriculture by current standards.

  14. Application of agave subproducts for production of microbial inulinases

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    Huerta Alcocer, S.A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexico is the center of origin of the genus Agave spp. with 159 endemic species, 75 % of all known species. The main use of these plants is in the production of alcoholic beverages, mainly tequila, which is obtained from the “pines” of A. tequilana Weber var. Azul. During tequila production, a huge amount of waste is produced, including leaves that are not used. Main compounds found in these subproducts are polysaccharides, specifically inulin. Current review focuses on the use of these agricultural wastes to obtain inulinase production, and in the production of high fructose syrup using these enzymes in these wastes. Currently, high fructose syrups, especially oligosaccharides, have prompted much interest for their benefits to health due to its low glycemic index and their function as prebiotic in the intestinal flora. The main microorganisms involved with inulinases production belong to the genera Aspergillus and Kluyveromyces. The latter is preferred in the industry due to its high growth rate, high temperature tolerance (52 °C and by having the GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe status. This review emphasizes on the advances achieved in the production of inulinases by yeast K. marxianus.

  15. [Sporulation or competence development? A genetic regulatory network model of cell-fate determination in Bacillus subtilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenghui; Zhou, Yuling; Zhang, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Guimin

    2015-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that has been widely used in industries including fodder, food, and biological control. In addition, B. subtilis expression system also plays a significant role in the production of industrial enzymes. However, its application is limited by its low sporulation frequency and transformation efficiency. Immense studies have been done on interpreting the molecular mechanisms of sporulation and competence development, whereas only few of them were focused on improving sporulation frequency and transformation efficiency of B. subtilis by genetic modification. The main challenge is that sporulation and competence development, as the two major developmental events in the stationary phase of B. subtilis, are regulated by the complicated intracellular genetic regulatory systems. In addition, mutual regulatory mechanisms also exist in these two developmental events. With the development of genetic and metabolic engineering, constructing genetic regulatory networks is currently one of the most attractive research fields, together with the genetic information of cell growth, metabolism, and development, to guide the industrial application. In this review, the mechanisms of sporulation and competence development of B. subtilis, their interactions, and the genetic regulation of cell growth were interpreted. In addition, the roles of these regulatory networks in guiding basic and applied research of B. subtilis and its related species were discussed.

  16. Global transcriptome analysis of the maize (Zea mays L.) inbred line 08LF during leaf senescence initiated by pollination-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liancheng; Li, Mingna; Tian, Lei; Wang, Shunxi; Wu, Liuji; Ku, Lixia; Zhang, Jun; Song, Xiaoheng; Liu, Haiping; Chen, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays), leaf senescence acts as a nutrient recycling process involved in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids degradation and transport to the developing sink. However, the molecular mechanisms of pre-maturation associated with pollination-prevention remain unclear in maize. To explore global gene expression changes during the onset and progression of senescence in maize, the inbred line 08LF, with severe early senescence caused by pollination prevention, was selected. Phenotypic observation showed that the onset of leaf senescence of 08LF plants occurred approximately 14 days after silking (DAS) by pollination prevention. Transcriptional profiling analysis of the leaf at six developmental stages during induced senescence revealed that a total of 5,432 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2314 up-regulated genes and 1925 down-regulated genes. Functional annotation showed that the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in multi-organism process and nitrogen compound transport, whereas down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis. Expression patterns and pathway enrichment analyses of early-senescence related genes indicated that these DEGs are involved in complex regulatory networks, especially in the jasmonic acid pathway. In addition, transcription factors from several families were detected, particularly the CO-like, NAC, ERF, GRAS, WRKY and ZF-HD families, suggesting that these transcription factors might play important roles in driving leaf senescence in maize as a result of pollination-prevention.

  17. Comparative Study between Ethanolic and β-Cyclodextrin Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada El Darra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach byproducts are often regarded as food waste despite their high content in health-promoting components. Amongst the latter, polyphenols are bioactive molecules with significant health benefits. The present study investigated an eco-friendly and cost-effective method using a GRAS food additive, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, for the recovery of polyphenols from peach pomace. β-CD assisted extraction of polyphenols was compared to that of conventional solvent (ethanol extraction at the same concentrations (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 50 mg/mL in terms of quality (antiradical activity and quantity. The extract obtained by 50 mg/mL β-CD assisted extraction showed the highest polyphenol (0.72 mg GAE/g DM and flavonoid (0.35 mg catechin/g of DM concentrations as maximal antiradical activity (6.82% and a noted antibacterial activity. Our results showed the competitiveness of β-CD assisted extraction to recover a high quantity and quality of polyphenols from peach pomace suggesting β-CD as a green alternative method for phenolic extraction.

  18. Strategies for Pathogen Biocontrol Using Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Metabolites: A Focus on Meat Ecosystems and Industrial Environments

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    Patricia Castellano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of trade and lifestyle ensure that the factors responsible for the emergence of diseases are more present than ever. Despite biotechnology advancements, meat-based foods are still under scrutiny because of the presence of pathogens, which causes a loss of consumer confidence and consequently a fall in demand. In this context, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB as GRAS organisms offer an alternative for developing pathogen-free foods, particularly avoiding Listeria monocytogenes, with minimal processing and fewer additives while maintaining the foods’ sensorial characteristics. The use of LAB strains, enabling us to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins in addition to lactic acid, with an impact on quality and safety during fermentation, processing, and/or storage of meat and ready-to-eat (RTE meat products, constitutes a promising tool. A number of bacteriocin-based strategies including the use of bioprotective cultures, purified and/or semi-purified bacteriocins as well as their inclusion in varied packaging materials under different storage conditions, have been investigated. The application of bacteriocins as part of hurdle technology using non-thermal technologies was explored for the preservation of RTE meat products. Likewise, considering that food contamination with L. monocytogenes is a consequence of the post-processing manipulation of RTE foods, the role of bacteriocinogenic LAB in the control of biofilms formed on industrial surfaces is also discussed.

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory controlled-released injectable microemulsion: Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineros, Isabel; Slowing, Karla; Serrano, Dolores R; de Pablo, Esther; Ballesteros, Maria Paloma

    2017-04-01

    Development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory controlled-released injectable microemulsions utilising lysine clonixinate (LC) as model drug and generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients. Different microemulsions were optimised through pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and characterised measuring droplet size, viscosity, ex vivo haemolytic activity and in vitro drug release. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity was tested in mice (Hot plate test) and rats (Carrageenan-induced paw edema test) respectively and their activity was compared to an aqueous solution of LC salt. The aqueous solution showed a faster and shorter response whereas the optimised microemulsion increased significantly (p<0.01) the potency and duration of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity after deep intramuscular injection. The droplet size and the viscosity were key factors to control the drug release from the systems and enhance the effect of the formulations. The microemulsion consisting of Labrafil®/Lauroglycol®/Polysorbate 80/water with LC (56.25/18.75/15/10, w/w) could be a promising formulation after buccal surgery due to its ability to control the drug release and significantly achieve greater analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect over 24h. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Brassinosteroids Regulate OFP1, a DLT Interacting Protein, to Modulate Plant Architecture and Grain Morphology in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. We previously showed that GSK2, the central negative regulator of BR signaling, targets DLT, the GRAS family protein, to regulate BR responses. Here, we identified Ovate Family Protein 1 (OFP1 as a DLT interacting protein. OFP1 was ubiquitously expressed and the protein was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of OFP1 led to enlarged leaf angles, reduced plant height, and altered grain shape, largely resembled DLT overexpression plants. Genetic analysis showed that the regulation of plant architecture by OFP1 depends on DLT function. In addition, we found OFP1 was greatly induced by BR treatment, and OsBZR1, the critical transcription factor of BR signaling, was physically associated with the OFP1 promoter. Moreover, we showed that gibberellin synthesis was greatly repressed in OFP1 overexpression plants, suggesting OFP1 participates in the inhibition of plant growth by high BR or elevated BR signaling. Furthermore, we revealed that OFP1 directly interacts with GSK2 kinase, and inhibition of the kinase activity significantly promotes OFP1 protein accumulation in plant. Taken together, we identified OFP1 as an additional regulator of BR responses and revealed how BRs promote OFP1 at both transcription and protein levels to modulate plant architecture and grain morphology in rice.

  1. Genetic responses induced in olive roots upon colonization by the biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Schilirò

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic basis underlying interactions between beneficial bacteria and woody plants is still very limited, and totally absent in the case of olive. We aimed to elucidate genetic responses taking place during the colonization of olive roots by the native endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive. Roots of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after PICF7 inoculation. A Suppression Subtractive Hybridization cDNA library enriched in induced genes was generated. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis validated the induction of selected olive genes. Computational analysis of 445 olive ESTs showed that plant defence and response to different stresses represented nearly 45% of genes induced in PICF7-colonized olive roots. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis confirmed induction of lipoxygenase, phenylpropanoid, terpenoids and plant hormones biosynthesis transcripts. Different classes of transcription factors (i.e., bHLH, WRKYs, GRAS1 were also induced. This work highlights for the first time the ability of an endophytic Pseudomonas spp. strain to mount a wide array of defence responses in an economically-relevant woody crop such as olive, helping to explain its biocontrol activity.

  2. J-holomorphic curves and quantum cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    McDuff, Dusa

    1994-01-01

    J-holomorphic curves revolutionized the study of symplectic geometry when Gromov first introduced them in 1985. Through quantum cohomology, these curves are now linked to many of the most exciting new ideas in mathematical physics. This book presents the first coherent and full account of the theory of J-holomorphic curves, the details of which are presently scattered in various research papers. The first half of the book is an expository account of the field, explaining the main technical aspects. McDuff and Salamon give complete proofs of Gromov's compactness theorem for spheres and of the existence of the Gromov-Witten invariants. The second half of the book focuses on the definition of quantum cohomology. The authors establish that this multiplication exists, and give a new proof of the Ruan-Tian result that is associative on appropriate manifolds. They then describe the Givental-Kim calculation of the quantum cohomology of flag manifolds, leading to quantum Chern classes and Witten's calculation for Gras...

  3. Extraction, fractionnement et concentration des huiles marines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Les huiles marines représentent des sources potentielles d’acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI dont les implications au niveau de la nutrition et de la santé sont avérées. Ces molécules sont extraites à partir de poissons, algues ou co-produits de la filière halieutique par des procédés de cuisson-pression, en présence de solvants ou par des techniques enzymatiques beaucoup moins drastiques. Des fractions plus ou moins purifiées en AGPI sont obtenues par cristallisation à froid, en présence de solvants organiques, complexation avec de l’urée, distillation moléculaire ou extraction par fluide supercritique. L’utilisation de lipases stéréospécifiques dans des procédés d’hydrolyse et d’estérification conduit à une diversité de molécules d’acylglycérols riches en AGPI trouvant de nombreuses applications dans le domaine de l’agroalimentaire et de la santé.

