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Sample records for foer utvaerdering av

  1. Methodology - evaluation of strategies -and the system for taking care of spent nuclear fuel; Metodval - utvaerdering av strategier och system foer att ta hand om anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports 'Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, 'Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and 'Utvecklingen av KBS-3-metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete' ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the

  2. Experiences of membrane technique in flue gas condensate treatment applications; Utvaerdering av erfarenheter av membranteknik foer rening av roekgaskondensat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Ekdahl, Emma; Hellman, Mats

    2009-07-01

    Investing in a flue gas condensate treatment plant often turns out to be very profitable. The profitability comes from savings in energy and water consumption when treated waste water is recirculated, and also from savings in the NO{sub x} fee as condensate treatment allows for higher ammonia injection rates in the SNCR (NO{sub x} reduction) system. The membrane based technologies for flue gas treatment, which were investigated in this report, have proven to be successful and are operating well. However, they require that the project management is committed and acquaint themselves with the technology to avoid problems during commissioning and operation. In this project, experience with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment at ten different plants was investigated and evaluated. The ten plants are either biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. Membrane based flue gas condensate treatment is used by circa ten Swedish plants (Ultra Filtration membranes and/or Reverse Osmosis membranes, and at some plants also membranes for ammonia and carbon dioxide removal). All plants are biomass fired plants or co-combustion plants using a mixture of biomass and industrial waste. In Sweden, no plant firing municipal waste has yet been equipped with membrane based flue gas condensate treatment. These plants usually use precipitation and filtration technologies instead. Also the purpose of the condensation step is primarily to operate as a wet flue gas cleaning step. The heat recovery is of subordinate importance. Typical for these plants is also that they use condensation in several steps. The condensates from the different steps are often treated separately, as they may be of very different qualities. The RO unit is the main equipment in a membrane based water treatment plant. Pre-treatment and post-treatment of the RO water is adjusted to the incoming condensate quality, and to the requirements on the effluent. The reject water volumes of the visited RO plants are between 13 and 30%, based on RO inlet volume. The reject water percentage is dependent on the design of the RO plant. Double or triple pass RO design causes an increase in reject percentage, whereas recirculation of reject from the last RO stages helps to decrease reject percentage, and hence increases the total permeate yield. Eight of the visited plants are equipped with a UF unit as a pre-treatment step. Two plants use sand filters instead. At the time when condensate treatment equipment was installed at these two plants, UF technology was not yet used in this type of applications. The plants with UF pre-treatment have a Vibra Screen filter installed before the UF unit. In some cases additional pre-treatment is installed. Several plants have carbon dioxide removal installed before the UF unit, two plants have ammonia removal before the UF unit, one plant has precipitation and one plant has a sand filter in addition to the Vibra Screen filter. One plant has a UV generator installed before the UF unit, to prevent bacterial growth in the membranes. The concentrate, or reject, from the RO plant is relatively particle free but enriched in dissolved solids. Seven of the plants are equipped with ammonia removal. ammonia is removed either by membranes, by strippers or in the humidifier of the flue gas condenser. Almost all visited plants have high availability today. However, it often took several years to reach this goal. Reconstructions and completions with additional equipment have been made to the original installations. One plant has an availability of only 50% after eighteen months operation, and has still not been approved for trial operation. As an average, 12 hours per week of maintenance is required for the flue gas condensate treatment plants. A common feature of the visited plants is, that only pH is monitored in the inlet water to the condensate treatment plant. Although monitoring of conductivity would give valuable information on variations in condensate quality and possible operational problems, conductivity is not monitored in any plant. Manual sampling is limited to occasional samples taken to control on-line instrumentation, and to samples which are collected to control heavy metal emission to the recipient. These samples are analyzed by external laboratory at regular intervals, e.g. monthly. All the visited plants, except one, have integrated the control of the condensate treatment plant in their central control system. Normally, the condensate treatment plant can also be controlled and monitored locally to some extent

  3. Evaluation of lambda sensors for optimization of moving grate combustion; Utvaerdering av lambdasensorer foer optimering av foerbraenning paa roerlig rost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Edvardsson, Elin [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, S tockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    Irregular distribution in grate boilers is often caused by insufficient mixing of fuel and air in the lower part of the furnace. These problems can arise at large variations in fuel moisture or volatile content. Besides increased emissions, streak formation causes problems with deposits and corrosion. In grate boilers, the covering of the grate by the fuel bed is important for a good mixing of fuel and air. Optimization of the fuel feeding to the grate to obtain a more even distribution along both width and length normally decreases the CO emissions substantially. A uniform coverage of the grate with fuel also leads to a more evenly distributed gas velocity through the bed, which decreases the entrainment of unburned material and ash from the grate. The project objective was to investigate if lambda sensor signals can be used during continuous operation in order to counteract irregular distribution of fuel and air in the furnace. The target group of the project includes owners, operators and constructor of grate boilers, and everyone with interest of reducing imbalanced distributions in boilers. Tests with eight lambda sensors installed in the flue gas duct of the Karskaerverket biofuelled grate boiler were performed. Step responses in oxygen content from varied supply of air and fuel (total and irregular distribution across the grate) were measured. Additionally, the measurement system was tested during a period of three weeks. The measured oxygen levels showed irregular distribution across the width of the flue gas duct. The lateral distribution of primary air clearly influenced the measured oxygen levels, although the response was not the same in all measurement positions as the character of the bed in each fuel line strongly affected the response. Consequently, a different response was obtained if the step change was repeated during a new bed situation. An irregular fuel distribution clearly influenced the oxygen levels, although the time lag was long. This response also depended on the bed situation at the beginning of the step change. No clear change in oxygen levels was noticed at varied total fuel feed. Lambda sensors have previously been used during campaign measurements in solid fuel boilers. This is the first time that testing of such a measurement system during a longer time period has been carried out. It was, however, difficult to quantify the deviation of the lambda sensor signals with time, as the gas extraction probe used proved unsuitable for long term operation. The reason was that flue gas components could condensate and form deposits inside the probe, ultimately clogging the system. Provided the gas extraction system is further developed to adjust it to long term operation, measurement with lambda sensors early in the flue gas duct, in combination with flame front cameras, can be a useful tool to counteract irregular distribution of combustion in grate boilers. A brief economical analysis of a future successful installation indicates that larger boilers (at least 30-40 MW) could benefit from installing an instrument to handle uneven distribution of fuel and air. The profit comes mainly for decreased NO{sub x}-costs and less downtime. In practice, OandM costs will probably determine if the system is profitable or not. In total the project has had several obstacles, mainly due to the properties of the Karskaer boiler. For example leakage between primary air channels caused troubles to control primary air distribution. Unusual boiler construction made good fuel and air mixing difficult. Also the measurement probe design caused trouble due to deposits from condensation. The project also had some positive results: It was found out that uneven distribution could be detected and the lambda sensors' signals have shown fairly stable values also during longer measurement periods.

  4. Evaluation of the Swedish biogas standard - basis for a future audit; Utvaerdering av svensk biogasstandard - underlag foer en framtida revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Mattias

    2011-04-15

    This report is intended to constitute a basis for a future revision of the SS 15 54 38, 'Motor fuels - Biogas as fuel for high-speed otto engines.' When it was published in 1999, it was not deemed appropriate to source compressed biomethane from landfill gas, because of its wider range of trace elements, often in relatively high concentrations, such as siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons. Siloxanes are also present in the gas from waste water treatment plants, but the assessment was made that upgrading methods available at the time reduced these levels sufficiently. By putting a maximum limit on the nitrogen content, landfill gas was effectively shut out. Technical Development (cryogenic upgrading making it possible to clean landfill gas to biomethane quality; stricter emissions standards for vehicles that has led to a higher level of sophistication in engine and aftertreatment technologies) has now made it necessary to better control the levels of all trace elements. The state of standardization is not satisfactory for CNG in general and renewable CNG (biomethane) in particular. Standardization at the international level is mostly qualitative. Most standards are at the national level and with the exception of Sweden biomethane is only standardized for injection on the natural gas network. A mandate (M/475, 2010) from the European Commission to develop the CEN standards for biomethane fed into the grid, or used directly as renewable CNG, may change this, and the issue will be addressed in a new committee (CEN/TC408 'Project Committee - Biogas for use in transportation and injection into natural gas pipelines'). A variety of trace elements has been discussed for inclusion in the new standards, where countries such as Holland and France stand out as supporters of more stringent and comprehensive regulations. This report's working group considers it like the regulation of substances such as siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons will lead to removal methods, which sufficiently lowers also the levels of many of the other trace elements discussed. With respect to microorganisms, it is likely that the current requirement of a 1 micron filter may be sufficient to reduce the levels of these to harmless levels. If pathogens would be present, then the absorbed dosage would be too small to constitute any real risk. Lowering the maximum level for total sulfur content is an important revision, because the high content of sulfur dioxide in exhaust gases has an inhibitory and aging impact on catalysts, with lean-burn engine applications as the most sensitive. It is clear that most of the sulfur has its origin in the odorization, THT being utilized in Sweden (tetrahydrothiophene, about 6 mg S/Nm3). More sulfur-poor and even sulfur-free alternatives are available on the market, where the sulfur-free option is a less likely candidate, due to its uncharacteristic odor. Siloxanes are suspected as accountable for many of the undiagnosed operational problems in NGV's, since they precipitate as solid silica during combustion. Problems with clogging of the lambda sensors have been attributed to the presence of elementary silicon in petrol. It is unknown whether similar problems might arise from the presence of siloxanes in compressed biomethane. Reported total concentrations of siloxanes after upgrading fall below 0.6 mg Si/Nm3. Whether to regulate volatile heavy metals such as mercury and arsenic or not is an issue that risks becoming a stumbling block in the discussions between the Swedish vehicle manufacturers, who want to see quantitative regulation of these, and the CNG industry, which believes that the level of these rarely reach above the detection level even in the raw gas, and even less so in upgraded gas. As in the case of siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons, a possible recourse is to standardize/certify according to substrate source, heavy metals being present in principle only in landfill gas. In addition to the biologically derived trace elements it is also evident that there is a need to more closely regulate the contents of oil and water. The fact is that most of the operational problems of NGV's may be attributed to elevated levels of these two substances. However, the biggest obstacle to solve in order to revise the current Swedish standard of biomethane is the lack of validated testing methods, such as for entrained oil in the gas and the halocarbons. SP has already today candidate testing methods that can be validated for the former two, and shortly the validation of the sampling and analysis of siloxanes will be finished.

  5. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of candidate sites for the deep repository; Geovetenskapligt inriktat program foer undersoekning och utvaerdering av platser foer djupfoervaret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, Anders; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, R.; Follin, S.; Pettersson, Stig; Selroos, J.O

    2000-08-01

    Methods and technology for the geoscientific studies of the rock are the main subjects for this report, but programmes for studying the surface ecosystems and other conditions at the surface are also described.

  6. Evaluation and optimization of a method for pretreatment of sorted household wastes for biogas production; Utvaerdering och optimering av metod foer foerbehandling av kaellsorterat hushaallsavfall till biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)); Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden)); Eriksson, Ylva; Holmstroem, David (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    At NSR in Helsingborg, Sweden, organic household waste is digested and converted into biogas and bio-fertiliser. The incoming waste contains a small fraction of non-sorted waste such as plastics, metal and paper. These materials, especially plastics, can cause operational problems in the digester and pollution of the bio-fertiliser. In order to separate these particles from the digestion substrate, the waste requires pre-treatment. For two years, a screw press has been applied for pre-treating the waste at NSR. In the pre-treatment process, food waste is grounded and mixed with water to form a slurry. The slurry is separated into a dry fraction (reject) and a liquid fraction in the press. The liquid fraction is the digestion substrate and is sent to the digester while the reject is sent to combustion. Though, the separation in the screw press is not complete and thus organic, easily degradable matter ends up in the reject. In order to evaluate the efficiency in the screw press and to estimate the loss of easily degradable matter (and thus loss of methane), an assessment of the mass- and energy balances was carried out. The composition of the in- and outgoing fractions was analysed with the purpose of determining the distribution of organic material in the two outgoing fractions. The methane potential in the liquid fraction was compared with the methane potential in the slurry so as to estimate the loss of methane. The results of the mass balances showed that 63 % of the organic material that enters the screw press ends up in the liquid fraction and 37 % ends up in the reject. One ton of waste that enters the pre-treatment facility will eventually result in 1.5 tons of liquid and 0.2 tons of reject. Analysis of the composition was carried out in the slurry, the liquid fraction and the reject. These analyses showed that the liquid fraction contains a higher concentration of easily degradable matter such as fat and protein than the reject. In the incoming material, as well as in the reject, visual plastic objects and large fibres were present, while no visual large particles occurred in the liquid fraction. Analyses of the methane yield in the three streams showed that the liquid fraction has the highest methane potential. However, a considerable amount of methane can be produced from the reject and thus, a large amount of potential methane is lost in the present situation. Approximately 65 % of the methane that potentially can be produced in the slurry can be produced from the liquid fraction. Methane is a gas with a high energy value and can be converted to vehicle fuel. The energy in the reject is converted into heat and electricity when combusted in a combined heat and power plant. Just over 12 GWh of methane could be produced from digestion of the slurry. The corresponding energy production from the liquid fraction is 8 GWh. From combustion of the reject, almost 2 GWh of electricity can be produced and close to 4 GWh of heat. The total amount of energy that can be produced by applying the screw press is therefore larger when the screw press is applied. However, the energy in the gas is considered as a higher form of energy and the selectivity in the screw press should therefore be increased in order to achieve a higher methane production from the liquid fraction. Though, pre-treatment in the screw press gives benefits in terms of increased operational stability and a possibility to use the digestion sludge as a bio-fertiliser. A lab scale study was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of increasing the methane production from the liquid fraction. By increasing the temperature in the mixing tank, more fat can be dissolved in the liquid phase in the slurry and be separated to the liquid fraction. According to the results of the study, the energy production could increase with close to 40 % if the fat concentration in the liquid fraction is increased by 35 %. Experiments carried out with electroporation of the waste show that an increase of the dissolved organic matter can possibly be achieved but th at the energy input that is required exceeds the benefit. The conclusion is that the screw press is efficient in separating unwanted material but that improvements are required in order to minimise the loss of methane

  7. Evaluation of pine bark for treatment of water from biomass fueled plants; Utvaerdering av bark foer rening av vatten vid biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Christina; Hansson, Helen; Hansson, Soeren [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of pine bark are produced as a by-product from the pulp and forest industry. This makes pine bark available in large volumes to a relative low price. Pine bark has shown good absorption effect for organics pollutants, such as oil, in water and pine bark is used commercially as an oil absorbent. In a study the pine bark has also shown to have good absorption effects on heavy metals in water, in laboratory conditions. This indicates that pine bark also could be used as a natural absorbent for heavy metals in flue gas condensate and for leachate from biomass fuel storage. For the latter purpose the bark could be used as a combined heavy metal and oil absorber. In this project the pine barks ability to absorb heavy metals from flue gas condensate has been studied. The tests were performed using an untreated flue gas condensate, which was purified by using a basket filter with commercially available pine bark (trademark EcoBark) as absorbent. The bark filter has the same function as a tube reactor, which would imply that the absorption of heavy metals should be better than the laboratory tests. However, the results from the flue gas condensate tests showed much lower absorption of heavy metals than the laboratory tests. The only significant absorption levels were found for iron and mercury, which showed a reduction ratio of about 25 %. Other metals, such as lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, vanadium and zinc had a reduction ratio of about 10 %, which is quite low compared to the 98 % reduction for lead and about 80 % for copper and zinc that was achieved in the former laboratory tests. The most probable reason that the pine bark had a very low absorbent effect in the flue gas condensate is that the concentration of potassium and calcium restrains the ion exchange capacity of the pine bark. It is also likely that iron mainly is absorbed by the bark, while other metals only are separated as particles. Another possible reason for the rather poor absorption results in the flue gas condensate tests could be that iron affects the absorption of other metals. The water temperature could also have some influence on the results while the laboratory tests were performed at a considerably lower water temperature, 22 C. The flue gas condensate tests also included measurements of COD upstream and downstream the bark filter. The analyses shows that the COD concentration in the condensate upstream the filter is very low, 20-25 mg/litre, while the COD concentration downstream the filter is considerably higher, in the range 40 - 220 mg/litre. The COD before the filter probably originates from the small amount of char particles in the flue gas condensate and the increase of COD after the bark filter comes from humus that has been dissolved from the bark. The heavy metal absorption that has been analysed in the test with flue gas condensate should be comparable with heavy metal absorption from leachate from bio fuel storage, even if the water temperature in the latter case is lower.

  8. Evaluation of Co-Digestion of Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Utvaerdering av samroetningspotential foer bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Andreas; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2011-02-15

    The biogas potentials from 2 biosludges from the pulp- and paper industry and 10 possible co-digestion substrates have been evaluated. 6 combinations, each including two co-digestion substrates and one biosludge, were evaluated in lab scale biogas reactors. Stable biogas processes were obtained with all combinations and the rawgas potential was higher in the co-digestion processes then for the biosludges alone (0.31- 0.43 compared to 0.21- 0.22 NL/g VS) The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), co-digested with evaporation condensate (3 m3/d) and fibre sludge (3 ton/d) and thereby producing 850 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 43 MSEK excluding ground works. For a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, co-digested with food waste (8 ton/d) and cereal residues (12 ton/d) and producing 2 500 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr, the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK excluding ground works

  9. An evaluation of a farm scale biogas plant with a micro turbine for combined heat and power production; Utvaerdering av gaardsbiogasanlaeggning med mikroturbin foer kraftvaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nils; Edstroem, Mats; Hansson, Mikael (Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)); Algerbo, Per-Anders (HIR Malmoehus, Bjaerred (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to: To evaluate a farm scale biogas plant digesting energy and nutrient rich substrates at a high organic loading rate and biogas production using the biogas for combined heat and power production with a micro turbine. Put together technical, biological and economical documentation which can help farmers to investigate presumption to invest in a farm scale biogas plant for heat and power production. The farm scale biogas plant has an active digester volume of 450 m3 and the process temperature is ca 37 deg C. A micro turbine with 105 kW electrical and 160 kW thermal power is used for heat and power production. The produced electricity is sold to the grid and the heat is used on the farm for drying grain and heating two houses. The plant is digesting poultry manure and 2 substrates from the agriculture industry. All together the plant is digesting 3140 metric tons of substrates/yr and the substrates costs 160 k SEK/yr. Total investment for the plant is 4.7 M SEK. Produced head reduces the oil consumption at the farm with 15 m3 (value 100 k SEK/yr). There is a surplus of heat production of 600 MWh/yr. The production cost for the electricity is close to 0,66 SEK/kWh based on a value of the digestate of 100 SEK/ton together with an investment subsidy of 30 %. The production cost for the electricity is strongly depending on the value of the digestate. Hagavik is a crop production farm based on organic farming. If the valuation of the digestate is reduced to 50 SEK/ton, the production cost for the electricity increases to approx. 0.84 SEK/kWh (1 SEK is about 0.14 USD)

  10. Proposal of performance indicators/model for Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) at restart after a planned shutdown; Framtagning av bedoemningsfaktorer/modell foer utvaerdering av driftklarhetsverifiering (DKV) infoer uppstart efter revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Nygren, Magnus [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Computer and Information Science

    2005-12-15

    The objectives of the study reported here were to propose a model that can be used in the analysis of possible future ORV-related events and to outline a set of performance indicators that can be used by the inspectorate to assess a utility's level of readiness if an ORV-event should take place. Together the two objectives serve to improve the inspectorate's ability to ensure that the utilities maintain an adequate capability to respond. The background for the current study is the nine ORV events that occurred in Sweden between 1995- 1998, as well as the findings of a previous study of safety during outage and restart of nuclear power plants project. This study found that the three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV were used according to need rather than according to a predefined arrangement or procedure, and that tasks were adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. The organisation's coping with the complexity of ORV was discussed by the relation between expectations and surprises, how planning was used as control, attention to details, and the practices of shift changes. It is a truism that accidents are analysed and interpreted relative to a commonly accepted understanding of their nature. This understanding is, however, relative rather than absolute, and has changed significantly during the last decade. In the 1990s, accidents were analysed step by step, and explanations and recommendations therefore emphasised specific rather than generic solutions. The present study illustrates this by going through the responses to the nine ORV events. Following that, the nine events are analysed anew using a contemporary understanding of accidents (a systemic model), which emphasises that incidents more often arise from context induced performance variability than from failures of people. The alternative interpretation provided by a systemic model is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the 323-event. This leads to a proposal of an ORV-model based on the concept of maintaining control. According to this, it is essential that an organisation (a system) knows how to respond (reaction), knows what to look for (observation, attention), and knows what to anticipate (prediction). While an organisation must possess those qualities to respond to an incident in the short term, a regulator must assess the organisation possesses those qualities in the long term. In terms of performance indicators, ten Common Performance Conditions are proposed. Each is assessed with regard to whether it can be the basis of practical measurements and whether it can be used concretely to induce an improvement to operational readiness. The re-analysis of the nine ORV events suggested that adequacy of organisation, adequacy of training and experience, availability of procedures and plans, and available time would be the most important performance indicators. Further work should look into detailed measurement methods, evaluation criteria, and means of intervention all based on an explicit model of safety as an organisational function.

  11. Environmental guidelines for use of ashes for construction purposes - Part 1; Miljoeriktlinjer foer nyttiggoerande av askor i anlaeggningsbyggande - del 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Karsten; Wik, Ola; Bendz, David; Helgesson, Helena; Lind, Bo [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    procedures may be for ashes may be required for ashes than for natural materials. Regarding the environmental quality objectives adopted by the Swedish Parliament e.g. God bebyggd miljoe (A good built environment) and Grundvatten av god kvalitet (Good-quality groundwater) there is a large potential for use especially since ash production takes place at the 'right' site, that is, at such places where the demands on ballast are the highest, where the pressure on natural resources are the highest and where space for 'the alternative use' deposition are the least. The benefit of ashes should include not only the saving of natural materials, but also other factors that represent a decrease in environmental effects. This means that less energy consumption, less emissions during crushing and grinding, reduced climate impact by lower cement production and thereby lower carbon dioxid production, should be accounted for. This resource perspective is, however, not well described in the Environmental Code in the same manner that the risk aspects (pollution) are described. First and foremost the code regulates the risks that could be caused by the use of ashes. For waste, including material for recycling, procedures and criteria for handling and deposition etc. are regulated in the Landfill Directive and in the Swedish Waste Ordinance down to details, but only regarding risk aspects. When it comes to the benefit perspective there are wordings supporting a use e.g. in the Swedish Waste Ordinance but only in general terms. In this part of the project it was chosen to put forward applications (scenarios) for use that only are based upon risk aspects and not benefit aspects. Factors that should be part of a description of scenarios have been presented. A sketch to a model for risk evaluation has been done. The intention is that the final model should use the guidelines for contaminated land and criteria for acceptance of waste to different classes of landfills as a

  12. Evaluation and demonstration of remediation alternatives for historical mine waste using ash and alkaline by products; Utvaerdering och demonstration av efterbehandlingsalternativ foer historiskt gruvavfall med aska och alkaliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Sartz, Lotta; Karlsson, Stefan (MTM, Man-Technology-Envionrment, Oerebro Univ., 701 82 Oerebro (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The results clearly show that the use of alkaline by products can significantly reduce the leakage of trace metals from historical acid mine waste. Under ideal conditions (laboratory experiments) pH increase significantly and the trace metal concentrations decrease with around 99% compared to the untreated reference. During more realistic conditions (pilot scale) the same increase in pH was not obtained and thus the decrease in trace metal concentrations was not as great. In the stabilisation experiments pH was between 5.8 and 6.8 while the trace metal reduction was around 96-99%. In the filter experiments a median pH between 4 (aged ash) and 10 (lime kiln dust) was obtained after the alkaline section. Average metal reduction is around 95% for cadmium, copper and lead while it is slightly lower for zinc (85%). In summary it is indicated that hydroxide dominated materials work best in aerated environments while carbonate dominated materials work best in reducing environments. In summary it can be concluded that the use of alkaline by products to neutralise acidic mine waste and acid mine drainage from historical mine sites give rise to both environmental and economical benefits and should therefore be encouraged as a sustainable remediation method

  13. Evaluation of demand integrated substations; Utvaerdering av funktionsintegrerad fjaerrvaermecentral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, Sven [FVB Sverige AB, Boraas (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Demand integrated substations contain an intelligent control unit, which recently has been developed by NordIQ Goeteborg AB. The purpose with this project has been to evaluate the benefits of this intelligent control unit. This evaluation project has been based on field measurement of hourly heat supply, circulated water, forward- and return temperatures in six substations with a 12 month reference period with the existing substation and another 12 month evaluation period with a demand integrated substation. The results from the evaluation show that: - The annual heat delivery was reduced by 10-11 % in average, when a new demand integrated substation replaced an existing conventional substation in the same building. - The annual cooling of the district heat fluid increased by 10-11 deg C, giving lower return temperatures in the district heating systems. The annual volume of circulated water was reduced with 33,200 m{sup 3} from the initial 112,800 m{sup 3} during the reference year. - The daily variation of the customer heat demand became less bumpy from lower morning peaks and heat demands moved to evenings and nights. The financial benefit from the intelligent control unit estimated as net present value is higher than the cost for new conventional substations. Applied to the whole Swedish district heat sector, this benefit has an annual value of about 1,6-2,0 billion SEK (180- 220 million Euro), corresponding to 7-9 % of the current price level for district heat in Sweden.

  14. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the assumption that a 60% reduction of the thickness is acceptable. The changes of the operation conditions, particularly the lower rotating speed that the new design led to, have shifted the wear/corrosion condition so that corrosion is more dominating in the wear-corrosion. This is obvious as the SS2377, one of the softest of the evaluated materials, shows low wear rate due to its good corrosion resistant characteristics. The design of the screw has proved to be very crucial for wear-corrosion. The results from the wear-corrosion test show a number of effects that are more or less difficult to explain. One example is that the SS2377 have better wear resistance than the harder materials in both corrosion and in non-corrosive environment. The general conclusion from these testing is that the conditions at the screw have not been successfully imitated. For the prediction of the useful life, a wear-corrosion model has been developed to be used with operation data to follow and/or predict the wear-corrosion. Especially with SS2377, where the synergy effects between corrosion and abrasion is small, a good conformance can be reached. The model needs however further verification to become more general

  15. Technical and financial evaluation of agricultural based vehicle gas; Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av lantbruksbaserad fordonsgasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Peter; Bohman, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Johan Benjaminsson [Gasefuels AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    This study has examined two concepts for producing vehicle gas from farm based feedstock like manure: (1) Centralized production where the biogas is produced in a large scale biogas plant where the biogas is upgraded to vehicle gas adjacent the biogas plant; (2) Decentralized or farm based production where the biogas is produced on several farms and the gas is then transported via a gas grid to a centralized upgrading unit. The investigation has focused on the differences between the two concepts, from three different perspectives; technically, economically and legally. The economic calculations concerning the decentralized system has considered a governmental financial support of 1,8 Mkr or 30 % of the investment. This generates two different scenarios for the decentralized production system (with or without financial support). The study and the calculations are based on 100 000 ton manure which is either digested in one large biogas plant or 20 small scale farm based biogas units, which each digest 5000 tons. 100 000 tons farm based feedstock corresponds to 18 GWh in our calculations. Technically there are few differences between the concepts except the gas grid for decentralized production. Legally, the main differences are the environmental permits and the requirements concerning sterilization, which is necessary for a centralized vehicle gas production Financially, there are relatively large differences between the two vehicle gas production systems. With a centralized system the production cost is around 0,80 kr/kWh compared to over 1,00 kr/kWh for decentralized production when including governmental financial support. Without financial support the costs exceed 1,20 kr/kWh. Nonetheless, a production cost over 0,60 kr/kWh is problematic due to the prize of natural gas, which indicate that none of the systems would be profitably without more extensive governmental financial support. The study also presents two scenarios based on real cases. Both this cases indicates that a centralized production system is financially preferable even though the transportation costs increases significantly.

  16. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels for HD gas engines when tested according to the FIGE chassis test cycle on vehicle. Our conclusion is however that most Dual Fuel systems for HD on road applications will need further development to meet existing emission limits and to increase the Diesel replacement.

  17. Dwivedi, AV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dwivedi, AV. Vol 3, No 2 (2014) - Articles Linguistic realities in Kenya: A preliminary survey. Abstract PDF · Vol 3, No 2 (2014) - Articles Note: Contributors to this Issue Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2026-6596. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  18. Evaluation of the first SCR-plants in Sweden; Utvaerdering av de foersta SCR-anlaeggningarna i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanell, B. [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents operational experience of SCR systems at five power plants in Sweden; the diesel cogeneration plants in Linkoeping, Oskarshamn, Skultuna and Visby and the coal fired power plant in Vaesteraas. The experience represents the first years of operation of the SCR systems. The SCR-systems involved in this project achieve the following: * Uneven flue gas flow and concentration of ammonia and NO{sub x} through the SCR reactor results in lower efficiency. Hence it is important to achieve a thorough mixing of the ammonia in the flue gas in order to achieve high NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies, * Inferior control systems can cause unnecessary ammonia slip, * The diesel plants with an operating time of a couple of thousand hours have had major problems with deposits on the catalyst surface, * Guarantees regarding the lifetime of the catalyst are important. At commissioning the catalyst has to be over-dimensioned since the system has to reach the guaranteed emissions during the whole guarantee period, * There should be enough space in the reactor to install additional catalyst layers. This project verifies that additional layers need to be installed at later stages, * The mechanical construction of the SCR-reactor is important. The efficiency decreases when there is a leakage of flue gases past the reactor, * No considerable amounts of N{sub 2}O are generated by the catalyst. 21 refs, 27 figs, 47 tabs

  19. Scientific evaluation on the NKS programme 1998-2001; Facklig utvaerdering av NKS-programmet 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenhielm, G. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI (Sweden); Mustonen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)

    2002-11-01

    The Board of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) decided in the autumn 2000 to contract out two separate evaluations on the NKS Programme 1998-2001. Martin Oeiby from the NorwegiOe Radiation Protection Authority was requested to perform an evaluation on overall administration of the NKS Programme. Two experts conducted the scientific evaluation. Gustaf Lowenhielm from the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate was requested to assess projects on nuclear safety issues and waste management, and Raimo Mustonen from the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority to evaluate projects on radiation protection and nuclear emergency preparedness. This report deals with the scientific evaluation. The report contains brief review on the history of the Nordic nuclear and radiation safety co-operation and on the development of Programme for 1998-2001. Brief summaries of activities in all the projects are given, together with the main results of the projects. The evaluators give their subjective assessments on the success and effectiveness of the projects based on the evaluation criteria agreed With the NKS Board in the beginning of work. Also some general recommendations for the future co-operation are given. (au)

  20. SKB's program for societal research 2004-2011. An evaluation; SKB:s program foer samhaellsforskning 2004-2011. En utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Olof [Energi- och miljoestrategi O. Soederberg, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    This evaluation of the program of societal research that SKB conducted the years 2004-2011 has been performed on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The review has focused on answers to a series of questions as follows: General questions - Why was a program started? - What was SKB's purpose with the program? - Does the result mean that the objective has been achieved? - Has the program had effects (positive or negative) that were not anticipated when the purpose was formulated? - Strengths and weaknesses of the program? Questions about the implementation - How did announcement and selection procedures work? - Which forms were used for reporting results from the research projects? Questions about the continued investment in societal research - Are there such needs? - In that case, is it in SKB's interest to contribute financially to such research? - What forms might be appropriate if SKB sees interest to contribute financially to such research?.

  1. Sensors for online determination of CNG gas quality; Sensorer foer onlinebestaemnning av fordonsgaskvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenlaaaas, Ola; Roedjegaard, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Swedish automotive gas has until now been a very uniform, high quality automotive fuel. Elsewhere in Europe the quality of automotive gas varies significantly. Gas from different sources with different flammability require engine settings adjusted to the chosen gas' unique composition. The prospects for a vehicle-mounted sensor based on infrared technology for gas quality measurement has been studied and solutions are presented with questions that must be answered in a possible future work. The proposed vehicle mounted sensor is based on two channels, one of which measures the partial pressure of methane and the other measures the partial pressure of heavier hydrocarbons in 'equivalents of butane'. Ethane produces a signal of about 0.6 equivalents of butane and propane about 0.8 equivalents. The sensor can be accommodated in a cube with 5 cm side and should be equipped with nipple connections to the existing system. The sensor is expected to work throughout their entire lifetime without manual calibration, through continuous automatic calibration, so-called ABC (Automatic Baseline Compensation). The sensor will have to meet tough quality and environmental standards in which primarily contact ring, vibration and prevention of leakage are identified as extra difficult. Working temperatures and the electrical conditions of power supply and communication interface is considered less challenging. In one million volumes, the cost per sensor could be 200 to 300 SEK.

  2. Practical implementation of joint projects for offshore wind; Praktiskt genomfoerande av gemensamma projekt foer havsbaserad vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Cooperation mechanisms are part of the renewable s directive and aims to member countries to cooperate on renewable energy to meet their national targets a cost effective way. The Energy Agency has in previous assignments analyzed the possibilities and limitations of cooperation mechanisms and other countries' interest in the cooperation mechanisms. In the Appropriation Directions for 2013, the Energy Agency has been asked to contribute to the continued analysis and practical preparations for a possible cooperation with other member countries. The assignment covers several different types of cooperation. This report represents the Agency's accounting of the part of the commission on cooperation through joint projects. This part include, in consultation with the industry to develop a proposal for the practical use for the implementation of possible joint projects for offshore wind power. The mission aims to create greater clarity and facilitate the possible implementation of joint projects.

  3. Regulations for storage and transport of biofuels; Regler foer foervaring och transport av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmefors, Elin; Karlsson, Emelie

    2012-07-01

    The trend towards a fossil-free agriculture is of great importance. Partly due to the fossil fuel energy is finite but also because of the importance of agriculture to reduce the environmental impact of food production. There are also an economic aspect. It is likely that in the near future will be economically burdensome being limited to fossil fuels. Therefore, it is important that agriculture is well prepared to move towards alternative biofuels. The introduction of alternative fuels in agriculture as a substitute for diesel has proven more difficult than in other industrial sectors, depending on both the specific technical conditions and a regulatory framework that may not have been written with agriculture as target. LRF, Farmers' Association, has instructed the JTI, Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, identifying which rules, laws and regulations that will affect farmers at the farm level that for their own use stores and manages one of the most likely future biofuels for agricultural tractors.

  4. Place of the final disposal of short lived dismantling waste; Plats foer slutfoervaring av kortlivat rivningsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    This report deals with the short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which will mainly arise from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants, but also the dismantling of other nuclear facilities. For these installations to be dismantled, there must be the capacity to receive and dispose of dismantling waste. SKB plans to expand the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR) in Forsmark for this purpose. The legislation requires alternatives to the chosen location. The alternate location for the disposal of decommissioning waste SKB has chosen to compare with is a location in the Simpevarp area outside Oskarshamn. There are currently Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and SKB between stock 'CLAB'. The choice of Simpevarp as alternative location is based on that it's one of the places in the country where data on the bedrock is available to an extent that allows an assessment of the prospects for long-term security, such an assessment is actually showing good potential, and that the location provide realistic opportunities to put into practice the disposal of decommissioning waste. At a comparison between the disposal of short-lived decommissioning waste in an extension of SFR with the option to build a separate repository for short-lived decommissioning waste in Simpevarp, the conclusion is that both options offer potentially good prospects for long-term security. The differences still indicated speaks to the Forsmark advantage. Similar conclusions were obtained when comparing the factors of environment, health and social aspects.

  5. Analysis of markets for biofuels - Theme: Vehicle gas market; Analys av marknaderna foer biodrivmedel - Tema: Fordonsgasmarknaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In 2011 the Energy Agency was given an annual mission, which involved analyzing the current and future markets for ethanol and bio diesel. The mission resulted in a report that did a thorough analysis of price and market mechanisms in the Swedish and international market. This year's report aims to provide a situation analysis of the markets for ethanol and bio diesel, both first and second generation, with additional focus on certain market issues. This time, the Agency has also been asked to consider the market for vehicle gas, something that was not part of the original mandate from 2011. Regarding ethanol and bio diesel so have indentations made primarily on European protection duties.

  6. Graphical pump system optimisation method; Grafisk metod foer effektivisering av pumpsystem eller andra system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy-Hsien Lin; Aelmqvist, Arnold (Stora Enso AB (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The matter of energy has recently gained importance for companies in general and the forest industry in particular. Efforts to improve energy efficiency are ongoing with all companies within the industry, in order to reduce the significant energy costs. One area that makes up a substantial portion of the energy consumption is the process flows that are used to transport paper pulp. A pump system consists of numerous valves, splits and other sources of pressure loss, which makes it difficult to gain an understanding of the pressure levels at various locations, which in turn makes it difficult to identify opportunities for improvements. This project has developed software to create pressure diagrams which visualizes pumping work clearly and simplifies efforts to understand pump systems. Because the diagrams are generated automatically, the effort to study different possible solutions is reduced, thus encouraging experimentation and new, innovative solutions. The goal of the project was to develop a user friendly tool the aids analysis and design of pulp and paper plants. An analysis of the screen room at Stora Enso Hylte's TMP plant was carried out using the tool as a pilot, in order to test it in a real setting. Throughout the system, the project identified possibilities to reduce the pressure head by at least 25 per cent, which translates to 50 per cent and more in power. These savings have been achieved in the cases where the changes have been implemented. The pilot project clearly shows that pump systems should be analyzed as a whole, in order to reap the most of the benefits. Given that the tools are available, savings beyond those of making isolated improvements can be achieved, with a smaller investment. The tool designed in the project enables a fast feedback on ideas through an intuitive visual mean, which simplifies calculations and analysis of systems. It should be noted that it is only a tool, and engineering still has to be done e.g. judging the plausibility of the results and coming up with alternate solutions. This was the intended scope of the project which thus is considered a success

  7. Conditions for lowering the flue gas temperature; Foerutsaettning foer saenkning av roekgastemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus

    2012-02-15

    In heat and power production, the efficiency of the power plant increases the larger share of heat from the flue gas that is converted to power. However, this also implies that the temperature of the heat exchanging surfaces is lowered. If the temperature is lowered to a temperature below the dew point of the flue gas, this would result in condensation of the gas, which in turn elevates the risk of serious corrosion attack on the surfaces where condensation occurs. Thus, it is important to determine the dew point temperature. One way of determining the dew point temperature is to use data on composition of the fuel together with operation parameters of the plant, thus calculating the dew point temperature. However, this calculation of the dew point is not so reliable, especially if hygroscopic salts are present. Therefore, for safety reasons, the temperature of the flue gas is kept well above the dew point temperature. This results in lowered over-all efficiency of the plant. It could also be expected that for a certain plant, some construction materials under certain operation conditions would have corrosion characteristics that may allow condensation on the surface without severe and unpredictable corrosion attack. However, by only using operation parameters and fuel composition, it is even harder to predict the composition of the condensate at different operation temperatures than to calculate the dew point temperature. If the dew point temperature was known with a greater certainty, the temperature of the flue gas could be kept lower, just above the estimated value of the dew point, without any increased risk for condensation. If, in addition, also the resulting composition of the condensate at different temperatures below the dew point is known, it can be predicted if the construction materials of the flue gas channel were compatible with the formed condensate. If they are compatible, the flue gas temperature can be further lowered from the dew point temperature with equal and small risk of corrosion, but with increased efficiency of the plant

  8. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled ventilation, the air from these buildings can be treated in a biofilter. Biofilter are effective to remove most of the odorous compounds. But the biofilter's function must be regularly verified to avoid operational disturbances. Chemical emissions profiles at different places show how complex is the composition of the emission och how it varies from places to places and time to time. The project confirms and underlines that there are many causes to the global odour emitted from waste plants. Some compounds are important to survey, as for example limonene and ammonia in the tanks and biofilter regions and sulphur compounds in the landfills.

  9. Energy Balance and Performance Indices for Kraft Recovery Boilers; Standardmetod foer beraekning av energibalans oever sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders

    2007-09-15

    It has been recognized that different rules exist in calculating energy flows to and from a Recovery boiler. In this report definitions are given with the intention that the branch should adopt a common position in reporting power production for the Swedish system with charge on emission of nitrogen oxides, for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and for the electricity certificate system. Legislation and guidelines are described as also different standards for determination of boiler efficiency. The definition of the liquor heating value is discussed as also the different ways in which an energy balance could be set up. For the Emissions Trading Scheme a literature survey of interpretations made in other countries has been made. The recommendation is to define the heat input as the product of the virgin liquor flow and the net calorific value of virgin liquor. A net calorific value as defined in SS-ISO 1928 is determined in an environment with excess of oxygen and is consequently named net calorific value in oxidizing condition. In a Recovery boiler part of that heat is required for reduction of sulfur and a net calorific value in reducing condition are therefore defined in a branch specific way. The flow of liquor could be calculated using a heat balance based on steam generation. The envelope for that heat balance could be selected as to fit each individual installation; however some general recommendations are given. In reporting energy flow for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and to EPA it is recommended to use the net calorific value in oxidizing condition. This definition should also be good for reporting to Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries Federation and for internal use. For reporting to the electricity certificate system the part of the total power production with origin from biofuel should be stated. The heat of reduction is not available for power production and consequently the recommendation is to use the net calorific value in reducing condition. The useful energy production as defined in the system for charge on nitrogen oxides is more intricate to define. Today Recovery boilers are not included in the system but it has been proposed from EPA to widen the system and also include them. For this system a definition is suggested where energy required for sulfur reduction as well as energy in produced high pressure steam are included. Heat reclaimed in flue gas scrubber, vent gas condenser or similar type of equipment should also be included.

  10. Degradation of cellulose in the presence of ash; Nedbrytningsmoenster foer cellulosa i naervaro av aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Tech. (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    This project evaluates the risks and possibilities that come up in mixtures of ash and cellulose. The focus is on alkaline degradation of cellulose and the impact on metal leaching. The literature survey shows that a combination of ash and cellulose affects both the mobility of metals and the degradation of cellulose in many ways. A combination of ash and cellulose could have positive effects on the degradation of cellulose since ash makes the pH rise in the material. Normally the pH decreases in a waste deposit with time, which results in a reduced biological degradation of the cellulose since the methanogenic organisms are sensitive for low pH values. However, even if the pH increases when cellulose is mixed with ash the methanogenic organisms could be inhibit by toxic metals. The highest degradation rate for cellulose is at natural pH values because of an effective biological degradation. If alkaline conditions appear when cellulose is mixed with ash or in contact with the leaching water the cellulose is going to be degraded by a slower process: non-biological degradation (peeling-off reactions). The main degradation product from peeling-off reactions of cellulose is isosaccharinic acid (ISA). ISA forms complex with metals, which results in increased mobilization and leaching of metals. From biological degradation the degradation products are mainly CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O under aerobic conditions and CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} under anaerobic conditions. In combinations of ash and cellulose is it possible that the formed carbon dioxide cause carbonation and fixation of metals in the ash. As mentioned, ash could result in an increment of the pH value in cellulose materials, but if the starting point is pure ash a mixture with cellulose could make the pH value decrease, in extreme cases down to 4-5, because of biological degradation. Therefore it is possible that the metal mobilization in ash will increase if the ash is mixed with cellulose. Increased leaching of metals in combinations of ash and cellulose could also be caused by complex binding between solvent acids from the degradation of cellulose and metals in the ash. The experiments in this study have shown that the degradation product ISA results in an increased content of Pb and Zn in the leaching water from fly ash. When the experimental conditions were set to comparable conditions as for a compact and covered deposit after 250 years the leaching of Pb increased from 31 to 39 % and the leaching of Zn from 1,8 to 2,3 % when the content of ISA was increased 20 times. The disadvantages of mixing ash and cellulose are probably more important than the advantages because of the risk for increased metal mobilization. However, in some applications, for example grouting of ash to stabilize a waste deposit, the risk for metal leaching have to be compared to the advantages of using the ash. The disadvantages with ash and cellulose combinations could also be turned to advantages in special applications with processes where complex binding with ISA could give a selective washing/leaching and simultaneously the remaining metals could be fixed through carbonation.

  11. Purification of methanol for transportation use; Rening av metanol foer anvaendning som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenck, Anna von; Jansson, Mikael; Ljungquist, Pierre

    2008-11-15

    In this study a techno-economic analysis has been performed on the possibility of separating malodours sulphur compounds from the methanol obtained in the condensate after the evaporation in the kraft pulping process. The application for the clean methanol should be as transportation fuel. Two cases have been simulated in the simulation model Hysys, Case 1 using only distillation and Case 2 were distillation has been complemented with chemicals to further reduce the organic sulphur content. An economical analysis has been performed and it has been showed that the production cost for the cleaned methanol is in the range 2.7-4.2 SEK/l methanol

  12. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas

    2007-12-15

    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were also made to determine the influence of secondary air, tertiary air and classifier settings. The results show, although a little inconclusive, that the air supplies do not influence the signal and that the particle size distribution, connected to the classifier settings also does not influence the signal. It is only the coal mass flow that is directly correlated to the IR sensor signal. More investigations should be performed regarding the connection between the classifier setting and IR signal. Filters and averaging need to be implemented to achieve a satisfactory operation in an online installation

  13. AVS on satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang

    2005-07-01

    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  14. Results from a full scale application of ashes and other residuals in the final cover construction of the Tveta landfill; Utvaerdering av fullskaleanvaendning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttaeckning av Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav (Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden)); Andreas, Lale (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    In 2000 Telge Aatervinning - a waste management and recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later. Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleaa University of Technology. Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals. Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material. The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water air to interact with other media. The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other buildings thousand years back. The last part of the report brings a number of topics for future research and a discussion about problems to with the authorities to use residuals for covering landfills

  15. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the bedrock conditions at Forsmark. The detailed investigations will employ, apart from established and earlier practiced methods, also further refined and newly developed techniques and methods for investigations and modelling. The report describes the present status for investigation and modelling methodology and techniques and also provides an overview of currently planned method developments. The report also presents a proposed scenario for how the detailed investigations, in light of presently available knowledge and techniques, should be conducted. Starting points for the investigation programme in this context are the reference design of the facility and remaining uncertainties associated with the site descriptive model and underground design. The scenario high-lights those investigations which, more or less as a matter of routine work, will be performed closely coordinated with the progression of the underground excavation work. The investigations related to the development of the deposition areas will primarily be linked to the sequences pilot drilling followed by excavation of deposition tunnels, and pilot drilling with subsequent full-face drilling of deposition holes. Continuous supervision of the fulfilment of design premises and documentation of the facility are in this context important issues. Information acquired during the construction process will also provide the substantial basis for the assessment of the long-term safety of the final repository. Further, it is emphasised in the report that supplementary investigations will be performed, if the information in any respect is regarded as insufficient. Such investigations may as well be performed from the ground surface. The final repository will in different ways have an impact on the surrounding environment. Monitoring of such changes is therefore an important and integral part of the detailed investigations. Until the construction work for the final repository is initiated, the detailed investigation programme will be modified and made more circumstantial, including results of planned developments . These updates will be accounted for in ensuing versions of the programme

  16. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually. It is also likely that in the coming years there will be almost ten filling stations for liquid methane in operation in southern Sweden. The market analysis shows that several industries in the iron and steel industry are already interested in converting to LNG, mainly to cope with environmental demands. Also in the chemical industry there is an interest in using LNG, while many of the companies in the pulp and paper industry do not see LNG as a particularly attractive option. The latter have access to their own fuel and several companies have also adopted policies aiming at becoming fossil fuel free in the near future. The total conversion potential to replace oil with LNG industry amounted to 6.8 TWh/year, divided among 100 users. The greatest potential is in central Sweden (Dalarna, Gaevleborg, Vaermland) and along the Norrland coast. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. Transport distance is too long to be economically feasible to supply industries in central and northern Sweden. To provide these regions with LNG the intermodal freight terminals in Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa would be able to function as strategic hubs. These three terminals covering the areas and industries that according to the market analysis is most interesting for LNG supplies, and are all well connected both by road, rail and seaway, allowing for transfer between different modes. All harbours also have the potential to qualify for receiving LNG deliveries by ship. There is also an interest in using liquid methane for heavy transport and coaches/intercity buses, because the distribution of liquid methane is cost effective, and the vehicles get longer range due to the high energy density of liquid methane. Yet, however, the availability of vehicles is limited and the infrastructure is not developed, but both the availability of vehicles and refueling stations will increase in coming years. In total, about 10 TWh/year of diesel needs to be replaced i n the heavy vehicle sector, among other reasons to meet environmental goals, which is assumed to correspond to the conversion potential in the heavy duty vehicle sector in the long term (2030). A rough estimate of the possible development means that the demand for biomethane, in the form of LBG, and CBG (compressed biogas), by 2020 will amount to 1.5 TWh/year for heavy duty transport applications and to about 1 TWh/year LNG for long-range heavy duty transport. Furthermore, it is estimated to be possible that the production capacity of LBG double by 2020, reaching around 1 TWh/year.

  17. Maritime prerequisites for development of infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Maritima foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahnstroem, Johan; Molitor, Edvard; Raggl, Karl-Johan; Sandkvist, Jim [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    This study has provided an initial picture of where the most interesting ports and areas available for future expansion of a maritime infrastructure for LNG. On the basis of supplying vessels with LNG as fuel, from a long term perspective, we recommend locating LNG terminals in or near major ports and around the big ship routes. Given the current age distribution of ships operating waters of the Baltic Sea, almost 20% of the vessels are 30-40 years old and likely to be replaced by 2015 - 2020. Thus, there is a potential for newly built ships will be equipped with LNG operation. Selected criteria s; Size of the LNG terminal and hence the need for the size of the fairway and the area of land. Proximity to traffic routes with much ship traffic. Proximity to the major port. Proximity to consumers on the land side. On the basis of selected criteria and analyzed for possible location of the terminal it can be noted that a number of Swedish ports are found suitable. For example, ports of Sundsvall, Gothenburg and Helsingborg has been identified as suitable, but with different starting point and different types and sizes of terminals possible.

  18. Evaluation of research frame program on Energygases 2009 - 2012; Utvaerdering av Energimyndighetens kollektiv-forskningsprogram 'Energigastekniskt utvecklingsprogram 2009-2012'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilliestraale, Astrid; Johnsson, Filip

    2012-07-01

    This evaluation has been carried out with the purpose of evaluating the Energy Agency's collective research program 'Energigastekniskt utvecklingsprogram 2009 - 2012'. The evaluation concerning the current period (20090401 to 20130331) have focused on society, industry and universities benefit from the program. The assignment also includes assessing the working modalities of the program. The following points have been considered: 1. The program aims; a number of program-specific questions that focus on how the program helps to strengthen the relationship between industry and academia and the quality of R and D has been obtained from the Energy Authority. 2. Subareas - focus and priorities. 3. The benefits of the program, focusing on commercialization, information dissemination and international collaboration. 4. Administration of the program. The program evaluation has focused on the central and cross-cutting issues.

  19. How should the household waste be handled? Evaluation of different treatment methods; Hur skall hushaallsavfallet tas om hand? Utvaerdering av olika behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, J.O.; Carlsson Reich, M.; Granath, J. [The Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Baky, Andras [Swedish Inst. of Agriculatural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology

    2002-02-01

    Energy turnover, and environmental and economic consequences of different municipal solid waste management systems have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, recycling of separated plastic and cardboard packages and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easy degradable organic waste, were studied and also compared to landfilling. A simulation model (ORWARE), based on LCA methodology, was used. The following parameters were used for evaluating the different waste management options: consumption of energy resources, emissions of greenhouse gases, emissions of acidifying substances, emissions of eutrophicating substances, emissions of photo oxidant formers, heavy metal flows, financial economy and welfare economy. The analysis was based on a model municipality. In a sensitivity analysis different technical, geographic and demographic parameters have been varied, making the result to cover several different types of municipalities and regions. The conclusions from the study are as follows. The most obvious conclusion is that landfilling should be avoided. Wastes that can be incinerated (combusted), material recycled, anaerobically digested or composted should not be landfilled. This is valid even if landfill gas is extracted and utilised, and the leachate is collected and treated. This is due to that the resources in the waste are inefficiently utilised when landfilled, making it necessary to produce materials, fuels and nutrients from virgin resources. It is impossible to draw unambiguous conclusions of which of the other treatment options that is is most preferable. There are advantages and disadvantages with all options. In a systems perspective there are small differences between incineration and aerobic digestion of easy degradable organic material, and between incineration and material recycling of e.g. plastics and cardboard. Material recycling, anaerobic digestion and incineration should not be seen as competing options, but as completing options. Since it is impossible to obtain 100 % material recycling or 100 % biological treatment there will always be some combustible waste that has to be incinerated. There should always be possibilities to incineration, even if the waste has to be transported to a regional incineration plant. When comparing material recycling and incineration of recyclable materials (e.g. plastics and cardboard), and biological treatment and incineration of easy degradable organic waste, no unambiguous conclusions can be drawn. Anaerobic digestion of easy degradable organic waste has a higher welfare cost than incineration, and has both environmental advantages and disadvantages compared to incineration. Composting of degradable waste has hardly any advantages with respect to environment and energy turnover when being compared to incineration or anaerobic digestion. Composting gives a higher welfare cost than anaerobic digestion and incineration. Generally, material recycling seems to give lower consumption of energy resources and lower environmental impact than incineration, but higher financial costs and higher welfare costs. The result is however different for different materials. Recycling gives most advantages for non-renewable materials such as metals and plastics. Materials recycling gives higher financial costs and welfare costs than incineration. If the work at home with source separation is valued and considered in the welfare economic calculus, recycling gives much higher welfare cost than incineration. Transports of waste, when the waste once has been collected, is of very low importance considering consumption of energy resources, environmental impact and economy, if the transport is performed in an efficient manner. Private transports of source separated waste (from home to the collection site) can be of importance if the transport is made by car. Different collection systems have been studied: collection at home, collection in the close neighbourhood (100 inhabitants per collection point), or collection in the far neighbourhood (1000 inhabitants per collection point). The collection system has very low influence on the total consumption of energy resources, the total environmental impact and the total welfare costs. However, the collection system can affect the time people have to spend on waste management (and the welfare cost if the separation and transportation time for people is considered in the welfare economic calculus)

  20. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass - A techno-economic study of pretreatment with NMMO; Biogas fraan lignocellulosa - Tekno-ekonomisk utvaerdering av foerbehandling med NMMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Berglund Odhner, Peter; Teghammar, Anna; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam, Olsson, Marcus; Ascue, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Biogas has been identified as one of the most cost-effective renewable fuels. In order to increase biogas production, yields from traditionally substrates either need to be improved or other alternative substrates must be made available for anaerobic digestion. Cellulose and lignocellulose rich wastes are available in large amounts and have great potential to be utilized for biogas production. This project focused on the optimization of the pretreatment conditions when using the organic solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance the methane yield from forest residues and straw. It also focused on a techno-economic evaluation of this pre-treatment technology. NMMO has previously been shown to be effective in dissolving cellulose and, as a consequence, in increasing the methane yield during the subsequent digestion. The goal of this project was to develop a technology that increases energy production from domestic substrates in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way. The treatment works well at lower temperatures (9 C), which means that water from the district heating system can advantageously be used in the treatment. The results showed that treatment with NMMO at 90 deg C doubles the methane yield from forest residues and increases the methane yield from straw by 50 %. For the techno-economic evaluation, the base case was assumed to be a facility with a capacity of 100 000 tones forest residues/year. After a washing and filtration step, the treated material will be utilized in a co-digestion process where 33 % of the incoming material consists of forest residues and the rest is source-sorted household waste. The scale-up, process design, simulation and calculations were made using the software tool Intelligent SuperPro Design. The total investment costs were calculated to be about 145 million, when forest residues or straw are to be used as raw material. Costs for operation (i.e. raw materials, energy, waste management, maintenance and personnel costs) were set against the incomes from the products (i.e. methane, carbon dioxide and the lignin-rich digested residue) to see if the process was profitable. The internal return rate (IRR), a parameter that indicates whether a process is profitable or not, indicated that evaluated processes with capacities over 50 000 tons forest residues/year are profitable. However, co-digestion of forest residues with sewage sludge instead of household waste was not profitable. Both the laboratory results and the energy and economic calculations showed that the washing and filtration step is critical for the proposed process. The energy balance calculation resulted in an EROI value of 0.5, which means that the produced methane from forest residues counted up only the half of the energy needed for the treatment as well as NMMO separation and recycling. It is important to separate the NMMO well after the treatment, since remaining NMMO at concentrations higher than 0.002 % were found to inhibit the subsequent digestion step. Also it was showed out to be important that the washing step operates with small amounts of water to save energy within the NMMO recovery. A rotary vacuum filtration is therefore recommended for the washing and filtration step, and a mechanical vapor design is recommended for the evaporation, saving up to 70 - 90 % energy compared to a conventional design. Treatment of straw with recycled instead of fresh NMMO has also been tested and equal amounts of methane were obtained. After a well-functioning washing and filtration step, NMMO could not be detected in the di gestate residue.

  1. Evaluation of future policy instruments - Sub-Project 2; Utvaerdering av framtida styrmedel - Delprojekt 2 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Dahlen, Lisa; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Toren, Johan

    2013-09-01

    There are several recently introduced and future possible policy instruments that are of great interest to study in order to understand the future for the Swedish waste treatment market. In the energy sector, the use of system analysis models has proven to be effective in order to understand the effects and consequences of policy instruments. In the waste sector, however, such analyses have only been conducted sporadically. This in spite of the introduction of highly influential policy instruments such as producer responsibility, landfill tax and landfill ban, which together have contributed to landfilling of Swedish household waste practically has ceased. The goal of this project was, by using system analysis models, to study and evaluate the newly introduced and future possible policy instruments which affect Swedish waste treatment. The assessment was made in terms of how policy instruments affect: - the distribution of treatment technologies, - waste amounts, - greenhouse gas emissions and - the economics of waste treatment. The project was performed during 2011 and 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment (PFA)'. During the project, discussions have taken place within the working group and the reference group on which instruments are most interesting and relevant to study. Furthermore, opinions have been gathered from the association Swedish Waste Managements policy instrument group and from various players in the industry at conferences, presentations and workshops.

  2. Evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment'; Utvaerdering av miljoekvalitetsmaalet 'Saeker straalmiljoe'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asp, Helene; Brewitz, Erica; Halvarsson, Andreas; Ljungberg, Sophie; Mjoenes, Lars; Wallberg, Petra

    2007-11-15

    The evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment' is a contribution to the Environmental Objective Council's assessment of progress towards the national environmental quality objectives. The report describes and evaluates the radiation environment in Sweden, the regulatory instruments, measures carried out and the monitoring programmes. Furthermore, the possibility of achieving the objective and its interim targets is evaluated. New measures and means of control are proposed. The proposals are directed to the government and Parliament, national authorities and other stakeholders in society. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) considers it possible to achieve the objective, but additional efforts are required to ensure success. Environmental monitoring, research on health effects of radiation and supervision are still important areas. Intensified efforts will be needed to change attitudes towards suntanning. Changes in the formulation of the objective and its interim targets are suggested. Today only protection against radiation in the external environment is covered by the objective. Radiation protection work has to consider all. SSI therefore suggests that the objective should extend to include workplaces and indoor environment. For the three interim targets included in 'A Safe Radiation Environment', changes are suggested for the interim targets for radioactive substances and electromagnetic fields. No change is suggested for the interim target for skin cancer

  3. Utskrift av tredimensionell arkitekturmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    I examensarbetet behandlas modellering av hus anpassade för 3D-skrivning. Uppdragsgivare har varit Purmia Grön, ett företag i Pedersöre som har byggnadsplanering och 3D-modellering som huvudsakliga affärsområde. Målet med examensarbetet var att skapa en modell av ett hus som skulle lämpa sig för 3D-skrivning och inkorporera olika visuella designaspekter. 3D-skrivning är en tillverkningsprocess där ett fysiskt objekt skapas från en digital modell. Metoden har tidigare använts främst av stö...

