WorldWideScience

Sample records for foer utvaerdering av

  1. Methodology - evaluation of strategies -and the system for taking care of spent nuclear fuel; Metodval - utvaerdering av strategier och system foer att ta hand om anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports 'Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, 'Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and 'Utvecklingen av KBS-3-metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete' ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the

  2. Evaluation of methods for characterizations of deposits; Utvaerdering av metoder foer avlagringsmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, J.; Bjoerkman, P. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    In boilers there are problems with deposits on parts exposed to the flue gas, in particular on heat exchanging parts and to an increasing extent with the changeover to the use of biofuels and wood waste fuels. In order to solve the problems deposits are examined by using a deposit probe and taking deposit samples from the interior of the boiler. In this report an evaluation of methods of analysis is performed based on experiences in both literature and laboratory work. The evaluation forms the basis of an instruction for deposit measurements in 'Vaermeforsks Maethandbok'. The procedure for use of deposit probes is treated as well as the importance of careful and well planned sample preparation before analysis. In the literature a large number of methods used for analysis of deposits from flue ashes and similar applications are found. The methods include chemical analyses of solids and liquids, analysis of crystal structures, thermal properties and the solid mechanics of the materials. Several methods, for example SEM-EDX, XRF, ICP, IC and methods for determining the mechanical and thermal properties are suited for a survey examination of a deposit, while more specialised methods with higher resolution can add information but require a clear framing of a question and in practice are suited for only separate samples. Examples from the latter category are AES, ESCA and TOF-SIMS.

  3. Evaluation of the Swedish biogas standard - basis for a future audit; Utvaerdering av svensk biogasstandard - underlag foer en framtida revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Mattias

    2011-04-15

    This report is intended to constitute a basis for a future revision of the SS 15 54 38, 'Motor fuels - Biogas as fuel for high-speed otto engines.' When it was published in 1999, it was not deemed appropriate to source compressed biomethane from landfill gas, because of its wider range of trace elements, often in relatively high concentrations, such as siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons. Siloxanes are also present in the gas from waste water treatment plants, but the assessment was made that upgrading methods available at the time reduced these levels sufficiently. By putting a maximum limit on the nitrogen content, landfill gas was effectively shut out. Technical Development (cryogenic upgrading making it possible to clean landfill gas to biomethane quality; stricter emissions standards for vehicles that has led to a higher level of sophistication in engine and aftertreatment technologies) has now made it necessary to better control the levels of all trace elements. The state of standardization is not satisfactory for CNG in general and renewable CNG (biomethane) in particular. Standardization at the international level is mostly qualitative. Most standards are at the national level and with the exception of Sweden biomethane is only standardized for injection on the natural gas network. A mandate (M/475, 2010) from the European Commission to develop the CEN standards for biomethane fed into the grid, or used directly as renewable CNG, may change this, and the issue will be addressed in a new committee (CEN/TC408 'Project Committee - Biogas for use in transportation and injection into natural gas pipelines'). A variety of trace elements has been discussed for inclusion in the new standards, where countries such as Holland and France stand out as supporters of more stringent and comprehensive regulations. This report's working group considers it like the regulation of substances such as siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons will lead to removal methods, which sufficiently lowers also the levels of many of the other trace elements discussed. With respect to microorganisms, it is likely that the current requirement of a 1 micron filter may be sufficient to reduce the levels of these to harmless levels. If pathogens would be present, then the absorbed dosage would be too small to constitute any real risk. Lowering the maximum level for total sulfur content is an important revision, because the high content of sulfur dioxide in exhaust gases has an inhibitory and aging impact on catalysts, with lean-burn engine applications as the most sensitive. It is clear that most of the sulfur has its origin in the odorization, THT being utilized in Sweden (tetrahydrothiophene, about 6 mg S/Nm3). More sulfur-poor and even sulfur-free alternatives are available on the market, where the sulfur-free option is a less likely candidate, due to its uncharacteristic odor. Siloxanes are suspected as accountable for many of the undiagnosed operational problems in NGV's, since they precipitate as solid silica during combustion. Problems with clogging of the lambda sensors have been attributed to the presence of elementary silicon in petrol. It is unknown whether similar problems might arise from the presence of siloxanes in compressed biomethane. Reported total concentrations of siloxanes after upgrading fall below 0.6 mg Si/Nm3. Whether to regulate volatile heavy metals such as mercury and arsenic or not is an issue that risks becoming a stumbling block in the discussions between the Swedish vehicle manufacturers, who want to see quantitative regulation of these, and the CNG industry, which believes that the level of these rarely reach above the detection level even in the raw gas, and even less so in upgraded gas. As in the case of siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons, a possible recourse is to standardize/certify according to substrate source, heavy metals being present in principle only in landfill gas. In addition to the biologically derived trace elements it is also evident that there is a need to more closely regulate the contents of oil and water. The fact is that most of the operational problems of NGV's may be attributed to elevated levels of these two substances. However, the biggest obstacle to solve in order to revise the current Swedish standard of biomethane is the lack of validated testing methods, such as for entrained oil in the gas and the halocarbons. SP has already today candidate testing methods that can be validated for the former two, and shortly the validation of the sampling and analysis of siloxanes will be finished.

  4. Alternative methods for evaluation of airtightness of the building envelope; Alternativa metoder foer utvaerdering av byggnadsskalets lufttaethet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Wahlgren, Paula

    2008-07-01

    Airtightness plays an important role when constructing energy efficient, sustainable and healthy buildings. In order to obtain airtight buildings, the airtightness needs to be evaluated during the construction phase. This enables improvements of the airtightness in an easy and cost-efficient way. During the construction phase, it is difficult to quantify the airtightness. However, detecting and sealing air leakages are good measures to improve the airtightness of the building. Several methods to detect air leakages are presented. A methodology to search for air leakages in buildings during construction has been developed, together with contractors and experts, and the methodology has been used at two building sites. The quantifiable airtightness of a building is determined by measuring the airflow that enters or exits the building at a certain pressure difference over the building envelope. In some cases it is not possible to measure air tightness according to standard. Therefore, a number of alternative methods have been evaluated. These methods include: extrapolation of measured data to a range used in standard measurements, using a buildings ventilation system fans to create a pressure difference over the building envelope, measuring the airtightness of a smaller part of the building (apartment, fire compartment or component) and tracer gas measurements

  5. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of candidate sites for the deep repository; Geovetenskapligt inriktat program foer undersoekning och utvaerdering av platser foer djupfoervaret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, Anders; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, R.; Follin, S.; Pettersson, Stig; Selroos, J.O

    2000-08-01

    Methods and technology for the geoscientific studies of the rock are the main subjects for this report, but programmes for studying the surface ecosystems and other conditions at the surface are also described.

  6. Evaluation of pine bark for treatment of water from biomass fueled plants; Utvaerdering av bark foer rening av vatten vid biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Christina; Hansson, Helen; Hansson, Soeren [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of pine bark are produced as a by-product from the pulp and forest industry. This makes pine bark available in large volumes to a relative low price. Pine bark has shown good absorption effect for organics pollutants, such as oil, in water and pine bark is used commercially as an oil absorbent. In a study the pine bark has also shown to have good absorption effects on heavy metals in water, in laboratory conditions. This indicates that pine bark also could be used as a natural absorbent for heavy metals in flue gas condensate and for leachate from biomass fuel storage. For the latter purpose the bark could be used as a combined heavy metal and oil absorber. In this project the pine barks ability to absorb heavy metals from flue gas condensate has been studied. The tests were performed using an untreated flue gas condensate, which was purified by using a basket filter with commercially available pine bark (trademark EcoBark) as absorbent. The bark filter has the same function as a tube reactor, which would imply that the absorption of heavy metals should be better than the laboratory tests. However, the results from the flue gas condensate tests showed much lower absorption of heavy metals than the laboratory tests. The only significant absorption levels were found for iron and mercury, which showed a reduction ratio of about 25 %. Other metals, such as lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, vanadium and zinc had a reduction ratio of about 10 %, which is quite low compared to the 98 % reduction for lead and about 80 % for copper and zinc that was achieved in the former laboratory tests. The most probable reason that the pine bark had a very low absorbent effect in the flue gas condensate is that the concentration of potassium and calcium restrains the ion exchange capacity of the pine bark. It is also likely that iron mainly is absorbed by the bark, while other metals only are separated as particles. Another possible reason for the rather poor absorption results in the flue gas condensate tests could be that iron affects the absorption of other metals. The water temperature could also have some influence on the results while the laboratory tests were performed at a considerably lower water temperature, 22 C. The flue gas condensate tests also included measurements of COD upstream and downstream the bark filter. The analyses shows that the COD concentration in the condensate upstream the filter is very low, 20-25 mg/litre, while the COD concentration downstream the filter is considerably higher, in the range 40 - 220 mg/litre. The COD before the filter probably originates from the small amount of char particles in the flue gas condensate and the increase of COD after the bark filter comes from humus that has been dissolved from the bark. The heavy metal absorption that has been analysed in the test with flue gas condensate should be comparable with heavy metal absorption from leachate from bio fuel storage, even if the water temperature in the latter case is lower.

  7. Evaluation of electrochemical techniques for measurement of fireside corrosion in thermal power plants; Utvaerdering av elektrokemiska tekniker foer maetning av roekgassidig hoegtemperaturkorrosion i pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorrnhede, Anders

    2007-12-15

    The possibility to measure the corrosion rate on-line, in situ, is getting more and more interesting due to increased corrosion. The worsening may be a result of lower fuel quality or increased steam data due to raised efficiency demands. Also the use of inhibitors can be improved and the lifetime of important components can be increased. Today, virtually all corrosion measurements of materials used for waterwalls, superheaters, economisers and other heat-transferring surfaces are based on in-situ probe tests of coupons or rings. The aim of the project is to evaluate the practicability of commercial or semicommercial on-line in-situ corrosion probes for use in waste fired boilers. The target groups are owners of boilers, operators, service personnel but also boiler manufacturer and material producers. Since the use of on-line, in situ, corrosion probes is substantial, some of the most promising corrosion probes have been tested in a waste fired boiler in Hamburg, Germany. Tests in waste fired boiler have never before been performed. The MECO CB, a Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR) corrosion probe from Coresto Oy, Finland was tested and from Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik und Anlagentechnik (LUAT) der Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Germany an Electrochemical Noise (EN) - probe was tested. From Pepperl + Fuchs both EN- and LPR-CorrTran corrosion sensors were tested. The test periods were lasting from 1050h to 3750h. The test materials were the low alloyed steel 15Mo3, the Ni-based super alloys Sanicro 63 and Haynes Hastelloy C-2000. The fluegas temperatures were 635 deg C or 520 deg C. The material temperatures were 440 deg C, 420 deg, 350 deg C and was swept from 400 deg C to 300 deg C. All probes are measuring a signal which has a correlation to the corrosion process, but the quantification procedure is not working well. The results achieved from the corrosion probes must be calibrated against corrosion rates measured by means of conventional corrosion probes in order to determine the exact corrosion rate. However, a correlation between the temperature and the corrosion rate exists. The practical use of the on-line corrosion probes is in use together with conventional corrosion probes. Either should the quality of the measured corrosion rates given from the corrosion probes increase or the post treatment of the data must be standardised in order to avoid different kind of influences on the results

  8. Evaluation and optimization of a method for pretreatment of sorted household wastes for biogas production; Utvaerdering och optimering av metod foer foerbehandling av kaellsorterat hushaallsavfall till biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)); Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden)); Eriksson, Ylva; Holmstroem, David (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    At NSR in Helsingborg, Sweden, organic household waste is digested and converted into biogas and bio-fertiliser. The incoming waste contains a small fraction of non-sorted waste such as plastics, metal and paper. These materials, especially plastics, can cause operational problems in the digester and pollution of the bio-fertiliser. In order to separate these particles from the digestion substrate, the waste requires pre-treatment. For two years, a screw press has been applied for pre-treating the waste at NSR. In the pre-treatment process, food waste is grounded and mixed with water to form a slurry. The slurry is separated into a dry fraction (reject) and a liquid fraction in the press. The liquid fraction is the digestion substrate and is sent to the digester while the reject is sent to combustion. Though, the separation in the screw press is not complete and thus organic, easily degradable matter ends up in the reject. In order to evaluate the efficiency in the screw press and to estimate the loss of easily degradable matter (and thus loss of methane), an assessment of the mass- and energy balances was carried out. The composition of the in- and outgoing fractions was analysed with the purpose of determining the distribution of organic material in the two outgoing fractions. The methane potential in the liquid fraction was compared with the methane potential in the slurry so as to estimate the loss of methane. The results of the mass balances showed that 63 % of the organic material that enters the screw press ends up in the liquid fraction and 37 % ends up in the reject. One ton of waste that enters the pre-treatment facility will eventually result in 1.5 tons of liquid and 0.2 tons of reject. Analysis of the composition was carried out in the slurry, the liquid fraction and the reject. These analyses showed that the liquid fraction contains a higher concentration of easily degradable matter such as fat and protein than the reject. In the incoming material, as well as in the reject, visual plastic objects and large fibres were present, while no visual large particles occurred in the liquid fraction. Analyses of the methane yield in the three streams showed that the liquid fraction has the highest methane potential. However, a considerable amount of methane can be produced from the reject and thus, a large amount of potential methane is lost in the present situation. Approximately 65 % of the methane that potentially can be produced in the slurry can be produced from the liquid fraction. Methane is a gas with a high energy value and can be converted to vehicle fuel. The energy in the reject is converted into heat and electricity when combusted in a combined heat and power plant. Just over 12 GWh of methane could be produced from digestion of the slurry. The corresponding energy production from the liquid fraction is 8 GWh. From combustion of the reject, almost 2 GWh of electricity can be produced and close to 4 GWh of heat. The total amount of energy that can be produced by applying the screw press is therefore larger when the screw press is applied. However, the energy in the gas is considered as a higher form of energy and the selectivity in the screw press should therefore be increased in order to achieve a higher methane production from the liquid fraction. Though, pre-treatment in the screw press gives benefits in terms of increased operational stability and a possibility to use the digestion sludge as a bio-fertiliser. A lab scale study was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of increasing the methane production from the liquid fraction. By increasing the temperature in the mixing tank, more fat can be dissolved in the liquid phase in the slurry and be separated to the liquid fraction. According to the results of the study, the energy production could increase with close to 40 % if the fat concentration in the liquid fraction is increased by 35 %. Experiments carried out with electroporation of the waste show that an increase of the dissolved organic matter can possibly be achieved but th at the energy input that is required exceeds the benefit. The conclusion is that the screw press is efficient in separating unwanted material but that improvements are required in order to minimise the loss of methane

  9. District heating for increased biogas production. Technical and economical evaluation of district heating as heating source in biogas processes; Fjaerrvaerme foer utoekad biogasproduktion. Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av fjaerrvaerme foer uppvaermning av biogasprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Per (AaF-Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    This report presents a technical evaluation, the potential and an economical evaluation of the increased net biogas production by using district heating as energy supply for different types of biogas production units. The study presents generalized results for different plant sizes. The district heating is considered as replacement of the heat produced by burning biogas in a hot-water boiler. Hence more biogas could be available for upgrading to fuel-gas quality to be used in vehicles as a renewable fuel. The study is aimed at biogas producers, district heating and combined heat and power (CHP) companies. Biogas has a composition of mostly methane (about 65 %) and carbon dioxide (about 35 %) and small amounts of other gases e.g. sulphur dioxide (H{sub 2}S). Biogas up-grading is a process where the methane content is increased to about 97 % by removing most of the other gases in e.g. an absorption unit. The Swedish biogas is mainly produced in several sewage treatment plants and some co-digestion units but is also collected from dumps. Biogas is produced by anaerobic microorganisms at temperatures of about 36 and 55 deg C which correspond to the thermal optimum for mesophile and thermophile bacteria respectively. Co-digestion of animal material which e.g. is contained in collected organic household waste has to be pasteurized at 70 deg C for 1h according to EU-regulations. Such regulations may also be introduced to the sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants. Due to the fact that the process temperature is higher than the temperature of the substrate (sludge or organic waste material) as well as the outdoor temperature, both heating of the incoming substrate and compensation of heat losses are required. Traditionally most of the biogas has been burnt to generate the necessary heat for the process and premises at the plant. The excess gas has been burnt in a torch. In recent years the biogas produced in Sweden has found increased use as a renewable vehicle fuel. By using district heating for the heating of the process more biogas could be available for upgrading and thereby contribute to the use of renewable fuels. Of the total Swedish biogas production of about 1200 GWh in 2006, 220 GWh were used as vehicle-fuel. Plant and digester size data of Swedish production units have been used to create correlations between size and the total volume and area of the digesters. For different sizes the energy demand for heating up the process flow and the energy demand for heat-loss compensation has been estimated. For a medium size unit more accurate calculations have been made to estimate heat exchanger duties and necessary temperature levels. The results from a sensitivity analysis can be used to estimate energy demand and increased biogas potential for real production units operating at other conditions. District heating should be connected using a sub-station, i.e. by installing a heat exchanger, as a pre-heater to the gas boiler. The temperature requirement is 84 - 86 deg C for a process with pasteurization. For a mesophilic and a thermophilic process with no pasteurization the incoming district heating water must have a temperature of about 53 and 72 deg C respectively. The outgoing temperature of the district heating water will be about 71 if the incoming is 85 deg C. For a medium-sized Swedish sewage treatment plant (100 000 personal equivalents) with a mesophilic process the heat energy demand is in the range 1350 to 2100 MWh/year. By replacing this energy with district heating some 0.23 to 0.36 million Nm3 of internally consumed biogas can be made available for upgrading to vehicle-fuel. The contribution margin is estimated to be in the range of about 270 to 320 SEK/MWh giving a total annual saving of about 460 to 540 kSEK/year. A co-digestion plant having a size of about 40 000 ton of wet substrate per year (corresponding to approximately 2800 ton dry weight) with an energy-effective process design and insulation has an estimated energy consumption of 1000 and 2500 MWh/year for a mesophilic and thermophilic process respectively. The resulting cost-saving by using district heating can be in the ranges 280 to 330 kSEK/year (mesophilic) and about 670 to 790 kSEK/year (thermophilic)

  10. Evaluation of regulations and norms for concrete constructions in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utvaerdering av regler och normer foer betongkonstruktioner i svenska kaernkraftsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovall, Ola (Scanscot Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In the SSM's regulations and recommendations, there are at present no specific requirements and adequate guidance on how concrete structures should be designed in case of new buildings or verification analyses of existing buildings. The result of the work presented in this report constitute the basis for SSM's ongoing regulatory project Investigation regarding requirements for construction, design, analysis and review of reactor containments and other safety-related building structures. The project includes the following: 1. Summary of the regulations and requirements that have been applied at the initial design and new construction of concrete structures at the Swedish nuclear power plants. 2. Comparison and evaluation of relevant regulations published by the European and North American authorities. 3. Comparison and evaluation of relevant codes, standards, guidelines etc. for load-bearing concrete structures in different countries. 4. Conclusions and recommendations to the regulatory framework for the design of load-bearing concrete structures at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Based on a comparison and evaluation of regulations from the U.S., Canada, France, the UK, Finland and Sweden, as well as guidelines established by the international organizations IAEA and EUR, the following general recommendations are provided as a regulatory framework for the design of load-bearing concrete structures at the Swedish nuclear power plants: 1. The Eurocodes will replace the BKR design rules of Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning as the conventional building regulations on the construction of nuclear power plants. 2. A general review and updating of the existing industry standard Design rules for buildings at nuclear facilities DRB:2001 is implemented. Reference is made to the Eurocodes with regard to conditions of conventional design rules

  11. Evaluation of Co-Digestion of Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Utvaerdering av samroetningspotential foer bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Andreas; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2011-02-15

    The biogas potentials from 2 biosludges from the pulp- and paper industry and 10 possible co-digestion substrates have been evaluated. 6 combinations, each including two co-digestion substrates and one biosludge, were evaluated in lab scale biogas reactors. Stable biogas processes were obtained with all combinations and the rawgas potential was higher in the co-digestion processes then for the biosludges alone (0.31- 0.43 compared to 0.21- 0.22 NL/g VS) The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), co-digested with evaporation condensate (3 m3/d) and fibre sludge (3 ton/d) and thereby producing 850 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 43 MSEK excluding ground works. For a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, co-digested with food waste (8 ton/d) and cereal residues (12 ton/d) and producing 2 500 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr, the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK excluding ground works

  12. Evaluation of MELTGUARD{sup TM} - a measuring system for control of fireside corrosion in boilers; Utvaerdering av MELTGUARD{sup TM} - ett maetsystem foer kontroll av roekgassidig korrosion i pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Pamela [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    Studsvik AB has developed and now owns the patent for a product called MELTGUARD. According to information from Studsvik, Meltguard is a measuring probe that shows in real-time how much corrosion is occurring and that can reduce costs and increase the lifetime of power boilers burning biomass. The product consists of a tubular air-cooled probe which is exposed in the flue gas through an existing inspection port. The electrodes in the probe react with the flue gas and ash deposit and corrosion is registered as the short-circuited corrosion current (using the zero resistance method) between rings made of the investigated material. The aim of the project was to independently evaluate Meltguard, compare it with a conventional corrosion probe and to publish the results for the Swedish thermal power industry. Two steels have been compared on the probes (a Meltguard-probe can accommodate a maximum of two test pieces), with about the same temperature. Measurements have been carried out with the steels SS2218 (T22) and Esshete 1250 on a Meltguard probe in the biomass fired boiler at Naessjoe combined heat and power plant during the period November 2000 to March 2001. For a 48 hour period sulphur was added to the fuel supply to change the fuel chemistry and influence the corrosion rate. The corrosion current for SS2218 was unstable, fluctuating considerably throughout the measuring period, and was greatly affected by soot-blowing. Usually, soot-blowing resulted in a marked decrease in the corrosion current. No simple or clear relationship between the boiler load and the average corrosion current could be determined. The corrosion current for Esshete 1250 was mostly stable, about 20{mu}A. The current for SS2218 was a little higher than that for E1250, but the relationship between current and corrosion rate was unclear. It was obviously not a linear function as the corrosion measured in 2218, when the testing was completed, was approximately four times greater than that in E1250. The corrosion in 2218 corresponded to 0.6 mm per 5000 hours. With such a corrosion rate it is not unusual for a superheater to need replacing after 4 or 5 years. However, there were no indications from the current measurements that the corrosion rate was high. There was good agreement of the corrosion rates, measured after the exposure had finished, between Studsvik's and Vattenfall's probes. The same type of corrosion was seen in both probes. It was difficult to show that Meltguard is sensitive to changes in fuel chemistry. At best it can be said that Meltguard takes time to react - at least 24 hours. According to Studsvik, the amount of deposit on the probe after exposure for 2900 hours was unusually low. Since it is the deposit that acts as an electrolyte between identical electrodes, this can explain why the current was low. Meltguard is probably better suited to conditions where there are thicker deposits, for example, during waste incineration. Usefulness in plants firing 100% wood (forest fuel) is limited.