  4. Bio-preservative and therapeutic potential of pediocin: recent trends and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ridhi; Arya, Ridhima; Goyal, Karan; Singh, Mahipal; Sharma, Anil K

    2013-12-01

    Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are of keen interest to the food industry for their bio-preservative potential and antimicrobial properties. The increasing demand for high quality 'safe' foods which are not extensively processed has created a niche for natural food preservatives. The bacteriocins (produced by bacteria) derived their name after the genera that produce them, hence bacteriocins produced by genus Pediococcus are known as Pediocin. Pediocins are antimicrobial peptides which show a strong activity against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, also are thermostable in nature as well as stable over a wide range of pH. Pediocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici, has been generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The current review summarizes about the progress made on the Pediocin research from patent perspective along with the immense potential of these Pediococcus derived bacteriocins not only as antimicrobial, biopreservative and probiotic agents but also for the treatment of cancer, body odors and other health promoting actions. The relevant patents have been listed and briefly analyzed to upgrade and benefit food industries by prolonging the shelf life of various products.

  5. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P n = 5, following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract.

  6. Heterologous protein secretion in Lactococcus lactis: a novel antigen delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langella P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive bacteria and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS organisms. Therefore, LAB could be used for heterologous protein secretion and they are good potential candidates as antigen delivery vehicles. To develop such live vaccines, a better control of protein secretion is required. We developed an efficient secretion system in the model LAB, Lactococcus lactis. Staphylococcal nuclease (Nuc was used as the reporter protein. We first observed that the quantity of secreted Nuc correlated with the copy number of the cloning vector. The nuc gene was cloned on a high-copy number cloning vector and no perturbation of the metabolism of the secreting strain was observed. Replacement of nuc native promoter by a strong lactococcal one led to a significant increase of nuc expression. Secretion efficiency (SE of Nuc in L. lactis was low, i.e., only 60% of the synthesized Nuc was secreted. Insertion of a synthetic propeptide between the signal peptide and the mature moiety of Nuc increased the SE of Nuc. On the basis of these results, we developed a secretion system and we applied it to the construction of an L. lactis strain which secretes a bovine coronavirus (BCV epitope-protein fusion (BCV-Nuc. BCV-Nuc was recognized by both anti-BCV and anti-Nuc antibodies. Secretion of this antigenic fusion is the first step towards the development of a novel antigen delivery system based on LAB-secreting strains.

  7. Designer Yeasts for the Fermentation Industry of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak S. Pretorius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enjoyed a long and distinguished history in the fermention industry. Owing to its efficiency in producing alcohol, S. cerevisiae is, without doubt, the most important commercial microorganism with GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe status. By brewing beer and sparkling wine, mankind’s oldest domesticated organism made possible the world’s first biotechnological processes. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, S. cerevisiae has again been harnessed to shift the frontiers of mankind’s newest revolution, genetic engineering. S. cerevisiae is at the forefront of many of these developments in modern biotechnology. Consequently, the industrial importance of S. cerevisiae has extended beyond traditional fermentation. Today, the products of yeast biotechnologies impinge on many commercially important sectors, including food, beverages, biofuels, chemicals, industrial enzymes, pharmaceuticals, agriculture and the environment. Nevertheless, since ethyl alcohol produced by yeast fermentation is likely to remain the foremost worldwide biotechnological commodity for the foreseeable future, this review focuses on advances made with respect to the development of tailor- made yeast strains for the fermented beverage and biofuel industries.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 for production of vanillin through ferulic acid catabolic pathway and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2014-10-01

    Occurrence of feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ech) genes responsible for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin have been reported and characterized from Amycolatopsis sp., Streptomyces sp., and Pseudomonas sp. Attempts have been made to express these genes in Escherichia coli DH5α, E. coli JM109, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, none of the lactic acid bacteria strain having GRAS status was previously proposed for heterologous expression of fcs and ech genes for production of vanillin through biotechnological process. Present study reports heterologous expression of vanillin synthetic gene cassette bearing fcs and ech genes in a dairy isolate Pediococcus acidilactici BD16. After metabolic engineering, statistical optimization of process parameters that influence ferulic acid to vanillin biotransformation in the recombinant strain was carried out using central composite design of response surface methodology. After scale-up of the process, 3.14 mM vanillin was recovered from 1.08 mM ferulic acid per milligram of recombinant cell biomass within 20 min of biotransformation. From LCMS-ESI spectral analysis, a metabolic pathway of phenolic biotransformations was predicted in the recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)).

  9. Long-term benefits by a mind-body medicine skills course on perceived stress and empathy among medical and nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Marja; Jong, Mats; Jong, Miek C

    2017-07-01

    A significant number of medical students suffer from burnout symptoms and reduced empathy. This controlled, quasi-experimental study aimed to investigate whether a mind-body medicine (MBM) skills course could reduce perceived stress and increase empathy and self-reflection in medical and nursing students. The MBM course (consisting of experiential sessions of mind-body techniques and group reflections) was piloted among Dutch medical students and Swedish nursing students. Main outcome variables were perceived stress (PSS), empathy (IRI subscales perspective taking, fantasy, empathic concern, and personal distress), and self-reflection (GRAS). Participating and control students completed questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention, at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Seventy-four medical and 47 nursing students participated in the course. Participating medical students showed significantly increased empathic concern [1.42 (95% CI 0.05, 2.78), p = 0.042], increased fantasy [3.24 (95% CI 1.58, 4.90), p nursing students showed significantly decreased levels of perceived stress [-5.09 (95% CI -8.37, -1.82), p = 0.002] and decreased personal distress [-5.01 (95% CI -6.97, -3.06), p stress and empathy in medical and nursing students.

  10. Thermostable L-arabinose isomerase from Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM 11001 for D-tagatose production: gene cloning, purification and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lifang; Mu, Wanmeng; Jiang, Bo

    2010-06-01

    D-Tagatose, as one of the rare sugars, has been found to be a natural and safe low-calorie sweetener in food products and is classified as a GRAS substance. L-Arabinose isomerase (L-AI, EC 5.3.1.4), catalysing the isomerisations of L-arabinose and D-galactose to L-ribulose and D-tagatose respectively, is considered to be the most promising enzyme for the production of D-tagatose. The araA gene encoding an L-AI from Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM 11001 was cloned, sequenced and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The gene is composed of 1491 bp nucleotides and codes for a protein of 496 amino acid residues. The recombinant L-AI was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme was optimally active at 65 degrees C and pH 7.5 and had an absolute requirement for the divalent metal ion Mn(2+) for both catalytic activity and thermostability. The enzyme was relatively active and stable at acidic pH of 6. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified L-AI after 12 h at 65 degrees C reached 36%. The purified L-AI from B. stearothermophilus IAM 11001 was characterised and shown to be a good candidate for potential application in D-tagatose production. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Discovery of a Chemical Modification by Citric Acid in a Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant therapeutic monoclonal antibodies exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity that can arise from various post-translational modifications. The formulation for a protein product is to maintain a specific pH and to minimize further modifications. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), citric acid is commonly used for formulation to maintain a pH at a range between 3 and 6 and is generally considered chemically inert. However, as we reported herein, citric acid covalently modified a recombinant monoclonal antibody (IgG1) in a phosphate/citrate-buffered formulation at pH 5.2 and led to the formation of so-called “acidic species” that showed mass increases of 174 and 156 Da, respectively. Peptide mapping revealed that the modification occurred at the N-terminus of the light chain. Three additional antibodies also showed the same modification but displayed different susceptibilities of the N-termini of the light chain, heavy chain, or both. Thus, ostensibly unreactive excipients under certain conditions may increase heterogeneity and acidic species in formulated recombinant monoclonal antibodies. By analogy, other molecules (e.g., succinic acid) with two or more carboxylic acid groups and capable of forming an anhydride may exhibit similar reactivities. Altogether, our findings again reminded us that it is prudent to consider formulations as a potential source for chemical modifications and product heterogeneity. PMID:25136741

  12. Strategies for Pathogen Biocontrol Using Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Metabolites: A Focus on Meat Ecosystems and Industrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Patricia; Pérez Ibarreche, Mariana; Fontana, Cecilia; Vignolo, Graciela M.

    2017-01-01

    The globalization of trade and lifestyle ensure that the factors responsible for the emergence of diseases are more present than ever. Despite biotechnology advancements, meat-based foods are still under scrutiny because of the presence of pathogens, which causes a loss of consumer confidence and consequently a fall in demand. In this context, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as GRAS organisms offer an alternative for developing pathogen-free foods, particularly avoiding Listeria monocytogenes, with minimal processing and fewer additives while maintaining the foods’ sensorial characteristics. The use of LAB strains, enabling us to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) in addition to lactic acid, with an impact on quality and safety during fermentation, processing, and/or storage of meat and ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products, constitutes a promising tool. A number of bacteriocin-based strategies including the use of bioprotective cultures, purified and/or semi-purified bacteriocins as well as their inclusion in varied packaging materials under different storage conditions, have been investigated. The application of bacteriocins as part of hurdle technology using non-thermal technologies was explored for the preservation of RTE meat products. Likewise, considering that food contamination with L. monocytogenes is a consequence of the post-processing manipulation of RTE foods, the role of bacteriocinogenic LAB in the control of biofilms formed on industrial surfaces is also discussed. PMID:28696370

  13. Zein-based films and their usage for controlled delivery: Origin, classes and current landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Lili; Che, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Heng; Shi, Nianqiu; Li, Chunlei; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2015-05-28

    Zein is a class of alcohol-soluble prolamine proteins present in maize endosperm, which was approved as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) excipient in 1985 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) for film coating of pharmaceuticals, e.g., tablets. Despite its long-term application in tablet production, effects of zein coating on tablet properties are still not fully understood. Moreover, many studies have also been conducted to illustrate its potential as an active ingredient of direct compressed tablets and film-based delivery carriers. In addition, the use of zein as a functional film coating material for new biomedical applications was also widely investigated in recent reports, which involved medical devices, nanoparticles, quantum dots and nanofibers. In this review, the present status of zein in the form of a thin film and uniform layer for use as a biomedical material is discussed. In addition, studies related to the behaviors and properties of zein films are also summarized and analyzed based on published works to gain mechanistic insights into the relationship between zein film and various improved profiles. This review will benefit future prospects of the use of zein film in drug delivery and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison between different methods of measurement of momentum and sensible heat fluxes over canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Aubinet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Différent methods of measurement of momentum and sensible heat flux densifies are presented and compared above a gras covered fallow. The aerodynamic (AD and eddy covariance (EC methods are presented and compared for both momentum and sensible heat measurements. In addition, the temperature fluctuation (TF method is compared to the HEC method for the sensible heat flux measurement. The AD and EC methods are in good agreement for the momentum flux measurements. For the sensible heat flux, the AD method is very sensible to temperature errors. So it is unusable during night and gives biased estimations during the day. The TF method gives only estimations of the sensible heat flux. It is in good agreement with the EC method during the day but diverges completely during night, being unable to disceming positive from négative fluxes. From the three methods, the EC method is the sole that allows to measure continuously both momentum and sensible heat flux but it requires a loud data treatment. We présent in this paper the algorithm used for this treatment.