  4. Skyggedom av enkepensjonsdommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognlien, Ida Gundersby

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven undersøker om bortfall av ektefellepensjon ved lovendring med tilbakevirkende kraft er i strid med retten til eiendom etter EMK TP 1 art 1. Skyggedommetoden/ Feminist Judgments -metoden brukes for å gjenskrive enkepensjonsdommen Rt.2006.262 i et feministisk perspektiv. Da mannen døde.......1975.220. I spørsmålet om inngrepet er proporsjonalt ble vektlagt at det ikke foreligger en transparent avveining av de relevante interessene. Videre er hensynene bak og behovene for den opprinnelige ektefellepensjonen fortsatt tilstede, og de er ikke tilstrekkelig avveid mot formålene med inngrepet...

  5. Forenkling av tekniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne; Bramslev, Katharina; Halderaker, Ingrid

    De fleste moderne kontorbygg har omfattende tekniske installasjoner. Mange byggeiere opplever at dagens kompliserte tekniske anlegg ikke fungerer som de skal. De ender med å få reklamasjoner, høyt energiforbruk og klager på inneklima. Kan en kraftig forenkling av ventilasjons-, oppvarmings- og...

  6. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide. Hvor...

  7. Invigning av Orgel Acusticum

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Hans-Ola; Weman Ericsson, Lena; Hannus, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Invigning av Orgel Acusticum, Studio Acusticum, konsertsalenHans-Ola Ericsson, orgel; Lena Weman, traversflöjt; Anders Hannus, klangregi; Birgitta Svendén, konferencièreOlivier Messiaen 1908-1992Apparition de l'Église éternelle (1932)Hans-Ola Ericsson f. 1958Nytt verk (2012) för förstärkt traversflöjt och orgelJohann Sebastian Bach 1685-1750Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ (BWV 639) ur OrgelbüchleinHans-Ola EricssonPostludium - "Spikar" ur orgelmässan "De fyra varelsernas Amen" (1999-2000) fö...

  8. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy savings during refining, when an industrial enzyme was used, here a pectinase. An assessment of the method used in the mill trial showed that the method for ranking enzymes in the pretreatment of wood chips could benefit from using a wing as the laboratory refiner. The enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips with pectinases indicated a positive result when it come to the effect of the enzymes on reduction in energy consumption during TMP production. A wing refiner can be used as a tool for evaluation and ranking enzymes, when pretreating chips for reducing energy consumption. A survey of enzymes that are effective in the pretreatment of wood chips in order to reduce the energy input at TMP production is recommended to be done. The experimental costs for mapping the enzymes suitable for pretreatment of wood chips at TMP production using the evaluation method developed in this work may be significantly reduced

  9. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste; Fud-program 2010. Program foer forskning, utveckling och demonstration av metoder foer hantering och slutfoervaring av kaernavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  10. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  11. AV dissociation, an inevitable response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kyuhyun; Benditt, David G

    2011-07-01

    The independent activation of the atria and ventricles, AV dissociation, is a common phenomenon that occurs during a wide variety of electrophysiologic circumstances. The clinical significance of AV dissociation is often misunderstood. This article examines the basis and clinical implications of AV dissociation. AV dissociation is often an obligatory, secondary phenomenon, and should not be construed as the primary disorder; it may be due to either the AV conduction system being completely blocked (3° AV block) or the P wave and the QRS complex being generated from separate sources (usually, the AV junction or ventricle) but occurring close together during the physiologic refractory period of each other. The latter may happen in junctional or ventricular arrhythmias including escape or accelerated rhythm, tachycardia, or premature beats. The crucial clinical point is not the AV dissociation itself, but that an underlying triggering primary disorder is present and should be identified. ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of solid heterogeneous waste fuel - the effect of sampling and preparation method; Karaktaerisering av fasta inhomogena avfallsbraenslen - inverkan av metoder foer provtagning och provberedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Franke, Jolanta; Johansson, Ingvar

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities to simplify the methods used during sampling and laboratory preparation of heterogeneous waste materials. Existing methods for solid fuel material is summarized and evaluated in the project. As a result of the project two new simplified methods, one for field sampling and one for laboratory preparation work has been suggested. One large challenge regarding waste sampling is to achieve a representative sample due to the considerable heterogeneity of the material. How do you perform a sampling campaign that will give rise to representative results without too large costs? The single largest important source of error is the sampling procedure, equivalent to about 80% of the total error. Meanwhile the sample reduction and laboratory work only represents 15 % and 5 % respectively. Thus, to minimize the total error it is very important that the sampling is well planned in a testing program. In the end a very small analytical sample (1 gram) should reflected a large heterogeneous sample population of 1000 of tons. In this project two sampling campaigns, the fall of 2006 and early winter 2007, were conducted at the waste power plant Renova in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first campaign consisted of three different sample sizes with different number of sub-samples. One reference sample (50 tons and 48 sub-samples), two samples consisting of 16 tons and 8 sub-samples and finally two 4 tons consisting of 2 sub-samples each. During the second sampling campaign, four additional 4 ton samples were taken to repeat and thus evaluate the simplified sampling method. This project concludes that the simplified sampling methods only consisting of two sub-samples and a total sample volume of 4 tons give rise to results with as good quality and precision is the more complicated methods tested. Moreover the results from the two sampling campaigns generated equivalent results. The preparation methods used in the laboratory can as well be simplified, especially by effective sample and particle size reduction through gradually grinding processes. Consequently, the plant owner can reduced their cost for each sampling campaign by using the simplified methods described in this project. A finding that either can be used to lower the cost for waste sampling or to increase the number of samples and sampling frequency which will increase the plant owners knowledge about the waste composition, properties and qualities. Increased quality and an even quality of the waste mixture has an large impact on the life cycle cost of the plant since it's affect the accessibility as well as the cost of maintenance.

  13. Biological effects in limed forests; Biologiska effekter i kalkad skog. Aarsrapport 1998. Effektuppfoeljning av Skogsstyrelsens program foer kalkning och vitaliseringsgoedsling av skogsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik; Akselsson, Cecilia; Bengtsson, Roland; Bjelke, Ulf

    1999-10-01

    The Swedish Board of Forestry experimental work with liming and vitalising (nutrient compensation) of forest soil includes an extensive review program of the effects of this work. Results from the experimental work are presented in annual reports. This report gives an account of the review program carried out to indicate the results of the biological effects. The studies are performed within the Swedish Board of Forestry's large-scale experiments with the liming and vitalising fertilisation of forest soil. The report covers the time period, or parts of the period, from 1991 to 1998. The results in short are as follows: (1) Benthic invertebrate: The investigation revealed that a dose of 3 tonnes per hectare was insufficient to have a substantial effect on the fauna in acidified streams during the first seven years after treatment. An increase in the number of species and taxon or larger bio-diversity could not be confirmed. No indications of harmful effects on the fauna, caused by high lime concentrations, were found., (2) Benthic algae: Changes to benthic flora in streams after soil treatment was minimal. The total number of species increased slightly after lime treatment. At the same time the number of acid indicating species diminished. In other words, the decrease in acidity has improved the water quality. No negative effects, as a result of soil treatment were found., (3) Nutritional status in needles: The trees reacted quickly to the treatments. The soil treatment led to an increase in levels of calcium in the needles. Treatment using wood ash and the vitalising agent 'Skogvital' led to an increase in calcium and boron levels. Treatment using a mixture of wood ash and lime resulted in increased magnesium and manganese levels. Samples were taken one and three years respectively after treatment. A longer period of time is required to carry out a detailed evaluation of the nutritional status of the needles., and (4) Tree vitality: It is not possible to identify any variations in needle loss comparing limed areas and untreated reference areas during the six-year study. Similarly in the observation areas set up by the Swedish Board of Forestry, there was no evidence of any reductions in needle loss in spruce forest during the test period.

  14. Measurements of emissions during waste wood combustion to identify refurbishment needs; Maetning av emissioner vid foerbraenning av RT-flis foer att identifiera eventuella ombyggnadsaatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The background to this project is the new EU directive 2000/76/EG regarding incineration of waste. This directive may have an effect on emission limits for Swedish plants firing waste wood. It may lead to needs of refurbishment in e.g. the area of flue gas cleaning equipment. In order to produce a basis to evaluate the need for such upgrading, measurement of metals, HCI, SO{sub 2} , CO, TOC and dioxin have been carried out on three plants firing wood waste: a grate boiler (Handeloeverket P11), one circulating fluid bed boiler (Aaterbruket in Lomma), and a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (Johannes in Gaevle, firing 50% waste wood). The measurements have mainly been carried out after boiler, equivalent to upstream flue gas cleaning. The results are that the demands of the EU directive on most points can be managed with existing equipment if this consists of electrostatic precipitator or bag filter with good performance and flue gas condensor. Without flue gas condensor, there is a need for other measures for 1-10 and for grate boilers, SO{sub 2} as well. The requirements in the directive for TOC is weaker than the demand on CO, and correspondingly, the demand on CO is driving. The level of dioxin from the boiler (upstream filter) exceeds allowed emission, and is in the range of 0,1-2 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} tg, 6 % O{sub 2} . Existing equipment will meet the emission limit for the lower levels (0,1-0,3) , but not safely for the higher levels (1,5-2). Correspondingly, there may be a need for equipment upgrading, e.g. in the form of activated carbon injection upstream flue gas filter.

  15. Evaluation and development of methods for determining methane emissions from biogas plants - Literature Study; Vaerdering och utveckling av maetmetoder foer bestaemning av metanemissioner fraan biogasanlaeggningar - Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Willen, Agnes; Rodhe, Lena (JTI, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in areas such as framework of voluntary commitment shows that there is a need for techniques for measurement of methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources in the handling of organic residuals. There are no established methods for determining for instance emissions of methane from open or partially open tanks and cisterns, typically residue storage and the like. This report gives results from Phase 1 of this project, in which literary studies, market research studies, interviews and site visits have been made to identify a number of methods applied for the determination of emissions from open areas, such as liquid surfaces, but also land. Focus is on methods that can be applied to plants for biological treatment, which also includes the water treatment process at the treatment plants, but also the procedures used in measurements on land, landfills and processing plants are studied. First, the report gives a brief overview of a large number of measurement methods, where more detailed descriptions of four methods are given. The four methods are considered to be the most promising to pursue in the following phases of the project: - chamber technology; - sampling hood; - plume measurement with DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar); - air input in a covered storage.

  16. Flow Cytometry for rapid characterization of colloidal particles of various types in process waters; Floedescytometri foer snabb karaktaerisering av kolloidala partiklar av olika typ i bakvatten - MPKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerth, R.; Holmbom, B. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Since more than ten years Flow Cytometry (FCM) has been used for characterization of blood cells and bacteria and has become indispensable for medical and biological use. FCM is able to count thousands of particles per second and simultaneously determine their the type and size ending up in a statistically significant report within less than a minute. The principle of FCM is based on a light excitation of a `lined up` particle stream and a multi-channel determination of scatter and fluorescence. This rapid technology has so far not been used in a greater extent within process industry, except for counting bacteria in milk and beer. BASF of Germany has developed and patented a single-channel fluorescence counter for determination of resin droplets in the process waters of paper making. The FCM, however, is a far more effective and reliable method, being able not only to detect resin droplets but also bacteria, live or dead, as well as other occurring particles. We know we are able to determine bacteria, we have seen resin and we aim to show that FCM is able to give a comprehensive view of the colloidal contents of process waters in paper mills by exploring means to selectively stain the different types of particles. (orig.) 3 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  17. Analysis of algorithms for detection of resonance frequencies in vibration measurements on super heater tubes; Analys av algoritmer foer detektering av resonansfrekvenser i vibrationsmaetningar paa oeverhettartuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.

  18. Renewable natural gas. Gasification of biofuels for production of methane or hydrogen; Foernybar Naturgas. Foergasning av biobraenslen foer framstaellning av metan eller vaetgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Staffan; Malm, David [Halmstad Univ. (Sweden). School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The natural gas grid in Sweden will get extended to give the possibility to replace oil and coal within the industry, build effective combined power heat plants and offer the transportation sector an eco-friendly alternative to diesel and petrol. Through extension of the Swedish gas grid there will also be an infrastructure for distribution of other gases than natural gas. Natural gas is a fossil fuel and in this report the possibility of gasifying biomass to produce a synthetic natural gas (SNG) that could be distributed on the existing natural gas grid. Also a combined production of SNG and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels has been investigated. In this report the raw material potential in the south of Sweden has been investigated, gasifying technologies have been investigated, demands for distribution on the natural gas grid, proposals of suitable localization alternatives and the total gas/FT-fuels potential has been estimated. The biggest potential of raw material is within the forestry in the form of fell remains and stem wood from thinning. In the future there will also be a great potential in waste because of the law about prohibiting deposits on landfills. The future potential of biomass is estimated to 34 TWh. There are several techniques for gasification of biomass to produce SNG and FT -fuels. When producing SNG separate the indirect gasifier using steam and subsequent methanation is the best alternative due to the highest efficiency. When using combined production of SNG and FT-fuels the integrated co-production is a good choice. To be allowed to distribute SNG on the Swedish gas grid some demands has to be fulfilled. Heating value and wobbeindex must correspond to the natural gas, a similar composition of the gas has to be reached, for example a similar methane content. Another alternative are distribution in separate grids. A good location to build a gasifying plant is nearby the gas grid, with good access to raw material and somewhere to use the waste heat. If all available raw material should be used for separate production of SNG the gas should come up to 23TWh, and combined 18TWh SNG and 6TWh FT-fuels. It is not reasonable that all the raw material is available for production of SNG and FT-fuels. The report has shown that there is a good technical possibility to distribute SNG from gasification in to the natural gas grid, but economically there will be a need for investors who believes in the technique and probably support from the government.

  19. Considerations underlying SSIs review of SKBs complement to the Research Program for 1992; Underlagsmaterial till SSIs granskning av SKBs komplettering av forskningsprogrammet foer 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.; Nolin, J.; Sundqvist, G.

    1995-04-01

    Two documents are presented: (i) SSI`s background review PM for SKB`s complement to the research program for 1992. (ii) An interdisciplinary study of the steering principles in the Swedish waste management. This work is an independent contribution to the debate about waste management in Sweden.

  20. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    In 2010, all food waste from the Swedish food industry would, according to national environmental goals, be recycled through biological treatment. For food waste from households and food establishments, the corresponding goal is at least 35%. The project aims to explore the potential for reducing costs and energy consumption, as well as decreasing the environmental impact, by decreasing the moisture content of food waste. Dried food waste has a long shelf-life and can be used as a bio fuel substrate together with other material of low dry matter content. It is expected to increase the bio fuel potential by improved possibilities to control the organic load. The storage costs are also reduced, as is the collecting frequency. Additionally, collecting can be done from a larger number of collecting points at the same occasion. Furthermore, the collection vehicle does not need to be equipped with collecting trays for silage effluent from the food waste. Since dried food waste can be stored for a longer period, this results in more optimal use of the energy of the food waste. The dried material requires neither decomposition nor sieving, has a very high purity degree (>99%), and does not result in reject material at treatment. The nutritional content of the dried material was also in principle intact. Composting of food waste from households was performed as a practical reference, in laboratory scale. The results show that rehydrated dried food waste works as good as a conventional compost fraction. However, the material has a tendency to dry out faster than conventional compost. Further rehydration may therefore be needed during the process. In this project, an assessment was made of two possible techniques for drying readily biodegradable organic waste: microwave vacuum drying of waste from food establishments and air-drying of food waste from households. The techniques were compared individually with current systems for handling waste, with respect to quality of the incoming material to treatment plants, energy consumption, cost, and climate impact. The quality of the dried material was evaluated with respect to purity degree, shelf-life stability, nutritional content, bio fuel potential and rehydration properties. In the system analysis, each drying technology, combined with a supposed subsequent digestion process, was compared to today's system for collection and digestion of food waste. An initial assessment of the potential of the microwave-vacuum drying process was made, as an alternative technique for hygienisation of food waste which contains animal by-products (ABP). The results indicate that the microwave process would be possible to adjust, in order to meet the time-temperature requirements for hygienisation. However, complementing studies are required to optimise and control the process towards the required microbiological reduction. Dried material has, as expected, advantages from both an odour and storage point of view; the lower water content corresponds to lower water activity and accordingly longer shelf-life and reduced risk for e.g. mould growth and odour. Even if energy is needed for drying the material, there are environmental advantages at collection of food waste (at transport distances less than about 50 km). Digestion experiments showed that dried food waste from households in Goeteborg did not result in any significant differences in methane exchange, with regard to organic matter (VS), expressed as m{sup 3}CH{sub 4}/tonne VS, compared with fresh food waste. Dried waste from food establishments in Boraas showed significantly lower methane exchange, with respect to organic matter (VS), than fresh food waste. The reasons for this need to be further investigated. A project delimitation was that the techniques were evaluated based upon food waste which was collected during a relatively short period of time. The target group of the project is the Swedish food industry, personnel responsible for waste collection, as well as owners of plants for biological treatment of food waste. The results of the project are also of interest to purchasers and contractors throughout the food and waste area.

  1. Flame front. Evaluation of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding operation and emissions; Flamfront. Utvaerdering av drift och miljoe med hjaelp av kamerabaserad flamfrontsstyrning i rosterpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Myringer, Aase; Nordgren, Daniel

    2007-09-15

    This project aims at showing the usability of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding increased possibilities to use fuels with fluctuating moisture/quality with stable/improved levels of emissions and ash quality. A furnace camera and the human eye make the detection of the flame front movements. Further, the flame front was fixed due to an increase/decrease of the speed of the fuel feeding system. The result is to be generalised for all grate furnaces with a movable grate. During the spring 2007 two weeks of tests were executed at E.ON Heat's plant Hammargaarden at Kungsbacka. Dry and wet fuel pulses of approximately 10 m3, with moisture content of approximately 40 and 60 weights percent, were induced to the grate. At the same time, tries to ward off the flame front movement were carried through. The most important result of the tests were the following: The results is based on a relatively small number of tests and it should be considered to be more of an indication of the usefulness of the control strategy that has been investigated rather than definitive results. The results indicate that the economical and environmental benefits from using a system involving only visual detecting followed by warding off a movement of the flame front mechanically are small, and most likely hard to pay off. It is important to start to ward off the flame front as soon as it seems to be moving. In this way the flame front can be kept stable and often improved emission levels follow. A slight tendency to lower CO-emissions was observed when dry fuel pulses were warded off. When no warding off of dry fuel pulses took place, the combustion took place close to the lower part of the fuel-feeding wall. This was prevented when the dry fuel pulses were warded off. The content of unburnt carbon in ash at wet fuel pulses was lower when warding off in comparison with cases where no warding off took place. An important element of future work is, apart from using a regular furnace camera, to investigate alternative detection principles. The most important parameter should be to have a fast and reliable indication that the flame front is moving. Already existing measurement values, as temperature sensors in the combustion chamber and/or primary air flow could be usable. An alternative to ward off the flame front movement mechanically is to adjust the distribution of primary air below the grate.

  2. Evaluation of the licensing process - Part of Pilot project wind power- Large scale wind power in northern Sweden; Utvaerdering av tillstaandsprocessen - Del av vindpilotprojekt vindkraft - Storskalig vindkraft i norra Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report is designed to improve permitting processes for wind power plants, thereby contributing to the smooth functioning of wind power development in Sweden. This report is designed to improve permitting processes for wind power, thereby contributing to the smooth functioning of wind power development in Sweden. Based on the managing agent authorities and project groups reflections on the pilot projects on Gabrielsberget and Dragaliden has a number of advice and recommendations been compiled for the permit process as a whole and from the process at different stages.

  3. Evaluation of hearings. Results from reviews of the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish site candidate municipalities; Utvaerdering av utfraagningar. Resultat fraan genomlysningar av kaernavfallsfraagan i de svenska foerstudiekommunerna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to present an evaluation of the public hearings that took place in February of 2001 in the Swedish municipalities of Oesthammar, Tierp, and Aelvkarleby in Norduppland, Hultsfred and Oskarshamn in Smaaland, and Nykoeping in Soedermanland. These municipalities had participated in feasibility studies conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). A company report on the results of these studies had been published shortly before the hearings (FUD-K). The regulatory authorities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), organized the hearings for additional information and aid in their ongoing evaluation of the SKB report. Representatives of the municipalities participated in the planning of the events, and a large meeting in Tierp in January 2001, that also involved the authorities, consultants and interested parties, agreed on the aims and practical arrangements. The authorities furthermore ordered a report for a summary and evaluation of the events, and the results are presented here. The aim of, and the preparations for, the hearings were based on a theoretical model developed within the RISCOM project, i.e. the RISCOM-model of transparency, which postulates three basic elements, i.e. technical/scientific issues, normative issues and authenticity. These elements combine to achieve an optimal clarification on the interaction between scientific and value-laden components in decision-making. An assumption is that the quality of decisions would improve given that transparency can be increased. The hearings were designed to 'stretch' the implementer by means of asking essential questions and to clarify what was achieved and known so far in the process, as well as to clarify what matters required further attention. The content covered technical, legal and social aspects on issues of nuclear waste management and the choices involved in the process towards building a future high level nuclear waste repository. The recently published report by SKB (FUD-K) contributed the main foundation for the program content, which was structured into the two parts of (a) the choice of methodology and (b) the choice of municipalities for the forthcoming site investigations. This report is based on the content of the actual hearings, e.g. questions, answers and comments from the proceedings and group discussions, as well as responses to three questionnaires. The report states that the majority of the participants at the hearings were those already involved, in one way or another, in the municipalities organized work related to the nuclear waste issue. Thus, the hearings did not attract a large number of novices or uninitiated individuals from the general public. The wide scope of considered aspects and the high level of knowledge among the participants were reflected by the questions put to the panel. The questionnaire responses also indicated high initial involvement in the hearings, and that the participants came well prepared to the meetings. The main preparation being studies of available reports and other materials, but also e.g. participation in information seminars or in meetings organized by the municipalities. Their reasons for participation often involved a desire to learn more in relation to specifically formulated questions and / or to gain a better understanding of the work and the overall process. The participants wanted to achieve a result that outlined pros and cons of various methodologies regarding waste management, and which stated the degree of reliability regarding the proposed technological solutions. Furthermore, to reach a substantial level of clarity regarding what can be considered as established facts in contrast to what remains uncertain or problematic. The results indicated that a majority of the participants preferred the proposed KBS-3 method to other alternatives with respect to the construction of a final repository. However, the need for a continuous awareness of current research and the developments of alternative methods was underlined. The participants were generally positive to the kind of hearings they had participated in, and they concluded that they had received responses to a substantial degree to the questions they had brought. The content of the hearings had to a large extent corresponded to their expectations, and they had not significantly changed their opinions. Ratings of central actors' credibility showed that the authorities enjoyed the highest trustworthiness and the local critics groups the lowest. The report points out that this result can only be related to the groups of participants at the hearings, and since that group can be considered relatively homogeneous and consisting of interested and active persons, any generalization to the larger population of the municipalities could be erroneous. (abstract truncated)

  4. Environmental systems analysis for the beneficial use of ashes in constructions; Miljoesystemanalys foer nyttiggoerande av askor i anlaeggningsbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, Erik; Olsson, Susanna; Magnusson, Ylva; Peterson, Anna [Ecoloop, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    All building materials have an impact on the environment, conventional materials as well as recycled materials. But, since recycled materials are classified as waste, the use of them is more strongly restricted. The potential of saving natural materials and energy by the use of recycling materials are rarely considered. This report presents a method for environmental systems analysis considering the use of recycled materials in a wide perspective. Various scenarios for beneficial use or disposal of the residuals that occur in a region (province, county or municipality) are analysed. The method considers emissions to air and water as well as conservation of natural resources and energy. Two case studies have been carried out for the Uppsala County in Sweden. Case study 1 dealt with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, where scenarios for beneficial use of ashes in 1) drainage layers in covering of landfills and 2) road construction were compared. Also a third scenario was included as a reference where the MSWI bottom ash was landfilled. The result of case study 1 showed that the use of ashes in road construction was the most beneficial alternative in terms of conservation of natural resources and energy, and also in terms leakage of several metals. The leakage of Arsenic and Zink were however more favourable in scenario 1 and the leakage of copper was more favourable in scenario 3. The second alternative where the ashes were used in drainage layer did not save as much natural resources and caused more emissions of heavy metals to water compared to the road construction application. In case study 2 the beneficial use of fly ash from peat combustion was analysed, including 1) the use of peat ash as a construction material in small county roads, 2) the use of peat ash mixed with sewage sludge as a covering material on landfills. Also this case study included a reference scenario in which the peat ash, generated in Uppsala County, was landfilled. The result from case study 2 indicated that the use of fly ash for county roads had on the one hand the largest use of crushed rocks but was on the second hand the most beneficial alternative regarding leakage of metals. From an energy point of view the alternative with covering of landfills was the most beneficial alternative up to a transport distance of 60 km for the ashes. All results are site-specific. From the synthesis of the whole project it was concluded that the developed method for environmental systems analysis has a potential to be a tool for strategic environmental assessments in regional natural resources plans, municipal planning and EIA. A weakness with this study is that water emissions are mostly based on laboratory leachate tests while data from full-scale studies would have been more relevant. Full scale tests are however rare and must be used with carefulness since they are very dependant on local conditions.

  5. Degradation rate of sludge/fly ash mixture used as landfill liner; Nedbrytningshastigheten foer taetskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    In order to be able to use mixtures of ash and sludge as landfill liner an important aspect is to demonstrate that the degradation of organic matter is slow enough. Therefore, the goal of this project has been to find out for how long a landfill liner material of sludge and ash will be stable and keep its function. The degradation of organic material in two different mixtures of sludge and ash has been studied in laboratory experiments. The rate of degradation was then estimated for barriers of sludge and ash, taking into account construction techniques (mixture, compaction, water content), climate conditions (freezing, drying) and biological processes (NaN{sub 3} additive). The effect of the degradation on the permeability has also been quantified. Organic material may disappear for the landfill liner material through 1) initial leaching of soluble organic material, 2) leaching of organic material after chemical reactions or 3) evaporation during biological degradation. Bacterial activity was not found in the sludge/ash mixtures during the experiments. Therefore, the organic material is probably reduced mainly though leaching according to 1) and 2). The leached amount of TOC (total organic carbon) was measured for all samples of sludge/ash in several experimental cycles. The leached amount of TOC was compared to the initial amount of TOC in the material. The results show a small initial reduction of organic material through leaching but the TOC content in the material is then stabilized. In relation to the total weight of the material the leaching of TOC was similar for the mixtures with 80 % ash and 20 % ash. However, this means that a larger amount of TOC was leached out from the mixtures with a high ash content since the initial amount of organic material was smaller. General conclusions about which ash-sludge ratio that is suitable for a landfill liner material could not be drawn from the experiments from a degradation point of view. If the initial permeability is low enough (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) the results indicate that the leaching of TOC will be of less importance for the function of the barrier layer. The hydraulic conductivity was independent of the change in TOC, i.e. even though the organic material was reduced through chemical degradation and leaching the permeability was not negatively affected. Instead, the permeability was reduced in time and affected mainly by the compaction grade. Therefore, it is important to compact the landfill liner material and to mix the ash and sludge to a homogeneous mixture. Drying of the material increased the hydraulic conductivity: the barrier layer should therefore be kept moist. Freezing through cycles did not affect the permeability. Calculations on the basis of results from experiments with columns with an initial hydraulic conductivity of <1x10{sup -9} m/s show that the leaching of TOC stops after 38 years (NSR-Oeresundskraft) and 14 years (Bromma-Maelarenergi). The combination of reduced percolation and more immobilized TOC is expected to lead to very low leaching rates for organic material after this time. On basis of this study it is recommended to change the landfill liner material at Filborna in Helsingborg from clay to ash/sludge on a test area. During such large-scale tests it is suitable to control changes in the material to verify the results from the experiments.

  6. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the project has primarily been to investigate suitable equipment (mills, crushers, shredders) for the pulverization of different types of soft plastics from the agricultural sector (large sacks and silage plastic) and the peat extraction industry (plastic covers) with the aim of being able to use the plastic material as fuel in conventional solid waste-fired plants. Many of the mills that are used for pulverizing different types of biofuel have proved not to be particularly suitable for soft plastics. The project has comprised the following: * Contact with a number of plant owners with different types of plants (grate, CFB and BFB boilers) for a review of existing fuel handling and fuel feed equipment as well as the demands they make on the fuel that is to be fired. * Contact with Trio Plast concerning previous tests carried out in connection with the collection, baling, handling, pulverization and combustion of plastics from the agricultural sector. * Contact with mill suppliers for participation in the tests and for feedback on experience gained in connection with the pulverization of soft plastics. * Choice of a suitable plant for practical trials based on contact with the above plant owners as a reference group. * Practical trials in 5 mills with the pulverization of soft plastics from agriculture (silage plastic and large sacks) as well as plastic from peat extraction (plastic covers) and * Evaluation of technical, economic, energy-related and environmental preconditions. Following contact with several owners of solid waste-fired combustion plants, and after hearing their opinions, it became clear that many of them were doubtful about the combustion of plastic. They are primarily afraid of tripping superheaters, etc. Consequently, two plants without superheaters, one in Oestersund and the other in Malmoe, were chosen for the tests. The mills that were tested were: * A SIM mill from WahIkvist, Oedeshoeg Plant - a mobile slow-action pulverizer for different types of waste. * A Willibald mill from Svenska Neuero - a mobile hammer mill with a drive system mounted on a trailer frame. * An Untha mill from Presona - a mobile, slow-action, electrically-operated mill with cutting tools. * A Satum mill from Ekoteknik - a stationary mill of the slow-action type with rotating knife cutters, and * A Doppstadt mill from OP-maskiner - a mobile slow-action mill with hammers. Other mills been tested for milling soft plastics by Lunds Energi in Lomma and Soederenergi in SoedertaeIje are: * Lindner- kvarn from Franssons Recycling Machine. A low- speed machine with turnable teeth. (Lomma), and * Eco- crusher from Babcock. A low- speed waste crusher with two-rotor. (Soedertaelje). The results of the tests showed that those mills/crushers/shredders that can cope with the demand to pulverize plastic material with only one or two grinding runs are slow action units with cutting tools. Hammer mills do not function as effectively for the type of plastic material investigated. Tests of whether it was possible to fire the Jamtkraft plant in Oestersund with pulverized plastic showed that with a proportion of approximately 5 per cent of plastic fuel mixed together with other solid fuel, mainly sawdust, bark and wood chips, plant operation was for the most part satisfactory. The running period amounted to approximately two weeks. Among the problems that occurred, however, were that somewhat excessively long strips of plastic hung down in front of the level sensors that control the supply from the day silos and that the overfilling sensor in the fuel screw was affected by the plastic. These problems would probably have been more serious if a larger proportion of plastic had been used. In order to be able to complete the tests in Oestersund, relatively extensive contacts was needed with the municipal environmental and community planning office, which in turn obtained the views of the County Administrative Board in the county of Jaemtland. Finally, a permit was granted to fire approximately 300 tonnes of plastic material, although with certain reservations. The costs of handling plastics for transportation, pulverization and combustion will be relatively high and amount to between SEK 350 and 700 per tonne, the largest cost component of which being the pulverization cost. To this shall be added the costs of collecting the plastic. With a fuel valuation for the plastic as biofuel, lower costs are achieved corresponding to approximately SEK 500-1000 per tonne.

  7. Initial study of a method for IR measurements in boilers; Inledande studie av metod foer IR-maetning i aangpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Martin; Joensson, Magnus; Lundin, Leif [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    The tubes in steam boilers are required to be regularly inspected, in order to find water-side deposits, thinning of walls or material defects. This is for safety, problem-free operation and high availability. No non-destructive method of inspection is available today for finding deposits on the insides of boiler tubes. Nor is there any method that can not only detect deposits on the insides of the tubes but also monitor the tubes' wall thicknesses. A suitable method - reliable, safe, easy to use and cost-efficient - is therefore needed. One such method is to measure the surface temperature of a larger area of the diaphragm wall, using a non-contact method, and from the resulting information to assess the material thickness and possible water-side or steam-side deposits. An IR camera is used for non-contact measurement of the radiated energy from several adjacent surface elements, and thus also of their temperature. The temperature is displayed on the camera's screen to produce a picture of the temperature distribution. This is a well-established method today, and is used in applications such as the steel industry, the electricity industry, electronics and health care. The surface temperatures of the tube walls can be measured by inserting an IR camera on an arm into the combustion chamber, without anyone having to get inside the boiler. The combustion chamber is the part of the boiler that is of main interest for inspection, as it is the easiest to reach. Measurements are facilitated by higher temperatures and thus higher heat fluxes through the tube walls. Diaphragm wall temperatures can be measured quickly and rationally over large areas. Points of interest in inspections include determining where there are water-side deposits in the tubes, where tubes are thin, where flow is obstructed and where there might be material defects. With the exception of material defects, all of these mechanisms result in changes in the surface temperature, which in many cases are substantial and can easily be detected by the sensitive IR camera. This means that the data provides a good basis for reliable analyses. It must not be expected, however, that thermography alone can identify how thick a deposit is or when it needs to be removed, or how thin a tube is. The results must be checked by other methods. Thermography cannot be used as a replacement for invasive testing methods such as the removal of tube samples. What it can do, however, is to show which areas of a boiler need to be inspected more closely. It can also reduce the number of tube samples, and confirm that they have been taken from the correct level and correct part of the boiler, which reduces the time required for inspection. It can also be expected to find greatly thinned tubes and blocked tubes. Today's thermography technology is highly flexible and is often used in special applications. Thermography of the inside of a boiler is just one such special application. However, further work is needed if inspections are to produce reliable results.

  8. Measures for simultaneous minimisation of alkali related operating problems; Aatgaerder foer samtidig minimering av alkalirelaterade driftproblem. Ramprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, Kent; Eskilsson, David; Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kassman, Haakan; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Aamand, Lars-Erik

    2006-12-15

    Combustion of biofuel and waste wood is often accompanied by chlorine and alkali related operating problems such as slagging, deposit formation and corrosion on heat exchanger surfaces and bed agglomeration in fluidised bed boilers. In order to gain a greater insight into possible measures to overcome alkali related operating problems studies were carried out during 2005-2006. The results of the studies are presented in this report which includes work performed in the two following projects: 1 A5-509 Frame work - measures for simultaneous minimisation of alkali related operating problems 2 A5-505 Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials Full-scale experiments were carried out at Chalmers 12 MW{sub th} CFB boiler within the project A5-509. The purpose was to study the effect of various measures on bed agglomeration and deposit formation in connection with co-combustion of wood and straw pellets. The various measures included changing the bed material (blast furnace sand and olivine sand), adding various additives (kaolin, ammonium sulphate, elemental sulphur) and also co-combustion with sewage sludge. Furthermore results from kaolin experiments at the 26 MWth CFB boiler owned by Naessjoe Affaersverk were made available during the project and are also presented in this report. The results from the experiments at Chalmers revealed that, already at the lowest dosage of kaolin, approx. 2 kg/MWh, the bed material agglomeration temperatures increased significantly. The dosage of kaolin can presumably be reduced somewhat further while still maintaining the high agglomeration temperature. Experiments with a higher dosage of kaolin, 7 kg/MWh, proved that kaolin could also reduce the risk of deposit problems. The experiments at Naessjoe showed also that addition of kaolin increased the agglomeration temperature of the bed material. Addition of sulphur in any form resulted in a reduced chlorine content in the deposits. Ammonium sulphate was more effective than elemental sulphur on the basis of added sulphur. However, no significantly positive effect was observed on the bed agglomeration. The risk for both agglomeration and deposits problems were reduced during co-combustion with sewage sludge. Further results from the experiments at Chalmers revealed that the effect of changing bed material was dependent on the type of bed material chosen. The blast furnace sand had a greater effect than olivine sand when reducing the risk of bed agglomeration. The content of alkali chlorides in the flue gas and in deposits were doubled when changing the bed material to olivine sand, compared to the reference case (a silica sand named silversand). Even in the experiments with blast furnace sand, the alkali chloride content in the deposits increased, but not as much as in the case with olivine sand. According to approximate estimations, the costs of the various measures will be in the range of 3-30 SEK/MWh. Simultaneous addition of sulphur and kaolin is an interesting approach which will be investigated in stage 2. Within the project A5-505, laboratory experiments were performed in a 5 kW bubbling fluidised bed reactor where the tendencies of bed agglomeration for wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp were studied in combination with different commercial bed materials. The results showed that straw had the greatest agglomeration tendency followed by red canary grass and industrial hemp. Furthermore the experiments showed that the fuel ash appeared in the bed as sticky separate ash particles and that the composition of the bed material had no significant effect on the agglomeration tendencies of the different fuels

  9. Development of a dynamic drying model for for a combustion grate; Framtagande av en dynamisk torkmodell foer en foerbraenningsrost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, Henrik; Ramstroem, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Combustion of wet wood fuel at high grate loading requires good control of the burnout position to avoid unacceptably high content of unburnt fuel in the ash. To control the burn-out position, control actions on the grate feeding must be made with sufficient range and anticipation. One way to improve the understanding of the dynamic fuel bed response on changes in control system parameters is mathematical modelling. The research task has been to develop a mathematical model of a drying fuel bed on a moving grate. The model includes a simplified description of drying, pyrolysis and char combustion and also pusher/grate movement and primary air flow/distribution. The objectives of the project have been to establish the most likely mechanism for drying and ignition of a wet fuel bed on a moving grate by the use of mathematical modelling and also to create a tool for simulation of control system step responses. The target group for the project are individuals working in the area of control system development of grate fired boilers. Three different assumptions on drying and ignition front propagation in a bio fuel bed with 50 and 53 % moisture have been modelled: 1. Drying and ignition from an underlying char layer in a co-current primary air flow 2. Drying and ignition from an overlaying char layer in counter-current primary air flow 3. Drying and ignition from both an underlying and overlaying char layer The model with drying and ignition driven by an underlying char layer is the projection, which gives the fastest and time-wise the most similar course to what one normally sees in grate fired boilers. The model with drying and ignition from above is not capable of upholding a stable diffusion controlled burning char layer since too small quantities of heat is transferred into the fuel bed. The model with drying and ignition from both directions results in similar combustion rate as the first model. The similar course of combustion is due to the energy for drying mainly transported by convection. This model exhibit the same difficulty as the second model maintaining a burning char layer on the topside. A number of control system step responses have been calculated. The results show that control actions, which but comprise grate feeding only temporarily changes the fuel bed extension. After a course of curving in, the bed take in a steady state, which is almost identical to the initial position. The step answer analysis indicates that actions, which also include changes in primary air stoichiometry are more efficient methods to permanently change the bed extension and course of drying. By combining combustion theory with knowledge on fuel bed feeding the project has created a novel tool to estimate the short and long term consequences of control actions during grate combustion. The primary field of application for the model in its present design is step answer analysis.

  10. Final summary report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994 - 1997; Sammanfattning av det nordiska forskningsprogrammet foer kaernsaekerhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennerstedt, T.; Lemmens, A. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    This is a summary report of the NKS research program carried out 1994 - 1997. It is basically a compilation of the executive summaries of the final reports on the nine scientific projects carried out during that period. It highlights the conclusions, recommendations and other results of the projects. (au)

  11. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for pasteurization and increase the organic loading rate of the post-digester.

  12. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  13. Grate monitoring systems - New methods for surveillance and control; Rostoevervakning - Nya metoder foer reglering och oevervakning av foerbraenningsroster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, Aasa; Jacoby, Juergen; Blom, Elisabet

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this project has been to practically test and evaluate new measurement methods for surveillance of grate combustion systems as well as to investigate the feasibility and applicability of different instruments with respect to repetitive and continuous measurement signals. Finding adequate measurement techniques will enable a better control of the combustion grate which will result in an even combustion. This in turn will reduce the overall emissions and will increase the average load on the entire system. This aim can however only be reached if the momentary conditions on the grate are known. Three different laser systems and one ultrasonic system have been tested during the course of the project. None of these instruments however was suitable for continuous measurements in such an environment. It is expected that the very high concentration of dust and particulates inside the incinerator caused a too intense dispersion of the measurement signals. All units that have been tested are commercially available and are not specifically designed for measurements in a waste incinerator. The exact signal processing within each system was not known and its effect on the measurement results could thus not be estimated. Due to the high concentration of particulates and dust, any measurement system should have an intensity of its measurement signal higher than for low-dust applications. However, commercial instruments have been developed in the opposite direction, i.e. lower intensities in order to improve that safety of the working environment. Radar-based systems have been considered as a possible measurement technique. However, the fuel needs to be conductive in order to act as a radar-reflector. This is not the case in a waste incinerator, hence radar was excluded as a suitable technique. Gamma-radiation measurement systems are commonly applied for level surveillance applications. Usually the measurement direction is horizontally. Placing such a system vertically may provide improved grate monitoring possibility at the fuel feeding location. Laser and gamma-radiation measurement systems seem to offer the greatest potential as monitoring measurement systems. It can be recommended that continued development of such systems is needed. This should be done in close cooperation with manufacturers in order to develop a tailor-made monitoring system.

  14. Function of all-metal separators for waste fuels. Phase 1; Funktion av allmetallseparatorer foer avfallsbraenslen. Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, Juergen; Wrangensten, Lars

    2004-08-01

    Various waste incineration facilities, which use different types of waste fuels, have difficulties with a high content of non-magnetic metal, especially aluminum in their fuels. Aluminum may melt on the grate and can lead to corrosion or fouling in the furnace. Additionally, a high content of aluminum in the flyash may cause difficulties in terms of storage or further use of the ash as e.g. construction material. The industrial demand for efficient separators for non-magnetic metals from a fuel stream is rather large. There is however some uncertainty in the performance and efficiency of metal separators. Two types of separators can be found, the first type is called eddy current separator, the other type is based upon a metal detector with a sorting unit in the form of a chute or similar afterwards. An eddy current separator consists of a fast rotating drum containing several permanent magnets with alternating polarity. Due to the rotation, the change in the magnetic field induces eddy currents in conducting materials. The eddy currents cause a force in non-magnetic metal, the Lorentz force, which repels the material away from the rotating drum while all other material follows the systems flow direction. Systems equipped with a metal detector activate a mechanical sorting device, separate chute or air nozzles, when a metal particle is detected. In contrast to eddy current separators all types of metals can be detected and sorted out by systems based on metal detector. Several technical solutions for metal separation supplied by various manufacturers are described in the report. The companies have been asked to supply product information on the working principle, technical data, efficiency and limits for different types of metals. Two reference power plants have been visited and their experiences with all-metal separators are described. Haendeloeverket in Norrkoeping uses eddy current separators for separation of non-magnetic metals from household waste. Igelstaverket in Soedertaelje applies a metal detector coupled with a chute for metal separation from return wood waste and peat. At Igelstaverket it was found that the existing system works sufficiently well for fuels used in the power plant. At Haendeloeverket, the amount of aluminum found in the bottom ash and fly ash is not negligible. Up to 3-4 wt % non-magnetic metal can be measured in the bottom ash. Separation of aluminum from the waste fuel should with regard to economical aspects as well as technical aspects be improved. Difficulties with metal separation and system design are also discussed in the report.

  15. Study of flue gas condensing for biofuel fired heat and power plants; Studie av roekgaskondensering foer biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Gustafsson, J.O.; Nystroem, Johan; Johansson, Kent

    2000-11-01

    This report considers questions regarding flue gas condensing plants connected to bio-fuelled heat and power plants. The report consists of two parts, one where nine existing plants are described regarding technical issues and regarding the experience from the different plants. Part two is a theoretical study where heat balance calculations are made to show the technical and economical performance in different plant configurations and operating conditions. Initially the different parts in the flue gas condensing plant are described. Tube, plate and scrubber condensers are described briefly. The different types of humidifiers are also described, rotor, cross-stream plate heat exchanger and scrubber. Nine flue gas-condensing plants have been visited. The plants where chosen considering it should be bio-fuel fired plant primarily heat and power plants. Furthermore we tried to get a good dissemination considering plant configuration, supplier, geographical position, operating situation and plant size. The description of the different plants focuses on the flue gas condenser and the belonging components. The fuel, flue gas and condensate composition is described as well as which materials are used in the different parts of the plant. The experience from operating the plants and the reasons of why they decided to chose the actual condenser supplier are reported.

  16. Impurities in biogas - validation of analytical methods for siloxanes; Foeroreningar i biogas - validering av analysmetodik foer siloxaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Magnusson, Bertil; Sahlin, Eskil [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Biogas produced from digester or landfill contains impurities which can be harmful for component that will be in contact with the biogas during its utilization. Among these, the siloxanes are often mentioned. During combustion, siloxanes are converted to silicon dioxide which accumulates on the heated surfaces in combustion equipment. Silicon dioxide is a solid compound and will remain in the engine and cause damages. Consequently, it is necessary to develop methods for the accurate determination of these compounds in biogases. In the first part of this report, a method for analysis of siloxanes in biogases was validated. The sampling was performed directly at the plant by drawing a small volume of biogas onto an adsorbent tube under a short period of time. These tubes were subsequently sent to the laboratory for analysis. The purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the established method is fit for the purpose. This means that the method, as used by the laboratory generating the data, will provide data that meets a set of criteria concerning precision and accuracy. At the end, the uncertainty of the method was calculated. In the second part of this report, the validated method was applied to real samples collected in waste water treatment plants, co-digestion plants and plants digesting other wastes (agriculture waste). Results are presented at the end of this report. As expected, the biogases from waste water treatment plants contained largely higher concentrations of siloxanes than biogases from co-digestion plants and plants digesting agriculture wastes. The concentration of siloxanes in upgraded biogas regardless of which feedstock was digested and which upgrading technique was used was low.

  17. Site selection - location of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Platsval - lokalisering av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document describes the localization work and SKB's choice of site for the repository. Furthermore, SKB's basis and rationale for the decisions taken during the work are reported. The document is Appendix PV of applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code to both build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar municipality

  18. Recommendations for conversions of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds; Anvisningar foer konvertering av rosterpannor till fluidiserad baeddteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Ingman, Rolf [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report gives advice and recommendations for retrofitting of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds. Nine plants have been visited and experiences from these conversion projects have been gathered and analysed. Among the important points planning, fuel specification, heat balance calculations and clarifying of delivery limits can be mentioned. It is also important not to underestimate the need for education of the operational staff.

  19. Review study 1995. Localization of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Oeversiktsstudie 95. Lokalisering av djupfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report gives an overview of the studies performed by SKB pertinent to selection of a site for the Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels, and is written for both experts in the various fields involved, decision-makers and the interested general public. The review can not comprise all detailed factors necessary for deciding the localization, but deals mainly with conditions on the land surface and can point out areas which are not well suited or less interesting as a site. It also treats several scientific, technical and social bases in different parts of the country. 120 refs, 53 figs.

  20. Silicon carbide based sensor system for minimized emissions in flue gases; Kiselkarbidbaserat sensorsystem foer minimering av emissioner i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Bjorklund, Robert

    2012-02-15

    Control of the combustion process is necessary in order to operate boilers in an economic and environmentally acceptable manner. Large power plants can afford expensive measurement instruments to continuously monitor the composition of flue gas. Smaller facilities often lack complete gas analysis systems and it would be to their advantage to have access to inexpensive measurement equipment which could be installed at several points in the flue gas channel. Since oxygen concentration is such an important parameter for describing the combustion process the lambdasond is currently being used as an oxygen sensor in flue gas. It has the advantage of usage for more than 30 years in the automobile industry. Experience from that application has aided its introduction in the power industry. Conditions are not the same in the two branches but the lambdasond is an established technology, produced in large volume, widely available and inexpensive. Vehicle manufacturers continue to develop sensor technology and monitoring capabilities have been extended to CO, NOx and NH3. The latter is the result of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) of NOx by addition of NH3 (from urea), which has been introduced as an exhaust gas aftertreatment technology in diesel powered vehicles. The power industry can be expected to follow this trend by incorporating sensors for monitoring and control of SCR and SNCR (non-catalytic selective reduction) in flue gas applications. This report describes evaluation of silicon carbide based transistors, which have previously been studied in diesel exhaust gas and small boiler flue gas, for applications in larger power plants

  1. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the interface between the steel and the metal oxide. This weakens the adhesion of the oxide to the steel surface and thus increases the corrosion rate. By addition of sewage sludge or sulphur the initial corrosion was decreased on both the low-alloyed steel T22 and the stainless steel 304L; sewage sludge being a little better than sulphur. Qualitatively, the corrosion attack firing SLF was similar to that firing ordinary waste, but the attack was stronger. At material temperatures of 500 deg C and 420 deg C - corresponding to superheaters - alkali chloride corrosion dominated, while at 280 deg C - corresponding to furnace walls - a melt of KCl/ZnCl2 is likely to have accelerated the corrosion. This difference between different material temperatures was especially pronounced in the 'Avfall and the SLF' cases. Higher zinc content in the fuel can therefore increase risk of corrosion. The higher content of iron, lead, copper and zink in the ash from the SLF case corresponds to the content of SLF compared with ordinary waste. Comparing the present tests with similar tests in fludised beds, grate firing resulted in higher deposit rate on the exposed test rings. This can at least partly be attributed to the lack of empty pass in the present grate boiler and to some differences in fuel composition: more chlorine and less sulphur in the waste used in this project. However, the effect of adding sludge was similar but not as strong as in the fluidised bed tests. To summarise, the results show that co-firing SLF with sludge can be advantageous also in a grate-fired boiler. Because of the high heating value of SLF, this combination also makes it possible to add a high fraction of moist sewage sludge.

  2. Requirements for drilling and disposal in deep boreholes; Foerutsaettningar foer borrning av och deponering i djupa borrhaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, Anders [QTOB, Haesselby (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report experience from drilling at great depth in crystalline rock is compiled based on project descriptions, articles and personal contacts. Rock mechanical effects have been analyzed. The report also describes proposals made by SKB and other agencies regarding the disposal of and closure of deep boreholes. The combination of drilling deep with large diameter in crystalline rocks have mainly occurred in various research projects, such as in the German KTB project. Through these projects and the increased interest in recent years for geothermal energy , today's equipment is expected to be used to drill 5000 m deep holes , with a hole diameter of 445 mm , in crystalline rock. Such holes could be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. With the deposition technique recently described by Sandia National Laboratories in USA, SKB estimates that it might be possible to implement the disposal to 5000 m depth. Considering the actual implementation, drilling and disposal, and the far-reaching requirements on nuclear safety and radiation protection, it is considered an important risk getting stuck with the capsule-string, or part of it, above deposition zone without being able to get it loose. In conclusion, even if the drilling and the deposit would succeed there remains to verify that the drill holes with the deposited canisters meet the initial requirements and is long-term safe.

  3. Dynamisk Analys av scrollkompressorn

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Plaza, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Det svenska företaget Thermia använder scrollkompressorer från det amerikanska bolaget Copeland i sina värmepumpsystem. Trots den betydande ljudminskning som scrollkompressorer ger jämfört med andra kompressorer är ljudtrycksnivån fortfarande 56 dBA. Den här ljudtrycksnivån är inte tillräckligt låg om man vill placera systemet i köket. Företaget önskar minska hela systemets ljudtrycksnivå. Rapporten innehåller en dynamisk analys av de olika möjliga ljudkällorna i kompressorn. Den innehåller d...

  4. Teratogene effekter av antiepileptika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt A. Engelsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGCa. 1 av 200 gravide har epilepsi. Gravide med epilepsi har økt risiko for visse obstetriske komplikasjonerog for å føde barn med medfødte misdannelser. Risikoen for misdannelser synes koblet til bruk avantiepileptika under svangerskapet, og ikke til selve epilepsien. Alle typer misdannelser er økt, men leppeganespalteog nevralrørsdefekter utgjør særlig viktige misdannelser. Årsakene til misdannelsene er multifaktorielle.Bruk av antiepileptika i monoterapi kan sies å gi en individuell risiko for større misdannelser påca. 4-6%. Karbamazepin og natriumvalproat gir hhv. 0,5-1% og 2-3% risiko for nevralrørsdefekt. Samletrisiko for større og mindre anomalier inkludert dysmorfe ansiktstrekk synes ikke å overstige 10%. ENGLISH SUMMARYEngelsen BA. Teratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 23-28.Approximately 1 in 200 pregnant women have epilepsy, and 1 in 250 births are to children of mothers whouse antiepleptic drugs (AED. Pregnant women with epilepsy have increased risk for certain obstetricalcomplications, and for giving birth to children with congenital malformations. The increased risk forcongenital malformations seems connected to the use of AED, not to the epileptic syndromes. The etiologyof congenital malformations are multifactorial. Use of AED in monotherapy is associated with anindividual risk of giving birth to a child with a major malformation of 4-6%. The specific risk of spinabifida is 0,5 to 1% for carbamazepine and 2-3% for sodium valproate.

  5. Helseeffekter av byluftpartikler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Refsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Svevestøv i byluft består av forbrenningspartikler og mineralpartikler med svært forskjellige størrelser og kjemiske egenskaper. Svevestøvet kan deles inn i størrelsesfraksjoner som PMAmbient particulate matter (PM comprises particles from different combustion processes and a variety of mineral particles. The particles vary widely in size distribution and chemical/physical characteristics. PM is often divided into size fractions with different aerodynamic diameters: PM10 (PM ! 10 mm, PM2.5 (PM ! 2.5 mm and PM0.1 (PM ! 0.1 mm. Recent population studies have found an association between an increase in mortality and morbidity due to lung and/or cardiovascular disease and short-term increases in PM. The relative risk (RR was approximately 1.005 for an increase in 10 mg/m3 PM10, without an observed threshold even at concentrations below 10 mg/m3. Chronic exposure has been investigated to a lesser extent, but longterm exposure to PM2.5 has been found to be associated with an approximately 10-fold greater increase in RR than short-term exposures. Experimental studies with volunteers in chamber and field studies show mild lung or cardiovascular responses at concentrations of ambient particles (PM2.5/PM10: 100-200 mg/m3 that may occur during episodes of air pollution. Animal studies at higher concentrations have shown stronger responses. The experimental studies support the epidemiological evidence for an adverse health effect of PM. Both population- and experimental studies indicate the existence of vulnerable individuals. At low to average ambient concentrations there seems to exist a discrepancy between the results of population- and experimental studies that might be due to the absence of the most vulnerable individuals in the experimental studies. Together with cell culture experiments, human and animal studies indicate the importance of physical and chemical properties of the particles (size, content of metals, organics, endotoxins, etc. for

  6. "AV nodal" reentry: Part II: AV nodal, AV junctional, or atrionodal reentry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, M. A.; Janse, M. J.; Ross, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    The classical model of "atrioventricular (AV) nodal" reentrant tachycardia suggests that the reentrant circuit is entirely within the compact AV node and that AV nodal tissue is present proximal and distal to the circuit. Recent evidence from mapping studies and from examination of the effects of

  7. Læring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekk...... nydefinering av lærerprofesjonalitet, må lærerne gå til kjernen av problemet, nemlig den sårbare lærer-elev relasjonen. Kun da kan det sosiale forsvarssystemet i skolen brytes ned, og den enkelte lærer kan gies rom til å lære av erfaring....

  8. Lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    En miljømessig effektiv lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger sikter mot å begrense - og helst redusere - biltrafikk og miljøproblemer knyttet til bytransport, sammenliknet med alternative lokaliseringer. En effektiv transportmessig lokalisering kan også bidra til å redusere tap av verdifulle...... arealer (f eks jordbruksareal eller natur- og friluftsområder) utenfor dagens tettstedsgrense. Tiltaket må samtidig utformes slik at en kan bevare viktige bomiljøkvaliteter og så mye som mulig av de grønne arealene innenfor tettbebyggelsen....

  9. "AV nodal" reentry: Part I: "AV nodal" reentry revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M. J.; Anderson, R. H.; McGuire, M. A.; Ho, S. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This review is the first of a two-part series of articles on "atrioventricular [AV] nodal reentry." The early clinical literature as well as the experimental studies are reviewed, and more recent morphologic data are presented, with the aim of clarifying whether the reentrant circuit is confined to

  10. Objektiv kumulasjon av voldgiftsregulerte krav

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Andreas Skjevik

    2013-01-01

    Oppgaven omhandler adgangen til objektiv kumulasjon etter tvl. § 15-1 når ett eller flere krav er regulert av voldgiftsavtale, jf. vogl. §§ 9 og 10. En voldgiftsavtale reiser flere spørsmål i tilknytning til objektiv kumulasjon for domstolene. For det første må det tas stilling til den prinsipielle stillingen til voldgiftsregulerte krav ved domstolene. For det andre reiser objektiv kumulasjon særlige tolkningsspørsmål ved tolkningen av voldgiftsavtalen. Oppgavens kjerne er dermed å redegjøre ...

  11. Regulering av termineringspriser i telebransjen

    OpenAIRE

    Lilloe-Olsen, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Denne oppgaven analyserer konkurranse mellom mobile nettverk i telebransjen. Formålet med oppgaven er å gi en samlet gjennomgang av litteraturen både om hvorfor termineringspriser burde reguleres på dagens måte basert på langsiktige merkostnader (LRIC), og på en alternativ måte kalt 'bill-and-keep'. Det vil argumenteres for at regulering av termineringspriser basert på langsiktige merkostnader vil føre til et ineffektivt høyt prisnivå, og bidra til å forsterke ...

  12. Impact assessment of the impact on nature values of the construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden av anlaeggande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Construction and operation of a repository at Soederviken in Forsmark, Oesthammar municipality means impact, effects and consequences for the environment. This report describes the natural conditions and natural values in Forsmark with particular focus on Soederviken. Furthermore, an assessment of consequences for the natural environment in the development and operation of a repository at Soederviken. Assessment of impacts from water activities are treated in a special report.

  13. Bruk av kartleggingsresultater i forbedringsarbeid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Thomas; Hansen, Line Skov

    . Barnehagen har gjerne tilgang på informasjon fra kartlegginger, men det er ikke alltid denne informasjonen blir systematisk analysert og aktivt brukt i forbedringsarbeid. Forfatterne viser hvordan slike analyser kan gjennomføres på forskjellige nivåer i den enkelte barnehage, og vektlegger viktigheten av...

  14. Bruk av RPAS til kartlegging av avdekket fjell

    OpenAIRE

    Arnesen, Jonas Gjersaas

    2014-01-01

    NORSK: Denne bacheloroppgaven omhandler Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) og ønsker å finne svar på om dette er et verktøy som kan benyttes til kartlegging av avdekket fjell – ”Use of RPAS for surveying revealed rocks”. Kartlegging med RPAS har mange likhetstrekk med tradisjonell flyfotografering fra fly og helikopter, og det er flybilder som er utgangspunktet for å generere de triangulerte terrengmodellene. Resultatene fra RPAS-flygningen vil bli sammenliknet med refera...

  15. Forebygging av trykksår

    OpenAIRE

    Norderhaug, Inger Natvig; Lauvrak, Vigdis; Juvet, Lene Kristine

    2010-01-01

    NORSK: Bakgrunn En nasjonal pasientsikkerhetskampanje, med planlagt oppstart i 2011, er under forberedelse. For å støtte beslutningsprosessen rundt valg av innsatsområder og tiltak, har vi foretatt en hurtigoppsummering av kunnskapsgrunnlaget om effekt av et utvalg av tiltak for å forebygge trykksår hos pasienter i sykehjem og sykehus. Oppdrag Oppdraget ble gitt av Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter for helsetjenesten, sekretariatet for pasientsikkerhetskampanjen 2011. Hovedkonklusjoner ...