  13. Proposal of performance indicators/model for Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) at restart after a planned shutdown; Framtagning av bedoemningsfaktorer/modell foer utvaerdering av driftklarhetsverifiering (DKV) infoer uppstart efter revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Nygren, Magnus [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Computer and Information Science

    2005-12-15

    The objectives of the study reported here were to propose a model that can be used in the analysis of possible future ORV-related events and to outline a set of performance indicators that can be used by the inspectorate to assess a utility's level of readiness if an ORV-event should take place. Together the two objectives serve to improve the inspectorate's ability to ensure that the utilities maintain an adequate capability to respond. The background for the current study is the nine ORV events that occurred in Sweden between 1995- 1998, as well as the findings of a previous study of safety during outage and restart of nuclear power plants project. This study found that the three levels or types of tests that occur in ORV were used according to need rather than according to a predefined arrangement or procedure, and that tasks were adapted relative to the different types of embedding and the degree of correspondence between nominal and actual ORV. The organisation's coping with the complexity of ORV was discussed by the relation between expectations and surprises, how planning was used as control, attention to details, and the practices of shift changes. It is a truism that accidents are analysed and interpreted relative to a commonly accepted understanding of their nature. This understanding is, however, relative rather than absolute, and has changed significantly during the last decade. In the 1990s, accidents were analysed step by step, and explanations and recommendations therefore emphasised specific rather than generic solutions. The present study illustrates this by going through the responses to the nine ORV events. Following that, the nine events are analysed anew using a contemporary understanding of accidents (a systemic model), which emphasises that incidents more often arise from context induced performance variability than from failures of people. The alternative interpretation provided by a systemic model is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the 323-event. This leads to a proposal of an ORV-model based on the concept of maintaining control. According to this, it is essential that an organisation (a system) knows how to respond (reaction), knows what to look for (observation, attention), and knows what to anticipate (prediction). While an organisation must possess those qualities to respond to an incident in the short term, a regulator must assess the organisation possesses those qualities in the long term. In terms of performance indicators, ten Common Performance Conditions are proposed. Each is assessed with regard to whether it can be the basis of practical measurements and whether it can be used concretely to induce an improvement to operational readiness. The re-analysis of the nine ORV events suggested that adequacy of organisation, adequacy of training and experience, availability of procedures and plans, and available time would be the most important performance indicators. Further work should look into detailed measurement methods, evaluation criteria, and means of intervention all based on an explicit model of safety as an organisational function.

  14. Evaluation and demonstration of remediation alternatives for historical mine waste using ash and alkaline by products; Utvaerdering och demonstration av efterbehandlingsalternativ foer historiskt gruvavfall med aska och alkaliska restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Sartz, Lotta; Karlsson, Stefan [MTM, Man-Technology-Envionrment, Oerebro Univ., 701 82 Oerebro (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    The results clearly show that the use of alkaline by products can significantly reduce the leakage of trace metals from historical acid mine waste. Under ideal conditions (laboratory experiments) pH increase significantly and the trace metal concentrations decrease with around 99% compared to the untreated reference. During more realistic conditions (pilot scale) the same increase in pH was not obtained and thus the decrease in trace metal concentrations was not as great. In the stabilisation experiments pH was between 5.8 and 6.8 while the trace metal reduction was around 96-99%. In the filter experiments a median pH between 4 (aged ash) and 10 (lime kiln dust) was obtained after the alkaline section. Average metal reduction is around 95% for cadmium, copper and lead while it is slightly lower for zinc (85%). In summary it is indicated that hydroxide dominated materials work best in aerated environments while carbonate dominated materials work best in reducing environments. In summary it can be concluded that the use of alkaline by products to neutralise acidic mine waste and acid mine drainage from historical mine sites give rise to both environmental and economical benefits and should therefore be encouraged as a sustainable remediation method

  15. Vindforsk-II. An evaluation of the Wind Energy Programme from the Industry's point of view; Vindforsk-II. En utvaerdering av programmet utifraan ett industrinyttoperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Tommy; Segerpalm, Henrik

    2008-06-15

    This evaluation of the three-year research programme Vindforsk-II has been carried out from the perspectives of industrial value perspective and scientific merit. Two international experts, Hannele Holttinen, VTT, Finland, and Martin O L Hansen, DTU, Denmark, have been responsible for the scientific evaluation. Faugert and Co Utvaerdering AB have carried out the evaluation focusing on industrial value, coordinated the two evaluations and written this report. Vindforsk-II consists of two parts, one for basic and one for applied research projects. The goal of the programme is to produce knowledge that makes the development of wind energy and grid integration easier. The programme shall contribute to a wind sector that is increasingly competitive and that wind energy significantly contributes to the Swedish energy supply. The basic research is exclusively financed by the Swedish Energy Agency, which also finances 40% of the budget for applied research projects. The remaining 60% is financed by the Swedish energy sector, through individual contracts between each company and the programme. Vindforsk-II is a national research programme for wind energy, and in this combination lies its added value to the financiers and recipients of the programme in comparison to other RandD programmes in this area. The programme is a national endeavour focusing on basic and applied wind energy research and this makes it different from other programmes such as Vindval or Elektra. The general impression is that the three programmes are complementary rather than competitors. By being a national research programme in this area, Vindforsk-II assists in highlighting the importance of wind energy. This research programme appears important and creates valuable knowledge in the areas where it is present. The programme is a welcome addition to the research activities the bigger financiers themselves carry out, and by financing the programme and being a member of its board they can influence the

  16. Evaluation of a small-scale wind power plant; Utvaerdering av smaaskaligt vindkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvidsson, Ulf; Hilding, Sten [Elforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the electrical performance of the 20 kW Pitch Wind turbine. The work was originally intended to focus on evaluating the first machine in a series of three, which should be a machine ready for series production. However, the control system of the machine was not tested and verified so instead a large part of the work has been to check that the electrical system and the control system operates as intended and to adjust and suggest improvements. The design includes a self-regulating variable speed wind turbine coupled to a permanent magnet generator and a converter.

  17. SSI and the Environmental Code; SSI och miljoebalken - utvaerdering av raettsliga konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, T

    1997-12-01

    Radiation is, to some extent, included in the environmental code being prepared by the government. As a consequence both the Radiation Protection Institute and the proposed Environmental Court may set legal conditions concerning radiation protection for the proponent. Legal and other matters related to this issue are discussed in the report.

  18. Evaluation of creep damage development by the replica method; Utvaerdering av krypskadeutveckling med replikmetoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan [Det Norske Veritas AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Roennholm, Markku [Fortum (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Creep damage development in high temperature components can be monitored by the replica method. Damage is classified and an experience based time period for safe operation is recommended where a re-inspection should be conducted. Original recommendations are still commonly used but there are also developed ones are mostly less conservative. A data base of more than 6000 replicas, collected from welded components in Swedish and Finnish power plants, has been evaluated with respect to damage development in the present project. The results are in general in good agreement to the existing developed recommendations for re-inspections. Important factors that should be considered for use of the recommendations are highlighted: Service history, Material, welding and heat treatment, Measure of pressure and temperature, System stresses, Geometrical stress concentrations, stress distributions, Design of components and welds, Creep crack growth, Starts and stops, Extent and performance of the replica method. These factors have been analysed with respect to the evaluated data resulting in comments to the existing recommendations. In addition, recommendations and conditions for a high reliability of the replica method are described. The comments and recommendations can be read in separate sections in the end of the report.

  19. Corrosive wear. Evaluation of wear and corrosive resistant materials; Noetningskorrosion. Utvaerdering av noetnings- och korrosionsbestaendiga material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H.; Hjertsen, D.; Waara, P.; Prakash, B.; Hardell, J.

    2007-12-15

    With a new purchase of a waste conveyer screw at hand, for the 'A-warehouse' at the combined power and heating plant at E.ON Norrkoeping, the request for improved construction materials was raised. The previous screw required maintenance with very short intervals due to the difficult operation conditions. With the new screw the expectation is to manage 6 months of operation without interruption. The environment for the screw has two main components that sets the demand on the materials, on one hand the corrosive products that comes along and which forms at digestion of the waste and on the other hand the abrasive content in the waste. The term of the mechanism is wear-corrosion and can give considerably higher material loss than the two mechanisms wear and corrosion separately. Combination of a strong corrosive environment together with extensive wear is something that we today have limited knowledge about. The overall objective of the project has been to establish better wear and corrosive resistant construction materials for a waste conveyer screw that will lead to reduced operational disturbance costs. The evaluation has been performed in both controlled laboratory environments and in field tests, which has given us a better understanding of what materials are more suitable in this tough environment and has given us a tool for future predictions of the wear rate of the different material. The new conveyer screw, installed in February 2007 and with which the field test have been performed, has considerably reduced the wear of the construction and the target of 6 month maintenance-free operation is met with this screw for all the evaluated materials. The wear along the screw varies very much and with a clear trend for all the materials to increase towards the feeding direction of the screw. As an example, the wear plate SS2377 (stainless duplex steel) has a useful life at the most affected areas that is calculated to be 1077 days of operation with the assumption that a 60% reduction of the thickness is acceptable. The changes of the operation conditions, particularly the lower rotating speed that the new design led to, have shifted the wear/corrosion condition so that corrosion is more dominating in the wear-corrosion. This is obvious as the SS2377, one of the softest of the evaluated materials, shows low wear rate due to its good corrosion resistant characteristics. The design of the screw has proved to be very crucial for wear-corrosion. The results from the wear-corrosion test show a number of effects that are more or less difficult to explain. One example is that the SS2377 have better wear resistance than the harder materials in both corrosion and in non-corrosive environment. The general conclusion from these testing is that the conditions at the screw have not been successfully imitated. For the prediction of the useful life, a wear-corrosion model has been developed to be used with operation data to follow and/or predict the wear-corrosion. Especially with SS2377, where the synergy effects between corrosion and abrasion is small, a good conformance can be reached. The model needs however further verification to become more general

  20. Evaluation of an agricultural biogas plant at Hagavik; Utvaerdering av gaardsbaserad biogasanlaeggning paa Hagavik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edstroem, Mats; Nordberg, Aake; Ringmar, Anders

    2005-07-01

    Hagavik is an organic farm (municipality of Malmoe in Sweden) and the grown crops at the farm are sugar-beet, wheat, tritricale and ley crop (for green manure). The farmer has erected a new farm scale biogas plant with a digester volume of 500 m{sup 3}. The motives for building the plant were to produce biogas for cogeneration and digestate for supplying the farm with nutrients. Biogas substrates, harvested at the farm, are ley crop and sugar-beet tops and external substrates are solid manure from horses and organic waste from industrial bakery. Digestion of fibre-rich substrates as ley crop and straw-rich solid manure at farm scale plants is fairly untested in Sweden. The fibre has a rather big impact on the rheological properties of the substrate mixture and digester slurry and can cause problems with pumping and ineffective stirring. To achieve satisfactory function on the pumps and stirrers the fibre-rich substrates the rheological properties has to be improved. This can be done by 1) mixing the fibre-rich substrates with rather large quantities of liquids which can result in low dry mater content both in substrates an digester slurry 2) reduce the fibre size by mechanical disintegration. The Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (JTI) has been in charge of the evaluation of the biogas plant. Evaluation of the start-up phase of the plant, regarding the technical and biological function, was accomplished in July-November 2003. During year 2004 focus has been on practical experience running the plant. The plant electricity demand has been measured. Based on those measurements the calculated electricity demand running the plant with a biogas production at 600 m{sup 3}/d (3,54 MWh/d) corresponds to ca 2-3% of the energy content of the biogas. The calculated heat demand corresponds to 15 % of the biogas. At cogeneration (with assumed electrical efficiency of 34% and thermal efficiency of 55%) the net-energy production is 919 MWh/year where 44% will be electricity and the rest heat. Total investment for the plant is about 2,6 MSEK. The farmer has got a government investment subsidy of 0,6 MSEK. The price of the net-energy production has to be at least 0.40 SEK/kWh in order to balance the costs. This calculation includes the investment subsidy.

  1. Evaluation of Market Design Programme - Phase IV; Utvaerdering av Market Designprogrammet - etapp IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Tomas

    2013-08-15

    The Market Design program was established in year 2000 to study issues related to markets, regulations and policy instruments related to the deregulation of the Swedish electricity market. Through the years, the focus has widened to include not only Sweden but also international cooperation on these issues. The fourth phase of the program is now underway between the years 2010 and 2013. The overall project objective of this fourth phase is to increase knowledge about the Nordic and North European electricity market. Specific objective is to create new knowledge that affects market design of the single market area (Nordic, EU) and to contribute to constructive meetings between researchers, energy companies and government agencies on Market Design Issues. The purpose of the evaluation of the Market Design Program phase IV has been to investigate the results and benefits of the program in relation to the program's original objectives and to examine the need for and areas of further research and possible ways for the research in Market Design. The evaluation has been carried through in four phases during spring and summer 2013. The work has included reading, interviews with program stakeholders, analysis and reporting.

  2. Technical and financial evaluation of agricultural based vehicle gas; Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av lantbruksbaserad fordonsgasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Peter; Bohman, Mathias; Svensson, Magnus [Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Johan Benjaminsson [Gasefuels AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    This study has examined two concepts for producing vehicle gas from farm based feedstock like manure: (1) Centralized production where the biogas is produced in a large scale biogas plant where the biogas is upgraded to vehicle gas adjacent the biogas plant; (2) Decentralized or farm based production where the biogas is produced on several farms and the gas is then transported via a gas grid to a centralized upgrading unit. The investigation has focused on the differences between the two concepts, from three different perspectives; technically, economically and legally. The economic calculations concerning the decentralized system has considered a governmental financial support of 1,8 Mkr or 30 % of the investment. This generates two different scenarios for the decentralized production system (with or without financial support). The study and the calculations are based on 100 000 ton manure which is either digested in one large biogas plant or 20 small scale farm based biogas units, which each digest 5000 tons. 100 000 tons farm based feedstock corresponds to 18 GWh in our calculations. Technically there are few differences between the concepts except the gas grid for decentralized production. Legally, the main differences are the environmental permits and the requirements concerning sterilization, which is necessary for a centralized vehicle gas production Financially, there are relatively large differences between the two vehicle gas production systems. With a centralized system the production cost is around 0,80 kr/kWh compared to over 1,00 kr/kWh for decentralized production when including governmental financial support. Without financial support the costs exceed 1,20 kr/kWh. Nonetheless, a production cost over 0,60 kr/kWh is problematic due to the prize of natural gas, which indicate that none of the systems would be profitably without more extensive governmental financial support. The study also presents two scenarios based on real cases. Both this cases indicates that a centralized production system is financially preferable even though the transportation costs increases significantly.

  3. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels for HD gas engines when tested according to the FIGE chassis test cycle on vehicle. Our conclusion is however that most Dual Fuel systems for HD on road applications will need further development to meet existing emission limits and to increase the Diesel replacement.

  4. Evaluation of biomass fuel sampling in heat and power plants; Utvaerdering av mekanisk och manuell provtagning av biobraensle vid energiverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkelin, R [Norrkoeping Energi AB (Sweden); Ryk, L [SGS Solid Fuels AB (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes bias-test of manual and mechanical sampling systems of bio-fuels at 6 Swedish plants. Two parallel series of 30 samples each were taken at each plant. One series of samples was taken by the normal procedure. The samples of the other series were taken by a reference method. Either by stopped belt and taking a full cut using a sampling frame or by manual increment division of a whole truck-load was used with the assistance of a pay-loader. The rectangular pile formed was divided in 120 squares. Some of the sampling systems gave biased samples. This was due to drawing too small increments, having too small openings of the sampling tools and making errors in sample preparation. Determination of moisture was more accurate than determination of ash content. Ash is more heterogeneously distributed in biofuels than moisture. Ash bearing components as clay or stone segregate easily. Although the project has not been able to show that mechanical sampling gives a more representative moisture sampling than manual sampling, it is recommended to invest in mechanical sampling if possible. The reason for this is to reduce the risk of human error and for safety reasons. 14 refs, figs, tabs, photos

  5. District heating : an evaluation of ten small scale district heating plants; Faerdig vaerme: en utvaerdering av smaaskaligt bioenergifoeretagande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elisson, Lars; Norsebaeck, O.

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study the differences between bioenergy-producing companies. By studying these differences, factors which might affect the possibilities of success, will be detected. The tools used are the theory of entreprenurship and the network theory. The availability (or lack) of a strategic window will also be used to see if there are any given ways to success. The population are companies that received aid from SLF (the Foundation for Agricultural Research) during the 1990's. By surveys and personal interviews the companies will be analysed and compared. Within the population the variation of delivered energy is large, some companies produce 1,400 MWh/year and some 17,100 MWh/year, and this makes the comparison difficult. The companies which are owned by entrepreneurs are generally more profitable, whatever strategy it has chosen. By strategy is ment choise of size, fuel and ownership. To take the risk and to be an entrepreneur is one factor which affects the profitability of the company. The company's network affection on profitability is weak. Though a company with good connections generally makes good profits but companies with bad connections might be very profitable as well. The size of the company have a large impact on the possibilities of success. The larger companies (5,400-17,100 MWh/year) in the study are more profitable than the smaller (1,400-3,100 MWh/year). In this business there are many possibilities of success and to get a reasonable return on the investments.

  6. New windows - attitude evaluation concerning energy efficient windows; Nya foenster uppaat vaeggarna - en utvaerdering av attityder till energieffektiva foenster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This attitude investigation was made as structured telephone interviews of 200 persons during January 1995. The 200 persons were selected among those who had been involved in the window area of 300 building projects. 4 figs

  7. Scientific evaluation on the NKS programme 1998-2001; Facklig utvaerdering av NKS-programmet 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenhielm, G. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI (Sweden); Mustonen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)

    2002-11-01

    The Board of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) decided in the autumn 2000 to contract out two separate evaluations on the NKS Programme 1998-2001. Martin Oeiby from the NorwegiOe Radiation Protection Authority was requested to perform an evaluation on overall administration of the NKS Programme. Two experts conducted the scientific evaluation. Gustaf Lowenhielm from the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate was requested to assess projects on nuclear safety issues and waste management, and Raimo Mustonen from the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority to evaluate projects on radiation protection and nuclear emergency preparedness. This report deals with the scientific evaluation. The report contains brief review on the history of the Nordic nuclear and radiation safety co-operation and on the development of Programme for 1998-2001. Brief summaries of activities in all the projects are given, together with the main results of the projects. The evaluators give their subjective assessments on the success and effectiveness of the projects based on the evaluation criteria agreed With the NKS Board in the beginning of work. Also some general recommendations for the future co-operation are given. (au)

  8. Market Design. Evaluation of the third phase 2006-2009; Market Design. Utvaerdering av den tredje etappen 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Carl (Global to Local Sweden AB, Raaaa (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    Market Design started 2001 and has since then supported more than 50 projects. During phase III, i.e. 2006 - 2009, 18 project were supported with a total programme budget of 18 MSEK. Market Design has focused on issues related to the deregulated electricity market primarily in Sweden. The aims have been to improve the performance of the market, to develop knowledge and support research groups. The analysis in this report is limited to phase III of the programme. It is based on almost 40 interviews with stakeholders close to the programme such as the board, contractors and programme officers as well as others with thorough insight into issues of importance to the electricity market. Furthermore, a number of relevant documents related to Market Design have been analyzed. The focus of the evaluation has been to address the following issues; relevance, benefits of the programme and the projects, dissemination of results, programme administration and the achievement of programme goals. The interviews reveal that some additional issues need to be addressed further. The evaluation shows that the programme has a clearly identified role in relation to other RandD programmes. No duplicate work has been identified. The board of the programme provides a sufficient guarantee. The results of the analyses are as fellows: The interviews show that all relevant research areas have been dealt with. Nothing of significance (research areas or projects) has been omitted. The time gap between program definition and execution might require a larger budget reserve to deal with unforeseen circumstances especially in view of rapidly changing market conditions. Market Design has provided a common basis for decision making amongst governmental bodies and utilities regarding the development of the Nordic electricity market. A network of key officials working in the area, not the least the board, has been established to the benefit of regulatory aspects of market development. The value of this dialogue cannot be underestimated particularly as participants are influential in their respective organisation. According to the interviews, results of projects are used frequently as an information source. It seems that the results are in general widely spread. Feedback from project contractors to stakeholders are established through frequently held project seminars. The seminars are very much appreciated and attract numerous participants. Decisions on project support are taken by the board based on a thorough analysis of aim, methods and budget as well as the projects being in accordance with programme objectives. An advisory group is assigned to each project as a support and a feed back channel to the sector. The procedure guaranties relevance and quality of the projects. Interviews indicate that project execution in some cases can benefit from scientific experience (methodology). The administration of the programme is much appreciated and receives high marks in terms of its support for the programme; its efficiency, excellent service and rapid action with a high degree of professionalism. The interviews reveal that Market Design is relatively well known. Stakeholders are very well aware of the projects but not the report database. The Newsletters are well known as well as the project seminars. However, the interviews indicate that it is not clear whether all relevant organisations and individuals are taking part in the program or not. An analysis should be undertaken to evaluate the situation. It is clear that the research in Market Design has provided new understanding and knowledge concerning the electricity market. The program has efficiently supported cooperation between stakeholders in the sector. However, there is no clear evidence of success regarding the goal to increase recruitment to the sector or the enhancement of competence centres. The same conclusion can be drawn regarding the cooperation between Nordic researchers. Consequently, revisions of goals are suggested as a part the process of establishing the next phase of Market Design. The program has been relevant with substantial benefit to the Utilities and the sector at large. It has been managed well, with great skill and professionalism and successful dissemination. The support to the program has according to the evaluation been well worth the investment. Support for a next phase can be recommended. Comments from the interviewed persons reveal that some issues need to be addressed further by the board of Market Design and Elforsk as part of the process of establishing a phase IV of Market Design.