  15. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  16. Linkage study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate using candidate genes and mapped polymorphic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, J.D.; Nelson, L.D.; Conner, B.J. [Univ. of Texas, Houston (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) involves fusion or growth failure of facial primordia during development. Complex segregation analysis of clefting populations suggest that an autosomal dominant gene may play a role in this common craniofacial disorder. We have ascertained 16 multigenerational families with CL(P) and tested linkage to 29 candidate genes and 139 mapped short tandem repeat markers. The candidate genes were selected based on their expression in craniofacial development or were identified through murine models. These include: TGF{alpha}, TGF{beta}1, TGF{beta}2, TGF{beta}3, EGF, EGFR, GRAS, cMyc, FGFR, Jun, JunB, PDFG{alpha}, PDGF{beta}, IGF2R, GCR Hox7, Hox8, Hox2B, twirler, 5 collagen and 3 extracellular matrix genes. Linkage was tested assuming an autosomal dominant model with sex-specific decreased penetrance. Linkage to all of the candidate loci was excluded in 11 families. RARA was tested and was not informative. However, haplotype analysis of markers flanking RARA on 17q allowed exclusion of this candidate locus. We have previously excluded linkage to 61 STR markers in 11 families. Seventy-eight mapped short tandem repeat markers have recently been tested in 16 families and 30 have been excluded. The remaining are being analyzed and an exclusion map is being developed based on the entire study results.

  17. Amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des huiles de poissons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turon Fabrice

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Il a été démontré ces dernières années que les deux acides gras essentiels eicosapentaénoïque (EPA et docosahexaénoïque (DHA, ont des propriétés physiologiques intéressantes chez l’homme. Ces effets bénéfiques ont accru l’intérêt de pouvoir disposer de préparations « ciblées », c’est-à-dire enrichies soit en EPA soit en DHA, les premières visant des applications en prophylaxie des maladies cardiovasculaires, les secondes visant à compléter l’alimentation de sujets risquant de présenter un déficit (prématurité et sénescence. Dans cette mise au point sur le biofaçonnement des huiles de poissons, nous nous attacherons à comprendre les avantages et les limites des méthodes mises en œuvre pour différencier l’EPA du DHA des huiles de poissons.

  18. Design of whey protein nanostructures for incorporation and release of nutraceutical compounds in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Oscar L; Pereira, Ricardo N; Martins, Artur; Rodrigues, Rui; Fuciños, Clara; Teixeira, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Malcata, F Xavier; Vicente, António A

    2017-05-03

    Whey proteins are widely used as nutritional and functional ingredients in formulated foods because they are relatively inexpensive, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient, and possess important biological, physical, and chemical functionalities. Denaturation and aggregation behavior of these proteins is of particular relevance toward manufacture of novel nanostructures with a number of potential uses. When these processes are properly engineered and controlled, whey proteins may be formed into nanohydrogels, nanofibrils, or nanotubes and be used as carrier of bioactive compounds. This review intends to discuss the latest understandings of nanoscale phenomena of whey protein denaturation and aggregation that may contribute for the design of protein nanostructures. Whey protein aggregation and gelation pathways under different processing and environmental conditions such as microwave heating, high voltage, and moderate electrical fields, high pressure, temperature, pH, and ionic strength were critically assessed. Moreover, several potential applications of nanohydrogels, nanofibrils, and nanotubes for controlled release of nutraceutical compounds (e.g. probiotics, vitamins, antioxidants, and peptides) were also included. Controlling the size of protein networks at nanoscale through application of different processing and environmental conditions can open perspectives for development of nanostructures with new or improved functionalities for incorporation and release of nutraceuticals in food matrices.

  19. Lactobacillus casei BL23 Produces Microvesicles Carrying Proteins That Have Been Associated with Its Probiotic Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paula Domínguez Rubio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaea, bacteria, and eukarya secrete membrane microvesicles (MVs as a mechanism for intercellular communication. We report the isolation and characterization of MVs from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BL23. MVs were characterized using analytical high performance techniques, DLS, AFM and TEM. Similar to what has been described for other Gram-positive bacteria, MVs were on the nanometric size range (30–50 nm. MVs carried cytoplasmic components such as DNA, RNA and proteins. Using a proteomic approach (LC-MS, we identified a total of 103 proteins; 13 exclusively present in the MVs. The MVs content included cell envelope associated and secretory proteins, heat and cold shock proteins, several metabolic enzymes, proteases, structural components of the ribosome, membrane transporters, cell wall-associated hydrolases and phage related proteins. In particular, we identified proteins described as mediators of Lactobacillus’ probiotic effects such as p40, p75 and the product of LCABL_31160, annotated as an adhesion protein. The presence of these proteins suggests a role for the MVs in the bacteria-gastrointestinal cells interface. The expression and further encapsulation of proteins into MVs of GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe bacteria could represent a scientific novelty, with applications in food, nutraceuticals and clinical therapies.

  20. Construction of a highly efficient Bacillus subtilis 168 whole-cell biocatalyst and its application in the production of L-ornithine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizhou; Xu, Meijuan; Rao, Zhiming; Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian

    2015-11-01

    L-Ornithine, a non-protein amino acid, is usually extracted from hydrolyzed protein as well as produced by microbial fermentation. Here, we focus on a highly efficient whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of L-ornithine. The gene argI, encoding arginase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea, was cloned from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 and expressed in GRAS strain Bacillus subtilis 168. The recombinant strain exhibited an arginase activity of 21.9 U/mg, which is 26.7 times that of wild B. subtilis 168. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified recombinant arginase were 10.0 and 40 °C, respectively. In addition, the recombinant arginase exhibited a strong Mn(2+) preference. When using whole-cell biocatalyst-based bioconversion, a hyper L-ornithine production of 356.9 g/L was achieved with a fed-batch strategy in a 5-L reactor within 12 h. This whole-cell bioconversion study demonstrates an environmentally friendly strategy for L-ornithine production in industry.

  1. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding the potential benefits of thyme and its derived products for food industry and consumer health: From extraction of value-added compounds to the evaluation of bioaccessibility, bioavailability, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose M; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Gavahian, Mohsen; Marszałek, Krystian; Eş, Ismail; Munekata, Paulo E S; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barba, Francisco J

    2018-05-17

    Natural bioactive compounds isolated from several aromatic plants have been studied for centuries due to their unique characteristics that carry great importance in food, and pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. For instance, several beneficial activities have been attributed to some specific compounds found in Thymus such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiseptic properties. Moreover, these compounds are classified as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) which means they can be used as an ingrident of may food producs. Conventional extraction processes of these compounds and their derived forms from thyme leaves are well established. Hoewever, they present some important drawbacks such as long extraction time, low yield, high solvent consumption and degradation thermolabile compounds. Therefore, innovative extraction techniques such as ultrasound, microwave, enzyme, ohmic and heat-assisted methods can be useful strategies to enhance the exytraction yield and to reduce processing temperature, extraction time, and energy and solvent consumption. Furthermore, bioaccessibility and bioavailability aspects of these bioactive compounds as well as their metabolic fates are crucial for developing novel functional foods. Additionally, immobilization methods to improve stability, solubility, and the overall bioavailability of these valuable compounds are necessary for their commercial applications. This review aims to give an overall perspective of innovative extraction techniques to extract the targeted compounds with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Moreover, the bioaccessi-bility and bioavailability of these compounds before and after processing discussed. In addition, some of the most important characteristics of thyme and their derived products discussed in this paper.

  3. Distinct biological effects of different nanoparticles commonly used in cosmetics and medicine coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Julia X

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal oxides in nanoparticle form such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide now appear on the ingredient lists of household products as common and diverse as cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpaste, and medicine. Previous studies of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide in non-nanoparticle format using animals have found few adverse effects. This has led the FDA to classify zinc oxide as GRAS (generally recognized as safe for use as a food additive. However, there is no regulation specific for the use of these chemicals in nanoparticle format. Recent studies, however, have begun to raise concerns over the pervasive use of these compounds in nanoparticle forms. Unfortunately, there is a lack of easily-adaptable screening methods that would allow for the detection of their biological effects. Results We adapted two image-based assays, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based caspase activation assay and a green fluorescent protein coupled-LC3 assay, to test for the biological effects of different nanoparticles in a high-throughput format. We show that zinc oxide nanoparticles are cytotoxic. We also show that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are highly effective in inducing autophagy, a cellular disposal mechanism that is often activated when the cell is under stress. Conclusion We suggest that these image-based assays provide a method of screening for the biological effects of similar compounds that is both efficient and sensitive as well as do not involve the use of animals.

  4. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  5. Kinetics of β-galactosidase Production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus During pH Controlled Batch Fermentation in Three Commercial Bulk Starter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abbasalizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of bulk starter fermentation strategy for production of a cost-effective and GRAS source of β-galactosidase from a starter culture strain Lactobacillus bulgaricus was investigated. Three different media were selected and the strain, L. bulgaricus DSM 20081 was cultivated in these media under pH-controlled condition (pH = 5.6 at 43°C. The media were: bulk starter medium based on skim milk + whey, bulk starter medium based on whey, and skim milk. Growth and β-lactic acid production parameters were estimated from experimental data with the Garcia and Luedeking-Piret models, respectively. β-galactosidase production kinetics was also simulated using models based on biomass concentration and lactic acid production. Growth in the bulk starter medium based on skim milk + whey resulted in a higher rate of lactic acid production (7.35 ± 0.23  mg lactic acid ml-1 media h-1 and β-galactosidase activity (800.1± 0.7 nmol ONP ml-1 media compared to the other two media (P<0.01. Simulation of β- galactosidase production based on rate of lactic acid production resulted in very good agreement with experimental data for all three tested media. The results revealed the potential of bulk starter fermentation strategy and skim milk + whey based medium for in-house and relatively low cost production of food-grade β-galactosidase by dairy plants.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Broiler Chickens after Propolis and Bee Pollen Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the safety aspects of antimicrobials (propolis and bee pollen use in poultry farms as growth promoters is higher susceptibility of gastrointestinal microorganisms to antibiotics used for human treatment. Enterococci belong to the normal microbiota of gastrointestinal tract of chickens and are widely distributed in nature, but they are not generally recognized as safe (GRAS. Poultry enterococci carrying antimicrobial resistance genes may not only transfer these genes to other, possibly pathogenic, bacteria in the chicken gut, but upon transfer to zoonotic bacteria they also may pose a human health hazard. Antibiotic resistance prevalence of E. faecalis isolates found in the crop was subsequently found in the ileum and caecum within each group of broiler chickens. No resistance of E. faecalis isolates was found against vancomycin and teicoplanin. Intermediate resistance to erythromycin in the most E. faecalis isolates from gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens with propolis supplement in their diet was eliminated. Our results suggest the probability of synergism effect of propolis and also bee pollen with some tested antibiotics against E. faecalis isolates.