  16. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  17. Simulation and cost analysis of systems for handling of fuel straw - applied to a heating plant in Skaane; Simulering och kostnadsanalys av hanteringssystem foer braenslehalm - tillaempning foer en vaermeanlaeggning i Skaane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - The total costs for delivery of fuel straw to heating plants ranged from about 130 SEK/MWh to 180 SEK/MWh (1 SEK approx 0.14 USD), depending on the payment to farmers for the straw, the storage method used, the profit margins of the contractors, etc. - The area investigated, which covered parts of the municipalities of Svaloev, Esloev and Kaevlinge, has very good conditions for harvest of straw compared with other parts of Sweden. The yield of winter wheat (and straw) is high, the road network is well developed, the fields are concentrated and large, the straw crops ripen early, and security of supply between years is high. - For a harvest and handling system with an average capacity of about 8 000 tonnes of straw per year, the simulations showed that a machine system with six balers, two loaders in the field, four transporters (tractor), one loader at the stores and lorry transport to the heating plant was cost-effective with regard to system performance (for example, expressed as the average amount of straw baled per year with a moisture content below 18%, the average quantity of straw per year put into storage prior to 1 October, the average lying time for the straw between threshing and baling, etc.). - Harvesting straw from various crops (in this case winter rape, rye and winter wheat) instead of only winter wheat had no major impact on costs, but increased the chance to harvest 'greyer' straw with lower contents of alkali metals, chlorine, etc. Only including fields of at least 5 ha had a minor impact on costs. Noticeable cost savings occurred when the field size limit was set to 10 ha or more. Increasing the moisture content limit at baling to 20% made it possible to harvest more straw, especially in years with difficult weather conditions. - The storage method used had a decisive impact on costs. Outdoor storage decreased the total costs to 133 SEK/MWh (7% storage losses), compared with 154 SEK/MWh for an equivalent harvest system with storage in machine sheds (0% storage losses, 60% of the construction costs assigned to the straw, the rest for other uses). - Increasing the bale weight from 530 kg to 700 kg (with unchanged dimensions of 1.2 m x 1.3 m x 2.4 m) produced cost savings of 15%. Having bales with an unchanged weight of 530 kg, but with a height of 1.0 m so that three bales could be stacked on top of one another during transport, resulted in similar cost savings. - In-depth studies are needed regarding the capacity of modern harvest and handling machines, stoppage frequency, etc. (i.e. time studies), the impact of various weather parameters on straw quality, the costs and storage losses for different storage methods, etc. - Dynamic event simulation is a useful method for analysing complex logistics systems where weather, plant biology, geography, soil characteristics, etc. have a major impact on the outcome

  18. Kritik av den negativa uppbyggligheten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik; Thomsen, Søren Ulrik

    Under efterkrigstiden har ett märkligt fenomen fått fäste i kulturen. Ett konstverk, en handling, en utsaga bedöms inte längre efter om de är sköna, goda och sanna, utan efter om de bryter mot regler, gör uppror mot det konventionella eller angriper etablerade tänkesätt. Överskridandet av normer...... och provokationen mot inrotade uppfattningar framställs som viktigare än de positiva resultaten, avståndstagandet viktigare än ställningstagandet. Från att ha varit idéer hos ett fåtal filosofer, konstnärer och bohemer har denna negativism efterhand blivit en ideologi för den breda massan. Den...

  19. Evaluation of a new SNCR intermixing technique applied on a waste incinerator at Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM}); Utvaerdering av ny SNCR inblandningsteknik vid avfallspanna hos Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, G. [Mobotec AB (Sweden); Sollenberg, H.; Westas, H. [Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    A good intermixing of reductants in the exhaust gas is essential for good combustion and high NO{sub x} reduction. Good intermixing cuts down on the levels of reducing chemicals required for NO{sub x} reduction. Conventional SNCR is built on intermixing of reductants through a series of lances which are mounted to cover several cross sectional areas of the furnace. System ROTAMIX{sup TM} is a technique based on premixing the SNCR chemicals with air before entering the furnace by rotation. As a consequence, fewer numbers of mixing nozzles are needed. As a result; The investment cost can be kept down. Also the creation of unwanted byproducts are reduced. The reason for this is that a homogeneous mixture of gases inside the furnace results in more even temperature distribution through the cross-section of the furnace. Increasing the effectiveness of the reductants, so reducing the levels of chemicals required and so reducing the unwanted by-products. Furthermore; System ROTAMIX reduces levels of NO{sub x} by a further 50% over existing SNCR technology system; An increase in efficiency carried by needed lower levels of excess air; The actual levels of NO{sub x} are down to as low as 120-125 mg/MJ without the need for any addition, reducing chemical with Rotating Over Fire Air (ROFA). 4 figs, 9 tabs, 18 appendices

  20. Optimization and Technical/Economical Evaluation of Biogas Production from Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Optimering och teknisk/ekonomisk utvaerdering av biogasproduktion fraan bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu-Bin Truong; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2010-04-15

    The biogas potentials from biosludges from six different pulp- and paper mills have been evaluated. It ranged from 100 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS (volatile solids) for all six mills where five of them gave results between 150 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS. Long-term semi-continuous trials with biosludges from two of the mills showed stable biogas production throughout the testing period. Pretreatments with enzymes and ultrasound were tested but showed no significant effect on the methane potential. The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a small plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), producing 305 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 30 MSEK and for a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, producing 871 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK (1 USD approx 7 SEK)

  1. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  2. Retrofitting oil fired boilers for pellets based pulverised wood firing at peak load; Konvertering av befintliga oljepannor till pulvereldning foer spetslast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmgren, A.; Tao, L.; Wennstroem, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    The types of equipment for grinding of pellets used by commercial heat producers today are discussed. Powder from a representative number of plants has been collected and classified using a traditional vibrating sieve and an aerodynamic method 'Aeroklass'. The results show clearly that the difference in 'fluffyness' between a powder produced from pellets, briquettes or directly from wood can be identified by the aerodynamic method. The shapes of different particles are shown in microscope pictures. The requirements of burners and combustion chambers for good burnout of fuel particles are discussed theoretically. Burnout time for wood particles of different size at different temperatures are calculated and the result is presented in diagrams. It is difficult to calculate the residence time for fuel particles in a flame in a generally useful way with any precision. Some diagrams that can be used to approximate the residence time of an aerodynamically small particle, in different parts of a flame, as a function of fuel load and burner diameter are presented. The results of CFD-simulations (with Fluent) of the trajectories of different sized fuel particles in a 20 and a 10 MW flame are shown in 20 pictures. Colour coding is used to show the particle temperature, residence time and combustion stage along the trajectories. The final discussion is based on the analysis of 3 real installations of burners in the size 9 - 20 MW.

  3. Tools for system validation. Dynamic modelling of the direct condenser at Sandvik II in Vaexjoe; Hjaelpmedel foer systemvalidering. Dynamisk modellering av direktkondensorn paa Sandvik II i Vaexjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin [Dynasim AB, Lund (Sweden); Tuszynski, Jan [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The project reported here aimed to test the suitability of existing computer tools for modelling of energy processes. The suggested use for the models are at the early tests and validations of new, refurbished or modernised thermal plants. The technique presented in this report should be applicable for clarification of the scope of delivery and testing for both the process and tile control system. The validation process can thus be simplified, allowing risk reduction and predictability of the commissioning. The main delays and economical misfortune often occurs during commissioning. This report should prove the feasibility of the purchase routines where purchaser, vendor and quality inspection will use a common model of the process to validate system requirements and specifications. Later on it is used to validate structure and predefine testing. Thanks to agreement on the common model, early tests can be conducted on complex systems, minimizing the investment risks. The modelling reported here concerns the direct condenser at Sandvik 11, power and heating plant owned by Vaexjoe Energi AB in Sweden. We have chosen the direct condenser because it is an existing, well-documented and well-defined subsystem of high complexity in both structure and operation. Heavy transients made commissioning and test runs of similar condensers throughout Sweden costly and troublesome. The work resulted in an open, general, and physically correct model. The model can easily be re-dimensioned through physical parameters of common use. The control system modelled corresponds to the actual control system at the Sandvik II plant. Any improvement or deep validation of the controllers was not included in this work. The suitability is shown through four simulation cases. Three cases are based on a registered plant operation during a turbine trip. The first test case uses present plant data, the second an old steam valve actuator and the third uses the old actuator and an error in level measurement. The last test case is a ramped load change from stationary operation to a new higher operation point and then back to the original starting point. The size of the object simulated indicates that modelling is applicable to medium and small plants sizes. That was possible only through availability of the basic simulation tools, here Dymola / Modelica, and the well established model library ENERGY. All adapted to the common PCs of today.

  4. Review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar; Myndigheternas granskning av SKB:s preliminaera saekerhetsbedoemningar foer Forsmark och Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Maria; Wallberg, Petra; Wiebert, Anders; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Shulan Xu (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Toverud, Oeivind; Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Simic, Eva (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-01-15

    This report presents SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar. The purpose of the review is to assess if the extent of SKB's initial site investigations are sufficient and if they are performed with adequate quality and also if they comprise the data that is needed for future safety analysis. To meet the request from the municipalities where site investigations are performed the authorities have also attempted to elucidate if a site has such obvious weakness that it probably will not comply with authority regulations. The target groups for the review are the municipalities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, and SKB

  5. Long-term evaluation of on-line sensors for determination of moisture in biomass; Laangtidsutvaerdering av nya on-line fukthaltsmaetare foer biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Jenny; Axrup, Lars; Dahlquist, Erik

    2002-02-01

    The tests have shown, that it is possible to measure wood moisture at a conveyor with a resolution of approximately 0. 1 %, and an 'absolute' measurement of approximately 0.5 %, with the NIR method. This was for varying wood compositions. Also data from frozen biomass was included in model building. For the Radio frequency scan method the bulk moisture has been measured with a resolution around 0.2% in a container and with an absolute moisture measurement of approximately 0.5 %. This was achieved during a time period in January to March, when the wood mix was relatively constant, and using the model made from the container tests. For the on-line measurement the accuracy was lower, as it was difficult to vary the moisture content and to separate the effect of wood mix from the moisture content. When the dried wood content was increased in April-May, wood mix and moisture varied together. As they were correlated, the model became poor. The uncertainty of the lab samples is in the range of 0.35 %. The moisture content in the wood/bark mixture varied only between 50 and 53 percent in January - March, with just a few values outside this range. This is too little to produce a good model. To get a larger moisture variation, the content of dried wood was increased successively during April-May. Unfortunately we could not achieve any independent variation of biomass mix and moisture in this way, and the model did not improve. Because of this tests were also performed in a 25-30 m{sup 3} container as a complement. Here the variation in moisture content was 38- 58 percent, and with independently varied wood mixtures (moist wood, dried wood and bark) as well. This model then was used to make moisture calculations from the on-line radio frequency spectra. It is interesting to notice, that a calibration model from the container tests could be transferred directly to the fuel tower, although a very different geometry for the radio frequency scan method, and to the conveyor belt for the NIR method. Long term testing has proven, that the methods are robust, so that drift in instruments can be handled automatically, and not destroy the model predictions. Also influence from different disturbances was studied.

  6. Guidance for classification of residues from combustion and incineration in accordance with the Swedish ordinance for waste; Vaegledning foer klassificering av foerbraenningsrester enligt Avfallsfoerordningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Peter [AaF Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Haglund, Jan-Erik [Soederenergi AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    A new ordinance for waste came into force in Sweden on the first of January 2002, replacing some previous ordinances. The new ordinance is based on certain EU directives and contains amongst other things new rules regarding how certain streams of waste are to be classified into hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste. In a number of cases, the classification is to be made according to whether or not the waste possesses one or more of a number o properties H1 - H14, i e if the waste contains hazardous substances. The new rules are based on the regulation that exists for chemical substances and preparations. When attempts have been made to use these new rules in practice - e g for residues from incineration and combustion - it has become apparent that they are very difficult or even impossible to apply. The primary reason for this is that the residues contain a very large number (thousands) of substances which would have to be analysed and for which the hazard would have to be assessed correctly in accordance with the criteria for the properties (H4 - H8 and H10 - H11). Furthermore, some of the properties listed in the ordinance for waste lack criteria for assessment of hazard. These are H13 (can give rise to another substance which may be hazardous, e g leachate) and H14 (hazardous to the environment). Moreover, there are significant differences between the Ordinance of waste and the regulation of the National Chemicals Inspectorate. It is on the latter that the rules in the Ordinance of waste are based, and this is also the cause of many of the questions and of the uncertainties in the classification. In the present report, a method is developed and described for classification of residues from combustion and incineration. The method is to be applicable in practice without compromising environmental and health aspects. As a part of the present work, a compilation of content and alteration of chemical substances in is carried out. In another chapter, the experience from implementation of European Union directives in other countries is described. The proposed simplified method proposed in Chapter 7 implies the following: Reference substances are selected for different inorganic and organic chemical substances in the residues. These reference substances are utilised as a basis for the classification against the properties H4 - H8 and H10 - H11. This leads to a very substantially reduced need for analyses. The reference substances have been chosen in a conservative way so that the hazard for health and environment will not be underestimated. The main principles of the regulation on chemical products are applied, e g regarding weighting of the properties. The property H13 is assessed based on the properties H4 - H8 and H10 - H11. The property H14 is assessed based on the rules for environmental hazard in the regulations of the National Chemicals Inspectorate. In practice the simplified methodology in a normal practical case amounts to an assessment with respect to 15 metallic elements and four groups of organic substances. The degree of hazardousness is then figured based on certain schedules together with levels provided in available chemical data bases. One prerequisite for the application of the simplified methodology is that the residues at some point are contacted with water. In the end of the report (Chapter 8), the procedure for classification according to the simplified method is described and an example is given of a classification on a specific residue from combustion.

  7. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  8. Water Activities in Forsmark (Part I). Removal of groundwater from final repository for spent fuel; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del I). Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark are associated with a number of measures that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code. This report is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and describes water operations in the form of groundwater diversion from the repository (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). The main objective of the report is to describe hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the consequences that may arise in the surroundings of the repository due to the groundwater diversion. Moreover, the report presents prevention measures to reduce the effects of the groundwater diversion and mitigation measures that aim at its consequences

  9. Better and more efficient collaboration for increased use of field fuel in heating plants; Baettre och effektivare samverkan foer oekad anvaendning av aakerbraenslen i vaermeverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkeloev, Olof (Agrovaest, Skara (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Chris; Hollsten, Ronnie (KanEnergi Sweden AB, Skara (Sweden)); Lindh, Carina (LRF Konsult, Skara (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    Despite that the potential for field fuels in SW Sweden is great and that the combustion characteristics of fuels are known, the interest for field fuels has been low from farmers and heating plants. The purpose of the project is to identify why the introduction of field fuel into heating plants is going so slow and to suggest possible solutions. Field fuel is missing the general structure and tradition that is found in forest fuels in terms of harvesting, processing, logistics and business models. The overall long-term objective is a better and more effective cooperation between heating plants, farmers and logistic companies for the increased use of field fuels in heating plants. The potential for field fuel in the area is great but won't be sufficient to cover the need. The raw materials that exist today and are deemed will be relevant in the future are willow, straw and grain kernel. We have divided the heating plants into two groups; Small plants with a furnace less than 35 MW, and large plants with an effect over 35 MW. Common to both small and large heating plants is that there must be a willingness to receive and combust field fuels for the share of field fuels to increase. For the small heating plants to be able to receive and combust field fuels the knowledge of the combustion properties of these fuels must increase. Larger heating plants have better opportunities to use field fuels in their boilers when it comes to the technology and the know how. They have a more controlled handling and receiving of fuels. It is not uncommon that storing and blending of fuels will take place at their own facility. They also have more experience of handling a larger number of suppliers at the same time. The heating plants would like to see standardization in terms of fuel characteristics, and they prefer to obtain approximately the same burning performance regardless of delivery date. Today, the small heating plants do not have the routines to manage multiple small fuel suppliers. To increase the amount of field fuels in the small heating plants the farmers need to collaborate in small supplier groups and deliver a pre-mixed fuel with consistent quality. For this to work the heating plants need to find an effective method of quality assurance at the reception of the fuel and the supplier group needs to develop an internal quality assurance and billing system. The larger heating plants, over 35 MW, large fuel requirement means that the fuel shipments should be coordinated to minimize storage time and disruption of traffic to and from the facility. With a functioning transport system, where several farmers join forces to increase the delivery volume, and ensure the quality, the ability to be a reliable fuel supplier is increased. For a local market of field fuels to arise it requires that the local heating plant initiate by demanding different types of field fuel. Increased use of field fuels is also stimulated by greater integration in the value chain in order to obtain a more optimal allocation of value creation and to meet the demands of volume, quality and security of supply, which is required. The studies and analysis show that the development would be facilitated if: - Farmers integrate horizontally to bring up the volumes and better supply security. This also creates better conditions for rational harvesting and handling of fuels (chipping, storage, drying, mixing, etc.) through for example small fuel terminals and the control and management of the quality of the fuel. - Farmers integrate vertically by operating and/or owning small heating plants (up to a couple of MW) specially adapted for field fuels. - Horizontal integration or interaction between heating plants can be used for fuel purchase and coordination, where field fuels can be mixed with other fuels on the basis of individual requirements and possibilities. - Heating plants are working together on fuel supply, quality, technology and business models. - Heating plants and farmers can work jointly with logistics and quality issues

  10. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  11. Comparison between existing recycle processes for composite materials - a study regarding microwave pyrolysis; Jaemfoerelse av befintliga aatervinningsprocesser foer kompositmaterial - en foerstudie gaellande mikrovaagspyrolys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Carina; Andreasson, Sune (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Skrifvars, Mikael; Aakesson, Dan (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate the possibilities to use recycled composites as energy recycling based on microwave pyrolysis and also to evaluate the microwave pyrolysis technique for the recycling of combined materials, such as composites. Composites can be recycled by mechanically grinding into a material which can be used as a filler in virgin composites. However, several earlier studies have showed that this will give a material with inferior quality, and there is presently no economical viable use of the recycled material. Composites can be incinerated together with other waste materials but the high content of inorganic material results in a material with low energy content. Composites typically contain 40-50 weight-% glass fibres, and in some cases be as high as 60-75 weight-%. Consequently, composites often end up at landfill sites and processes to recycle composites do not exit. Large volumes of composites are produced in Europe and these products will largely end up on landfill site after end-of-life as systems to recycle these products do not exist. These composites represent a large amount of energy which presently is not utilized. Processes and materials to produce composites are being developed continuously. This in addition to the need for light weight materials in the aerospace, windmills and automotive industry spurs the use of composites. It is therefore of outmost importance to develop processes to recycle of composites. Recycling of composites by the use of microwave pyrolysis has been studied in this project. Microwave pyrolysis is a process where the material is heated by microwave in an inert environment. The project has been focusing on the recycling of glass fibre reinforced composites as this type of composite makes the large volume of composites. Pyrolysis of glass fibre reinforce composites will result in two fractions - one oil fraction and one inorganic fraction. The oil fraction was analyzed with calorimetry and by GC-MS. The oil largely consists of aromatic compounds, such as styrene and toluene. The energy content of the oil is relatively high and is comparable to petroleum based oils. The oil can be used to generate energy or as a starting material to produce synthesis gas. This will imply a new alternative and/or complement in order to use the oil in small refineries. After the pyrolysis, an inorganic fraction will also be formed, consisting of recycled glass fibres. A possible use of these fibres is to use them to produce new composites. Composites were produced by and evaluated thermo mechanically. The mechanical properties of these composites were relatively low. The low mechanical properties are probably caused by a low adhesion between the fibres and the matrix. The surface properties were therefore studied by TGA and scanning electron microscopy. The fibres were coated with particles which were not pyrolysed. This is probably the fibre sizing which was partly degraded after the pyrolysis

  12. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  13. Risk based methods for optimised operation of power stations - a pilot study; Riskbaserade metoder foer optimerad drift av kraftvaermeverk - en foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnars, Jens; Gustavsson, Fredrik [Det Norske Veritas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Methods for risk based planning and management of maintenance and operation of mechanical components in power stations have been studied. Risk based methods may be utilised for analysis of the risk level with reference to both safety and economy of the plant. The methods can be an important tool for planning and optimisation of the annual investment in different types of maintenance actions, with the purpose of improving long term profitability. The risk based planning can include: selection of components, inspection intervals, coverage, planning of time for replacement/repair of components, and selection of operation conditions. The first part of the report is a general survey and description of risk based methods for analyse of mechanical components. Some problems specific to power stations are discussed. Application of quantitative RBI is illustrated for the water system in steam boiler number 5 at Aabyverket. The possibilities to decrease inspection costs or increase availability also for power stations is obvious, and is expected to result in competitive advantages. The use and understanding of quantitative reliability methods are a necessary and essential part of any RBI assessment.

  14. Biomass functions for tree fractions from pine, spruce, and birch in Sweden; Biomassafunktioner foer traedfraktioner av tall, gran och bjoerk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Hans

    1999-07-01

    This report describes new functions for estimation of the biomass of a tree, separated in a number of fractions. The functions will be used to estimate the potential supply of wood fuel from the forests, and to make calculations of bound carbon and indirect nitrogen balance in the forest.

  15. Measures for simultaneous minimization of alkali related operating problems, Phase 3. Frame work; Aatgaerder foer samtidig minimering av alkalirelaterade driftproblem, Etapp 3. Ramprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Aamand, Lars-Erik (and others)

    2011-01-15

    The positive effects of co-combustion with digested sewage sludge on bed agglomeration, deposit composition and initial corrosion have been studied at Chalmers 12 MW CFB-boiler. The trials comprised co-combustion of 4 different sludges and the results were compared with addition of phosphate and sulphate in the cyclone inlet. The base fuel was a mixture of 20 % sorted waste pellets and 80 % bark pellets. Corrosion studies were also carried out at the Haendeloe 75 MW CFB boiler firing 50% household waste and 50% industrial waste. Test rings of chromium rich material (304L and Sanicro 28) were exposed for 24 and about 400 hours with and without cocombustion with digested sewage sludge. Two lab studies have also been carried out; the corrosivity of different phosphates and the effect on bed agglomeration when co-firing 'small amounts' of digested sewage sludge

  16. Description of the environmental impacts of transports in Environmental Impact Statements for industries and energy plants; Beskrivning av transporters miljoepaaverkan i en MKB foer industrier och energianlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevblad, Gun; Svensson, Annika; Arnell, Jenny [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Johansson, Veronica [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Swedish EIA centre; Gipperth, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Law

    2003-09-01

    The environmental legislation states that an Environmental Impact Assessment should be made from an over-all perspective and give a global evaluation the environmental impacts of a project. Today, there does not exist a convention or recommendation for the description of the impact of transportation in an EIS. Quite different principles are applied in different regions or by different actors, which makes comparisons difficult. The impacts discussed in this report are mainly emissions to air of exhaust gases. Several factors are important in a description of the impacts of transportation: which delimitations have been made, what data constitute the basis for the calculations, how has the environmental impact been estimated. The problems with legislative and geographic restrictions are studied. Who is responsible for the transport and its emissions, for whom is it done. Where does it start and finish. If the company has global businesses, how far should the descriptions reach. The questions have been answered in the report, and 54 cases from environmental courts have been followed up. Proposals are presented on what should be covered in the EIA, which geographic delimitations can be made, available emission factors for quantifying emissions and how the results may be used.

  17. Report on the Swedish National Energy Administration's program for energy efficiency 1998-2001; Redovisning av Energimyndighetens insatser foer energieffektivisering aaren 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Support for raising energy efficiency is reported for the following five areas during 1998-2001: 1. Fuel-based energy systems with the sub-areas: Sustainable production of biofuels, including ash recycling; Cogeneration; and Large scale heat production. 2. Transport with two sub-areas: Internal combustion engines; and Electric drive-lines. 3. Power production/Power technology with the sub-areas: Hydropower; Wind power; Power transmission and distribution; and Photovoltaic solar cells. 4. Industry with the sub-areas: Processes; and Support systems in industry. 5. Buildings with the sub-areas: Heating, cooling and climatic shields; and Components and support systems. In total, 1,800 M SEK (about 180 M USD) was contributed by the Energy Administration during this period. An overview of the projects is presented in this report.

  18. Nuclear industry practice for clearance of materials, facilities and buildings as well as land. Tutorial; Kaerntekniska industrins praxis foer friklassning av material, lokaler och byggnader samt mark. Handledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    This handbook comprises the common practices of the Swedish nuclear industry for the clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil in order to be exempted from the Swedish Nuclear Activities Act and the Swedish Radiation Protection Act. After clearance the management/usage of material, rooms, buildings and soil is permitted without any control from the radiation protection point of view. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount radioactive waste. Cleared material can be reused according to its original form, recycled or, if these two possibilities are not available, disposed as conventional waste. The working procedures described in this handbook are mainly based on the regulation SSMFS 2011:2 from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority: 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionising radiation'. The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a tool and guidance for generating specific routines and instructions for clearance. It describes the principles, processes and routines that should be followed under a clearance procedure. The intention is to accomplish the current regulation by following the routines and principles described in this manual. This handbook spans over a large number of conditions towards clearance, such as facility specific conditions and different types of objects. Because not all the conceivable conditions and objects can be included here, the purpose has been to cover the most common types of clearance practices. The practices comprise: - Description of regulations and recommendations, Swedish and international, that represent the basis of the requirements in this handbook. - Presentation of the processes for clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil. Those which cannot be cleared are considered as radioactive waste. A proposal for the decision-making process is presented. - Illustration for radiological surveys to systems and components, buildings and soil in regard to the radioactive substances carried during the activities. - Description of measuring methods and related technical equipment that can be used in a clearance process. Issues on radiological background in measuring places, detection limits and confidence of measurements are addressed. - Presentation of proposals on routines for clearance, as well as grouping of material flows from a clearance point of view, and discussion on sorting criteria. - Principles for quality assurance and documentation. Detailed directives must be addressed in every company's leading system. - Review on the need of competence for the personnel performing measurements, evaluating results and approving cleared material. Competence profiles for the different roles involved in the clearance process

  19. Possibilities for improved practice, decision support for permit applications of ash utilization in constructions; Laett att goera raett, beslutsunderlag foer miljoeproevning av askor i anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna; Johansson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Erlandsson, Aasa; Lundberg, Kristina

    2011-02-15

    Combustion of solid biofuels, peat and different types of waste in Sweden for the purpose of energy production generates approximately 1.3 million tonnes of residues yearly. These have varying chemical and technical properties, depending on the type of fuel, the combustion process and the type of furnace. From a technical point of view, some of the ashes may be used for civil works. However, the Swedish Environmental Code requires that operators obtain a permit from the local environmental authorities if ashes are utilized for construction purposes. Previous studies on the application and permitting process have indicated that it can be improved, in particular both the information provided by the operators and the decision process. The stakeholders involved in the decision process have expressed that they have limited knowledge on expected environmental impacts from the utilization of ashes in civil works and that existing knowledge not is being fully applied in practice. The aim of this project was to improve the decision support for permit application of ash utilization in constructions. The goals were to - initiate and develop the discussion regarding which information should be used in the decision process - suggest the scope and content of the information to be supplied in the permit application - contribute to improved communication between different stakeholders - identify possibilities of using the knowledge obtained by research for decision support The stakeholders' (operators and environmental authorities) opinions and viewpoint on the assessment and application process were achieved through interviews. The results from the interviews were presented and discussed during a seminar. Both the interviews and the seminar provided information, but at the same time they served to initiate a discussion on permit application procedure and to increase the communication between different stakeholders. The outcomes from these activities (interviews and seminar) form the basis for the discussion in this report. The views and thoughts of the stakeholders differed greatly regarding both their previous experiences of permitting processes and their views on the preferred content of permit applications. It was therefore concluded that a general praxis is needed on the scope of the information that should be requested in an application. However, it is not possible and it is not desirable that this praxis is detailed. Instead, the general praxis needs to be complemented with separate guidelines for specific ashes and for the relevant and specified utilization of these ashes. Such guidelines need to be established and agreed upon by all the stakeholder groups involved. Suggestions are given on which aspects to be considered in the application process, based on the Swedish Environmental Code. Furthermore, improved cooperation and improved dialogue are needed between stakeholders involved in permitting processes for ash utilization. The aspects suggested need to be further elaborated and agreed upon and long term goals and strategies for ash management in Sweden should be discussed. The different stakeholders involved in the permitting process have sometimes very different starting-points and these needs to be understood by the other stakeholders in order to achieve a constructive communication. In conclusion, to obtain decisions that are based on current legislation and to achieve that through an efficient process, the demands from the authorities need to be more clearly expressed as well as good quality information needs to be provided by the operators. Finally, the different stakeholders involved in the permitting process need to discuss and agree upon goals and strategies for utilization of combustion residues

  20. Policies, strategies and systems for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In this report an up-to-date account is made of the status of different principles, strategies and systems for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As large scale use of nuclear power for the production of electricity began in the 1960s and 1970s, studies of various principles and strategies for the management of the spent nuclear fuel were initialised. In particular in the USA, comprehensive studies were conducted of all strategies described in this report

  1. Mechanical pre-treatment for enzymatically enhanced energy efficient TMP; Mekanisk foerbehandling av flis foer effektiv enzymatisk paaverkan vid energieffektiv TMP tillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2008-11-15

    Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) processes are high energy demanding. This together with the high energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, why less energy demanding processes are wished. This project has evaluated the potential for energy reductions in a TMP process by a mechanical pre-treatment of the wood chips combined with an enzymatic modification based on a cellulase mixture. The structure of the wood was opened up by the mechanical pre-treatment making it easier for the enzymes to penetrate into the pre-treated wood material. The enzymatic treatment was then run at optimum standard conditions. The EU project - Ecotarget 2004-2008 (www.ecotarget.com) have studied different types of enzymes that could be used for pre-treatment of wood chips in order to save energy during TMP processes. Based on these studies cellulose enzyme was recommended to be used at pre-treatment experiment performed by the Vaermeforsk project. Due to the fact that the Ecotarget-project has also been run during 2008 with activities involving enzymes, the steering board of the Vaermeforsk project took the decision to co-ordinate the experiments from both of the projects. This co-operation increased the funds and also the number of experiments for both of the projects. The experimental results from this project showed that energy reductions at a given tensile index could be achieved if gently mechanical pre-treated wood chips were enzymatically treated. An intensive mechanical pre-treatment gave negative effects on both fibre length and tear index while the light scattering coefficient was promoted, probably due to the fibre shortening. Enzymatic modification of mechanically pre-treated chips showed a favourable modification of the fibres, even regarding the fibre shortening, if compared to mechanical pre-treated chips only. The effects of cellulases was however not as expected, why a high amount of cellulases was used. Other types of enzymes which could attack the primary wall of the wood cell should be tested in mechanical pre-treatment of wood chips for energy savings in TMP processes. Such enzymes could be xylanases, pectinases or proteases. New equipments that could pre-treat wood chips more gently may also be desired

  2. Possible consequences of climate change on the Swedish energy sector - impacts, vulnerability and adaptation; Taenkbara konsekvenser foer energisektorn av klimatfoeraendringar. Effekter, saarbarhet och anpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Johan; Eriksson, Sara; Holmgren, Kristina; Hovsenius, Gunnar; Kjellstroem, Erik; Larsson, Per; Lundstroem, Love; Persson, Gunn

    2007-06-15

    The events of recent years clearly demonstrate the far-reaching consequences of extreme weather situations on the energy system, particularly in the case of severe damage to transmission lines in connection with violent storms. Many climate researchers predict an increase in extreme weather events. Against this background, in 2005 Elforsk initiated this project where the aim has been to examine how climate change can affect plant operation, production conditions and energy usage patterns, how undesirable consequences can be predicted and what long-term measures may be necessary. Another central objective has been to bring about a dialogue between climate researchers, energy consultants/engineers and buyers for the energy industry. The inclusion of both positive and negative consequences has been an important ambition of the project. One key aspect of the project has been to develop climate scenarios for the next 20-25 years that describe possible changes in climate variables with relevance for the energy system. Based on these and literature studies, contact with experts and internal assessments, an analysis has been made of the possible impacts on hydropower, wind power, biofuel supply, natural gas supply, the power transmission network and energy usage. The project findings, which have also been discussed at a workshop with representatives from the energy industry, did not reveal any acute need for adaptation aside from those measures already being taken, for example to make the transmission system less vulnerable to weather conditions. Furthermore, the results indicate increased production potential for both hydropower and wind power. The production potential for hydropower stations from the Dalaelven River northwards would appear to increase by 2-10%. Estimates for the southern watercourses are less certain, but the production potential may decrease. Since around 80% of the country's hydropower is produced in the northern watercourses, this indicates an increase in Sweden's overall production potential. For wind power, the growth potential is 5-20% based on an installed capacity of 4000 MW. It is also a possible that the bioenergy potential will increase in view of the predicted 5-10% growth in production potential for forestry and agriculture. On the other hand, the extent to which this potential will be used for bioenergy production is uncertain since is it strongly dependent on the price of biomass and use of biomass for other purposes. Some of the climate-related problems that exist today may lessen in scope, while others may increase and new problems arise in a future climate. It is difficult to assess future wind conditions, since different climate scenarios produce somewhat different results. Among other things, an increase in heavy winds could have a negative impact on the electricity transmission network, wind power, biofuel supply and natural gas supply. However, the natural gas platforms that supply Sweden have proven highly robust and weather resistant. For the transmission network, a number of measures are being taken to increase its robustness to extreme events. Thunderstorms are another somewhat unpredictable climate variable. The analyses made in the project indicate a possible increase in problems related to lightning overvoltage in the transmission network. An additional area that is complex to assess is how problems with icing of transmission lines and wind power plants can change in a future climate. It is probable that these problems will increase in certain areas, but decrease in others. In certain parts of Sweden, evaporation may exceed precipitation and give rise to a water shortage. This applies particularly to the southeastern part of the country, which could affect the biofuel supply and hydropower generation in these areas. An opposite problem is that of future floods, which may increase especially during the winter season and in central and northern Sweden. Flooding has no direct connection to hydropower other than the ability for regulation to control water levels. However, hydropower is indirectly affected by flooding since public attention is often focused on the industry when high flows occur. A warmer climate will reduce the country's heating requirement by approximately 15 TWh. While electricity usage for heating is estimated to decrease by around 3 TWh as a result of a warmer climate, a probable rise in demand for air conditioning could lead to increased electricity usage during the summer. However, future energy usage for heating and air conditioning will be strongly dependent on factors other than the climate, such as the implementation of energy efficiency measures, changes in behaviour, the use of heat generating appliances, population growth, etc. The project has included a rough assessment of how both climate-related and non climate-related factors may affect energy usage for heating of homes and businesses (not industrial facilities) in a 20- to 25-year perspective. A lower energy requirement for heating would also reduce the production base for CHP. To maintain production it will be necessary to expand district heating to areas that are currently without, convert from other heating systems to district heating and/or utilise new business opportunities such as absorption cooling or energy combines with CHP utilising renewable fuels like biomass or pellets. Changes in production potential and energy usage patterns and the occurrence of climate-related problems will affect the entire energy system. Increased production potential for the northern hydropower stations, particularly in combination with a growing share of power types that are difficult to regulate, may increase the need for power transmission capacity from north to south. This is especially true if the north-to-south shift continues and in the event of rising demand for electricity in the rest of Europe.

  3. Wind power on Gabriel mountain - Follow-up of the consequences for reindeer herding, third year results; Vindkraft paa Gabrielsberget - Uppfoeljning av konsekvenserna foer rennaeringen, tredje aarets resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabriel Mountain the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabrielsberget the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. The control program was initiated in autumn 2008. Reporting to the County Board will be made annually until the trial period ends. The construction of roads on Gabriel Mountains began in November / December 2008. No construction work was carried out, however, during the period that the reindeer were in the area (January-March 2009). The construction work started again in the summer / fall of 2009. The first 20 wind turbines began operating in January 2011. During these periods, the continuous interviews were held with reindeer herders from grazing district Byrkije. Reindeer herding utilization of the area before the wind farm been built and under construction has thus been mapped. Despite good grazing conditions Byrkije experienced difficulty in reindeer herding in and around wind power construction at Gabriel Mountain, especially during the second winter season (2010/11), when construction has been more extensive. Byrkije had to support feeding and use helicopter, something that previous seasons only was done in poor grazing conditions. The herders were also more people who worked actively with the reindeer and the working day has been longer and more strenuous compared to the seasons before the wind farm was built. The reindeer has moved more and were more spread out. The herders have also been forced to retrieve outside reindeer winter Loegdeaa land, something that has rarely happened in previous seasons. The reindeer's movement patterns and utilization of pastures have been different during the construction of the wind farm than in previous years. This report will be based on the new data over the years monitoring program runs.

  4. Construction of a flexible pilot dryer for products such as biofuels and iron ore pellets; Uppbyggnad av flexibel pilottork foer produkter som biobraenslen och jaernmalmspellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik; Truedsson, Ida; Stenstroem, Stig

    2009-02-15

    Drying of different products is an operation that requires large amounts of energy in Sweden, a compilation from 2006 indicates a total use of over 32 TWh of thermal energy. A more energy efficient drying process can thus result in significant savings of energy for this process. The interest to use biofuels for heating purposes increases with increasing energy prices and thus also the interest to dewater and dry these products. Often an excess of low-value heat (flue gases, warm water etc.) is available and it would be desirable to use these streams for drying of different products. The goal in this project has been to carry out two subtasks: A Rebuild and modernise the old pilot dryer at the department so that it can be used for studies of drying kinetics for different products in a bed or as separate particles. B Perform a number of drying experiments with two representative bio-fuels which can be used for evaluation of different proposals for drying of these products. The results will mainly be of interest for companies handling biofuels in the forestry sector, for LKAB producing iron ore pellets and for manufacturers of industrial dryers. The constructed pilot dryer can be used for studies of drying kinetics of different types of products such as bark, wood chips, materials in the form of pellets such as iron ore pellets or wood pellets and foods. If the drying cell is designed so that fine particulate materials are not entrained with the gas flow, products such as municipal or industrial sludges can also be handled in the dryer. The results indicate specific energy use figures of between 2500 and 3000 kJ/kg evaporated water, both for different fractions of bark and independently if the origin of the bark was Vaeroe or Iggesund. The drying time to reach a dry matter content of 60 % for a bed with a thickness of 20 cm and an air velocity of 1 m/s is about 5000 seconds at an air temperature of 50 deg C. It increases to 15000 seconds to reach a dry matter content of 90 %. If the air temperature is increased to 100 deg C the drying time is reduced to 1800 seconds to reach a dry matter content of 60 %. The shrinkage of the bark at different dry matter contents and drying of bark particles smaller than 2 mm are two topics which should be considered in future projects. Also it would be desirable to equip the pilot dryer with instruments so that emissions of volatile organic components such as terpenes can be measured

  5. Air quality and residential wood combustion - application of the model system SIMAIRrwc for some Swedish municipalities; Luftkvalitet och smaaskalig biobraensleeldning. Tillaempningar av SIMAIRved foer naagra kommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Stefan; Johansson, Christer; Loefgren, Bengt-Erik

    2008-11-15

    SIMAIRrwc is a Web based evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits in residential areas using wood combustion. The background is a four-year research program (2001-2004) called Biomass Combustion Health and Environment. Some conclusions from this program were that emissions from small scale wood combustion can influence human health mainly due to high emitting old wood stoves during cold weather conditions and that the air quality in such areas can improve significantly if old wood stoves were replaced by modern wood boilers attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler. SIMAIRrwc is based on the same principles as SIMAIRroad, which is a Web based evaluation tool for road traffic i.e. coupled model system using different models on local, urban and regional geographical scales, best available emission data, but at the same time presented in a very simplified way. In this project SIMAIRrwc has been applied in five different Swedish municipalities. The aim has been to apply and improve the model in cooperation with the municipalities. The conclusions from the project are: Small scale wood combustions in residential areas are local problems which sometimes include only a few houses and/or wood-burners. Air quality problems related to the EU directive are mainly due to particles. Combinations of residential areas with wood combustion and emissions from nearby dense traffic roads might give rise to bad air quality. Actions require knowledge about individual equipment which needs information from the local chimney sweeps. The best way to identify problem areas is to use model calculations. If model calculations indicate risks of exceeding air quality limits, then new calculations should be made with improved input data taking into account for example information of district heating or other installations that can effect the emissions. Before actions are taken it may also be useful to make measurements. The measurement site can then be selected in the area where the model calculations show the largest impact. SIMAIRrwc is a powerful tool that can be used for identification and visualisation of areas where there might be air quality problems due to residential wood combustion

  6. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during continuous operation.

  7. Methodology for geometric modelling. Presentation and administration of site descriptive models; Metodik foer geometrisk modellering. Presentation och administration av platsbeskrivande modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report presents a methodology to construct, visualise and present geoscientific descriptive models based on data from the site investigations, which the SKB currently performs, to build an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. It is designed for interaction with SICADA (SKB:s site characterisation database) and RVS (SKB:s Rock Visualisation System). However, the concepts of the methodology are general and can be used with other tools capable of handling 3D geometries and parameters. The descriptive model is intended to be an instrument where site investigation data from all disciplines are put together to form a comprehensive visual interpretation of the studied rock mass. The methodology has four main components: 1. Construction of a geometrical model of the interpreted main structures at the site. 2. Description of the geoscientific characteristics of the structures. 3. Description and geometrical implementation of the geometric uncertainties in the interpreted model structures. 4. Quality system for the handling of the geometrical model, its associated database and some aspects of the technical auditing. The geometrical model forms a basis for understanding the main elements and structures of the investigated site. Once the interpreted geometries are in place in the model, the system allows for adding descriptive and quantitative data to each modelled object through a system of intuitive menus. The associated database allows each geometrical object a complete quantitative description of all geoscientific disciplines, variabilities, uncertainties in interpretation and full version history. The complete geometrical model and its associated database of object descriptions are to be recorded in a central quality system. Official, new and old versions of the model are administered centrally in order to have complete quality assurance of each step in the interpretation process. The descriptive model is a cornerstone in the understanding of the investigated site and forms a basis for subsequent planning of the repository layout as well as for safety assessment studies.

  8. Pre-treatment of waste fuel with low-speed shredding and screening for fluidized bed incineration; Foerbehandling av avfallsbraensle foer fluidbaeddpannor med laangsamtgaaende valskross och saekerhetssiktning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Sven; Victoren, Anders; Niklasson, Fredrik; Jones, Frida

    2013-09-01

    In FB combustion of waste, an important cost factor is the pre-treatment of the waste fuel. The most common method of final levigation of the waste fuel is using hammer mills, which crushes the fuel with high force and high rotational speed. The advantage of the powerful hammer mill is, however, also a disadvantage. The fraction of fines becomes large, and the method is experienced to cause high maintenance costs and problems with accidental fires. A plausible alternative to the hammer mill is the shredder. The rotational speed of the shreeder is lower, while it cutting and slicing the waste fuel instead of grinding it. The shredder is, therefore, expected to yield less wear and tear, lower electricity consumption and less accidental fires. On the other hand, the shreeder may yield a higher fraction of oversized fuel particles, which could cause problems in the combustion, especially in smaller FB-plants with one single fuel supply conveyor. In this project, the framing of question has been if low-speed shredding in combination with screening of over sizes fuel particles, may function for smaller FB plants with one single fuel supplying conveyor. The aim of the project has been to support FB plant owners and manufacturers for independent comparision of the different fuel pre-treatment methods, via pre-treatment and combustions trials and economical comparisons. The concept of lowspeed shreddning and screening has been compared economically with a traditional hammer mill system and a shredding system designed for a larger FB plant. Moreover, combustion trials have been carried out with shredded and screened fuel, and hammer milled fuel, in two smaller parallel FB furnaces with one single fuel supplying conveyor per furnace. The fuels were analysed for particle size distribution and composition, and the operation during the combustion trial was evaluated. The economical evaluation of the new pre-treatment concept, with lowspeed shredding and screening, yielded an approximate cost of 104-118 SEK/tonne (12-14 /tonne) treated waste, which is the same as for the larger FB plant shredder system. The cost for the hammer mill system was determined to 155-185 SEK/tonne (18-22 /tonne) treated waste. The higher cost for the hammer mill system rely on the estimated higher maintenance and electricity consumption costs. The analysis of the particle size distribution of the fuel treated with lowspeed shredding and screening shows that the fuel satisfy the demands stipu-lated for combustion in smaller FB furnaces. Furthermore, the combustion trials show no obvious differences in operation quality, compared to the normal hammer milled fuel; no significant differences in level or stability in power, bed temperature or emission levels could be found. Nor was the frequency of spikes of CO of NO{sub x} increased, nor the frequency of violation of the stipulated 24-hrs, halv-hour, or ten-minute stipulated emission limits increased. In summary, the study gives initial support for the thesis that shedding and screening is just as feasible for fuel pre-treatment in smaller FB furnaces with one single fuel supply conveyor as traditional hammer milling systems. Furthermore, it is cheaper. Lowspeed shreddning should, therefore, be concidered as pre-treatment method for both larger as well as smaller FB incineration plants. Beyond the parameters that have been investigated within the scope of this project, availability and safety are important factors that speek for lowspeed shedders. However, these are questions that have to be further investigated.

  9. Combustion tests in a solid fuel boiler to clarify the emissions when co-firing refuse; Proveldning i fastbraenslepanna foer att kartlaegga emissioner vid inblandning av olika avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Lundborg, Rickard; Wrangensten, Lars

    2002-04-01

    In this Vaermeforsk-project tests have been performed in a 60 MW moving grate steam boiler at Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping. The boiler plant has an electrostatic filter for dust reduction and also a flue gas condensing plant with heat recovery. Vaermeforsk has financed the project. During the tests the following fuel fractions have been injected into the reference fuel, a mix of recovered wood chips (70 %) and bark (30 %): Paper/plastic/wood fuel (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Meat powder (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Napkin waste (10 % injection on an energy basis); Leather waste (10 % injection on an energy basis). The highest lower heating value was noted for meat powder, approx. 24 MJ/kg with a moisture content of 3,4 %. The heating values for the other fuel fractions were on the same level or just beneath the corresponding heating value for the reference fuel. The highest chlorine content was found in the paper/plastic/wood fraction respectively the leather waste fraction with 1,2 and 1,4 % (weight) of chlorine. The meat powder had the highest nitrogen content but all the fuel mixes had a quite high content of nitrogen with values over 1 % (weight). Analyses of sulphur in the fuels showed that leather waste had the lowest content just over 0, 1 %, considered as a low sulphur level for fuels in general. However, there are problems to get balance between in- and output for sulphur and chlorine based on fuel analysis. Difficulties to take representative fuel samples, especially when it comes to chlorine, can be an explanation. Video camera recordings and flue gas analysis in the furnace showed that the injection of refuse fractions seems to improve the combustion conditions with better local combustion of CO and hydrocarbons. The results from the emission measurements in the chimney can be summarised as follows (emission values at 11 % O{sub 2}): the lowest CO emission was noted with 25 % meat powder injection (<50 mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest HCI emission, before the flue gas condensing plant, was noted for the reference fuel (approx. 245 Mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest SO{sub 2} emission, in the upper furnace, was also noted for the reference fuel (over 50 mg/nm{sup 3}). Levels after the condensing plant could not be measured. 25 % meat powder injection gave the highest NO{sub x}-emission (approx. 50 mg/MJ). The high heavy metal content in ash could not bee correlated to the content in the fuel fractions. The unburnt carbon content in bottom ash is remarkably lower for 25 % meat powder injection into reference fuel. The conclusion is that the operation parameters for the oiler are optimized for this specific fuel fraction and the amount injected. Tests with a fouling probe near the first superheater showed that at a temperature of 400 deg C 10% napkin waste gave most fouling. This is interesting as the lowest HCl-emission level was noted for napkins, maybe depending on that the chlorine is present in the depositions. The project results point in the direction that co-combustion of different refuse fractions will be possible within the existing environmental legislation and maybe also within the new EU directive 2000/76/EG. Although flue gas condensation is necessary to get acceptable emissions of HCl and SO{sub 2}. Further general research is thus needed and several R and D project areas are listed in the report. Deeper studies of the combustion process in furnace are important in future project.

  10. Products based on the mixes of fly ashes and fibre sludge (fibre-ashes) for road construction; Produkter baserade paa blandningar av flygaska och fiberslam (fiberaskor) foer vaegbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Maijala Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-03-01

    The project has derived benefits from the earlier Finnish research and development as well as from the experience in the fibre-ash materials for geotechnical applications. The fly ashes used for the project have been taken from the same sources as the fly ashes for the earlier Vaermeforsk project 870: FACE. The project's objective was to develop construction materials based on mixtures of fibre sludge and fly ash for geotechnical applications, and for the final commercialisation of the fibre-ash materials. The mixtures are based on fly ashes from energy production (bark, peat and sludge used for incineration) and on kaolin containing fibre sludge from the paper industry. With help of laboratory tests the project has been searching for fibre ashes with excellent technical characteristics like good frost resistance combined with a good bearing capacity and resilience in geotechnical structures. The project's results has given additional knowledge about alternative road construction materials to construct technically good, sustainable and environmentally friendly roads and other constructions with lower costs than the conventional constructions. The results of laboratory tests have shown that this is possible. However, it has to be verified with help of field tests and pilot constructions. The first tasks of the project were to make choices of the appropriate fibre sludge and fly ashes for the project targets. The laboratory tests have been carried out in the geotechnical laboratory of Ramboll Finland Oy (earlier SCC Viatek Oy, SGT - later in the report SGT). After arrival of all test material in the laboratory the test programme started in order to find out the most optimal fibre-ash mixtures with or without any activator. The most potential mixtures were tested for their geotechnical long-term properties (mainly resistance against climatic load) and for their environmental risk potential. The results comprise of several technically, environmentally and economically potential fibre-ash mixtures and recommendations for their further development with the help of field tests and test construction. The most noteworthy benefits of the fibre ashes as soil construction materials are their elasticity and resistance against permanent deformation. These properties make the fibre-ash materials significantly more frost resistant than the conventional materials. Also, the fibre-ashes are easier and simpler to use in the construction process than the fly ashes because the fibre-ashes are practically dust-tight materials. The results of the project will be background information for the further studies, and for the guidelines and commercialisation of e.g. road construction with fibre ashes.

  11. Survey of development work and problems with different collection techniques of food waste; Kartlaeggning av utvecklingsarbete samt problem vid olika insamlingstekniker foer matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Gunilla

    2010-07-01

    In accordance with Sweden's environmental objectives it has been decided that, by 2010, 35 per cent of all food waste shall be recovered through biological treatment. In order to get there, the problems regarding collection methods needs to be solved. There are several different collection systems to choose between, but at the present time there is no complete list of the methods and techniques available on the market. Lists of advantages and disadvantages with each system, of potential improvements, and of completed or ongoing development projects are also missing, and creating difficulties for municipalities and businesses which are planning on introducing a system. The goal with this study is to provide a survey of technical problems with different systems and to identify previous studies as well as new innovations within collection techniques. The expectation is that this work eventually will lead to improved collection systems. The study will cover existing collection techniques in households, large-scale kitchens, restaurants and grocery stores in Sweden. The study will only cover the so called hard parameters, i.e. primarily technical issues. The target group is on the one hand municipalities planning on starting collection of food waste and on the other hand all actors in the area, such as innovators, producers and suppliers as well as Waste Refinery's organizations. Soft issues such as issues regarding information and quality are not included. The system limits of this project span between the recycling equipment of homes and businesses to the food waste's treatment at the biological treatment plant. The methods that have been used in this project are: questionnaire survey to 133 municipalities that today are recycling food waste, telephone interviews with a number of biological treatment plants and innovators in the business, and Internet searching for relevant reports and studies in the field. The results show that the paper bag and the bioplastic bag both have shortcomings. Many of the shortcomings are related to the supplier/producer. Other problems such as misplaced waste, problems with mould, fly-maggots/flies etc. can be solved with information. Problems as corrosion on the collection vehicles and metallic substance in the plant have also been observed. A common problem when it comes to stores is how to best treat packaged material. Today there are treatment plants that treat certain packaged food waste, but a solution for glass is still missing. An issue which is not directly linked to the producer or the supplier is the issue of standardization of sorting equipment in kitchens. Many kitchens have own sorting equipment under the sink where the bags rarely fit. This leads to the bags being used in the wrong way. An important project would therefore be to gather the waste industry and kitchen suppliers to try to come up with a solution to this. There are a lot of technical problems in the process as arise when the biogas plant will digest the food waste as not are a homogenous material. The plants inquire for more effective technology for pretreatment the food waste and this could be a new research working. All that somehow affects the quality of digestate and compost are of interest to Waste Refinery, since quality issues are and will continue to be main issues within biological treatment

  12. Long term effects on wet stored calcium rich fly ash with bearing on ground improvement work; Laangtidspaaverkan av kalkrika flygaskor vid vaatlagring foer anvaendning inom markstabilisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerlund, Johan; Jansing, Christiane

    2012-02-15

    Generation of electricity and heat by means of thermal power demands a product that can be ignited. This combustible material is usually coal, oil, gas, biomass and waste. If using solid fuels as coal, biomass and waste a by product known as ash is formed in the process; FA, (FA) and bottom ash. Roughly 600 Mt ashes are annually produced throughout the world and 70 weight % of these ashes are FA, 25 weight % bottom ashes and 5 weight % slag. 41 weight % of all ashes are annually reused in some form. Given the environmental impact of combustion i.e. CO{sub 2} emissions, a widened use of biomass fuels and co-combustion is expected in the near future. This will however create new problems when reusing ashes and FA in particular. The reuse of FA within the concrete industry stand for a total of about 25 % but the reuse of non-coal derived FA in the concrete industry is prohibited. Non-coal derived FA usually has higher amounts of calcium oxide, which acts expansively in concrete. Less than 20 % of biomass or co-combustion FA are reused today in Europe. A new standard, the EN 450, is however under construction. This standard will deal with the reuse of noncoal derived FA within the cement and concrete industry. In Sweden, coal is very seldom used as a fuel. More common is the use of biomass, peat and waste. It means that the FA are all non-coal derived and thus derived from reuse within the cement and concrete industry. Beside their non-coal origin, the main part of the FA is produced during November- March. This means that it might be hard to find available FA all year around, making the reuse of FA less attractive. Hence, FA must be stored prior to use. Little research have been made on the storage of calcium rich FA from biomass and co-combustion. Storing FA in a cheap way requires an addition of water to prevent from dusting when stockpiled outdoors. Addition of water in calcium rich FA will however cause an hardening of the material, thus causing detrimental effects within the FA

  13. Förpackning av keramiska substrat

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om forpackning av keramiska substrat. Canning ar det universella namnet pa forpackning av keramiska substrat. Keramiska substrat kan vara katalysatorer eller partikelfilter som anvands som ett efterbehandlingssystem i bensin och Diesel applikationer. Examensarbetet genomfordes hos Scania CV AB. I installationsprocessen sveps en keramisk fibermatta runt det keramiska substratet. Substratet inkapslas sedan med ett metalholje. Rapporten inleds med att beskriva olika i...

  14. Syncope and Idiopathic (Paroxysmal) AV Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole, Michele; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Guieu, Regis

    2015-08-01

    Syncope due to idiopathic AV block is characterized by: 1) ECG documentation (usually by means of prolonged ECG monitoring) of paroxysmal complete AV block with one or multiple consecutive pauses, without P-P cycle lengthening or PR interval prolongation, not triggered by atrial or ventricular premature beats nor by rate variations; 2) long history of recurrent syncope without prodromes; 3) absence of cardiac and ECG abnormalities; 4) absence of progression to persistent forms of AV block; 5) efficacy of cardiac pacing therapy. The patients affected by idiopathic AV block have low baseline adenosine plasma level values and show an increased susceptibility to exogenous adenosine. The APL value of the patients with idiopathic AV block is much lower than patients affected by vasovagal syncope who have high adenosine values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliabilitet av den norske versjonen av Timed Up and Go (TUG)

    OpenAIRE

    Botolfsen, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L.

    2010-01-01

    Hensikt: Vurdere intratester-, intertester-, og test-retest reliabilitet av den norske versjonen av «Timed Up and Go» (TUG). Design: Metodestudie som benytter tverrsnittsstudie-design. Materiale og metode: Tretti personer (20 kvinner og 10 menn) over 75 år (gjennomsnitt 82,5) gjennomførte TUG tre ganger. To fysioterapeuter skåret deltagerne. For utregning av relativ reliabilitet ble intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) anvendt, og for utregning av absolutt reliabilitet b...

  16. Tudo se ilumina à luz do passado: memória cultural judaica na obra de Jonathan Safran Foer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mail Wanderson de Sousa Freitas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A década de 1990 proporcionou uma visão multiangular da Segunda Guerra Mundial. O cinema trouxe cenas fortes e denunciou para as platéias a maior amostra de barbárie já cometida pelo furor do homem. O massacre sofrido pelos  judeus tornou-­se fato conhecido quase universalmente,embora muitas pessoas não entendam direito as motivações de tal crime, nem saibam realmente quem são os judeus. O presente artigo tem por intuito esclarecer as peculiaridades do povo judeu, refletindo acerca da influência do período pós Segunda Guerra para a construção da identidade cultural judaica atual. Após analisar os elementos nos quais se fundamenta a identidade judaica, será feita uma leitura da importância da memória cultural judaica para a construção do personagem central do romance Tudo se ilumina, de Jonathan Safran Foer.

  17. Situasjonsbestemt ledelse av studentgrupper i friluftsliv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lennart Vikene

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen gir et praktisk eksempel på hvordan ulike studentgrupper i forbindelse med bygging av nødbivuakk i vinterfjellet opplevde min situasjonsbestemte ledelse som veileder. Teorigrunnlaget viser til situasjonsbestemte ledelsesmodeller og hva som kjennetegner god veiledning i friluftsliv. Datainnsamlingen bygger på kvantitative data fra et spørreskjema og benyttes til å analysere studentenes opplevelse av veileders ledelse ut i fra rangeringsmetoden Visuell Analog Skala (VAS. Fra samme spørreskjema var det også et åpent spørsmål som benyttes til refleksjon over studentenes opplevelse av sikkerhet i undervisningssituasjonen. Resultatene viser at studentgruppene opplevde klare ledelsesforskjeller gjennom de ulike fasene som ledelsen ble delt opp i, men at ledelsesatferden varierte lite i forhold til gruppenes erfaringsgrunnlag. Resultatene tyder på at jeg som veileder i stor grad har blitt påvirket av mine tidligere erfaringer og den potensielle risikoen som ligger ved aktiviteten. Selv om den situasjonsbestemte ledelsen varierte lite mellom de tre gruppene, viser resultatenes store standardavvik at de ulike smågruppene opplevde at ledelsen varierte. Dette tyder på at jeg som veileder til en viss grad har evnet å benytte situasjonsbestemt ledelse i praksis. På grunn av studentgruppenes relativt like oppfatning av ledelsen i de ulike fasene, viser resultatene også noe av vanskelighetene veileder har i forhold til å gjøre en korrekt vurdering av gruppens evner og erfaring i relasjon til læringssituasjonene som oppstår. Sentralt for ledelsen er likevel at studentgruppene opplevde ledelsen som betryggende, noe som gir studentene et godt grunnlag for senere opplevelser i tilknytning til vinterfriluftsliv og bygging av nødbivuakk.

  18. Uptake of AV-1451 in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, Tyler J; Johnson, Derek R; Fang, Ping; Senjem, Matthew; Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Boeve, Bradley F; Pandey, Mukesh K; Kantarci, Kejal; Jones, David T; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Murray, Melissa; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Schwarz, Christopher G; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Lowe, Val J

    2017-12-01

    AV-1451 is an imaging agent labeled with the positron-emitting radiolabel Fluorine-18. 18F-AV-1451 binds paired helical filament tau (PHF-tau), a pathology related to Alzheimer's disease. In our study of AV-1451 uptake in the brains of cognitively normal subjects, we noted a case of a meningioma with visually significant uptake of AV-1451. We initiated the present retrospective study to further examine cases of meningioma that underwent AV-1451 imaging. We searched the patient records of 650 patients who had undergone AV-1451 at our institution for the keyword "meningioma" to identify potential cases. PET/CT and MRI results were visually reviewed and semi-quantitative analysis of PET was performed. A paired student's t test was run between background and tumor standard uptake values. Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications on CT. We identified 12 cases of meningioma, 58% (7/12) of which demonstrated uptake greater than background using both visual analysis and tumor-to-normal cortex ratios (T/N + 1.90 ± 0.83). The paired student's t test revealed no statistically significant difference between background and tumor standard uptake values (p = 0.09); however, cases with a T/N ratio greater than one showed statistically higher uptake in tumor tissue (p = 0.01). A significant association was noted between AV-1451 uptake and presence of calcifications (p = 0.01). AV-1451 PET imaging should be reviewed concurrently with anatomic imaging to prevent misleading interpretations of PHF-tau distribution due to meningiomas.