  9. Evaluation of the first SCR-plants in Sweden; Utvaerdering av de foersta SCR-anlaeggningarna i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanell, B [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden); and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents operational experience of SCR systems at five power plants in Sweden; the diesel cogeneration plants in Linkoeping, Oskarshamn, Skultuna and Visby and the coal fired power plant in Vaesteraas. The experience represents the first years of operation of the SCR systems. The SCR-systems involved in this project achieve the following: * Uneven flue gas flow and concentration of ammonia and NO{sub x} through the SCR reactor results in lower efficiency. Hence it is important to achieve a thorough mixing of the ammonia in the flue gas in order to achieve high NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies, * Inferior control systems can cause unnecessary ammonia slip, * The diesel plants with an operating time of a couple of thousand hours have had major problems with deposits on the catalyst surface, * Guarantees regarding the lifetime of the catalyst are important. At commissioning the catalyst has to be over-dimensioned since the system has to reach the guaranteed emissions during the whole guarantee period, * There should be enough space in the reactor to install additional catalyst layers. This project verifies that additional layers need to be installed at later stages, * The mechanical construction of the SCR-reactor is important. The efficiency decreases when there is a leakage of flue gases past the reactor, * No considerable amounts of N{sub 2}O are generated by the catalyst. 21 refs, 27 figs, 47 tabs

  10. Evaluation of an industrial gas-fired IR dryer; Utvaerdering av en industriell gaseldad IR-straalare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, S; Hermodsson, S

    1994-11-01

    The IR dryer is used in a paper making machine to dry the paper web after it has been coated with a surface layer. In part 1 of the project a mathematical model have been developed, capable of calculating the radiation intensity and other energy flows in the dryer. In part 2 of the project, measurements have been made on the IR radiator mounted in the paper making machine. The calculation model shows the efficiency of the radiator to 39% at full power and 35% at half power. The direct measurements were made at half power and gave an efficiency of 31% for new radiators and 28% for old ones. The conclusion is that the calculation model values corresponds very well compared with direct measurements.

  11. The clean trip - Evaluation of green fuels in pleasure boats; Rena Turen - Utvaerdering av miljoeanpassade braenslen i fritidsbaatar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerne, Olof; Strandberg, Johan; Fridell, Erik; Peterson, Kjell; Allard, Ann-Sofie; Rydberg, Tomas (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Vaske, Belinda; Jaegersten, Carl (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Oestman, Ninnie (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)); Eklund, Britta (ITM, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    This work examines alternative fuels in pleasure boat engines, their effect on engine performance as well as chemical and ecotoxicological characterisation of exhaust emissions to water and air. Three marine diesel engines and one outboard two stroke petrol engine were tested with standard fuels and 'green' fuels, that is for the diesel engine s; GTL (synthetic diesel) and biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester, RME) and for the outboard engine; alkylate petrol and E85 (ethanol fuel). The outboard engine was converted for the ethanol fuel. GTL generated less particles, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides than standard diesel. RME generated far less particles and hydrocarbons but slightly more nitrogen oxides. Cooling water from diesel engine s was toxic to zebra fish and crustaeans. GTL and RME generated cooling water that was less toxic to zebra fish compared to standard diesel. One litre of diesel produced 10-20 mg PAH, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, to the cooling water. The traditional two stroke outboard engines are by far the dominating source of emissions from the pleasure crafts. Standard petrol generates high concentrations of harmful pollutants such as benzene, PAHs and formaldehyde. One litre of standard petrol produced 2.3 g PAH in this survey. Alkylate petrol and ethanol fuel, E85, generated far less emissions. The emissions of PAHs from the Swedish pleasure boats annually are 50 tons or more in our estimations. Exhaust from two stroke outboard engines mixed in water is toxic to bacteria, algae and crustaceans. Standard petrol generated the most water toxic to bacteria and crustaceans. Alkylate petrol generated less toxic water to bacteria and crustaceans. For algae there was little difference between the fuels. Despite the fact that most of the fuel in the pleasure crafts are used in open sea, the effects of the emissions can be bigger in lakes and rivers. Traditional two stroke engines are used in lakes that are used for producing drinking water and for fishing. A relatively large negative environmental impact was observed from the tested 2-stroke engine. Fuelling with alkylate petrol was found to give lower risks. E85 may also be an alternative. It works well to run an outboard engine on E85 but it requires engine modifications which makes it a less viable solution for most users. Further, the emissions of aldehydes are of some concern. It seems that standard petrol produces more formaldehyde than ethanol and ethanol produces more acetaldehyde than petrol. The report suggests further investigations including cooling water from diesel engines and aldehyde emissions

  12. Evaluation of salix farmers experiences and attitudes to growing; Utvaerdering av salixodlares erfarenheter och attityder till odling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, Carina; Olsson, Johanna (Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    Approximately 16 000 hectares of salix (willow) were planted in Sweden in the early 1990s, driven by subsidies and optimistic market expectations. Today the salix plantations have decreased to approximately 12000 hectares. In this study 29 salix farmers and four entrepreneurs that work with salix harvest were interviewed to find out more about their attitudes to, and experiences of growing salix. Most of the farmers interviewed were not satisfied with their salix plantation. The reasons given were the low profitability and problems with the harvest systems. Key reasons for the low profitability are cited as: old plantations that are planted on poor soil; lack of fertilization; an ineffective organization to taking care of the harvest and to sell the salix chips; and a low price for the salix chips. In addition the system for harvesting needs to be more flexible and there is a need for machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields

  13. SKB's program for societal research 2004-2011. An evaluation; SKB:s program foer samhaellsforskning 2004-2011. En utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Olof [Energi- och miljoestrategi O. Soederberg, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    This evaluation of the program of societal research that SKB conducted the years 2004-2011 has been performed on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The review has focused on answers to a series of questions as follows: General questions - Why was a program started? - What was SKB's purpose with the program? - Does the result mean that the objective has been achieved? - Has the program had effects (positive or negative) that were not anticipated when the purpose was formulated? - Strengths and weaknesses of the program? Questions about the implementation - How did announcement and selection procedures work? - Which forms were used for reporting results from the research projects? Questions about the continued investment in societal research - Are there such needs? - In that case, is it in SKB's interest to contribute financially to such research? - What forms might be appropriate if SKB sees interest to contribute financially to such research?.

  14. Evaluation of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes'; Utvaerdering av programmet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Roger B. (Uppsala Univ., Inst. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Vaermeforsk's program Environmentally-correct utilization of ashes ('Ash program') has financed research and development projects since 2002. The overall goal of the program is that knowledge and data for decision-making shall exist so that 90 percent of Swedish ash from energy production is utilized in an environmentally-correct application by the end of 2008. In this report, an evaluation of the Ash program is presented, with an overall goal of determining if the program is proceeding along the correct path to goal fulfillment. The following components of the program have been evaluated: Funded projects during the program period 2002-2008, with focus on project selection, goal fulfillment, and the need for addition studies; Selected projects that have particular significance for goal fulfillment; Communication and dissemination of results; Significance of the Ash program's network. Funded projects within each research area have been reviewed with respect to project prioritization and the relevance of projects for goal fulfillment. The projects have been compared with previously identified research and development needs. The primary emphasis in the areas of Engineering and Landfills lies in projects that, taken together, can lead to an increased confidence in our understanding of the geotechnical and environmental properties of ash. In the area Forest and soil, Vaermeforsk has funded new ash recycling and fertilization experiments and also continuation projects. Such a prioritization is warranted, since long-term experiments are necessary in order to indicate if the addition of ash has an effect. Large ventures within the areas of Engineering, Landfills and Forests arouse the greatest attention; these are the projects that will presumably make the greatest breakthroughs for ash utilization. It is my assessment that the Ash program is proceeding along the correct path toward goal fulfillment, and that the program has contributed to knowledge and data for decision making and a high degree of ash utilization. In particular areas, such as the utilization of fly ash--stabilized sewage sludge in sealing layers, the program goal has been fulfilled. Two projects from each research area were critically reviewed, and method selection, goal fulfillment, result reliability and uncertainty were investigated. In general, the scientific quality of the reviewed projects is good. Established scientific methods have been used, but method descriptions are often insufficient; it would not be possible to reproduce experiments and demonstrations without additional information. It should be required that the reports are written with detailed method descriptions. The results are assessed as having a high degree of reliability, and many studies should be able to be published in international journals. There are many indications that the Ash program is following the correct path to goal fulfillment, but there is in many cases a need for additional studies in order to reduce the uncertainty in key processes and applications. Strategic plans for the future should include three components that have shown to be the program's strengths: the development of knowledge with respect to ash utilization, the implementation of development and demonstration projects with ash, and the program's network. Information and the dissemination of results should also be included. Strategic studies for the future include the following: Reliable risk evaluations of ash with a system perspective; Demonstration and follow-up projects to give a greater confidence in ash utilization, including long-term effects of ash use and the long-term function of different applications; Development of the environmental guideline project, seen from a greater societal perspective; Filler in concrete used below the ground surface, especially soil-moistened concrete; Ash as a substitute for lime and cement in pilings; Stabilization of mine waste with fly ash; Stabilization of weak road material with fly ash; Drainage and the use of waste above a sealing layer; Fertilization of peatlands, release of greenhouse gases; Ash recycling in croplands. The program makes use of many channels for the dissemination of information. In general, there is an adequate range of information channels currently available. However, it is essential that substantial efforts are made in the form of meetings and seminars in conjunction with existing construction projects. Good examples are critical for increasing awareness in ash utilization. A new survey should be considered and used to evaluate the reasons for skepticism to ash use and thereafter for designing information activities with better impact. The program's network has been of great significance to everyone involved. The network, consisting of project groups, a steering committee, and highly committed reference and working groups, should be provided with conditions to continue to link together the program during a new mandate period.

  15. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre; Oeverglasning av stora byggnadsvolymer; En tvaervetenskaplig utvaerdering av ett koepcentrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1993-11-01

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass- covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. (author) figs., tabs., 101 refs

  16. Optimization of the enzyme system for hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose substrates; Optimering av enzymsystemet foer hydrolys av foerbehandlade lignocellulosa substrat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjerneld, Folke [Lund univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2000-06-01

    This project aims to clarify the reasons for the slow and incomplete enzymatic hydrolysis of certain lignocellulose substrates, particularly softwood e.g. spruce. Based on this knowledge we will optimize the enzyme system so that the yield of fermentable sugars is increased as well as the rate of hydrolysis. We will also study methods for recycling of the enzymes in the process by adsorption on fresh substrate. Progress in these areas will lead to improved process economy in an ethanol process. We collaborate with Chemical Engineering on hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose substrates and with Analytical Chemistry and Applied Microbiology on analysis of potential inhibitors. Within this main research direction the work at Biochemistry during this project period (since 970701) has been focused on the following areas: (1) Studies of the role of substrate properties in the enzymatic hydrolysis to clarify the reasons for the decrease in the rate of hydrolysis; (2) enzyme adsorption on lignin; (3) studies of recently identified low molecular weight endo glucanases which may be used for more effective penetration of small pores in pretreated substrates (this part is financed by the Nordic Energy Research Program). Central results during the period: In order to study the role of substrate properties for hydrolysis we have initiated investigations on steam pretreated substrates with several techniques. Measurements of pore sizes have been done with probe molecules of known molecular weights. Results show that probe molecules with diameters larger than 50 Aangstroem can more easily penetrate pretreated willow compared with spruce, which can be a part of the explanation for the better hydrolysability of hardwood substrates compared with softwood. We have started studies with electron microscopy of pretreated substrates at different degrees of enzymatic hydrolysis. With scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we can see significant differences in substrate structure in comparisons before and after hydrolysis. For better interpretation of enzyme effects on substrates we have started studies with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) where we aim to study enzyme binding to the cellulose and lignin parts of the substrate. Studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated spruce have been done to clarify the reasons for the drastic reduction on hydrolysis rate in the later stage of hydrolysis. Results show that the hydrolysis rate for the enzymes CBHI and EGI is reduced to 10% of the initial rate already after 60 min. Additions of fresh enzymes to the hydrolysed substrate leads to increased hydrolysis rate. Our conclusion is that the enzymes become unproductively bound to the substrate during the course of hydrolysis which leads to reduction of the effective enzyme concentration. In studies of the synergy between CBHI and EGI we have observed that the synergy between the enzymes is increasing during the hydrolysis, which can be explained by the increased need for the exo-enzyme CBHI to have access to free cellulose chain ends which can be formed by the action of endo glucanase I. This points to the possibility to increase the hydrolysis rate by addition of extra endo glucanase during the later stages of the hydrolysis. The adsorption of the enzymes on the lignin is of importance since the pretreated substrate is a lignocellulose complex. A strong adsorption to the lignin may reduce the amount of enzymes available for cellulose hydrolysis, and can reduce the possibilities for enzyme recycling. Our studies show that the central enzyme CBHI is strongly adsorbed to alkali extracted lignin and that the binding kinetics are fast.

  17. Removal of radionuclides from household water; Metoder foer avlaegsnande av radionuklider fraan hushaallsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Turtiainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Salonen, L.; Arvela, H.

    2007-02-15

    Research upon methods for removing radionuclides from household water was initiated in Finland in 1995. Three research projects, of which two were carried out with National Technology Agency of Finland and one with CEC, have been completed by the end of 2002. One of the main objectives of the research was to compose a guidebook for consumers and water treatment companies. Radon can be removed from household water by aeration and by activated carbon filtration. Aerators that are well designed and set up can remove over 90% of waterborne radon. The best aerators have achieved removal efficiencies that are nearly 100%. However, setting up an aeration system requires thorough planning. Also, activated carbon filtration removes radon efficiently. The removal efficiencies have been over 90%, often nearly 100%. Depending on the water quality and usage, the carbon batch inside the filter needs to be changed every 2 - 3 years. Since activated carbon filters emit gamma radiation while in use, they should not be installed inside the dwelling but in a separate building or by the well. It is recommended that uranium be removed from drinking water by anion exchange, which is the most efficient removal method for this purpose. Typically, the removal efficiencies are nearly 100%. The one exception is the so called tap filter, the removal efficiency of which depends on uranium concentration in raw water and the rate of water flow. High saline concentration in water may extricate uranium from ion exchange resin. Changes in plumbing pressure or pH-value do not have any significant influence in uranium retention. Removal efficiencies of lead and polonium vary a lot depending on the chemical form in which they occur in water. They can be reliably removed from water by reverse osmosis only. Other treatment methods, such as ion exchange and activated carbon filtration, remove lead and polonium partly. Lead and polonium are removed more efficiently when they are bound onto smaller particles than larger particles. Testing simultaneous removal of radon, iron and magnesium by two commercial devices gave promising results: radon removal efficiency was over 98%. Furthermore, it was found that certain fluoride removal equipment can be applied to simultaneous removal of uranium, radium, lead and polonium. (orig.)

  18. Sensors for online determination of CNG gas quality; Sensorer foer onlinebestaemnning av fordonsgaskvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenlaaaas, Ola; Roedjegaard, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Swedish automotive gas has until now been a very uniform, high quality automotive fuel. Elsewhere in Europe the quality of automotive gas varies significantly. Gas from different sources with different flammability require engine settings adjusted to the chosen gas' unique composition. The prospects for a vehicle-mounted sensor based on infrared technology for gas quality measurement has been studied and solutions are presented with questions that must be answered in a possible future work. The proposed vehicle mounted sensor is based on two channels, one of which measures the partial pressure of methane and the other measures the partial pressure of heavier hydrocarbons in 'equivalents of butane'. Ethane produces a signal of about 0.6 equivalents of butane and propane about 0.8 equivalents. The sensor can be accommodated in a cube with 5 cm side and should be equipped with nipple connections to the existing system. The sensor is expected to work throughout their entire lifetime without manual calibration, through continuous automatic calibration, so-called ABC (Automatic Baseline Compensation). The sensor will have to meet tough quality and environmental standards in which primarily contact ring, vibration and prevention of leakage are identified as extra difficult. Working temperatures and the electrical conditions of power supply and communication interface is considered less challenging. In one million volumes, the cost per sensor could be 200 to 300 SEK.

  19. Purification of methanol for transportation use; Rening av metanol foer anvaendning som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenck, Anna von; Jansson, Mikael; Ljungquist, Pierre

    2008-11-15

    In this study a techno-economic analysis has been performed on the possibility of separating malodours sulphur compounds from the methanol obtained in the condensate after the evaporation in the kraft pulping process. The application for the clean methanol should be as transportation fuel. Two cases have been simulated in the simulation model Hysys, Case 1 using only distillation and Case 2 were distillation has been complemented with chemicals to further reduce the organic sulphur content. An economical analysis has been performed and it has been showed that the production cost for the cleaned methanol is in the range 2.7-4.2 SEK/l methanol

  20. Technology watch of fuel cells for vehicles in 2012; Teknikbevakning av braensleceller foer fordon 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Hans

    2013-03-15

    The report presents results from an international survey covering the status and development of tractionary fuel cells. Interviews, study visits, reports, journals, media coverage and participation in IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Annex 26 have served as main sources of information. The development in Korea has been devoted particular attention this period. The report covers the development during the second part of 2011 and the whole 2012. The transport sector must change to provide mobility for people and goods in a long-term sustainable way. Fuel cell technology offers an important opportunity for the vehicle manufacturer and the vehicle user to maintain the same level of performance, comfort and versatility without compromising the sustainability requirements. Fuel cell vehicles typically use polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and pressurized hydrogen. They also use tractionary batteries for about the same reasons as other hybrid electric vehicles. For commercial vehicles fuel cells are developed for the production of auxiliary power, to be used when the vehicles are parked, for example. Until 2015, Hyundai aims at making up to 1,000 fuel cell vehicles. After 2015 the plan is for several thousand every year. Until 2025, Hyundai aims at a total delivery of more than 100,000 fuel cell vehicles and the technology is then expected to be fully competitive. A roadmap shows that Korea until 2015 has established 43 and until 2030, a total of 500 hydrogen refuelling stations are indicated. The Skaane Region has carried out the first Swedish procurement of fuel cell vehicles. Two Hyundai iX35 FCEV were purchased for delivery 2013. In addition, the city of Copenhagen has purchased 15 such vehicles. During the next few years three hydrogen refuelling stations will be established in the Copenhagen area. January 2012, the California Air Resources Board decided the new set of regulations Advanced Clean Cars. It comprises three parts; tailpipe emissions and greenhouse gases, Zero Emission Vehicle Program, and Clean Fuels Outlet. The latter two are important for the fuel cell vehicle introduction. US Department of Energy delivered a final report covering activities with more than 180 fuel cell vehicles between 2005 and 2011. The vehicles made more than half a million trips and were refuelled more than 33,000 times. The project exceeded the expectations and basically all goals were met. Mercedes-Benz leases about 200 cars to selected users. BMW and Toyota have initiated collaboration covering fuel cell technologies, among others. Toyota has presented a new fuel cell stack, a new concept vehicle and stated a start of deliveries for 2015. The stack can now be placed under the driver's seat. Honda promises a new fuel cell vehicle 2015. Nissan has presented a new stack and a concept car using it. Collaboration with Daimler is discussed. All in all has the situation for fuel cell vehicles not changed very much since previous report. The time until deliveries of fuel cell vehicles shall take place in several thousand units is now only two years and if nothing happens soon on the refuelling infrastructure side it will be difficult both to find buyers of the vehicles and provide fuel to this large volume of vehicles.

  1. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled ventilation, the air from these buildings can be treated in a biofilter. Biofilter are effective to remove most of the odorous compounds. But the biofilter's function must be regularly verified to avoid operational disturbances. Chemical emissions profiles at different places show how complex is the composition of the emission och how it varies from places to places and time to time. The project confirms and underlines that there are many causes to the global odour emitted from waste plants. Some compounds are important to survey, as for example limonene and ammonia in the tanks and biofilter regions and sulphur compounds in the landfills.

  2. Review of portable applications of fuel cell technology 2008; Teknikbevakning av portabla tillaempningar foer braenslecellstekniken 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Eva; Lundblad, Anders; Wennstam, Emelie

    2009-03-15

    The definition of portable fuel cells, or micro fuel cells as they are often called, is usually that its nominal power is below 250 W. There are, however, several widely separated applications and technical challenges in the span up to 250 W. Portable fuel cells from 1-10 W have potential applications in hand held electronics, wireless sensors, wireless networks and less power demanding equipment for outdoor life such as bicycle lamps, head lamps etc. The technical challenges involved here are mainly about cost, miniaturizing, dealing with heat rejection/cooling, stability/life and the fuel cell infrastructure - how shall the user 'fill' his/her fuel cell? Medium-sized, portable fuel cells between 10-50 W have potential applications in portable military equipment, larger portable electronics such as DVD players, camcorders and laptops (both for direct power and for charging of integrated batteries), to operate rescue equipment and as reserve power, and to replace some stationary power (APU). Also in this area challenges lie in cost, miniaturizing and heat rejection. Larger portable fuel cells of 50-250 W can for example be used in military equipment for charging of batteries, in rescue equipment and medical treatments, in boats and mobile homes, in small electric vehicles (manned or unmanned) and for remote power. In this type of replacement products the cost aspect is important, e g for material and system components. In this technique survey report we have analysed in total 31 pure micro fuel cell companies. In addition, we have also studied 14 larger electronic companies active in the fuel cell development. The three main technologies for portable fuel cell systems are Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Micro fuel cells that have been sold and have been available on the market up till today have been of the PEMFC and DMFC type and have mainly been used, to a limited extent, in niche applications such as toys, military applications, education and emergency/reserve power. Those applications are important for small companies to motivate and finance ventures at an early stage, but it is the potential market in portable electronics that explains why several large electronics companies for a long time have put large resources in the development of micro fuel cells. Among the larger consumer electronics companies the dominant technology choice is fuel cells of the DMFC type. The market for fuel cells in portable electronics is to start with as external chargers. There are several such products on the market today. It is not until the next phase, when miniaturizing and power density have been further improved, that the micro fuel cells will supply the portable electronic products directly, and then often in hybrid systems with a battery as back up to better cope with start up and power peaks. There will be several years before the micro fuel cells are ready to be introduced on a wide front as the primary power source for computers and mobile phones

  3. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas

    2007-12-15

    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were also made to determine the influence of secondary air, tertiary air and classifier settings. The results show, although a little inconclusive, that the air supplies do not influence the signal and that the particle size distribution, connected to the classifier settings also does not influence the signal. It is only the coal mass flow that is directly correlated to the IR sensor signal. More investigations should be performed regarding the connection between the classifier setting and IR signal. Filters and averaging need to be implemented to achieve a satisfactory operation in an online installation

  4. Regulations for storage and transport of biofuels; Regler foer foervaring och transport av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmefors, Elin; Karlsson, Emelie

    2012-07-01

    The trend towards a fossil-free agriculture is of great importance. Partly due to the fossil fuel energy is finite but also because of the importance of agriculture to reduce the environmental impact of food production. There are also an economic aspect. It is likely that in the near future will be economically burdensome being limited to fossil fuels. Therefore, it is important that agriculture is well prepared to move towards alternative biofuels. The introduction of alternative fuels in agriculture as a substitute for diesel has proven more difficult than in other industrial sectors, depending on both the specific technical conditions and a regulatory framework that may not have been written with agriculture as target. LRF, Farmers' Association, has instructed the JTI, Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, identifying which rules, laws and regulations that will affect farmers at the farm level that for their own use stores and manages one of the most likely future biofuels for agricultural tractors.