  7. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Supramolecular Cocrystals of Gliclazide: Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Renu; Rani, Dimpy; Goyal, Parnika

    2017-03-01

    To prepare the supramolecular cocrystals of gliclazide (GL, a BCS class II drug molecule) via mechanochemical route, with the goal of improving physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties. Two cocrystals of GL with GRAS status coformers, sebacic acid (GL-SB; 1:1) and α-hydroxyacetic acid (GL-HA; 1:1) were screened out using liquid assisted grinding. The prepared cocrystals were characterized using thermal and analytical techniques followed by evaluation of antidiabetic activity and pharmacokinetic parameters. The generation of new, single and pure crystal forms was characterized by DSC and PXRD. The crystal structure determination from PXRD revealed the existence of both cocrystals in triclinic (P-1) crystal system. The hydrogen bonded network, determined by material studio was well supported by shifts in FTIR and SSNMR. Both the new solid forms displayed improved solubility, IDR, antidiabetic activity and pharmacokinetic parameters as compared to GL. The improvement in these physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties corroborated the fact that the supramolecular cocrystallization may be useful in the development of pharmaceutical crystalline materials with interesting network and properties.

  9. Multicomponent Pharmaceutical Cocrystals: A Novel Approach for Combination Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Zeeshan; Srivastava, Dipti; Kaur, Chanchal Deep

    2018-03-05

    Cocrystallization is a technique for modifying the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) embodying the concept of supramolecular synthon. Most of the examples cited in the literature are of cocrystals formed between an API and a coformer chosen from the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance list, however, few examples exist where a cocrystal consists of two or more APIs. These cocrystals are commonly known as multi API, multi drug or drug- drug cocrystals. The formation of such cocrystals is feasible by virtue of non covalent interactions between the APIs, which help them in retaining their biologic activity. In addition, drug- drug cocrystals also offer the potential solution to the limitations such as solubility, stability differences and chemical interaction between the APIs which is often faced during the traditional combination therapy. Cocrystallization of two or more APIs can be employed for delivery of combination drugs for the better and efficacious management of many complex disorders where existing monotherapies do not furnish the desired therapeutic effect. This review on the existing drug-drug cocrystals is to gain insight for better designing of multi API cocrystals with improved physicochemical and pharmacokinetic profile and its application in multiple target therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Organized polysaccharide fibers as stable drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas; Gill, Kristin L.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Many challenges arise during the development of new drug carrier systems, and paramount among them are safety, solubility and controlled release requirements. Although synthetic polymers are effective, the possibility of side effects imposes restrictions on their acceptable use and dose limits. Thus, a new drug carrier system that is safe to handle and free from side effects is very much in need and food grade polysaccharides stand tall as worthy alternatives. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of sodium iota-carrageenan fibers and their distinctive water pockets to embed and release a wide variety of drug molecules. Structural analysis has revealed the existence of crystalline network in the fibers even after encapsulating the drug molecules, and iota-carrageenan maintains its characteristic and reproducible double helical structure suggesting that the composites thus produced are reminiscent of cocrystals. The melting properties of iota-carrageenan:drug complexes are distinctly different from those of either drug or iota-carrageenan fiber. The encapsulated drugs are released in a sustained manner from the fiber matrix. Overall, our research provides an elegant opportunity for developing effective drug carriers with stable network toward enhancing and/or controlling bioavailability and extending shelf-life of drug molecules using GRAS excipients, food polysaccharides, that are inexpensive and non–toxic. PMID:23544530

  11. Toxicological evaluation of a novel umami flavour compound: 2-(((3-(2,3-Dimethoxyphenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthiomethylpyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of a umami flavour compound, 2-(((3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ylthiomethylpyridine (S3643; CAS 902136-79-2, was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S3643 undergoes extensive oxidative metabolism in vitro with rat microsomes producing the S3643-sulfoxide and 4′-hydroxy-S3643 as the major metabolites. In incubations with human microsomes, the O-demethyl-S3643 and S3643-sulfoxide were produced as the major metabolites. In pharmacokinetic studies in rats, the S3643-sulfoxide represents the dominant biotransformation product. S3643 was not found to be mutagenic or clastogenic in vitro, and did not induce micronuclei in CHO-WBL cells. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL for S3643 was 100 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested when administered in the diet for 90 consecutive days. Keywords: Umami flavour, S3643, FEMA GRAS, Subchronic toxicological evaluation, Genetic toxicological evaluation

  12. Toxicological evaluation of the flavour ingredient N-(1-((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H-benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl-2,6-dimethylisonicotinamide (S2218

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S. Karanewsky

    Full Text Available A toxicological evaluation of N-(1-((4-amino-2,2-dioxido-1H-benzo[c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-5-yloxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl-2,6-dimethylisonicotinamide (S2218; CAS 1622458-34-7, a flavour with modifying properties, was completed for the purpose of assessing its safety for use in food and beverage applications. S2218 exhibited minimal oxidative metabolism in vitro, and in rat pharmacokinetic studies, the compound was poorly orally bioavailable and rapidly eliminated. S2218 was not found to be mutagenic in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay, and was found to be neither clastogenic nor aneugenic in an in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus assay. In subchronic oral toxicity studies in male and female rats, the NOAEL was 140 mg/kg bw/day (highest dose tested for S2218 sulfate salt (S8069 when administered as a food ad-mix for 13 consecutive weeks. Furthermore, S2218 sulfate salt demonstrated a lack of maternal toxicity, as well as adverse effects on fetal morphology at the highest dose tested, providing a NOAEL of 1000 mg/kg bw/day for both maternal toxicity and embryo/fetal development when administered orally during gestation to pregnant rats. Keywords: Flavours with modifying properties, S2218, FEMA GRAS, Subchronic toxicological evaluation, Genetic toxicological evaluation, Developmental toxicity evaluation

  13. An unusual spliced variant of DELLA protein, a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling, in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Yoshiaki; Umetsu, Asami; Komatsu, Yuki; Kitamura, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Asami, Tadao; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    DELLA proteins are negative regulators of the signaling of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone regulating plant growth. DELLA degradation is triggered by its interaction with GID1, a soluble GA receptor, in the presence of bioactive GA. We isolated cDNA from a spliced variant of LsDELLA1 mRNA in lettuce, and named it LsDELLA1sv. It was deduced that LsDELLA1sv encodes truncated LsDELLA1, which has DELLA and VHYNP motifs at the N terminus but lacks part of the C-terminal GRAS domain. The recombinant LsDELLA1sv protein interacted with both Arabidopsis GID1 and lettuce GID1s in the presence of GA. A yeast two-hybrid assay suggested that LsDELLA1sv interacted with LsDELLA1. The ratio of LsDELLA1sv to LsDELLA1 transcripts was higher in flower samples at the late reproductive stage and seed samples (dry seeds and imbibed seeds) than in the other organ samples examined. This study suggests that LsDELLA1sv is a possible modulator of GA signaling in lettuce.

  14. Adherence of bacteria to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract of heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styková, E; Nemcová, R; Valocký, I; Novotný, F; Guba, P

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the adherence of indigenous vaginal bacteria, probiotic strains, and metritis pathogens to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tracts of heifers and cows and compared their adherence with the bacterial adherence to mucus collected from the stomach and large intestine of pigs. Most of the vaginal strains adhered to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract and strongly adhered to gastric mucus, with the exception of Lactobacillus buchneri 24S8. Only Lactobacillus mucosae 29S8, Enterococcus faecium E21, and E. faecium EAC adhered to colonic mucus. Probiotic strains adhered strongly to mucus collected from the reproductive tract and gastric mucus but did not adhere to colonic mucus. Pathogenic strains were adherent to vaginal, uterine horn, and gastric mucus, except Escherichia coli O8:K88ab:H9 (65), Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Gardnerella vaginalis, which adhered to uterine cervix mucus. Only Kocuria kristinae and G. vaginalis adhered to uterine body mucus; E. coli O149:K88ac (EC) adhered to colonic mucus. The strains did not exhibit host specificity but rather strain specificity. The ability to adhere to mucus was a characteristic unique to each strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding in vitro adherence of GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) lactobacilli isolated from different sources to mucus collected from different parts of the reproductive tract.

  15. Application of byproducts from food processing for production of 2,3-butanediol using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TUL 308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Barbara; Kubik, Celina; Kalinowska, Halina; Gromek, Ewa; Białkowska, Aneta; Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Schüett, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2016-08-17

    A nonpathogenic bacterial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TUL 308 synthesized minor 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) amounts from glucose, fructose, sucrose, and glycerol, and efficiently produced the diol from molasses and hydrolysates of food processing residues. Batch fermentations yielded 16.53, 10.72, and 5 g/L 2,3-BD from enzymatic hydrolysates of apple pomace, dried sugar beet pulp, and potato pulp (at initial concentrations equivalent to 45, 20, and 30 g/L glucose, respectively), and 25.3 g/L 2,3-BD from molasses (at its initial concentration equivalent to 60 g/L saccharose). Fed-batch fermentations in the molasses-based medium with four feedings with either glucose or sucrose (in doses increasing their concentration by 25 g/L) resulted in around twice higher maximum 2,3-BD concentration (of about 60 and 50 g/L, respectively). The GRAS Bacillus strain is an efficient 2,3-BD producer from food industry byproducts.

  16. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C B; Astrup, P; Nielsen, M [and others

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  17. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate.