  19. Nedbrytning av utvalgte plantevernmidler i norsk jordsmonn

    OpenAIRE

    Haneborg, Mads Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven har hatt som formål å modellere nedbrytningen av et utvalg sprøytemidler som ble testet på to norske forsøksfelt, i Stjørdal og Klepp med ulike klimatiske forhold og jordsmonn. For begge forsøksfelt ble det foretatt uttak av jordprøver over en periode på ett år fra sprøytingen, i tidsrommet fra mai 2012 til juni 2013. Jordprøvene ble analysert ved bruk av LC-MS/MS etter prøveopparbeiding med væskeekstraksjon. Intern standard metode ble benyttet til kvantifise...

  20. Basic factors for efficient cooling ability projects; Grundlaeggande faktorer foer lyckosamma avkylningsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walletun, Haakan [ZW Energiteknik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Johnsson, John [Profu AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    relation, but a consequence of the role different people have in the company. Technical people like to discuss technical questions and marketing people prefer question of sale and marketing. If the roles are crossed over as it happens often in the discussions about function and changes of substations, involved people can feel discomfort. In this report, a number of suggestions are given in order to facilitate projects dealing with cooling ability of substations. The following examples should be mentioned here: Divide the work to be done in a number of smaller, well-defined subprojects. Present the project as a project foer system improvement. This increases the understanding of the fact that the whole district heating system is concerned. Elaborate working models regarding handling of contacts to customers. Especially two questions are of importance: Who and how to answer customer's questions and how to discuss eventual co-financing of measures to be taken. The district heating company must acquire the knowledge of which problems exist in their system. F. i., sometimes an increased cooling of large substations should be preferred, another time a number of small substations for detached houses is more important being improved.

  1. Potential assessment of using fly ash as a binding agent for stabilization and solidification of dredged material; Potentialbedoemning av flygaskor som bindemedelskomponent foer stabilisering och solidifiering (s/s) av muddermassor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsson, Anna; Holm, Goeran; Lagerlund, Johan; Maijala, Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2010-04-15

    Over the next few years, about 200 000-800 000 m3 of contaminated sediments, with a muddy, slimy texture, high water ratio and low strength, shall be dredged annually in the development of ports and maintenance dredging of navigable waterways. Dumping at sea is limited since the dredged materials are contaminated. Land disposal requires transports and land area and is thus high in costs. In the construction of new port areas, large volumes of crushed rock, etc. are normally used as construction filling materials. These materials can be replaced by stabilised and solidified dredged materials, with modified geotechnical properties. The method of stabilising/solidifying (s/s) contaminated dredged materials has been used internationally for a long period of time, and, in more recent years, also in the Nordic countries. In Sweden, for instance, the Port of Gaevle and the Port of Oxeloesund have received permissions to reuse s/s-treated contaminated dredged materials in the port structures. Reuse of the stabilised/solidified masses in a geotechnical structure is supported by the new Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) on waste where great emphasis is placed on recycling. Within the project, fly ashes were inventoried with respect to suitability and availability. Five fly ashes, both individual fly ashes and mixtures of different fly ashes, were investigated in the laboratory as a binder component in a binder mix consisting of 50% cement, 20% Merit 5000 and 30% fly ash. Sediment from the Port of Gaevle were stabilised with a binder mixture amount of 150 kg/m3. Produced samples were examined in terms of strength, permeability and leaching. An assessment of the fly ashes' potential was performed based on technological, environmental and economical aspects, as well as market demand and the acceptance of stabilised and solidified dredged materials as construction material. The results show that fly ash, together in a binder mixture with construction cement and slag cement, has good potential as a binder. There is a clear correlation between the CaO content of fly ashes and compressive strength of the stabilised samples, whereas maximum compressive strength was obtained with the fly ash with a maximum content of CaO. All stabilised samples passed the basic criterion of compressive strength > 140 kPa, with the lowest value being 300 kPa and with a median of just over 500 kPa after 91 days. The samples had a low permeability between 10-8 m/s and 10-9 m/s. Leaching tests showed that the stabilised material's leaching of metals was low and that organic pollutants were barely detectable. A binder mixture with 30% fly ash provides a cost reduction of the binder of approximately 25%. High standards are required for port constructions, which means high demands on the quality of the binders used in the stabilisation and solidification processes. Therefore, a sturdy binder mixture that is capable of handling a variation in the quality of fly ash and sediment materials, plus a variation in the binder quantity involved in the stabilised material. The need for large volumes of binders means that binder suppliers must cooperate and that the logistics needed to ensure delivery of fly ash in an s/s project is a process that requires good preparation

  2. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  3. Removal of groundwater from final repository in Forsmark. Description of consequences for nature values and forest production; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och skogsproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) has chosen Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values and forestry due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface

  4. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Forsmark; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Pia [Atrax Energi AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    This report describes how the area around Forsmark is used with respect to recreation and outdoor life. It also describes the impact of the final repository on recreation and outdoor life if it is located in Forsmark. The studied area is situated in the parish of Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. Forsmark nuclear power plant and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR, are situated within the area and there are both houses and holiday houses. The area is used for leisure pursuit by inhabitants and employees at FKA and SKB, but also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Statistical data shows that the parish of Forsmark is sparsely populated. The area was previously dominated by one big landowner and the land surrounding the nuclear power plant was inaccessible to the general public during that period. The outdoor life is therefore less widespread here than along other parts of the east coast. The value of the area does not lie in paths and trails, bike tracks and bathing places, but in the unspoiled countryside, the wildlife and the bird life. Recreation such as hunting and fishing is very popular in the area. The construction of a final repository will increase traffic and hence increase noise and motion in the area. This will mainly impact the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. No other significant consequences are expected as the final repository will be mainly situated within the existing industrial complex and hence the character of the area should remain unchanged.

  5. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Oskarshamn; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstroem, Kristina

    2007-07-15

    This report describes recreation and outdoor life in and around Simpevarp/Laxemar area. It also describes the impact of constructing a final repository for spent nuclear fuel on the outdoor life. The study area in this report is situated in the parish of Misterhult, in the municipality of Oskarshamn. Oskarshamn nuclear power plant (OKG) and the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab) are situated within the area. The parish of Misterhult is sparsely populated and includes both houses and holiday cottages. The area is used for various kinds of recreation by inhabitants from surrounding villages and employees at OKG and SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), and also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Misterhult archipelago has the highest values for recreation and outdoor life in the study area. Many water related activities, such as swimming, sailing, fishing, diving, kayaking and canoeing are conducted in the region Hamnefjaerden, Kraakelund and a walking track called Ostkustleden are three other places in the study area which are popular for outdoor life. SKB and OKG facilities are also visited by many tourists. Disturbances to the recreation and outdoor life during construction and operation of a final repository and a interim storage facility will occur in the form of increased noise and movement in the area, mostly from the traffic. The consequences of these disturbances are: Decreased serenity, which will probably decrease the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. The final repository in Laxemar will likely require road access that will cross the walking track. Various prevention and compensation measures, such as noise restrictions and a new section of the walking track at Ostkustleden, are suggested to minimise and/or mitigate the consequences. Also measures that increase the value of recreation and outdoor life are listed, for example an exhibition about the areas nature and culture. Specific compensation and mitigation measures will be outlined in the next design step.

  6. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part II; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  7. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  8. Modelling of a hybrid plant and development of a control system for the Vaesthamn plant based on artificial neural networks; Modellering av hybridanlaeggning samt utveckling av oevervakningssystem foer Vaesthamnsverket baserat paa Artificiella Neurala Naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2006-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN). The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The models in the present project are based on operational data from the plant in contrary to previous projects where synthetic (simulated) data has been used in a large extent. The gas turbine represents the subsystem that has received most attention in previous projects, which will also be the case for the present project although models of the HRSG, steam boiler and steam turbine are created since the whole plant is of interest. The completed ANN sub modules are connected in a network, which can be used for e.g. offline simulation and real-time condition monitoring of the plant. A product, including all sub modules, is created in shape of a user-friendly interface in an MS Excel environment. This user interface can be used for continuous monitoring, training personnel and in planning of the operation. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The plant owners interest lies in receiving a product that can assist them when operating the plant, for instance supply them with information about the grade of degradation. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANNs, based on synthetic data, along with their new gas turbines. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their gas turbine, the SGT800. The received data has been examined and filtered before used for training ANN models. The models have been evaluated with independent data. The results are very promising with ANN models showing high prediction accuracy. All subsystems can be modeled with ANN and there are also possibilities of further development. The results have shown that there is potential in developing gas turbine models based on synthetic data but in order to draw any conclusions in this matter further research has to be carried out. A conclusion about the project as a whole is that ANN shows great versatility along with potential to be used within the field of thermal power plants. The project goals are considered to be fulfilled by the authors.

  9. Contents of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in the safety evaluation of a repository for spent fuels; Innehaallet i en strategi foer myndighetsbedoemning av framtida maenskligt handlande vid vaerdering av saekerheten for slutfoervar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier to understand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent nor the regulator can influence. Examples include anthropogenic climate change and activities that have recently taken place in the vicinity of the disposal site, such as groundwater abstraction. Future human activities are those that may take place in the vicinity of the disposal system at some time in the future and which may affect the performance of the disposal system by by-passing or affecting the characteristics of the engineered and natural barriers. Institutional controls can prevent or reduce the likelihood of any disruptive activities. It may be inappropriate to treat recent and ongoing human activities in the same way as future human activities. Scenarios that include the occurrence of future human activities are conditional and are used to illustrate the potential behaviour of the system. Scenarios including recent and ongoing human activities are not conditional and may provide a better estimate of system performance than those that exclude such activities. The focus of assessments of future human actions should be on longer-term doses received by groups of people who might anyway be considered in the Reference Scenario In particular, human intrusion assessments should include groups considered in assessments of groundwater releases who may receive additional doses from new pathways arising from future human actions, and groups consuming foodstuffs contaminated by radionuclides brought to the surface during or subsequent to an intrusion and dispersed into, the biosphere. Members of a drilling crew that intrude into a repository do not fulfil the definition of a potentially exposed group because any intrusion would be an isolated activity not occurring on a day-to-day basis. The dose received by one individual from a specific short-term event cannot be compared with a regulatory criteria expressed as an average annual dose. The following outline strategy is proposed as a basis for consultation on the treatment of future human actions. Assessments must include calculations of disposal system performance without any disruptive future human actions.

  10. Materials in Sweden for future production of fuel pellets. A review of possible materials in short- and medium long-term; Raavaror foer framtida tillverkning av braenslepellets i Sverige. En kartlaeggning av taenkbara alternativa raavaror paa kort och medellaang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Lars [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    The use of fuel pellets, mainly produced from sawdust and shavings from the Swedish sawmill industry, has increased during the 1990s among small-scale users such as private houses as well as large-scale users such as thermal power stations. During the last years this increase has continued for small-scale use. Due to a significant increase of the pellet prices the last couple of years the increase for the large-scale users seems to have stopped. It is reasonable to believe that these higher prices depend mostly on lack of raw materials for the fuel pellet production. The greater part of sawdust from Swedish saw mills is used in the pellet industry, the board industry or as an internal fuel. It is reasonable to assume a small increase of present raw material available for pellet production without a further decrease in the use for the board industry. Another sawmill by-product, dry chips, may increase in importance as a fuel pellet raw material and give a small contribution while the green chips should be for use in the pulp industry only. If the use of fuel pellets should increase there is a need for new raw materials. In the short-term, thinning material and cull tree could be alternatives that could give pellets with similar characteristics as present fuel pellets. For large-scale consumers with greater ability to handle problems concerning ash, such as sintering and fouling, as well as particle and gaseous emissions a further choice of raw materials could be possible, such as bark, peat and logging residues. In the longer term energy crops could be used as well as lignin, derived from energy effective pulp industry and from possible large-scale production of ethanol from woody biomass. Nearly all of the different raw materials studied in this review have higher amounts of substances not desirable in combustion such as potassium, chlorine and nitrogen. However, pelletizing gives an unique opportunity to mix different raw materials and possible additives in order to obtain a fuel more optimized than the raw materials on there own.

  11. Creating trust in a risk context. On social acceptance of risks in siting of repositories for radioactive and hazardous waste. Skapande av tillit i en riskkontext. Om social riskacceptans vid lokalisering av anlaeggningar foer radioaktivt och miljoefarligt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidskog, R. (Hoegskolan i Oerebro, Inst. foer samhaellsvetenskap, Oerebro (Sweden))

    1993-01-01

    Taking Beck's and Giddens' recent formulation of the society's new conditions for gaining trust as theoretical point of departure, this article focusses trust and risk with regard to hazardous and radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. Seeing trust as intimately connected with cognitive understanding of risk, the information strategies of the companies with responsibility for hazardous and radioactive waste management are analyzed. Central in gaining trust is the creation of access points - points of connection between lay individuals or collectivities and the representatives of expert systems - at which trust can be built up or maintained. This article emphasizes that this kind of local conflict is to be seen as a struggle concerning the cognitive understanding of risk-generating activities, and the question is to what extent the cognitive understanding of nuclear companies will be accepted among the affected local population and to what extent the local population will develop and maintain an alternative cognitive understanding. 78 refs.

  12. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The present report summarizes the results during the period 2002-2005. The report also presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are, as materials in geotechnical construction, and as nutrients in forestry. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; and A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as hazardous or non-hazardous. Each year, about 1 million tons of by-products, or ashes, are produced at the Swedish combustion plants. The largest potential market for these materials is in construction, which consumes some 100 million tons of materials each year. The most immediate uses are in road construction, in landfills or as ballast or filler in concrete. The most important barriers for use in e.g. road construction have been the absence of methods to assess the impact on the environment, and the absence of relevant testing methods for the geotechnical properties of ashes. Both these barriers were addressed in parallel projects. Guidelines with general limit values for road construction have been proposed. This work has also yielded an unexpected result: leaching of metals from ashes to soil and water is usually not the problem that it has been thought to be. However, highly soluble salts may be a cause for restrictions. Although one should interpret results from calculations with cautiousness it seems that dust from the roads settling on vegetables grown in the vicinity of a road is a larger problem. The tests used today to determine the geotechnical properties of materials aim primarily at checking if these are within specifications. As for other recovered materials, somewhat different tests must be used to ascertain that ashes can be used to provide a function. Three bottom ashes were investigated, and the results confirmed that the tests proposed are relevant. Some of the tests need to be refined. The properties related to moisture may become critical, in particular frost-heave in moist ashes. Work has been concluded with a handbook containing guidelines for building unpaved roads using fly ashes. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in mines. The main thrust in the Ash Programme for landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. Projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. These projects have been complemented with an investigation of the chemical stability of the digested sludge. Mine tailings have been studied in two projects: In the first project digested sludge is used as support for vegetation on the mounds. The second role filled by the sludge is to prevent oxygen from reaching the sulphides tailings. To prevent roots from the vegetation to reach the tailings, an intermediate layer with ash has been placed under the vegetation support layer. The high pH-value of the ash, its content of heavy metals and its hardness yield an effective barrier. In another project, the effect of covering tailings with a mixture of ash and digested sludge on leaching from the tailings mound has been monitored. The goal for the covering has been reached, i.e. reducing leakage through the surface in the mound and an ugly sterile surface has been converted to a green, useful surface. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain. The Ash Programme has strived at increasing interest for spreading ashes on forest soils by providing evidence for also short-term profits, such as effects on growth. In another project, old experiments where lime and ash have been spread to counteract the effects of acid rain in south-west Sweden have been examined and other studies have been re-examined. The results indicate that lime and ash treatment yielded an increased growth for spruce. The potential for improving the stability of ashes have been investigated in two projects. The data obtained within the Ash Programme have been collected in a database, Allaska, available on the Internet site of the Ash Programme (www.askprogrammet.com)

  13. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The present report summarizes the results form the projects that have carried out during the period 2002-2005. The report presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. The Ash Programme is a wide initiative including building up knowledge, work on guidelines, development work and communication. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are as secondary or recovered materials in geotechnical construction on the one hand, as nutrients in forestry on the other hand. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as hazardous or non-hazardous. Each year, ca 1 million tons of by-products, or ashes, are produced at the Swedish combustion plants. The large potential market for these materials is in construction, which consumes ca 100 million tons of materials each year. The most immediate uses are in road construction, in landfills or as ballast or filler in concrete. The most important barriers for a use in e.g. road construction have been the absence of a method to assess the impact of the use of ashes in a construction on the environment, as well as the absence of relevant testing methods for the geotechnical properties of ashes. Both these barriers were addressed in parallel projects. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in another type of construction. In mines, excavated ore volumes are filled with tailings stabilized with cement before the neighbouring volumes may be exploited. Fly ash may replace at least half of the cement, which also has been confirmed in pilot tests. The main thrust in the Ash Programme on landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. In two parallel alleys projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. The properties of these surfaces are now being followed up during a longer time. Landfills are today the largest consumers of ashes. The uses for ashes, e.g. as banking material or covers, and the experience gained have been reviewed. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in a sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the shape of logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide also a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain, the so-called vitalizing fertilization. In contrast to construction, where guidelines are needed, there are already guidelines, acceptance from authorities and ongoing activities. An important issue is the classification of combustion by-products according to the waste regulations. This requires a deep knowledge of the speciation of elements. This is almost impossible to attain for as complex materials as ashes. A simplified method has been developed: starting from present knowledge of the chemistry of ashes a conservative selection of compounds has been made for the elements found in an analysis. The regulations are then applied on an ash to determine whether it is or is not hazardous. To disseminate information about the properties of ashes, the data obtained within the Ash Programme have been collected in a database, Allaska. This database may be reached on the Internet site of the Ash Programme, www.askprogrammet.com. At the end of 2005, data for 244 samples have been recorded.

  14. Status, remaining service-life and quality assurance of PP-materials in flue-gas applications; Status, kvarvarande livslaengd och kvalitetssaekring av PP-material i anlaeggningar foer rening och kondensering av roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Karin

    2011-10-15

    Background: The project is intended to provide a better understanding of how the service life of PP-materials is affected when used in flue-gas applications. It intends to form a basis for the development of relevant techniques and a methodology from which it is possible to give advice and guidance so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. In addition it aims as being able to assess the status and remaining life of PP-materials in current components. Project outline - An inventory, contact and choice of facilities for closer cooperation. Plants with high proportions of PP in the equipment have been prioritised. - Visits to the chosen sites during shut-down periods for inspection and collection of samples from different PP details for further analysis in the laboratory. Collection of operating data and experiences of the use of PP (operating time/exposure conditions in different parts, component substitutions that have been made, etc.). - Systematic studies of the processes and mechanisms for stabiliser consumption over time. - Developing methods and methodology on which advice and guidance can be based so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. The goal is to be able to assess the status and remaining service-life of the PP-materials in flue-gas applications. Results and Conclusions: It has been found that corrosion is relatively rare and that the main factors limiting the use and longevity of polypropylene are the thermal properties (thermal expansion and heat distortion). Leaching of stabilisers from the material is also commonly found but only a few cases of oxidative degradation, as a result of this, have been observed. An important part of the project has been to develop techniques and methodologies to assure the quality PP-material for a desired service life, and to assess the status and remaining life of the PP- materials in flue-gas applications. To do this, samples that had been exposed in the Brista and Igelsta works for an earlier Vaermeforsk Project (Materials for flue gas condensation, Stage 2, M4-303, 2004) were very useful for this. Here the OIT method, which has traditionally been the most commonly used to assess the remaining service life with respect to stabiliser concentration, was compared with FTIR and FTIR line-scan. It turned out that, especially the latter method, gives a clearer and fuller picture of the remaining amount of stabiliser than OIT. It also has the potential to be even more sensitive by further method development. However, none of the methods can provide a clear picture of the remaining life. It turned out that one material which would have been recommended to be taken out of service after only eight months in operation (according to all three techniques) survived another 3 years without detecting even the smallest decline in material properties. News value The results from the method development are interesting not only for the use of PP in flue-gas applications, but for all environments where PP is used. Further development of the line-scan FTIR technique may provide new opportunities for more correct lifetime predictions.

  15. The development of fast reactors - Effects on the Swedish system of management of spent fuel; Utveckling av snabba reaktorer - Paaverkan paa det svenska systemet foer hantering av anvaent braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Forsstroem, Hans [SKB International AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Since the start of the nuclear power era studies have been performed of how to utilise the uranium energy resource in the most effective way. Only about one percent of the energy potential of uranium is utilised in the light water reactors of today. To improve the utilization other types of reactors are needed. With fast reactors theoretically 50-100 times more energy can be extracted from the uranium. This will require reprocessing of the uranium and multiple recycling of the plutonium. Plutonium and uranium can also be recycled in light water reactors, but this will only improve the uranium utilisation by about 20 %. Recycling of plutonium on a routine basis is presently only done in France. The development of fast reactors has been going on since the end of the 1940ies. During the 1970ies the planning was that a large number of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycle facilities would be in operation by the year 2000. The development has, however, for different reasons been much slower than planned. The general assessment today is that fast reactor, if they will be realised, will hardly give an important contribution to energy production until after 2050. Nuclear power production has instead been dominated by light water reactors similar to the ones in use in Sweden. Light water reactors are believed to continue to dominate during the next decades. To start a fast reactor system plutonium (or highly enriched uranium) will be needed. Such plutonium is contained in spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. This raises the question: Should the spent nuclear fuel be stored so that the potential energy resource in the fuel can be used in the future instead of disposing of it as a waste? The answer to this question will depend on when the material will be useful, i.e. when fast reactors have been introduced on a large scale. It will also depend on the demand for plutonium at this time, i.e. will plutonium be a scarce redundant resource at this point of time. In this context it should be considered that fast reactors will generate their own plutonium, as breeder reactors. Plutonium from other reactors will thus only be needed for the first years of operation. To provide a basis for the answer to the question if the Swedish spent fuel is a resource or a waste this report provides an overview of the present development status for fast reactors and their potential for large scale commercial use. It further describes the impact on the Swedish system for management of spent nuclear fuel if the fuel were to be reprocessed and the uranium and plutonium reused as fuel for fast reactors or for the present reactors.

  16. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2005-12-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  17. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2003-07-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Project owner has been the Swedish company Torkapparater AB, and the project is performed inside the 'Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2004-2005'. Other partners, besides SMA Svenska Mineral AB, has been Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk, Carnot AB, AaF Process AB and KTH Energiprocesser. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  18. AVS (Application Visualization System) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi; Gorai, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Kazuhiko.

    1996-03-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS for image processing software and an animation processing system (video, frame scan converter). This report summarizes the information to use AVS and to develop and maintain computer and network environment for image processing. (author)

  19. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelter, Christopher; Raab, Udo; Lazarus, Friedrich; Ruppert, Volker; Vorwerk, Dierk

    2015-08-01

    The study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients. 63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5%), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8%). A high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5%). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7%). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5% at 6 month, 31.3% at 12 month and 19.2% at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1%), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5%) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5%). Re-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  20. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  1. Strategiske beslutninger foran publikum : en spillteoretisk analyse av betingelser for utbrudd av borgerkrig

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sunniva Frislid

    2006-01-01

    Borgerkrig modelleres i foreliggende litteratur enten som følge av privat informasjon om aktørenes forventede nytte av krig eller som følge av at myndighetene ikke troverdig kan forplikte seg til en fremforhandlet avtale. Eksisterende modeller overser i stor grad hvordan effekten av at myndighetene gir etter for en intern grupperings krav kan påvirke hvordan andre interne grupperinger forholder seg til myndighetene i fremtiden. Dersom myndighetene gir etter for en intern grupperings krav, kan...

  2. Praktisering av krav til rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning : en analyse av regnskapspraksis i fiskeindustrien

    OpenAIRE

    Vajenina, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    Dette er en studie av årsberetning, og videre praktisering av rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning. Studiens problemstilling: ”Hvordan blir kravene om rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning praktisert i utvalgte selskaper i Norge?” I denne studien ser jeg på praksis av rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning. Lovkravet til rettvisende oversikt i årsberetning fremgår av rskl.§ 3-3a, 2.-4.ledd. Innhold i rettvisende oversikt er grundig beskrevet under punkt 2.5 i NRS 16 Årsberetning. Reg...

  3. Veileder for kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorarealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne

    Investorer og leietakere blir stadig mer interessert i helse- og miljøkvaliteter. Men kunnskapen er lav hos de fleste om hva de skal etterspørre og hvordan slike kvaliteter kan dokumenteres. Meglere har en viktig rolle som formidler av kvaliteter. Grønn Byggallianse har i samarbeid med blant annet...... Norsk Eiendom, Enova og NGBC utarbeidet en mal for standard kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorlokaler. Målet med malen er å bidra til at leietager får det produktet han trenger til riktig pris og at man unngår unødig miljøbelastning. Målet er videre at å bidra og stimulere til, at innleie....../utleie prosesser startes med en dialogbasert prosess. Standarden er tenkt som et hjelpemiddel til en systematisk gjennomgang av, og diskusjon av hvilke kvaliteter som har prioritet, høy, middel eller lav prioritet for leietaker. Resultatet av dialog og diskusjon fastlegger endelige krav til kvalitet og...

  4. Operators tool to control fibre quality in the production of CTMP/TMP in an energy efficient way. New view shows a potential to reduce energy input; Operatoersverktyg foer styrning av fiberkvalitet vid tillverkning av CTMP/TMP paa ett energieffektivt saett. Ny syn visar paa potential foer energibesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferritsius, Olof; Johansson, Ola; Ferritsius, Rita

    2011-10-15

    The main objective of the project was to provide operators in the two factories the opportunity to more actively identify causes of variations in energy efficiency in the production of TMP and CTMP. To achieve this, it was done in collaboration with the Umeaa Inst. of Design at Umeaa Univ., new types of operator interfaces that clearly demonstrate when changes are about to occur in the process variables respectively quality variables. In addition, a method was developed to calculate the energy efficiency on-line with regard to quality.

  5. Methodology for classification of the H14 criterion according to the directive 2008/98/EC on waste. Proposal of a biotest battery for the classification of hazardous waste. Ecotoxicological testing with bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish embryo; Metodik foer klassificering av H14-kriteriet i Avfallsfoerordningen. Foerslag till biotestbatteri foer klassificering av farligt avfall. Ekotoxikologisk testning med bakterie, alg, kraeftdjur och fiskembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiernstroem, Sara; Hemstroem, Kristian; Wik, Ola; Carlsson, Gunnar; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2009-02-15

    Waste, including ashes that can cause ecotoxicological effects, should be classified under criterion H-14 in the Directive on Waste 2008/98/EC. The complex nature of ash production and the fact that it has a complex chemical composition makes ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of ashes based on mere chemical analysis insufficient. Biological test systems are thus indispensable tools to support the ecotoxicological characterisation and classification of the properties of ashes. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a leaching procedure suitable for preparation of water extracts for ecotoxicity testing, and (2) to evaluate an ecotoxicological test battery for the characterisation of ashes. A leaching procedure developed for organic compounds was assumed to be more realistic than existing standard methods for preparation of eluates for ecotoxic tests from complex matrices. A modified version of a recirculation column test, the ER-H method, developed for leaching of nonvolatile organic compounds and validated for PAHs and CPs, was used in this study and compared with the batch test EN 14735 (Characterization of waste - Preparation of waste samples for ecotoxicity tests). The ecotoxicological test battery included species representing different trophic levels; the bacterium Vibrio fisheri, a growth inhibition test with the micro algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum, a larval development test with the copepod Nitocra spinipes and an embryo toxicity test with sebra fish (Danio rerio). These test species show a relatively low sensitivity to elevated salinity levels. This test battery can be used to test a wide variety of matrices (e.g. single chemicals, complex effluents, eluates and sediments), and therefore offers flexible solutions for testing of leachates with differing and difficult properties. Both the ashes and their leachates were also analyzed chemically for organic and inorganic substances. All the test organisms responded with distinct concentration-responses when exposed to different bottom/fly ash leachates. The larval development test with Nitocra spinipes was the overall most sensitive test. Despite that, the project demonstrated that no single species or endpoint were the most sensitive to all the ashes. This emphasizes the importance of using a battery of biotests when evaluating ecotoxicological effects of ashes. The observed toxicological effects were not possible to foresee with mere chemical analyses and literature ecotoxicological data, which shows the importance of using a combination of chemical and biological tests when evaluating the ecotoxicological effects of complex eluates. The leaching of inorganic substances, when using the column leaching test developed for leaching of organic compounds, was largely in agreement with the leaching from the standardized batch test (EN 14735). In our opinion the column leaching test is in general more suitable for preparation of eluates used for ecotoxicological characterisation since standard leaching methods for wastes contain features that have been proven to be less suitable for leaching of hydrophobic organic compounds, e.g. end-over-end rotating or shaking and filtration. The preparation of ashes (ageing, drying etc.) before leaching will affect the properties of the eluates. Clearly, this will influence their ecotoxicological properties. Sample treatment should therefore follow a fixed routine before the ecotoxicological tests with ashes are conducted and evaluated. For example, the role of pH in the leaching process must be understood, as well as its importance for the outcome of the ecotoxicity tests. An important conclusion from this study was that to fully understand the hazard potential of the tested ashes, an integrated analysis of biological and chemical data is necessary

  6. Outlook on renewable fuels in Sweden - Update and extension of the study 'Opportunities for renewable fuels in Sweden to 2030' by Grahn and Hansson, 2010; Utsikt foer foernybara drivmedel i Sverige - Uppdatering och utvidgning av studien 'Moejligheter foer foernybara drivmedel i Sverige till aar 2030', av Grahn och Hansson 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Julia [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden); Grahn, Maria [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to update and extend the authors' analysis, from 2010. The report includes a compilation of other actors visions for the development of renewable fuels, a compilation of control means for renewable fuels, a survey of existing and planned production for biofuels in Sweden and outlook to the world. There is a discussion of Sweden's future import opportunities, a survey of the state of infrastructure and vehicles, and finally scenarios for the development of renewable fuels in Sweden to 2030, with different assumptions. The study's analysis is based on literature studies, contacts with actors in the field and on the results of our own scenarios. The scenarios provide a picture of the potential contribution of renewable fuels, to the Swedish road transport sector, can range from 7 to 16 TWh in 2020 and 13-30 TWh in 2030 (of which 5 to 13 TWh in 2020 and 13-26 TWh in 2030 is the possible domestic contribution that is., without imports)

  7. Vinkelegenskapsklassificering av svetsglas : Angående utvecklingen av en conometerbaserad klassifikationsutrustning.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundell, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Denna rapport är skriven för optikgruppen på 3M Svenska ABs forsknings- och utvecklingsavdelning i Gagnef. Rapporten beskriver den driftsatta tekniken för vinkelegenskapsklassificeringar av ADFer samt den berörda fysiken. Rapporten avser att underlätta det ofullständiga arbetet av att ackreditera optikgruppens förmåga att genomföra dessa klassifikationer. Rapporten inleds med att beskriva fysiken relaterad till mätning av mänsklig ljusupplevelse. Därefter presenteras bland annat tekniken krin...

  8. Vurdering av strømforhold og partikkelspredning ved etablering av ny dypvannskai ved Rana Industriterminal

    OpenAIRE

    Staalstrøm, Andre; Kempa, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Det skal etableres en ny dypvannskai ved Rana Industriterminal, og i den forbindelse har NIVA gjort vurderinger av strømforhold i området og partikkelspredning i anleggsperioden. I denne rapporten er det tatt utgangspunkt i at 135 000 m³ med masse skal mudres opp. Det er videre antatt at 2 % av denne massen spres i Ranfjorden, og dette utgjør 1620 tonn tørr masse. Denne mengden tilsvarer den samme mengden partikler som kan tilføres fjorden fra Ranelva i løpet av en ukes tid, og anses ikke som...

  9. Att arbeta tillsammans - utvärdering av nytt kursupplägg av examensarbeten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Thorsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grupphandledning av examensarbete inom geografi, med fokus på naturgeografi, vid Göteborgs Universitet infördes 2012 som ett komplement till den individuella handledningen i syfte att öka genomströmningen av studenter samt kvaliteten på arbetena. I denna artikel presenteras och utvärderas det aktuella kursupplägget. Såväl genomströmningen som kvaliteten (bearbetning och tolkning av materialet, teorianknytning, disposition och språk ökade efter införandet av grupphandledning, vilket i linje med tidigare studier visar att grupphandledning är ett bra komplement till den traditionella individuella handledningen.

  10. Digitala backspeglar - Fysisk-ergonomiska konsekvenser av arrangemang av digitala backspeglar i en lastbilshytt

    OpenAIRE

    LUNDIN, ARVID; ZAIMOVIC, NEDIM

    2016-01-01

    Backspeglar på dagens lastbilar bidrar till fordonets bränsleförbrukning på grund av det luftmotstånd som de orsakar. Detta bidrag kan minskas om de fysiska speglarna ersätts av digitala motsvarigheter, i form av kameror monterade på lastbilens utsida och bildskärmar placerade inuti lastbilshytten. Ett sådant ingrepp medför en rad möjligheter för förbättring av inte bara fordonets verkningsgrad utan även förarmiljön. Med digitala backspeglar så skulle det vara möjligt att visa stödjande grafi...

  11. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  12. En analyse knyttet til bruk av cookies.

    OpenAIRE

    Hørthe, Stine

    2012-01-01

    Cookies er små informasjonskapsler som Internettaktører legger igjen på en slutt-brukers datamaskin ved surfing på nettsider. Bruken av cookies på nettsider har fåttøkt oppmerksomhet de siste årene. I tillegg til å muliggjøre flere nyttige funksjonerfor en tjenestetilbyder, som for eksempel brukerrettet reklame og informasjonsinn-henting, har det den siste tiden blitt rettet en del kritiske spørsmål rundt bruken avcookies samt spørsmål knyttet til personvern og juridiske aspekt. Denne oppgave...

  13. Instrumentering av Bergsøysundbrua og Gjemnesundbrua

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlen, Adrian; Lystad, Tor Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gjemnessundbrua og Bergsøysundbrua på Europavei E39 i Møre og Romsdal, skal instrumenteres for identifikasjon av strukturelle og dynamiske egenskaper. Denne rapporten omhandler dokumentasjon og beskrivelse av det utførte arbeidet ved monteringen av måleutstyret. Det er også gjort analyser av de ulike konstruksjonsdelene akselerometersensorer og anemometre er montert på. Til slutt er de initielle responssignalene fra systemet behandlet, der egenfrekvenser og dempningsegenskaper til bruene blir...

  14. Betydelsen av taktil massage i omvårdnaden av dementa patienter- En systematisk litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Wetterström, Marina; Swan, Emelie

    2008-01-01

    Syftet med denna systematiska litteraturstudie var att se vilka effekter taktil massage ger hos personer med demens. Sökning av artiklar har gjorts på databaserna CINAHL, ELIN@Dalarna och PubMed där sökorden dementia, massage, nursing, older people, Therapeutic touch och touch användes i olika kombinationer. Litteraturstudien består av kvantitativa och kvalitativa artiklar. Artiklarna skulle vara vetenskapliga och inte publicerade före 1995, de skulle även svara på syfte och frågeställning. F...

  15. Upplevelser av "Employer Branding" : En kvalitativ fallstudie av anställda hos BA

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Otto; Elisabeth, Mackenhauer

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur medarbetarna på BA (fiktivt namn) upplever organisationens interna Employer Branding-arbete samt att belysa de aspekter som eventuellt skiljer strategi mot upplevelse. Det gjordes ett målinriktat urval av organisation medan valet av deltagare var ett slumpmässigt urval vilket resulterade i åtta respondenter (n= 8). Studien var en kvalitativ fallstudie med ett psykologiskt angreppssätt och innehöll en ostrukturerad intervju som tillsammans m...

  16. Implementeringsforskning: vitenskap for forbedring av praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Flottorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medisinsk forskning har ført til store framskritt de siste tiårene. Det er investert mye mer ressurser på basalforskning og klinisk forskning enn på å utvikle og evaluere metoder for å sikre at pasientene får nytte av forskningen. Formålet med implementeringsforskning er å redusere gapet mellom forskning og praksis, ved å utvikle og evaluere tiltak som kan sikre at behandlingen som pasientene mottar er kunnskapsbasert, at den er omsorgsfull og av god kvalitet.I denne artikkelen gjør vi rede for hva implementering og implementeringsforskning er. Vi belyser historikken til denne unge vitenskapen, og illustrerer mangfoldet i de faglige tilnærmingene og begrepene som brukes om det å få forskning brukt i praksis. Det finnes en rekke teorier om endring av atferd, både på individnivå og på organisatorisk nivå. Teoriene er imidlertid i liten grad testet empirisk, særlig når det gjelder å endre atferd i helsetjenesten.Systematiske oversikter over metodisk gode studier er den beste kilden til informasjon om effekt av implementeringstiltak. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC er en viktig kilde for slike oversikter. De systematiske oversiktene som er utarbeidet på dette feltet viser at passive dissemineringstiltak har begrenset effekt, mens mer aktive tiltak kan ha liten til moderat effekt. Det er ofte betydelig variasjon i effekt på tvers av studiene. Det er derfor viktig å få bedre kunnskap om hvilke faktorer som kan forklare slike forskjeller i effekt.Vi gir eksempler på norske implementeringsstudier, og refererer bidrag fra forskere ved Kunnskapssenteret. Implementeringsforskningen kan, hvis den lykkes, sikre pasientene bedre behandling.Flottorp S, Aakhus E. Implementation research: science for improving practice. Nor J Epidemiol 201 3; 23 (2: 187-196.ENGLISH SUMMARY Medical research has led to major advances in recent decades. More resources have been invested in basic and clinical research

  17. Design av arkitektur for evolusjonær maskinvare basert på intern rekonfigurering av FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Senland, Geir Aarstad

    2008-01-01

    Det ble i denne oppgaven designet en arkitektur for evolusjonær maskinvare basert på intern rekonfigurering av FPGA. Til å utføre intern rekonfigurasjonen av FPGA-en ble internal configuration access port (ICAP) brukt. Programmet PlanAhead fra Xilinx ble brukt til å designe den interne rekonfigurasjonsdelen av arkitekturen. Motivasjonen for oppgaven var å introdusere fleksibilitet til et signal- og klassifikasjonssystem, ved å bruke intern rekonfigurasjon av FPGA. Klassifikasjonssystemet ...

  18. AVS user's guide on the basis of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi; Kume, Etsuo; Fujii, Minoru.

    1997-07-01

    The special guides for the use of visualization software AVS have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The purpose of these guides is to help the AVS users understand easily the use of the one, due to the fact that it is so difficult for beginners to understand the original manuals. In this report, 'Transportation Evacuation Simulation' is taken up as an object of visualization, and the procedure of visualization and images recording by using the AVS are described. By using the AVS according to this report, a series of the procedure which are necessary for use of the AVS can be acquired. (author)

  19. Analys av nickel med ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Wallman, Karin; Löfgren, Stefan; Sonesten, Lars; Demandt, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vid en granskning av nickelhalter för perioden 1985-2007 upptäcktes ett nivåskifte i tidsserierna på flera stationer mellan 2001 och 2002. Skiftet visade sig bero på att prover innan 2002 inte korrigerades för kalciuminterferens, medan prover under åren 2002-2007 korrigerades. Syftet med denna rapport är att utreda om resultaten före 2002 i efterhand kan korrigeras för kalciuminterferensen. Från 2002 finns ett antal prover (N=347) med resultat som både är kalciumkorrigerade och som inte är de...

  20. Når kontakter betyr alt : En studie av bruken av nettverksmediet LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blaalid, Maren Hyvang

    2012-01-01

    LinkedIn er et av de mest populære sosiale mediene i Norge og tiltrekker seg stadig flere medlemmer. I denne masteroppgaven studerer jeg bruken av LinkedIn for å undersøke hva som er det særegne ved dette nettverksmediet. Jeg har utført en spørreundersøkelse blant 280 brukere for å få innsikt i hvem de er, hvorfor de bruker LinkedIn og hvordan de gjør det. Funnene fra analysen viser at brukerne kjennetegnes ved at de er selvstendige og formålsrasjonelle, som bruker LinkedIn strategisk for å n...

  1. Functional mathematical model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, A M; Guillem, M S; Zhang, Y; Millet, J; Mazgalev, T N

    2011-04-01

    Dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway physiology is described as two different wave fronts that propagate from the atria to the His bundle: one with a longer effective refractory period [fast pathway (FP)] and a second with a shorter effective refractory period [slow pathway (SP)]. By using His electrogram alternance, we have developed a mathematical model of AV conduction that incorporates dual AV nodal pathway physiology. Experiments were performed on five rabbit atrial-AV nodal preparations to develop and test the presented model. His electrogram alternances from the inferior margin of the His bundle were used to identify fast and slow wave front propagations. The ability to predict AV conduction time and the interaction between FP and SP wave fronts have been analyzed during regular and irregular atrial rhythms (e.g., atrial fibrillation). In addition, the role of dual AV nodal pathway wave fronts in the generation of Wenckebach periodicities has been illustrated. Finally, AV node ablative modifications have been evaluated. The model accurately reproduced interactions between FP and SP during regular and irregular atrial pacing protocols. In all experiments, specificity and sensitivity higher than 85% were obtained in the prediction of the pathway responsible for conduction. It has been shown that, during atrial fibrillation, the SP ablation significantly increased the mean HH interval (204 ± 39 vs. 274 ± 50 ms, P AV node mechanisms and should be considered as a step forward in the studies of AV nodal conduction.

  2. AV nodal dual pathway electrophysiology and Wenckebach periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Mazgalev, Todor N

    2011-11-01

    The precise mechanism(s) governing the phenomenon of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity is not fully elucidated. Currently 2 hypotheses, the decremental conduction and the Rosenbluethian step-delay, are most frequently used. We have provided new evidence that, in addition, dual pathway (DPW) electrophysiology is directly involved in the manifestation of AV nodal Wenckebach phenomenon. AV nodal cellular action potentials (APs) were recorded from 6 rabbit AV node preparations during standard A1A2 and incremental pacing protocols. His electrogram alternans, a validated index of DPW electrophysiology, was used to monitor fast (FP) and slow (SP) pathway conduction. The data were collected in intact AV nodes, as well as after SP ablation. In all studied hearts the Wenckebach cycle started with FP propagation, followed by transition to SP until its ultimate block. During this process complex cellular APs were observed, with decremental foot formations reflecting the fading FP and second depolarizations produced by the SP. In addition, the AV node cells exhibited a progressive loss in maximal diastolic membrane potential (MDP) due to incomplete repolarization. The pause created with the blocked Wenckebach beat was associated with restoration of MDP and reinitiation of the conduction cycle via the FP wavefront. DPW electrophysiology is dynamically involved in the development of AV nodal Wenckebach periodicity. In the intact AV node, the cycle starts with FP that is progressively weakened and then replaced by SP propagation, until block occurs. AV nodal SP modification did not eliminate Wenckebach periodicity but strongly affected its paradigm. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Particle dispersion at road building using fly ash - model review, investigation of influence of humidity content for dust emission and fly ash particle characterisation; Partikelspriding vid byggnation av vaeg med aska - modelloeversikt, undersoekning av fuktighetsgradens betydelse foer damning och karaktaerisering av partiklar fraan flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Ashes from incineration may have very good properties, such as building materials in roads. This use assumes that the ashes do not have serious environmental and health effects. Since ash might generate large amounts of dust in handling the issue on the extent of dusting and dust properties has proved to be important to assess the risks of environmental impacts during use. Inhalable particles in the ambient air are a problem that has attracted much attention and is regarded as one of the most serious health related air pollutants. The present project has aimed to: describe appropriate models for calculating the emission and dispersion of dust in the air during the construction of ash containing roads, evaluate a new method to examine the importance of moisture for dusting from fly ash and investigate the properties of fly ash, making it possible to identify ash in samples of airborne particles. The target audience is ash manufacturers, contractors and consultants with a need for knowledge of ash dusting. Project modules have included: a literature review to identify appropriate modelling tools to describe the emission and dispersion of dust from road building with ash a method study in which a piece of equipment called Duster, have been evaluated for assessing the significance of the ash humidity to dusting, and an electron microscope study where morphology and composition of some ashes, cement and Merit have been studied to find ways to identify ash particles in dust samples. The results show that there is a lack of overall model tools that can describe the emissions from all the management operations of ashes at road building and that existing models sometimes lack key variables. Also, because of high silt content of ashes, some models are deemed inferior compared to when used for ordinary mineral material. Furthermore, attempts with the Duster shows that the method works, but with limited precision, and that dusting from the ash samples was reduced significantly at moisture contents above about 15%. The particle characterization study showed that ash specific chemical signal elements are preferred in the characterization. Important signal elements of ash can be S, Hg, Cd, and the ratio Mg/Al, but elements most appropriate might vary between specific types of ash and applications. The project has brought new knowledge about the possibilities to characterize ash particles and on the moisture needed to avoid dusting from ash. A method to try dusting from ash surfaces has been evaluated in laboratory and the project has also shown available, but in some respects inadequate, models for emission and dispersion of dust from handling of ash

  4. Pollen transmission of asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) may facilitate mixed infection by two AV-2 isolates in asparagus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ryusuke; Shimura, Hanako; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T; Masuta, Chikara

    2014-09-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus and thought to induce the asparagus decline syndrome. AV-2 is known to be transmitted by seed, and the possibility of pollen transmission was proposed 25 years ago but not verified. In AV-2 sequence analyses, we have unexpectedly found mixed infection by two distinct AV-2 isolates in two asparagus plants. Because mixed infections by two related viruses are normally prevented by cross protection, we suspected that pollen transmission of AV-2 is involved in mixed infection. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization using AV-2-infected tobacco plants revealed that AV-2 was localized in the meristem and associated with pollen grains. To experimentally produce a mixed infection via pollen transmission, two Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were infected with each of two AV-2 isolates were crossed. Derived cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence analysis identified each AV-2 isolate in the progeny seedlings, suggesting that pollen transmission could indeed result in a mixed infection, at least in N. benthamiana.

  5. Effekt av melkesyrebakteriers metabolisme på utviklingen av Escherichia coli O157:H7 i melk

    OpenAIRE

    Westblad, Anne Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Dagens regelverk sier at all melk som omsettes skal være varmebehandlet, men åpner samtidig for salg av melkeprodukter basert på upasteurisert melk, forutsatt overholdelse av visse krav. Dermed kan småskalavirksomheter framstille melkeprodukter av upasteurisert melk hvis de skulle ønske det. Et slikt ønske er ofte begrunnet i tradisjoner og praktiske forhold. I tillegg er det flere som påstår at råmelk er sunnere enn pasteurisert melk og at råmelkas mikroflora hemmer vekst av uønskede bakteri...

  6. Farmakologisk behandling av antisosiale lidelser : en litteraturstudie av evidensgrunnlaget for famakologisk behandling av psykopati og assosierte antisosiale personlighetstrekk og atferdsmønster

    OpenAIRE

    Romberg, Sara Montes

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Psykoterapeutiske og atferdsbaserte intervensjoner har vist seg å ha liten effekt ved antisosiale lidelser. Individer med antisosiale lidelser anses derfor som en relativt behandlingsresistent pasientgruppe, hvilket tyder på et behov for utvikling av alternative behandlingstilnærminger. Med bakgrunn i dette søker følgende studie å utforske evidensgrunnlaget for farmakologiske behandling av antisosiale lidelser og trekk. Metode: Litteratursøk i databasene BIBSYS, ProQuest, Web of ...

  7. Fiskeoppdrett og verdsettelse : en analyse av resultatjustering og modeller for identifikasjon av slik aktivitet

    OpenAIRE

    Aaker, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Regnskapsinformasjon skal være relevant og pålitelig, men det vil alltid være skjønn forbundet med verdsettelsen.Usaklig skjønn omtales som resultatjustering (”Earnings management”) og regnskaps-manipulasjon. Det er store metodeproblemer innen ”earnings management” – forskningen, da den aktive tilpasningen i stor grad er skjult. I de senere år har ulike modeller for estimering av unormale tidsavgrensninger (”discretionary accruals”) dominert. Problemet er i å estimere de normale tidsavgrensni...

  8. Planretningslinjer for en differensiert forståelse av byggeforbudet i strandsonen erfart av tre kommuner

    OpenAIRE

    Alvheim, Maren

    2014-01-01

    I plan- og bygningsloven er det nå delvis videreført og innstrammet et unntak fra byggeforbudet for å ta hensyn til variasjonene mellom landets kystkommuner. Unntaket innebærer at kommunene må fastsette en ny byggegrense gjennom plan for å fravike forbudet mot bygging i strandsonen. Statlige planretningslinjer for differensiert forvaltning av strandsonen langs sjøen (SPR) er iverksatt med mål om å tydeliggjøre kommunenes adgang til å bygge i strandsonen gjennom plan. Oppgaven søker å avklare ...

  9. AV Rising: Demand, Budgets, and Circulation Are All Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 486 public libraries found that audiovisual (AV) budgets have increased 53% in the last five years. Provides data on average size of AV collections; budget break downs; circulation; audiobook, video, and music CD purchases; popular authors and titles in abridged and unabridged audiobooks; and problems with audiobook, video, and music…

  10. Quantification of Tau Load Using [F-18]AV1451 PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golla, Sandeep S. V.; Timmers, Tessa; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Groot, Colin; Verfaillie, Sander; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Schwarte, Lothar; Mintun, Mark A.; Devous, Michael; Schuit, Robert C.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald; van Berckel, Bart N. M.; Yaqub, Maqsood

    2017-01-01

    The tau tracer [F-18]AV1451, also known as flortaucipir, is a promising ligand for imaging tau accumulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of the previous studies have quantified tau load using standardized uptake value ratios (SUVr) derived from a static [F-18]AV1451 scan. SUVr may, however, be

  11. Spontaneous resolution of complete atrioventricular (A-V ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atrioventricular (A-V) disassociation describes the independent beating of the atria and ventricles of the heart. It is not synonymous with complete heart block in the sense that, A-V disassociation is a general term. Heart block describes specific conduction abnormalities that need specific cardiac intervention. This case report ...

  12. EST Table: AV398539 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398539 NV021929 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...0769|gb|EEZ97216.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC011009 [Tribolium castaneum] AV398539 NV02 ...

  13. Cofactor requirement of HpyAV restriction endonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Hong Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of common gastritis and a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is also one of the richest sources of Type II restriction-modification (R-M systems in microorganisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have cloned, expressed and purified a new restriction endonuclease HpyAV from H. pylori strain 26695. We determined the HpyAV DNA recognition sequence and cleavage site as CCTTC 6/5. In addition, we found that HpyAV has a unique metal ion requirement: its cleavage activity is higher with transition metal ions than in Mg(++. The special metal ion requirement of HpyAV can be attributed to the presence of a HNH catalytic site similar to ColE9 nuclease instead of the canonical PD-X-D/EXK catalytic site found in many other REases. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to verify the catalytic residues of HpyAV. Mutation of the conserved metal-binding Asn311 and His320 to alanine eliminated cleavage activity. HpyAV variant H295A displayed approximately 1% of wt activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Some HNH-type endonucleases have unique metal ion cofactor requirement for optimal activities. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that HpyAV is a member of the HNH nuclease family. The identification of catalytic residues in HpyAV paved the way for further engineering of the metal binding site. A survey of sequenced microbial genomes uncovered 10 putative R-M systems that show high sequence similarity to the HpyAV system, suggesting lateral transfer of a prototypic HpyAV-like R-M system among these microorganisms.

  14. Cofactor requirement of HpyAV restriction endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu-Hong; Opitz, Lars; Higgins, Lauren; O'loane, Diana; Xu, Shuang-Yong

    2010-02-05

    Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of common gastritis and a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is also one of the richest sources of Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems in microorganisms. We have cloned, expressed and purified a new restriction endonuclease HpyAV from H. pylori strain 26695. We determined the HpyAV DNA recognition sequence and cleavage site as CCTTC 6/5. In addition, we found that HpyAV has a unique metal ion requirement: its cleavage activity is higher with transition metal ions than in Mg(++). The special metal ion requirement of HpyAV can be attributed to the presence of a HNH catalytic site similar to ColE9 nuclease instead of the canonical PD-X-D/EXK catalytic site found in many other REases. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to verify the catalytic residues of HpyAV. Mutation of the conserved metal-binding Asn311 and His320 to alanine eliminated cleavage activity. HpyAV variant H295A displayed approximately 1% of wt activity. Some HNH-type endonucleases have unique metal ion cofactor requirement for optimal activities. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that HpyAV is a member of the HNH nuclease family. The identification of catalytic residues in HpyAV paved the way for further engineering of the metal binding site. A survey of sequenced microbial genomes uncovered 10 putative R-M systems that show high sequence similarity to the HpyAV system, suggesting lateral transfer of a prototypic HpyAV-like R-M system among these microorganisms.

  15. En undersökning av Norwegians kriskommunikation under flygstrejken 2015. : En textanalys av Facebookinlägg och pressmeddelanden.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma, Mickelsson

    2016-01-01

    Numera lever vi i ett krissamhälle där vi nästan varje dag nås av budskap från olika typer av kriser. När en organisation drabbas av en kris är det viktigt att tänka på vilken kommunikation man använder för att nå ut med sitt budskap. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur en organisation använder sig av olika försvarsstrategier och retoriska appeller i sin kriskommunikation. Organisationen som valdes ut var flygbolaget Norwegian och deras hantering av den 11 dagar långa flygs...

  16. Kopiering av tradisjonskunst som læringsmetode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Rorgemoen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen er skriven på bakgrunn av problematikk kring utvikling av ein forskingsbasert didaktikk for tekstilundervisninga på grunnstudiet ved Institutt for folkekultur, Høgskolen i Telemark. Delar av forskingsprosjektet tek difor utgangspunkt i eksisterande undervisnings­verksemd ved dette studiet. Spørsmåla som det er søkt å få svar på her, er: Kva dialog og læri­ng er framtredande ved kopiering av ein tradisjonell tekstilgjenstand? og: Korleis har denne arbeidsmåten ein plass i ein forskingsbasert didaktikk? Kopiprosessen skjedde i ein avgrensa oppgåveperiode, utført med to studentgrupper i 2008/2009. Intervju var valt som me­to­de saman med analyse av innhald i oppgåverapportar som var skrivne samtidig med kopiverksemda. I samband med utvikling av ein forskingsbasert didaktikk der kopiverksemd inngår, er drøftingane førte på grunnlag av sosiokulturell og sløydpedagogisk teori, saman med teori i møte med folkekunst. Kopiprosessen er relatert til ein verksemdsmodell for sløydfaget. Resultata er drøfta i høve til mål for oppgåva og gjeldande fagplan. Kopiering som læringsmetode har ein plass i ein forskingsbasert didaktikk når verksemda fører til erkjenning og integrert forståing, ikkje som rekonstruksjon av tradisjonar. Målet for ein forsk­ings­­basert didaktikk er horisontsamansmelting som følgje av hermeneutiske samtaler som gjeld samspel, spatialitet, spelereglar og spelerom i tradisjonen.

  17. Matglede hos barn : effekter av et læringsprogram

    OpenAIRE

    Myhrer, Kristine Svartebekk

    2013-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG Bakgrunnen for denne studien var Nasjonalt råd for ernærings nye kostholdsråd for den norske befolkningen. I rådene er det anbefalt å begrense inntaket av rødt kjøtt, bearbeidet kjøtt, salt, sukker og mettet fett for å forebygge kroniske kostrelaterte sykdommer i befolkningen, slik som diabetes og overvekt. For å påvirke barns valg av mat mot et sunnere kosthold er det behov for å forstå faktorer som kan påvirke barnas valg og aksept av matvarer Formålet med masteroppgaven e...

  18. Phase 4 paroxysmal AV block in a patient with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butschek, Ross; Powell, Brian D; Littmann, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    A 72-year-old man with limited cutaneous systemic scleroderma was hospitalized for two episodes of witnessed syncope. The baseline 12-lead electrocardiogram was normal but on telemetry there were numerous episodes of paroxysmal AV block with asystolic periods of up to 7.5 s duration. Analysis of the rhythm strips revealed phase 4 intra-His bundle block characterized by critical P-P intervals that triggered the AV block, and a narrow range of junctional escape to subsequent P wave intervals that were required to release the AV block. A dual chamber pacemaker was implanted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A case of pancreatic AV malformation in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Kedia, Saurabh; Sonika, Ujjwal; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Pal, Sujoy; Garg, Pramod

    2018-02-05

    A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain and weight loss for 6 months. Abdominal imaging showed a large vascular lesion in the head and neck of pancreas suggestive of arteriovenous malformation (AV malformation). Endoscopic ultrasound was done which showed features of AV malformation with no evidence of pancreatic malignancy. Surgery was planned for definitive treatment of malformation. Digital subtraction angiography with angioembolization was done prior to surgery to reduce vascularity of the lesion. He recovered after a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed the pancreatic AV malformation. There has been no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.

  20. Grekisk mytologi i The Lightning Thief av Rick Riordan

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att genom en komparativ studie med utgångspunkt i teorier om dialogicitet, hyptertextualitet och transformation, analysera förekomsten av grekisk mytologi i The Lightning Thief (2005) – vilken påverkan dessa har och hur de tar sig uttryck i Riordans roman. De grekiska myterna i The Lightning Thief har jämförts med de som beskrivs i Grekisk Mytologi (1977) av Giovanni Caselli och Michael Gibson, En introduktion till grekisk mytologi (1989) av David Bellingham, ...

  1. Turbulens? - Norske nettavisers omtale av Norwegian 2013. [En kvantitativ innholdsanalyse av VG, DB, Aftenposten, NRK og DNs dekning av Norwegians Dreamliner-kjøp

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Analysen tar for seg omtale av flyselskapet Norwegian i de fem norske nettavisene VG.no, DB.no, Aftenposten.no, NRK.no og DN.no. Prosjektet fokuserer på artiklenes vinkling og hvordan selskapet omtales i forbindelse med Dreamliner-skandalen, med utgangspunkt i dagsordenfunksjonen og teorien om framing. For å belyse dette har jeg tatt utgangspunkt i følgende problemstilling: Hvordan vinklet og fokuserte norske nettaviser i 2013 på Norwegians kjøp og innføring av nye Dre...

  2. Navy AV-8B Crash Survivable Flight Incident Recorder (CSFIR)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) met at the Naval Air Weapons Development Center, Building P302, China Lake, CA for a Program Review I Technical Interchange Meeting in support of the AV-8B Crash Survivable Flight Incident Recorder System (CSFIR...

  3. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    the software to meet our expectations for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of “off the shelf” hardware components which are widely available and easily replaced or expanded. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost...... a stable AV software that has be developed and implemented for an in situ simulation initiative. This version (1.3) is the first on released as Open Source (Copyleft) software (see QR tag). We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation...... environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  4. Knihovna Sociologického ústavu AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hesová, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : library Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies https://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/knihovna-sociologickeho-ustavu-av-cr/

  5. EST Table: AV404029 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404029 pg--0356 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 99 %/103 aa ref|YP_003044625.1| hypothetica...n ECD_01416 [Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404029 pg-- ...

  6. EST Table: AV404052 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404052 pg--0383 10/09/28 90 %/146 aa ref|YP_002386254.1| Major tail protein V [Es...cherichia coli IAI1] emb|CAQ97657.1| Major tail protein V [Escherichia coli IAI1] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404143 pg-- ...

  7. EST Table: AV403989 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403989 pg--0306 10/09/28 100 %/137 aa ref|NP_037751.1| Q protein [Enterobacteria ...phage HK97] gb|AAF31144.1| Q protein [Enterobacteria phage HK97] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404408 pg-- ...

  8. EST Table: AV399390 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399390 NV120162 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/181 aa ref|YP_002884244.1| Ac13-like ...yhedrovirus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399390 NV12 ...