  5. Device for dewatering of raw biomass. Anordning foer avvattning och uppluckring av raa biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubat, J; Aabom, J J.V.; Klason, T C.F.; Bultzingsloewen, F von

    1993-09-27

    This invention concerns a device for loosening of raw biomass through roll dewatering. It is primarily applicable for comminuted and milled raw wood. The invention is of special interest for the production of pulverized wood fuel

  6. Place of the final disposal of short lived dismantling waste; Plats foer slutfoervaring av kortlivat rivningsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    This report deals with the short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which will mainly arise from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants, but also the dismantling of other nuclear facilities. For these installations to be dismantled, there must be the capacity to receive and dispose of dismantling waste. SKB plans to expand the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR) in Forsmark for this purpose. The legislation requires alternatives to the chosen location. The alternate location for the disposal of decommissioning waste SKB has chosen to compare with is a location in the Simpevarp area outside Oskarshamn. There are currently Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and SKB between stock 'CLAB'. The choice of Simpevarp as alternative location is based on that it's one of the places in the country where data on the bedrock is available to an extent that allows an assessment of the prospects for long-term security, such an assessment is actually showing good potential, and that the location provide realistic opportunities to put into practice the disposal of decommissioning waste. At a comparison between the disposal of short-lived decommissioning waste in an extension of SFR with the option to build a separate repository for short-lived decommissioning waste in Simpevarp, the conclusion is that both options offer potentially good prospects for long-term security. The differences still indicated speaks to the Forsmark advantage. Similar conclusions were obtained when comparing the factors of environment, health and social aspects.

  7. Description of Euro codes for concrete constructions; Beskrivning av Eurokoder foer betongkonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Bo (Bo Westerberg Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Eurocodes, which are common European standards for design of structures for buildings and facilities, prepared by the European Standardisation Committee (CEN) and is published in Sweden by the Swedish Institute for Standards (SIS). Sweden, like the other CEN-member countries, is in the process of replacing their national dimensioning rules with Eurocodes. In an ongoing investigative work on requirements for design, analysis and control of concrete structures with a focus on reactor containment SSM wants to clarify what is needed to ensure mechanical integrity of these structures. The study will form the basis for the development of draft rules for concrete structures. The project aimed to provide SSM factual basis for his valuation of the Eurocode applicability of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The report describes the Eurocodes relating to design of concrete structures. These are: EN 1990: Basis of structural design; EN 1991: Actions on structures; EN 1992: Design of concrete structures; EN 1993: Design of steel structures; EN 1994: Design of composite steel and concrete structures; and, EN 1998: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

  8. Energy Balance and Performance Indices for Kraft Recovery Boilers; Standardmetod foer beraekning av energibalans oever sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders

    2007-09-15

    It has been recognized that different rules exist in calculating energy flows to and from a Recovery boiler. In this report definitions are given with the intention that the branch should adopt a common position in reporting power production for the Swedish system with charge on emission of nitrogen oxides, for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and for the electricity certificate system. Legislation and guidelines are described as also different standards for determination of boiler efficiency. The definition of the liquor heating value is discussed as also the different ways in which an energy balance could be set up. For the Emissions Trading Scheme a literature survey of interpretations made in other countries has been made. The recommendation is to define the heat input as the product of the virgin liquor flow and the net calorific value of virgin liquor. A net calorific value as defined in SS-ISO 1928 is determined in an environment with excess of oxygen and is consequently named net calorific value in oxidizing condition. In a Recovery boiler part of that heat is required for reduction of sulfur and a net calorific value in reducing condition are therefore defined in a branch specific way. The flow of liquor could be calculated using a heat balance based on steam generation. The envelope for that heat balance could be selected as to fit each individual installation; however some general recommendations are given. In reporting energy flow for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and to EPA it is recommended to use the net calorific value in oxidizing condition. This definition should also be good for reporting to Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries Federation and for internal use. For reporting to the electricity certificate system the part of the total power production with origin from biofuel should be stated. The heat of reduction is not available for power production and consequently the recommendation is to use the net calorific value in reducing condition. The useful energy production as defined in the system for charge on nitrogen oxides is more intricate to define. Today Recovery boilers are not included in the system but it has been proposed from EPA to widen the system and also include them. For this system a definition is suggested where energy required for sulfur reduction as well as energy in produced high pressure steam are included. Heat reclaimed in flue gas scrubber, vent gas condenser or similar type of equipment should also be included.

  9. Investigation of the responsibility for decommissioning of the Ranstad plant; Utredning av ansvaret foer Ranstadsverkets avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Haakan; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Froeberg, Magnus [Froeberg och Lundholm Advokatbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The issue of decommissioning, including demolition, of the nuclear facility at the Ranstad plant was raised gradually during 2006-2008. It was then found that it was unclear which company or companies that could be responsible for this decommissioning, economically as well as for the implementation. During this time and until the end of 2009, the concerned authorities, notably Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and SSM, collected a large amount of facts as a basis for assessing liability. This material now needed to be systematized and compiled in order to effectively be utilized in such an assessment. SSM also thought that it would be helpful if an independent party with experience in similar issues could contribute to the interpretation of the legal situation. These were the given conditions of the mission which Kemakta Konsult AB, with the assistance of lawyer Magnus Froeberg, were given by SSM in the autumn of 2009. The results are presented in this final report.

  10. Environmental optimization of foundations for offshore wind power; Miljoemaessig optimering av fundament foer havsbaserad vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Rosenberg, Rutger

    2008-05-15

    The study concerns only the marine environment, excluding seabirds, and is based on the level of knowledge available in 2007. The study focuses on three different types of foundations; gravity-monopile and jacket foundations. Also tripod-bucket and floating foundations are mentioned. The different characteristics of the foundations are discussed based on their environmental impact in five different areas; 1) epifouling and reef-effects, 2) operational noise, 3) changes in hydrographical conditions, 4) noise during construction, and 5) dissolved sediment during construction. Regarding epifouling, it is noted that the surface texture of the foundation (i.e. steel, concrete) is of less importance in the long run since the initial substrate soon will be covered with organisms, creating a rugged surface for later colonising organisms. It is rather the level of salinity, distance to shore, exposure, depth and turbidity of the water that decide which organisms that will dominate the different foundations after a few years. Generally all foundations for offshore wind power are expected to be dominated by filtering animals, such as blue mussels. A possible exception is if concrete is coated with a silicone product that limits larger organisms to establish on the foundations. This kind of surface treatment has not yet been used by the wind power industry but occurs on other submarine concrete constructions. The potential for an evident reef-effect increases with the complexity of the foundation structure. Hence, tripod and especially jacket foundations have better possibility to contribute to the reef-effect than monopile- and gravity foundations. Reef-effect, as well as epifouling, may be considered negative in some marine environments, such as possible valuable areas without any natural occurrence of hard substratum. In such areas new species may be introduced, changing the local ecological conditions. However, in many areas an increased level of biological diversity is viewed as a positive change, and here reef-effect and epifouling may be considered favourable. To amplify the reef-effect, scour protection devices may be designed to create more habitats. Operational noise from offshore wind farms has been shown to initially affect some organisms (mussels, fish) during experimental studies in small containers. Whether corresponding operational noise in field and during natural circumstances can cause any environmental impacts is not yet fully understood. Available information indicates that there is a common sound level peak from wind turbines at frequencies of 100 - 200 Hz. In the same frequency range cargo ships emit higher sound than wind power even over several kilometres distance. Based on the present lack of certainty, it can be motivated to minimize the sound at these frequencies in areas with special biological values, such as endangered organisms sensitive to stress. However, there are no indications that operational noise may significantly effect the environment beyond the vicinity of each foundation. Based on a limited number of measurements it seems as if gravity and monopile foundations emit noise of similar amplitude, but the frequency range of the gravity foundation is generally lower. There are no measurements of jacket foundation but theoretically these should emit less noise, at least within the lower frequency range. Even if little is known about future turbines and foundations, it should be technically possible to decrease the emitted noise level. The local conditions of the seabed have a large impact on the propagation of the noise, where shallow water and hard substratum allow the sound to propagate longer distances. The background noise is also of importance and in quiet areas there is theoretically a higher risk of environmental impacts than in areas with heavy ship traffic. Changes in the hydrographical conditions around a foundation are small and are expected to be of importance only in very narrow water passages. The gravity foundation probably has the largest impact on the local hydrography. However, no direct comparisons between the different foundations have been made. During the construction period extreme noise levels may occur, especially during pile-driving which is needed for most foundations except for gravity foundations. The noise level depends on the diameter of the piles that are driven into the sediment as well as the piling method. This means that the monopile foundation generally emits higher construction noise levels than jackets, while gravity foundations emit the least construction noise. Since the extreme noise levels from pile-driving, covering large areas, can be harmful to fish and marine mammals it is very important to minimize this disturbance. This can be done by the choice of foundation, by precautionary measures and by adapted methods of pile-driving.

  11. Analysis of markets for biofuels - Theme: Vehicle gas market; Analys av marknaderna foer biodrivmedel - Tema: Fordonsgasmarknaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In 2011 the Energy Agency was given an annual mission, which involved analyzing the current and future markets for ethanol and bio diesel. The mission resulted in a report that did a thorough analysis of price and market mechanisms in the Swedish and international market. This year's report aims to provide a situation analysis of the markets for ethanol and bio diesel, both first and second generation, with additional focus on certain market issues. This time, the Agency has also been asked to consider the market for vehicle gas, something that was not part of the original mandate from 2011. Regarding ethanol and bio diesel so have indentations made primarily on European protection duties.

  12. Policy Instruments for an Increased Supply of Energy Crops; Styrmedel foer ett utoekat utbud av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Widmark, Annika; Wiklund, Sven-Erik; Liljeblad, Anna

    2009-05-15

    At present, energy crops are not commonly used as fuel for heat and power production in Sweden, but as a result of increased competition for biomass, the interest for agricultural fuels such as willow, straw, reed canary grass and hemp increases. The purpose of this study is through a qualitative study that includes a literature study as well as case studies carried out by interviews, with respondents in the agriculture- and energy sectors highlight the conditions for increased production and use of energy crops. The main objective is to propose relevant policy instruments that could increase the production and use of energy crops. The purpose with the proposed policy instruments is that they should serve as a basis for discussions with politicians and authorities regarding the supply of bio fuels through the use of energy crops. The result of the study indicates that the main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation of energy crops today is unprofitable. To reduce the production costs it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips. The study shows that there is a potential for reduction of production costs through development of the logistics chain. Policy measures promoting the use of bio fuels exists today, but are not fully used to increase the share of energy crops in the bio fuel energy mix. The reason for this is that they are generally not as cost efficient as alternative bio fuels. It is important that competition issues are addressed, both regarding competition issues between different bio fuels, but also competition issues between various energy crops that exists today. Further obstacles to accelerate the introduction of energy crops at the market are high investment costs for establishment of some of the energy crops. From the analysis in this study, the following policy instruments are suggested in order to increase the production and the use of energy crops within the power and heat sector 1. Financing of practical research and development of the logistics chain including harvesting, bundling, compression, preparation, feeding in (to the power plant), storage and transportation of energy crops 2. Investment support to farmers cultivating energy crops with high investment costs 3. Introduction of a national program for development of regional projects supporting cooperation between actors on the energy crop bio fuel market. 1. Financing of Practical Research and Development of the Logistics Chain To reduce the production costs in order to increase the profitability, support for practical research and development of the logistics chain, which includes harvesting, bundling, compression, preparation, feeding in (to the power plant), storage and transportation of energy crops, is suggested. For the success of practical research, it is important that the research is performed in close cooperation between farmers, entrepreneurs within the logistics chain dealing with harvesting, storage and transport of energy crops and energy companies. One way to achieve such cooperation is that the energy companies take the initiative for common research efforts, since neither the farmers nor the contractors on the market for energy crops normally take part in research projects. Neither do they normally have experience of applying for research funds. Common research efforts are also important to find cost-effective solutions for the entire logistics chain. This means that the financing for the research could be a combination of public support and support from the heat and power sector. 2. Investment Support to Farmers Cultivating Energy Crops with High Investment Costs In order to initially increase the interest in energy crops, contribute to establish a market for production of energy crops and manage high initial investment costs, problem that farmers face at the transition from traditional production of grain to energy crops, a development of the existing investment support scheme to include an additional number of energy crops are suggested. One of the purposes by including an additional number of energy crops within the scheme is that the energy crops with the best condition with respect to the farmer's competence, the logistics entrepreneur's technical preconditions, different quality of the soils and the suitability of different energy crops in different geographical areas can be used in order to increase production and use of energy crops. 3. Introduction of a National Program for Development of Regional Projects Supporting Cooperation between Actors on the Energy Crop Bio Fuel Market. Experiences from bio energy projects both in Sweden and in Finland shows that regional cooperation projects between energy companies, farmers, entrepreneurs within the logistics chain and other actors may by cooperation achieve increased production and use of energy crops.

  13. Tests of Bed Agglomeration Tendency Using a Rotating Furnace; Roterugn foer bedoemning av sintringsbenaegenhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larfeldt, Jenny; Zintl, Frank [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Bed sintering is a well known problem in fluidised bed boilers. In order to avoid bed sintering the bed material turn over ratio is high which leads a high consumption of bed material. This work aims at developing and evaluating a method for testing the bed agglomeration tendency of a FB bed material by using a rotating furnace. A rotating furnace has been designed and tests have shown that three temperatures describing the increasing agglomeration tendency can be evaluated; TA when several particles stick to each other and to the crucible wall, TB when half of the material sticks to the wall and TC when almost all the material forms a ball in the crucible. Comparison with bed agglomeration tests has shown that TA is between 80 deg C to 130 deg C lower than the bed agglomeration temperature from fluid bed tests. It is shown that TB is closer to the bed agglomeration temperature and finally that the temperature TC is higher than the bed agglomeration temperature. It is concluded that in the rotating furnace sticking of particles is visualised early, and that this sticking will not cause defluidisation of the bed until more than half of the material in the crucible is sticky. Repeated tests has been performed at a heating rate of 5 deg/minute and a rotating speed of 12 rpm and a furnace inclination of 20 deg was found to give distinct results in the evaluation. The evaluation has shown to be reproducible at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, around 1,000 deg C, the evaluation was complicated by a poor picture quality which probably can be improved by proper cooling of the camera. It has also been shown that sticking of material in the rotating furnace could be detected at relatively low temperatures of 750 deg C that disappeared at higher temperatures. This is likely to be explained by melting salts that evaporates as temperature increase. At even higher temperatures the sticking reappeared until a ball was formed in the crucible. The latter sticking is probably related to melts of silica and the phenomena was also seen in a large number of tests with single crucibles and microscopic studies of heated materials.

  14. Practical implementation of joint projects for offshore wind; Praktiskt genomfoerande av gemensamma projekt foer havsbaserad vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Cooperation mechanisms are part of the renewable s directive and aims to member countries to cooperate on renewable energy to meet their national targets a cost effective way. The Energy Agency has in previous assignments analyzed the possibilities and limitations of cooperation mechanisms and other countries' interest in the cooperation mechanisms. In the Appropriation Directions for 2013, the Energy Agency has been asked to contribute to the continued analysis and practical preparations for a possible cooperation with other member countries. The assignment covers several different types of cooperation. This report represents the Agency's accounting of the part of the commission on cooperation through joint projects. This part include, in consultation with the industry to develop a proposal for the practical use for the implementation of possible joint projects for offshore wind power. The mission aims to create greater clarity and facilitate the possible implementation of joint projects.

  15. Model for economic optimization of solar power plants; Beraekningsmodell foer ekonomisk optimering av solelanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widen, Joakim

    2011-01-15

    This is the final report from a project in which an early-design-phase tool for photovoltaic (PV) systems has been developed. The aim of the tool is to provide a quick and easy way to estimate the electricity production and the economy of a PV system. Although it is effective and easy to use, the model takes into account all the important factors that affect the design, performance and economy of a system, and makes it possible with more in-depth analyses as well. The intended users of the tool are both electricity end-users thinking on investing in a small-scale system and large investors planning in an early project phase for large-scale PV systems. The developed tool is a simulation tool rather than an optimization tool. However, as the model is efficient and simple to use, it is easy to vary parameters and input data in different scenarios to arrive at an optimal solution. In order for the tool to realistically estimate the load matching of a PV system, which depends on seasonal and diurnal variations in both load and production profiles, the computations are made on an hourly basis. An hourly resolution is the most common one in meteorological data and to increase the resolution further is neither practically possible nor required for accuracy. The hourly irradiation data used in the model were collected from the publicly available STRAaNG database, which is maintained by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Idealized hourly load profiles for typical Swedish end-user categories are also included in the tool. A general computational model was implemented in Matlab, which provided easy testing, visualization and validation of the model. The computations involved can be summarized in four main steps: 1 Radiation computations. This involves a transposition of radiation components to the tilted plane of the PV array. The model takes the orientation of the system into account and uses assumed albedo values of the surroundings to add ground-reflected radiation. 2 PV system simulations. A simplified model of the PV system, including different loss mechanisms, is used to convert incident radiation to a power output from the system inverter. 3 Electricity use and load matching analyses. The interaction with the electricity distribution grid is determined from the power production and load profiles. 4 Economical analysis. The economy of the system is determined from the load matching analysis and depends on system costs, subsidies and different debiting and net metering alternatives. The exact model computations are summarized in Appendix A-D. The model has been compared to both the commercial tool PVSYST 4.1 and to empirical measurements on PV systems in the Swedish climate. The conclusion is that the performance of the developed model is similar to that of the commercial tool, although more in-depth analyses and extensive fine tuning of parameters can be done in PVSYST. The annual production and performance ratio of a typical system in the model is close to the production and average performance of a set of measured Swedish PV test systems. The model structure was implemented in the object-oriented programming language Java SE 6 with Java Web Start, which enables the creation of a platform-independent application with a graphical user interface that can be started from a web site without any requirements on local Java installations. The implemented model is with few exceptions identical to the one that was tested in Matlab. This application will be publicly available on the Elforsk website. In the report, the application is used to show how one small-scale and one large-scale system can be modeled and analysed

  16. Degradation of cellulose in the presence of ash; Nedbrytningsmoenster foer cellulosa i naervaro av aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Tech. (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    This project evaluates the risks and possibilities that come up in mixtures of ash and cellulose. The focus is on alkaline degradation of cellulose and the impact on metal leaching. The literature survey shows that a combination of ash and cellulose affects both the mobility of metals and the degradation of cellulose in many ways. A combination of ash and cellulose could have positive effects on the degradation of cellulose since ash makes the pH rise in the material. Normally the pH decreases in a waste deposit with time, which results in a reduced biological degradation of the cellulose since the methanogenic organisms are sensitive for low pH values. However, even if the pH increases when cellulose is mixed with ash the methanogenic organisms could be inhibit by toxic metals. The highest degradation rate for cellulose is at natural pH values because of an effective biological degradation. If alkaline conditions appear when cellulose is mixed with ash or in contact with the leaching water the cellulose is going to be degraded by a slower process: non-biological degradation (peeling-off reactions). The main degradation product from peeling-off reactions of cellulose is isosaccharinic acid (ISA). ISA forms complex with metals, which results in increased mobilization and leaching of metals. From biological degradation the degradation products are mainly CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O under aerobic conditions and CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} under anaerobic conditions. In combinations of ash and cellulose is it possible that the formed carbon dioxide cause carbonation and fixation of metals in the ash. As mentioned, ash could result in an increment of the pH value in cellulose materials, but if the starting point is pure ash a mixture with cellulose could make the pH value decrease, in extreme cases down to 4-5, because of biological degradation. Therefore it is possible that the metal mobilization in ash will increase if the ash is mixed with cellulose. Increased leaching of metals in combinations of ash and cellulose could also be caused by complex binding between solvent acids from the degradation of cellulose and metals in the ash. The experiments in this study have shown that the degradation product ISA results in an increased content of Pb and Zn in the leaching water from fly ash. When the experimental conditions were set to comparable conditions as for a compact and covered deposit after 250 years the leaching of Pb increased from 31 to 39 % and the leaching of Zn from 1,8 to 2,3 % when the content of ISA was increased 20 times. The disadvantages of mixing ash and cellulose are probably more important than the advantages because of the risk for increased metal mobilization. However, in some applications, for example grouting of ash to stabilize a waste deposit, the risk for metal leaching have to be compared to the advantages of using the ash. The disadvantages with ash and cellulose combinations could also be turned to advantages in special applications with processes where complex binding with ISA could give a selective washing/leaching and simultaneously the remaining metals could be fixed through carbonation.