  18. Climate Change Disaster Risk Management And The Urban Poor In Port Harcourt Metropolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyenghe Tari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need to adapt to climate change will be a fundamental driver of developing countries. The impacts are global in outlook but the mitigation policies and plans to cut down greenhouse gases emission and other elements are more local in actions. This study is carried out to evaluate and ascertain the risks of climate change on the urban poor in Port Harcourt city. However from our findings it shows various possible sectors that the impacts will be severe. These areas include environment health food insecurity air and water pollution flooding and ecosystem distortion and the urban poor are most vulnerable. Also most vulnerable areas in the city were identified which include Diobu DLine Port Harcourt Township New GRAs and most parts of ObioAkpor local government areas in the city. Most of the residents in these areas suffer flooding because of increasing rainfall. The temperature of the city has increased and the ecological system is distorted around the coastal areas. The study also proffers possible appropriate policies and plans that should be adopted by policy makers and urban planners to mitigate andor ameliorate the impacts of climate change on the poor of Port Harcourt city.

  19. The role of artificial and natural sweeteners in reducing the consumption of table sugar: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Smith, Meridith; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Commonly used non-caloric artificial sweeteners may have unfavorable effect on health including glucose intolerance and failure to cause weight reduction. The nutritive sweeteners include sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, xylitol, lactitol, mannitol, erythritol, trehalose and maltitol. Naturally occurring rare sugars have recently emerged as an alternative category of sweeteners. These monosaccharides and their derivatives are found in nature in small quantities and lack significant calories. This category includes d-allulose (d-psicose), d-tagatose, d-sorbose and d-allose. Limiting consumption of any sweetener may well be the best health advice. Identifying natural sweeteners that have favorable effects on body weight and metabolism may help achieving the current recommendations of restricting simple sugar consumption. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of different concentrations of nisin on starter culture of model Cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a natural preservative produced by strains of Lactococcuslactis subsp. Lactis, has been approved for use in food by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives and has been awarded generally recognized as safe (GRAS. It remains the only bacteriocin allowed in food as an addedpreservative. Nisin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity againstgram-positive bacteria, thus one of the problems associated with nisin application is inhibition of starter culture and prevention of ripening, which is required for development of cheese characteristics during ripening. In the current study, the effects of different concentrations of nisin and temperature on growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria in model cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk was evaluated. Cheese samples were supplemented with nisin at concentrations of 0, 2, 4 and 6 µg/g and stored at 8 and 25 °C up to 60 days. Microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the cheese samples were analyzedat 0, 1, 8, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Results showed that addition of nisin at concentrations of 4 and 6 µg/g affects (p

  1. Heterologous expression of enterocin AS-48 in several strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Martín, M C; Valdivia, E; Maqueda, M

    2007-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis produces a cationic and circular enterocin, AS-48, of 7149 Da, the genetic determinants of which are located within the pMB2 plasmid. We have compared enterocin AS-48 production by different enterococci species with that of other 'safe' lactic acid bacteris (LAB) (GRAS status) and looked into the subsequent application of this enterocin in food production. In an effort to exploit this system for the heterologous expression of enterocin AS-48, a number of vectors containing the as-48 cluster were constructed and used to transform several LAB strains (genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus) Heterologous production of enterocin AS-48 failed when bacteria other than those belonging to the genus Enterococcus were used as hosts, although expression of a partial level of resistance against AS-48 were always detected, ruling out the possibility of a lack of recognition of the enterococcal promoters. Our results reveal the special capacity of species from the genus Enterococcus to produce AS-48, an enterocin that requires a post-transcriptional modification to generate a circular peptide with a wide range of inhibitory activity against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. Preliminary experiments in foodstuffs using nonvirulent enterococci with interesting functional properties reveal the possibility of a biotechnological application of these transformants.

  2. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  3. Identifying and selecting edible luminescent probes as sensors of food quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Corradini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foods contain a plethora of aromatic molecules—natural colors, synthetic dyes, flavors, vitamins, antioxidants, etc.—that are luminescent, exhibiting prompt fluorescence or delayed phosphorescence. Although food autofluorescence has been used to detect specific contaminants (e.g., aflatoxins or to authenticate specific foods (olive oil, much of the potential of using the optical luminescence of intrinsic molecules for sensing properties of foods is unrealized. We summarize here work characterizing the photophysical properties of some edible, and potentially GRAS (generally-recognized-as-safe, chromophores and especially their sensitivity to, and thus potential for sensing, various physical—viscosity, mobility/rigidity—or chemical—polarity, pH—properties of food known to reflect or be indicative of food quality, stability, and safety. A thorough-going characterization of and robust protocols for interpretation of the luminescent signals from edible chromophores can expand the repertoire of analytical techniques available to monitor quality, and even safety, of the food supply at various stages of production, distribution and storage or even at point of sale.

  4. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inducible expression of trehalose synthase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youran; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhongyang; Shi, Guiyang

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose synthase (TreS) could transform maltose into trehalose via isomerization. It is a crucial enzyme in the process of trehalose enzymatical transformation. In this study, plasmid-based inducible expression systems were constructed to produce Thermomonospora curvata TreS in B. licheniformis. Xylose operons from B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. megaterium were introduced to regulate the expression of the gene encoding TreS. It was functionally expressed, and the BlsTs construct yielded the highest enzyme activity (12.1 U/mL). Furthermore, the effect of different cultural conditions on the inducible expression of BlsTs was investigated, and the optimal condition was as follows: 4% maltodextrin, 0.4% soybean powder, 1% xylose added after 10 h of growth and an induction time of 12 h at 37 °C. As a result, the maximal yield reached 24.7 U/mL. This study contributes to the industrial application of B. licheniformis, a GRAS workhorse for enzyme production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the Metabolomic Responses of Bacillus licheniformis to Temperature Stress by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zixing; Chen, Xiaoling; Cai, Ke; Chen, Zhixin; Wang, Hongbin; Jin, Peng; Liu, Xiaoguang; Permaul, Kugenthiren; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2018-03-28

    Owing to its high protein secretion capacity, simple nutritional requirements, and GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status, Bacillus licheniformis is widely used as a host for the industrial production of enzymes, antibiotics, and peptides. However, as compared with its close relative Bacillus subtilis , little is known about the physiology and stress responses of B. licheniformis . To explore its temperature-stress metabolome, B. licheniformis strains ATCC 14580 and B186, with respective optimal growth temperatures of 42°C and 50°C, were cultured at 42°C, 50°C, and 60°C and their corresponding metabolic profiles were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analyses. It was found that with increased growth temperatures, the two B. licheniformis strains displayed elevated cellular levels of proline, glutamate, lysine, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and octadecanoic acid, and decreased levels of glutamine and octadecenoic acid. Regulation of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism is likely to be associated with the evolution of protective biochemical mechanisms of B. licheniformis . Our results will help to optimize the industrial use of B. licheniformis and other important Bacillus species.

  7. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling.

  8. Using the Slug Mucosal Irritation Assay to Investigate the Tolerability of Tablet Excipients on Human Skin in the Context of the Use of a Nipple Shield Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Richard; Lenoir, Joke; Gerrard, Stephen; Scheuerle, Rebekah L; Slater, Nigel K H; Tuleu, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Neonates are particularly challenging to treat. A novel patented drug delivery device containing a rapidly disintegrating tablet held within a modified nipple shield (NSDS) was designed to deliver medication to infants during breastfeeding. However concerns exist around dermatological nipple tolerability with no pharmaceutical safety assessment guidance to study local tissue tolerance of the nipple and the areola. This is the first Slug Mucosal Irritation (SMI) study to evaluate irritancy potential of GRAS excipients commonly used to manufacture rapidly disintegrating immediate release solid oral dosage form METHODS: Zinc sulphate selected as the antidiarrheal model drug that reduces infant mortality, was blended with functional excipients at traditional levels [microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate]. Slugs were exposed to blends slurried in human breast milk to assess their stinging, itching or burning potential, using objective values such as mucus production to categorize irritation potency RESULTS: Presently an in vivo assay, previously validated for prediction of ocular and nasal irritation, was used as an alternative to vertebrate models to anticipate the potential maternal dermatological tolerability issues to NSDS tablet components. The excipients did not elicit irritancy. However, mild irritancy was observed when zinc sulphate was present in blends. These promising good tolerability results support the continued investigation of these excipients within NSDS rapidly disintegrating tablet formulations. Topical local tolerance effects being almost entirely limited to irritation, the slug assay potentially adds to the existing preformulation toolbox, and may sit in between the in vitro and existing in vivo assays.

  9. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  10. Composition en acide alphalinolénique des esters de cholestérol plasmatiques : un marqueur de consommation chez l’homme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Le lien existant entre qualité et quantité des acides gras de l’alimentation, et santé est de plus en plus évident et défini, comme l’indique la revue des travaux plus spécifiquement consacrés aux implications dans le risque de maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV (cf. premier exposé de ce dossier. Néanmoins, si un grand nombre d’études épidémiologiques ou d’intervention ont permis d’aboutir à un consensus qui s’est traduit, en France, par la publication en 2001 des Apports Nutritionnels Conseillés [1], un débat perdure au sein de la communauté scientifique internationale sur les meilleurs apports en acides gras monoinsaturés versus poly-insaturés [2, 3]. Les études récentes de Rudel et al. [4-6] indiquent en effet que des singes nourris avec un régime très enrichi en acide oléique (18:1n-9 : 24% de l’apport énergétique développent une athérosclérose des artères coronaires qui pourrait être en relation avec l’accumulation subséquente d’oléate de cholestérol dans les LDL aux dépens du linoléate de cholestérol. Par ailleurs, eu égard aux effets bénéfiques reconnus à l’acide alphalinolénique (18:3n-3 vis-à-vis des risques d’infarctus du myocarde, de cardiopathie ischémique [7-9] et d’accident vasculaire cérébral [10, 11], le niveau de 18:3n-3 dans les esters de cholestérol (EC du plasma apparaît comme un bon indicateur de protection. En effet, l’étude conduite par Sandker et al. [12], sur deux groupes d’hommes âgés, issus des cohortes crétoises (Seven Countries Study et hollandaises (Zutphen Study, a permis de faire émerger l’intérêt de ce marqueur biologique. En moyenne, le pourcentage de 18:3n-3 mesuré dans les EC plasmatiques des Crétois était significativement plus élevé comparé à celui des Hollandais (0,9% vs 0,32% des acides gras, dont la cohorte présentait un taux de mortalité coronarienne 5 fois plus grand que celui de la cohorte crétoise. En outre, l