  9. Multiphase flow in the geosphere around a repository for spent nuclear fuels. Inventory of the present knowledge; Flerfasfloede i geosfaeren kring ett foervar foer utbraent kaernbraensle. Inventering av kunskapslaeget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalen, Bengt [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Important quantities of gas can form in an underground repository for nuclear wastes. Gas can be formed through: corroding metals; water and certain organic substances that undergo radiolysis; organic material degrading through microbial activity. The last point is of concern mainly for intermediate-level wastes, which can hold large amounts of organic materials. The first point is the main process for high-level wastes. The gas could transport radioactive substances through the buffer and the geosphere into the biosphere, or affect the performance of the repository in a negative way. The present report gives a review of the knowledge about two-phase flow in connection with deep geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel.

  10. The basis for decisions in the nuclear waste issue. Experiences of the legislative basis and the EIA process; Grunden foer beslut i kaernavfallsfraagan. Upplevelser av lagstiftningsgrund och MKB-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskitalo, Carina; Nordlund, Annika; Lindgren, Urban (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the multi-level governance process in conjunction with the siting and design of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Since no similar activities have ever been implemented in Sweden, there is no available practice for how different laws should be coordinated and interpreted. The study sheds light on three general questions: 1) What is the formal decision-making mandate and what are the decision-making bodies at different levels (municipal level, regional or county level, and national level) according to the legislation, and what interpretation problems have these actors experienced with regard to the legislation and the EIA process? 2) What 'broader public' and organizations besides groups within the formal decision-making mandate have participated in the consultations, and what viewpoints have they expressed regarding the EIA process and consultations? 3) How have judgements and understanding of, and reactions to, risk related to the final repository been handled in the process? The study is mainly based on two different sources of material. A literature review with a focus on nuclear fuel management has been carried out within the social sciences field. Special interest has been devoted to discussing the content of legislation in relation to the EIA process and licensing, and the background and design of the EIA process. The EIA process is of special interest here, since it brings in both formal decision-making bodies and participation by broader groups. Furthermore, the literature review deals with theoretical perspectives regarding perceptions and communication of risk assessments. Literature reviews have also been conducted on minutes from EIA consultations during the period 2001 to 2007. The main source of the material used in the study is interview studies. The interview subjects represent both government authorities and non governmental organizations at the national, regional and local level. The results of the studies show that there are differences in participation between actors at different levels. The interviews show that the municipal level and local environmental organizations have played an active role in the process, while the role played at the regional level by the county administrative boards has been more limited. On the national level, particular attention is given to the state's impact on the EIA process via recommendations for research and financial support for the participation of different groups via the Nuclear Waste Fund. A universal perception of the legislation is that most of the actors feel secure in their own role within their particular profession, but that the interaction between sectoral laws and the Environmental Code is unclear in some respects when it comes to the complex issue of nuclear waste. The interview subjects express the view that the process for EIA and consultations has been based on practice established between the parties who have participated in the site selection process since the early 1990s. The forms for the consultation were thus worked out before the beginning of the formal consultation process in 2001. Many of the environmental organizations perceive that they have entered this process after the consultation form had already been developed, which has somewhat curtailed their chances to influence it. The broadening of participation via the Environmental Code has, however, given the environmental organizations access in another way than they have had via their traditional oppositional role as non governmental organizations outside the establishment. The environmental organizations and established parties have, however, largely had different perspectives on EIA and the role of the consultations. Here established parties, including regulatory authorities, can to some extent be seen as representing a planning paradigm (where the project itself and political decisions about it are in focus), while many environmental organizations traditionally represent an environmental paradigm that focuses on the precautionary principle for potentially environmentally hazardous processes. These differences have characterized much of the consultation process, and can also be seen as symptomatic for inclusion of parts of an environmental paradigm within legislation such as the Environmental Code. The results of the interviews also show that non-profit organizations and private citizens have difficulty participating in the process on the same terms as government authorities and activity operators, and that the resources of the developer cannot be matched by any other party when it comes to information, participation and expertise. Some believe that the County Administrative Board should play a more central role in this context, given its overall responsibility for coordination under the law.

  11. Acceptance-criteria for the bedrock for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Proceedings from a seminar at Gothenburg University; Acceptanskriterier foer berggrunden vid djup geologisk slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The seminar was directed to Nordic participants, and discussed disposal in the Nordic crystalline bedrock. Criteria for the bedrock should include: It should give durable mechanical protection for the engineered barriers; give a stable and favorable chemical environment for these barriers; have a low turnover of ground water in the near field; be easy to characterize; give favorable recipient-conditions; not have valuable minerals in workable quantities. These general criteria raise several questions coupled to the safety analysis: e.g. the need for geological, hydrological and geochemical parameters. Which data are missing, which are most difficult to find? What should the site characterization program look like to focus on factors that are of the highest importance according to the safety analysis. The demands on the conditions at a site need to be translated into quantitative criteria, which should be expressed as values that can be measured at the site or deduced from such measurements. These questions were discussed at the seminar, and 21 contributions from Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish participants are reported in these proceedings under the chapters: Coupling to the safety analysis; Methodology and criteria for site selection in a regional geoscientific perspective; Rock as a building material - prognosis and result; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Mechanical protection; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Low ground water turnover, chemically favorable and stable environment in the near field; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Demands on the bedrock concerning the migration of radionuclides.

  12. Test and evaluation of multiple lambda-sensors for use in combustion gases; Multi {lambda}-sond - Utveckling och test av enkel teknik foer O{sub 2}-maetning oever tvaersnitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallner, Per; Gaardman, Lennart; Engel, Erik [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Fluctuations and zones with fuel rich conditions are the main causes of CO-emissions and abnormal deposit formation. This project was initiated to try and trace such disturbances. 'Multi-sensor-probes' is a quick and easy way of mapping fluctuations in many points along an axis simultaneously. This project is concentrated on such measurement systems, based on lambda({lambda})-sensor technology. The project was run in a few steps: - The use of {lambda}-sensors for O{sub 2} measurements in hot flue gases (>800 deg C), - Development and testing of probe-constructions for multi-point measurements, and - Performing measurement series in Vaermeforsk-related boilers, to identify fluctuations and fuel rich zones. This project shows how standard {lambda}-sensors can be utilised also in hot flue gases. In-situ measurements with a single-sensor probe is demonstrated in CFB, PF and grate boilers. It is a water-cooled probe, with the {lambda}-sensor mounted inside the tip of the probe. To perform multi-point measurements with the standard {lambda}-sensors, an extractive probe design had to be developed. With the standard {lambda}-sensors no sensible design for multi-point in-situ measurements could be found. A way to achieve such designs would be development of {lambda}-sensors where the zirconium oxide measurement cell is separated from the electrical wiring. This would give much smaller pieces to include in the probe and especially solve the problem of low temperature demand for the parts just behind the measurement cell in standard {lambda}-sensors. This could mean a multi-probe cooled to just 500-600 deg C. The construction of the extractive multi-probe tested in this project suffered from leakage in the suction lines when exposed inside the PF boiler. A proposed design with better function in this aspect is presented in this report. The results show that by combining a cooled probe-design with standard {lambda}-sensor components a tool for measurements of O{sub 2}-fluctuations in hot flue gases is achieved. All this with low cost and easily available parts.

  13. The SSI and SKI review of the updated Final Safety Report for SFR 1 issued by SKB. Review report; SSI:s och SKI:s granskning av SKB:s uppdaterade Slutlig Saekerhetsrapport foer SFR 1. Granskningsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Jensen, Mikael; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Lund, Ingemar; Loefgren, Tomas; Moberg, Leif; Norden, Maria; Wiebert, Anders [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Thomas; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Hedberg, Bengt; Kautsky, Fritz; Lilja, Christina; Simic, Eva; Stroemberg, Bo; Sundstroem, Benny; Toverud, Oeivind; Wingefors, Stig; Zika, Helmuth [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The repository for operational radioactive wastes in Sweden, SFR1, has been the object for a new safety assessment study by SKB (The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.). The findings of the review group will form the basis for decisions by the authorities on the provisions for the future operation of the repository.

  14. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet. Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Hansson, Christina [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the growing impact on water resources the Water Framework Directive was legislated in 2000. The directive should ensure that a 'good water status' and entail a coordinated legislation striving for a long-term protection of all water resources. Stakeholders should be able to participate in the preparations of river basin management plans and programs of measures. District based water authorities will administrate the implementation and are mandated to decide upon regional environmental quality standards and promulgate fees for water use and discharges. The Directive contains a list of 33 prioritized substances that should be reduced or phased out. Discharges from combustion plants contain twelve, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. PAH and heavy metals impacts growth and vital functions as respiration and photosynthesis of water living organisms and induces cancer in humans. NOEC-values (NO Effect Concentration) state manageable substance concentrations for an organism. Flue gas condensate contains concentrations of some of the substances which impact exceeds the critical state level. Extended sewage treatment could thus be needed. Sludge, wash and soot water contains elevated levels of heavy metals. This water is normally treated by municipal sewage treatment. Further treatment at plant site could be relevant. Presence of PAH and heavy metals in leach water depends on the precipitation. Additional flowing-independent water treatment could be relevant. It is very uncertain how plant owners will be affected. Licenses could be reviewed and standards could be raised for sensitive recipients; new limits for prioritized substances and standards for other types of discharges and water fees could be added. Respites could be given if costs exceed the benefits. Location, ecotoxicological risk assessments and precautionary measures could become more relevant in an EIA. Pricing of water could take place by using a system of emissions trading. Plant owners could make an impact by participating in development of environmental quality standards plans and programs by representation in public consultations and cooperative groups. Methods for improvement to meet the new standards are presented in the categories fuel, combustion, flue gas- and flue gas condensate treatment. The prioritized substances shouldn't be introduced or generated in the system to avoid costly investments of advanced technologies. Heavy metals are reduced by the choice of fuel and complete combustion generates less PAH. Both of the substances could be reduced by the separation of particles. An example of an appropriateness assessment according to a model considering the overall plant conditions including technological, economic and organizational aspects is demonstrated. For a 'standard plant' the best choice of fuel would be wood chips combined with stable combustion. Given the prerequisites of the model, the most appropriate flue gas treatment were a bag filter without chemical dosing and the most appropriate flue gas condensate-, slug-, wash-, and soot water treatment would be sand- or lamella filter with pH-adjustment, together with leach water treatment by sedimentation and sand filter. If another type of plant would be considered, other methods would be more optimal Hence, the model should be used in a 'plant specific' manner and then be a useful tool in negotiations with authorities if/when measures will be taken to reach the standards of the Water Framework Directive.

  15. Comparison between the KBS-3 method and the deep borehole for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    In this report a comparison is made between disposal of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method with disposal in very deep boreholes. The objective has been to make a broad comparison between the two methods, and by doing so to pinpoint factors that distinguish them from each other. The ambition has been to make an as fair comparison as possible despite that the quality of the data of relevance is very different between the methods

  16. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - removal of groundwater and water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Slutfoervarsanlaeggning foer anvaent kaernbraensle - bortledande av grundvatten samt vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) below and above ground associated with construction, operation, and decommissioning of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar in the municipality of Oskarshamn. SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository, and the report hence describes a non-chosen alternative. The report provides a comprehensive description of how the water operations would be executed, their hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the resulting consequences. The description is a background material for comparisons between the two sites in terms of water operations. The underground part of a repository in Laxemar would, among other things, consist of an access ramp and a repository area at a depth of approximately 500 metres. The construction, operation, and decommissioning phases would in total comprise a time period of 60-70 years. Inflowing groundwater would be diverted during construction and operation. The modelling tool MIKE SHE has been used to assess the effects of the groundwater diversion, for instance in terms of groundwater levels and stream discharges. According to MIKE SHE calculations for a hypothetical case with a fully open repository, the total groundwater inflow would be in the order of 55-90 litres per second depending on the permeability of the grouted zone around ramp, shafts and tunnels. In reality, the whole repository would not be open simultaneously, and the inflow would therefore be less. The groundwater diversion would cause groundwater- level drawdown in the rock, which in turn would lead to drawdown of the groundwater table in relatively large areas above and around the repository. According to model calculations, there would be an insignificant drawdown of the water level in Lake Frisksjoen, the largest lake in the area. The discharge in the most important stream of the area (Laxemaraan) would be reduced by less than ten percent. Comprehensive field inventories have been performed in the area, for instance concerning ecological conditions, agriculture, forestry and private wells. In total, 67 nature objects have been identified, geographically delineated, and classified in terms of nature values. These consist of forest key habitats (or so called objects with nature values), wetlands, lakes and streams. In general, the objects are judged to have low nature values (municipal or local value). Forest key habitats are judged to have higher nature values (regional value), but the main nature values for these objects are not associated to wet or moist conditions. It has neither been found any red-listed or protected species whose survival depends on the level of the groundwater table. However, the area contains species (bats, for instance) that are favoured by a mosaic landscape, including moist/wet areas and ponds. With one exception, it is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to none, insignificant or small consequences for the identified nature objects. The principal ecological consequence of the groundwater diversion concerns the stream Laxemaraan, for which the consequences of a discharge reduction would be noticeable. Concerning agriculture and forestry it is judged that within the influence area, groundwater table drawdown would reduce the crop yield and the forest yield by up to 10% and 20%, respectively. The groundwater diversion would not affect municipal water supply. However, the Laxemar area contains a large number of private wells, which implies that the groundwater diversion possibly would affect private water supply in terms of reduced well capacity. It would require more detailed investigations of separate buildings and road stretches in order to assess subsidence risks. Buildings and other infrastructure owned by Oskarshamns Kraftgrupp AB (including the reactor buildings O1-O3) and associated water handling would not be affected by the groundwater diversion. Above-ground water operations would include a bridge across Laxemaraan and measures in the vicinity of the surface facility (the industrial area) for the repository, in Laxemaraan and in a ditch (Oxhagsbaecken). During construction of the bridge, measures would be taken to reduce the consequences of turbid water, for instance for spawning fish. No intermediate support in the stream would be required, and the bridge would be constructed not to influence the flow conditions of the stream and not to be a wandering obstacle for people and animals. Other water operations above ground would be executed for handling of drainage water from the underground part of the repository and leachate from a rock dump. These waters would be diverted to Laxemaraan via a constructed 'lake' adjacent to the stream. The leachate would also be treated in a broad irrigation area with a recirculation- and detention pond (Laxemarkaerren).

  17. Combined environmental impacts from production and use of the products. An EIS-application project for refineries; Sammanvaegd miljoepaaverkan fraan produktion och anvaendning av produkterna. Ett MKB-tillaempningsprojekt foer raffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K; LoevbIad, G.; Stripple, H.

    2001-12-01

    At European refineries a change in production is planned in order to obtain better qualities of gasoline and diesel, from an environmental point of view. This change will, however, lead to higher emissions at the refineries. The present study of the combined effects of emissions at the refineries and the use of the products gives the opportunity for considering the entire system and gives a stronger positive signal than the traditional EIS would do. Three different methods were used: Net change in emissions to air; Exposure of men and ecosystems for air pollutants; and Exceeding norms and critical levels. The results for the Swedish refinery at Lysekil shows that the emissions from using the products are much higher than the emissions from the refinery for all cases studied. The net emissions from production and use of the products will be reduced for the new products compared to the present situation. Risks for exceeding norms and critical levels due to the changes at the refinery exist for emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, but a lower background load will probably mean that the total future load will be reasonably close to the critical level in the area affected by the refinery. In the urban environment, reduced risks for exceeding the levels for benzen and low levels for toluene and xylene give greater advantages than the increased emissions of sulfur and nitrogen close to the refinery.

  18. 'Finnova Development Group'. Comb Configurated Costumer-close Network Installations with Underground Service Boxes. From project objectives to main solutions; 'Finnova' Innovativ Montage och Systemloesning foer Fjaerrvaermeanslutning av Villaomraade. Fraan projektmaal till huvudloesningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundson, Tommy [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (SE)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    The overall goal for a project, presented in this report, together with and three additional ones, is to produce at least one new, economically competitive solution for distribution of DH in residential areas with low heat demand density - which normally means distribution in villa areas. As a built in sub goal, the work was anticipated to end up in one demo project. The report presents how both goals are achieved. The presentation gives exhaustive descriptions of the system technologies, of the foreseen installation methods but also of working procedures used by the Finnova Development Group to reach the goals. A great deal of work has been dedicated to the issue of harmonizing system design and layout and methods for construction. The report gives, based on through literature studies both regarding Sweden and internationally, together with many decades of personal experiences for the members of the Finnova Development Group, an enveloping presentation of branch experiences related to system design, choice of materials and methods of installation and operation. Having this as a background, the report highlights on one hand which problems has to be dealt with on the other what should be avoided - if you want to avoid high installation costs and future problems - when designing a DH distribution system. Parallel to this, the success factors for distribution DH in low heat density areas are crystallized and discussed. Consequently, the work presented in this report has three 'foundation bolts': What should be avoided, what we want to achieve and success factors that are there to be used. With these identified and used a generally fit for use foundation for innovative solution can be built. This structure for innovative solution is thoroughly scrutinized with respect to material as well functional issues. The rather great complexity of a DH system, with all its components and functional requirements, are clearly demonstrated. Two main solutions are presented in the report. For the first one, 'Finnova AF', evidence is given that the overall goal is fulfilled. The goal being investment costs lower than SEK 50,000 per costumer - VAT not included and in the cost level of 2003/2004. The possibilities for the second one, 'Finnova LTH', may in the long run be even more promising, with respect to economy as well as functionally. The fulfilling of this requires, however, investigations and research and the time for these are not to be found within the time schedule given for this project. Other important issues dealt with regarding the two solutions are: estimated technical life length, need for and accessibility at maintenance and heat losses The two main solutions are named Comb Configurated Costumer Close Network (Finnova AF) and Villa Connection with Distribution Chambers (Finnova LTH). Both are in general terms presented in this report and fully and more detailed in reports no 2 and 3. A demo for the Finnova AF approach is right now being built in a villa area in the Granlunda suburb of Trelleborg in south Sweden. The system decisive features of the Finnova AF are three: The conventional DH substation is abandoned and replaced with a service and connection box in the garden at the site boundary, no pipe joints directly in ground are to be found, and almost all needed working moments can be performed by anyone of a working crew of 5 people. Among the identified success factors, especially the following should be mentioned: Maximum continuity. No 'extern specialists' needed, the civil works contractor should be able to perform 'almost' all working procedures with his own crew. One-step finished backfilling must be applied. And to obtain continuity, flexible coiled pipes and cold installation of network are necessary. The DH substation moved out of the customer's house. The DH supplier is supposed to be the owner of the service and maintenance box replacing the FC. This box contains a prefabricated, standardised, easily replaceable cassette. This cassette contains all necessary functions needed to deliver, measure and check the quality of heating and tap water being delivered. A new philosophy for the supply of tap hot water. Two pipes instead of one are used for the hot tap water supply. The smaller one normally is used for mere circulation. At higher sudden demands, both pipes serve as forward pipes, increasing the capacity. A high degree of standardization. A high degree of standardization, with respect to components as well as to interfaces, is necessary to minimize the gross working time, including periods of waiting during construction. And more time used can be directly transformed into higher costs for more than half of the working steps that sums up into a contract like this. Adding to this, standardisation and systemisation make life much easier for the DH supplier, when it comes to such things as future maintenance and renewal of the network as well as connecting new costumers in the area in question. As a spin-off, and as a result of the methodology of the Finnova Development Group, the report series can be used as a well of knowledge for further innovative solutions. In appendices, the following is presented: Definitions of technical and economical expressions used in the reports Rules of design for fluid pipes A market survey for machinery and other equipment suitable for the installation of DH piping in residential areas with low heat density.

  19. Choices of action and its influence on farmers' attitudes regarding willow and reed canary grass cultivation; Betydelsen av olika handlingsalternativ foer oekat intresse hos lantbrukare att odla salix och roerflen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Aasa; Paulrud, Susanne; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-02-15

    The contribution of energy crops from the agricultural sector is an example of a resource that has a potential to increase substantially in the near future. However, one problem is the lack of interest in cultivating energy crops within the agricultural Several studies have shown that there are a number of reasons for farmers not becoming involved in energy crops. Besides biological aspects, market potential and profitability the farmers are also affected by the available resources on the farm, the effect of the crops on the surroundings, work load, liquidity and the perceived risks. The overall aim with the present study is to increase the knowledge about how to change farmers' attitudes regarding energy crop cultivation, i.e. making them more interested. This study also shows that there is a large fraction of farmers that generally believe they have no or little knowledge of energy crops, such as willow, reed canary grass and hemp. The fraction of farmers considering there is a larger probability of future cultivation of these crops with increased knowledge is also quite large. Energy crop cultivation does not suit everybody. Generally, growing willow and reed canary grass is an alternative for farmers having another business besides agricultural business. Characteristics for these farms are working hours <1500 hours and that the machines are partly owned

  20. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  1. Organisational culture at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation; Organisationskulturen inom den finlaendska Straalsaekerhetscentralens (STUK) avdelning foer oevervakning av kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Norros, L. [VTT Automation, Esbo (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    A case study to investigate the organisational culture of the regulatory authority was conducted at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's (STUK) Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) - department. Organisational culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, which are basically unconscious. Objectives of the study were to conceptualise and describe the main characteristics of YTO's organisational culture and to carry out a tentative core task analysis of the inspectors' work. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the research. YTO's culture was identified as a hierarchy-focused culture with less emphasis on innovation or social support. However, the ideal values of the personnel emphasised also social support and goal setting. Ambiguous goals were felt by some personnel as increased uncertainty about the meaningfulness of one's job. Also a lack of feedback was mentioned. The core task analysis identified the critical functions of the regulatory practice. These functions specify the three roles of the regulatory authority, the expert role, the public role and the authority role. The culture must support the fulfilment of the requirements of all the three roles. Development needs in YTO's culture were identified and recommendations were made. (au)

  2. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes are aged. If the leaching values of the ashes are compared to the limits set by the European Union for placing waste on an inert landfill the bio fuel based ashes generally fulfil the demands. Corresponding comparison for waste fuel based ashes shows generally high values for Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4}. As a recommendation the bio fuel based should be used in district heating pipe culverts. The leachability of antimony for waste based fuels is critical and further investigations of the environmental effects caused by Sb are needed to secure the use of waste fuel based ashes.

  3. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other political goals which produce national solutions and measures that are incompatible with the Kyoto Protocol. There are quite a number of factors that shape the possibilities of linking EU ETS to the systems that are discussed and planned in the countries studied, e.g. the existence of a price cap and rules for offset. The final selection of the system design in the countries studied will thus have a decisive significance on the possibilities of linking these systems to EU ETS in the future.

  4. Review of construction criteria for nuclear fuels under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences - a literature study; Oeversyn av konstruktionskriterier foer kaernbraensle under normaldrift och foervaentade driftsstoerningar - en litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudling, P. [Advanced Nuclear Technology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-06-01

    General Design Criteria 10, GDC 10, in the Code of Federal Regulation Part 50 of Nuclear Regulatory Commission specifies that the fuel assembly including the fuel rod may not be damaged during normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences. No damaged, means that the fuel rods do not fail, that fuel rod and assembly dimensions remain within operational tolerances, and that functional capabilities are not reduced below those assumed in the safety analysis. This objective is given by GDC 10, and the design limits that are required to accomplish this objective are called Specified Acceptable Fuel Design Limits, SAFDLs. The SAFDLs are specified in Standard Review Plan, SRP, chapter 4.2. This report summarises and analyses published open data that are relevant for the below-specified SAFDLs. It also summarises the current view of NRC on the discussed SAFDLs as well as the margin towards fuel failure of the SAFDLs. The following SAFDLs are discussed herein: Avoidance of fuel centre melting; Avoidance of liftoff; Maximum cladding creep deformation; Avoidance of cladding collapse; Maximum fretting; Maximum dimensional changes; Maximum stresses; Maximum fatigue stresses; Maximum oxide thickness; Maximum hydrogen content; Avoidance of PCI - failures.

  5. Noise and noise disturbances from wind power plants - Tests with interactive control of sound parameters for more comfortable and less perceptible sounds; Buller och bullerstoerningar fraan vindkraftverk - Foersoek med interaktiv styrning av ljudparametrar foer behagligare och mindre maerkbara ljud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson-Waye, K.; Oehrstroem, E.; Bjoerkman, M.; Agge, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2001-12-01

    In experimental pilot studies, a methodology has been worked out for interactively varying sound parameters in wind power plants. In the tests, 24 persons varied the center frequency of different band-widths, the frequency of a sinus-tone and the amplitude-modulation of a sinus-tone in order to create as comfortable a sound as possible. The variations build on the noise from the two wind turbines Bonus and Wind World. The variations were performed with a constant dba level. The results showed that the majority preferred a low-frequency tone (94 Hz and 115 Hz for Wind World and Bonus, respectively). The mean of the most comfortable amplitude-modulation varied between 18 and 22 Hz, depending on the ground frequency. The mean of the center-frequency for the different band-widths varied from 785 to 1104 Hz. In order to study the influence of the wind velocity on the acoustic character of the noise, a long-time measurement program has been performed. A remotely controlled system has been developed, where wind velocity, wind direction, temperature and humidity are registered simultaneously with the noise. Long-time registrations have been performed for four different wing turbines.

  6. Hearing on Systems Analysis for Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste? A report from hearings at the Council April 24 2008; Utfraagning om systemanalys foer slutfoervaring av kaernavfall. En rapport fraan Kaernavfallsraadets utfraagning den 24 april 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-22

    Oceanic excess radiocarbon data is widely used as a constraint for air-sea gas exchange. However, recent estimates of the global mean piston velocity (k) from Naegler et al., Krakauer et al., Sweeney et al. and Mueller et al. differ substantially despite the fact that they all are based on excess radiocarbon data from the GLODAP data base. Here I show that these estimates of (k) can be reconciled if first, the changing oceanic radiocarbon inventory due to net uptake of CO{sub 2} is taken into account; second, if realistic reconstructions of sea surface DELTA14C are used and third, if (k) is consistently reported with or without normalization to a Schmidt number of 660. These corrections applied, unnormalized estimates of (k) from these studies range between 15.1 and 18.2 cm/h. However, none of these estimates can be regarded as the only correct value for (k). I thus propose to use the 'average' of the corrected values of (k) presented here (16.5+-3.2 cm/h) as the best available estimate of the global mean unnormalized piston velocity (k), resulting in a gross ocean-to-atmosphere CO{sub 2} flux of 76 +- 15 PgC/yr for the mid-1990s

  7. HMI-Design of System Solutions in Control Rooms. Description of a Working Process from a Human-Machine Perspective; MMI-design av systemloesningar i kontrollrum. Arbetsprocess foer utformning utifraan ett maenniska-maskinperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligaard, Lars-Ola; Andersson, Jonas; Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa

    2008-01-15

    To stay competitive, the process industry of today faces increasing demands of continuous development for efficient use of both technical and human resources. An important step is to create new useful technical solutions, which also bring demands on functionality and usability. Functionality means that the new technology fulfils its purpose, while usability means that the human operator knows how to handle the new technology. If any of these two components are inferior, the potential of new technology will never be fully utilized. Today, a growing amount of advanced information technology is being used in supervisory control, at the same time as the process complexity is increasing. The technology has thereby become more difficult to understand, supervise and control, when processes, connections and logics are not visible in the same way as earlier. An increased level of automation together with reduced work force is also a contributing factor. Due to this, human-machine interaction (HMI) has become a more important aspect of quality in the development of new technology. From the operators' point of view, it is important that the development takes place with an increased transparency of the technical system, as well as reduction of the amount of information that has to be processed by the operator. To achieve a good human-machine interaction, it has to be considered during all phases in the development process of control room design. It is important that relevant hand-books and guidelines are used, but also a working process, which describes how the development work should be performed and the relationship between different parts in the process. The aim of this project was to present a general report in Swedish, which describes a working process for development of useful operator interfaces, work tasks, instructions, and working environments. The report is primarily aimed for the process industry, but can be useful in all other areas including interaction between operators and machines. The content can be used both for new development projects and for upgrading of already existing control room designs. The main target group for the report is the development engineers at the plant, who work close to the supplier, and the people who should plan and guide the development work in the control room. The purpose of the report is to deliver knowledge about how to consider a human-machine perspective in the development process. The report presents what is important to consider, but does not in detail show design solutions. The report is also a usable tool for those people who should do the actual screen designs, but then it should be used together with hand-book data and guide-lines referred to. The report begins with a description of basic concepts and definitions within the area of HMI. This is followed by a description of the HMI development working process. The working process includes five steps; planning, requirements, conceptual design, detailed design, and commissioning. The steps also include methodology for data collection and evaluation. Finally, the handbook also contains short summaries of the different steps in the working process, where important points to consider are brought forward

  8. A method for mapping the motion and temperature history of fuel particles in grate boilers and waste incinerators - stage 1; Metod foer kartlaeggning av braenslepartiklars roerelse och temperaturhistorik i rosterpannor/avfallsugnar - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Blom, Elisabeth; Hald Pedersen, Niels; Moritz, Anders; Maardsjoe, Olle; Oskarsson, Jan; Petersson, Mats

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted where methods using radioactive tracer techniques for studying the behaviour of fuel particles on a grate are proposed and assessed. The following topics are addressed: - the possibility to continuously register the position of a single fuel particle on a grate from the fuel feed to burn-out; - the possibility to determine when a single fuel particle reach a certain temperature; and - the possibility to study drying and pyrolysis processes for a single fuel particle. In addition, a method to determine the height and density profiles of a fuel bed on a grate is proposed. The method for continuous determination of position is based on including a radiation source of the isotope {sup 24}Na in a fuel particle which is then supplied to the fuel feed. The gamma radiation emitted is registered by a number of detectors, mounted on the outside of the boiler. Since the radiation registered is dependent on both the distance between the source and detector and on the materials in the pathway, it is possible to continuously calculate the position of the fuel particle with the aid of Monte Carlo simulation. The inaccuracy in the determination is estimated to less than 5 cm. This is deemed to be accurate enough to be interesting. In order to study when a fuel particle reach a certain temperature, it is proposed that vials, manufactured in materials that will be broken at a defined temperature, is filled with the isotope {sup 85}Kr and mounted in fuel particles. When this noble gas is released, it follows the flue gases through the boiler and can be detected in the flue gas duct through its beta emission. The drying process of a fuel particle is proposed to be studied through impregnating fuel particles with tritium-containing water. The tritium-containing water is evaporated as the fuel particle dries and through analysing the tritium content of the flue gases the drying process can be followed. The feasibility study also deals with the radiation hazards connected to the proposed methods. Use of the methods requires authorization by the radiation protection agency. However, this is not believed to be a problem, although the radioactive isotopes must only be handled by authorized persons. It should be emphasised that the planned use do not mean that persons are exposed to radiation of any health-related significance whatsoever. Action plans for near-accident scenarios are described, which mean that no risks for persons and/or the plant should arise. In contrast, the risks for limited access to the boiler or shutdown during 10-14 days in case of near-accident must be assessed in each case. The assessment of the proposed methods leads to the conclusion that the technical possibilities to use the methods are realistic. Validation trials are therefore proposed to be conducted on a biomass boiler and on a waste incinerator. The prerequisites for these trials, a proposed validation program as well as a preliminary time schedule, is finally given.

  9. Fly ashes as binders for the stabilisation of gravel. Laboratory tests and preparations for a field test; Flygaskor som bindemedel foer stabilisering av grusmaterial. Laboratorieundersoekningar samt foerberedelser infoer provbyggandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Jyraevae, Harri; Maijala, Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-04-01

    The project is based on the results of a significant research project FACE (Fly Ash in Civil Engineering). The project aims at the development of binder recipes based on a chosen fly ash from Holmen Paper's Hallsta Pappersbruk for the renovation of a road. The development will benefit from the Finnish research and experience on this type of binders for geotechnical applications. The stabilisation should result in improving bearing capacity and better long-term durability and service life of the gravel roads. The environmentally friendly stabilisation system comprises also the possibility to reuse and recycle the material that already exists in the road to be renovated. The test materials for the development project were the gravel from a chosen test road and the fly ash of Holmen Paper AB. The fly ash was used as the binder material. The geotechnical tests included characterisation tests of the test materials, tests on the stabilised mixes and control tests for the stabilisation recipe. Also, there were tests for the assessment of the environmental impact of the stabilisation. Side by side with those tests there has been a full-scale test, a separate project in Hallstavik, to test the stabilisation process with respect to the technical, environmental and economical aspects of construction. The full-scale test will be reported separately. The project results imply that fly ash can be beneficially used as a binder for the stabilisation of gravel materials and similar materials. Fly ash can be used also with small amounts of other binder materials like cement or blast-furnace slag in order to have a frost resistant material. The project gives also basis for the development of binders for other types of applications, both for the renovation purposes and for the improvement of spoils for construction purposes.

  10. Small-scale power production for sustainable development. Households', Utilities' and Retailers' experiences from the market for small-scale solar panels and wind turbines; Smaaskalig elproduktion foer en haallbar utveckling. Hushaalls, energibolags och aaterfoersaeljares erfarenheter av marknaden foer smaaskaliga solpaneler och vindturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, Jenny; Tengvard, Maria

    2009-06-15

    In this report, a special form of small scale renewable solutions marketed towards Swedish households is targeted. During the autumn 2008 the Swedish companies 'Egen El i Stockholm AB' ('Egen El') and 'Home Energy' launched a concept with small scale wind turbines and solar cells that the households connect to the electricity socket so that the own produced electricity can be used directly. The purpose with this report is to analyze how users, retailers and grid companies look upon such small scale production of electricity and discuss what institutional effects own produced energy could have on the electricity market. The main research method used was in-depth interviews. We conducted interviews with representatives of eight retail companies, five grid companies, the industry organization Swedenergy, IKEA Greentech, and 20 households. A main conclusion is that the market concerning households small scale production of electricity is still immature. Though, the media attention that Egen El relieved during spring 2008 has made more households aware of the concept and householders increased interest in the concept is also recognized by other retailers and amongst the grid companies. According to the retailers, it is still hard to make a living from selling these kind of products to household. Nevertheless, they are optimistic and believe that the changes in regulations concerning small scale production of electricity and IKEA's investment in PVs will improve the situation. The grid companies, too, have a positive outlook. Though, they stress a number of problems that could occur with many households producing their own electricity. This is mainly related to security and whether the grid will be able to handle this produced electricity. As for the households, environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle, so such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. This investment is symbolic for some, displaying environmental consciousness to others - to set an example. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. Such micro-generation installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine. For these solutions to reach a majority of Swedish households, some important measures are needed to be implemented to eliminate the economic hindrances and to simplify the rules and installation process

  11. Final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this further research and technological development is required.

  12. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research on the bedrock at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    New knowledge in hydrogeology and boring technology have opened the possibility to use deep boreholes as a repository for the Swedish high-level radioactive wastes. The determining property is that the repository can be housed in the stable bedrock at levels where the ground water has no contact with the biosphere and disposal and sealing can take place without disturbing the ground water stratification outside the disposal area. An advantage compared to a shallow repository of KBS-3 type, that is now being planned in Sweden, is that a borehole repository is likely to be technologically more robust, since the concept 'deep boreholes' seems to admit such a deep disposal that the entire disposal area would be surrounded by stable density-layered ground water, while a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by moving ground water in contact with level close to the surface. This hydrological difference is of great importance for the safety in scenarios with leaching of radioactive substances. A deep repository is also less vulnerable for effects from natural events such as glaciation and earthquakes as well as from technological mishaps and terrorist actions. A crucial factor is, however, that the radioactive waste can be disposed of, in a secure way, at the intended depth, which will require new research and technology development.

  13. The role of AV and VV optimization for CRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Brabham, M.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective therapy for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a ventricular conduction delay; however, approximately 30% of patients do not experience significant clinical improvement with this treatment. Modern devices allow individualized programming of the AV delay and VV offset, which offer the possibility of improving clinical response rates with optimized programming. AV and VV delay optimization techniques have included echocardiography, device-based algorithms, and several other novel noninvasive techniques. While an acute improvement in hemodynamic function has been clearly demonstrated with optimized device settings, long-term clinical benefit is limited. In the majority of cases, an empiric AV delay with simultaneous biventricular or left ventricular pacing is adequate. The value of optimization of these intervals in “non-responders” still requires further investigation.

  14. Brachial artery aneurysms following brachio-cephalic AV fistula ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Usman; Parkinson, Frances; Mohiuddin, Kamran; Davies, Paula; Woolgar, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral artery aneurysms proximal to a long-standing arteriovenous (AV) fistula can be a serious complication. It is important to be aware of this and manage it appropriately. Vascular access nurses input all data regarding patients undergoing dialysis access procedures into a securely held database prospectively. This was retrospectively reviewed to identify cases of brachial artery aneurysms over the last 3 years. In Morriston Hospital, around 200 forearm and arm AV fistulas are performed annually for vascular access in renal dialysis patients. Of these, approximately 15 (7.5%) are ligated. Three patients who had developed brachial artery aneurysms following AV fistula ligation were identified. All 3 patients had developed brachial artery aneurysms following ligation of a long-standing brachio-cephalic AV fistula. Two patients presented with pain and a pulsatile mass in the arm, and one presented with pins and needles and discoloration of fingertips. Two were managed with resection of the aneurysm and reconstruction with a reversed long saphenous vein interposition graft, the third simply required ligation of a feeding arterial branch. True aneurysm formation proximal to an AV fistula that has been ligated is a rare complication. There are several reasons for why these aneurysms develop in such patients, the most plausible one being the increase in blood flow and resistance following ligation of the AV fistula. Of note, all the patients in this study were on immunosuppressive therapy following successful renal transplantation. Vigilance by the vascular access team and nephrologists is paramount to identify those patients who may warrant further evaluation and investigation by the vascular surgeon.

  15. Lesing av delvis motstridende tekster i syvende klasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Mork Rogne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen ser vi på hvilken type informasjon elever i 7. klasse vektlegger for å konstruere en sammenhengende oppsummering av fire til dels motstridende tekster. Elever møter ofte flere tekster om samme tema – multiple tekster – og vi trenger økt kunnskap om hvordan de leser slike tekster. Elevene leste fire ulike tekster om en sykkelulykke. Tekstene presenterte informasjon som var delvis sammenfallende på tvers av alle tekstene, og delvis motstridende informasjon som innebar at enkelte tekster ga ulike beskrivelser av hendelsesforløpet. Vi testet elevenes ordavkodingsferdigheter, fikk dem til å fylle ut et spørreskjema om lesevaner og vi innhentet elevenes resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve. Etter lesing ba vi elevene gi en oppsummering av sykkelulykken. Elevene gjenga relativt mer sammenfallende informasjon enn motstridende informasjon. Gode resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve ser ut til å ha en sammenheng med elevenes ferdigheter i å konstruere en sammenhengende forståelse av de fire tekstene. Elever som oppga å lese mye på Internett hadde imidlertid fått med mindre av informasjonen som var felles for de fire tekstene i sine oppsummeringer. Vi fant også en negativ sammenheng mellom fritidslesing på Internett og resultatene fra Nasjonal leseprøve. Samlet sett indikerer resultatene at når elevene skal skape sammenheng mellom flere delvis motstridende tekster, så blir sammenfallende informasjon vektlagt mer enn motstridende informasjon. Dessuten ser det ut til at de elevene som bruker mest fritid til å lese på Internett, sliter mer med å sammenfatte innholdet i de fire tekstene enn de andre elevene.

  16. Högstadieelevers upplevelse av sex- och samlevnadsundervisning : en intervjustudie

    OpenAIRE

    Ejder, Alina; Karlsson, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    En god sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i skolan är central för att ha möjlighet att utveckla en god hälsa, vilken dock enligt tidigare forskning har visats vara av bristande kvalitet. Syftet med studien är att undersöka högstadieelevers upplevelse av sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen på deras skola, med fokus på pedagog ledda lektioner. Studiens metod var en kvalitativ intervjustudie, där sex högstadieelever intervjuades individuellt. Resultatet visade att eleverna upplevde att undervisningen...

  17. EST Table: AV404040 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404040 pg--0370 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0006810(transport)|GO:0006865(amino acid trans...e transport) 10/09/28 83 %/164 aa pdb|3L1L|A Chain A, Structure Of Arg-Bound Escherichia Coli Adic 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV404040 pg-- ...

  18. Revisjon av anleggskontrakter i henhold til god revisjonsskikk

    OpenAIRE

    Woxen, Hans Jacob; Feng, Yennie Jie Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Prosjektregnskap må føres når anleggskontrakter foreligger. I de tilfelle disse inneholder vesentlig feilinformasjon, påvirker dette årsregnskapet i tilsvarende grad. Hvordan revisor må revidere for å ivareta kravet til god revisjonsskikk, utgjør problemstillingen som ligger til grunn for denne masteroppgaven. Anleggskontrakter er ifølge IAS 11 kontrakter som er særlig fremforhandlet for tilvirkning av en eiendel eller en kombinasjon av eiendeler. Denne definisjonen utdypes ...

  19. EST Table: AV403981 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available terminase large subunit (DNA packaging protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV403981 pg-- ... ...AV403981 pg--0297 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/265 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packag...ing protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1|

  20. EST Table: AV398396 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398396 NV021762 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...ding) 10/09/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 30 %/120 aa AGAP003111-PA Protein|2R:32505726:32508690:1|gene:AGAP003111 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV398396 NV02 ...

  1. Etableringen av Tesla Motors på det norske bilmarkedet : en empirisk studie av salgsdrivere og konkurranseeffekter

    OpenAIRE

    Asperheim, Hanne Henjum; Vedum, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Denne masterutredningen er en empirisk studie av Tesla Motors’ etablering på det norske bilmarkedet. Vi gjennomfører to separate analyser: Først fokuseres det på geografiske salgsforskjeller, deretter på effekten Tesla Motors har hatt på det norske nybilmarkedet. I vår første analyse utvikler vi en modell for å identifisere Teslas salgsdrivere, i form av geografiske og sosioøkonomiske variabler. Resultatene viser at et fylkes inntektsnivå, utdanningsnivå og miljøbevissthet har en positiv s...

  2. EST Table: AV404642 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404642 prgv0279 10/09/28 81 %/116 aa ref|NP_001091796.1| programmed cell death pr...otein 5-like protein [Bombyx mori] gb|ABJ97180.1| programmed cell death protein 5-like protein [Bombyx mori

  3. The apolipoprotein AV gene and diurnal triglyceridaemia in normolipidaemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masana, L; Ribalta, J; Salazar, J; Fernandez-Ballart, J; Joven, J; Cabezas, MC

    2003-01-01

    The newly recognised apolipoprotein (apo) AV gene (APOAV) has been linked to fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations with some polymorphisms associated with elevated fasting TGs. Since fasting plasma TGs are mainly determined by the hepatic production of TGrich particles (very low density

  4. User guide of AVS/ITBL for numerical environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Nobuko; Yamagishi, Nobuhiro; Arakawa, Takuya; Kuraishi, Hideaki

    2005-02-01

    The Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the ITBL (Information-Technology Based Laboratory) project which is one of e-Japan priority policy programs. The goal of the ITBL project is to create the vertical research environment in which intellectual resources such as remote computers, programs and data can be shared in Japanese research institutions and cooperative studies among researchers can be supported. AVS/ITBL is the visualization tool which has been developed aiming at realizing the efficient visualization in the ITBL environment. This visualization tool is one of the tools of ITBL infrastructure software and operates in cooperation with AVS/Express. Main functions of AVS/ITBL are as follows: it can directly read data files located on remote computers, it can display and control an image on the web browser, it can collaboratively display an image among remote researchers, and it can perform visualization process as a batch. In this paper, utilization of AVS/ITBL to the numerical environmental system, which is one of the applications in ITBL project, is presented. And the outline of the operation in this utilization is indicated. (author)

  5. Rektorers forståelse av mobbing i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    2008-01-01

    PÅ opfordring fra redaktionen gives en kommentar med dansk vinkel til den norske artikel 'Rektorers forståelse av mobbning i skolen'.Den omtalte artikel er at betragte som første trin i indførelse af en nordisk mobbeforståelse med undgangspunkt i Dan Olweus begrebsafgrænsning.Der savnes også en i...

  6. Mutagenesis in ORF AV2 affects viral replication in Mungbean ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a whitefly-transmitted begomovirus with a bipartite genome. .... 1996) and in Indian cassava mosaic virus (Rothenstein et al. 2007). The ability of AV2 of another bipartite begomovirus, East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus ...... (New York: WH Freeman and Company).

  7. EST Table: AV403752 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403752 pg--0009 10/09/28 100 %/257 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging... protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging

  8. EST Table: AV403922 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403922 pg--0214 10/09/28 91 %/142 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  9. EST Table: AV404246 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404246 pg--0747 10/09/28 91 %/130 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  10. EST Table: AV399507 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399507 NV120319 10/09/28 70 %/144 aa ref|YP_803401.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticars...ia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus] gb|ABI13791.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticarsia gemmatali

  11. Påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. Svalbardstudien 1988-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Høyer m. fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSvalbard er spesielt godt egnet til å vurdere påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. På grunn av detlave prisnivået for alkohol er ulovlig import eller hjemmeproduksjon av alkohol ukjent på Svalbard. Dessutener samfunnet lite og oversiktlig, slik at det er praktisk mulig å undersøke hele befolkningen. I den aktuellestudien registrerte vi alt salg av alkohol til fastboende nordmenn på Svalbard i oktober og november 1988. Isamme tidsperiode ble alle nordmenn 18 år eller eldre invitert til å ta del i en helseundersøkelse der det inngikkspørsmål om alkoholbruk. Vi fant at selvrapportert alkoholkonsum utgjorde rundt 40% av salgsvolumet.På grunn av de spesielle forhold når det gjelder alkoholomsetning på Svalbard er det grunn til å anta atestimatet i denne studien er mer pålitelig sammenlignet med tilsvarende studier fra andre områder.Høyer G, Nilssen O, Brenn T, Schirmer H. The reliability of self-reported alcohol consumption.The Svalbard study 1988-89. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 109-113.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reportedalcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making a complete registrationof all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol onSvalbard over a two month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbardwere invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire onalcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted forapproximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, theestimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume tovalidate self-reports.

  12. Validation of a Real-time AVS Encoder on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Fang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole I frame AVS real-time video encoder is designed and implemented on FPGA platform in this paper. The system uses the structure of the flow calculation, coupled with a dual-port RAM memory between/among the various functional modules. Reusable design and pipeline design are used to optimize various encoding module and to ensure the efficient operation of the pipeline. Through the simulation of ISE software and the verification of Xilinx Vritex-4 pro platform, it can be seen that the highest working frequency can be up to 110 MHz, meeting the requirements of the whole I frame real- time encoding of AVS in CIF resolution.

  13. Wirevagn : Utvecklingen av en utrullare för hisslinor

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnsfeldt, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Kandidatexamensarbetet som utgick från en förfrågan från företaget Irongrip AB hade som mål att utveckla ett produktförslag på en utlindare av stålvajer för hissmontörer. Irongrip AB som tillverkar och säljer verktyg för hantering av stålvajer hade uppmärksammat att en efterfrågan på en sådan produkt fanns på marknaden då befintliga lösningar var bristfälliga och inte hade alla de funktioner som är önskvärda hos en sådan produkt.Arbetet inleddes med en förstudie där studiebesök vid lindragnin...

  14. EST Table: AV402406 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402406 heS00974 10/09/28 59 %/223 aa ref|XP_001656104.1| dipeptidyl peptidase iii...174102|DmojGI24885-PA 10/08/27 40 %/219 aa F02E9.9b#CE41217#WBGene00008532#status...ref|XP_972969.2| PREDICTED: similar to dipeptidyl peptidase iii [Tribolium castaneum] FS761400 heS0 ...

  15. Beregning av lokk, håndberegningsmetoder versus FEM

    OpenAIRE

    Bruder, Ørjan Myklestad

    2014-01-01

    Ved dimensjonering av lokk benyttes vanligvis elementmetoden (FEM) til å fastlegge spenning og deformasjon i konstruksjonen. Det finnes flere håndberegningsmetoder for å verifisere FEM-resultatene, men det er lite tilgjengelig litteratur om temaet, og lite er gjort for å sammenligne metodene. IMT ved NMBU ønsker å styrke fagkunnskapen innenfor dette temaet og har derfor initiert denne mastergradsoppgaven. Målsettingen med denne oppgaven har vært å sammenligne ulike håndberegningsformler for ...

  16. EST Table: AV403457 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403457 msgV0503 10/09/28 90 %/177 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  17. EST Table: AV403247 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403247 msgV0234 10/09/28 91 %/189 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  18. EST Table: AV403467 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403467 msgV0519 10/09/28 85 %/159 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  19. EST Table: AV403356 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403356 msgV0366 10/09/28 66 %/121 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  20. EST Table: AV403304 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403304 msgV0310 10/09/28 85 %/165 aa ref|NP_001166287.1| sericin 2 isoform 1 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADA84147.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  1. EST Table: AV403504 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403504 msgV0623 10/09/28 98 %/114 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  2. EST Table: AV403487 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403487 msgV0602 10/09/28 95 %/130 aa ref|NP_001166287.1| sericin 2 isoform 1 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADA84147.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  3. EST Table: AV403164 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403164 msgV0119 10/09/28 84 %/120 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  4. EST Table: AV403698 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403698 msgV0982 10/09/28 85 %/164 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  5. EST Table: AV403268 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403268 msgV0258 10/09/28 62 %/158 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  6. EST Table: AV403374 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403374 msgV0392 10/09/28 86 %/135 aa ref|NP_001166287.1| sericin 2 isoform 1 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADA84147.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  7. EST Table: AV403444 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403444 msgV0485 10/09/28 80 %/156 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  8. EST Table: AV403508 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403508 msgV0629 10/09/28 79 %/122 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h NM_001172817 msgV ...

  9. EST Table: AV403123 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403123 msgV0067 10/09/28 65 %/125 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  10. EST Table: AV403443 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403443 msgV0483 10/09/28 62 %/162 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  11. EST Table: AV403596 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403596 msgV0735 10/09/28 60 %/200 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  12. EST Table: AV403709 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403709 msgV0994 10/09/28 61 %/173 aa ref|NP_001166288.1| sericin 2 isoform 2 prec...ursor [Bombyx mori] gb|ADB04958.1| sericin 2 precursor [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h BB985569 msgV ...

  13. Bruk av studenter som medforskere- et pilotprosjekt i barnevernsfeltet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti Ørvig

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen retter fokus mot studenters læring i praksis. Gjennom beskrivelsen av et pilotprosjekt i barnevernet, ønsker vi å synliggjøre hvordan bruken av studenter som medforskere kan bidra til økt kunnskapsutbytte samt en større forståelse av samspillet mellom teori og praksis. Samtidig har feltet sosialt arbeid behov for en modernisering. Denne artikkelen søker å vise at bruk av studenter som medforskere kan bidra til den nevnte modernisering. To spørsmål reises i artikkelen: Hvordan håndterer lærere og studenter utfordringer i forskningsprosessen i prosjekter hvor studenter deltar som medforskere? På hvilken måte kan praksisnær forskning bidra til å kaste lys over studentens læring? Abstract Students as research assistants – a pilot project in child welfare services.This article concerns students’ learning outcomes. Through a description of a pilot project in child welfare services, the aim is to demonstrate how the use of students as research assistants can contribute to increased knowledge outcomes and provide a better understanding of the interaction between theory and practice. At the same time, the field of social work needs a modernization. The article argues that the use of students as research assistants can contribute to the aforementioned modernization. Two issues are raised in the article: How to deal with teachers’ and students’ challenges in the research process in projects where students participate as research assistants? In what way can survivor research shed light on students’ learning outcomes?

  14. Inkludering av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn i NIF-organisert idrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kristin Sisjord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske og Paralympiske Komité (NIF har en uttalt målsetting om en åpen og inkluderende idrett. Hvordan kommer dette til uttrykk i den praktiske virksomheten? Denne artikkelen, som bygger på data fra en undersøkelse om likestilling og mangfold i den organiserte idretten (NIF, retter søkelyset mot arbeid med inklusjon av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn på ulike organisasjonsnivå i NIF: særforbund, idrettskretser og idrettslag. Datamaterialet er kvalitative intervju med representanter fra ulike organisasjonsnivå. Resultatene viser at NIFs overordnede politikk i varierende grad nedfelles i særforbundenes virksomhet, i idrettskretsene og i idrettslagene. Av særforbundene skiller Fotballforbundet og Klatreforbundet seg ut som aktive pådrivere i arbeidet med inkludering. Mange idrettslag oppfattet slike spørsmål som lite aktuelle i sitt rekrutteringsområde. Representanter for lag som hadde erfaring med inkludering og rekruttering av minoritetsungdom, tilkjennega varierte erfaringer og synspunkter.

  15. Torsional changes in surgery for A-V phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Halder, M; Prakash, P

    1997-03-01

    The role of torsion in the aetiopathogenesis of A-V phenomena has not been sufficiently emphasized. The success of vertical displacement of horizontal recti in correction of A or V has not been attributed to torsional changes. To evaluate this aspect, 21 cases of A or V phenomena were subjected to monocular recession-resection procedure with vertical shifting. Preoperative and postoperative torsional changes were evaluated on synoptophore (subjective torsion), and confirmed by fundus photography (objective torsion). Intorsion with A phenomenon was seen preoperatively in 5 of 8 cases which increased after surgery and was seen postoperatively in the other 3 cases also. Extorsion was observed in 5 of 13 cases pre operatively in 'V' phenomenon, but the changes in extorsion after surgery were less dramatic than those in intorsion. The oblique overactions were reduced in cases where they were present. Correction of A-V phenomena by torsion induced by vertical shifting of horizontal recti muscles is proposed, highlighting the role of torsion in A-V phenomena.

  16. Torsional changes in surgery for A-V phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of torsion in the aetiopathogenesis of A-V phenomena has not been sufficiently emphasized. The success of vertical displacement of horizontal recti in correction of A or V has not been attributed to torsional changes. To evaluate this aspect, 21 cases of A or V phenomena were subjected to monocular recession-resection procedure with vertical shifting. Preoperative and postoperative torsional changes were evaluated on synoptophore (subjective torsion, and confirmed by fundus photography (objective torsion. Intorsion with A phenomenon was seen preoperatively in 5 of 8 cases which increased after surgery and was seen postoperatively in the other 3 cases also. Extorsion was observed in 5 of 13 cases pre operatively in ′V′ phenomenon, but the changes in extorsion after surgery were less dramatic than those in intorsion. The oblique overactions were reduced in cases where they were present. Correction of A-V phenomena by torsion induced by vertical shifting of horizontal recti muscles is proposed, highlighting the role of torsion in A-V phenomena.

  17. Har forhold under svangerskapet betydning for utviklingen av otitis media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J. Kværner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGMed utgangspunkt i data fra et populasjonsbasert utvalg av 7 992 norske tvillinger ble sammenhengenmellom gjentatte ørebetennelser og forhold under svangerskapet studert. Som parametre på intrauterinevekstforhold ble informasjon om fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder fra Medisinsk Fødselsregister benyttet.Informasjon om rapporterte øreinfeksjoner ble basert på spørreskjemaer som ble besvart av tvillingene ialderen 18–25 år. Først studerte vi individuelle effekter av fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder på forekomsten avotitis media (OM. Rapportert fødselsvekt hos individer med OM var signifikant lavere enn hos kontrollene,med en gjennomsnittsforskjell på 86 gram. Hos de som rapporterte OM var gjennomsnittlig gestasjonsalder3 dager kortere enn i kontrollmaterialet. Deretter beregnet vi effekten av fødselsvekt ved bruk av co-twinkontroll metoden. Blant monozygote (MZ tvillingpar gjenspeiler fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparetintra-uterine miljøforskjeller. Blant dizygote (DZ par kan vektforskjellen være både genetiske ogmiljøbetinget. Ved sammenligning av fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparene er tvillingen som ikkehar gjentatte øreinfeksjoner en matchet kontroll blant OM diskordante par. Resultatene antyder at lavfødselsvekt er en risikofaktor for otitis media. Gjennomsnittlig vektforskjell blant par diskordante for OMvar 48 gram, og den av tvillingen som ikke rapporterte OM hadde signifikant høyere fødselsvekt.Kværner KJ, Tambs K, Harris J, Magnus P. Do pregnancy-related factors influence the development ofotitis media? Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 55-58.  ENGLISH SUMMARYThe association between intrauterine growth, as measured by weight and gestational age, and the occurrenceof recurrent ear infections was studied using data from a population based sample of 7992 Norwegian twins.Perinatal measures were collected from the Medical Birth Registry, and reports of recurrent ear infectionswere based on

  18. Tristrams saga ok Isöndar og Tristan und Isold - En lesning av to versjoner av Tristan-legenden

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kristian Arnstein

    2015-01-01

    Abstrakt (norsk) / Abstract (Norwegian) Oppgaven omhandler den norrøne og middelaldertyske versjonen av legenden om Tristan og Isolde. Kjærlighetsmotivet sammenliknes og fortellingen sammenliknes med et eventyr. Vladimir Propps og A. J. Greimas teorier om litteraturteori i forhold til fortellingen taes i bruk. Abstract (engelsk) / Abstract (English) The assignment is about the old norse and medieval german version of the legend of Tristan and Isolde. The love motive is compa...

  19. Å LESE MEDIETEKSTER PÅ IPADEN. Observasjoner av en medievant fireårings bruk av iPad i hjemmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Jæger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i tre observasjoner av en gutt på fire år som bruker iPad på fritiden. Den søker å synliggjøre de strategiene dette barnet velger for å skaffe seg tilgang til ulike medietekster, hvordan han leser og tolker dem, og den undersøker eventuelle spor av kritisk refleksjon hos barnet over disse tekstene. Teoretisk sett hviler den på en forståelse av mediekompetanse som en parallell prosess til utvikling av lese- og skrivekyndighet (literacy, og medieopplevelsene omtales som viktige møter med tekst. Artikkelen undersøker hvordan å lese medietekster kan legge et grunnlag for å utvikle en utvidet tekstkompetanse eller mediekompetanse. Konklusjonen legger vekt på motivasjon og lekenhet som barns primære inngang til medietekstene og som et grunnlag for å utvikle mediekompetanse (media literacy. The article is based on three observations of a four-year-old boy who uses the iPad in his spare time. It demonstrates the strategies that this boy applies to gain access to various media texts, and how he reads and interprets them. It also seeks to examine traces of critical reflection that he may demonstrate in relation to these texts. Theoretically, it rests on an understanding of media literacy as a parallel process to the development of literacy, and it seeks to demonstrate how reading media texts can create an important starting point for the development of media literacy. The Kindergarten practitioner’s role and opportunities to develop children's media literacy within a kindergarten context is a focus towards the end of the article. In conclusion, I argue that motivation and playfulness are important approaches to media texts and create an important foundation for the development of media literacy

  20. Hvilken rolle spiller hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk?

    OpenAIRE

    Varem, Andrea; Nervik, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Temaet for denne bacheloroppgaven er hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk. Etter en omfattende gjennomgang av eksisterende teori rundt kundereisen fikk vi et inntrykk av at det er et gap i forskningen knyttet til kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk, på tross av størrelsen på dette markedet. Det vi fant av teori på feltet var i stor grad basert på kvantitative undersøkelser, og vi ønsker derfor å belyse kundereisen i denne konteksten gjennom et kvalitativt forskningsdesign. Med ut...