  17. Legislation of combustion of recovered bio fuels; Regelverk foer eldning av returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik; Olvstam, Marie Louise [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    A research programme, concerning combustion of sorted waste wood with the objective to solve and answer the following questions has been started: * What types of problems can arise?, * What causes the problems?, and * How can the problems be solved? This first stage of the programme has focused on the first two questions. The problem when using chips from waste wood can be divided into different categories; operational problems, environmental problems as well as restrictions related to new EC-regulations. The environmental problems when burning wood waste are related to the chemical composition of the fuel. In some fuel deliveries, sorted waste wood has a content of heavy metals in the same range as for ordinary biofuels. In other cases, the degree of contamination is unacceptable. Fouling of heating surfaces is one of the most significant combustion problems for chips from waste wood. The rate of fouling and deposition on the heating surfaces will increase three to five times compared to ordinary biomass combustion in the same boiler and under the same conditions. Fouling has been shown to occur regardless of the furnace used, whereas the dimensions and design of the heating surfaces have a more significant influence. The deposits formed are more corrosive over a broader temperature range compared to deposits formed during combustion of ordinary wood chips. This expands the corrosion problems to surfaces constructed of lower alloyed steels such as furnace walls and primary superheaters. In addition to the typical components of wood ash (such as calcium, potassium and sulphur), zinc, lead and sometimes titanium are enriched in the deposits. Most fuel fractions of sorted waste wood will be affected by the new EC-restrictions for combustion of waste. This is due to the fact that analysis of these fuels show higher content of halogens and most heavy metals than for example analysis of clean wood chips. The EC-restriction will mean more stringent rules for emissions compared to the present levels for these plants. Both the environmental problems (air emissions and quality of ash) as well as the operational problems are, as mentioned above, caused by the fuel contamination. Inadequately sorted wood waste can contain metal objects, which among other problems can lead to blocking of grates or nozzles of fluid bed boilers. Even well classified wood waste contains contaminants such as wood preservatives (mainly As, Cr, Cu), paint (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ti and other metals) and adhesives (mainly nitrogen). However, classification can only be used to remove these contaminants to some extent. The quality can be improved by removal of the fine fraction containing a higher amount of metals than the larger fuel particles. Also crushed gypsum, sand etc are discharged with this fine fraction decreasing the levels of sulphur and silicon. However, contaminants derived from wood preservatives are not enriched in the fine fraction and are therefore difficult to remove by pre-treatments such as classification. Those remaining contaminants have to be handled within the furnace. This project indicates for example that the ratio between zinc, lead, sulphur, chloride and alkali influences corrosion and fouling. The restrictions on air emissions have to be solved with cleaning equipment. The result of this study also indicates that the recirculation of ash to the forest does not seem to be possible without a large amount of efforts and measures. The conclusions from this first step of the research programme are that further knowledge is needed concerning the following items; * Which quality restrictions have to be set on different fuels in order to meet present and future emission limits as well as standards for reprocessing and quality assurance. * The mechanisms for the formation of ash deposits. * The chemical processes of the combustion that occurs in the furnace as well as the significance of the interactions between the contents of zinc, lead, chloride, sulphur, sodium and potassium.

  18. Conditions for lowering the flue gas temperature; Foerutsaettning foer saenkning av roekgastemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus

    2012-02-15

    In heat and power production, the efficiency of the power plant increases the larger share of heat from the flue gas that is converted to power. However, this also implies that the temperature of the heat exchanging surfaces is lowered. If the temperature is lowered to a temperature below the dew point of the flue gas, this would result in condensation of the gas, which in turn elevates the risk of serious corrosion attack on the surfaces where condensation occurs. Thus, it is important to determine the dew point temperature. One way of determining the dew point temperature is to use data on composition of the fuel together with operation parameters of the plant, thus calculating the dew point temperature. However, this calculation of the dew point is not so reliable, especially if hygroscopic salts are present. Therefore, for safety reasons, the temperature of the flue gas is kept well above the dew point temperature. This results in lowered over-all efficiency of the plant. It could also be expected that for a certain plant, some construction materials under certain operation conditions would have corrosion characteristics that may allow condensation on the surface without severe and unpredictable corrosion attack. However, by only using operation parameters and fuel composition, it is even harder to predict the composition of the condensate at different operation temperatures than to calculate the dew point temperature. If the dew point temperature was known with a greater certainty, the temperature of the flue gas could be kept lower, just above the estimated value of the dew point, without any increased risk for condensation. If, in addition, also the resulting composition of the condensate at different temperatures below the dew point is known, it can be predicted if the construction materials of the flue gas channel were compatible with the formed condensate. If they are compatible, the flue gas temperature can be further lowered from the dew point temperature with equal and small risk of corrosion, but with increased efficiency of the plant

  19. AUTOMATION AV GALLERKLIPPARE

    OpenAIRE

    Taboada Vargas, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om automatisering och assistans att CE-märka en maskin. Arbetet innefattade automationsplanering, tillverkning av elskåp, montering på maskin och igångkörning. Automationsplaneringen bestod av elritningar och programmering. Elsystemet bestod av elskåp med bl.a. programmerbar logik, touch-panel och säkerhetskomponenter. CE-märkning utfördes enligt de direktiv, standarder och säkerhetsföreskrifter som bör följas. Nu med det nya automatiserade systemet är samm...

  20. Results from a full scale application of ashes and other residuals in the final cover construction of the Tveta landfill; Utvaerdering av fullskaleanvaendning av askor och andra restprodukter vid sluttaeckning av Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav (Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden)); Andreas, Lale (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    In 2000 Telge Aatervinning - a waste management and recycling company - started investigating ashes from incineration of industrial and biowaste waste. The company was given a permit from the Swedish Environmental Court to cover four hectares of the house hold waste landfill area. In 2006 the company received an unlimited permit to cover the remaining part of the landfill when the works end some thirty years later. Ashes were used the first time in 1966 for testing. Literature studies indicated the ashes can have a low hydraulic conductivity under certain conditions. In 1999 collaboration started with the Division of Waste Science and Technology at Luleaa University of Technology. Residuals from household and industrial waste were subject to investigation. Initially, biowaste incineration products were subject to testing and were later extended to other waste products, e.g. sludge, contaminated soils, foundry, and compost material. Several different sub-fractions of ashes were included in the investigation e.g. bottom and fly ash, various slag products after up-grading including dewatering, separation and sifting. Subsequently, a complete covering system of a landfill consists of residuals. Six test areas were outlined in order to give a good representation for cover construction in flat and steep areas with different compositions of liner material. The results show that in all areas the hydraulic conductivity construction yields less then 50 liters per square meters and years and can be less the than 5 liters in a repository for hazardous waste if required. In accordance with literature data the field observations show the liner material constructed only by ash material under certain conditions can form a monolithic structure due to very slow processes thus indicating small pore volumes that unable water air to interact with other media. The concept of using ash can be related to natural analogues of volcanic ashes and has been used in old defence walls and other buildings thousand years back. The last part of the report brings a number of topics for future research and a discussion about problems to with the authorities to use residuals for covering landfills

  1. Skyggedom av enkepensjonsdommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognlien, Ida Gundersby

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven undersøker om bortfall av ektefellepensjon ved lovendring med tilbakevirkende kraft er i strid med retten til eiendom etter EMK TP 1 art 1. Skyggedommetoden/ Feminist Judgments -metoden brukes for å gjenskrive enkepensjonsdommen Rt.2006.262 i et feministisk perspektiv. Da mannen døde.......1975.220. I spørsmålet om inngrepet er proporsjonalt ble vektlagt at det ikke foreligger en transparent avveining av de relevante interessene. Videre er hensynene bak og behovene for den opprinnelige ektefellepensjonen fortsatt tilstede, og de er ikke tilstrekkelig avveid mot formålene med inngrepet...

  2. Forenkling av tekniske systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne; Bramslev, Katharina; Halderaker, Ingrid

    De fleste moderne kontorbygg har omfattende tekniske installasjoner. Mange byggeiere opplever at dagens kompliserte tekniske anlegg ikke fungerer som de skal. De ender med å få reklamasjoner, høyt energiforbruk og klager på inneklima. Kan en kraftig forenkling av ventilasjons-, oppvarmings- og...

  3. Maritime prerequisites for development of infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Maritima foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahnstroem, Johan; Molitor, Edvard; Raggl, Karl-Johan; Sandkvist, Jim [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    This study has provided an initial picture of where the most interesting ports and areas available for future expansion of a maritime infrastructure for LNG. On the basis of supplying vessels with LNG as fuel, from a long term perspective, we recommend locating LNG terminals in or near major ports and around the big ship routes. Given the current age distribution of ships operating waters of the Baltic Sea, almost 20% of the vessels are 30-40 years old and likely to be replaced by 2015 - 2020. Thus, there is a potential for newly built ships will be equipped with LNG operation. Selected criteria s; Size of the LNG terminal and hence the need for the size of the fairway and the area of land. Proximity to traffic routes with much ship traffic. Proximity to the major port. Proximity to consumers on the land side. On the basis of selected criteria and analyzed for possible location of the terminal it can be noted that a number of Swedish ports are found suitable. For example, ports of Sundsvall, Gothenburg and Helsingborg has been identified as suitable, but with different starting point and different types and sizes of terminals possible.

  4. Genetic variation for characters of importance for growth in Salix viminalis L. Final report; Genetisk variation foer karaktaerer av betydelse foer tillvaext hos Salix viminalis L. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Gullberg, Urban [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology

    2000-04-01

    The overall goal for this project was to study the genetic variation and the genetic relationships for different growth characters and for water use efficiency (WUE) in Salix viminalis and also to use this knowledge to formulate breeding goals for Salix. Two factorial crossings with Swedish and Polish origin, each with 320 families have been used. Part of the Polish material was used to study the genetic variation for carbon isotope quota. Carbon isotope quota gives a measure of the WUE for the plant. Crossings have been made to change and improve the WUE in Salix viminalis. Construction of a genetic linkage map has started and the map can be used to identify genetic markers for WUE. The results show that most of the growth characters have both additive genetic variation and also a high degree of dominance genetic variation. A strategy in the breeding where both additive and dominance variation can be utilized should be adopted. WUE show mainly additive genetic variation but also a high heritability. This gives great opportunities to improve Salix material for WUE through recurrent selection.

  5. Tool for calculation of the life cycle cost for different heating systems in one-family houses; Verktyg foer beraekning av livscykelkostnaden foer olika vaermesystem i smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Jenny; Strand, Hanna [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The Excel-based tool can be used by the consumer and covers the following heating systems: direct electric heating (alt. in combination with an air source heat pump), electric boiler (alt. in combination with an air source heat pump), fuel oil boiler, wood pellets boiler, natural gas boiler, exhaust air heat pump, ground source heat pump (surface soil or boreholes) and district heating. A few case studies are reviewed in order to illustrates the use of the tool.

  6. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the bedrock conditions at Forsmark. The detailed investigations will employ, apart from established and earlier practiced methods, also further refined and newly developed techniques and methods for investigations and modelling. The report describes the present status for investigation and modelling methodology and techniques and also provides an overview of currently planned method developments. The report also presents a proposed scenario for how the detailed investigations, in light of presently available knowledge and techniques, should be conducted. Starting points for the investigation programme in this context are the reference design of the facility and remaining uncertainties associated with the site descriptive model and underground design. The scenario high-lights those investigations which, more or less as a matter of routine work, will be performed closely coordinated with the progression of the underground excavation work. The investigations related to the development of the deposition areas will primarily be linked to the sequences pilot drilling followed by excavation of deposition tunnels, and pilot drilling with subsequent full-face drilling of deposition holes. Continuous supervision of the fulfilment of design premises and documentation of the facility are in this context important issues. Information acquired during the construction process will also provide the substantial basis for the assessment of the long-term safety of the final repository. Further, it is emphasised in the report that supplementary investigations will be performed, if the information in any respect is regarded as insufficient. Such investigations may as well be performed from the ground surface. The final repository will in different ways have an impact on the surrounding environment. Monitoring of such changes is therefore an important and integral part of the detailed investigations. Until the construction work for the final repository is initiated, the detailed investigation programme will be modified and made more circumstantial, including results of planned developments . These updates will be accounted for in ensuing versions of the programme

  7. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually. It is also likely that in the coming years there will be almost ten filling stations for liquid methane in operation in southern Sweden. The market analysis shows that several industries in the iron and steel industry are already interested in converting to LNG, mainly to cope with environmental demands. Also in the chemical industry there is an interest in using LNG, while many of the companies in the pulp and paper industry do not see LNG as a particularly attractive option. The latter have access to their own fuel and several companies have also adopted policies aiming at becoming fossil fuel free in the near future. The total conversion potential to replace oil with LNG industry amounted to 6.8 TWh/year, divided among 100 users. The greatest potential is in central Sweden (Dalarna, Gaevleborg, Vaermland) and along the Norrland coast. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. Transport distance is too long to be economically feasible to supply industries in central and northern Sweden. To provide these regions with LNG the intermodal freight terminals in Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa would be able to function as strategic hubs. These three terminals covering the areas and industries that according to the market analysis is most interesting for LNG supplies, and are all well connected both by road, rail and seaway, allowing for transfer between different modes. All harbours also have the potential to qualify for receiving LNG deliveries by ship. There is also an interest in using liquid methane for heavy transport and coaches/intercity buses, because the distribution of liquid methane is cost effective, and the vehicles get longer range due to the high energy density of liquid methane. Yet, however, the availability of vehicles is limited and the infrastructure is not developed, but both the availability of vehicles and refueling stations will increase in coming years. In total, about 10 TWh/year of diesel needs to be replaced i n the heavy vehicle sector, among other reasons to meet environmental goals, which is assumed to correspond to the conversion potential in the heavy duty vehicle sector in the long term (2030). A rough estimate of the possible development means that the demand for biomethane, in the form of LBG, and CBG (compressed biogas), by 2020 will amount to 1.5 TWh/year for heavy duty transport applications and to about 1 TWh/year LNG for long-range heavy duty transport. Furthermore, it is estimated to be possible that the production capacity of LBG double by 2020, reaching around 1 TWh/year.

  8. Appropriate methodology for the basic characterization of ash for acceptance at landfill; Laemplig metodik foer grundlaeggande karakterisering av aska foer acceptans paa deponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvaardsverket), waste may be placed in a landfill only after basic characterisation and compliance with certain criteria on limits. This includes percolation tests, prCEN/TS 144053, and batch leaching tests, SS-EN 12457-3. The latter standard states amongst other things that 'the procedure may not be applicable to materials reacting with the leachant', and there are similar statements in the standard for the percolation test. It is stated in the criteria for acceptance (paragraphs 15-16) that (translation by the present author) 'in those cases where the test methods mentioned are not applicable, a method in which chemical equilibrium is intended to be achieved between the waste and the leachant should be used for comparison of equivalent limits'. However, in the very most cases, ashes from incineration and combustion are tested without any consideration of their very well known reactive properties. In this report, methodology has been investigated for the ageing of ashes before they are subjected to leach testing. Ageing has been carried out in air-tight glass vessels (jars) in order to simulate bulk conditions. The variations have included two different water contents together with 0, 1, 4 and 17 weeks of ageing. The ashes investigated are fly ashes form facilities in Halmstad, Joenkoeping, Lidkoeping and Linkoeping. The furnaces at Lidkoeping are of the fluidized bed type and the other ones are of the grate fired type. At the time of sampling, the fuel at Linkoeping comprised largely recycled wood chips, and the other facilities burned mainly domestic waste and waste from industry. The results of the work support a recommendation to age ashes before they are subjected to leach testing. Before ageing, water should be added to a surplus relative to what may be consumed in chemical reactions, but not so superfluously that a mirror comprising free water may remain on the surface. It is recommended that the ageing takes place during at least one week, and preferably for more than one month. In no case was it observed that the ageing gave rise to an increased leach rate. Nonetheless, it is recommended that this is investigated on a case by case basis and for such elements that can be suspected to show an increase in the leach rate with time. For e g zinc, lead and copper, the ageing gave rise to a reduction of the leaching by some order of magnitude. The largest reduction was observed for the highest values. It was assessed that the ageing in many cases may imply that the leaching meets the criteria of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for disposal of waste on a landfill for non-hazardous waste. The reduction may also imply that ashes can be qualified to be used in geotechnical constructions

  9. En av gutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Cecilie Basberg; Rysst, Mari; Bjerck, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Hvilken betydning har kjønn og klær for kvinner som arbeider i mannsdominerte arbeiderklasseyrker? Forfatterne av denne artikkelen finner at kvinnene må nedtone sitt kjønn og sin seksualitet gjennom å dekke til kroppen, i klær laget for menn, for å signalisere at de er på jobb for å arbeide. Hvor...

  10. Summer Student Report - AV Workflow

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The AV Workflow is web application which allows cern users to publish, update and delete videos from cds. During my summer internship I implemented the backend of the new version of the AV Worklow in python using the django framework.

  11. Evaluation of research frame program on Energygases 2009 - 2012; Utvaerdering av Energimyndighetens kollektiv-forskningsprogram 'Energigastekniskt utvecklingsprogram 2009-2012'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilliestraale, Astrid; Johnsson, Filip

    2012-07-01

    This evaluation has been carried out with the purpose of evaluating the Energy Agency's collective research program 'Energigastekniskt utvecklingsprogram 2009 - 2012'. The evaluation concerning the current period (20090401 to 20130331) have focused on society, industry and universities benefit from the program. The assignment also includes assessing the working modalities of the program. The following points have been considered: 1. The program aims; a number of program-specific questions that focus on how the program helps to strengthen the relationship between industry and academia and the quality of R and D has been obtained from the Energy Authority. 2. Subareas - focus and priorities. 3. The benefits of the program, focusing on commercialization, information dissemination and international collaboration. 4. Administration of the program. The program evaluation has focused on the central and cross-cutting issues.

  12. Evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment'; Utvaerdering av miljoekvalitetsmaalet 'Saeker straalmiljoe'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asp, Helene; Brewitz, Erica; Halvarsson, Andreas; Ljungberg, Sophie; Mjoenes, Lars; Wallberg, Petra

    2007-11-15

    The evaluation of the environmental quality objective 'A Safe Radiation Environment' is a contribution to the Environmental Objective Council's assessment of progress towards the national environmental quality objectives. The report describes and evaluates the radiation environment in Sweden, the regulatory instruments, measures carried out and the monitoring programmes. Furthermore, the possibility of achieving the objective and its interim targets is evaluated. New measures and means of control are proposed. The proposals are directed to the government and Parliament, national authorities and other stakeholders in society. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) considers it possible to achieve the objective, but additional efforts are required to ensure success. Environmental monitoring, research on health effects of radiation and supervision are still important areas. Intensified efforts will be needed to change attitudes towards suntanning. Changes in the formulation of the objective and its interim targets are suggested. Today only protection against radiation in the external environment is covered by the objective. Radiation protection work has to consider all. SSI therefore suggests that the objective should extend to include workplaces and indoor environment. For the three interim targets included in 'A Safe Radiation Environment', changes are suggested for the interim targets for radioactive substances and electromagnetic fields. No change is suggested for the interim target for skin cancer

  13. Evaluation of future policy instruments - Sub-Project 2; Utvaerdering av framtida styrmedel - Delprojekt 2 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaillon, Mattias; Dahlen, Lisa; Detterfelt, Lia; Edner, Stig; Toren, Johan

    2013-09-01

    There are several recently introduced and future possible policy instruments that are of great interest to study in order to understand the future for the Swedish waste treatment market. In the energy sector, the use of system analysis models has proven to be effective in order to understand the effects and consequences of policy instruments. In the waste sector, however, such analyses have only been conducted sporadically. This in spite of the introduction of highly influential policy instruments such as producer responsibility, landfill tax and landfill ban, which together have contributed to landfilling of Swedish household waste practically has ceased. The goal of this project was, by using system analysis models, to study and evaluate the newly introduced and future possible policy instruments which affect Swedish waste treatment. The assessment was made in terms of how policy instruments affect: - the distribution of treatment technologies, - waste amounts, - greenhouse gas emissions and - the economics of waste treatment. The project was performed during 2011 and 2012 as a part of the research project 'Perspectives on sustainable waste treatment (PFA)'. During the project, discussions have taken place within the working group and the reference group on which instruments are most interesting and relevant to study. Furthermore, opinions have been gathered from the association Swedish Waste Managements policy instrument group and from various players in the industry at conferences, presentations and workshops.

  14. Biogas from lignocellulosic biomass - A techno-economic study of pretreatment with NMMO; Biogas fraan lignocellulosa - Tekno-ekonomisk utvaerdering av foerbehandling med NMMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Berglund Odhner, Peter; Teghammar, Anna; Mohseni Kabir, Maryam, Olsson, Marcus; Ascue, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Biogas has been identified as one of the most cost-effective renewable fuels. In order to increase biogas production, yields from traditionally substrates either need to be improved or other alternative substrates must be made available for anaerobic digestion. Cellulose and lignocellulose rich wastes are available in large amounts and have great potential to be utilized for biogas production. This project focused on the optimization of the pretreatment conditions when using the organic solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) to enhance the methane yield from forest residues and straw. It also focused on a techno-economic evaluation of this pre-treatment technology. NMMO has previously been shown to be effective in dissolving cellulose and, as a consequence, in increasing the methane yield during the subsequent digestion. The goal of this project was to develop a technology that increases energy production from domestic substrates in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way. The treatment works well at lower temperatures (9 C), which means that water from the district heating system can advantageously be used in the treatment. The results showed that treatment with NMMO at 90 deg C doubles the methane yield from forest residues and increases the methane yield from straw by 50 %. For the techno-economic evaluation, the base case was assumed to be a facility with a capacity of 100 000 tones forest residues/year. After a washing and filtration step, the treated material will be utilized in a co-digestion process where 33 % of the incoming material consists of forest residues and the rest is source-sorted household waste. The scale-up, process design, simulation and calculations were made using the software tool Intelligent SuperPro Design. The total investment costs were calculated to be about 145 million, when forest residues or straw are to be used as raw material. Costs for operation (i.e. raw materials, energy, waste management, maintenance and personnel costs) were set against the incomes from the products (i.e. methane, carbon dioxide and the lignin-rich digested residue) to see if the process was profitable. The internal return rate (IRR), a parameter that indicates whether a process is profitable or not, indicated that evaluated processes with capacities over 50 000 tons forest residues/year are profitable. However, co-digestion of forest residues with sewage sludge instead of household waste was not profitable. Both the laboratory results and the energy and economic calculations showed that the washing and filtration step is critical for the proposed process. The energy balance calculation resulted in an EROI value of 0.5, which means that the produced methane from forest residues counted up only the half of the energy needed for the treatment as well as NMMO separation and recycling. It is important to separate the NMMO well after the treatment, since remaining NMMO at concentrations higher than 0.002 % were found to inhibit the subsequent digestion step. Also it was showed out to be important that the washing step operates with small amounts of water to save energy within the NMMO recovery. A rotary vacuum filtration is therefore recommended for the washing and filtration step, and a mechanical vapor design is recommended for the evaporation, saving up to 70 - 90 % energy compared to a conventional design. Treatment of straw with recycled instead of fresh NMMO has also been tested and equal amounts of methane were obtained. After a well-functioning washing and filtration step, NMMO could not be detected in the di gestate residue.