  11. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biocompatible fluorescent zein nanoparticles for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girija Aswathy, Ravindran; Sivakumar, Balasubramanian; Brahatheeswaran, Dhandayudhapani; Fukuda, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded biocompatible fluorescent zein nanoparticles. Zein is the storage protein in corn kernels that has a variety of unique characteristics and functionalities that makes zein valuable in various commercial applications. It is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We synthesized zein nanoparticles of around 800 nm in size and conjugated with quantum dot ZnS:Mn. The nanoparticle was in turn encapsulated with the drug 5-FU. The luminescent properties of these nanoparticles were studied by using fluorescence microscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized and the drug release profile was studied. The biocompatibility of zein nanoparticle and the cytotoxicity with drug-loaded nanoparticle was studied in L929 and MCF-7 cell lines. The nanoparticles were successfully employed for cellular imaging. In vitro drug release studies were also performed. The biocompatibility of the nanoparticle showed that nanoparticles at higher concentrations are compatible for cells and are expected to be promising agents for the targeted delivery of drugs in the near future

  13. Structured emulsion-based delivery systems: controlling the digestion and release of lipophilic food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Yan

    2010-09-15

    There is a need for edible delivery systems to encapsulate, protect and release bioactive and functional lipophilic constituents within the food and pharmaceutical industries. These delivery systems could be used for a number of purposes: controlling lipid bioavailability; targeting the delivery of bioactive components within the gastrointestinal tract; and designing food matrices that delay lipid digestion and induce satiety. Emulsion technology is particularly suited for the design and fabrication of delivery systems for lipids. In this article we provide an overview of a number of emulsion-based technologies that can be used as edible delivery systems by the food and other industries, including conventional emulsions, nanoemulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. Each of these delivery systems can be produced from food-grade (GRAS) ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals) using relatively simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, preparation, and utilization of each type of delivery system for controlling lipid digestion are discussed. This knowledge can be used to select the most appropriate emulsion-based delivery system for specific applications, such as encapsulation, controlled digestion, and targeted release. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Conservation strategies for understanding and combating the primate bushmeat trade on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T; Sesink Clee, Paul R; Mitchell, Matthew W; Bocuma Meñe, Demetrio; Fernández, David; Riaco, Cirilo; Fero Meñe, Maximiliano; Esara Echube, Jose Manuel; Hearn, Gail W; Gonder, Mary Katherine

    2017-11-01

    Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is among the important places in Africa for the conservation of primates, but a cultural preference for bushmeat and a lack of effective law enforcement has encouraged commercial bushmeat hunting, threatening the survival of the remaining primate population. For over 13 years, we collected bushmeat market data in the Malabo market, recording over 35,000 primate carcasses, documenting "mardi gras" consumption patterns, seasonal carcass availability, and negative effects resulting from government intervention. We also conducted forest surveys throughout Bioko's two protected areas in order to localize and quantify primate populations and hunting pressure. Using these data, we were able to document the significant negative impact bushmeat hunting had on monkey populations, estimate which species are most vulnerable to hunting, and develop ecological niche models to approximate the distribution of each of Bioko's diurnal primate species. These results also have allowed for the identification of primate hotspots, such as the critically important southwest region of the Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve, and thus, priority areas for conservation on Bioko, leading to more comprehensive conservation recommendations. Current and future efforts now focus on bridging the gap between investigators and legislators in order to develop and effectively implement a management plan for Bioko's Gran Caldera Scientific Reserve and to develop a targeted educational campaign to reduce demand by changing consumer attitudes toward bushmeat. Using this multidisciplinary approach, informed by biological, socioeconomic, and cultural research, there may yet be a positive future for the primates of Bioko. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rock mass joint treated by jet grouting at Diavik A418 dike south abutment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisre, C.A. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Hatch Energy, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to exploit the diamond pipes at the Diavik mines, located in the Northwest Territories, two dikes were built into the Lac de Gras, dikes A154 and A418. However, during the construction of the curtain grouting of the A418 Dike, the pressure grouting technique did not achieve the desired closure of a subhorizontal joint located at variable depth beneath the dike foundation into the granite rock mass at the south abutment. The joint was filled mainly with silt, sand and gravel. This paper reviewed the problems with the pressure grouting treatment methodology, and the final decision of the designers and construction manager to treat the joint by jet grouting. The paper outlined pressure grouting, with particular reference to technical specifications; curtain grouting analysis; and joint grouting investigation. The joint treatment by jet grouting was described and the most important features of the core drilling after jetting were outlined. The permeability of the joint was reduced significantly in the treated area, according to observations made during jetting and in the recovered cores and the permeability tests. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  16. Biomedical applications of yeast- a patent view, part one: yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohvand, Farzin; Shokri, Mehdi; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2017-08-01

    Yeasts, as Eukaryotes, offer unique features for ease of growth and genetic manipulation possibilities, making it an exceptional microbial host. Areas covered: This review provides general and patent-oriented insights into production of biopharmaceuticals by yeasts. Patents, wherever possible, were correlated to the original or review articles. The review describes applications of major GRAS (generally regarded as safe) yeasts for the production of therapeutic proteins and subunit vaccines; additionally, immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall components were reviewed for use of whole yeast cells as a new vaccine platform. The second part of the review will discuss yeast- humanization strategies and innovative applications. Expert opinion: Biomedical applications of yeasts were initiated by utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of leavened (fermented) products, and advanced to serve to produce biopharmaceuticals. Higher biomass production and expression/secretion yields, more similarity of glycosylation patterns to mammals and possibility of host-improvement strategies through application of synthetic biology might enhance selection of Pichia pastoris (instead of S. cerevisiae) as a host for production of biopharmaceutical in future. Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall β-glucans and possibility of intracellular expression of heterologous pathogen/tumor antigens in yeast cells have expanded their application as a new platform, 'Whole Yeast Vaccines'.

  17. Proposed Industry Best Practices in Development and Marketing of Medical Foods for the Management of Chronic Conditions and Diseases while Awaiting Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Bruce; Levy, Robert M

    Ideal therapeutics have low toxicity and can effectively manage condition(s) or disease(s). The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) marketing category of therapeutics called “medical foods” (MFs) meets such a definition. Medical foods have existed in Federal law since passage the Orphan Drug Act in 1988, which created a category of nutritional therapeutics separate from drugs. Unfortunately, MFs are not widely understood by the medical community or utilized in all patients who need them due to lack of a FDA-approval process, unclear and contradictory guidance especially with regard for need for an investigational new drug (IND) application, and no clear regulations regarding their development and marketing. The goals of this article are to propose “Best Practices” to guide the medical food industry in the development and marketing of products as well as to serve as a starting point for suggestions regarding further FDA regulation so that therapeutics which are shown to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS), provide food ingredients to meet a distinctive nutritional requirement for a specific condition/disease and are proven effective for the management for that condition/disease can be used to benefit patients who need them.

  18. Quan el traductor és sobretot escriptor: el cas de la traducció d'«El guepard» de Tomasi di Lampedusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Briguglia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article exposa, en primer lloc, les relacions entre l’escriptor sicilià Tomasi di Lampedusa i el mallorquí Llorenç Villalonga. L’anàlisi de les afinitats i les divergències estilístiques entre els dos autors té com a objectiu l’estudi descriptiu de la traducció catalana de la novel·la Il Gattopardo, a fi de destacar les estratègies adoptades pel traductor Villalonga i els canvis que suposen en comparació amb l’original. L’estudi intenta buscar les raons dels canvis en la poètica pròpia del traductor i arriba a la conclusió que, en la traducció de Il Gattopardo, va tenir un pes notable el diferent plantejament estilístic entre els dos autors: gras i barroc, Lampedusa; prim i essencial, Villalonga. Aquesta diferència porta l’escriptor mallorquí a adaptar l’obra mestra lampedusiana a l’estil propi, rebutjant i escurçant els excessos de l’escriptor sicilià.

  19. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny and expression analyses of SCARECROW-LIKE(SCL) genes in millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Qin, Jiajia; Fan, Hui; Cheng, Jinjin; Li, Lin; Liu, Zheng

    2017-07-01

    As a member of the GRAS gene family, SCARECROW - LIKE ( SCL ) genes encode transcriptional regulators that are involved in plant information transmission and signal transduction. In this study, 44 SCL genes including two SCARECROW genes in millet were identified to be distributed on eight chromosomes, except chromosome 6. All the millet genes contain motifs 6-8, indicating that these motifs are conserved during the evolution. SCL genes of millet were divided into eight groups based on the phylogenetic relationship and classification of Arabidopsis SCL genes. Several putative millet orthologous genes in Arabidopsis , maize and rice were identified. High throughput RNA sequencing revealed that the expressions of millet SCL genes in root, stem, leaf, spica, and along leaf gradient varied greatly. Analyses combining the gene expression patterns, gene structures, motif compositions, promoter cis -elements identification, alternative splicing of transcripts and phylogenetic relationship of SCL genes indicate that the these genes may play diverse functions. Functionally characterized SCL genes in maize, rice and Arabidopsis would provide us some clues for future characterization of their homologues in millet. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of millet SCL genes at the genome wide level. Our work provides a useful platform for functional analysis of SCL genes in millet, a model crop for C 4 photosynthesis and bioenergy studies.

  20. Signs of Transition; Tekens van Transitie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leenders, C.; Baidenmann, J.

    2010-05-15

    This book contains 14 inspiring experiences with making the energy system more sustainable that make clear that the energy transition is progressing. Two examples are provided for each of the seven themes: (1) Sustainable electricity (Agriport A7, Wind park Prinses Amalia); (2) Energy in the built environment (passive houses, conceptual building); (3) Chain efficiency (searching for CO2, process intensification); (4) New gas (biogas from manure, High efficiency boiler); (5) Sustainable mobility (electric driving, bus on biogas); (6) greenhouse as source of energy (closing the greenhouses, tomatoes on geothermal heat); and (7) green resources (biorefinery of grass, pyrolisis of biomass) [Dutch] Dit boek bevat veertien inspirerende ervaringen met verduurzaming van de energiehuishouding die duidelijk maken dat er voortgang zit in energietransitie. Er worden twee voorbeelden gegeven voor elk van de zeven thema's: (1) Duurzame Elektriciteit (Agriport A7, Windpark Prinses Amalia); (2) Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving (Passiefhuizen, Conceptueel Bouwen); (3) Keten-Efficiency (Op zoek naar CO2, Procesintensificatie); (4) Nieuw Gas (Biogas uit mest, HR-e ketel); (5) Duurzame Mobiliteit (Elektrisch rijden, Bus op biogas); (6) Kas als Energiebron (De kassen sluiten, Tomaten op aardwarmte); en (7) Groene Grondstoffen (Bioraffinage van gras, Pyrolyse van biomassa)

  1. The function of probiotics on the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP): facts and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacaer, Feride; Hamed, Imen; Özogul, Fatih; Glew, Robert H; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2017-09-01

    Probiotics have been used for centuries in making fermented dairy products. The health benefits related to probiotics consumption are well recognized and they are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Their therapeutic effects are due to the production of a variety of antimicrobial compounds, such as short-chain fatty acids, organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, formic, propionic and butyric acids), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection associated with high mortality in intensive care units. VAP can result from endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. These interventions increase the risk of infection as patients lose the natural barrier between the oropharynx and the trachea, which in turn facilitates the entry of pathogens through the aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions containing bacteria into the lung. In order to prevent this, probiotics have been used extensively against VAP. This review is an update containing information extracted from recent studies on the use of probiotics to treat VAP. In addition, probiotic safety, the therapeutic properties of probiotics, the probiotic strains used and the action of the probiotics mechanism are reviewed. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of probiotic treatment procedures for VAP are compared to those of antibiotics. Finally, the influences of bacteriocin on the growth of human pathogens, and the side-effects and limitations of using probiotics for the treatment of VAP are addressed.