  1. Review of the SKB SR-Can interim report: Evaluation by the Nuclear Inspectorate and the Radiation Protection Authority of SKB's updated methods for safety analysis; Granskning av SKB:s SR-Can interimsrapport: SKI:s och SSI:s bedoemning av SKB:s uppdaterade metoder foer saekerhetsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    In this report the Nuclear Inspectorate and the Radiation Protection Authority comments on the present stage of the safety analysis for an encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuels and a underground repository. According to the evaluation of the authorities, the SKB methods for safety analysis are well structured and logical and have good potentials as starting points for future safety analyses. However, important parts of the methods need further developments before they can be used for licensing applications. Important progress has been made in several areas compared to the latest safety analysis, SR97, for instance regarding the method for systematic identification and description of all the processes and conditions that need to be considered in the analysis. SKB has also produced improved methods for documentation of different types of expert evaluations and for selection of data for model calculations. Like the international group of experts we see shortcomings in the SKB method for identification and selection of scenarios. The authorities believe that SKB should show, in a systematic and traceable way, that all unfavourable processes, conditions et cetera that have been identified, and could be of importance for the scenario, have been thoroughly evaluated. The authorities see weaknesses in the quality assurance of the interimistic report, that complicates the evaluation of the methods for safety analysis. There are also ambiguities in how SKB plan to optimize/select the best technologies and the role of the safety analysis in this connection. Finally, the authorities give recommendation on how SKB should present the model and methods for analysis that are not yet developed.

  2. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  3. Optimizing reed canary grass cropping to increase profitability. Field studies of plant varieties, intercropping with legumes and barley, fertilization and soil compaction; Optimering av odlingsaatgaerder i roerflen foer oekad loensamhet. Faeltstudier av sorter, samodling med baljvaexter och korn, goedsling samt markpackning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Reed Canary Grass is a promising crop for biofuel production. For reed canary grass the first year is an establishment year when the small biomass is not harvested. The second year the biomass is usually cut in late autumn but the harvest (removal of the biomass from the field) is delayed until spring. This technique has resulted in lower costs and increases in fuel quality through lower ash contents, including lower contents of chlorine, sodium and potassium. However costs for production are still high, especially establishment costs, fertilization costs and harvesting costs. The aim of this project was to test ways to cut costs per MWh by increased yields, and decreased establishment costs. The methods used have been variety trials to develop more productive plant material, intercropping with nitrogen fixing legumes to reduce the nitrogen demand of the crop, fertilization with waste material (sewage sludge, reed canary grass ash or poultry manure) and harvest at frozen ground as a strategy to reduce soil compaction and harvest damages on the crop. Reed canary grass grown as a fuel has so far been grown as a mono culture. However, when it is been grown for forage, or as a biogas crop, intercropping with legumes has been successful in some studies. In addition to NPK-fertilizers sewage sludge, ash from combustion of reed canary grass and poultry manure was used. An economic calculation showed that the establishment costs (the first two growing seasons) can be lowered by intercropping with red clover. However it is also involves more risks, related to weeds, and cannot be recommended on fallow soil with a large seed bank of weeds. A ten year old reed canary grass ley was used for the experiment. Two 25 m wide strips were harvested with a mower on November 19 2008 when the top soil was frozen. The harvested material was chopped and removed from the field the following day. The following spring, May 19 2009, the remaining reed canary grass on the field was cut with a mower and harvested with a square baler weighing 7.5 tons. There were no measurable advantages on biomass growth or soil compaction after late autumn harvest compared to spring harvest, and the method cannot be recommended to sustain high reed canary grass harvests

  4. Co-burning of assorted industrial waste consisting of paper, plastic and wood in a bio plant not classified for waste burning; Sameldning av returbraenslen i form av papper, plast och trae i fastbraenslepanna som idag ej aer klassad foer avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, M. [Gaevle Kraftvaerme AB, Gaevle (Sweden); Erdegren, P. [JD-Gruppen AB, Solna (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose to investigate the possibilities to burn mixed-in assorted industrial waste in existing bio-fuelled solid fuel boilers, a test combustion was performed during one week in a 70 MW bubbling bed bio plant. The test was performed at Gaevle Kraftvaerme's bio plant 'Johannes' during the winter 2001. The purpose with the test combustion was to evaluate the environmental, technical and economical consequences of combustion with 20% (by volume) addition of assorted industrial waste. Remaining fuel was bark and RT-chips. The assorted industrial waste was taken out by manual screening of arriving waste and consisted of paper, plastic and wood from industries and bulky waste. Regarding flue gas emissions during the test combustion all anticipated new emission stipulations according the EU Directive were met with exception of TOC. For CO, the anticipated stipulation was met during the test, however due to CO-variations independent of type of solid fuel, measures must be taken to meet the anticipated more severe CO-demand. By rearranging the air supply system to the boiler, the new TOC and CO-stipulations are expected to be met. As the flue gas emissions were recorded both ahead and after the flue gas condensation, the separation herein could be calculated. For dust, SO{sub 2} and dioxin the separation rates were around 50-60% and for HCI and NH{sub 3} around 90-95%. The EU Directive stipulation for emissions to water was met for all components. During the test, the coating formation on super heater tubes was measured. The result indicates that the growth rate and chloride content of the coating increased when industrial waste was added. However it is difficult to establish what impact it will have on the life of the tubes. The analyses of the various ashes from the plant indicated an increase of primarily Cr Cu, Pb and Sb. During the test, the temperature was measured at a cross section of the furnace. The result from these measurements indicates a higher mean temperature and large variation between the various measure points with addition of waste. According to the presented calculation method, the EU Directive stipulation of 2 seconds retention time in the furnace above 850 deg C was met. For the plant in question it is estimated that an 8 MSEK investment is required in order to permanently burn with a waste mixture as described above. The operation costs are expected to increase with ca 2,5 MSEK annually (1SEK = 0.1 USD). As a conclusion the test was successful without any practical operation problems and the test result indicates that the emission stipulations can be met. If the assorted industrial waste could be delivered to the plant at a price less than 50 SEK/MWh a permanent conversion would be profitable.

  5. Rettferdige minutter: Fordeling av spilletid i fotballkamper for aldersbestemte klasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Anker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available På et fotballag i overgangen mellom barne- og ungdomsfotballen er spilletid på fotballbanen under kamp både en knapp ressurs og en kilde til diskusjoner om fordeling. Spørsmålet som er utgangspunkt for denne artikkelen, er hvilke hensyn som bør tas når trener og lagleder skal fordele samlet spilletid på enkeltspillere. Er det viktigst å vinne fotballkampen, eller har det størst betydning å fordele spilletiden mest mulig likt mellom spillerne? Skal det tas hensyn til guttenes evner, motivasjon og preferanser? Er deres familiebakgrunn og personlighet av betydning? Diskusjonen baserer seg på en gjennomgang av ulike politiske rettferdighetsteorier for fordeling av knappe goder.Nøkkelord: rettferdighet, practice, fordelingsrettferdighet, diskursetikk, idrettsetikkEnglish summary: Minutes of justice: Distribution of time during football matches in a boys' teamDuring a football match, time for playing can be considered as a limited good. In this article the point of departure is the redistribution of time in a boys' football team in the transition phase between children and youth football. The questions are how and under which conditions time for playing should be distributed among the players. Is winning the game more important than trying to let every player play for an equal amount of time? Should the boys' talents, motivation, and preferences be considered while distributing time, or are family background and personality of importance? Different theories of political justice for the distribution of limited goods underpin the discussion of how to distribute the minutes of playing time during a football match.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1737

  6. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  7. Implementering av HMS-system ved Frank Mohn Fusa AS

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    Det stilles stadig strengere HMS- og kvalitetskrav til virksomheter. Frank Mohn Fusa AS må overholde krav fra myndigheter, interne krav, kundekrav og krav i henhold til bedriftens ISO 9001:2000 sertifisering. Bedriften hadde et HMS- og kvalitetssystem, som ved hjelp av en operasjonsmanual og en kvalitetshåndbok dokumenterte de fleste krav, men bedriften behøvde et mer effektivt, kostnadsbesparende og moderne system! Det ble utført Compliance-målinger opp mot ISO 9001:2000 og In...

  8. Posthumanisme /nymaterialisme og nomadisme - affektive brytninger av barnehagens observasjonspraksiser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Merete Otterstad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges observation as a method in early childhood, justified as a mapping tool for creating knowledge about children. Observation as data material is about writing down already known categorisation about children and their development. Categories and categorisation make a foundation for correspondence and coherence   - connections that might create generalising knowledge about children in early years. The article is about a research project conducted in a child-centre over a two-year period. We had an on-going conversation with the personnel around theories about ‘child development’. In the article we experiment with observation based on posthuman/newmaterial theories. Our specific interests are to explore the complexities around observation by asking; why observations, what do we expect through observation, and what might observation as datamaterial be/become? We are inspired by the Norwegian film “Kitchen Stories” (Salmer fra Kjøkkenet, Hamer, 2003 both as affect/provocation and desire (Koro-Ljungberg & MacLure, 2013. We search for affective bending and messiness (Lather, 2007; Law, 2004 to disturb and challenge observation as dominating paradigm in the field of early years, to break some patterns around the positioning of data material. Artikkelen utfordrer observasjon i barnehagen ut fra at metoden brukes som verktøy for å kartlegge og danne grunnlaget for utvikling av kunnskap om barn.  Observasjon som datamateriale innebærer iakttagelser og nedtegnelser av allerede gitte kategoriseringer om barn og barns utvikling.  Kategorier og kategorisering legger grunnlag for mønster som har i seg ideer om korrespondanse og koherens – sammenhenger som kan bidra til generaliserende kunnskap om barna i barnehagen. Omrisset av artikkelen dreies rundt et forskningsarbeid gjort i en barnehage over en toårs-periode, der vi sammen med de ansatte diskuterer teorier om barn og barns ’utvikling’. Vi bruker posthumane

  9. EST Table: AV404130 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 53...78 aa gnl|Amel|GB30360-PB 10/09/10 54 %/199 aa gi|189241063|ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expres...sed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 pg-- ... ...AV404130 pg--0509 10/09/28 54 %/199 aa ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to resti

  10. Tillämpning av IAS 40 i onoterade fastighetsbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Fredrik; Nilsson, Karolina; Ericsson, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Enligt IAS 40 – Förvaltningsfastigheter, definieras förvaltningsfastigheter som ”mark eller byggnader eller del av byggnad som innehas i syfte att generera hyresinkomster eller värdestegring”. Onoterade fastighetsbolag i Sverige har idag möjlighet att välja mellan att värdera sina fastigheter till anskaffningsvärde eller verkligt värde. IAS – International Accounting Standards är en internationell redovisningsstandard inom EU som började tillämpas i januari 2001, men blev obligatorisk för bör...

  11. Uranienborg skole : forbedring av skolens uterom i den tette byen

    OpenAIRE

    Thorstensen, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Denne oppgaven fokuserer på skolegårdsforbedring i indre by, og tar for seg Uranienborg skole som et eksempel. Gjennom oppgaven er det jobbet fra et overordnet nivå og ned til et utformingsforslag på et mer detaljert nivå. Det er lagt vekt på hvordan man best mulig kan tilrettelegge når utearealet skolen har rådighet over er begrenset, noe som i dag er en svært aktuell problemstilling i tette byer. Oppgaven består av fire deler: registrering og analyse, teori, referanseprosj...

  12. Minimizing ventricular pacing by a novel atrioventricular (AV) delay hysteresis algorithm in patients with intact or compromised intrinsic AV conduction and different atrial and ventricular lead locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Sami; Toivonen, Lauri

    2013-09-01

    To investigate if an advanced AV search hysteresis (AVSH) algorithm, Ventricular Intrinsic Preference (VIP(™)), reduces the incidence of ventricular pacing (VP) in sinus node dysfunction (SND) with both intact and compromised AV conduction and with intermittent AV block regardless of the lead positions in the right atria and the ventricle. Patients were classified as having intact AV (AVi) conduction if the PR interval was ≤ 210 ms on ECG and 1:1 AV conduction during atrial pacing up to 120 bpm with PR interval ≤ 350 ms. Otherwise the AV conduction was classified as compromised (AVc). Both AVi and AVc patients were randomized to VIP ON or OFF. VIP performed an intrinsic AV conduction search every 30 s for three consecutive atrial cycles with the extension of the sensed and paced AV (SAV/PAV) delays from basic values of 150/200 ms to 300/350 ms. Extended AV intervals were allowed for three cycles when VP occurred before returning to basic AV delays. The primary end-point was %VP at 12 months. Among 389 patients, 30.1% had intact and 69.9% had compromised AV conduction. The mean %VP at 12 months was 9.6% by VIP compared to 51.8% with standard AV settings in patients with AVi (P < 0.0001) and 28.0% versus 78.9% (P < 0.0001) with AVc. With VIP, excessive %VP among most used lead positions was not seen. Conversely, when VIP was off %VP was low only in patients who had leads in the RA septal-RV septal position (23.0%). VIP feature reduces VP both in patients with SND and with intermittent heart block regardless of the lead positions in the right atria and the ventricle.

  13. IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data (IPPLV1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 and 610 POS AV systems flown...

  14. IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude (IPAPP1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 POS AV system flown with the Digital...

  15. UNIPASS for AvSP? A Broader View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N. Eva

    2001-01-01

    UNIPASS is a general-purpose probabilistic computer program consisting of three major modules, including preprocessor, solver and postprocessor. UNIPASS contains a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI), numerous state-of-the-art probabilistic analysis techniques, a large library of statistical distributions and a function module with a large library of support functions that can easily define any complex limit-state function in a scripting FORTRAN-like syntax format. Its inverse probability analysis and sensitivities analysis capabilities make it a powerful design aid in any product cycle. Its precise numerical analysis engine is accurate enough to push the failure probabilities of a design to well below 10 (exp -50). UNIPASS is equipped with advanced artificial intelligence that is designed to handle systems with an essentially unlimited number of random variables with ease and efficiency. Its modular arrangement allows you to tailor an analysis to the desired level of accuracy and efficiency. The depth and comprehensiveness of UNIPASS are built upon the decades of experience and expertise of industry leaders including Boeing Aircraft, NASA and the DoD. Its rich content also makes UNIPASS a valuable instructional tool for random processes and probabilistic mechanics. The topics include: 1) Reliability in AvSP; 2) Role of UNIPASS in AvSP; and 3) Examples. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  16. Ungdommers opplevelser med overdreven bruk av online-rollespillet World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaaten, Øivind; Torp, Steffen; Aarseth, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Ungdommers bruk av online-rollespill blir ofte problematisert (Falkner 2007). På bakgrunn av kvalitative intervjuer med ti ungdommer og fem pårørendekontakter beskrives i denne artikkelen ungdommenes opplevelser av online-spillet World of Warcraft (WoW). Denne pilotstudien gir en nyansert...... for konflikt og hjelpeløshet. Helsefremmende arbeid basert på dialog og tidlig intervensjon kan forhindre at online-spilladferd kommer ut av kontroll....

  17. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation and Clinical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    2015-01-01

    for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of components widely available and easily replaceable. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost and a potential continues improvement and expansion of the AV system. Summary of results...... debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  18. Förebyggande och rehabilitering av Osgood- Schlatter och Sinding-Larsen−Johanssons syndrom : Utformande av en handbok

    OpenAIRE

    Karenko, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Detta arbete är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete där slutprodukten är en handbok med ett förebyggande och rehabiliterande träningsprogram för Osgood-Schlatter och Sinding-Larsen–Johanssons syndrom (SLJ). Syftet med arbetet är att öka kunskapen om syndromen och utforma ett träningsprogram som kan användas vid förebyggande och rehabiliteringen av dessa. Arbetet bygger på Vilkka och Airaksinens modell för praktiskt inriktat examensarbete som beskrivs i boken Toiminnallinen opinn...

  19. Selvbestemmelse og oppdragelse : en teoretisk analyse av oppdragelsens påvirkning på utviklingen av selvbestemmelse

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Marit Svennevig; Haugstvedt, Merete Lehne Rugdal

    2007-01-01

    1) Problemstilling Hensikten med oppgaven er å rette fokus mot oppdragelse som en påvirkningsfaktor på utviklingen av selvbestemmelsen, og hvilken betydning behovstilfredsstillelse har for individets subjektive velvære. Oppdragelse er et populært tema som stadig blir debattert i mediene. Det diskuteres blant annet hvorfor oppdragelse er viktig, hvordan det er mulig å oppdra barn på best mulig måte og hvem som er viktige oppdragere i dagens samfunn. Vår oppgave handler om individets selvbes...

  20. Anvendelser av EPS i vegbygging - med fokus på brofundamentering og myrbro

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, Simen

    2012-01-01

    Oppgaven er delt i to deler. Del A Del A gir en innføring i produksjonen av materialet, materialegenskaper, retningslinjer for bruk av materialet og bruksområder. Norge var først ute i verden med bruk av EPS i vegfyllinger i 1972, siden det har teknikken spredd seg verden over. EPS er den letteste av de lette massene som brukes i vegfyllinger med 1 % av egenvekten til konvensjonelle fyllmasser. Materialet avlaster grunn med dårlig bæreevne på en god måte. Senere har flere...

  1. Fremre korsbåndskade og utvikling av sekundær artrose

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Oppgaven er en blanding av et litteraturstudie og en kohortestudie. I litteraturstudien har jeg sett på hva fremre korsbånd og artrose er, og hvilke risikofaktorer som kan bidra/progrediere utvikling av artrose hos korsbåndsopererte. I kohortestudien har jeg og veilederen sett på forekomsten av artrose hos korsbåndsopererte- 10-20 år etter ACL rekonstruksjon. Ved hjelp av røntgen og klinisk undersøkelse vurderte vi tidligere korsbåndsopererte og grad av artroseforandringer. Vi så også på hvor...

  2. Finansiering av investeringar i immateriella tillgångar

    OpenAIRE

    Voltaire, Christian; Gillebrink, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Vid en bedömning av ett kreditärende ser banken till projektets företagsekonomiska förutsättningar. För företag som har immateriella tillgångar som de viktigaste tillgångarna i sin redovisning kan det uppstå problem när de ansöker om kredit hos banker. Detta beror på att immateriella tillgångar inte fungerar på samma sätt som materiella och därigenom tillbringar vag säkerhet för en beviljad kredit. Syftet med denna uppsats är att söka finna vad det är som krävs för att ett tjänsteföretag ska ...

  3. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  4. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  5. EST Table: AV399395 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399395 NV120168 10/09/28 100 %/139 aa ref|NP_001037386.1| glyceraldehyde-3-phosph...ate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABA43638.2| glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 81 %/139...id:CAA88697.1 10/09/10 89 %/142 aa AGAP009623-PA Protein|3R:37154051:37155049:1|gene:AGAP009623 10/09/10 79 %/139... aa gnl|Amel|GB14798-PA 10/09/10 84 %/139 aa gi|91088023|ref|XP_974181.1| PREDICTED: similar to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Tribolium castaneum] DN237090 NV12 ...

  6. En språkfundert kompetansemodell for planlegging av undervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Knain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available I utdanningsvitenskapelig litteratur er ulike former for ”literacy” et vedvarende fokus både teoretisk og empirisk. I engelskspråklig naturfagdidaktisk litteratur brukes betegnelsen ”scientific literacy”. Jeg skisserer i denne artikkelen et planleggingsverktøy for undervisning som bygger på en eksplisitt teoretisk modell for deltakelse gjennom språk. Modellen er bindeledd mellom et generalisert kompetansebegrep og planlegging av undervisning ved at den knytter sammen de didaktiske spørsmålene hva, hvem, hvordan og hvorfor med en modell for funksjonell deltakelse. Modellen er spesielt relevant for et allmenndannende ”naturfag for alle”, men favner også et naturfag som fokuserer på utdanning av framtidas naturvitere. Artikkelen retter seg mot naturfag i skolen, men modellen bør kunne anvendes også i andre skolefag. Modellen peker mot et situert og transformativt kompetansebegrep.Nøkkelord: naturfag , kompetanse , diskurs , deltakelse, undervisning og læringAbstractVarious forms of literacy have long been the focus of educational discourses, not the least in science education where the term “scientific literacy” has been an enduring concern for decades. In this article I describe a tool for designing teaching based on a theoretical perspective on participation through language. The model connects a general conception of competence with the planning of teaching. To do so it drowe on the didactical questions of “what, who, how and why”. The model is particularly relevant in a “science for all” perspective but also for the educating of future science specialists. Although school science is the primary focus in this article, the model should be applicable to other school subjects as well. The model opens for a situated and transformative notion of competence.Keywords: scientific literacy, discourse, participation, teaching and learning

  7. Unga reumatikers upplevelser av sin sjukdom : En kvalitativ intervjustudie av unga kvinnor och män med reumatism

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg, Catrin; Helle, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med den här studien är att få en inblick i hur unga kvinnor och män med reumatismupplever sin sjukdom. Vi vill jämföra dessa upplevelser mellan män och kvinnor genomatt undersöka om det finns skillnader och likheter i återgivna beskrivningar ochupplevelser. Vi vill undersöka om könsspecifika skillnader på upplevelser kringreumatism skulle kunna kopplas till det faktum att fler kvinnor än män diagnostiseras.Vidare vill vi undersöka om samhällets bemötande av individer med reumatism kank...

  8. O tornar-se avó no processo de individuação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dal Ri Kipper

    Full Text Available O tornar-se avó assinala um período de transição no ciclo de vida familiar, marcado por transformações psíquicas significativas para os avós, caracterizando a quarta individuação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a experiência de tornar-se avó e sua importância no processo de individuação. Foi utilizado delineamento de estudo de caso coletivo. Onze avós maternas, com idades entre 49 e 66 anos, cujas filhas tiveram seu primeiro filho, responderam a uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Todas as avós tinham tido seus primeiros netos e a entrevista referia-se a sua experiência como avós desses netos. Os dados mostraram que o ser avó é uma fonte de renovação e renascimento. O estudo propiciou que as participantes refletissem sobre seus diferentes papéis familiares: avó, mãe, neta e filha. Os dados sugerem que tornar-se avó possibilita que antigos conflitos sejam repensados, renovando antigos vínculos e desejos, o que permite que a avó dê mais um passo rumo à sua individuação.

  9. Prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation in DDD pacemaker patients with complete AV block under nominal AV intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, Wolfram C; Dreger, Henryk; Schwerg, Marius; Melzer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of the AV-interval (AVI) in DDD pacemakers improves cardiac hemodynamics and reduces pacemaker syndromes. Manual optimization is typically not performed in clinical routine. In the present study we analyze the prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation under resting conditions in 160 patients with complete AV block (AVB) under the pre-programmed AVI. We manually optimized sub-optimal AVI. We analyzed 160 pacemaker patients with complete AVB, both in sinus rhythm (AV-sense; n = 129) and under atrial pacing (AV-pace; n = 31). Using Doppler analyses of the transmitral inflow we classified the nominal AVI as: a) normal, b) too long (E/A wave fusion) or c) too short (A wave truncation). In patients with a sub-optimal AVI, we performed manual optimization according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography. All AVB patients with atrial pacing exhibited a normal transmitral inflow under the nominal AV-pace intervals (100%). In contrast, 25 AVB patients in sinus rhythm showed E/A wave fusion under the pre-programmed AV-sense intervals (19.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 12.6-26.2%). A wave truncations were not observed in any patient. All patients with a complete E/A wave fusion achieved a normal transmitral inflow after AV-sense interval reduction (mean optimized AVI: 79.4 ± 13.6 ms). Given the rate of 19.4% (CI 12.6-26.2%) of patients with a too long nominal AV-sense interval, automatic algorithms may prove useful in improving cardiac hemodynamics, especially in the subgroup of atrially triggered pacemaker patients with AV node diseases.

  10. Prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation in DDD pacemaker patients with complete AV block under nominal AV intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram C Poller

    Full Text Available Optimization of the AV-interval (AVI in DDD pacemakers improves cardiac hemodynamics and reduces pacemaker syndromes. Manual optimization is typically not performed in clinical routine. In the present study we analyze the prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation under resting conditions in 160 patients with complete AV block (AVB under the pre-programmed AVI. We manually optimized sub-optimal AVI.We analyzed 160 pacemaker patients with complete AVB, both in sinus rhythm (AV-sense; n = 129 and under atrial pacing (AV-pace; n = 31. Using Doppler analyses of the transmitral inflow we classified the nominal AVI as: a normal, b too long (E/A wave fusion or c too short (A wave truncation. In patients with a sub-optimal AVI, we performed manual optimization according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography.All AVB patients with atrial pacing exhibited a normal transmitral inflow under the nominal AV-pace intervals (100%. In contrast, 25 AVB patients in sinus rhythm showed E/A wave fusion under the pre-programmed AV-sense intervals (19.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI: 12.6-26.2%. A wave truncations were not observed in any patient. All patients with a complete E/A wave fusion achieved a normal transmitral inflow after AV-sense interval reduction (mean optimized AVI: 79.4 ± 13.6 ms.Given the rate of 19.4% (CI 12.6-26.2% of patients with a too long nominal AV-sense interval, automatic algorithms may prove useful in improving cardiac hemodynamics, especially in the subgroup of atrially triggered pacemaker patients with AV node diseases.

  11. Rehabilitering efter dekompression och diskoperation - framställandet av en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning : Ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Examensarbetet är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete med fokus på rehabiliteringen efter en dekompressions- och diskoperation. Det är ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus med syftet att framställa en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning. Önskemål från uppdragsgivare var att utforma en tydlig patientanvisning för ryggopererade bestående av skriftliga instruktioner angående postoperativ rehabilitering i form av vardagliga aktiviteter, fysisk aktivitet, ryggens viloställningar, vi...

  12. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 ± 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards

  13. Geologic and Mineralogic Mapping of Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria) Quadrangles of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R. A.; Jaumann, R.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Preusker, F.; Palomba, E.; Roatsch, T.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4 Vesta in July 2011 and is now collecting imaging and spectroscopic data during its one-year orbital mission. The maps we present are based on information obtained by the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer VIR-MS and the multi-color Framing Camera FC. VIR covers the wavelength range between 0.25 to 5.1 µm while FC covers the range 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The VIR instrument has a significant higher spectral resolution than FC but the latter achieves higher spatial resolution data. As part of the geological and mineralogical analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangles have been defined covering the entire surface of Vesta. We report about the mapping results of quadrangle Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria). The Gegania quadrangle is dominated by old craters showing no ejecta blankets and rays while several small fresh craters do. The most obvious geologic features are a set of equatorial troughs, a group of three ghost craters of similar diameter (~57 km), an ejecta mantling of the Gegania crater and three smaller craters showing bright and dark ejecta rays. The quadrangle contains two main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain and 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain. The quadrangle shows moderate variation in Band II center wavelength and Band II depth. FC color ratio variations of some recent craters and their ejecta are linked to the bright and dark material. The bright material is possibly excavated eucritic material while the dark material could be remnants of a CM2 impator(s) or an excavated subsurface layer of endogenic origin. The most prominent geologic features in the Lucaria quadrangle are the 40 km long hill Lucaria Tholus, a set of equatorial troughs, some relatively fresh craters with bright and dark material and mass wasting. The quadrangle contains three main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain, 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain, and 3) the

  14. Skatte- og konkurransemessige utfordringer i delingsøkonomien : en studie av Airbnb

    OpenAIRE

    Monsen, Jørgen Tvedt; Gundersen, Preben Holme

    2017-01-01

    Delingsøkonomien har vært gjenstand for bemerkelsesverdig vekst i nyere tid. Delingskonseptet omfatter en rekke økonomiske aktiviteter som via en plattform tilrettelegger for effektiv kommunikasjon mellom tilbydere og etterspørrere av underutnyttede ressurser. Gjennom å forsyne overnattingsmarkedet med personers ledige kapasitet av boenheter, har Airbnb blitt en verdensledende delingsaktør. Fremveksten av delingsøkonomien har bidratt til inntektsmuligheter for tilbydere, samtid...

  15. Dialogmøte om teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Kristian; Sunde, Leif Magne; Digre, Hanne; Svendsen, Erik; Rundtop, Per; Erikson, Ulf Gøran

    2013-01-01

    SINTEF Fiskeri og havbruk arrangerte den 19. mars 2013, i samarbeid med Fiskeri- og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond (FHF), et dialogmøte med fokus på teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd. Under møtet ble status for gjeldene teknologi og operasjoner for trenging av fisk i merd, samt resultater fra forskningsprosjekter tilknyttet trengeprosessen, presentert. Videre ble det samlet innspill om utfordringer tilknyttet trenging av fisk i produksjons- og ventemerd fra oppdrettsbedrifter, leverandø...

  16. IAS 40 i ljuset av ägarförhållanden : Värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i börsnoterade respektive statliga bolag

    OpenAIRE

    Klarin, Olof; Sandell, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Redovisningen av förvaltningsfastigheter enligt IAS 40 har tidigare beskrivits i ett stort antal olika vetenskapliga alster. Merparten av dessa har dock tittat på börsnoterade bolag men det finns även andra företag som tillämpar IAS-reglerna. En grupp företag som gör det är de bolag som ägs av svenska staten. Ett av målen med IFRS är att skapa jämförbarhet och då bör inte ägarformen ha någon betydelse för redovisning och värdering. Denna studies syfte är därför att skapa insik...

  17. Utveckling av en Windows Service för databassynkronisering med Microsoft Sync Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Vik, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Detta examensarbete utfördes åt Hogia Ferry Systems. Examensarbetet behandlar utvecklingen av ett synkroniseringsverktyg för databaserna som företagets produkter använder. Lösningen kommer att ersätta ett befintligt system för synkronisering. Fokus för detta projekt ligger på utvecklingen av en synkroniseringstjänst för multipla typer av databaser. Databaserna som stöds är SQL Server, Informix samt Oracle. För utvecklingen av själva synkroniseringen har Microsoft Sync Framework använts. F...

  18. Effekt av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å fremme sunne levevaner

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med denne systematiske oversikten er å svare på spørsmålet: Hva er effekten av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å påvirke holdninger, kunnskap og atferd knyttet til sunne levevaner? Metode: Systematiske søk ble gjort i 11 bibliografiske baser. Tilleggssøk ble gjort i Google Scholar. Utvelgelse og vurdering av publikasjoner ble gjort av to personer uavhengig av hverandre. Risiko for systematiske feil ble vurdert med sjekklisten til Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation...

  19. Frihet, fantasi og utfoldelse: En kvalitativ studie av estetiske arbeidsformer i lærerutdanningene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghild Brekke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen undersøker hva slags forståelse lærerutdannere og lærerstudenter har av estetiske arbeidsformer i undervisningen i lærerutdanningene. Studien er en kvalitativ intervjuundersøkelse blant lærerutdannere og lærerstudenter ved en norsk lærerutdanningsinstitusjon. I lys av danningsteoretisk og didaktisk teori, finner studien at lærerutdannere og lærerstudenters forståelse av estetiske arbeidsformer i undervisningen er kjennetegnet av «frihet» som fravær av tvang og fasit i arbeid med lærestoffet, «fantasi» som bruk av forestillingsevnen slik at kunnskapen blir personlig, og «utfoldelse» som sosialisering inn i et fellesskap gjennom tilbakemeldinger på egen atferd. Til sammen kan informantenes forståelse av de tre aspektene sies å fremheve viktigheten av å utvikle de lærendes autonomi. Artikkelen gir et bidrag til undervisningspraksis i lærerutdanningene, gjennom å gi eksempler på hva estetiske arbeidsformer kan være i en slik sammenheng. Avslutningsvis drøftes funnene opp mot samtidige politiske begrunnelser for bruk av estetiske arbeidsformer i utdanningene.

  20. Samtalegrupper for personer med Aspergers syndrom. En kvalitativ studie av hva fagpersoner forteller om planlegging, gjennomføring og effekt av samtalegrupper for personer med Aspergers syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er skrevet ut fra problemstillingen: Hvordan beskriver fagpersoner planlegging, gjennomføring og effekt av samtalegrupper for personer med Aspergers syndrom? Den belyser teori om Aspergers syndrom, effekt av samtalegrupper samt andre viktige forhold i tilknytning til samtalegruppe, som kommunikasjon, veiledning og psykoedukasjon. Fire informanter fra nettverket «Nasjonalt fagutviklingsnettverk om psykoedukative grupper for personer med Aspergers syndrom» ble intervjuet, ...

  1. Hvor moralsk tenker fotballspillere? – en empirisk studie av toppfotball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Tore Ødegård

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Det er en utbredt oppfatning at det økende prestasjonskravet i toppfotball fører til en svekkelse av moral og fair play-holdninger. Men hvordan tenker toppfotballspillere i forhold til ulike dilemmaer som oppstår på banen, og er det forskjeller mellom toppfotballspillere og spillere på lavere nivå?  For å avklare dette gjennomførte vi en empirisk undersøkelse der vi intervjuet spillere og trener i én toppklubb og én breddeklubb. Vi var interessert i to hovedproblemstillinger:  1 Hva tenker fotballspillere på ulike prestasjonsnivå om etikk og moralske dilemmaer i fotball? 2 Hvilke faktorer påvirker spillerne, direkte og indirekte, i deres vurderinger og handlinger? Resultatene fra undersøkelsen viser at det er store forskjeller mellom de to prestasjonsnivåene. Spillerne på breddenivået føler generelt et større ansvar for å opptre ærlig på banen enn hva som er tilfelle på toppnivået. Vi fant 4 spesifikke faktorer i toppfotballen som bidrar til umoralsk opptreden. For det første opplever spillerne en forventning om at de prioriterer resultat foran fair play. For det andre bidrar tilstedeværelsen av supportere på kamper til en slik prioritering. For det tredje vil handlinger som er i strid med fair play signaliseres som akseptable internt i miljøet, selv om de ofte signaliseres som uakseptable overfor media og omverdenen. For det fjerde kan spillere oppleve det som vanskelig å gå i mot trenerens oppfordringer til en pragmatisk og resultatfokusert opptreden.Nøkkelord: moral, etikk, fair play, footballEnglish summary: How morally do football players think? – an empirical study of moral dilemmas in elite footballIt is a common view that the increasing focus on achievement and success in elite football leads to a weakening of moral and fair play attitudes. But how do elite players think and what do they think about different dilemmas that appear on the field, and is there a difference between elite players and lower

  2. Elevers oppfatning av lærers tilbakemeldingspraksis: om sammenheng mellom graden av VfL-praksis og elevenes opplevde nytte av lærers skriftlige tilbakemeldinger i skriftlig norsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Eriksen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke elevers oppfatninger av norsklærerens tilbakemeldingspraksis i skriftlig norsk. På bakgrunn av omfattende internasjonal forskning innen feltet ‘Vurdering for læring’ (VfL er det i denne studien utviklet teoridrevne hypoteser som testes ved å analysere et datasett fra to videregående skoler. Hypotesene er at elevene oppfatter lærers tilbakemelding som mer nyttig hvis den 1 retter seg mot målet med opplæringen, 2 gir elevene informasjon via en forklaring eller instruks om hvordan de skal komme nærmere målet og 3 at lærer legger til rette for bruk av tilbakemeldingen. Strukturell likningsmodellering (SEM av resultater fra en spørreundersøkelse blant elever (N = 213 er brukt som metode til å estimere forholdet mellom de fire latente variablene kriterier, forklaring, bruk og nytte (avhengig variabel. SEM er brukt fordi metoden egner seg til å undersøke sammenhenger i komplekse datasett. Funn er at elevene oppfatter at hvis lærer forklarer hvordan de kan forbedre seg, er dette positivt statistisk assosiert med opplevd nytte. Et mer overraskende funn er at lærerens tilrettelegging for bruk av tilbakemeldinger ikke er signifikant assosiert med opplevd nytte. Resultatene blir diskutert i artikkelen.

  3. Effects of AV-delay optimization on hemodynamic parameters in patients with VDD pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Nürnberg, Michael; Volker, Romana; Pachinger, Linda; Jarai, Rudolf; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Wojta, Johann; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) delay optimization improves hemodynamics and clinical parameters in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy and dual-chamber-pacemakers (PM). However, data on optimizing AV delay in patients treated with VDD-PMs are scarce. We, therefore, investigated the acute and chronic effects of AV delay optimization on hemodynamics in patients treated with VDD-PMs due to AV-conduction disturbances. In this prospective, single-center interventional trial, we included 64 patients (38 men, 26 women, median age: 77 (70-82) years) with implanted VDD-PM. AV-delay optimization was performed using a formula based on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Hemodynamic parameters (stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP)) were measured at baseline and follow-up after 3 months using impedance cardiography. Using an ECG formula for AV-delay optimization, the AV interval was decreased from 180 (180-180) to 75 (75-100) ms. At baseline, AV-delay optimization led to a significant increase of both SV (71.3 ± 15.8 vs. 55.3 ± 12.7 ml, p AV delay vs. nominal AV interval, respectively) and CO (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min, p AV-delay optimization in patients treated with VDD-PMs exhibits immediate beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters that are sustained for 3 months.

  4. Litterær kompetanse - portrett av tre lesarar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Kjelen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen drøfter eit sentralt problemfelt innom litteraturdidaktikken, nemleg tilhøvet mellom litterær lesing som fagleg kompetanse og litterær lesing som oppleving. Problemfeltet er særleg knytt til Louise Rosenblatts arbeid. Ho viser ved hjelp av omgrepa efferent og estetisk lesing korleis det er ei utfordring for litteraturlæraren å utvikle ei litteraturundervisning som i tilstrekkeleg grad tek omsyn til kjensler og røynsler. I ein litteraturteoretisk kontekst er subjektive responsar på litterære tekstar irrelevante, men i ein litteraturdidaktisk kontekst er subjektive responsar høgst relevante. Denne artikkelen bidrar inn i diskusjon-en mellom anna ved å trekkje inn meir empirisk basert litteraturteori som referanseramme. Artikkelen presenterer tre lesarars litterære responsar, og viser korleis kunnskap om individuelle lesarresponsar kan vere utgangspunkt for ei litteraturundervisning som balanserer ei fagleg tilnærming til litteratur opp mot ei meir opplevingsbasert tilnærming.Emneord: Litteraturundervisning, litterær kompetanse, empirisk litteraturteori, lesarresponsAbstractThe article discusses a key issue in literature didactics, namely the relation between literary reading as an academic competence, and literary reading as an experience. The discussion draws heavily on Louise Rosenblatt’s work. By using the concepts efferent and aesthetic reading, she shows how it is a challenge for the teacher of literature to develop literature teaching that adequately takes emotions and experience into account. In a literature-theoretical context, subjective responses to literary texts are irrelevant; but in a didactics context, the subjective responses are highly relevant.  This article contributes to the discussion by bringing in a more empirically based literature theory as a frame of reference. The article presents three readers’ literary responses, and shows how knowledge of individual reader responses can be the basis for

  5. AVS/Express (application visualization system) user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS/Express for image processing software and Stereo viewing system. This report summarizes the information to use AVS/Express efficiently in the computer environment for image processing. (author)

  6. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field.

  7. Association of temporary complete AV block and junctional ectopic tachycardia after surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Christian; Dähnert, Ingo; Kostelka, Martin; Mende, Meinhardt; Gebauer, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a postoperative complication with a mortality rate of up to 14% after surgery for congenital heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors of JET and explored the association of postoperative temporary third degree atrioventricular (AV) block and the occurrence of JET. Data were collected retrospectively from 1158 patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease. The overall incidence of JET was 2.8%. Temporary third degree AV block occurred in 1.6% of cases. Permanent third degree AV block requiring pacemaker implantation occurred in 1% of cases. In all, 56% of patients with JET had temporary AV block (P AV block (P = 0.56). temporary third degree AV block did not suffer from JET. A correlation between temporary third degree AV block and postoperative JET could be observed. The risk factors identified for JET include younger age groups at the time of surgery, longer aortic cross clamping time and surgical procedures in proximity to the AV node.

  8. A-V Fistulae from Arrow Injuries: A Report of Two Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, one involved the temporal vessels, which led to a temporo-temporal A-V fistula causing the patient continuous noisy headache. The late complication was only recognized about two years post injury. Another arrow shot injury involved femoral vessels and resulted in femoro-femoral A-V fistula, which came to be ...

  9. InterProScan Result: AV401888 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401888 AV401888_3_ORF1 2F04E8AA567F7BCF PANTHER PTHR11511 INSECT HEMOCYANIN-RELAT...ED 1.5e-119 T IPR013788 Arthropod hemocyanin/insect LSP Molecular Function: oxygen transporter activity (GO:0005344)|Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810) ...

  10. InterProScan Result: AV402282 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV402282 AV402282_2_ORF1 D1F0DCC6A8296985 PANTHER PTHR11511 INSECT HEMOCYANIN-RELAT...ED 5e-97 T IPR013788 Arthropod hemocyanin/insect LSP Molecular Function: oxygen transporter activity (GO:0005344)|Biological Process: transport (GO:0006810) ...

  11. InterProScan Result: AV399740 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399740 AV399740_3_ORF2 7A42A41D4F3F6388 PFAM PF00067 p450 1.2e-19 T IPR001128 Cytochrome P450 Molecular... Function: monooxygenase activity (GO:0004497)|Molecular Function: iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|Molecular... Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055)|Molecular Function: heme binding (GO:0020037) ...

  12. InterProScan Result: AV399409 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 429 Baculovirus LEF-11 Biological Process: viral infectious cycle (GO:0019058)|Biological Process: regulation of transcription (GO:0045449) ... ...AV399409 AV399409_1_ORF2 07DC81A7C7B2FA42 PFAM PF06385 Baculo_LEF-11 3e-33 T IPR009

  13. Continuous measurement of dust in flue gases; Kontinuerlig maetning av stoft i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Haegerstedt, Lars-Erik [Birka Teknik and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, Gunnar [ITM Luftlaboratoriet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The EC's (European Commission) directive on waste incineration and future directives for large combustion plants are often going to include stricter, and sometimes also new demands on continuous measurements of various emission parameters. Parallel to these directives, intensive work is under way to develop standard methods for the inspection and quality assurance of the equipment used to check that the EC directives are followed. A pollutant of particular interest in Scandinavia is dust. This is due to the fact that at many plants various types of fuel mixes are combusted. Dust which is generated from various types of fuel has different properties. Since most of today's dust analysers measure one or more different properties, it is important to emphasize the consequences for a certain type of dust analyser on changing the fuel as well as if set demands on quality risk being violated. Under such circumstances, it is also important that plant owners who are about to obtain a new measurement system choose one which will still be applicable for use after the new legislature has come into force. With such a background and commissioned by Vaermeforsk, Birka Teknik and Miljoe, Inst. foer Tillaempad Miljoeforskning (ITM) and SwedPower AB have carried out a study in order to highlight these questions. The project began during the winter/spring of 2001 and included a parallel comparison of six continuous and two discontinuous dust analysers. The discontinuous pieces of equipment, which are used for reference purposes and for the calibration of the continuous analysers (except TEOM), basically followed a soon to be introduced CEN standard for discontinuous sampling of dust. The continuous analysers tested were manufactured by Durag, Goyen, PCME-DT, PCME-SC, SICK and TEOM. TEOM measures the mass of the dust in the flue gas in real time and the equipment is intended preferably to be able to calibrate optical gas analysers semi-continuously i.e. the equipment is

  14. Apolipoprotein A-V interaction with members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Stefan K; Lookene, Aivar; Beckstead, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low density...... lipoprotein receptor family, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the mosaic type-1 receptor, SorLA. Experiments using surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of both free and lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-V to both receptors. The binding was calcium dependent and was inhibited......, apolipoprotein A-V (Arg210Glu/Lys211Gln), showed decreased binding to heparin and decreased ability to bind the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Association of apolipoprotein A-V with the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein or SorLA resulted in enhanced binding of human chylomicrons...

  15. In vivo retention of18F-AV-1451 in corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruben; Schöll, Michael; Widner, Håkan; van Westen, Danielle; Svenningsson, Per; Hägerström, Douglas; Ohlsson, Tomas; Jögi, Jonas; Nilsson, Christer; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-08-22

    To study the usefulness of 18 F-AV-1451 PET in patients with corticobasal syndrome (CBS). We recruited 8 patients with CBS, 17 controls, 31 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and 11 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) from the Swedish BioFINDER study. All patients underwent clinical assessment, 18 F-AV-1451 PET, MRI, and quantification of β-amyloid pathology. A subset of participants also underwent 18 F-FDG-PET. In the 8 patients with CBS, 6 had imaging findings compatible with the corticobasal degeneration pathology and 2 with typical AD pathology. In the 6 patients with CBS without typical AD pathology, there were substantial retentions of 18 F-AV-1451 in the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, and basal ganglia contralateral to the most affected body side. These patients could be clearly distinguished from patients with AD dementia or PSP using 18 F-AV-1451. However, cortical atrophy was more widespread than the cortical retention of 18 F-AV1451 in these CBS cases, and cortical AV-1451 uptake did not correlate with cortical thickness or glucose hypometabolism. These results are in sharp contrast to AD dementia, where 18 F-AV-1451 retention was more widespread than cortical atrophy, and correlated well with cortical thickness and hypometabolism. Patients with CBS without typical AD pathology exhibited AV-1451 retention in the motor cortex, corticospinal tract, and basal ganglia contralateral to the affected body side, clearly different from controls and patients with AD dementia or PSP. However, cortical atrophy measured with MRI and decreased 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake were more widespread than 18 F-AV-1451 uptake and probably represent earlier, yet less specific, markers of CBS. This study provides Class III evidence that 18 F-AV-1451 PET distinguishes between CBS and AD or PSP. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  16. [18F]AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitwell, Jennifer L; Lowe, Val J; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Weigand, Stephen D; Senjem, Matthew L; Schwarz, Christopher G; Spychalla, Anthony J; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Josephs, Keith A

    2017-01-01

    The [ 18 F]AV-1451 positron emission tomography ligand allows the in vivo assessment of tau proteins in the brain. It shows strong binding in Alzheimer's dementia, but little is known about how it performs in progressive supranuclear palsy, a primary 4R tauopathy. The objectives of this study were to determine whether [ 18 F]AV-1451 uptake can be observed in progressive supranuclear palsy and to characterize the regional distribution when compared with controls and Alzheimer's dementia. [ 18 F]AV-1451 positron emission tomography was performed in 10 patients with probable progressive supranuclear palsy. These patients were age- and gender-matched to 50 controls and 10 Alzheimer's dementia patients who had undergone identical [ 18 F]AV-1451 imaging. Regional comparisons of [ 18 F]AV-1451 uptake were performed across the whole brain using region-of-interest and voxel-level analyses, and correlations between regional [ 18 F]AV-1451 and the progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale were assessed. An elevated [ 18 F]AV-1451 signal was observed in progressive supranuclear palsy when compared with controls in the pallidum, midbrain, dentate nucleus of the cerebellum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and frontal regions. Signal in the cerebellar dentate and pallidum were also greater in progressive supranuclear palsy when compared with Alzheimer's dementia. Conversely, the [ 18 F]AV-1451 signal across the cortex was higher in Alzheimer's dementia when compared with progressive supranuclear palsy. The [ 18 F]AV-1451 signal in a number of regions correlated with the progressive supranuclear palsy rating scale. Progressive supranuclear palsy is associated with an elevated [ 18 F]AV-1451 signal in a characteristic and distinct regional pattern that correlates with disease severity and differs from the patterns observed in Alzheimer's dementia. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Jacob G; Baer, Daniel R; Barton, Julie A; Hawkins, Travis; Wu, Bingruo; Trusk, Thomas C; Harris, Stephen E; Zhou, Bin; Mishina, Yuji; Sugi, Yukiko

    2017-10-01

    Distal outgrowth, maturation and remodeling of the endocardial cushion mesenchyme in the atrioventricular (AV) canal are the essential morphogenetic events during four-chambered heart formation. Mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions give rise to the AV valves and the membranous ventricular septum (VS). Failure of these processes results in several human congenital heart defects. Despite this clinical relevance, the mechanisms governing how mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions mature and remodel into the membranous VS and AV valves have only begun to be elucidated. The role of BMP signaling in the myocardial and secondary heart forming lineage has been well studied; however, little is known about the role of BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage. To fill this knowledge gap, we generated Bmp2 endocardial lineage-specific conditional knockouts (referred to as Bmp2 cKO Endo ) by crossing conditionally-targeted Bmp2 flox/flox mice with a Cre-driver line, Nfatc1 Cre , wherein Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to the endocardial cells and their mesenchymal progeny. Bmp2 cKO Endo mouse embryos did not exhibit failure or delay in the initial AV endocardial cushion formation at embryonic day (ED) 9.5-11.5; however, significant reductions in AV cushion size were detected in Bmp2 cKO Endo mouse embryos when compared to control embryos at ED13.5 and ED16.5. Moreover, deletion of Bmp2 from the endocardial lineage consistently resulted in membranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and mitral valve deficiencies, as evidenced by the absence of stratification of mitral valves at birth. Muscular VSDs were not found in Bmp2 cKO Endo mouse hearts. To understand the underlying morphogenetic mechanisms leading to a decrease in cushion size, cell proliferation and cell death were examined for AV endocardial cushions. Phospho-histone H3 analyses for cell proliferation and TUNEL assays for apoptotic cell death did not reveal significant differences between control and

  18. Jämförelse av vertikala accelerationer av järnvägsbroar för höghastighetståg.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaibi, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Under de senaste decennierna parallellt med klimatdiskussionen har det vuxit fram ett stort intresse för höghastighetståg och en förbättrad infrastruktur i Sverige. I delar av Europa men speciellt i Kina och Japan har utvecklingen av höghastighetståg fått ett enormt lyft. Ett problem vid höjda tåghastigheter är att broarna vid en kombination av låg massa och låg egenfrekvens riskerar att orsaka resonans och höga accelerationsnivåer vid passage. Ballastspår är namnet för det traditionella järn...

  19. Nodal recovery, dual pathway physiology, and concealed conduction determine complex AV dynamics in human atrial tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, Michela; Glass, Leon; Disertori, Marcello; Ravelli, Flavia

    2012-11-15

    The genesis of complex ventricular rhythms during atrial tachyarrhythmias in humans is not fully understood. To clarify the dynamics of atrioventricular (AV) conduction in response to a regular high-rate atrial activation, 29 episodes of spontaneous or pacing-induced atrial flutter (AFL), covering a wide range of atrial rates (cycle lengths from 145 to 270 ms), were analyzed in 10 patients. AV patterns were identified by applying firing sequence and surrogate data analysis to atrial and ventricular activation series, whereas modular simulation with a difference-equation AV node model was used to correlate the patterns with specific nodal properties. AV node response at high atrial rate was characterized by 1) AV patterns of decreasing conduction ratios at the shortening of atrial cycle length (from 236.3 ± 32.4 to 172.6 ± 17.8 ms) according to a Farey sequence ordering (conduction ratio from 0.34 ± 0.12 to 0.23 ± 0.06; P AV block patterns occurring during regular atrial tachyarrhythmias. The characterization of AV nodal function during different AFL forms constitutes an intermediate step toward the understanding of complex ventricular rhythms during atrial fibrillation.

  20. Baseline HV-interval predicts complete AV-block secondary to transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-In; Merx, Marc W; Meyer, Christian; Kirmanoglou, Kiriakos; Hellhammer, Katharina; Ohlig, Jan; Katsani, Dimitra; Zeus, Tobias; Westenfeld, Ralf; Eickholt, Christian; Linke, Axel; Kelm, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Development of AV-block is a frequent complication associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). To date little is known about the predictive value of the HV-interval prior to TAVI with respect to the risk of AV-block development. HV-interval was determined in 25 consecutive elderly patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) before and immediately after TAVI. All patients subsequently underwent TAVI and 8 of these 25 patients (32%) developed complete AV-block during the TAVI procedure requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. Six of these 8 patients (75%) had marked HV prolongation (>54 ms). Pre-procedural HV-interval was significantly prolonged in the subgroup developing complete AV-block (62.1 ms±13.0 vs 49.2 ms±12.9; P=0.029). Prolongation of the HV-interval above 54 ms was associated with a higher rate of complete AV-block (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 77.8%, P=0.01). HV-interval was prolonged in approximately one third of our elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis and associated with a high rate of complete AV-block following TAVI. HV-interval is easily obtained during TAVI screening procedures, thus facilitating identification of patients at risk for complete AV-block due to TAVI and consequently enabling bespoke risk management.

  1. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: marieke.delange@wur.nl; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  2. Mot en professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet vid Umeå universitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven B Eriksson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Det pedagogiska ledarskapet inom högre utbildning fokuseras allt mer. Det understryks genom att flera lärosäten föreskriver såväl att pedagogiska ledare ska finnas på olika nivåer, som vilka övergripande uppgifter dessa ska ha. Denna artikel är ett resultat av en fallstudie av hur de tillägnade kunskaperna och färdigheterna från kursen Pedagogiskt ledarskap, en kurs för målgruppen studierektorer/pedagogiskt ansvariga eller motsvarande arrangerad av Universitetspedagogiskt centrum, har bidragit till deltagarnas professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet ett år efter kursens slut. Fallstudien genomfördes genom gruppintervjuer. Respondenterna uttryckte att de fått ett stärkt självförtroende i rollen som pedagogiska ledare samt att kursen bidrog till en professionalisering av rollen som pedagogiska ledare genom att stärka identiteten, att skapa en början till en handlingsetik bestående av delvis delade värderingar kring det pedagogiska ansvaret samt ge utbildning och träning i färdigheter som har sin grund i teoretisk kunskap. Kursen Pedagogiskt ledarskap ger därmed ett stöd i en process mot en professionalisering av det pedagogiska ledarskapet vid Umeå universitet.

  3. Nye estimater av organdoser til barn ved datatomografi (CT) utført på 1990-tallet i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Benthe

    2013-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Bruk av datatomografi (CT) har økt i Norge de siste ti årene og står nå for 80 % av befolkningsdosen fra medisinsk bruk av stråling. Det er usikkerhet rundt risikoen ved bruk av ioniserende stråling, særlig knyttet til CT av barn og unge. En stor internasjonal studie (EPI-CT-prosjektet) tar sikte på å skaffe økt kunnskap om risiko for leukemi og hjernekreft forbundet med CT-undersøkelser hos barn og unge. Studiens hensikt: Karlegging av organdoser til barn ved CT-undersøkelser p...

  4. Subcortical18F-AV-1451 binding patterns in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Hwang, Mi Song; Lee, Seung Ha; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Myung Sik; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of cortical and subcortical tau pathology is the primary pathological substrate for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). 18 F-AV-1451, a radiotracer that binds to the pathological tau protein, may be helpful for in vivo visualization and quantitation of tau pathology in PSP. The objectives of this study were to investigate cortical and subcortical 18 F-AV-1451 binding patterns in patients with PSP. We recruited 14 PSP patients and compared their cortical and subcortical binding patterns in 18 F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography (PET) studies with those of 15 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 15 healthy controls. In both the PD and PSP groups, subcortical 18 F-AV-1451 binding did not correlate with the severity of motor dysfunctions, and cortical binding did not differ between the controls and each patient group. However, the PSP patients showed greater 18 F-AV-1451 binding in the putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and dentate nucleus when compared with the controls, whereas the PD patients showed lower 18 F-AV-1451 binding in the substantia nigra than controls. The PSP and PD patients showed distinct subcortical 18 F-AV-1451 binding patterns reflecting subcortical tau pathology in PSP and reduced nigral neuromelanin in PD. However, there was no correlation with the severity of motor dysfunction, no cortical regions with increased binding in PSP patients, and variable degrees of subcortical binding even in the controls. Therefore, the 18 F-AV-1451 PET may be less than ideal for assessing tau pathology in PSP. Further studies will be required to validate the clinical correlation and to understand the clinical utility of 18 F-AV-1451 PET for PSP patients. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Validating novel tau PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquie, Marta; Normandin, Marc D.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Costantino, Isabel; Bien, Elizabeth A.; Rycyna, Lisa G.; Klunk, William E.; Mathis, Chester A.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Debnath, Manik L.; Vasdev, Neil; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Gomperts, Stephen N.; Growdon, John H.; Johnson, Keith A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Gomez-Isla, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine region and substrate-specific autoradiographic and in vitro binding patterns of PET tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (previously known as T807), tailored to allow in vivo detection of paired helical filament tau-containing lesions, and to determine whether there is off-target binding to other amyloid/non-amyloid proteins. Methods We applied [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor screen autoradiography, [F-18]-AV-1451 nuclear emulsion autoradiography and [H-3]-AV-1451 in vitro binding assays to the study of postmortem samples from patients with a definite pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-TDP-43, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and elderly controls free of pathology. Results Our data suggest that AV-1451 strongly binds to tau lesions primarily made of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer’s brains e.g. intra and extraneuronal tangles and dystrophic neurites, but does not seem to bind to a significant extent to neuronal and glial inclusions mainly composed of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy brains or to β-amyloid, α-synuclein or TDP-43-containing lesions. AV-1451 off-target binding to neuromelanin- and melanin-containing cells and, to a lesser extent, to brain hemorrhagic lesions was identified. Interpretation Our data suggest that AV-1451 holds promise as surrogate marker for the detection of brain tau pathology in the form of tangles and paired helical filament-tau-containing neurites in Alzheimer’s brains but also point to its relatively lower affinity for lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases and to the existence of some AV-1451 off-target binding. These findings provide important insights for interpreting in vivo patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 retention. PMID:26344059

  6. Akzo Nobel Science Award: Svensk upptaeckt botar framtidens cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'Akzo Nobel Science Award: Svensk upptaeckt botar framtidens cancerStockholm, 27 februari, 2003. Aarets Akzo Nobel Science Award Sweden paa 500 000 kronor gaar till professorn i medicinsk straalningsfysik Anders Brahme. Han prisas foer "sin unika forskargaerning inom straalbehandlingsysiken samt kombinationen av grundforskning, tillaempad forskning och interaktion med industrin"' (1 page).

  7. [18F]AV-1451 tau-PET and primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Keith A; Martin, Peter R; Botha, Hugo; Schwarz, Christopher G; Duffy, Joseph R; Clark, Heather M; Machulda, Mary M; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Weigand, Stephen D; Senjem, Matthew L; Utianski, Rene L; Drubach, Daniel A; Boeve, Bradley F; Jones, David T; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Lowe, Val J; Whitwell, Jennifer L

    2018-02-16

    To assess [ 18 F]AV-1451 tau-PET (positron emission tomography) uptake patterns across the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants (logopenic, semantic, and agrammatic), examine regional uptake patterns of [ 18 F]AV-1451 independent of clinical diagnosis, and compare the diagnostic utility of [ 18 F]AV-1451, [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxygluclose (FDG)-PET and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to differentiate the PPA variants. We performed statistical parametric mapping of [ 18 F]AV-1451 across 40 PPA patients (logopenic-PPA = 14, semantic-PPA = 13, and agrammatic-PPA = 13) compared to 80 cognitively normal, Pittsburgh compound B-negative controls, age and gender matched 2:1. Principal component analysis of regional [ 18 F]AV-1451 tau-PET standard uptake value ratio was performed to understand underlying patterns of [ 18 F]AV-1451 uptake independent of clinical diagnosis. Penalized multinomial regression analyses were utilized to assess diagnostic utility. Logopenic-PPA showed striking uptake throughout neocortex, particularly temporoparietal, compared to controls, semantic-PPA, and agrammatic-PPA. Semantic-PPA and agrammatic-PPA showed milder patterns of focal [ 18 F]AV-1451 uptake. Semantic-PPA showed elevated uptake (left>right) in anteromedial temporal lobes, compared to controls and agrammatic-PPA. Agrammatic-PPA showed elevated uptake (left>right) throughout prefrontal white matter and in subcortical gray matter structures, compared to controls and semantic-PPA. The principal component analysis of regional [ 18 F]AV-1451 indicated two primary dimensions, a severity dimension that distinguished logopenic-PPA from agrammatic-PPA and semantic-PPA, and a frontal versus temporal contrast that distinguishes agrammatic-PPA and semantic-PPA cases. Diagnostic utility of [ 18 F]AV-1451was superior to MRI and at least equal to FDG-PET. [ 18 F]AV-1451binding characteristics differ across the PPA variants and were excellent at distinguishing between the variants. [ 18

  8. Percepções e sentimentos de adolescentes criados por avós

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Flávia Juliana Dourado

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo tem como objetivo conhecer as percepções e os sentimentos de adolescentes criados por avós. Busca-se, especificamente: 1) descrever a percepção dos adolescentes sobre seus avós, seus sentimentos por eles e as relações estabelecidas com os mesmos; 2) descrever como percebem as figuras parentais biológicas, seus sentimentos por eles e suas relações com os mesmos; 3) compreender a experiência dos adolescentes acerca do fato de serem criados pelos avós; e 4) descrever a...