  15. Lambda based control O{sub 2} set point optimisation and evaluation; Lambdabaserad reglering. Boervaerdesoptimering av O{sub 2} och utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Mikael; Brodin, Peter [Vattenfall Utveckling, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    During winter and spring 2003, the project 'Lambda based control' was carried out at Vattenfall Utveckling AB in Aelvkarleby, Sweden. The main purpose of the project was to explore if conventional lambda sensors could be used to control the fuel/air-ratio in small boilers. The conclusion was that this is possible. To be able to make use of the result, the question of what the numerical set value for O{sub 2} should be, has to be answered. Several parameters have impact on the oxygen level in combustion gas. The main purpose of this project is to explore if there is a cost efficient way of controlling fuel/air-ratio by using lambda sensors. The scope of the project is achieve the following, by using the experience from project P4-209: find out which parameters that correlate most strongly with lambda; develop a method to decide which and how many parameters to use, in order to optimize cost efficiency; calculate optimal set value for O{sub 2} in one of the boilers used for experiments in the project; and evaluate the method and compare important parameters of operation, such as efficiency and emissions. The method developed in the project uses initial measurements to find out the relation between O{sub 2} and emissions at different power levels. Then a set point curve is calculated where set point for O{sub 2} is expressed as a function of power level in the current boiler. The method has been implemented and evaluated at a 400 kW boiler in Aelvkarleby, Sweden. The results are improvements in efficiency (6 %) and emissions, CO decreased 40 %, NO decreased by 20 %. The conclusion is that lambda based control according to this method could be a profitable investment under the right circumstances, where stability in characteristics is the most important property. What makes the method uncertain is its inability to handle changes in characteristics of a boiler.

  16. How should the household waste be handled? Evaluation of different treatment methods; Hur skall hushaallsavfallet tas om hand? Utvaerdering av olika behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, J.O.; Carlsson Reich, M.; Granath, J. [The Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Baky, Andras [Swedish Inst. of Agriculatural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology

    2002-02-01

    Energy turnover, and environmental and economic consequences of different municipal solid waste management systems have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, recycling of separated plastic and cardboard packages and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easy degradable organic waste, were studied and also compared to landfilling. A simulation model (ORWARE), based on LCA methodology, was used. The following parameters were used for evaluating the different waste management options: consumption of energy resources, emissions of greenhouse gases, emissions of acidifying substances, emissions of eutrophicating substances, emissions of photo oxidant formers, heavy metal flows, financial economy and welfare economy. The analysis was based on a model municipality. In a sensitivity analysis different technical, geographic and demographic parameters have been varied, making the result to cover several different types of municipalities and regions. The conclusions from the study are as follows. The most obvious conclusion is that landfilling should be avoided. Wastes that can be incinerated (combusted), material recycled, anaerobically digested or composted should not be landfilled. This is valid even if landfill gas is extracted and utilised, and the leachate is collected and treated. This is due to that the resources in the waste are inefficiently utilised when landfilled, making it necessary to produce materials, fuels and nutrients from virgin resources. It is impossible to draw unambiguous conclusions of which of the other treatment options that is is most preferable. There are advantages and disadvantages with all options. In a systems perspective there are small differences between incineration and aerobic digestion of easy degradable organic material, and between incineration and material recycling of e.g. plastics and cardboard. Material recycling, anaerobic digestion and incineration should not be seen as competing options, but as completing options. Since it is impossible to obtain 100 % material recycling or 100 % biological treatment there will always be some combustible waste that has to be incinerated. There should always be possibilities to incineration, even if the waste has to be transported to a regional incineration plant. When comparing material recycling and incineration of recyclable materials (e.g. plastics and cardboard), and biological treatment and incineration of easy degradable organic waste, no unambiguous conclusions can be drawn. Anaerobic digestion of easy degradable organic waste has a higher welfare cost than incineration, and has both environmental advantages and disadvantages compared to incineration. Composting of degradable waste has hardly any advantages with respect to environment and energy turnover when being compared to incineration or anaerobic digestion. Composting gives a higher welfare cost than anaerobic digestion and incineration. Generally, material recycling seems to give lower consumption of energy resources and lower environmental impact than incineration, but higher financial costs and higher welfare costs. The result is however different for different materials. Recycling gives most advantages for non-renewable materials such as metals and plastics. Materials recycling gives higher financial costs and welfare costs than incineration. If the work at home with source separation is valued and considered in the welfare economic calculus, recycling gives much higher welfare cost than incineration. Transports of waste, when the waste once has been collected, is of very low importance considering consumption of energy resources, environmental impact and economy, if the transport is performed in an efficient manner. Private transports of source separated waste (from home to the collection site) can be of importance if the transport is made by car. Different collection systems have been studied: collection at home, collection in the close neighbourhood (100 inhabitants per collection point), or collection in the far neighbourhood (1000 inhabitants per collection point). The collection system has very low influence on the total consumption of energy resources, the total environmental impact and the total welfare costs. However, the collection system can affect the time people have to spend on waste management (and the welfare cost if the separation and transportation time for people is considered in the welfare economic calculus)

  17. Validering av Evolution 220

    OpenAIRE

    Krakeli, Tor-Arne

    2013-01-01

    - Det har blitt kjøpt inn et nytt spektrofotometer (Evolution 220, Thermo Scientific) til BioLab Nofima. I den forbindelsen har det blitt utført en validering som involverer kalibreringsstandarder fra produsenten og en test på normal distribusjon (t-test) på to metoder (Total fosfor, Tryptofan). Denne valideringen fant Evolution 220 til å være et akseptabelt alternativ til det allerede benyttede spektrofotometeret (Helios Beta). På bakgrunn av noen instrumentbegrensninger må de aktuelle an...

  18. Ultralydfremstilling av fostervekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Lian Johnsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultralyd billeddanning er i dag den beste undersøkelsesmetoden vi har til å overvåke fosterets utvikling og vekst. Ultralydmåling av fosterets størrelse og biometriske referansetabeller for svangerskapet brukes til å fastsette svangerskapets alder, beregne termin og vurdere fosterets vekst. Optimal studiedesign er ulik for hvert av disse formålene. Det er stor variasjon i fysiologisk vekst og en utfordring å identifisere fostre som har dårlig tilvekst. En enkeltmåling av fosteret kan fortelle oss om det er lite eller stort i forhold til andre fostre, men ikke om størrelsen er passelig i forhold til forventet fysiologisk vekst for dette fosteret. Tilpassede referansemodeller ("customised" justerer forventet størrelse i relasjon til føtale og maternelle faktorer og har vist seg å bedre identifisere sanne veksthemmede fostre enn bare å klassifisere i henhold til 2,5, 5 eller 10 persentilen. Men et foster som i utgangspunktet er stort for alderen, men etter hvert vokser langsomt vil ikke nødvendigvis bli fanget opp ved en slik enkeltmåling. Serielle målinger vil hjelpe, men en slik longitudinell metode blir ikke fullt ut utnyttet før det appliseres betinget ("conditional" vekstberegning. Betingelsesleddene for variasjon i vekst og målemetode kalkuleres ut fra longitudinelle data og kan så anvendes for det enkelte foster. En første måling brukes til å beregne forventet vekst og variasjon for en neste måling. Denne metoden forventes å skjerpe diagnostikken for vekst-avvik i alle vektklasser og kan sammen med tilpasningen av andre faktorer bedre overvåkningen av risikosvangerskapUltrasonographic imaging is today the best method for assessing fetal size and monitoring fetal growth. Ultrasound measurements of fetal size are used for age, size and growth assessment, but the statistical design and analysis are different for each of these purposes. Physiological ranges for fetal growth are wide and the identification of fetal

  19. Prerequisites concerning SSI:s review of applications for an encapsulation facility and a repository for spent nuclear fuel; Utgaangspunkter foer SSI:s granskning av ansoekan foer en inkapslingsanlaeggning och ett slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlen, Elisabeth

    2006-09-15

    The report outlines some fundamental prerequisites concerning SSI:s review of SKB coming applications for an encapsulation facility (according to the act on nuclear activities) and for the complete final disposal system (according to the act on nuclear activities and the environmental code). The report summarize how the SSI look at the decision making process considering radiation protection requirements according to SSI:s regulations and general advices and earlier standpoints regarding SKB:s RandD-programme. The report also describe the present reviewing capacity of SSI and constitute therefore the basis for the planning of SSI:s review organisation in the prospect of coming applications on nuclear waste facilities (encapsulation facility and a deep disposal repository). It should be noted that the report reflects the present situation. Due to a number of factors as for example changes in SKB:s coming RandD-programme, future governmental decisions, adjustments of SSI:s financial resources or new facts in the case, will of course have an effect on how SSI finally will organise the review work. SSI:s home page will continuously be updated with the latest information in this respect.

  20. Helseeffekter av byluftpartikler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Refsnes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Svevestøv i byluft består av forbrenningspartikler og mineralpartikler med svært forskjellige størrelser og kjemiske egenskaper. Svevestøvet kan deles inn i størrelsesfraksjoner som PMAmbient particulate matter (PM comprises particles from different combustion processes and a variety of mineral particles. The particles vary widely in size distribution and chemical/physical characteristics. PM is often divided into size fractions with different aerodynamic diameters: PM10 (PM ! 10 mm, PM2.5 (PM ! 2.5 mm and PM0.1 (PM ! 0.1 mm. Recent population studies have found an association between an increase in mortality and morbidity due to lung and/or cardiovascular disease and short-term increases in PM. The relative risk (RR was approximately 1.005 for an increase in 10 mg/m3 PM10, without an observed threshold even at concentrations below 10 mg/m3. Chronic exposure has been investigated to a lesser extent, but longterm exposure to PM2.5 has been found to be associated with an approximately 10-fold greater increase in RR than short-term exposures. Experimental studies with volunteers in chamber and field studies show mild lung or cardiovascular responses at concentrations of ambient particles (PM2.5/PM10: 100-200 mg/m3 that may occur during episodes of air pollution. Animal studies at higher concentrations have shown stronger responses. The experimental studies support the epidemiological evidence for an adverse health effect of PM. Both population- and experimental studies indicate the existence of vulnerable individuals. At low to average ambient concentrations there seems to exist a discrepancy between the results of population- and experimental studies that might be due to the absence of the most vulnerable individuals in the experimental studies. Together with cell culture experiments, human and animal studies indicate the importance of physical and chemical properties of the particles (size, content of metals, organics, endotoxins, etc. for

  1. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy savings during refining, when an industrial enzyme was used, here a pectinase. An assessment of the method used in the mill trial showed that the method for ranking enzymes in the pretreatment of wood chips could benefit from using a wing as the laboratory refiner. The enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips with pectinases indicated a positive result when it come to the effect of the enzymes on reduction in energy consumption during TMP production. A wing refiner can be used as a tool for evaluation and ranking enzymes, when pretreating chips for reducing energy consumption. A survey of enzymes that are effective in the pretreatment of wood chips in order to reduce the energy input at TMP production is recommended to be done. The experimental costs for mapping the enzymes suitable for pretreatment of wood chips at TMP production using the evaluation method developed in this work may be significantly reduced

  2. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste; Fud-program 2010. Program foer forskning, utveckling och demonstration av metoder foer hantering och slutfoervaring av kaernavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  3. Large scale development of wind power. Consequences for the national grid and the need for load balancing; Storskalig utbyggnad av vindkraft. Konsekvenser foer stamnaetet och behovet av reglerkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    Wind power is expected to growth rapidly in Sweden. The existing certificate system gives economic incentives for development of 17 TWh from renewable energy sources until 2016, compared to the 2002 level. The Swedish Energy Agency estimates that 9 TWh wind power will be built by 2020, given the present certificate system. However, a new planning goal of 30 TWh wind energy by 2020 has been proposed by the Agency. It is very important for Svenska Kraftnaet to follow the development in order to take the right actions to adapt the national grid to the increased share of wind power. The total increased need for balancing power is estimated to be: 1 400-1 800 MW for 10 TWh added wind power, and 4 300-5 300 MW for 30 TWh. About 15% of the increased balancing need must be assigned to automatically frequency regulating generation. The rest can be made up of sources that can be regulated on a minute- or hour-scale. The planned wind power risks to replace generation with regulating capacity, and it is important to continuously analyze if and how this happens, and which the consequences will be for the balancing capacity. The socio-economic effects for the national grid include increased investment cost and increased costs foe balancing and regulating. Massive expansion in North Sweden is the most costly alternative, with a capitalized cost estimated to 25 000 MSEK (about 4 000 MUSD) at an expansion of 30 TWh wind power. This can be compared to the estimated investment cost for the wind power expansion of 150 000 MSEK

  4. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The present report summarizes the results during the period 2002-2005. The report also presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are, as materials in geotechnical construction, and as nutrients in forestry. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; and A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as hazardous or non-hazardous. Each year, about 1 million tons of by-products, or ashes, are produced at the Swedish combustion plants. The largest potential market for these materials is in construction, which consumes some 100 million tons of materials each year. The most immediate uses are in road construction, in landfills or as ballast or filler in concrete. The most important barriers for use in e.g. road construction have been the absence of methods to assess the impact on the environment, and the absence of relevant testing methods for the geotechnical properties of ashes. Both these barriers were addressed in parallel projects. Guidelines with general limit values for road construction have been proposed. This work has also yielded an unexpected result: leaching of metals from ashes to soil and water is usually not the problem that it has been thought to be. However, highly soluble salts may be a cause for restrictions. Although one should interpret results from calculations with cautiousness it seems that dust from the roads settling on vegetables grown in the vicinity of a road is a larger problem. The tests used today to determine the geotechnical properties of materials aim primarily at checking if these are within specifications. As for other recovered materials, somewhat different tests must be used to ascertain that ashes can be used to provide a function. Three bottom ashes were investigated, and the results confirmed that the tests proposed are relevant. Some of the tests need to be refined. The properties related to moisture may become critical, in particular frost-heave in moist ashes. Work has been concluded with a handbook containing guidelines for building unpaved roads using fly ashes. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in mines. The main thrust in the Ash Programme for landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. Projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. These projects have been complemented with an investigation of the chemical stability of the digested sludge. Mine tailings have been studied in two projects: In the first project digested sludge is used as support for vegetation on the mounds. The second role filled by the sludge is to prevent oxygen from reaching the sulphides tailings. To prevent roots from the vegetation to reach the tailings, an intermediate layer with ash has been placed under the vegetation support layer. The high pH-value of the ash, its content of heavy metals and its hardness yield an effective barrier. In another project, the effect of covering tailings with a mixture of ash and digested sludge on leaching from the tailings mound has been monitored. The goal for the covering has been reached, i.e. reducing leakage through the surface in the mound and an ugly sterile surface has been converted to a green, useful surface. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain. The Ash Programme has strived at increasing interest for spreading ashes on forest soils by providing evidence for also short-term profits, such as effects on growth. In another project, old experiments where lime and ash have been spread to counteract the effects of acid rain in south-west Sweden have been examined and other studies have been re-examined. The results indicate that lime and ash treatment yielded an increased growth for spruce. The potential for improving the stability of ashes have been investigated in two projects. The data obtained within the Ash Programme have been collected in a database, Allaska, available on the Internet site of the Ash Programme (www.askprogrammet.com)

  5. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The present report summarizes the results form the projects that have carried out during the period 2002-2005. The report presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. The Ash Programme is a wide initiative including building up knowledge, work on guidelines, development work and communication. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are as secondary or recovered materials in geotechnical construction on the one hand, as nutrients in forestry on the other hand. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as hazardous or non-hazardous. Each year, ca 1 million tons of by-products, or ashes, are produced at the Swedish combustion plants. The large potential market for these materials is in construction, which consumes ca 100 million tons of materials each year. The most immediate uses are in road construction, in landfills or as ballast or filler in concrete. The most important barriers for a use in e.g. road construction have been the absence of a method to assess the impact of the use of ashes in a construction on the environment, as well as the absence of relevant testing methods for the geotechnical properties of ashes. Both these barriers were addressed in parallel projects. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in another type of construction. In mines, excavated ore volumes are filled with tailings stabilized with cement before the neighbouring volumes may be exploited. Fly ash may replace at least half of the cement, which also has been confirmed in pilot tests. The main thrust in the Ash Programme on landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. In two parallel alleys projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. The properties of these surfaces are now being followed up during a longer time. Landfills are today the largest consumers of ashes. The uses for ashes, e.g. as banking material or covers, and the experience gained have been reviewed. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in a sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the shape of logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide also a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain, the so-called vitalizing fertilization. In contrast to construction, where guidelines are needed, there are already guidelines, acceptance from authorities and ongoing activities. An important issue is the classification of combustion by-products according to the waste regulations. This requires a deep knowledge of the speciation of elements. This is almost impossible to attain for as complex materials as ashes. A simplified method has been developed: starting from present knowledge of the chemistry of ashes a conservative selection of compounds has been made for the elements found in an analysis. The regulations are then applied on an ash to determine whether it is or is not hazardous. To disseminate information about the properties of ashes, the data obtained within the Ash Programme have been collected in a database, Allaska. This database may be reached on the Internet site of the Ash Programme, www.askprogrammet.com. At the end of 2005, data for 244 samples have been recorded.

  6. Flow Cytometry for rapid characterization of colloidal particles of various types in process waters; Floedescytometri foer snabb karaktaerisering av kolloidala partiklar av olika typ i bakvatten - MPKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerth, R; Holmbom, B [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Since more than ten years Flow Cytometry (FCM) has been used for characterization of blood cells and bacteria and has become indispensable for medical and biological use. FCM is able to count thousands of particles per second and simultaneously determine their the type and size ending up in a statistically significant report within less than a minute. The principle of FCM is based on a light excitation of a `lined up` particle stream and a multi-channel determination of scatter and fluorescence. This rapid technology has so far not been used in a greater extent within process industry, except for counting bacteria in milk and beer. BASF of Germany has developed and patented a single-channel fluorescence counter for determination of resin droplets in the process waters of paper making. The FCM, however, is a far more effective and reliable method, being able not only to detect resin droplets but also bacteria, live or dead, as well as other occurring particles. We know we are able to determine bacteria, we have seen resin and we aim to show that FCM is able to give a comprehensive view of the colloidal contents of process waters in paper mills by exploring means to selectively stain the different types of particles. (orig.) 3 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  7. Analysis of algorithms for detection of resonance frequencies in vibration measurements on super heater tubes; Analys av algoritmer foer detektering av resonansfrekvenser i vibrationsmaetningar paa oeverhettartuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.

  8. Flow Cytometry for rapid characterization of colloidal particles of various types in process waters; Floedescytometri foer snabb karaktaerisering av kolloidala partiklar av olika typ i bakvatten - MPKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerth, R.; Holmbom, B. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Since more than ten years Flow Cytometry (FCM) has been used for characterization of blood cells and bacteria and has become indispensable for medical and biological use. FCM is able to count thousands of particles per second and simultaneously determine their the type and size ending up in a statistically significant report within less than a minute. The principle of FCM is based on a light excitation of a `lined up` particle stream and a multi-channel determination of scatter and fluorescence. This rapid technology has so far not been used in a greater extent within process industry, except for counting bacteria in milk and beer. BASF of Germany has developed and patented a single-channel fluorescence counter for determination of resin droplets in the process waters of paper making. The FCM, however, is a far more effective and reliable method, being able not only to detect resin droplets but also bacteria, live or dead, as well as other occurring particles. We know we are able to determine bacteria, we have seen resin and we aim to show that FCM is able to give a comprehensive view of the colloidal contents of process waters in paper mills by exploring means to selectively stain the different types of particles. (orig.) 3 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  9. Characterization of solid heterogeneous waste fuel - the effect of sampling and preparation method; Karaktaerisering av fasta inhomogena avfallsbraenslen - inverkan av metoder foer provtagning och provberedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Franke, Jolanta; Johansson, Ingvar

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities to simplify the methods used during sampling and laboratory preparation of heterogeneous waste materials. Existing methods for solid fuel material is summarized and evaluated in the project. As a result of the project two new simplified methods, one for field sampling and one for laboratory preparation work has been suggested. One large challenge regarding waste sampling is to achieve a representative sample due to the considerable heterogeneity of the material. How do you perform a sampling campaign that will give rise to representative results without too large costs? The single largest important source of error is the sampling procedure, equivalent to about 80% of the total error. Meanwhile the sample reduction and laboratory work only represents 15 % and 5 % respectively. Thus, to minimize the total error it is very important that the sampling is well planned in a testing program. In the end a very small analytical sample (1 gram) should reflected a large heterogeneous sample population of 1000 of tons. In this project two sampling campaigns, the fall of 2006 and early winter 2007, were conducted at the waste power plant Renova in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first campaign consisted of three different sample sizes with different number of sub-samples. One reference sample (50 tons and 48 sub-samples), two samples consisting of 16 tons and 8 sub-samples and finally two 4 tons consisting of 2 sub-samples each. During the second sampling campaign, four additional 4 ton samples were taken to repeat and thus evaluate the simplified sampling method. This project concludes that the simplified sampling methods only consisting of two sub-samples and a total sample volume of 4 tons give rise to results with as good quality and precision is the more complicated methods tested. Moreover the results from the two sampling campaigns generated equivalent results. The preparation methods used in the laboratory can as well be simplified, especially by effective sample and particle size reduction through gradually grinding processes. Consequently, the plant owner can reduced their cost for each sampling campaign by using the simplified methods described in this project. A finding that either can be used to lower the cost for waste sampling or to increase the number of samples and sampling frequency which will increase the plant owners knowledge about the waste composition, properties and qualities. Increased quality and an even quality of the waste mixture has an large impact on the life cycle cost of the plant since it's affect the accessibility as well as the cost of maintenance.

  10. Measurements of emissions during waste wood combustion to identify refurbishment needs; Maetning av emissioner vid foerbraenning av RT-flis foer att identifiera eventuella ombyggnadsaatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The background to this project is the new EU directive 2000/76/EG regarding incineration of waste. This directive may have an effect on emission limits for Swedish plants firing waste wood. It may lead to needs of refurbishment in e.g. the area of flue gas cleaning equipment. In order to produce a basis to evaluate the need for such upgrading, measurement of metals, HCI, SO{sub 2} , CO, TOC and dioxin have been carried out on three plants firing wood waste: a grate boiler (Handeloeverket P11), one circulating fluid bed boiler (Aaterbruket in Lomma), and a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (Johannes in Gaevle, firing 50% waste wood). The measurements have mainly been carried out after boiler, equivalent to upstream flue gas cleaning. The results are that the demands of the EU directive on most points can be managed with existing equipment if this consists of electrostatic precipitator or bag filter with good performance and flue gas condensor. Without flue gas condensor, there is a need for other measures for 1-10 and for grate boilers, SO{sub 2} as well. The requirements in the directive for TOC is weaker than the demand on CO, and correspondingly, the demand on CO is driving. The level of dioxin from the boiler (upstream filter) exceeds allowed emission, and is in the range of 0,1-2 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} tg, 6 % O{sub 2} . Existing equipment will meet the emission limit for the lower levels (0,1-0,3) , but not safely for the higher levels (1,5-2). Correspondingly, there may be a need for equipment upgrading, e.g. in the form of activated carbon injection upstream flue gas filter.