  2. SAP buran injury management of mangoes (mangifera indica L.) in sri lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnapillai, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sap burn injury is one of the major postharvest disorders that causes postharvest losses of mangoes. Popular dessert mango fruits from northern Sri Lanka were selected for this study. Mature mango fruits - Willard, Karuthakolumban, Chembaddan and Ambalavi - were harvested carefully with 5cm stalk for different treatments to minimize sap burn injury. Stalks were removed and fruits were dipped in GRAS compounds of 1 and 5% sodium chloride (Table salt) and 0.5 and 1% calcium hydroxide separately for 5 minutes. De-stemming and dipping fruits in 5% sodium chloride and 1% calcium hydroxide were effective in reducing sap burn injury in Karuthakolumban. However, 1% table salt and 0.5% calcium hydroxide successfully reduced sap burn injury in Willard, Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. Fruit quality was measured in terms of pH, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and marketability. Quality parameters of treated fruits were not significantly different (P=0.05) from non chemical treated good quality mango fruits. Sap management dynamics was very useful in controlling sap burn in Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. No latex exudation was observed in these mangoes when stalk was broken by next day after harvesting. These results suggest that low cost environmentally friendly methods could be used to reduce sap burn injury in mangoes. (author)

  3. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 6 - Findings and recommendations. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This report is the final report in a series of six reports detailing the findings from the Cowichan Valley Energy Mapping and Modelling project that was carried out from April of 2011 to March of 2012 by Ea Energy Analyses in conjunction with Geographic Resource Analysis and Science (GRAS). The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The present report is the final report and presents a summary of the findings of project tasks 1-5 and provides a set of recommendations to the CVRD based on the work done and with an eye towards the next steps in the energy planning process of the CVRD. (LN)

  4. Overview of Catalytic Properties of Fungal Xylose Reductases and Molecular Engineering Approaches for Improved Xylose Utilisation in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Amir Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Xylose reductases belong to the aldo-keto reductase family of enzymes, which catalyse the conversion of xylose to xylitol. Yeast xylose reductases have been intensively studied in the last two decades due to their significance in biotechnological production of ethanol and xylitol from xylose. Due to its GRAS status and pronounced tolerance to harsh conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ideal organism for industrial production of both xylitol and ethanol. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use xylose as the sole carbon source due to the lack of xylose specific transporters and insufficient activity of metabolic pathways for xylose utilisation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of attempts in increasing biotechnological potential of xylose reductases and to highlight the prospective of this application. Results and Conclusion: In order to create strains with improved xylose utilization, different approaches were attempted including simultaneous overexpression of xylitol dehydrogenase, xylose reductase and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes, heterologous expression of putative xylose transporters or heterologous expression of genes coding for enzymes included in the xylose metabolism, respectively. Furthermore, number of attempts to genetically modify different xylose reductases is increasing. This review presents current knowledge about yeast xylose reductases and the different approaches applied in order to improve xylose metabolism in yeast.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  5. Structural, functional and pH sensitive release characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Albizia lebbeck L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Varma, Chekuri Ashok; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2017-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10 2 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4.06%), rhamnose (22.79%), glucose (38.9%), galactose (17.84%) and xylose (16.42%). Micromeritic properties revealed that the polysaccharide possess potential for pharmaceutical applications. From the surface charge analysis, ALPS was found to be non-ionic polysaccharide. Morphological study reveals the polysaccharide with irregular particle shape and rough surface. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the carbohydrate nature of polysaccharide. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, the second mass loss (243-340°C) attributed to polysaccharide degradation. The drug release profile reveals the use of polysaccharide for the preparation of pH sensitive pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Halogen bonding and pharmaceutical cocrystals: the case of a widely used preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldrighi, Michele; Cavallo, Gabriella; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Pilati, Tullio; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2013-05-06

    3-Iodo-2-propynyl-N-butylcarbamate (IPBC) is an iodinated antimicrobial product used globally as a preservative, fungicide, and algaecide. IPBC is difficult to obtain in pure form as well as to handle in industrial products because it tends to be sticky and clumpy. Here, we describe the preparation of four pharmaceutical cocrystals involving IPBC. The obtained cocrystals have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, solution and solid-state NMR, IR, and DSC analyses. In all the described cases the halogen bond (XB) is the key interaction responsible for the self-assembly of the pharmaceutical cocrystals thanks to the involvement of the 1-iodoalkyne moiety of IPBC, which functions as a very reliable XB-donor, with both neutral and anionic XB-acceptors. Most of the obtained cocrystals have improved properties with respect to the source API, in terms, e.g., of thermal stability. The cocrystal involving the GRAS excipient CaCl2 has superior powder flow characteristics compared to the pure IPBC, representing a promising solution to the handling issues related to the manufacturing of products containing IPBC.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactobacillus Rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samat Kozhakhmetov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactobacilli are a bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. Some species of this genus have probiotic properties. The most common of these is Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a microoganism, generally regarded as safe (GRAS. It is also a homofermentative L-(+-lactic acid producer. The genus Lactobacillus is characterized by an extraordinary degree of the phenotypic and genotypic diversity. However, the studies of the genus were conducted mostly with the unequally distributed, non-random choice of species for sequencing; thus, there is only one representative genome from the Lactobacillus rhamnosus clade available to date. The aim of this study was to characterize the genome sequencing of selected strains of Lactobacilli. Methods: 109 samples were isolated from national domestic dairy products in the laboratory of Center for life sciences. After screaning isolates for probiotic properties, a highly active Lactobacillus spp strain was chosen. Genomic DNA was extracted according to the manufacturing protocol (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit. The Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain was identified as the highly active Lactobacillus strain accoridng to its morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties, and a genotypic analysis. Results: The genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus was sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX (454 GS FLX platforms. The initial draft assembly was prepared from 14 large contigs (20 all contigs by the Newbler gsAssembler 2.3 (454 Life Sciences, Branford, CT. Conclusion: A full genome-sequencing of selected strains of lactic acid bacteria was made during the study.

  8. Staff Members with more than 25 years service at CERN in 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Allegrini Roberto SL Arimatea Claudio SL Baudic Yves SPL Becquet Christian SL Bergamaschi Angelo ST Bourquin Pierre EST Brand Jean-Paul ST Bresciani Pietro EST Brocard Robert EP Cameron Willie EST Carminati Daniel PS Chasseloup De Laubat Jacques ST Chouvelon Alain TIS Cittolin Sergio EP Cochet Evelyne ST Coly Patrick LHC David Eric EP De Jonge Luit Koert SL Delattre André LHC Detraz Claude Charles EP Dreesen Peter PS Dydak Friedrich EP Favini Pierre EST Ferioli Gianfranco SL Fiebiger Heinz PS Fontbonne Andrée HR Fournel Jacques EST Fournier Gérard AS Fromm Daniel EP Gagliardi Fabrizio IT Gaidon Michèle ST Galbraith Peter LHC Gavaggio Richard LHC Genand Roger SL Gendre Francis PS Geoffroy Michel ST Geretschlager Ingrid ETT Grabit Robert EP Grill Manfred ST Heinze Wolfgang PS Hoh Roger PS Hudry Jean SL Jenny Bernard EST Koutchouk Jean-Pierre SL Laffin Michel SL Laurent Jean-Michel LHC Le Gras Marc PS Legrand Patrick LHC Lerho Jean-Marie ST Lewis Ray ETT Liptow Ulr...

  9. In vitro evaluation of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated during traditional Sicilian cheese making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusi Macaluso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial proteins produced by bacteria that inhibit the growth of other bacteria with a bactericidal or bacteriostatic mode of action. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Bacteriocinogenic LAB are generally recognised as safe (GRAS and useful to control the frequent development of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. For this reason they are commonly used as starter cultures in food fermentations. In this study, the authors describe the results of a screening on 699 LAB isolated from wooden vat surfaces, raw milk and traditional Sicilian cheeses, for the production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, by comparing two alternative methods. The antagonistic activity of LAB and its proteinaceous nature were evaluated using the spot-on-the-lawn and the well-diffusion assay (WDA and the sensitivity to proteolytic (proteinase K, protease B and trypsin, amylolytic (α-amylase and lipolytic (lipase enzymes. The indicator strains used were: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis. A total of 223 strains (belonging to the species Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp. and Lactococcus lactis were found to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes by using the spot-on-the-lawn method; only 37 of these were confirmed by using the WDA. The direct addition of bacteriocin-producing cultures into dairy products can be a more practical and economic option for the improvement of the safety and quality of the final product.