  9. Måleegenskaper ved den norske versjonen av Parental Stress Scales (PSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kornør, Hege; Richter, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    - Beskrivelse. Parental Stress Scale (PSS) er et spørreskjema med 18 utsagn som foreldre skal besvare for å gi et mål på stressnivå forbundet med det å være foreldre. Instrumentet ble utgitt på engelsk av de amerikanske forskerne Judy O. Berry og Warren H. Jones i 1995. Ane Nærde ved Atferdssenteret står bak den norske oversettelsen. Opplysninger om rettighetshavere foreligger ikke. Tidsbruk og kompetansekrav knyttet til bruk av testen er ukjent. Litteratursøk. Av 51 identifiserte refe...

  10. Evaluering av Brobyggerprosjektet : arbeid overfor unge domfelte menn med somalisk og pakistansk bakgrunn

    OpenAIRE

    Gotaas, Nora; Højdahl, Torunn

    2006-01-01

    Brobyggerprosjektet ved Primærmedisinsk verksted var et 3- årig prosjekt rettet inn mot unge domfelte menn med somalisk og pakistansk bakgrunn. Formålet var å prøve ut virkemidler for å styrke den straffedømtes evne til mestring av egen livssituasjon, og å bygge og utvikle sosiale bånd mellom livet innenfor og livet utenfor fengselsmurene. Evalueringen beskriver og vurderer gjennomføringen av prosjektet. NIBRs del av rapporten er rettet inn mot de organisatoriske sidene v...

  11. [Total A-V block due to tuberous sclerosis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, N; Guidugli Neto, J; De Paola, A A; Pimenta, J

    1989-10-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a neurologic disease affecting various organs with a triade: sebaceum adenoma, mental retardation and seizures. This report presents a case of a patient with tuberous sclerosis and third degree A-V block with complete invasive and non-invasive evaluation. The patient had sincope and complete A-V block with QRS complexes showing right bundle branch block morphology. The echocardiogram showed dilated cardiomyopathy with diffuse left ventricular dysfunction and had normal coronary arteriography. The eletrophysiologic evaluation showed complete infra-hisian A-V block and QRS with left bundle branch block pattern with normal sinus nodal and A-V nodal function. It was not possible to induce ventricular tachtyarrhythmias up to two extrastimuli. Histologic study showed normal myocardium under light and electronic microscopy. After permanent VVI pacemaker implant, the patient in follow-up for 16 years. This case seems to be the first in the international medical literature of tuberous sclerosis with complete heart block.

  12. Nätverksövervakning av trådlösa accesspunkter

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att analysera, implementera och utvärdera metoder för nätverksövervakning av trådlös kommunikationsutrustning i företaget Fibras nätverk. I dag sköts driften av cirka 2300 accesspunkter i Västerås stads trådlösa nätverk av Fibra. I nätverket ingår ett antal Wireless LAN Controller (WLC), vars uppgift är att hantera och konfigurera alla accesspunkter. Varje WLC kan hantera upp till 400 accesspunkter och sköter exempelvis autentiseringen av användarna. Dessutom finn...

  13. En utredning av meddelande-orienterade lager för Twingly

    OpenAIRE

    Säll, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Att flera datorer används för att gemensamt lösa problem är inte någonting nytt. Det finns många distribuerade system i bruk och många olika lösningar för hur dessa ska kommunicera med varandra. Vissa använder sig av meddelande-orienterade lager för kommunikation vilket det finns väldigt många implementationer av. RabbitMQ är ett exempel där att kommunikation går genom en (eller ett kluster av) central nod och kommunicerar med hjälp av protokollet Advanced Message Queue Protocol, AMQP. I en h...

  14. Inverkan av alkalisilikareaktion (ASR) på lamelldammars bärförmåga

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Sara; Sawasa, Hadeel

    2014-01-01

    Dammar är en viktig konstruktion i Sverige och i världen bland annat för vattenförsörjning, reglering av flöden och elproduktion. En expansion på grund av en alkalisilikareaktion (ASR) i en betongdamm kan leda till många problem. Bland annat kan det uppstå läckage av vatten och problem med öppning och stängning av luckor. Mycket forskning har lagts ner på att ta reda på hur ASR påverkar hållfastheten och bärförmågan hos betong. Detta examensarbete syftar till att genom en litteraturstudie vis...

  15. Neurofibromatosis with vertebral artery A-V fistula and cervical meningocele -a case report-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Joo; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Heon; Kang, Duk Sik; Park, Yeun Mook; Park, June Sik

    1988-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula is a rare abnormality in patient with neurofibromatosis. A review of English-language literature revealed only 3 reported cases. We report a case of neurofibromatosis with vertebral artery A-V fistula and cervical meningocele

  16. Nettbrettet: Avisbransjens frelser? : En casestudie av nettbrettsatsingen til fire norske mediehus

    OpenAIRE

    Ihme, Henrik Albert

    2012-01-01

    Denne oppgavens formål er å sammenfatte satsingen på nettbrettutgaver i Norge, ved å studere mediehusene VG, Dagbladet, Aftenposten og Dagens Næringsliv. Oppgaven er utformet som en casestudie, og inneholder en kvantitativ undersøkelse av mediehusenes utgaver gjennom en uke, samt dybdeintervjuer med sentrale aktører. Satsingen sees i lys av utviklingen i avisbransjen de siste årene, samt teoretiske perspektiver som remediering og disruptiv innovering. Mediehusenes strategi og ulike forretning...

  17. Kvalitetsutvärdering av biomedicin och närliggande huvudområden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffler, Hakon; Fex Svenningsen, Åsa; Emgård, Mia

    2014-01-01

    UKÄ:s utvärdering av biomedicinutbildningar visar på en mycket varierad kvalitet. Nio av 21 utbildningar håller toppklass medan mer än hälften bedöms vara bristande. 21 utbildningar inom biomedicin har satts under lupp. Kvaliteten bedöms som vanligt efter en tregradig skala: mycket hög kvalitet, ...

  18. [18F]AV-1451 binding to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra in PD and PSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakeley, Sarah; Cho, Sang Soo; Koshimori, Yuko; Rusjan, Pablo; Ghadery, Christine; Kim, Jinhee; Lang, Anthony E; Houle, Sylvain; Strafella, Antonio P

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated binding of [ 18 F]AV-1451 to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). [ 18 F]AV-1451 is a positron emission tomography radiotracer designed to bind pathological tau. A post-mortem study using [ 18 F]AV-1451 discovered off-target binding properties to neuromelanin in the substantia nigra. A subsequent clinical study reported a 30% decrease in [ 18 F]AV-1451 binding in the midbrain of PD patients. A total of 12 patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls were recruited. An anatomical MRI and a 90-min PET scan, using [ 18 F]AV-1451, were acquired from all participants. The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) from 60 to 90 min post-injection was calculated for the substantia nigra, using the cerebellar cortex as the reference region. The substantia nigra was delineated using automated region of interest software. An independent samples ANOVA and LSD post hoc testing were used to test for differences in [ 18 F]AV-1451 SUVR between groups. Substantia nigra SUVR from 60 to 90 min was significantly greater in HC compared to both PSP and PD groups. Although the PD group had the lowest SUVR, there was no significant difference in substantia nigra uptake between PD and PSP. [ 18 F]AV-1451 may be the first PET radiotracer capable of imaging neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra in parkinsonisms. Further testing must be done in PD and atypical parkinsonian disorders to support this off-target use of [ 18 F]AV-1451.

  19. Dynamics of AV coupling during human atrial fibrillation: role of atrial rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, M; Marini, M; Disertori, M; Ravelli, F

    2015-07-01

    The causal relationship between atrial and ventricular activities during human atrial fibrillation (AF) is poorly understood. This study analyzed the effects of an increase in atrial rate on the link between atrial and ventricular activities during AF. Atrial and ventricular time series were determined in 14 patients during the spontaneous acceleration of the atrial rhythm at AF onset. The dynamic relationship between atrial and ventricular activities was quantified in terms of atrioventricular (AV) coupling by AV synchrogram analysis. The technique identified n:m coupling patterns (n atrial beats in m ventricular cycles), quantifying their percentage, maximal length, and conduction ratio (= m/n). Simulations with a difference-equation AV model were performed to correlate the observed dynamics to specific atrial/nodal properties. The atrial rate increase significantly affected AV coupling and ventricular response during AF. The shortening of atrial intervals from 185 ± 32 to 165 ± 24 ms (P AV patterns with progressively decreasing m/n ratios (from conduction ratio = 0.34 ± 0.09 to 0.29 ± 0.08, P AV block and coupling instability at higher atrial rates were associated with increased ventricular interval variability (from 123 ± 52 to 133 ± 55 ms, P AV pattern transitions and coupling instability in patients were predicted, assuming the filtering of high-rate irregular atrial beats by the slow recovery of nodal excitability. These results support the role of atrial rate in determining AV coupling and ventricular response and may have implications for rate control in AF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. [F-18]-AV-1451 binding correlates with postmortem neurofibrillary tangle Braak staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Antón-Fernández, Alejandro; Verwer, Eline E; Sáez-Calveras, Nil; Meltzer, Avery C; Ramanan, Prianca; Amaral, Ana C; Gonzalez, Jose; Normandin, Marc D; Frosch, Matthew P; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    [F-18]-AV-1451, a PET tracer specifically developed to detect brain neurofibrillary tau pathology, has the potential to facilitate accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), staging of brain tau burden and monitoring disease progression. Recent PET studies show that patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia exhibit significantly higher in vivo [F-18]-AV-1451 retention than cognitively normal controls. Importantly, PET patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 correlate well with disease severity and seem to match the predicted topographic Braak staging of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD, although this awaits confirmation. We studied the correlation of autoradiographic binding patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 and the stereotypical spatiotemporal pattern of progression of NFTs using legacy postmortem brain samples representing different Braak NFT stages (I-VI). We performed [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor-screen autoradiography and quantitative tau measurements (stereologically based NFT counts and biochemical analysis of tau pathology) in three brain regions (entorhinal cortex, superior temporal sulcus and visual cortex) in a total of 22 cases: low Braak (I-II, n = 6), intermediate Braak (III-IV, n = 7) and high Braak (V-VI, n = 9). Strong and selective [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was detected in all tangle-containing regions matching precisely the observed pattern of PHF-tau immunostaining across the different Braak stages. As expected, no signal was detected in the white matter or other non-tangle containing regions. Quantification of [F-18]-AV-1451 binding was very significantly correlated with the number of NFTs present in each brain region and with the total tau and phospho-tau content as reported by Western blot and ELISA. [F-18]-AV-1451 is a promising biomarker for in vivo quantification of brain tau burden in AD. Neuroimaging-pathologic studies conducted on postmortem material from individuals imaged while alive are now needed to confirm these observations.

  1. Utilization of Electrocardiographic P-wave Duration for AV Interval Optimization in Dual-Chamber Pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorajja, Dan; Bhakta, Mayurkumar D; Scott, Luis Rp; Altemose, Gregory T; Srivathsan, Komandoor

    2010-09-05

    Empiric programming of the atrio-ventricular (AV) delay is commonly performed during pacemaker implantation. Transmitral flow assessment by Doppler echocardiography can be used to find the optimal AV delay by Ritter's method, but this cannot easily be performed during pacemaker implantation. We sought to determine a non-invasive surrogate for this assessment. Since electrocardiographic P-wave duration estimates atrial activation time, we hypothesized this measurement may provide a more appropriate basis for programming AV intervals. A total of 19 patients were examined at the time of dual chamber pacemaker implantation, 13 (68%) being male with a mean age of 77. Each patient had the optimal AV interval determined by Ritter's method. The P-wave duration was measured independently on electrocardiograms using MUSE® Cardiology Information System (version 7.1.1). The relationship between P-wave duration and the optimal AV interval was analyzed. The P-wave duration and optimal AV delay were related by a correlation coefficient of 0.815 and a correction factor of 1.26. The mean BMI was 27. The presence of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and valvular heart disease was 13 (68%), 3 (16%), and 2 (11%) respectively. Mean echocardiographic parameters included an ejection fraction of 58%, left atrial index of 32 ml/m(2), and diastolic dysfunction grade 1 (out of 4). In patients with dual chamber pacemakers in AV sequentially paced mode and normal EF, electrocardiographic P-wave duration correlates to the optimal AV delay by Ritter's method by a factor of 1.26.

  2. Et sosiologisk blikk på mobbing. En teoretisk studie av paradigmet og fenomenet mobbing

    OpenAIRE

    Stemland, Linn

    2007-01-01

    Mobbing er et tema som har fått stadig mer oppmerksomhet i samfunnsdebatten. Det er gjort lite sosiologisk forskning omkring fenomenet mobbing. Forskningsfeltet mobbing er i dag konstruert og dominert av psykologiens begreper og forståelse. I denne oppgaven prøver jeg å nærme meg en sosiologisk forståelse av begrepet og fenomenet mobbing.

  3. Adaptationer av Esaias Tegnérs Frithiofs saga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenfors, Ola

    2008-01-01

    Tegnérs versepos över urnordiska myter hade länge ett starkt om den nordiska läsande allmänheten - därtill starkt understött av Bernhard Crusells omtyckta tonsättningar av dikterna. Men också i Tyskland har Frithiofs saga haft en påfallande genomslagskraft. I uppsatsen granskas särskilt tonsättar...

  4. Reduction of opioid withdrawal and potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by systemic AV411 (ibudilast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Lewis, Susannah S; Coats, Benjamen D; Skyba, David A; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Berkelhammer, Debra L; Brzeski, Anita; Northcutt, Alexis; Vietz, Christine M; Judd, Charles M; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R; Johnson, Kirk W

    2009-02-01

    Morphine-induced glial proinflammatory responses have been documented to contribute to tolerance to opioid analgesia. Here, we examined whether drugs previously shown to suppress glial proinflammatory responses can alter other clinically relevant opioid effects; namely, withdrawal or acute analgesia. AV411 (ibudilast) and minocycline, drugs with distinct mechanisms of action that result in attenuation of glial proinflammatory responses, each reduced naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. Analysis of brain nuclei associated with opioid withdrawal revealed that morphine altered expression of glial activation markers, cytokines, chemokines, and a neurotrophic factor. AV411 attenuated many of these morphine-induced effects. AV411 also protected against spontaneous withdrawal-induced hyperactivity and weight loss recorded across a 12-day timecourse. Notably, in the spontaneous withdrawal study, AV411 treatment was delayed relative to the start of the morphine regimen so to also test whether AV411 could still be effective in the face of established morphine dependence, which it was. AV411 did not simply attenuate all opioid effects, as co-administering AV411 with morphine or oxycodone caused three-to-five-fold increases in acute analgesic potency, as revealed by leftward shifts in the analgesic dose response curves. Timecourse analyses revealed that plasma morphine levels were not altered by AV411, suggestive that potentiated analgesia was not simply due to prolongation of morphine exposure or increased plasma concentrations. These data support and extend similar potentiation of acute opioid analgesia by minocycline, again providing converging lines of evidence of glial involvement. Hence, suppression of glial proinflammatory responses can significantly reduce opioid withdrawal, while improving analgesia.

  5. Helhetsorienterad utvärdering av kollektivtrafikåtgärder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiselius, Lena Winslott; Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    Under hösten 2008 och våren 2009 har forskare vid Avd. Trafik och väg vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, DTU Transport vid Danmarks Tekniska Universitet samt National-ekonomiska institutionen vid Lunds Universitet genomfört ett forskningsprojekt med syfte att studera tillämpningen av en sammansatt...... (helhetsorienterad) analys av kollektiv-trafikåtgärder....

  6. Simplified Cardioneuroablation in the Treatment of Reflex Syncope, Functional AV Block, and Sinus Node Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Tolga; Golcuk, Ebru; Yalin, Kivanç; Guler, Tümer Erdem; Erden, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Cardio neuroablation (CNA) is a lesser-known technique for management of patients with excessive vagal activation on the basis of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of the areas related to the three main autonomic ganglia around the heart. We investigated the effectiveness of selective and/or stepwise RFCA of these areas via right atrium (RA) and/or left atrium (LA) in the patients with recurrent syncope due to excessive vagal activity. Twenty-two patients presenting symptomatic functional bradyarrhythmias, neurally mediated reflex syncope (NMS), symptomatic atrioventricular (AV) block, and symptomatic sinus node dysfunction (SND; number = 8, 7, 7, respectively) were enrolled. The three main paracardiac ganglia were targeted via RA and LA in the patients with NMS and SND. The procedure was performed via RA in the patients with AV block, followed by RFCA of all ganglia via LA, if AV conduction disorder persists. The sites showing fragmented potentials were identified by electrical mapping and verified by high-frequency stimulation and ablated until atrial electrical potential was completely eliminated (AV block. Despite the increased heart rate, the resolution of AV block after the RFCA could not be achieved in one patient who had partial resolution with atropine infusion on admission. CNA may be an alternative and safe strategy to reduce NMS episodes, and to treat functional AV block and symptomatic SND, especially in young patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inai, Kei; Burnside, Jessica L; Hoffman, Stanley; Toole, Bryan P; Sugi, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV) valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) components, versican and hyaluronan (HA), and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC) aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  8. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Inai

    Full Text Available Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM components, versican and hyaluronan (HA, and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  9. Whether noninvasive optimization of AV and VV delays improves the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Bożena; Chudzik, Michał; Klimczak, Artur; Rosiak, Marcin; Lewek, Joanna; Wranicz, Jerzy Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Device optimization is not routinely performed in patients who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device implantation. Noninvasive optimization of CRT devices by measurement of cardiac output (CO) can be used as a simple method to assess ventricular systolic performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delay can improve hemodynamic response to CRT and whether this optimization should be performed for each patient individually. Twenty patients with advanced heart failure New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% and left bundle branch block (QRS ≥ 120 ms) in sinus rhythm were evaluated from 24 h to 48 h after implantation of a CRT device by means of impedance cardiography (ICG). CO was first measured at each patient's intrinsic rhythm. Patients then underwent adjustments of AV and VV delay from 80 ms to 140 ms and from -60 ms to +60 ms, respectively in 20 ms increment steps and CO at each setting was measured by ICG. Both AV and VV delays were programmed according to the greatest improvement in CO compared to intrinsic rhythm. There was a statistically signifi cant increase in CO measured at the intrinsic rhythm compared to different AV delay by mean of 21% (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 4.6 ± 0.1 L/min, p AV/VV delays with left ventricle-preexcitation or simultaneous biventricular pacing caused additional increased CO from intrinsic rhythm by mean of 32.6% (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 5.04 ± ± 1.0 L/min, p AV/VV setting delays also resulted in improved hemodynamic responses compared to VV factory setting delay. Both AV and VV delay optimization should be performed in clinical practice. Optimal AV delay improved outcome. However, combination of optimized AV/VV delays provided the best hemodynamic response. Optimized AV/VV delays with left ventricle-preexcitation or simultaneous biventricular pacing increased hemodynamic output compared to intrinsic

  10. Güneydoğu Marmara'da Algarna ile Karides Avcılığında Av Kompozisyonu ve Hedef Dışı Av.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kenan Bayhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bir yıl süre ile yürütülen bu çalışma, Kasım 2000 - Ekim 2001 tarihleri arasında Güneydoğu Marmara’da gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada, algarna ile avcılıkta hedef tür olan derin su pembe karidesi (Parapenaeus longirostris’in ağırlık ve sayısal miktarları ile bunun dışındaki av kompozisyonu, türlerin boy dağılımları ve toplam av içerisindeki sayısal oranları araştırılmıştır. Yapılan çekimler sonucunda, toplam avın sayısal olarak % 64.5’ni hedef tür olan Parapenaeus longirostris, % 35.5’ini hedef dışı av oluşturmuştur. 50 türün bulunduğu hedef dışı avın % 17.16’sını Kemikli balıklar (Osteichthyes, % 8.58’ini Kabuklular (Crustacea-Decapoda, % 4.94’ünü Derisi Dikenliler (Echinodermata, % 2.53’ünü Yumuşakçalar (Mollusca, % 2.14’ünü Cnidaria ve % 0.13’ünü kıkırdaklı balıklar (Chondrichthyes oluşturmuş, toplam av içerisinde Parapenaeus longirostris’in dışında sayısal olarak en çok yakalanan türlerin başında ise Kaya balığı, Mezgit, Kancaağız pisi, Yengeç, Deniz yıldızı ve Deniz hıyarı’nın geldiği belirlenmiştir

  11. A 2:1 AV rhythm: an adverse effect of a long AV delay during DDI pacing and its prevention by the ventricular intrinsic preference algorithm in DDD mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Oginosawa, Yasushi; Kohno, Ritsuko; Tamura, Masahito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Otsuji, Yutaka; Abe, Haruhiko

    2012-07-01

    A 91-year-old woman received a dual-chamber pacemaker for sick sinus syndrome and intermittently abnormal atrioventricular (AV) conduction. The pacemaker was set in DDI mode with a 350-ms AV delay to preserve intrinsic ventricular activity. She complained of palpitation during AV sequential pacing. The electrocardiogram showed a 2:1 AV rhythm from 1:1 ventriculoatrial (VA) conduction during ventricular pacing in DDI mode with a long AV interval. After reprogramming of the pacemaker in DDD mode with a 250-ms AV interval and additional 100-ms prolongation of the AV interval by the ventricular intrinsic preference function, VA conduction disappeared and the patient's symptom were alleviated without increasing unnecessary right ventricular pacing. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Integrated rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal functions: principles and assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billette, Jacques; Tadros, Rafik

    2014-01-15

    The atrioventricular (AV) node conducts slowly and has a long refractory period. These features sustain the filtering of atrial impulses and hence are often modulated to optimize ventricular rate during supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The AV node is also the site of a clinically common reentrant arrhythmia. Its function is assessed for a variety of purposes from its responses to a premature protocol (S1S2, test beats introduced at different cycle lengths) repeatedly performed at different basic rates and/or to an incremental pacing protocol (increasingly faster rates). Puzzlingly, resulting data and interpretation differ with protocols as well as with chosen recovery and refractory indexes, and are further complicated by the presence of built-in fast and slow pathways. This problem applies to endocavitary investigations of arrhythmias as well as to many experimental functional studies. This review supports an integrated framework of rate-dependent and dual pathway AV nodal function that can account for these puzzling characteristics. The framework was established from AV nodal responses to S1S2S3 protocols that, compared with standard S1S2 protocols, allow for an orderly quantitative dissociation of the different factors involved in changes in AV nodal conduction and refractory indexes under rate-dependent and dual pathway function. Although largely based on data from experimental studies, the proposed framework may well apply to the human AV node. In conclusion, the rate-dependent and dual pathway properties of the AV node can be integrated within a common functional framework the contribution of which to individual responses can be quantitatively determined with properly designed protocols and analytic tools.

  13. A Practical ECG Criterion to Unmask Left Accessory AV Connections in Patients With Subtle Preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Jenkins; Shah, Jignesh; Charnigo, Richard; Tackett, Andrea; Darrat, Yousef H; Bailey, Alison; Delisle, Brian; Kakavand, Bahram; DI Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Claude S

    2015-05-20

    Accessory AV-connections capable of antegrade conduction need to be recognized because of the potential for life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the preexcited ECG pattern may be subtle, especially among left-sided AV-connections. We explored whether additional ECG criteria might help identify left-sided AV-connections. We analyzed 156 patients who underwent an electrophysiology study (EPS) and ablation for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (PSVT). Patients were divided into 2 groups: those with left-sided AV-connections (Group 1) and all other PSVT (Group 2). Various ECG parameters were compared before and after ablation in both groups. The EPS identified left-sided AV-connections among 43 patients (Group 1) and excluded it among 113 (Group 2). Baseline ECG in Group 1 demonstrated obvious preexcitation among 24/43 patients (55.8%), the remaining 19/43 missing obvious preexcitation. R/S ratio > 0.5 in V1 was noted in 38/43 (88.4%) patients in Group 1 before ablation (median 1.00; IQR 0.58-2.20), including 16/19 (84.2%) patients lacking obvious left-sided AVconnections. Conversely, only 10/113 (8.8%) patients in Group 2 had R/S ratios in V1 ≥ 0.5 (0.20; 0.10-0.31), P AV-connections (sensitivity 93.0%). The negative predictive value of this combined criterion was 103/106 (97.2%). In symptomatic patients, combining the R/S ratio (≥ 0.5) in lead V1 with the classic preexcitation pattern on ECG markedly improved the sensitivity to diagnose left-sided AV-connections. This ratio may be particularly useful among patients lacking obvious preexcitation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A novel curve fitting method for AV optimisation of biventricular pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Jones, Siana; Sohaib, S M Afzal; Finegold, Judith A; Siggers, Jennifer H; Stegemann, Berthold; Whinnett, Zachary I; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we designed and tested a new algorithm, which we call the 'restricted parabola', to identify the optimum atrioventricular (AV) delay in patients with biventricular pacemakers. This algorithm automatically restricts the hemodynamic data used for curve fitting to the parabolic zone in order to avoid inadvertently selecting an AV optimum that is too long.We used R, a programming language and software environment for statistical computing, to create an algorithm which applies multiple different cut-offs to partition curve fitting of a dataset into a parabolic and a plateau region and then selects the best cut-off using a least squares method. In 82 patients, AV delay was adjusted and beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured non-invasively using our multiple-repetition protocol. The novel algorithm was compared to fitting a parabola across the whole dataset to identify how many patients had a plateau region, and whether a higher hemodynamic response was achieved with one method.In 9/82 patients, the restricted parabola algorithm detected that the pattern was not parabolic at longer AV delays. For these patients, the optimal AV delay predicted by the restricted parabola algorithm increased SBP by 1.36 mmHg above that predicted by the conventional parabolic algorithm (95% confidence interval: 0.65 to 2.07 mmHg, p-value = 0.002).AV optima selected using our novel restricted parabola algorithm give a greater improvement in acute hemodynamics than fitting a parabola across all tested AV delays. Such an algorithm may assist the development of automated methods for biventricular pacemaker optimisation.

  15. Nye estimater av organdoser til barn ved datatomografi (CT) utført på 1990-tallet i Norge

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Benthe

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i Folkehelsevitenskap ved Institutt for plante- og miljøvitenskap. 30 studiepoeng. Bakgrunn: Bruk av datatomografi (CT) har økt i Norge de siste ti årene og står nå for 80 % av befolkningsdosen fra medisinsk bruk av stråling. Det er usikkerhet rundt risikoen ved bruk av ioniserende stråling, særlig knyttet til CT av barn og unge. En stor internasjonal studie (EPI-CT-prosjektet) tar sikte på å skaffe økt kunnskap om risiko for leukemi og hjernekreft forbundet med CT-undersøkel...

  16. Energy Audit Checks - A socioeconomic assessment; Energikartlaeggningscheckar - En samhaellsekonomisk utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    This review is part of the Swedish Energy Agency's work with skills and methodology development on economic analyzes. The present socioeconomic analysis is the first of its kind to evaluate the current support for energy audit checks and is based on the instrument's purpose, goals and obstacles. Cost effectiveness is the main focus, as well as a description of the instrument's benefits and costs. The evaluation also aims to further develop the instrument in conjunction with the implementation of energy efficiency directive. Proposals for new instruments have however not been part of the mission.

  17. AV interval optimization using pressure volume loops in dual chamber pacemaker patients with maintained systolic left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Frank; Hanke, Thorsten; Fitschen, Joern; Heringlake, Matthias; Bode, Frank; Schunkert, Heribert; Wiegand, Uwe K H

    2012-08-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) interval optimization is often deemed too time-consuming in dual-chamber pacemaker patients with maintained LV function. Thus the majority of patients are left at their default AV interval. To quantify the magnitude of hemodynamic improvement following AV interval optimization in chronically paced dual chamber pacemaker patients. A pressure volume catheter was placed in the left ventricle of 19 patients with chronic dual chamber pacing and an ejection fraction >45 % undergoing elective coronary angiography. AV interval was varied in 10 ms steps from 80 to 300 ms, and pressure volume loops were recorded during breath hold. The average optimal AV interval was 152 ± 39 ms compared to 155 ± 8 ms for the average default AV interval (range 100-240 ms). The average improvement in stroke work following AV interval optimization was 935 ± 760 mmHg/ml (range 0-2,908; p AV interval changes the average stroke work by 207 ± 162 mmHg/ml. AV interval optimization also leads to improved systolic dyssynchrony indices (17.7 ± 7.0 vs. 19.4 ± 7.1 %; p = 0.01). The overall hemodynamic effect of AV interval optimization in patients with maintained LV function is in the same range as for patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy for several parameters. The positive effect of AV interval optimization also applies to patients who have been chronically paced for years.

  18. Den blivande förskollärarens formering. En studie av verksamhetsförlagda handledningssamtal, argumentationstraditioner och metaforik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise Hjort

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I denna studie analyserar vi hur erfarna förskollärare i rollen som handledare introducerar förskollärarstudenter i professionen. Studien genomförs mot bakgrund av ett delvis nytt uppdrag som förskolan fått under senare år, som bland annat yttrar sig i att förskolan nu är en del av utbildningssystemet. Med utgångspunkt i det teoretiska begreppet argumentationstraditioner och genom att analysera metaforiken i deltagarnas resonerande, studeras hur erfarna och blivande förskollärare navigerar spänningar centrala för professionen. Deltagarnas betoning av vissa argumentationstraditioner och användningen av viss metaforik diskuteras i termer av vad de implicerar för utvecklingen av de barn som deltar i en förskoleverksamhet som formas av dessa.

  19. 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Luca; Vázquez Rodríguez, Patricia; Hong, Young T; Allinson, Kieren S J; Williamson, David; Borchert, Robin J; Sami, Saber; Cope, Thomas E; Bevan-Jones, W Richard; Jones, P Simon; Arnold, Robert; Surendranathan, Ajenthan; Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Fryer, Tim D; Aigbirhio, Franklin I; O'Brien, John T; Rowe, James B

    2017-03-01

    The ability to assess the distribution and extent of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy in vivo would help to develop biomarkers for these tauopathies and clinical trials of disease-modifying therapies. New radioligands for positron emission tomography have generated considerable interest, and controversy, in their potential as tau biomarkers. We assessed the radiotracer 18F-AV-1451 with positron emission tomography imaging to compare the distribution and intensity of tau pathology in 15 patients with Alzheimer's pathology (including amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment), 19 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy, and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Regional analysis of variance and a support vector machine were used to compare and discriminate the clinical groups, respectively. We also examined the 18F-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding in post-mortem tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and a control case to assess the 18F-AV-1451 binding specificity to Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's tau pathology. There was increased 18F-AV-1451 binding in multiple regions in living patients with Alzheimer's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy relative to controls [main effect of group, F(2,41) = 17.5, P AV-1451 binding was significantly increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, relative to patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and with control subjects, in the hippocampus and in occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal cortices (t's > 2.2, P's AV-1451 binding was elevated in the midbrain (t = 2.1, P AV-1451 uptake in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain, and in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum (t's > 2.7, P's AV-1451 strongly bound to Alzheimer-related tau pathology, but less specifically in progressive supranuclear palsy. 18F-AV-1451 binding to the basal ganglia was strong in all groups in vivo. Postmortem histochemical staining showed absence of

  20. Kjøring med mistanke om påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asbjørg S. Christophersen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGStatens rettstoksikologiske institutt har i løpet av de siste år registrert en stor økning av prøver fra bilføreremistenkt for kjøring under påvirkning av andre rusmidler enn alkohol. Antall positive saker økte 42% fra1994 til 1995. De hyppigste påviste stoffer er tetrahydrocannabinol, amfetamin, benzodiazepiner og opiater(morfin/kodein. Bruk av tyngre narkotiske stoffer har blitt mer vanlig i trafikksammenheng og antall positivetilfeller har økt betydelig mer enn totalt antall saker. Fra 1994 til 1995 økte antall positive amfetaminprøvermed 75% (fra 533 til 937 og antall positive prøver som følge av heroininntak økte med 87% (fra 92 til 172.Bruk av flere stoffer samtidig er vanlig, over 60 % av sakene i 1995 var positive på mer enn ett stoff, alkoholikke medregnet. De fleste tilfeller var representert av menn i alderen 25-32 år (37%. Kvinner var representerti ca. 11% av sakene.Christophersen AS, Skurtveit S, Mørland J. Drivers suspected to drive under the influence of drugs otherthan alcohol. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 45-48.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe National Institute of Forensic Toxicology has registered a large increase in the number of samples fromdrivers suspected to drive under influence of drugs other than alcohol. The number of drug positive casesincreased 42% from 1994 to 1995. The most frequent drugs detected are tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine,benzodiazepines and opiates (morphine/codeine. The frequency of hard narcotic drug use has increased morethan the total number of cases. From 1994 to 1995, the number of amphetamine positive samples increased75% (from 533 to 937 and the number of samples positive due to heroin use (detection of the metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine in urine increased 87%. Multi-drug use is common and more than one drug wasdetected in more than 60% of the cases from 1995, alcohol not included. Most of the cases were representedby men 25-32 years old (37%. Women were represented in about

  1. sugE: A gene involved in tributyltin (TBT) resistance of Aeromonas molluscorum Av27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Micaelo, Nuno; Félix, Vitor; Song, Jun-Young; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of bacterial resistance to tributyltin (TBT) is still unclear. The results herein presented contribute to clarify that mechanism in the TBT-resistant bacterium Aeromonas molluscorum Av27. We have identified and cloned a new gene that is involved in TBT resistance in this strain. The gene is highly homologous (84%) to the Aeromonas hydrophila-sugE gene belonging to the small multidrug resistance gene family (SMR), which includes genes involved in the transport of lipophilic drugs. In Av27, expression of the Av27-sugE was observed at the early logarithmic growth phase in the presence of a high TBT concentration (500 μM), thus suggesting the contribution of this gene for TBT resistance. E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to ethidium bromide (EtBr), chloramphenicol (CP) and tetracycline (TE), besides TBT. According to the Moriguchi logP (miLogP) values, EtBr, CP and TE have similar properties and are substrates for the sugE-efflux system. Despite the different miLogP of TBT, E. coli cells transformed with Av27-sugE become resistant to this compound. So it seems that TBT is also a substrate for the SugE protein. The modelling studies performed also support this hypothesis. The data herein presented clearly indicate that sugE is involved in TBT resistance of this bacterium.

  2. Context-Aware UPnP-AV Services for Adaptive Home Multimedia Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Tusch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One possibility to provide mobile multimedia in domestic multimedia systems is the use of Universal Plug and Play Audio Visual (UPnP-AV devices. In a standard UPnP-AV scenario, multimedia content provided by a Media Server device is streamed to Media Renderer devices by the initiation of a Control Point. However, there is no provisioning of context-aware multimedia content customization. This paper presents an enhancement of standard UPnP-AV services for home multimedia environments regarding context awareness. It comes up with context profile definitions, shows how this context information can be queried from the Media Renderers, and illustrates how a Control Point can use this information to tailor a media stream from the Media Server to one or more Media Renderers. Moreover, since a standard Control Point implementation only queries one Media Server at a time, there is no global view on the content of all Media Servers in the UPnP-AV network. This paper also presents an approach of multimedia content integration on the Media Server side that provides fast search for content on the network. Finally, a number of performance measurements show the overhead costs of our enhancements to UPnP-AV in order to achieve the benefits.

  3. Handelsbankens användande av CRM -Är det lönsamt?

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Kanbar, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Frågeställning: På vilket sätt används CRM av Handelsbanken och hur påverkar det bankens lönsamhet? Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att kunna öka kunskapen om hur Handelsbanken tillämpar CRM och för att undersöka om användandet av CRM i bankens verksamhet är lönsamt eller inte. Metod: För att svara på studiens syfte blev en intervju utförd med Handelsbanken. Ännu en anledning till varför en intervju gjordes var på grund av att det var nödvändigt för att få det primärdata som behövdes och fö...

  4. Miljöanalys av arbetsmoment i vägprojekt

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Jonathan; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Klimatpåverkan och energiförbrukning är ett av de stora miljöproblemen runt om i världen idag. Sedan den industriella revolutionens start har mängden utsläpp av bland annat koldioxid ökat exponentiellt med årens lopp och skapat obalans i klimatet, inte minst på grund av restprodukter och skadliga ämnen som används inom bland annat byggindustrin. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka arbetsmoment som har störst påverkan på miljön för att sedan, om möjligt, ta fram förslag på hur det ...

  5. FastVDO enhancements of the AV1 codec and comparison to HEVC and JVET codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topiwala, Pankaj; Dai, Wei; Krishnan, Madhu

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes a study to investigate possible ways to improve the AV1 codec, in several directions, most particularly in the context of 10-bit HDR video content, and 8/10 bit image content. Applications to SDR video, and 360 content are discussed elsewhere. For HDR content, a data adaptive grading technique in conjunction with the AV1 codec is studied. For image content, lapped biorthogonal transforms for (near) lossless compression is studied. For scalability-type applications, we introduce advanced resampling filters which outperform current ones. It is asserted that useful improvements are possible in each of these categories. In particular, substantial value is offered in the coding of HDR content, very competitive with HEVC HDR10, in a coding framework offering backwards compatibility with SDR. We also provide a rudimentary comparison of AV1 to the standard HEVC as well as the developing JVET codecs.

  6. Forholdet mellom stat og kommune i styring av norsk utdanningspolitikk 1970 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Engeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen er skrevet ut fra en antakelse om at norsk utdanningsforvaltning etter 1990 illustrerer forsøk på å styrke den statlige forvaltning innen et desentralisert system. Ikke minst er dette tydelig ved at nasjonal styring av utdanning særlig etter århundreskiftet har økt på bekostning av det lokale selvstyret. I forhold til maktfordelingen mellom staten og kommunene er vi nå nærmest tilbake til situasjonen før den politiske desentraliseringsbølgen startet mot slutten av 1970-tallet. Det nasjonale nivået er i ferd med å etablere et styringsgrep på skolesiden som er så omfattende at det mangler sidestykke i moderne tid. Det nye er at dette skjer innen et system hvor inntektssystemet (1986 gir kommunene ansvar for undervisningen, og hvor statens mulighet til å bruke økonomiske styringsmidler er redusert.

  7. Long-time effects of run-off water from ash recycling to a planted forest. Final report for a partial study in the project 'Forestry measures - effects on carbon-, nutrients and heavy metal flows' financed by the Swedish Energy Agency; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering och tungmetalIfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Torbjoern; Eriksson, Hillevi

    2001-06-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden has been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12 year long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1 ton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH{sub 4}-N, NO{sub 3}-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  8. AV-1451 tau and β-amyloid positron emission tomography imaging in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Kejal; Lowe, Val J; Boeve, Bradley F; Senjem, Matthew L; Tosakulwong, Nikki; Lesnick, Timothy G; Spychalla, Anthony J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Fields, Julie A; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Ferman, Tanis J; Jones, David T; Murray, Melissa E; Knopman, David S; Jack, Clifford R; Petersen, Ronald C

    2017-01-01

    Patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) often have Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology. Our objective was to determine the pattern of positron emission tomography (PET) tau tracer AV-1451 uptake in patients with probable DLB, compared to AD, and its relationship to β-amyloid deposition on PET. Consecutive patients with clinically probable DLB (n = 19) from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center underwent magnetic resonance imaging, AV-1451, and Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB) PET examinations. Age- and sex-matched groups of AD dementia (n = 19) patients and clinically normal controls (n = 95) from an epidemiological cohort served as a comparison groups. Atlas- and voxel-based analyses were performed. The AD dementia group had significantly higher AV-1451 uptake than the probable DLB group, and medial temporal uptake completely distinguished AD dementia from probable DLB. Patients with probable DLB had greater AV-1451 uptake in the posterior temporoparietal and occipital cortex compared to clinically normal controls, and in probable DLB, the uptake in these regions correlated with global cortical PiB uptake (Spearman rho = 0.63; p = 0.006). Medial temporal lobe AV-1451 uptake distinguishes AD dementia from probable DLB, which may be useful for differential diagnosis. Elevated posterior temporoparietal and occipital AV-1451 uptake in probable DLB and its association with global cortical PiB uptake suggest an atypical pattern of tau deposition in DLB. ANN NEUROL 2017;81:58-67. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  9. Multinational evaluation of the interpretability of the iterative method of optimisation of AV delay for CRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Claire E; Kyriacou, Andreas; Jones, Siana; Pabari, Punam; Cole, Graham; Baruah, Resham; Hughes, Alun D; Francis, Darrel P

    2013-09-20

    AV delay optimisation of biventricular pacing devices (cardiac resynchronisation therapy, CRT) is performed in trials and recommended by current guidelines. The Doppler echocardiographic iterative method is the most commonly recommended. Yet whether it can be executed reliably has never been tested formally. 36 multinational specialists, familiar with using the echocardiographic iterative method of CRT optimisation, were shown 20-40 sets of transmitral Doppler traces at 6-8 AV settings and asked to select the optimal AV delay. Unknown to the specialists, some Doppler datasets appeared in duplicate, allowing assessment of both inter and intra-specialist interpretation. On the Kappa scale of agreement (1 = perfect agreement, 0 = chance alone), the agreement regarding optimal AV delay between specialists was poor (kappa=0.12 ± 0.08). More importantly, agreement of specialists with themselves (i.e. viewing identical sets of traces, twice) was also poor, with Kappa=0.23 ± 0.07 and mean absolute difference in optimum AV delay of 83 ms between first and second viewing of the same traces. Iterative AV optimisation is not executed reliably by experts, even in an artificially simplified context where biological variability and variation in image acquisition are eliminated by use of identical traces. This cannot be blamed on insufficient skills of some experts or discordant methods of selecting the optimum, because operators also showed poor agreement with themselves when assessing the same trace. Instead, guidelines should retract any recommendation for this algorithm. Guideline-development processes might usefully begin with a rudimentary check on proposed algorithms, to establish at least minimal credibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The parsec-scale relationship between ICO and AV in local molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheoljong; Leroy, Adam K.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Indebetouw, Remy; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    We measure the parsec-scale relationship between integrated CO intensity (ICO) and visual extinction (AV) in 24 local molecular clouds using maps of CO emission and dust optical depth from Planck. This relationship informs our understanding of CO emission across environments, but clean Milky Way measurements remain scarce. We find uniform ICO for a given AV, with the results bracketed by previous studies of the Pipe and Perseus clouds. Our measured ICO-AV relation broadly agrees with the standard Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor, the relation found for the Magellanic clouds at coarser resolution, and numerical simulations by Glover & Clark (2016). This supports the idea that CO emission primarily depends on shielding, which protects molecules from dissociating radiation. Evidence for CO saturation at high AV and a threshold for CO emission at low AV varies remains uncertain due to insufficient resolution and ambiguities in background subtraction. Resolution of order 0.1 pc may be required to measure these features. We use this ICO-AV relation to predict how the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (XCO) would change if the Solar Neighbourhood clouds had different dust-to-gas ratio (metallicity). The calculations highlight the need for improved observations of the CO emission threshold and H I shielding layer depth. They are also sensitive to the shape of the column density distribution. Because local clouds collectively show a self-similar distribution, we predict a shallow metallicity dependence for XCO down to a few tenths of solar metallicity. However, our calculations also imply dramatic variations in cloud-to-cloud XCO at subsolar metallicity.

  11. Vegetasjonskartlegging av Muddvær, Vegaøyan verdensarv, Vega kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Bär, Annette; Carlsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Muddværet ble vegetasjonskartlagt for å få oversikt over de botaniske verdiene. Vegetasjonstyper etter Fremstad (1997) er framstilt på kart og rapporten inneholder i tillegg en artsliste over registrerte planter. Kartleggingen skal brukes som grunnlag for en senere utarbeiding av en skjøtselsplan for området og ses i sammenheng med tidligere kartlegginger og utarbeiding av skjøtselsplaner for Vegaøyan verdensarvområde (bl.a. Hatten m.fl. 2007; Hatten & Carlsen 2007a,b).

  12. Fromleik i Black Supper, Piss Christ og Crucifixion, tre fotografi av Andres Serrano

    OpenAIRE

    Vinje, Lilly

    2006-01-01

    Oppgåva skal omhandla tre utvalgte foto av fotografen Andres Serrano, ein amerikanar født i 1950. Enkeltbileta det er snakk om er Black Supper (1990), Piss Christ og Crucifixion (begge 1987). Dei er laga ved at kitschfigurar er nedsenka i gjennomsiktige behaldarar fyllte av kroppsvæsker og vatn; vatn i Black Supper, urin i Piss Christ og blod i Crucifixion. Henholdsvis framstiller dei Nattverden, Jesus på krossen og Krossfestinga (tre figurar). Serrano befinn seg med desse innanfor religiøs k...

  13. Forensisk analys av volatilt minne från operativsystemet OS X

    OpenAIRE

    Ogeskär, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Behovet av att analysera volatilt minne från Macintosh-datorer med OS X har blivit allt mer betydelsefull på grund av att deras datorer blivit allt populärare och att volatil minnesanalysering blivit en allt viktigare del i en IT-forensikers arbete. Anledningen till att volatil minnesanalysering blivit allt viktigare är för att det går att finna viktig information som inte finns lagrad permanent på datorns interna hårddisk. Problemet som låg till grunden för det här examensarbetet var att det...

  14. Mellom risiko og kontroll - en studie av eksplisitte modelleringsformer i norsk grunnskolelærerutdanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fride Lindstøl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Å være lærerutdanner skiller seg fra andre stillinger innenfor høyere utdanning: Lærerutdanneren underviser både i fagstoff og i hvordan studentene kan lære bort og adaptere fagstoffet i klasserommet. Det at lærerutdanneren underviser i det å undervise, har implikasjoner for hvordan undervisningen planlegges, gjennomføres og analyseres i lærerutdanningen – undervisningens form blir en del av budskapet. Lærerutdannerens arbeid handler derfor om å utforme, velge og sette i spill aktiviteter og oppgaver som kan adaptere fag, forskning, didaktikk og teori til klasserom og profesjonen. Utforming og montasje av de ulike delene eller episodene i et undervisningsforløp kan betegnes som undervisningsforløpets dramaturgi. I denne artikkelen har jeg gjort en dramaturgisk analyse av tre lærerutdanneres undervisning for å identifisere og beskrive hvordan de bruker eksplisitte modelleringsformer, og hva som skjer når de bruker dem. I etterkant av den dramaturgiske analysen har jeg gjort en konvensjonell innholdsanalyse av intervjudata for å undersøke hvordan lærerutdannerne selv forklarer formålet og erfaringer med å bruke eksplisitt modellering i undervisningen. Analyse av tre lærerutdanneres undervisningspraksis sammenfattes i en modelleringsstige som visualiserer hvordan enkelte former for eksplisitte modelleringsformer tilbyr en egen sirkulær dramaturgi. Studien antyder og drøfter også på hvilken måte modelleringsstigen kan fungere som en dramaturgisk modell, som kan brukes som utgangspunkt for lærerutdanneres planlegging, gjennomføring og analyse av egen undervisning. Studien er et bidrag til å utvikle og forske på hvordan eksplisitte modelleringsformer kan brukes for å skape sammenheng mellom praktisk lærerarbeid og teoretisk metarefleksjon i lærerutdannerens undervisning. Innsamling av data er gjort i profesjonsverksted, som kan forklares som en læringsarena hvor lærerutdannere fra ulike fag samarbeider om

  15. Rate-adaptive AV delay and exercise performance following cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Campos, Ana Garcia; Grimster, Alex; Valencia, Oswaldo; Baltabaeva, Aigul; Jones, Sue; Anderson, Lisa

    2012-11-01

    Physiological shortening of the atrioventricular (AV) interval with increasing heart rate is well documented in normal human beings and is an established component of dual-chamber pacing for bradycardia. To assess the effect of exercise on optimal AV delay and the impact of a patient-specific rate-adaptive AV delay (RAAVD) on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure following cardiac resynchronization therapy. Phase 1: We performed iterative AV optimization at rest and exercise in 52 cardiac resynchronization therapy patients in atrial-sensed mode (mean age 71.6 ± 9.2 years, 25% females). Phase 2: Subsequently, 20 consecutive volunteers from this group (mean age 69.2 ± 9.6 years, 15% females) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with RAAVD individually programmed ON (RAAVD-ON) or OFF (RAAVD-OFF). Phase 1: In 94% of the patients, there was a marked reduction (mean 50%) in optimal AV delay with exercise. The optimal resting vs exercise AV delay was 114.2 ± 29 ms at a heart rate of 64.4 ± 7.1 beats/min vs 57 ± 31 ms at a heart rate of 103 ± 13 beats/min (P AV delay with exercise, and 3 (6%) showed no change. Phase 2: With RAAVD-ON, significantly better exercise times were achieved (8.7 ± 3.2 minutes) compared with RAAVD-OFF (7.9 ± 3.2 minutes; P = .003), and there was a significant improvement in Vo(2)max (RAAVD-ON 16.1 ± 4.0 vs RAAVD-OFF 14.9 ± 3.7 mL/(kg · min); P = .024). There was a dramatic reduction in optimal AV delay with physiological exercise in the majority of this heart failure cardiac resynchronization therapy cohort. Replicating this physiological response with a programmable RAAVD translated into a 10% improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Correlliansk Wicca -En analyse av et nyreligiøst trossamfunn i vekst-

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Monica Frankrig

    2015-01-01

    Correlliansk wicca er en tradisjon innenfor wicca som baserer sin praksis på læren til High- Correll familien. Den correllianske wicca- tradisjonen ble grunnlagt av Caroline High- Correll. Correllianere anser seg selv for å være åpne for mange ulike livssyn og praksiser. De tror at det guddommelige kommer innenfra oss selv, og at religion eksisterer for å hjelpe oss til å finne det guddommelige i hver av oss, og ikke for å forsøke å erstatte denne guddommeligheten. Correllianere mener at alle...

  17. Hvordan gjøre tenking synlig ved bruk av interaktive modeller på vitensenter?

    OpenAIRE

    Stav, Torun Vaagland

    2015-01-01

    Det er et økende antall forskningsstudier som fokuserer på læringsutbytte ved vitensentre og liknende institusjoner (Kisiel, 2013). EEET (European Exhibition Evaluation Tool) er et slikt bidrag. Dette er et vurderingsverktøy som blant annet er laget for å kartlegge bruken av interaktive modeller ved vitensentre. EEETer en av to metoder som skal bidra til å besvare denne studiens problemstilling. Den andre metoden, UM (Understanding Map) er basert på åtte tegn på forståelse som beskrevet i bok...

  18. Konstruktion av vertikaltransportör för materialhantering

    OpenAIRE

    Furu, Micke

    2012-01-01

    Rotab Rostfria Transportörer AB tillverkar och utvecklar material- och godshanteringsutrustning. Företaget levererar även kompletta materialhanteringslösningar i form av godshanteringsanläggningar som ofta består av transportband och paketeringsutrustning. Examensarbetets mål är att utveckla en vertikaltransportör som ska transportera gods mellan två transportband belägna på olika höjder, transporten ska kunna varieras mellan 1000 - 3000 mm. Transportören ska undvika de två stora nackdelarna ...

  19. Att vara ung vuxen med reumatism : Psykologiska aspekter av reumatisk sjukdom

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Tove

    2015-01-01

    Kunskapen gällande hur det upplevs att vara ung vuxen och samtidigt ha en reumatisk sjukdom är begränsad. Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie var att utifrån individens eget perspektiv försöka fånga in och beskriva olika psykologiska aspekter av att vara ung vuxen och samtidigt ha reumatism, i en svensk kontext. Studien utfördes på sju reumatiker i åldern 18-40 och datainsamligen bestod av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Analysen följde ett induktivt tematiskt mönster. I studien identifierades ...

  20. Indeksering av og søking i hierarkiske metadata i XML-database

    OpenAIRE

    Ingebretsen, Knut Bjørke

    2005-01-01

    Denne oppgaven ser på hvordan en XML-database kan brukes til indeksering av og søking i hierarkiske metadata. Dette inngår som en del av arbeidet med å gjøre informasjon fra forskjellige samlinger tilgjengelig for informasjonssøkere. Problemstillingen det har vært arbeidet med er delt i to. Den ene delen var å finne ut hvordan en XML-database kan brukes som lokal indeks for metadata på et hierarkisk format. Den andre delen var å finne ut hvordan et søkegrensesnitt kan utvides til å utnytte h...

  1. Manliga och kvinnliga teknologers självbilder och deras stereotypbilder av teknologer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Soneson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Självbild och bilden av en typisk teknolog undersöktes hos civilingenjörsstudenter på LTH med personlighetstestet Adjective Check List. Vi fann stora skillnader mellan självbild och stereotypbild. Undersökningen visade också att dessa skillnader till viss del såg olika ut bland manliga och kvinnliga studenter, och skillnaden mellan kvinnornas genomsnittliga självbild och deras genomsnittliga bild av en typisk teknolog var då större än motsvarande skillnad bland männen.

  2. First-degree AV block-an entirely benign finding or a potentially curable cause of cardiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Fredrik; Daubert, James P

    2013-05-01

    First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a delay within the AV conduction system and is defined as a prolongation of the PR interval beyond the upper limit of what is considered normal (generally 0.20 s). Up until recently, first-degree AV block was considered an entirely benign condition. In fact, some complain that it is a misnomer since there is only delay and no actual block in the AV conduction system (usually within the AV node). However, it has long been acknowledged that extreme forms of first-degree AV block (typically a PR interval exceeding 0.30 s) can cause symptoms due to inadequate timing of atrial and ventricular contractions, similar to the so-called pacemaker syndrome. Consequently, the current guidelines state that permanent pacemaker implantation is reasonable for first-degree AV block with symptoms similar to those of pacemaker syndrome or with hemodynamic compromise, but also stresses that there is little evidence to suggest that pacemakers improve survival in patients with isolated first-degree AV block. Recent reports suggest that it may be time to revisit the impact of first-degree AV block. Also, several findings in post hoc analyses of randomized device trials give important insights in possible treatment options. The present review aims to provide an update on the current knowledge concerning the impact of first-degree AV block and also to address the issue of pacing in patients with this condition. ©2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Patients' and procedural characteristics of AV-block during slow pathway modulation for AVNRT-single center 10year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmer, Kristina; Dechering, Dirk G; Köbe, Julia; Leitz, Patrick; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Lange, Phillip S; Kochhäuser, Simon; Reinke, Florian; Pott, Christian; Mönnig, Gerold; Breithardt, Günter; Eckardt, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Permanent AV-block is a recognized and feared complication of slow pathway modulation for AVNRT. We aimed to assess incidence of transient and permanent AV-block as well as consequences of transient AV-block in a large contemporary AVNRT ablation cohort. We searched our single center prospective ablation database for occurrence of transient and permanent AV-block during slow pathway modulation between January 2004 and October 2015. We analyzed patients' and procedural characteristics as well as outcome of patients in whom transient or permanent AV-block occurred. Of 9170 patients who underwent a catheter ablation at our institution between January 2004 and October 2015, 2101 patients (64% women, mean age 50±18years) underwent slow pathway modulation. In three patients, permanent AV-block occurred during RF application. Additional two patients had transient AV-block that recovered (after a few minutes and 25min), but recurred within two days of the procedure. All five patients underwent dual chamber pacemaker implantation (0.2%). Transient AV-block related to RF delivery occurred in 44 patients (2%). Transient mechanical AV-block occurred in additional 17 patients (0.8%). In 12 patients, ablation was continued despite transient AV-block. One of these patients developed permanent AV-block. Permanent AV-block following slow pathway modulation is a rare event, occurring in 0.2% of patients in a large contemporary single center cohort. Transient AV-block is more frequent (2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vad var det som hände? Efterbearbetning av en simulering för utvecklande av professionell kunskap hos polisstudenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sjöberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Att öva för att lära sig att hantera polisiära situationer utgör ett viktigt inslag i polisstudenters utbildning. Lärandet sker genom praktiska övningar t.ex. drillövningar och övningar av specifika moment men även via simuleringar där studenter agerar som polis i mera komplexa situationer. Simuleringar är inte unika för polisutbildning utan utgör ett vanligt inslag i professionsutbildning genom sin koppling till "verkliga" situationer (Peters och Vissers, 2004; Lederman, 1984. Under de senaste årtiondena har simuleringar använts för utbildning inom så skilda professionsfält som medicin och hälsovård, flyg och blåljusverksamhet. Simuleringar kan vara av skiftande karaktär t.ex. fysiska i form av rollspel men även datorbaserade. Simuleringar kan syfta till att utveckla en specifik färdighet (se t.ex. Windsor, 2009; Stefanidis, Acker, och Heniford, 2008; Wallin, Meurling, Hedman, Hedengård, och Felländer-Tsai, 2007, som t ex att lära sig hur man avläser röntgenbilder (se t.ex. Söderström, Häll, Nilsson, och Ahlqvist 2012 eller till att lära hur man ska agera i komplexa situationer (Andersson, Carlström, och Berlin, 2013; Bauman, Gohm och Bonner, 2011, t.ex. vid svåra olyckshändelser med många personer inblandade (se t.ex. McConnell och Drennan, 2006. Simuleringar av komplexa situationer med många inblandade brukar benämnas som fullskaliga (se t.ex. Andersson, Carlström, och Berlin, 2013. Simuleringar antas träna och utveckla professionell kunskap genom att förbereda studenter på att hantera komplexa och ibland farliga situationer som de kan komma att ställas inför i en kommande yrkespraktik. Användningen av simuleringar i utbildningar bygger således på ett antagande om överföring av erfarenheter och kunskaper från ett sammanhang till ett annat (se t.ex. Söderström, Åström, Anderson och Bowles, 2014. I den här artikeln utgår vi från simulering som en utbildningsresurs där deltagarna

  5. Vannmagasinet er ikke fullt før det renner over : en analyse av effekten av redusert etterspørsel i et vannkraftsystem, eksemplifisert med energieffektivisering i bygninger

    OpenAIRE

    Siljan, Marte

    2010-01-01

    Energieffektivisering i bygninger regnes som et av de mest kostnadseffektive tiltakene for å redusere forbruk av energi, samt bidra til reduksjon i klimagassutslipp. I følge rapporter fra blant annet Lavenergiutvalget (2009) og Klimakur 2020 (2010), vil det være mulig å frigjøre rundt 10 TWh elektrisitet fra norske bygninger i løpet av de neste ti årene. Denne masteroppgaven tar for seg følgene av en tilsvarende etterspørselsreduksjon i det norske kraftsystemet. Norge har et kraftsystem med n...

  6. Trace metals in floodplain lake sediments : SEM/AVS as indicator of bioavailability and ecological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the geochemical aspects of AVS (Acid Volatile Sulfide) and SEM (Simultaneously Extracted Metals) in floodplain lake sediment, its spatial distribution in floodplain lakes and dynamics over time, the link with effects on single species (bioassays), as well as the impact of

  7. In Vivo cortical tau in Parkinson's disease using 18F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Allan K; Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Fedorova, Tatyana D; Knudsen, Karoline; Parbo, Peter; Ismail, Rola; Østergaard, Karen; Brooks, David J; Borghammer, Per

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease copathology is common in PD at autopsy. In non-PD subjects with mild cognitive impairment, tau depositions can be detected using 18F-AV-1451 PET. We hypothesized that 18F-AV-1451 PET would show tau aggregation in PD with mild cognitive impairment and correlate with cognitive dysfunction. To describe tau aggregation in PD patients. Twenty-six PD patients and 23 controls had 18F-AV-1451 PET and neuropsychological assessment to detect mild cognitive impairment. Nine PD patients (35%) were identified with mild cognitive impairment. Regional analyses showed no significant differences between groups. Voxel-wise analyses showed no correlation with cognitive domain z-scores within patients. One patient with mild cognitive impairment was estimated Braak tau stage 5; all other patients were stage 0. Our results indicate that tau pathology, as detected by 18F-AV-1451, is uncommon in PD with mild cognitive impairment and shows no significant correlation with cognitive dysfunction at this stage. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. A-V Delay Versus Cardiac Output Measured with Thorax Bioimpedance Monitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondra, Vlastimil; Halámek, Josef; Viščor, Ivo; Jurák, Pavel; Novák, M.; Lipoldová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2008), s. 73 ISSN 1556-7451. [World Congress on Heart Disease /14./. 26.07.2008-29.07.2008, Toronto] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : atrio -ventricular delay * resynchronization therapy * impedance cardiography * cardiac output Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  9. Identification of a potential toxic hot spot associated with AVS spatial and seasonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, O; Rodríguez, A; Blasco, J

    2009-04-01

    In risk assessment of aquatic sediments, much attention is paid to the difference between acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEMs) as indicators of metal availability. Ten representative sampling sites were selected along the estuary of the Guadalete River. Surficial sediments were sampled in winter and summer to better understand SEM and AVS spatial and seasonal distributions and to establish priority risk areas. Total SEM concentration (SigmaSEM) ranged from 0.3 to 4.7 micromol g(-1). It was not significantly different between seasons, however, it showed a significant difference between sampling stations. AVS concentrations were much more variable, showing significant spatial and temporal variations. The values ranged from 0.8 to 22.4 micromol g(-1). The SEM/AVS ratio was found to be <1 at all except one station located near the mouth of the estuary. The results provided information on a potential pollution source near the mouth of the estuary, probably associated with vessel-related activities carried out in a local harbor area located near the station.