  11. Evaluation and development of methods for determining methane emissions from biogas plants - Literature Study; Vaerdering och utveckling av maetmetoder foer bestaemning av metanemissioner fraan biogasanlaeggningar - Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Willen, Agnes; Rodhe, Lena (JTI, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in areas such as framework of voluntary commitment shows that there is a need for techniques for measurement of methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources in the handling of organic residuals. There are no established methods for determining for instance emissions of methane from open or partially open tanks and cisterns, typically residue storage and the like. This report gives results from Phase 1 of this project, in which literary studies, market research studies, interviews and site visits have been made to identify a number of methods applied for the determination of emissions from open areas, such as liquid surfaces, but also land. Focus is on methods that can be applied to plants for biological treatment, which also includes the water treatment process at the treatment plants, but also the procedures used in measurements on land, landfills and processing plants are studied. First, the report gives a brief overview of a large number of measurement methods, where more detailed descriptions of four methods are given. The four methods are considered to be the most promising to pursue in the following phases of the project: - chamber technology; - sampling hood; - plume measurement with DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar); - air input in a covered storage.

  12. Considerations underlying SSIs review of SKBs complement to the Research Program for 1992; Underlagsmaterial till SSIs granskning av SKBs komplettering av forskningsprogrammet foer 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M; Nolin, J; Sundqvist, G

    1995-04-01

    Two documents are presented: (i) SSI`s background review PM for SKB`s complement to the research program for 1992. (ii) An interdisciplinary study of the steering principles in the Swedish waste management. This work is an independent contribution to the debate about waste management in Sweden.

  13. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of paper mills; Effekter av PFG foer integrerade pappersbruk vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan [AaF Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadsborn, Rickard [STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Effluent treatment of pulp and paper mills generates a biological sludge that according to Swedish implementation of EU-directives from 2005 has to be taken care of by incineration or by production of soil for agriculture or ground cover. An alternative way to take care of the sludge is incineration in the recovery boiler. This method is used in two Finish and two Swedish pulp mills with good results. The purpose of this project is to investigate the consequences for integrated pulp and paper mills when the biological sludge is incinerated in the recovery boiler. The biological sludge contents Non Process Elements, NPE, which increase the risks of incrustations in the system and increase the need of make up lime. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chloride, potassium, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper, barium and calcium. The simulation program WinGEMS 5.0 (Pacific Simulation) was used in the study to predict the levels of NPE in the recovery system of the Kraft mills. Three different pulp and paper mills were selected for the study, Billerud Skaerblacka, ASSI Domaen Froevi and SCA Obbola. The mills are different concerning raw materials, process, degree of own produced pulp and paper products. All three the mills have effluent treatment and use the method of activated sludge that generates a surplus of biological sludge. The results of the study proved that for Skaerblacka mill the method is applicable. For Obbola the prerequisites are somewhat more complicated, the effluent treatment generates considerably higher amount of sludge per ton pulp produced due to the treatment technique and use of waste paper (40 %) for the paper machine. The high input of aluminum with the sludge will give troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. To eliminate the aluminum from the system magnesium can be added to the black liquor which will precipitate as the double salt hydrotalcite in the green liquor and be rejected by the green liquor dregs. For Froevi mill the situation is somewhat more favorable compared to Obbola but a smaller amount of magnesium has still to be added to avoid incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate in the evaporation plant. The need of make-up lime will increase due to the content of phosphorus in the biological sludge which otherwise will be build up in the lime. The increased need of make up lime was estimated to 2 kg/ADt for Skaerblacka and Froevi while Obbola will need about 2-3 kg/ADt. Experience from mills that employ incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler shows that NO{sub x} in the flue gas has not increased. For Skaerblacka and Froevi the increase of nitrogen by the biological sludge will be moderate and will probably not give any increased formation of NO{sub x} in the flue gas. For Obbola the amount of nitrogen by the sludge will be higher which increases the risks of having higher levels of NO{sub x} in the flue gas. The other NPEs as chlorides, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, cupper, barium and calcium will not give any problems for the recovery system. The study proves that it is possible for an integrated pulp and paper mill to evaporate and incinerate the biological sludge in the recovery boiler. Disadvantages as increased need of make up lime and also the necessity of adding magnesium when using this method should be compared with benefits and drawbacks with other methods that are available. Costs of the methods must be calculated based on the actual pulp and paper mill.

  14. Biological effects in limed forests; Biologiska effekter i kalkad skog. Aarsrapport 1998. Effektuppfoeljning av Skogsstyrelsens program foer kalkning och vitaliseringsgoedsling av skogsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik; Akselsson, Cecilia; Bengtsson, Roland; Bjelke, Ulf

    1999-10-01

    The Swedish Board of Forestry experimental work with liming and vitalising (nutrient compensation) of forest soil includes an extensive review program of the effects of this work. Results from the experimental work are presented in annual reports. This report gives an account of the review program carried out to indicate the results of the biological effects. The studies are performed within the Swedish Board of Forestry's large-scale experiments with the liming and vitalising fertilisation of forest soil. The report covers the time period, or parts of the period, from 1991 to 1998. The results in short are as follows: (1) Benthic invertebrate: The investigation revealed that a dose of 3 tonnes per hectare was insufficient to have a substantial effect on the fauna in acidified streams during the first seven years after treatment. An increase in the number of species and taxon or larger bio-diversity could not be confirmed. No indications of harmful effects on the fauna, caused by high lime concentrations, were found., (2) Benthic algae: Changes to benthic flora in streams after soil treatment was minimal. The total number of species increased slightly after lime treatment. At the same time the number of acid indicating species diminished. In other words, the decrease in acidity has improved the water quality. No negative effects, as a result of soil treatment were found., (3) Nutritional status in needles: The trees reacted quickly to the treatments. The soil treatment led to an increase in levels of calcium in the needles. Treatment using wood ash and the vitalising agent 'Skogvital' led to an increase in calcium and boron levels. Treatment using a mixture of wood ash and lime resulted in increased magnesium and manganese levels. Samples were taken one and three years respectively after treatment. A longer period of time is required to carry out a detailed evaluation of the nutritional status of the needles., and (4) Tree vitality: It is not possible to identify any variations in needle loss comparing limed areas and untreated reference areas during the six-year study. Similarly in the observation areas set up by the Swedish Board of Forestry, there was no evidence of any reductions in needle loss in spruce forest during the test period.

  15. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    In 2010, all food waste from the Swedish food industry would, according to national environmental goals, be recycled through biological treatment. For food waste from households and food establishments, the corresponding goal is at least 35%. The project aims to explore the potential for reducing costs and energy consumption, as well as decreasing the environmental impact, by decreasing the moisture content of food waste. Dried food waste has a long shelf-life and can be used as a bio fuel substrate together with other material of low dry matter content. It is expected to increase the bio fuel potential by improved possibilities to control the organic load. The storage costs are also reduced, as is the collecting frequency. Additionally, collecting can be done from a larger number of collecting points at the same occasion. Furthermore, the collection vehicle does not need to be equipped with collecting trays for silage effluent from the food waste. Since dried food waste can be stored for a longer period, this results in more optimal use of the energy of the food waste. The dried material requires neither decomposition nor sieving, has a very high purity degree (>99%), and does not result in reject material at treatment. The nutritional content of the dried material was also in principle intact. Composting of food waste from households was performed as a practical reference, in laboratory scale. The results show that rehydrated dried food waste works as good as a conventional compost fraction. However, the material has a tendency to dry out faster than conventional compost. Further rehydration may therefore be needed during the process. In this project, an assessment was made of two possible techniques for drying readily biodegradable organic waste: microwave vacuum drying of waste from food establishments and air-drying of food waste from households. The techniques were compared individually with current systems for handling waste, with respect to quality of the incoming material to treatment plants, energy consumption, cost, and climate impact. The quality of the dried material was evaluated with respect to purity degree, shelf-life stability, nutritional content, bio fuel potential and rehydration properties. In the system analysis, each drying technology, combined with a supposed subsequent digestion process, was compared to today's system for collection and digestion of food waste. An initial assessment of the potential of the microwave-vacuum drying process was made, as an alternative technique for hygienisation of food waste which contains animal by-products (ABP). The results indicate that the microwave process would be possible to adjust, in order to meet the time-temperature requirements for hygienisation. However, complementing studies are required to optimise and control the process towards the required microbiological reduction. Dried material has, as expected, advantages from both an odour and storage point of view; the lower water content corresponds to lower water activity and accordingly longer shelf-life and reduced risk for e.g. mould growth and odour. Even if energy is needed for drying the material, there are environmental advantages at collection of food waste (at transport distances less than about 50 km). Digestion experiments showed that dried food waste from households in Goeteborg did not result in any significant differences in methane exchange, with regard to organic matter (VS), expressed as m{sup 3}CH{sub 4}/tonne VS, compared with fresh food waste. Dried waste from food establishments in Boraas showed significantly lower methane exchange, with respect to organic matter (VS), than fresh food waste. The reasons for this need to be further investigated. A project delimitation was that the techniques were evaluated based upon food waste which was collected during a relatively short period of time. The target group of the project is the Swedish food industry, personnel responsible for waste collection, as well as owners of plants for biological treatment of food waste. The results of the project are also of interest to purchasers and contractors throughout the food and waste area.

  16. The use of indentor testing in determining the creep properties locally - a review; Nyttjande av indentorteknik foer bestaemning av krypegenskaper lokalt - litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peder [Det Norske Veritas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    A review has been performed with the purpose of examining what has been published regarding the creep indentation technique. In the reference list a selected choice of published papers is presented. Furthermore, the use of the technique is explained, a presentation is made of the parameters that are possible to determine and, finally, the limitations of the technique are discussed. In the investigated publications, the theoretical aspects of the indentation technique are discussed, as well as the possibilities of applying the technique in practice. From the published material, it is obvious that creep indentation testing is a technique suitable when the creep deformation properties of a material are to be determined. It seems though, that the technique so far mostly has been used in academically designed experiments and not in a larger industrial scale. The creep indentation testing technique seems to be a good complement to conventional uniaxial creep testing in determining the creep deformation properties of a material. Especially in testing of the creep deformation properties of weldments and parts of weldments, such as HAZ, the indentation testing technique can prove to be advantageous, as only a small amount of material is needed. In the line of business of plants operating in the high temperature range, where materials experience creep, there should be an interest in seeing a development of a testing standard for the creep indentation technique. This could be performed by doing a more comprehensive analysis of a selected choice of published papers, putting together their differences and similarities after which verifying experiments are pursued. In the end, it should be possible to come up with a draft standard for creep indentation testing.

  17. Characterization of gas sensors for measurement of unburned gases in small district heating furnaces; Karaktaerisering av gassensorer foer maetning av ofoerbraenda aemnen i naervaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskilsson, David; Roennbaeck, Marie [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Small district heating boilers are often equipped with a simple O{sub 2}-gauge (lambda sensor) that controls the air supply. There is a great need in small furnaces of continuous measurements of several gas components such as CO, THC and NO{sub x} by simple and cheap technique. Recently, new types of cheap gas sensors have been developed which can be suitable. These gas sensors measure the amount of unburned species (sum of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and hydrogen). The objective with this project has been to characterise several gas sensors for unburnt in order to evaluate if they are suitable for combustion control and surveillance of small district heating furnaces. In this work three different gas sensors have been characterised. The sensors were characterised in the laboratory where they were exposed for mixtures of pure gases. The sensors were mounted inside the flue gas channel from a small district heating furnace during 3 months in order to estimate the sensors robustness and the character of the signal in flue gas. The tests with pure gases show that all sensors also reacts for other components besides CO and THC. It is mainly the oxygen concentrations that affect the sensors characteristics but also an altered humidity is important. Measurements in the small district heating furnace showed that none of the sensors was able to measure correctly when mounted directly in the flue gas channel (in situ). The in situ sensors are covered with fly ash and the fly ash also slowly destroys the sensors. Sensors mounted after a filter (exposed for a particle free flue gas) work satisfactory. All of the tested sensors, mounted after a filter, follow the changes in CO concentration well. Some of the sensors are capable of detecting CO as low as 15 ppm. But the accuracy of how well the sensors are able to detect CO varies from sensor to sensor. The measurements also show that even if the sensor is able to follow the changes in CO concentration, the ground signal of the sensor (signal during low CO concentrations), is drifting The tested sensors are most likely applicable in a control system which optimise the secondary air supply with regard to O{sub 2} and unburnt (lambda optimisation) in real time, provided that the sensors are protected from fly ash. With a lambda optimised control system it is possible to reduce the fuel cost for small district heating furnaces. Calculations show that the cost of a lambda optimised system on a 500 kW furnace would be paid back after one year. A lambda optimised system would also lower the emissions of unburnt and NO{sub x}. In order to use the sensors for operations follow-up and remote control the sensors must be further developed and evaluated.

  18. Læring av erfaring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramvi, Ellen

    Hva skal til for å lære av erfaring? Denne avhandlingen er en empirisk baseret undersøkelse av ungdosmskolelæreres muligheter og betingelser for å "lære av erfaring" i den særlige betydning av begrepet  W. Bion gir i sin psykoanalytiske teori. Undersøgelsen baserer seg på et feltarbeid som strekker...... seg over ett skoleår. Datamaterialet ble samlet inn via observerasjoner og mer eller mindre strukturerte samtaler med lærere ved to forskellige norske ungdsomsskoler. Analysen av materialet foregår i to trinn: først en fenomenologisk analyse, tett på lærernes egne beskrivelser og refleksjoner av...... lærerarbeidet, dets udfordringer og vanskeligheter, og deretter en psykoanalytisk perspektivering av de fenomenologiske analyseresultatene. Analysen viser en almindelig lærerhverdag og en skoleorganisation, hvor lærernes "læring av erfaring" i stor utstrekning blokkeres i et vekselspill mellem lærernes flukt...

  19. Measures for simultaneous minimisation of alkali related operating problems; Aatgaerder foer samtidig minimering av alkalirelaterade driftproblem. Ramprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, Kent; Eskilsson, David; Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kassman, Haakan; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Aamand, Lars-Erik

    2006-12-15

    Combustion of biofuel and waste wood is often accompanied by chlorine and alkali related operating problems such as slagging, deposit formation and corrosion on heat exchanger surfaces and bed agglomeration in fluidised bed boilers. In order to gain a greater insight into possible measures to overcome alkali related operating problems studies were carried out during 2005-2006. The results of the studies are presented in this report which includes work performed in the two following projects: 1 A5-509 Frame work - measures for simultaneous minimisation of alkali related operating problems 2 A5-505 Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials Full-scale experiments were carried out at Chalmers 12 MW{sub th} CFB boiler within the project A5-509. The purpose was to study the effect of various measures on bed agglomeration and deposit formation in connection with co-combustion of wood and straw pellets. The various measures included changing the bed material (blast furnace sand and olivine sand), adding various additives (kaolin, ammonium sulphate, elemental sulphur) and also co-combustion with sewage sludge. Furthermore results from kaolin experiments at the 26 MWth CFB boiler owned by Naessjoe Affaersverk were made available during the project and are also presented in this report. The results from the experiments at Chalmers revealed that, already at the lowest dosage of kaolin, approx. 2 kg/MWh, the bed material agglomeration temperatures increased significantly. The dosage of kaolin can presumably be reduced somewhat further while still maintaining the high agglomeration temperature. Experiments with a higher dosage of kaolin, 7 kg/MWh, proved that kaolin could also reduce the risk of deposit problems. The experiments at Naessjoe showed also that addition of kaolin increased the agglomeration temperature of the bed material. Addition of sulphur in any form resulted in a reduced chlorine content in the deposits. Ammonium sulphate was more effective than elemental sulphur on the basis of added sulphur. However, no significantly positive effect was observed on the bed agglomeration. The risk for both agglomeration and deposits problems were reduced during co-combustion with sewage sludge. Further results from the experiments at Chalmers revealed that the effect of changing bed material was dependent on the type of bed material chosen. The blast furnace sand had a greater effect than olivine sand when reducing the risk of bed agglomeration. The content of alkali chlorides in the flue gas and in deposits were doubled when changing the bed material to olivine sand, compared to the reference case (a silica sand named silversand). Even in the experiments with blast furnace sand, the alkali chloride content in the deposits increased, but not as much as in the case with olivine sand. According to approximate estimations, the costs of the various measures will be in the range of 3-30 SEK/MWh. Simultaneous addition of sulphur and kaolin is an interesting approach which will be investigated in stage 2. Within the project A5-505, laboratory experiments were performed in a 5 kW bubbling fluidised bed reactor where the tendencies of bed agglomeration for wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp were studied in combination with different commercial bed materials. The results showed that straw had the greatest agglomeration tendency followed by red canary grass and industrial hemp. Furthermore the experiments showed that the fuel ash appeared in the bed as sticky separate ash particles and that the composition of the bed material had no significant effect on the agglomeration tendencies of the different fuels

  20. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the interface between the steel and the metal oxide. This weakens the adhesion of the oxide to the steel surface and thus increases the corrosion rate. By addition of sewage sludge or sulphur the initial corrosion was decreased on both the low-alloyed steel T22 and the stainless steel 304L; sewage sludge being a little better than sulphur. Qualitatively, the corrosion attack firing SLF was similar to that firing ordinary waste, but the attack was stronger. At material temperatures of 500 deg C and 420 deg C - corresponding to superheaters - alkali chloride corrosion dominated, while at 280 deg C - corresponding to furnace walls - a melt of KCl/ZnCl2 is likely to have accelerated the corrosion. This difference between different material temperatures was especially pronounced in the 'Avfall and the SLF' cases. Higher zinc content in the fuel can therefore increase risk of corrosion. The higher content of iron, lead, copper and zink in the ash from the SLF case corresponds to the content of SLF compared with ordinary waste. Comparing the present tests with similar tests in fludised beds, grate firing resulted in higher deposit rate on the exposed test rings. This can at least partly be attributed to the lack of empty pass in the present grate boiler and to some differences in fuel composition: more chlorine and less sulphur in the waste used in this project. However, the effect of adding sludge was similar but not as strong as in the fluidised bed tests. To summarise, the results show that co-firing SLF with sludge can be advantageous also in a grate-fired boiler. Because of the high heating value of SLF, this combination also makes it possible to add a high fraction of moist sewage sludge.

  1. Developing of FTIR- and new probe technique for combustion gas analysis; Utveckling av FTIR- och sondteknik foer gasanalys i foerbraenningsrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Annika; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Thulin, C [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Karlsson, Maria; Aamand, L E [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the reported project has been to develop and field test a versatile measurement system for combustion gases based on the FTIR technique. The project has included the following stages: Development of gas sampling methods, Further development of the FTIR technique, Field testing of the measurement system. The development of evaluation routines based on CLS and PLS methods has lead to the conclusion that both methods are well suited for the application in question, which enables an automation of the evaluation procedure. However, the elaboration of versatile and quality controlled methods is time consuming and the application requires a qualified user. With the dilution probe prototype, a satisfactory rejection of particles is achieved at the same time as a good mixing of the dilution gas and the sample gas takes place. Sampling is performed without using a filter at the probe tip. The intended function of the probe requires that most particles can be rejected without giving rise to a too high dilution ratio. This was achieved in the middle and upper part of the CFB boiler. Comparisons of measurement data from field measurements with the developed probe concept and the `conventional` CTH extractive probe show that the results are in good agreement in many cases, but also that interesting discrepancies exist. Sampling artefacts have been noticed for the gases HCN and SO{sub 2}, where HCN and SO{sub 2} are found in higher concentrations when sampling with the dilution probe. Analyzed concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons (methane, ethene and acetylene) are throughout all the measurements lower when the dilution probe is used. 21 refs, 34 figs, 29 tabs

  2. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  3. Site selection - location of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Platsval - lokalisering av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document describes the localization work and SKB's choice of site for the repository. Furthermore, SKB's basis and rationale for the decisions taken during the work are reported. The document is Appendix PV of applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code to both build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar municipality

  4. Final summary report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994 - 1997; Sammanfattning av det nordiska forskningsprogrammet foer kaernsaekerhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennerstedt, T.; Lemmens, A. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    This is a summary report of the NKS research program carried out 1994 - 1997. It is basically a compilation of the executive summaries of the final reports on the nine scientific projects carried out during that period. It highlights the conclusions, recommendations and other results of the projects. (au)

  5. Recommendations for conversions of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds; Anvisningar foer konvertering av rosterpannor till fluidiserad baeddteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Ingman, Rolf [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report gives advice and recommendations for retrofitting of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds. Nine plants have been visited and experiences from these conversion projects have been gathered and analysed. Among the important points planning, fuel specification, heat balance calculations and clarifying of delivery limits can be mentioned. It is also important not to underestimate the need for education of the operational staff.

  6. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  7. Initial study of a method for IR measurements in boilers; Inledande studie av metod foer IR-maetning i aangpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Martin; Joensson, Magnus; Lundin, Leif [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    The tubes in steam boilers are required to be regularly inspected, in order to find water-side deposits, thinning of walls or material defects. This is for safety, problem-free operation and high availability. No non-destructive method of inspection is available today for finding deposits on the insides of boiler tubes. Nor is there any method that can not only detect deposits on the insides of the tubes but also monitor the tubes' wall thicknesses. A suitable method - reliable, safe, easy to use and cost-efficient - is therefore needed. One such method is to measure the surface temperature of a larger area of the diaphragm wall, using a non-contact method, and from the resulting information to assess the material thickness and possible water-side or steam-side deposits. An IR camera is used for non-contact measurement of the radiated energy from several adjacent surface elements, and thus also of their temperature. The temperature is displayed on the camera's screen to produce a picture of the temperature distribution. This is a well-established method today, and is used in applications such as the steel industry, the electricity industry, electronics and health care. The surface temperatures of the tube walls can be measured by inserting an IR camera on an arm into the combustion chamber, without anyone having to get inside the boiler. The combustion chamber is the part of the boiler that is of main interest for inspection, as it is the easiest to reach. Measurements are facilitated by higher temperatures and thus higher heat fluxes through the tube walls. Diaphragm wall temperatures can be measured quickly and rationally over large areas. Points of interest in inspections include determining where there are water-side deposits in the tubes, where tubes are thin, where flow is obstructed and where there might be material defects. With the exception of material defects, all of these mechanisms result in changes in the surface temperature, which in many cases are substantial and can easily be detected by the sensitive IR camera. This means that the data provides a good basis for reliable analyses. It must not be expected, however, that thermography alone can identify how thick a deposit is or when it needs to be removed, or how thin a tube is. The results must be checked by other methods. Thermography cannot be used as a replacement for invasive testing methods such as the removal of tube samples. What it can do, however, is to show which areas of a boiler need to be inspected more closely. It can also reduce the number of tube samples, and confirm that they have been taken from the correct level and correct part of the boiler, which reduces the time required for inspection. It can also be expected to find greatly thinned tubes and blocked tubes. Today's thermography technology is highly flexible and is often used in special applications. Thermography of the inside of a boiler is just one such special application. However, further work is needed if inspections are to produce reliable results.