  10. Extract from the fermented soybean product Natto inhibits Vibrio biofilm formation and reduces shrimp mortality from Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatip, Pattanan; Nitin Chandra Teja, D; Flegel, Timothy W; Soowannayan, Chumporn

    2018-01-01

    Many bacteria, including Vibrio pathogens of shrimp, need to colonize and/or form biofilms in hosts or the environment to cause disease. Thus, one possible control strategy for shrimp Vibriosis is biofilm inhibition. With this objective, an extract from the Japanese fermented soybean product, Natto was tested with the luminescent shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi (VH) for its ability to inhibit or degrade biofilm and to interfere with cell growth in broth. Natto is a traditional fermentation product of Bacillus subtilis var Natto (BSN1). Using 96 well microtiter plates coated with 0.4% chitosan, we found that biofilm formation by VH was inhibited, while growth in parallel broth cultures was not. When an extract from Natto prepared using BSN1 was mixed with feed for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei before immersion challenge with V. harveyi at 10 6  cfu/ml, survival was significantly higher (p≤0.05) than for control shrimp given feed without these additives. Further work done to test whether d-amino acids were involved in biofilm formation as previously reported for B. subtilis, Staphylococus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa gave negative results. In conclusion, we discovered that Natto extract can inhibit Vibrio biofilm formation and that it or BSN1 alone added to shrimp feed can significantly reduce shrimp mortality in immersion challenges with pathogenic VH. This shows some promise for possible application against Vibriosis in shrimp since Natto is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genotypic and Phylogenic Analysis of Lactobacilli Producing Bacteriocin Isolated from Traditional Dairy Products and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazaneh Tafvizi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a group of Gram-positive, non-spore forming, cocci or rod shaped, catalase negative organisms, considered as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS organisms. These bacteria are used for thousands of years for production of fermented foods because of their ability to produce desirable changes in taste, flavor and texture. Different antimicrobial molecules such as bacteriocins produced by these bacteria that can inhibit food pathogens, so enhancing the shelf life and improving the safety of food products. Because of important role of LAB to improving the human health, molecular identification and phylogenic analysis of these bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequencing play the critical role in investigation of local sources of LAB in Iran. Materials & Methods: 5 isolates were selected from 20 isolates for molecular identification. These strains produced the high level of bacteriocin. Total genomic DNA was extracted by lysosyme extraction protocol. PCR-mediated amplification was carried out by degenerate primers. Sequencing was performed after purification of PCR product. Results: Isolates were deposited as novel strains of Lactobacillus casei and Entrococcus facium in GenBank. Conclusion: Because of high potential of local probiotic bacteria in Iran, these strains may be useful and could be used in the food industry.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of the flavonol anti-oxidants, alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin and isoquercitrin, for genotoxic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Cheryl A; Koyanagi, Mihoko; Swartz, Carol; Davis, Jeffrey; Kasamoto, Sawako; Maronpot, Robert; Recio, Leslie; Hayashi, Shim-Mo

    2018-03-01

    Quercetin and its glycosides possess potential benefits to human health. Several flavonols are available to consumers as dietary supplements, promoted as anti-oxidants; however, incorporation of natural quercetin glycosides into food and beverage products has been limited by poor miscibility in water. Enzymatic conjugation of multiple glucose moieties to isoquercitrin to produce alpha-glycosyl isoquercitrin (AGIQ) enhances solubility and bioavailability. AGIQ is used in Japan as a food additive and has been granted generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status. However, although substantial genotoxicity data exist for quercetin, there is very little available data for AGIQ and isoquercitrin. To support expanded global marketing of food products containing AGIQ, comprehensive testing of genotoxic potential of AGIQ and isoquercitrin was conducted according to current regulatory test guidelines. Both chemicals tested positive in bacterial reverse mutation assays, and exposure to isoquercitrin resulted in chromosomal aberrations in CHO-WBL cells. All other in vitro mammalian micronucleus and chromosomal aberration assays, micronucleus and comet assays in male and female B6C3F1 mice and Sprague Dawley rats, and Muta™ Mouse mutation assays evaluating multiple potential target tissues, were negative for both chemicals. These results supplement existing toxicity data to further support the safe use of AGIQ in food and beverage products. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein N-glycosylation in eukaryotic microalgae and its impact on the production of nuclear expressed biopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eMathieu-Rivet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are currently used for the production of food compounds. Recently, few microalgae species have been investigated as potential biofactories for the production of biopharmaceuticals. Indeed in this context, microalgae are cheap, classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS organisms and can be grown easily. However, problems remain to be solved before any industrial production of microalgae-made biopharmaceuticals. Among them, post-translational modifications of the proteins need to be considered. Especially, N-glycosylation acquired by the secreted recombinant proteins is of major concern since most of the biopharmaceuticals are N-glycosylated and it is well recognized that glycosylation represent one of their critical quality attribute. Therefore, the evaluation of microalgae as alternative cell factory for biopharmaceutical productions thus requires to investigate their N-glycosylation capability in order to determine to what extend it differs from their human counterpart and to determine appropriate strategies for remodelling the microalgae glycosylation into human-compatible oligosaccharides. Here, we review the secreted recombinant proteins which have been successfully produced in microalgae. We also report on recent bioinformatics and biochemical data concerning the structure of glycans N-linked to proteins from various microalgae phyla and comment the consequences on the glycan engineering strategies that may be necessary to render those microalgae-made biopharmaceuticals compatible with human therapy.

  14. A multi-scale study based on phase field to predict the microstructure of irradiated materials: application to silver-copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demange, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    It is of dramatic matter for industry to be able to predict the evolution of material microstructure under working conditions. This requires a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms, which act on numerous space and time scales. Because it intrinsically performs a scale jump, we chose to use a phase field approach, which is widely used amidst the condensed matter community to study the aging of materials. The first challenge of this work was to extend this formalism beyond its thermodynamic scope and embrace the case of far from equilibrium systems when subjected to irradiation. For that purpose, we adopted the model of ion mixing, developed by Gras Marti to account for ballistic exchanges within a displacements cascade. Based on a numerical scheme and analytical method, we were able to describe the generic microstructure signature for materials under irradiation.We then applied this formalism to the particular case of the immiscible binary alloy AgCu.With the joined use of the phase field approach and atomistic methods, we managed to predict how the temperature and the irradiation flux tailor the main microstructure features such as the size, the concentration and the distribution of copper precipitates. This eventually allowed us to simulate a diffraction pattern in grazing incidence, which is directly comparable to experimental ones. (author) [fr

  15. Contamination of pasture by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio

    1980-08-01

    The reassessment of the experimental data on the transfer of iodine to aerial parts of rye-gras leads to the following significant findings: 1 - Water content of herbage depending markedly on time and location, the contamination of the vegetals has to be expressed on a dry weight basis. 2 - The value of the geometrical mean of the deposition velocity of iodine vapour as derived from 19 experiments carried out over 4 years is 0.76 cm/s. This value agrees very well with the value of V(d)=0.80 obtained in the USA during experiments comparable as to the number of tests and their duration. Consequently we propose a value of V(d)=0.76 cm/s for the evaluation of pasture land contamination by iodine resulting from routine releases. For accidental releases, however, we propose a value of V(d)=2 cm/s, which was the upper limit in about 90% of our experimental results. 3 - The analysis of data on wet deposition of iodine on the aerial parts of rye-grass shows that the initial retention when expressed as percent of the total deposit decreases with aspersion intensities. If expressed as retention factor, the initial retention is constant, for all aspersion intensities. The average initial iodine retention being lower by a factor of 2.3 than water retention the value of the latter will therefore be the upper limit for this radionuclide [fr

  16. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Nieto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  17. Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema

    2017-08-23

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times to improve the sensory characteristics of food, to act as preservatives and for their nutritional and healthy properties. Herbs and spices are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and are excellent substitutes for chemical additives. Essential oils are mixtures of volatile compounds obtained, mainly by steam distillation, from medicinal and aromatic plants. They are an alternative to synthetic additives for the food industry, and they have gained attention as potential sources for natural food preservatives due to the growing interest in the development of safe, effective, natural food preservation. Lamiaceae is one of the most important families in the production of essential oils with antioxidants and antimicrobial properties. Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils and are mainly found in the Mediterranean region, where the production of such oils is a profitable source of ecological and economic development. The use of essential oils with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties to increase the shelf life of food is a promising technology, and the essential oils of the Lamiaceae family, such as rosemary, thyme, and sage, have been extensively studied with respect to their use as food preservatives. Regarding the new applications of essential oils, this review gives an overview of the current knowledge and recent trends in the use of these oils from aromatic plants as antimicrobials and antioxidants in foods, as well as their biological activities, future potential, and challenges.

  18. The contribution of the Institute of Sciences of Food Production of CNR in the postharvest scientific context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agabbio, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Institute of Sciences of Food Production of CNR (National Research Council) has been designated to perform scientific studies in the postharvest field; they mainly aim at extending the life of horticultural commodities, maintaining their quality during storage and limiting fruit losses during the marketing period. The scientific work of the Institute concerns fruit and vegetable products, both fresh and minimally transformed. Experimental research on these commodities aims at providing process parameters (temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere) to managers of packinghouses, in order to have efficient cold storage. Another research field regards pathogen control for the purpose of maintaining product healthiness and at the same time of avoiding environmental pollution. Particularly in this field, research on commonly used compounds and the screening of new ones in order to prevent pathogen diseases are carried out with International protocols, contemporarily with other Countries. Surveys are completed with wide-reaching studies on alternative systems such as physical methods (thermotherapy, UV rays, curing), biological control (essential oils and antagonist microorganisms) and with GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) compounds, harmless for the consumer and the environment. A great deal of research is carried out in order to examine physiological phenomena, particularly during ripening and senescence periods of the fruit and aspects connected with quality. In twenty-five years of activity, almost five hundred papers have been issued illustrating technological innovations [it

  19. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

      Coupe de printemps La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée le samedi 21 avril dans la forêt de Pougny-Challex. étant donné le temps très humide qui domine depuis début avril, les coureurs ne pouvaient trouver qu’un terrain gras et trempé, mais cela fait partie des défis de la course d’orientation. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par Yvan Balliot, CO Annecy en 51:18 devant Jean-Charles Baritaux en 56:21 et Bruno Barge, CO CERN en 59:39. La prochaine CO populaire se courra à Vulbens le samedi 28 avril. Les inscriptions et les départs se feront entre 13h et 15h. A noter les courses en mai : • Samedi 5 mai : Trelex • Samedi 12 mai : Chancy / Valleiry • Samedi 19 mai : Lausan...

  20. Sequencing and Transcriptional Analysis of the Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Putrescine-Producing Lactococcus lactis ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladero, Victor; Rattray, Fergal P.; Mayo, Baltasar; Martín, María Cruz; Fernández, María; Alvarez, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a prokaryotic microorganism with great importance as a culture starter and has become the model species among the lactic acid bacteria. The long and safe history of use of L. lactis in dairy fermentations has resulted in the classification of this species as GRAS (General Regarded As Safe) or QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety). However, our group has identified several strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris that are able to produce putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. Putrescine is a biogenic amine that confers undesirable flavor characteristics and may even have toxic effects. The AGDI cluster of L. lactis is composed of a putative regulatory gene, aguR, followed by the genes (aguB, aguD, aguA, and aguC) encoding the catabolic enzymes. These genes are transcribed as an operon that is induced in the presence of agmatine. In some strains, an insertion (IS) element interrupts the transcription of the cluster, which results in a non-putrescine-producing phenotype. Based on this knowledge, a PCR-based test was developed in order to differentiate nonproducing L. lactis strains from those with a functional AGDI cluster. The analysis of the AGDI cluster and their flanking regions revealed that the capacity to produce putrescine via the AGDI pathway could be a specific characteristic that was lost during the adaptation to the milk environment by a process of reductive genome evolution. PMID:21803900