  10. Nové elektronické knihy v Knihovně AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meixner, Jaroslav; Krouzová, Lucie

    -, č. 2 (2014) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Keywords : electronic books * Academy of Sciences Lib rary Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Lib rarianship, Information Studies http://www. lib .cas.cz/casopis-informace/nove-elektronicke-knihy-v-knihovne-av-cr/

  11. Impact of e-AV Biology Website for Learning about Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraini, Siti Hadiati; Choo, Koo Ah; Hin, Hew Soon; Hoon, Teoh Sian

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the design and development of a Website for Biology in senior high schools in Indonesia. The teaching media, namely e-AV Biology, was developed with the main features of video lessons and other features in supporting the students' learning process. Some video lessons describe the production process of Biofuel or Renewable…

  12. Problematika romské migrace v Etnologickém ústavu AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uherek, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2007), s. 1-7 ISSN 1335-3608 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : migration * Roma * Institute of Ethnology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.saske.sk/cas/3-2007/index.html

  13. ECG of the "Newborn" Mouse (Mus domesticus) with Specific Reference to Comparative AV Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tweel, L.H. van der; Strackee, J.; Stokhof, A.A.; Wassenaar, C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to record the ECG of the smallest living mammal to extend the domain of data for comparative AV-nodal electrophysiologic purposes. These data are needed to establish the relationship between the PR interval and heart size in mammalian species of all sizes. Methods

  14. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel RORα target gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Ulrika; Nilsson, Tina; McPheat, Jane; Stroemstedt, Per-Erik; Bamberg, Krister; Balendran, Clare; Kang, Daiwu

    2005-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-α (RORα) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that RORα regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that RORα also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of RORα increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and RORα also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate RORα transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPARα. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby RORα modulates lipid metabolism and implies RORα as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis

  15. HPCMP CREATE (trademark)-AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    30/2015 Oct 2008-Sep 2015 HPCMP CREATE™- AV Quality Assurance: Best Practices for Validating and Supporting Computation-Based Engineering Software...2) “Does this tool adequately perform any and all advertised capabilities?” This paper will describe how the HPCMP CREATE Air Vehicles ( AV ...discussed and their strengths and weaknesses within the CREATE- AV framework addressed. Work toward the HPCMP CREATE, Quality Assurance, Aviation

  16. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients.

  17. AV-1451 PET imaging of tau pathology in preclinical Alzheimer disease: Defining a summary measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shruti; Gordon, Brian A; Su, Yi; Christensen, Jon; Friedrichsen, Karl; Jackson, Kelley; Hornbeck, Russ; Balota, David A; Cairns, Nigel J; Morris, John C; Ances, Beau M; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2017-11-01

    Utilizing [18F]-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography (PET) as an Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker will require identification of brain regions that are most important in detecting elevated tau pathology in preclinical AD. Here, we utilized an unsupervised learning, data-driven approach to identify brain regions whose tau PET is most informative in discriminating low and high levels of [18F]-AV-1451 binding. 84 cognitively normal participants who had undergone AV-1451 PET imaging were used in a sparse k-means clustering with resampling analysis to identify the regions most informative in dividing a cognitively normal population into high tau and low tau groups. The highest-weighted FreeSurfer regions of interest (ROIs) separating these groups were the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, lateral occipital cortex, and inferior temporal cortex, and an average SUVR in these four ROIs was used as a summary metric for AV-1451 uptake. We propose an AV-1451 SUVR cut-off of 1.25 to define high tau as described by imaging. This spatial distribution of tau PET is a more widespread pattern than that predicted by pathological staging schemes. Our data-derived metric was validated first in this cognitively normal cohort by correlating with early measures of cognitive dysfunction, and with disease progression as measured by β-amyloid PET imaging. We additionally validated this summary metric in a cohort of 13 Alzheimer disease patients, and showed that this measure correlates with cognitive dysfunction and β-amyloid PET imaging in a diseased population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Videodokumentasjon ved gjennomføring av praktisk eksamen i sykepleie - hvordan kan dette forbedre studentens praksiske ferdigheter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjertrud Husøy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hensikten med studiet var å belyse hvordan videodokumentasjon av praktiske handlinger i sykepleie kunne brukes som evalueringordning av studenter. Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i et forskningsprosjekt for utprøving av nye lærings og evalueringsformer i bachelorutdanningen i sykepleie, der 13 studentgrupper gjennomførte sin praktiske eksamen ved innlevering av video av 16 utvalgte øvelser. Tradisjonell praktisk eksamen i samme studentkull ble gjennomført for 10 studentgrupper. Prosjektet er en kvalitativ kasusstudie og analyse er gjort etter inspirasjon av Giorgi‘s empiriske fenomenologi. Diskusjonen tar utgangspunkt i Vygotsky‘s sosiokulturelle syn på læring og Dewey‘s prinsipp om at all læring er basert på erfaring. Funnene er presentert i følgende deler: Første del omhandler videodokumentasjon og refleksjon. De to neste delene viser funn i forhold til mesterlæring og situert læring på vei mot forståelse av hva sykepleie er. Deretter er teknisk utfordringer belyst, og til slutt en drøfting av forhold ved oppøving av praktiske sykepleieferdigheter. Konklusjonen her er at video egner seg til å dokumentere sykepleiehandlinger. Dette har størst verdi for læring og refleksjon, i mindre grad som eksamensform.

  19. Site selection for disposal of nuclear waste - on what grounds? A report from hearings at the Council June 4-5 2008; Platsval foer slutfoervar av kaernavfall - paa vilka grunder? En rapport fraan kaernavfallsraadets utfraaning den 4-5 juni 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    As part of the Nuclear Waste Council's own knowledge-building on site selection, the Council organized a hearing on the what grounds site selection will be made. The public hearing, had several objectives: to contribute to knowledge building on site selection for Nuclear Waste Council and other actors, to contribute to an improved basis for site selection by clarifying the factors and values of importance, to clarify the different actors' expectations SKB's future accounting, to highlight how to deal with different aspects (safety, geological, environmental, infrastructural, socio-economic and democratic) instruments for site selection, and to identify operators of critical issues. The report is divided into the following sections: The Government's View on the upcoming Site Selection; the Site Selection Process, The View of the Local Communities on the Site Selection; the Current Status of the Selection Process, SKB's plans, the Site-Selection Factors; he Authorities' perspective; the Environmental Organizations perspective; Reflections of the Council on the Hearings; Discussion and Analysis of Key Issues related to Groundwater Flow, Final Discussion

  20. SSI's review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) report on large-scale groundwater flow modelling for eastern Smaaland in Sweden (SKB Report 06-64); SSI:s granskning av SKB:s storregionala grundvattenmodellering foer oestra Smaaland (SKB Rapport 06-64)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dverstorp, Bjorrn

    2007-09-15

    This report presents SSI's review of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's (SKB) report (SKB Report 06-64) on large-scale groundwater flow modelling for eastern Smaaland in Sweden. SSI review is supported by two external review documents (included as appendices). SSI's review is part of a government decided consultation process on SKB's site investigations aimed at finding a suitable site for a spent nuclear fuel repository. SSI considers that SKB has presented a comprehensive study that contributes to the scientific understanding of how different factors influence the regional groundwater flow pattern. However, in SSI's opinion, SKB's evaluation of the modelling results is not complete enough to support SKB's conclusion that super regional flow conditions can be dismissed as a siting factor. SSI therefore recommends SKB to supplement their study in that respect and also to discuss the implications of identified differences in radionuclide travel times and migration distances on the overall assessment of the repository's longterm protective capability. SSI also recommends SKB to revisit some of their modelling assumptions to ensure that the model is set up in a way that does not block out large groundwater circulation cells. SSI's recommendations in this review should be regarded as guidance to SKB. SSI will make a formal assessment of how SKB has taken into account different siting factors, in connection with the review of SKB's license application to be submitted in 2009.

  1. 'Finnova Development Group'. Comb Configurated Costumer-close Network Installations with Underground Service Boxes. Main solution 'Connection of Houses from a Distribution Chamber'; 'Finnova' Innovativ Montage och Systemloesning foer Fjaerrvaermeanslutning av Villaomraade. Huvudloesning 'Villanslutning fraan Foerdelningskammare'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundson, Tommy [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (SE)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    This report describes a technical solution for distribution of District Heating that has been given the name Finnova LTH. The general concept of Finnova LTH is based on a new kind of network configuration applied to residential areas with single family houses. In such areas, normally having a low heat load density, the houses are divided into groups of about 10, each group of 10 houses will be provided with a substation, in Finnova LTH called a distribution chamber. From this distribution chamber, groups of pipes, forming a kind of bundle, are leaving; each one of those groups supplying DH to one house. Each pipe group can be built up of 1, 2 or 4 pipes. In a case with 4 pipes, we in fact have a variation of the familiar '4 pipe design' principle. According to this principle, water for space heating as well as for tap water, is produced in a common station and distributed to a group of consumers. To be able to maintain the intended hot water temperature, such a system always includes a special piping for circulation of the hot water. The bundle of pipes leaving the distribution chamber will normally be installed under the sidewalk. For each building site (with an intended costumer) one pipe group leaves the bundle and heads toward the house in question. This means that the branches of conventional systems are replaced with such 'diversions'. In this way we will have one pipe, with the same diameter, and without joints or branching, all the way from the distribution chamber to the each costumers house. The number of houses served from one such distribution chamber may vary, depending on the geographical structure of the area in question and how the houses are distributed with respect to one another. Typically, one chamber may serve 10 houses. Two approaches are described in this report. They are referred to as 'generation 2' and 'generation 3', respectively. This is in line with the fact that the Finnova AF approach, described in Report 2, is referred to as 'generation 1' in our documentation. Some more approaches are dealt with in the patent specification presented as enclosure to this report. The essence of the Generation 2 approach is that, in an EPS-PEX solution (EPS slabs and PEX piping- or other types of suitable polymer pipes), replaces clamp connections and branchings with diversions as defined above. The PEX piping is mounted in a suitable number of layers inside an arrangement of EPS slabs to create a sturdy, closely composed design. In this way, the EPS slabs will act as a common thermal insulation shield for the uninsulated PEX piping. Furthermore, a new method for continuous running-out of the pipes - from the distribution chamber via the diversion points and to the houses- has been developed to increase the installation speed. A rough costs estimation indicates that Finnova LTH, and with the EPS-PEX solution meets the overall economical goal of the project, namely an investment sum of SEK 50 000/singel family house, VAT not included, and with the price level of 2003/2004. In Generation 3, relatively thin pipes, with superinsulation, are anticipated. The pipe insulation as such is vacuumised, which means that the heat losses, as compared with to day's prevailing PUR insulation, will be heavily reduced. Here it is of utmost importance to find ways to make sure that the vacuum prevails over the anticipated lifetime of the network. This work is for the time being focused upon and well under way. Generation 3 gives, in the long run, the best chances to radically reduce the sum of installation costs and costs for heat losses. Combining super insulation with the Finnova AF approach (see Report no 2 in the Finnova Development Group series) seems to be a natural and very promising 'next step' in exploring the possibilities for Finnova LTH. For one thing, it may make it possible to bring a prototype into full scale practical testing in a shorter time. Patents have been applied for regarding the 'spaghetti' configuration presented in Finnova LTH, together with a number of details linked to this configuration. However, none of the ideas linked to the Finnova LTH approach have yet been tested. Further information about Finnova LTH may be found in the patent pending documents.

  2. Business perspectives on 'Joint Implementation': A study of conditions for Swedish company participation in Joint Implementation under the Kyoto Protocol; Foeretagsperspektiv paa 'Joint Implementation'. En studie av foerutsaettningar foer svenska foeretags deltagande i Gemensamt genomfoerande under Kyotoprotokollet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstroem von Malmborg, Fredrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Borgstroem, Truls; Dethlefsen, Ulrika; Kling, Aasa [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    At present, suggestions as for how a JI system would be designed and implemented are being worked out on a national level in Sweden and other countries. An important question in international and national climate policy and thus in work related to JI is how to engage companies. In order to make companies interested in investing and participating in JI, the mechanisms must be compatible with the ways in which companies work. Hence, knowledge and concern of conditions for those who are supposed to implement the politics in practice would be a key issue for the institutions that shape climate policy and JI systems. Given this background and the present situation regarding JI, this report aims at providing a business perspective on the prerequisites for implementing JI in Sweden. The main question addressed in the report is: What would make Swedish companies participate in JI projects? The study underlying this report covered three workshops where representatives of in all 15 Swedish companies from different industry sectors, by working in group, determined and discussed opportunities and obstacles for participation of companies in JI as well as concrete measures as for enabling such participation. From the empirical data collected we have found that Swedish companies, if not directly opposed to JI, play a waiting game at present regarding investments and participation in specific JI projects. According to the data, companies would invest and participate in JI projects if and only if it is found to be the most competitive of different alternatives for the company to meet its carbon dioxide emission restrictions or a profitable project. The former condition applies for companies with considerable CO{sub 2} emissions, the latter for companies with low or no such emissions. However, JI is currently perceived of as risky and associated with large uncertainties. The perceived uncertainties associated with JI participation are mainly related to indistinct and ambiguous messages in the Swedish national climate policy. In addition could be mentioned ambiguities whether the Swedish state is interested in JI from a climate policy perspective or rather from technology export and development aid perspectives. Except for some Swedish state authorities, hardly any actor tells that companies could participate in JI. In a situation like the present, where no strong policy coalitions in the organisation fields of companies speak clearly in favour of JI, it appears to be a legitimate and strategically sound behaviour of Swedish companies to adopt a wait-and-see policy regarding JI. The level of knowledge about JI is relatively low in most companies today, and there is limited preparedness internally in most companies as for how to manage a JI project. There are also uncertainties concerning the external organisation of a JI project. What kinds of contacts and agreements with actors in the country where the project will be carried out will be required? The transaction specific investments of a JI project, e.g. costs for raising the internal competence and for creating and maintaining necessary contacts, may show to be very high. Analysing the empirical data in a framework of transaction cost theory indicates that JI is a less favourable alternative than internal measures for reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, at least at present. Regarding the creation of JI rules, the participating companies put forward a number of concrete suggestions. Among other things can be mentioned that companies that produce and provide emission reducing technology may consider participation in JI provided that their specific products are used in the JI project and that they are allowed to take part in the project from an early planning stage. Regarding companies with CO{sub 2} emissions, they only consider investments in projects within their industry branch. For companies acting on an international competitive market this implies that they are interested only in investing in JI projects in own industrial plants in the host country, if they have any. A corresponding restriction on participation in JI projects were not found in other CO{sub 2} emitting companies, e.g. energy companies, who act on more local markets although they active in many countries. Representatives of all companies and branches covered in our study asserted that their companies would only invest and participate in JI projects in countries where they are already working. However, countries that are prioritised in the effort to meet framework agreements between Sweden and potential host countries for Swedish JI projects are of low priority according to these companies. It should also be mentioned that many companies see a problem in JI-projects being exclusively focused upon climate issues when it comes to crediting. (abstract truncated)

  3. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Gasification with gas turbine/engine for power plants; Incl. English lang. appendix of 24 p. titled 'Status of large-scale biomass gasification for power production'; Inventering av framtidens el och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Foergasning med gasturbin/motor foer kraftvaerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldheim, Lars; Larsson, Eva K. (TPS Termiska Processer, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    This subproject is limited to applications with gas turbines or engines from approximately 1 MWe and firing of gas in a boiler either as indirect cofiring or as separate firing of gas from waste gasification. Gasification with gas engine, BIG-ICE (Biomass Integrated Gasification Internal-Combustion Engine) is realized in approximately 10 plants in Europe between 1 and 7 MWe. The gas needs to be cleaned from particles and tar before it is fed to the engine. A number of different gasifiers and gas cleaning technologies are applied in these prototypes, and in certain cases a second generation is being built. Gas engines from GE Jenbacher are most common, but there are also other producers with engines for low-calorific-value gas. The exhausts from engines must, unlike gas turbines, be cleaned catalytically, but emissions of hydrocarbons in particular are still higher than from gas turbines. It is possible to increase the electricity generation by applying a 'bottoming cycle' in the form of a steam or an ORC cycle. Such a plant with ORC has been started in Austria this year. During the 1990's expectations were high concerning the development of biomass gasification with gas turbine in a combined cycle BIG-CC (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) towards commercialisation. Two demonstration plants were built for the same gas turbine model, Siemens SGT 100 (earlier Typhoon); Vaernamo with pressurised gasification and ARBRE in Eggborough, England, with atmospheric gasification. The atmospheric technology has basically the same demands on gas cleaning as in the engine application, but downstream the gas is compressed to the pressure required by the gas turbine. In pressurised gasification, the gasifier pressure is set by the gas turbine. The gas is not cooled below 350-400 deg C and is cleaned in a high-temperature filter. Despite successful demonstration in Vaernamo, no more plants have been built. The ARBRE plant was never put into regular operation because of contract problems and a number of projects in Holland, Italy and Brazil never got to a construction phase. Indirect co-firing has been realised in a few plants where a CFB gasifier is combined with some cooling and cyclone particle removal. If gas cleaning before firing can be achieved, the technology is believed to have a bigger potential. That would mean that waste fuel or other fuels with high chlorine content can be used, and also that the treated gas can be used in an incineration plant without limiting the superheater temperature to the low levels, in relation to power plant boilers, that is used in waste boilers. This means that both the efficiency to electricity and the ratio between electricity and heat production can be increased, in relation to waste incineration. Improvements in performance during the time period in question require that initiatives are taken and that e.g. gas turbine manufacturers participate actively. The probability for this development is more difficult to assess. For BIG-ICE, the technology is assessed to reach 35-40 % electricity efficiency at the end of the period, i.e. 2025-2030, and the investment cost for bigger plants can be just below that of comparable conventional steam plants, perhaps 3 000 Euro/kWe for a complete plant. Completely commercial technology can be expected at the beginning of the 2020's. For BIG-CC the corresponding assessment is 45-50 % and 2500-3000 Euro/kWe. The route to commercial technology is longer in this case and plants on near commercial conditions cannot be expected until the end of the 2020's. For indirect co-firing it is a fact that lime kiln gasifiers and the gasifiers in Lahti, Ruien and Getruidenberg, without extensive gas cleaning, are in a commercial scale and that years of operation experiences already have been earned, also with waste fuels. The energy conversion to electricity uses existing infrastructure and therefore the adoption requirements are very limited. What remains to be demonstrated is that more extensive gas cleaning will work. MaelarEnergi plans to build a large was te gasification plant including gas cleaning that will be taken into operation in 2011. When the gas cleaning technology has been demonstrated and further improved, standalone plants realising firing of clean gas, and no or very little flue gas cleaning, can be introduced during the first half of the 2020's and see a breakthrough during the second half. The cost of such a plant has been estimated to just over 3000 Euro/kWe, including gas firing and power generation. This cost level is very attractive compared to new waste boilers. The same is true for indirect cofiring, where the cost, however, varies more depending on the existing boiler

  4. Model for calculation of benzene and 1,3-butadiene concentrations in ambient air from geographic information, including biofuel burning and traffic; Modell foer beraekning av bensen- och 1,3-butadienhalter i omgivningsluft utifraan geografisk information om bland annat biobraensleeldning och trafik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modig, Lars; Hagenbjoerk-Gustafsson, Annika; Jonsson, Lennart; Olsson, David; Forsberg, Bertil [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeaa (Sweden); Stroemgren, Magnus [Umeaa Univ., Faculty of Social Sciences, Dept. of Geography and Economic History, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply a type of statistical calculation model, 'Land Use Regression (LUR)', to predict the concentrations of air pollutants benzene and 1,3-butadiene in a number of urban areas with a high proportion of small-scale biofuel burning in and around Umeaa.

  5. Skladování energie – téma v hledáčku AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bendová, Magdalena; Hrubý, Jan; Chomát, Miroslav; Zima, Patrik

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 7-9 ISSN 1210-9525. [Technology Perspectives for Energy Storage. Praha, 30.11.2015] Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/3 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : energy storage * renewable energy sources * strategy AV21 initiative Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  6. The Unusual Resistance of Avian Defensin AvBD7 to Proteolytic Enzymes Preserves Its Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailleul, Geoffrey; Kravtzoff, Amanda; Joulin-Giet, Alix; Lecaille, Fabien; Labas, Valérie; Meudal, Hervé; Loth, Karine; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Gilbert, Florence B; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Brömme, Dieter; Schouler, Catherine; Landon, Céline; Lalmanach, Gilles; Lalmanach, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Defensins are frontline peptides of mucosal immunity in the animal kingdom, including birds. Their resistance to proteolysis and their ensuing ability to maintain antimicrobial potential remains questionable and was therefore investigated. We have shown by bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis of protein extracts that both avian beta-defensins AvBD2 and AvBD7 were ubiquitously distributed along the chicken gut. Cathepsin B was found by immunoblotting in jejunum, ileum, caecum, and caecal tonsils, while cathepsins K, L, and S were merely identified in caecal tonsils. Hydrolysis product of AvBD2 and AvBD7 incubated with a panel of proteases was analysed by RP-HPLC, mass spectrometry and antimicrobial assays. AvBD2 and AvBD7 were resistant to serine proteases and to cathepsins D and H. Conversely cysteine cathepsins B, K, L, and S degraded AvBD2 and abolished its antibacterial activity. Only cathepsin K cleaved AvBD7 and released Ile4-AvBD7, a N-terminal truncated natural peptidoform of AvBD7 that displayed antibacterial activity. Besides the 3-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet typical of beta-defensins, structural analysis of AvBD7 by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy highlighted the restricted accessibility of the C-terminus embedded by the N-terminal region and gave a formal evidence of a salt bridge (Asp9-Arg12) that could account for proteolysis resistance. The differential susceptibility of avian defensins to proteolysis opens intriguing questions about a distinctive role in the mucosal immunity against pathogen invasion.

  7. Longitudinal and cross-sectional structural magnetic resonance imaging correlates of AV-1451 uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sandhitsu R; Xie, Long; Wisse, Laura E M; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Tustison, Nicholas J; Dickerson, Bradford C; Yushkevich, Paul A; Wolk, David A

    2018-02-09

    We examined the relationship between in vivo estimates of tau deposition as measured by 18 F-AV-1451 tau positron emission tomography imaging and cross-sectional cortical thickness, as well as rates of antecedent cortical thinning measured from magnetic resonance imaging in individuals with and without evidence of cerebral amyloid in 63 participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, including 32 cognitively normal individuals (mean age 74 years), 27 patients with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 76.8 years), and 4 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (mean age 80 years). We hypothesized that structural measures would correlate with 18 F-AV-1451 in a spatially local manner and that this correlation would be stronger for longitudinal compared to cross-sectional measures of cortical thickness and in those with cerebral amyloid versus those without. Cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates of voxelwise atrophy were made from whole brain maps of cortical thickness and rates of thickness change. In amyloid-β-positive individuals, the correlation of voxelwise atrophy across the whole brain with a summary measure of medial temporal lobe (MTL) 18 F-AV-1451 uptake demonstrated strong local correlations in the MTL with longitudinal atrophy that was weaker in cross-sectional analysis. Similar effects were seen in correlations between 31 bilateral cortical regions of interest. In addition, several nonlocal correlations between atrophy and 18 F-AV-1451 uptake were observed, including association between MTL atrophy and 18 F-AV-1451 uptake in parietal lobe regions of interest such as the precuneus. Amyloid-β-negative individuals only showed weaker correlations in data uncorrected for multiple comparisons. While these data replicate previous reports of associations between 18 F-AV-1451 uptake and cross-sectional structural measures, the current results demonstrate a strong relationship with longitudinal measures of atrophy. These data

  8. 77 FR 41400 - AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of AV Solar Ranch 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  9. Specialized treatment for Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD): Treatment rationales and preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian

    and preliminary results from a specialized psychotherapy program developed for patients with AvPD treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre, Capital Region of Denmark. Methods: Treatment consists of individual therapy based on Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy (MIT) while group therapy is a modified form......½-years of therapy. We focus on how patients change in regards to important outcomes, including both acute symptoms and more personality based problems such as self-reflection, interpersonal problems and ability to describe feelings. Conclusions: Consistency of results with regard to theories about Av...... naturalistic study, we followed patients from start to end of psychotherapy on a range of self-report measures including the SCL-90-R, IIP-C, SIPP-118 and TAS-20. Results: In this preliminary report, we report findings from various time points of therapy: Baseline, 6 months, 12 months and after approximately 1...

  10. Varumärkesvärdering : Implementeringen av IAS 38 och IFRS 3

    OpenAIRE

    Calmfors, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Den 1:a januari 2005 infördes nya redovisningsregler gällande företagsförvärv. Samtliga svenska börsnoterade företag skall redovisa i enlighet med IFRS 3 Företagsförvärv och IAS 38 Immateriella tillgångar. De nya reglerna innebär bland annat att varumärken och andra immateriella tillgångar skall värderas separat från goodwill i balansräkningen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka effekten av IAS 38 på svenska företags redovisning av immateriella tillgångar, med fokus på varumärken. Studien ...

  11. Övervakning av switchar och övrig nätverksutrustning

    OpenAIRE

    Björknäs, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Mitt examensarbete har gått ut på att förena trafikgrafer och alarmering av nätverksutrustning som inte är nåbar till samma ställe, samt underlätta processen att lägga till eller ta bort en enhet från övervakningen. Tidigare har två olika program använts för uppgifterna, vilket betyder enheterna ska läggas till på två olika ställen samt att en del enheter inte har varit möjliga att övervaka där. I arbetet jämförde jag programmen Nagios, Icinga, openNMS och Observium. Vissa av dessa program va...

  12. Optimering av nanocellulosa för tillämpning som papperstyrkeadditiv

    OpenAIRE

    Englöf, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med projektet var att undersöka hur homogeniserings förhållanden (tryck antal passager och därmed energiinsatsen) vid framställning av MFC (mikrofibrillär cellulosa), från enzymatiskt förbehandlade pappersmassafibrer påverkar hållfastheten av papper förstärkt med MFC. Arbetsgivaren för projektet var Innventia och det laborativa arbetet har utförts i deras lokaler. Fördelen med att använda MFC som tillsats i papper är att arket blir starkare [1]. Detta medför att en mindre mängd materia...

  13. In vivo imaging of neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease using 18F-AV-1451 PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Allan K; Knudsen, Karoline; Lillethorup, Thea P; Landau, Anne M; Parbo, Peter; Fedorova, Tatyana; Audrain, Hélène; Bender, Dirk; Østergaard, Karen; Brooks, David J; Borghammer, Per

    2016-07-01

    The tau tangle ligand (18)F-AV-1451 ((18)F-T807) binds to neuromelanin in the midbrain, and may therefore be a measure of the pigmented dopaminergic neuronal count in the substantia nigra. Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Extrapolation of post-mortem data predicts that a ∼30% decline of nigral dopamine neurons is necessary to cause motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Putamen dopamine terminal loss at disease onset most likely exceeds that of the nigral cell bodies and has been estimated to be of the order of 50-70%. We investigated the utility of (18)F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography to visualize the concentration of nigral neuromelanin in Parkinson's disease and correlated the findings to dopamine transporter density, measured by (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography. A total of 17 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 16 age- and sex-matched control subjects had (18)F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography using a Siemens high-resolution research tomograph. Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease also received a standardized (123)I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography scan at our imaging facility. Many of the patients with Parkinson's disease displayed visually apparent decreased (18)F-AV-1451 signal in the midbrain. On quantitation, patients showed a 30% mean decrease in total nigral (18)F-AV-1451 volume of distribution compared with controls (P = 0.004), but there was an overlap of the individual ranges. We saw no significant correlation between symptom dominant side and contralateral nigral volume of distribution. There was no correlation between nigral (18)F-AV-1451 volume of distribution and age or time since diagnosis. In the subset of 12 patients, who also had a (123)I-FP-CIT scan, the mean total striatal dopamine transporter signal was decreased by 45% and the mean total (18)F-AV-1451 substantia nigra volume of distribution was decreased by 33% after

  14. Restaurang i vardagsrummet : En kvalitativ undersökning av fenomenet middagsklubbar

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderheim, Karin

    2012-01-01

    I följande studie undersöks fenomenet middagsklubbar, ett slags hemma-hos-restauranger där matglada amatörkockar bjuder in okända människor på middag i sitt hem. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka som lockas av att driva och besöka middagsklubbar samt varför fenomenet blir alltmer populärt i det senmoderna samhället. Materialet utgörs av kvalitativa djupintervjuer med fyra personer som själva driver middagsklubbar. Genom innehållsanalys hittades gemensamma teman, vilka sedan analyserad...

  15. Clapping hands : En analys av emojis i politisk kommunikation på Instagram

    OpenAIRE

    Junefjäll, Jonathan; Nurro, Linnéa

    2017-01-01

    Emojis är ett digitalt uttryckssätt baserade på smileys och emoticons som introducerades i smarta telefoner under 2011 och har sedan dess blivit en integrerad del av många människors vardagliga kommunikation. De används också i politisk kommunikation på sociala medier på samma sätt som en del i ett modernt uttryckssätt. Den här undersökningen tittar på 557 emojis i 300 inlägg gjorda av tre ledande politiska partier – Høyre i Norge, Socialdemokraterna i Sverige och Venstre i Danmark. Syftet är...

  16. Multifaktormodeller på den svenska marknaden - En studie av OMX Stockholm mellan 1996 och 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hammarfrid, Peter; Henningsson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrund:CAPM räcker i flera tillfällen inte till för att estimera framtida avkastning. Vissa av prisavvikelsernafrån CAPM är väldokumenterade och har bestått över tid, vilket har lett till uppkomsten avkorrigerande faktorer. En modell som använder sig av två sådana korrigerande faktorer är Fama ochFrenchs tre-faktormodell. Den har testats flertalet gånger på den svenska marknaden där den visat gehögre förklaringsgrader än CAPM. År 2012 samt år 2014 presenterades två nya multifaktormodeller,s...

  17. Förbättring av tjänsteleverans för konsultbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Martin; Törnvall, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Lönsamheten för konsultbolag är beroende av antalet timmar konsulter arbetar vad gäller leveranser i kunduppdrag. Att timmar ej levereras på grund av sjukdom eller överbeläggning påverkar resultatet för bolaget. Konsultbolag där konsulter samma vecka arbetar mot olika kunder och uppdrag, kan ha svårt att synliggöra och följa upp leveranserna vilket kan resultera i inkomstbortfall och försenade leveranser. Hypotesen för detta examensarbete är att visualisering och uppföljning minskar risken ti...

  18. Apoio financeiro oferecido por avós a netos adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro Ventura Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Através de uma revisão bibliográfica sistemática da literatura analisou-se a relação entre avós e netos adolescentes com foco nas diferentes formas de apoio financeiro oferecido pelos avós. O levantamento, através das bases de dados eletrônicas MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS e SciELO, foi concluído com  07 citações afins. Foram identificadas as relações em que o apoio financeiro assumiu papel importante na relação entre ambos os sujeitos, sugerindo compor um estilo de exercer a avosidade.   

  19. Detektion av “troll” i Twitterflöden med hjälp av klusteralgoritm : Metod för att detektera personer som sprider desinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef, Andy; Lansner, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sociala medier har alltid varit en plats där personer kan diskutera fritt om sina åsikter och dela nyheter med många. Lätt spridning av nyheter från alla hörn i världen kan komma vara användbart för att ha möjlighet att få opartiska nyheter. Även om det finns klara fördelar med exempelvis Twitter så kan det vara problematiskt med falska och uppgjorda nyheter. Ryktesspridning eller uppgjorda nyheter förekommer i stor utsträckning fortfarande, här testas metod(er) för att upptäcka vilka som kan...

  20. Pedagogiske lederes erfaringer med og forebygging av begynnende mobbeatferd i barnehagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Alfsvåg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Special education Studiens tema er barns begynnende mobbeatferd, og hvordan dette erfares og forebygges av fire pedagogiske ledere i barnehager. Teoretiske perspektiver som belyser temaets perspektiver og kompleksitet er begrepene vold eller mobbing (Isdal, Andreassen & Thilesen, 2003), mobbing i barnehagen (Falck, 2013 og Størksen, 2013), aggresjonsperspektivet (Roland, 2011 og Olweus, 1993), ulike tiltak som kan iverksettes som tidlig innsats (Tremblay, 2010), verdien ...

  1. Frihet & struktur : en kvalitativ studie av skolelivskvalitet hos ungdom med Tourette syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Siverts, Torstein

    2005-01-01

    Sammendrag. Tittel: Skolelivskvalitet hos ungdom med Tourette Syndrom Med bakgrunn i egen erfaring fra arbeid med elever med Tourette Syndrom i grunnskolen, og i studier i spesialpedagogisk teori og empiri, etterstrebes det i denne studien å utvikle økt forståelse for hva slags erfaringer fra og perspektiver på sitt skoleliv elever med denne funksjonshemmende lidelsen har. Med grunnlag i analyser av intervjuer med elever om deres erfaringer og perspektiver, har jeg prøvd å b...

  2. Språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen - fra kontrovers til kompromiss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassira Essahli Vik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Språkkartlegging i barnehagen er et konfliktfylt felt som preges av enten/eller tenkning. På den ene siden ser kartleggingstilhengerne ut til å ha en positivistisk tro på at kartlegging kan bidra til løsninger på alt fra enkeltbarns behov for hjelp, til tilrettelegging for livslang læring og sosial utjevning. På den andre siden ser kartleggingsskeptikerne ut til å befinne seg innenfor den nordiske barnehagemodellen, som tradisjonelt bygger på et helhetlig syn på læring og på en sterk vektlegging av barndommens egenverdi. Spenningen kan ha store konsekvenser for praksisfeltet. I denne artikkelen drøfter jeg språkkartleggingsdiskursen i lys av teori om vitenskapelige kontroverser og konkluderer med at det er åpning for kompromisser, men også at det er tendenser i diskursen som snarere kan forsterke enn redusere uenigheten om språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen. Mapping of language skills in early childhood education and care (ECEC institutions is controversial. On the one hand, there are those who support language mapping based on a belief that mapping and measuring can help language acquisition and facilitate lifelong learning and social integration. On the other hand, there are skeptics who oppose mapping and emphasize the values of childhood. This article discusses the discourses on language mapping in light of theories on scientific controversies. Based on the analysis I find that although there are openings for compromises, it seems that tendencies in the discourse may amplify rather than reduce the controversy on the language mapping of multilingual children in Norwegian ECEC institutions.

  3. A.V. Usova's Contribution to the Field of Concept Learning in Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavoruk, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    A.V. Usova (1921-2014) has always been one of the leading figures in Russian physics education. Her theory of physics concept formation was formulated during the 1970s and the 1980s and directly influenced the process of physics education in the 20th and the 21st century. Over the years there have been a lot of theories of concept formation. Her…

  4. Kjemiske og biokjemiske studier av den maliske medisinplanten Terminalia macroptera : Etnofarmakologiske studier i Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Anh Thu

    2009-01-01

    Blader fra den vest-afrikanske planten Terminalia macroptera ble ekstrahert suksessivt med diklormetan og metanol. Disse utgjorde råekstraktene, som var utgangspunkt for videre separasjon og fraksjonering ved hjelp av væske-væske ekstraksjon, kolonnekromatografi og tynnsjiktskromatografi. De isolerte forbindelsene ble strukturoppklart ved 1H-, 13C-, APT- og COSY NMR-spektroskopi. Shikimisyre, flavonoidglykosidene rutin og narcissin, og ellagitanninet corilagin ble isolert fra butanol-fasen...

  5. Med sjefen på Facebook: En studie av ledere som er "venner" med sine ansatte

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    MR690 Masteroppgave i organisasjon og ledelse - utdanningsledelse Formålet med studien er å belyse hvordan aktiv bruk av sosiale medier, i dette tilfellet Facebook, påvirker relasjoner mellom mennesker. Hva skjer når en tar i bruk en websjanger som i utgangspunktet er umiddelbar og uformell, til jobbrelatert og mer formell kommunikasjon? Er det sjangeren eller relasjonen som endres? Søkelyset rettes mot ledere som er “venner” med sine medarbeidere, og problemstillingen er...

  6. Performance comparison of AV1, HEVC, and JVET video codecs on 360 (spherical) video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topiwala, Pankaj; Dai, Wei; Krishnan, Madhu; Abbas, Adeel; Doshi, Sandeep; Newman, David

    2017-09-01

    This paper compares the coding efficiency performance on 360 videos, of three software codecs: (a) AV1 video codec from the Alliance for Open Media (AOM); (b) the HEVC Reference Software HM; and (c) the JVET JEM Reference SW. Note that 360 video is especially challenging content, in that one codes full res globally, but typically looks locally (in a viewport), which magnifies errors. These are tested in two different projection formats ERP and RSP, to check consistency. Performance is tabulated for 1-pass encoding on two fronts: (1) objective performance based on end-to-end (E2E) metrics such as SPSNR-NN, and WS-PSNR, currently developed in the JVET committee; and (2) informal subjective assessment of static viewports. Constant quality encoding is performed with all the three codecs for an unbiased comparison of the core coding tools. Our general conclusion is that under constant quality coding, AV1 underperforms HEVC, which underperforms JVET. We also test with rate control, where AV1 currently underperforms the open source X265 HEVC codec. Objective and visual evidence is provided.

  7. Characterisation of human AV-nodal properties using a network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Mikael; Sandberg, Frida

    2018-02-01

    Characterisation of the AV-node is an important step in determining the optimal form of treatment for supraventricular tachycardias. To integrate and analyse patient-specific measurements, mathematical modelling has emerged as a valuable tool. Here we present a model of the human AV-node, consisting of a series of interacting nodes, each with separate dynamics in refractory time and conduction delay. The model is evaluated in several scenarios, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and clinical pacing, using simulated and measured data. The model is able to replicate signals derived from clinical ECG data as well as from invasive measurements, both under AF and pacing. To quantify the uncertainty in parameter estimation, 1000 parameter sets were sampled, showing that model output similar to data corresponds to limited regions in the model parameter space. The model is the first human AV-node model to capture both spatial and temporal dynamics while being efficient enough to allow interactive use on clinical timescales, as well as parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification. As such, it fills a new niche in the current set of published models and forms a valuable tool for both understanding and clinical research.

  8. Las enfermedades infecciosas y su importancia en el sector avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Andrés Jaimes Olaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del contexto de un país cuyas mejores capacidades se encuentran en el sector agropecuario, la industria avícola se ha convertido en uno de los sectores más promisorios y de mayor crecimiento en Colombia. Por esta razón, actualmente se vienen implementando programas para el mejoramiento de la calidad de los productos avícolas, con el objetivo no solo de mantener el crecimiento de la industria,sino de poder expandir las fronteras de exportación. Sin embargo, la avicultura enfrenta un gran reto encuanto a su producción, debido a que las enfermedades infecciosas que afectan a las aves continúan siendo una problemática importante del sector, aun por encima de la alimentación y la genética. En este artículo se presentan elementos de relevancia referentes a la industria avícola, así como en relación con las enfermedades de control oficial y algunas de las enfermedades infecciosas que más la aquejan, enfatizando en la importancia de la intervención en el manejo y control de dichas enfermedades.

  9. "Kven er det som skriv?" Skriveren i romanen Naustet av Jon Fosse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Reinhoff

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Når det gjelder romanen Naustet av Jon Fosse er det ikke tvil om at det blant annet – og kanskje hovedsaklig – er „dette noko / skrifta berettar om“. Det er derfor denne romanen også kan kalles for en metaroman. Tematiseringen av skriveren og skriveprosessen i romanen tar ikke bare mye plass på historienivå: Den gjennomsyrer romanen. Nært forbundet med denne tematikken er et fenomen jeg ville kalle for „dobbeltperspektivet i romanen“, og det er dette jeg vil se litt nærmere på her. Selv om romanen Naustet – i god postmoderne tradisjon – i siste – og kanskje allerede i første – instans unndrar seg en fast og entydig tilskrivning av betydning – og slik bevarer sin magi – skal jeg prøve å nærme meg skriveren og dobbeltperspektivet „eit stykke på veg“. Men først et par ord om begrepet skriver.

  10. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  11. Frequency-dependent electrophysiological remodeling of the AV node by hydroalcohol extract of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) during experimental atrial fibrillation: the role of endogenous nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khori, Vahid; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Rakhshan, Elnaz; Mirabbasi, Abbas; Changizi, Shima; Mazandarani, Masumeh; Nayebpour, Mohsen

    2012-06-01

    The study assessed the hydroalcohol extract effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on (i) the basic and rate-dependent electrophysiological properties of the AV node, (ii) remodeling of the AV node during experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) and (iii) the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of saffron on the AV node. Stimulation protocols in isolated AV node were used to quantify AV nodal recovery, facilitation and fatigue in four groups of rabbits (n = 8-16 per group). In addition, the nodal response to AF was evaluated at multiple cycle lengths and during AF. Saffron had a depressant effect on AV nodal rate-dependent properties; further, it increased Wenckebach block cycle length, functional refractory period, facilitation and fatigue (p AV node (p AV node during AF by saffron. Saffron increased the AV nodal refractoriness and zone of concealment. These depressant effects of saffron were mediated by endogenous NO. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Marknadsföring av Corporate Social Responsibility : En studie i Generation Y:s attityder till CSR samt attityder till marknadsföring av CSR inomsnabbmatsbranschen i Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Pahkamaa, Tobias; Hamrin, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Denna uppsats undersöker konsumentgrupp Generation Y:s attityd till Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR) samt marknadsföring av CSR. Vidare undersöks i uppsatsen Generation Y:sattityder till CSR samt marknadsföring av CSR gällande detaljister inom snabbmatsbranschen iSverige. Uppsatsens teoribildning baseras på teorier om attityder från framförallt Fishbein ochAjzen (1975), samt teorier om CSR och marknadsföring av CSR. Teorin knyts samman i enanalysmodell baserad på Wang och Andersons (2011)...

  13. Non-physiological increase of AV conduction time in sinus disease patients programmed in AAIR-based pacing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabo, Philippe; Cebron, Jean-Pierre; Solnon, Aude; Tassin, Aude; Graindorge, Laurence; Gras, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The EVOCAV(DS) trial aimed to quantify the paradoxal atrioventricular (AV) conduction time lengthening in sinus node (SD) patients (pts) paced in AAIR-based pacing mode. SD pts, implanted with dual-chamber pacemaker programmed in AAIR-based pacing mode, were randomized in two arms for a 1-month period: the low atrial pacing (LAP; basic rate at 60 bpm, dual sensor with minimal slope) and the high atrial pacing (HAP; basic rate at 70 bpm, dual sensor with optimized slope, overdrive pacing) arm. At 1 month, crossover was performed for an additional 1-month period. AV conduction time, AV block occurrence and AV conduction time adaptation during exercise were ascertained from device memories at each follow-up. Seventy-nine pts participated to the analysis (75 ± 8 years; 32 male; PR = 184 ± 38 ms; bundle branch block n = 12; AF history n = 36; antiarrhythmic treatment n = 53; beta-blockers n = 27; class III/Ic n = 18; both n = 8). The mean AV conduction time was significantly greater during the HAP (275 ± 51 ms) vs. LAP (263 ± 49 ms) period (p AV blocks occurred in 49 % of pts in the HAP vs. 19 % in the LAP period (p AV conduction time during exercise. AAIR-based pacing in SD pts may induce a significant lengthening of pts' AV conduction time, including frequent abnormal adaptation of AV conduction time during exercise.

  14. Validating novel tau positron emission tomography tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (T807) on postmortem brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Normandin, Marc D; Vanderburg, Charles R; Costantino, Isabel M; Bien, Elizabeth A; Rycyna, Lisa G; Klunk, William E; Mathis, Chester A; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Debnath, Manik L; Vasdev, Neil; Dickerson, Bradford C; Gomperts, Stephen N; Growdon, John H; Johnson, Keith A; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    To examine region- and substrate-specific autoradiographic and in vitro binding patterns of positron emission tomography tracer [F-18]-AV-1451 (previously known as T807), tailored to allow in vivo detection of paired helical filament-tau-containing lesions, and to determine whether there is off-target binding to other amyloid/non-amyloid proteins. We applied [F-18]-AV-1451 phosphor screen autoradiography, [F-18]-AV-1451 nuclear emulsion autoradiography, and [H-3]-AV-1451 in vitro binding assays to the study of postmortem samples from patients with a definite pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-tau, frontotemporal lobar degeneration-transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43), progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and elderly controls free of pathology. Our data suggest that [F-18]-AV-1451 strongly binds to tau lesions primarily made of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer brains (eg, intraneuronal and extraneuronal tangles and dystrophic neurites), but does not seem to bind to a significant extent to neuronal and glial inclusions mainly composed of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy brains or to lesions containing β-amyloid, α-synuclein, or TDP-43. [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding to neuromelanin- and melanin-containing cells and, to a lesser extent, to brain hemorrhagic lesions was identified. Our data suggest that [F-18]-AV-1451 holds promise as a surrogate marker for the detection of brain tau pathology in the form of tangles and paired helical filament-tau-containing neurites in Alzheimer brains but also point to its relatively lower affinity for lesions primarily made of straight tau filaments in non-Alzheimer tauopathy cases and to the existence of some [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding. These findings provide important insights for interpreting in vivo patterns of [F-18]-AV-1451 retention

  15. The tau positron-emission tomography tracer AV-1451 binds with similar affinities to tau fibrils and monoamine oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, Céline; Motte, Philippe; Viot, Delphine; Mairet-Coello, Georges; Courade, Jean-Philippe; Citron, Martin; Mercier, Joël; Hannestad, Jonas; Gillard, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Lilly/Avid's AV-1451 is one of the most advanced tau PET tracers in the clinic. Although results obtained in Alzheimer's disease patients are compelling, discrimination of tracer uptake in healthy individuals and patients with supranuclear palsy (PSP) is less clear as there is substantial overlap of signal in multiple brain regions. Moreover, accurate quantification of [ 18 F]AV-1451 uptake in Alzheimer's disease may not be possible. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro binding of AV-1451 to understand and identify potential off-target binding that could explain the poor discrimination observed in PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 and AV-1451 were characterized in in vitro binding assays using recombinant and native proteins/tissues from postmortem samples of controls and Alzheimer's disease and PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 binds to multiple sites with nanomolar affinities in brain homogenates and to tau fibrils isolated from Alzheimer's disease or PSP patients. [ 3 H]AV-1451 also binds with similarly high affinities in brain homogenates devoid of tau pathology. This unexpected binding was demonstrated to be because of nanomolar affinities of [ 3 H]AV-1451 for monoamine oxidase A and B enzymes. High affinity of AV-1451 for monoamine oxidase proteins may limit its utility as a tau PET tracer in PSP and Alzheimer's disease because of high levels of monoamine oxidase expression in brain regions also affected by tau deposition, especially if monoamine oxidase levels change over time or with a treatment intervention. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Multimodal correlation of dynamic [18F]-AV-1451 perfusion PET and neuronal hypometabolism in [18F]-FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Jochen; Leuwer, Isabel; Bischof, Gérard N; Drzezga, Alexander; van Eimeren, Thilo

    2017-12-01

    Cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [18F]-FDG PET is a well established marker of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegeneration. The tau-protein tracer [18F]-AV-1451 PET is currently under evaluation and shows promising results. Here, we assess the feasibility of early perfusion imaging with AV-1451 as a substite for FDG PET in assessing neuronal injury. Twenty patients with suspected neurodegeneration underwent FDG and early phase AV-1451 PET imaging. Ten one-minute timeframes were acquired after application of 200 MBq AV-1451. FDG images were acquired on a different date according to clinical protocol. Early AV-1451 timeframes were coregistered to individual FDG-scans and spatially normalized. Voxel-wise intermodal correlations were calculated on within-subject level for every possible time window. The window with highest pooled correlation was considered optimal. Z-transformed deviation maps (ZMs) were created from both FDG and early AV-1451 images, comparing against FDG images of healthy controls. Regional patterns and extent of perfusion deficits were highly comparable to metabolic deficits. Best results were observed in a time window from 60 to 360 s (r = 0.86). Correlation strength ranged from r = 0.96 (subcortical gray matter) to 0.83 (frontal lobe) in regional analysis. ZMs of early AV-1451 and FDG images were highly similar. Perfusion imaging with AV-1451 is a valid biomarker for assessment of neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Radiation exposure and complexity of the diagnostic workup could be reduced significantly by routine acquisition of early AV-1451 images, sparing additional FDG PET.

  17. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and AV optimization increase myocardial oxygen consumption, but increase cardiac function more than proportionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Andreas; Pabari, Punam A; Mayet, Jamil; Peters, Nicholas S; Davies, D Wyn; Lim, P Boon; Lefroy, David; Hughes, Alun D; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Francis, Darrel P; Whinnett, Zachary I

    2014-02-01

    The mechanoenergetic effects of atrioventricular delay optimization during biventricular pacing ("cardiac resynchronization therapy", CRT) are unknown. Eleven patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent invasive measurements of left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, aortic flow velocity-time-integral (VTI) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) at 4 pacing states: biventricular pacing (with VV 0 ms) at AVD 40 ms (AV-40), AVD 120 ms (AV-120, a common nominal AV delay), at their pre-identified individualised haemodynamic optimum (AV-Opt); and intrinsic conduction (LBBB). AV-120, relative to LBBB, increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 11(SEM 2)%, p=0.001, and aortic VTI by 11(SEM 3)%, p=0.002, but also increased MVO2 by 11(SEM 5)%, p=0.04. AV-Opt further increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 2(SEM 1)%, p=0.035 and aortic VTI by 4(SEM 1)%, p=0.017. MVO2 trended further up by 7(SEM 5)%, p=0.22. Mechanoenergetics at AV-40 were no different from LBBB. The 4 states lay on a straight line for Δexternal work (ΔLV developed pressure × Δaortic VTI) against ΔMVO2, with slope 1.80, significantly >1 (p=0.02). Biventricular pacing and atrioventricular delay optimization increased external cardiac work done but also myocardial oxygen consumption. Nevertheless, the increase in cardiac work was ~80% greater than the increase in oxygen consumption, signifying an improvement in cardiac mechanoenergetics. Finally, the incremental effect of optimization on external work was approximately one-third beyond that of nominal AV pacing, along the same favourable efficiency trajectory, suggesting that AV delay dominates the biventricular pacing effect - which may therefore not be mainly "resynchronization". © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pastorer i trosbevegelsen : en studie av to norske pastorer sin autoritetsforståelse og rolleforståelse

    OpenAIRE

    Bryne, Jarle

    2007-01-01

    Masteroppgave i kristendomskunnskap - Universitetet i Agder 2007 Jeg har valgt bevisst et omfattende sammendrag. Sammendraget er utformet med tanke på at det skal være mulig for leseren å få et inntrykk av mine resultater i prosjektet uten at leseren trenger å lese hele prosjektet. Jeg har laget et sammendrag fra hvert kapittel. Kapittel 1: Prosjektet mitt handler om undersøkelser av to sentrale ledere i trosbevegelen. Henholdsvis Åge Åleskjær som er leder av Oslo Kristne Senter på Kjel...

  19. Lean Construction applicerat på betongkonstruktion : The Last Planner och visuell metodik för reducering av produktionstidsvariationer

    OpenAIRE

    Udroiu, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrunden till detta examensarbete är byggföretagens utmaningar med att bedriva byggprojekt där nya och unika objekt skall konstrueras, med många nya förutsättningar och allt som oftast även en ny sammansättning av personalstyrkan. Ett gemensamt behov för dessa byggprojekt är att effektivt kunna hantera en mängd av olika och nya variationer. Oden anläggningsentreprenad AB presenterade ett problem gällande oönskade variationer av produktionstider för betongmonoliter som innefattar mycket repe...

  20. E-læring som pedagogisk virkemiddel for innlæring av anatomi, fysiologi og biokjemi i sykepleierutdanningen

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Mona Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Utgangspunktet for studien er at naturvitenskaplige fag, særlig anatomi, fysiologi og biokjemi (AFB), oppleves som vanskelig for sykepleierstudentene. Hensikten var å undersøke om læringsverktøyet e-læring, i form av nettester, kan være et effektivt virkemiddel til innlæring av og påvirke læringsutbyttet i AFB.Førsteårsstudentene i bachelorutdanningen i sykepleie ved Høgskolen i Akershus fikk et spørreskjema med 23 spørsmål som ble besvart anonymt.Resultatet av studentundersøkelsen viste at n...

  1. 3D-skanning og 3D-printing som metode for produksjon av prøvehylser til overekstremiteter

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielsen, Kristine Falk

    2017-01-01

    Den tradisjonelle metoden å produsere prøvehylser til proteser på innebærer en gipsavstøpning av amputasjonsstumpen før oppvarmet, gjennomsiktig termoplast trekkes over gipsavstøpningen ved hjelp av vakuum. Prosessen tar lang tid og krever at pasienten besøker klinikken flere ganger før prøvehylsen er klar. Målet med oppgaven er å avdekke om 3D-skanning og 3D-printing kan lønne seg tids- og kostnadsmessig som metode for produksjon av prøvehylser til overekstremiteter, samtidig som det gir et ...

  2. Intervensjonsstudien "Forebyggelse av lårhalsbrudd". Metode og praktisk gjennomføring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Kvaavik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  Bakgrunn  3 kan forebygge brudd blant sykehjemsbeboere. Her beskrivesmetoden og den praktiske gjennomføringen av studien.Metode  mg vitamin D daglig som 5 ml tran og kontrollgruppa fikk 5 ml tran der vitamin D var fjernet. Endepunktenevar lårhalsbrudd og alle ikke-vertebrale brudd. Et enkelt studieopplegg ble vektlagt. På bakgrunnav styrkeberegningen var målsetningen å inkludere ca. 2000 deltakere.Resultater  Konklusjon  The intervention study”Prevention of hip fractures”. Nor J Epidemiol 2000; 10 (1: 79-85.  Background  3 can prevent suchfractures. Here we present the method and the implementation of the study.Method  mg vitamin D daily in 5 ml cod liver oil for 2 years and the control group received 5 ml cod liver oilwithout vitamin D. The endpoints were hip fractures and all non-vertebral fractures. It was consideredimportant to use a trial that the nursing homes would find easy to implement. According to power calculationthe aim was to include about 2000 participants.Results  Conclusion  : The participation was lower than expected as recruiting nursing homes and nursing homeresidents posed considerable difficulty. However, the great majority of the ward staff at the participatingwards did not find the intervention demanding. A total of 1144 was included in the study.: A total of 1144 residents from 51 nursing homes (of 106 invited in Oslo, Lier and Bergen participated.The participation rate at the individual nursing home varied from 3 to 57%. The participants were85 years old and 3/4 were women. Mean calcium intake from cheese and milk was 450 mg/day, more than40% used a vitamin D supplement while only 3% used a calcium supplement. 1/3 of the participants completedthe 2 years intervention, about 1/3 finished the intervention before 2 years because of death and 1/3finished before 2 years of other causes. The great majority of the wards did not find the interventiondemanding.: A randomised, double

  3. Att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning : erfarenheter av stöd och av att vara professionell stödjare.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Britt-Marie

    2005-01-01

    Avhandlingens övergripande syfte är att tolka och beskriva innebörder av stöd, utifrån att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning och att vara professionella stödjare. Datainsamling har skett i form av berättande intervjuer med 39 föräldrar (23 mödrar och 16 fäder) och 9 professionella (7 kvinnor, 2 män) från olika verksamheter. Samtliga intervjuer har analyserats med hjälp av fenomenologisk hermeneutisk metod. Innebörder av att vara förälder till barn med funktionsnedsättning (stud...

  4. Brain uptake of a non-radioactive pseudo-carrier and its effect on the biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianying; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Aifang; Han, Jie; Zhu, Lin; Kung, Hank F; Qiao, Jinping

    2015-07-01

    9-[(18)F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([(18)F]AV-133) is a new PET imaging agent targeting vesicular monoamine transporter type II (VMAT2). To shorten the preparation of [(18)F]AV-133 and to make it more widely available, a simple and rapid purification method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) instead of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The SPE method produced doses containing the non-radioactive pseudo-carrier 9-hydroxypropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (AV-149). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the brain uptake of AV-149 by UPLC-MS/MS and its effect on the biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 in the brains of mice. The mice were injected with a bolus including [(18)F]AV-133 and different doses of AV-149. Brain tissue and blood samples were harvested. The effect of different amounts of AV-149 on [(18)F]AV-133 was evaluated by quantifying the brain distribution of radiolabelled tracer [(18)F]AV-133. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma were analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma exhibited a good linear relationship with the doses. The receptor occupancy curve was fit, and the calculated ED50 value was 8.165mg/kg. The brain biodistribution and regional selectivity of [(18)F]AV-133 had no obvious differences at AV-149 doses lower than 0.1mg/kg. With increasing doses of AV-149, the brain biodistribution of [(18)F]AV-133 changed significantly. The results are important to further support that the improved radiolabelling procedure of [(18)F]AV-133 using an SPE method may be suitable for routine clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Catheter ablation of pediatric AV nodal reentrant tachycardia: results in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Ulrich; Backhoff, David; Klehs, Sophia; Kriebel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Schneider, Heike E

    2015-11-01

    AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is commonly encountered in pediatric patients. Definite treatment can be achieved by catheter ablation. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AVNRT ablation focusing on children with a body weight ≤25 kg. Catheter ablation of AVNRT was attempted in 253 patients. Median age was 12.5 years; median body weight was 48.7 kg. 25 (9.9 %) children had a body weight ≤25 kg. Congenital heart disease was present in 6 patients (2.4 %). Procedural success was achieved in 98 % using radiofrequency, in 100 % using cryoenergy alone, and in 94 % using both energy sources. In patients with a body weight ≤25 kg, success was achieved in 96 %. In patients ≤25 kg, fluoroscopy and procedure duration did not differ from those >25 kg. The rate of major complications was significantly higher in the patients ≤25 kg (12 vs. 2.2 %, p = 0.04). Permanent AV block after RF ablation occurred in 2 patients with congenital heart disease and one infant with a body weight of 8.7 kg. Catheter ablation of AVNRT in children and adolescents was safe and effective. Infants and small children with a body weight ≤25 kg had a higher prevalence of serious complications. This should alert physicians in decision making toward catheter ablation in these patients. In patients with congenital heart disease and different anatomy of the cardiac conduction system, operators must be aware of an increased risk for AV block.

  6. Diskurzivna konstrukcija lokalnih živil rekoloniziranih držav kot "superživil"

    OpenAIRE

    Števanec, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo sodi na področje kritičnih diskurzivnih študij. Uporabimo dialektično-relacijski model kritične diskurzivne analize, kakor ga je razvil Norman Fairclough, da prikažemo p