  8. Technology and costs for decommissioning Swedish nuclear power plants; Teknik och kostnader foer rivning av svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Gustavsson, Boerje [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Carlsson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    SKB has already performed three studies on available technology and approximate costs for decommissioning Swedish NPPs (years 1986, 1994 and 2000). The present report is an update of the year 2000 report with emphasis on areas that have been studied since the publication of that report. The report also gives a review of the technologies that have been chosen for decommissioning the Swedish reactors. The cost-estimation has also been updated and indexed to the present monetary situation. Areas in need for further studies are pointed in the report.

  9. NDT methods for life-time assessment of high temperature plant; Ofoerstoerande provning foer livslaengdsbedoemning av hoegtemperaturanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, J [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive literature study of NDT and analysis methods for residual life-time assessment of high temperature plant has been made. The study has been concentrated on components in boilers, steam piping and turbines in fossil fired power plant. Most types of components are exposed to creep which is also the life-time limiting mechanism in many cases. In addition to creep, other stresses and damages which appear in plant are described for each type of component. Thermal fatigue, corrosion and embrittlement as well as combined damage mechanisms are also life-time limiting in many cases. The literature shows a large number of NDT methods developed and under development in purpose to identify and measure the size and extent of damage in the components. The methods and their limitations are described in relation to the experience and understanding of character, distribution and development of damage in different situations. 83 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  10. Impurities in biogas - validation of analytical methods for siloxanes; Foeroreningar i biogas - validering av analysmetodik foer siloxaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Magnusson, Bertil; Sahlin, Eskil [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Biogas produced from digester or landfill contains impurities which can be harmful for component that will be in contact with the biogas during its utilization. Among these, the siloxanes are often mentioned. During combustion, siloxanes are converted to silicon dioxide which accumulates on the heated surfaces in combustion equipment. Silicon dioxide is a solid compound and will remain in the engine and cause damages. Consequently, it is necessary to develop methods for the accurate determination of these compounds in biogases. In the first part of this report, a method for analysis of siloxanes in biogases was validated. The sampling was performed directly at the plant by drawing a small volume of biogas onto an adsorbent tube under a short period of time. These tubes were subsequently sent to the laboratory for analysis. The purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the established method is fit for the purpose. This means that the method, as used by the laboratory generating the data, will provide data that meets a set of criteria concerning precision and accuracy. At the end, the uncertainty of the method was calculated. In the second part of this report, the validated method was applied to real samples collected in waste water treatment plants, co-digestion plants and plants digesting other wastes (agriculture waste). Results are presented at the end of this report. As expected, the biogases from waste water treatment plants contained largely higher concentrations of siloxanes than biogases from co-digestion plants and plants digesting agriculture wastes. The concentration of siloxanes in upgraded biogas regardless of which feedstock was digested and which upgrading technique was used was low.

  11. Review study 1995. Localization of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Oeversiktsstudie 95. Lokalisering av djupfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report gives an overview of the studies performed by SKB pertinent to selection of a site for the Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels, and is written for both experts in the various fields involved, decision-makers and the interested general public. The review can not comprise all detailed factors necessary for deciding the localization, but deals mainly with conditions on the land surface and can point out areas which are not well suited or less interesting as a site. It also treats several scientific, technical and social bases in different parts of the country. 120 refs, 53 figs.

  12. Requirements for drilling and disposal in deep boreholes; Foerutsaettningar foer borrning av och deponering i djupa borrhaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, Anders [QTOB, Haesselby (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report experience from drilling at great depth in crystalline rock is compiled based on project descriptions, articles and personal contacts. Rock mechanical effects have been analyzed. The report also describes proposals made by SKB and other agencies regarding the disposal of and closure of deep boreholes. The combination of drilling deep with large diameter in crystalline rocks have mainly occurred in various research projects, such as in the German KTB project. Through these projects and the increased interest in recent years for geothermal energy , today's equipment is expected to be used to drill 5000 m deep holes , with a hole diameter of 445 mm , in crystalline rock. Such holes could be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. With the deposition technique recently described by Sandia National Laboratories in USA, SKB estimates that it might be possible to implement the disposal to 5000 m depth. Considering the actual implementation, drilling and disposal, and the far-reaching requirements on nuclear safety and radiation protection, it is considered an important risk getting stuck with the capsule-string, or part of it, above deposition zone without being able to get it loose. In conclusion, even if the drilling and the deposit would succeed there remains to verify that the drill holes with the deposited canisters meet the initial requirements and is long-term safe.

  13. Function of all-metal separators for waste fuels. Phase 1; Funktion av allmetallseparatorer foer avfallsbraenslen. Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, Juergen; Wrangensten, Lars

    2004-08-01

    Various waste incineration facilities, which use different types of waste fuels, have difficulties with a high content of non-magnetic metal, especially aluminum in their fuels. Aluminum may melt on the grate and can lead to corrosion or fouling in the furnace. Additionally, a high content of aluminum in the flyash may cause difficulties in terms of storage or further use of the ash as e.g. construction material. The industrial demand for efficient separators for non-magnetic metals from a fuel stream is rather large. There is however some uncertainty in the performance and efficiency of metal separators. Two types of separators can be found, the first type is called eddy current separator, the other type is based upon a metal detector with a sorting unit in the form of a chute or similar afterwards. An eddy current separator consists of a fast rotating drum containing several permanent magnets with alternating polarity. Due to the rotation, the change in the magnetic field induces eddy currents in conducting materials. The eddy currents cause a force in non-magnetic metal, the Lorentz force, which repels the material away from the rotating drum while all other material follows the systems flow direction. Systems equipped with a metal detector activate a mechanical sorting device, separate chute or air nozzles, when a metal particle is detected. In contrast to eddy current separators all types of metals can be detected and sorted out by systems based on metal detector. Several technical solutions for metal separation supplied by various manufacturers are described in the report. The companies have been asked to supply product information on the working principle, technical data, efficiency and limits for different types of metals. Two reference power plants have been visited and their experiences with all-metal separators are described. Haendeloeverket in Norrkoeping uses eddy current separators for separation of non-magnetic metals from household waste. Igelstaverket in Soedertaelje applies a metal detector coupled with a chute for metal separation from return wood waste and peat. At Igelstaverket it was found that the existing system works sufficiently well for fuels used in the power plant. At Haendeloeverket, the amount of aluminum found in the bottom ash and fly ash is not negligible. Up to 3-4 wt % non-magnetic metal can be measured in the bottom ash. Separation of aluminum from the waste fuel should with regard to economical aspects as well as technical aspects be improved. Difficulties with metal separation and system design are also discussed in the report.

  14. Silicon carbide based sensor system for minimized emissions in flue gases; Kiselkarbidbaserat sensorsystem foer minimering av emissioner i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Bjorklund, Robert

    2012-02-15

    Control of the combustion process is necessary in order to operate boilers in an economic and environmentally acceptable manner. Large power plants can afford expensive measurement instruments to continuously monitor the composition of flue gas. Smaller facilities often lack complete gas analysis systems and it would be to their advantage to have access to inexpensive measurement equipment which could be installed at several points in the flue gas channel. Since oxygen concentration is such an important parameter for describing the combustion process the lambdasond is currently being used as an oxygen sensor in flue gas. It has the advantage of usage for more than 30 years in the automobile industry. Experience from that application has aided its introduction in the power industry. Conditions are not the same in the two branches but the lambdasond is an established technology, produced in large volume, widely available and inexpensive. Vehicle manufacturers continue to develop sensor technology and monitoring capabilities have been extended to CO, NOx and NH3. The latter is the result of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) of NOx by addition of NH3 (from urea), which has been introduced as an exhaust gas aftertreatment technology in diesel powered vehicles. The power industry can be expected to follow this trend by incorporating sensors for monitoring and control of SCR and SNCR (non-catalytic selective reduction) in flue gas applications. This report describes evaluation of silicon carbide based transistors, which have previously been studied in diesel exhaust gas and small boiler flue gas, for applications in larger power plants

  15. Study of flue gas condensing for biofuel fired heat and power plants; Studie av roekgaskondensering foer biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Gustafsson, J O; Nystroem, Johan; Johansson, Kent

    2000-11-01

    This report considers questions regarding flue gas condensing plants connected to bio-fuelled heat and power plants. The report consists of two parts, one where nine existing plants are described regarding technical issues and regarding the experience from the different plants. Part two is a theoretical study where heat balance calculations are made to show the technical and economical performance in different plant configurations and operating conditions. Initially the different parts in the flue gas condensing plant are described. Tube, plate and scrubber condensers are described briefly. The different types of humidifiers are also described, rotor, cross-stream plate heat exchanger and scrubber. Nine flue gas-condensing plants have been visited. The plants where chosen considering it should be bio-fuel fired plant primarily heat and power plants. Furthermore we tried to get a good dissemination considering plant configuration, supplier, geographical position, operating situation and plant size. The description of the different plants focuses on the flue gas condenser and the belonging components. The fuel, flue gas and condensate composition is described as well as which materials are used in the different parts of the plant. The experience from operating the plants and the reasons of why they decided to chose the actual condenser supplier are reported.

  16. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for pasteurization and increase the organic loading rate of the post-digester.

  17. Development of a dynamic drying model for for a combustion grate; Framtagande av en dynamisk torkmodell foer en foerbraenningsrost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, Henrik; Ramstroem, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Combustion of wet wood fuel at high grate loading requires good control of the burnout position to avoid unacceptably high content of unburnt fuel in the ash. To control the burn-out position, control actions on the grate feeding must be made with sufficient range and anticipation. One way to improve the understanding of the dynamic fuel bed response on changes in control system parameters is mathematical modelling. The research task has been to develop a mathematical model of a drying fuel bed on a moving grate. The model includes a simplified description of drying, pyrolysis and char combustion and also pusher/grate movement and primary air flow/distribution. The objectives of the project have been to establish the most likely mechanism for drying and ignition of a wet fuel bed on a moving grate by the use of mathematical modelling and also to create a tool for simulation of control system step responses. The target group for the project are individuals working in the area of control system development of grate fired boilers. Three different assumptions on drying and ignition front propagation in a bio fuel bed with 50 and 53 % moisture have been modelled: 1. Drying and ignition from an underlying char layer in a co-current primary air flow 2. Drying and ignition from an overlaying char layer in counter-current primary air flow 3. Drying and ignition from both an underlying and overlaying char layer The model with drying and ignition driven by an underlying char layer is the projection, which gives the fastest and time-wise the most similar course to what one normally sees in grate fired boilers. The model with drying and ignition from above is not capable of upholding a stable diffusion controlled burning char layer since too small quantities of heat is transferred into the fuel bed. The model with drying and ignition from both directions results in similar combustion rate as the first model. The similar course of combustion is due to the energy for drying mainly transported by convection. This model exhibit the same difficulty as the second model maintaining a burning char layer on the topside. A number of control system step responses have been calculated. The results show that control actions, which but comprise grate feeding only temporarily changes the fuel bed extension. After a course of curving in, the bed take in a steady state, which is almost identical to the initial position. The step answer analysis indicates that actions, which also include changes in primary air stoichiometry are more efficient methods to permanently change the bed extension and course of drying. By combining combustion theory with knowledge on fuel bed feeding the project has created a novel tool to estimate the short and long term consequences of control actions during grate combustion. The primary field of application for the model in its present design is step answer analysis.

  18. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the project has primarily been to investigate suitable equipment (mills, crushers, shredders) for the pulverization of different types of soft plastics from the agricultural sector (large sacks and silage plastic) and the peat extraction industry (plastic covers) with the aim of being able to use the plastic material as fuel in conventional solid waste-fired plants. Many of the mills that are used for pulverizing different types of biofuel have proved not to be particularly suitable for soft plastics. The project has comprised the following: * Contact with a number of plant owners with different types of plants (grate, CFB and BFB boilers) for a review of existing fuel handling and fuel feed equipment as well as the demands they make on the fuel that is to be fired. * Contact with Trio Plast concerning previous tests carried out in connection with the collection, baling, handling, pulverization and combustion of plastics from the agricultural sector. * Contact with mill suppliers for participation in the tests and for feedback on experience gained in connection with the pulverization of soft plastics. * Choice of a suitable plant for practical trials based on contact with the above plant owners as a reference group. * Practical trials in 5 mills with the pulverization of soft plastics from agriculture (silage plastic and large sacks) as well as plastic from peat extraction (plastic covers) and * Evaluation of technical, economic, energy-related and environmental preconditions. Following contact with several owners of solid waste-fired combustion plants, and after hearing their opinions, it became clear that many of them were doubtful about the combustion of plastic. They are primarily afraid of tripping superheaters, etc. Consequently, two plants without superheaters, one in Oestersund and the other in Malmoe, were chosen for the tests. The mills that were tested were: * A SIM mill from WahIkvist, Oedeshoeg Plant - a mobile slow-action pulverizer for different types of waste. * A Willibald mill from Svenska Neuero - a mobile hammer mill with a drive system mounted on a trailer frame. * An Untha mill from Presona - a mobile, slow-action, electrically-operated mill with cutting tools. * A Satum mill from Ekoteknik - a stationary mill of the slow-action type with rotating knife cutters, and * A Doppstadt mill from OP-maskiner - a mobile slow-action mill with hammers. Other mills been tested for milling soft plastics by Lunds Energi in Lomma and Soederenergi in SoedertaeIje are: * Lindner- kvarn from Franssons Recycling Machine. A low- speed machine with turnable teeth. (Lomma), and * Eco- crusher from Babcock. A low- speed waste crusher with two-rotor. (Soedertaelje). The results of the tests showed that those mills/crushers/shredders that can cope with the demand to pulverize plastic material with only one or two grinding runs are slow action units with cutting tools. Hammer mills do not function as effectively for the type of plastic material investigated. Tests of whether it was possible to fire the Jamtkraft plant in Oestersund with pulverized plastic showed that with a proportion of approximately 5 per cent of plastic fuel mixed together with other solid fuel, mainly sawdust, bark and wood chips, plant operation was for the most part satisfactory. The running period amounted to approximately two weeks. Among the problems that occurred, however, were that somewhat excessively long strips of plastic hung down in front of the level sensors that control the supply from the day silos and that the overfilling sensor in the fuel screw was affected by the plastic. These problems would probably have been more serious if a larger proportion of plastic had been used. In order to be able to complete the tests in Oestersund, relatively extensive contacts was needed with the municipal environmental and community planning office, which in turn obtained the views of the County Administrative Board in the county of Jaemtland. Finally, a permit was granted to fire approximately 300 tonnes of plastic material, although with certain reservations. The costs of handling plastics for transportation, pulverization and combustion will be relatively high and amount to between SEK 350 and 700 per tonne, the largest cost component of which being the pulverization cost. To this shall be added the costs of collecting the plastic. With a fuel valuation for the plastic as biofuel, lower costs are achieved corresponding to approximately SEK 500-1000 per tonne.

  19. Degradation rate of sludge/fly ash mixture used as landfill liner; Nedbrytningshastigheten foer taetskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    In order to be able to use mixtures of ash and sludge as landfill liner an important aspect is to demonstrate that the degradation of organic matter is slow enough. Therefore, the goal of this project has been to find out for how long a landfill liner material of sludge and ash will be stable and keep its function. The degradation of organic material in two different mixtures of sludge and ash has been studied in laboratory experiments. The rate of degradation was then estimated for barriers of sludge and ash, taking into account construction techniques (mixture, compaction, water content), climate conditions (freezing, drying) and biological processes (NaN{sub 3} additive). The effect of the degradation on the permeability has also been quantified. Organic material may disappear for the landfill liner material through 1) initial leaching of soluble organic material, 2) leaching of organic material after chemical reactions or 3) evaporation during biological degradation. Bacterial activity was not found in the sludge/ash mixtures during the experiments. Therefore, the organic material is probably reduced mainly though leaching according to 1) and 2). The leached amount of TOC (total organic carbon) was measured for all samples of sludge/ash in several experimental cycles. The leached amount of TOC was compared to the initial amount of TOC in the material. The results show a small initial reduction of organic material through leaching but the TOC content in the material is then stabilized. In relation to the total weight of the material the leaching of TOC was similar for the mixtures with 80 % ash and 20 % ash. However, this means that a larger amount of TOC was leached out from the mixtures with a high ash content since the initial amount of organic material was smaller. General conclusions about which ash-sludge ratio that is suitable for a landfill liner material could not be drawn from the experiments from a degradation point of view. If the initial permeability is low enough (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) the results indicate that the leaching of TOC will be of less importance for the function of the barrier layer. The hydraulic conductivity was independent of the change in TOC, i.e. even though the organic material was reduced through chemical degradation and leaching the permeability was not negatively affected. Instead, the permeability was reduced in time and affected mainly by the compaction grade. Therefore, it is important to compact the landfill liner material and to mix the ash and sludge to a homogeneous mixture. Drying of the material increased the hydraulic conductivity: the barrier layer should therefore be kept moist. Freezing through cycles did not affect the permeability. Calculations on the basis of results from experiments with columns with an initial hydraulic conductivity of <1x10{sup -9} m/s show that the leaching of TOC stops after 38 years (NSR-Oeresundskraft) and 14 years (Bromma-Maelarenergi). The combination of reduced percolation and more immobilized TOC is expected to lead to very low leaching rates for organic material after this time. On basis of this study it is recommended to change the landfill liner material at Filborna in Helsingborg from clay to ash/sludge on a test area. During such large-scale tests it is suitable to control changes in the material to verify the results from the experiments.

  20. Environmental systems analysis for the beneficial use of ashes in constructions; Miljoesystemanalys foer nyttiggoerande av askor i anlaeggningsbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, Erik; Olsson, Susanna; Magnusson, Ylva; Peterson, Anna [Ecoloop, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    All building materials have an impact on the environment, conventional materials as well as recycled materials. But, since recycled materials are classified as waste, the use of them is more strongly restricted. The potential of saving natural materials and energy by the use of recycling materials are rarely considered. This report presents a method for environmental systems analysis considering the use of recycled materials in a wide perspective. Various scenarios for beneficial use or disposal of the residuals that occur in a region (province, county or municipality) are analysed. The method considers emissions to air and water as well as conservation of natural resources and energy. Two case studies have been carried out for the Uppsala County in Sweden. Case study 1 dealt with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, where scenarios for beneficial use of ashes in 1) drainage layers in covering of landfills and 2) road construction were compared. Also a third scenario was included as a reference where the MSWI bottom ash was landfilled. The result of case study 1 showed that the use of ashes in road construction was the most beneficial alternative in terms of conservation of natural resources and energy, and also in terms leakage of several metals. The leakage of Arsenic and Zink were however more favourable in scenario 1 and the leakage of copper was more favourable in scenario 3. The second alternative where the ashes were used in drainage layer did not save as much natural resources and caused more emissions of heavy metals to water compared to the road construction application. In case study 2 the beneficial use of fly ash from peat combustion was analysed, including 1) the use of peat ash as a construction material in small county roads, 2) the use of peat ash mixed with sewage sludge as a covering material on landfills. Also this case study included a reference scenario in which the peat ash, generated in Uppsala County, was landfilled. The result from case study 2 indicated that the use of fly ash for county roads had on the one hand the largest use of crushed rocks but was on the second hand the most beneficial alternative regarding leakage of metals. From an energy point of view the alternative with covering of landfills was the most beneficial alternative up to a transport distance of 60 km for the ashes. All results are site-specific. From the synthesis of the whole project it was concluded that the developed method for environmental systems analysis has a potential to be a tool for strategic environmental assessments in regional natural resources plans, municipal planning and EIA. A weakness with this study is that water emissions are mostly based on laboratory leachate tests while data from full-scale studies would have been more relevant. Full scale tests are however rare and must be used with carefulness since they are very dependant on local conditions.

  1. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for pasteurization and increase the organic loading rate of the post-digester.

  2. Controlling of processes for producing energy carriers by means of biotechnique. Reglering av processer foer att producera energibaerare med bioteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F

    1987-01-01

    The most suitable parameter to reducing production cost is controlling of sugar content when converting sulfite lye or cellulose hydrolysate to ethanol. By keeping the sugar content low in the end product the yield and productivity are improved. A sensor for ethanol in the yeast tank has been developed and the continous analysis of glucose has been performed by means of an analyser for enzymes.

  3. Treatment of biofuel ashes for forest recycling; Behandling av aska fraan biobraenslen foer spridning paa skogsmark - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, H.; Sjoeblom, R. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Logging residues are the easiest available fuel for an increased production of energy in Sweden from renewable sources. A consequence of their removal from the forest is that the cycle of mineral nutrients is broken. The purpose of recycling the ash after this fuel to forest land is to compensate for the removal and close again the nutrient cycle. Recycling nutrients and returning the inorganic components of the biomass removed from the forest should be performed in accordance with general principles of environmental protection, health considerations and the good house-keeping of natural resources. The activities should also be carried out in accordance with the needs of the forest and energy plant owners regarding good technology and economy. This implies that functional requirements originating from these principles and needs should be clearly structured and formulated and that such requirements should provide a basis for the continued development work as well as for the implementation of suitable, economical and efficient systems. Returning inorganic constituents implies that the principle of recirculation is followed as well as that nutrients are brought back which improves accretion in the forest. At the same time, the risk of damage to the forest can be assessed as insignificant. Furthermore the risks to human health are also assessed to be insignificant provided that pertinent precautions are taken to avoid dusting. In the present report, technical and economical aspects of importance for the selection of method as well as for the establishment of a system are described and discussed. The need for further development work is identified in the following areas: functional requirements - operational requirements, sampling, testing and quality assurance, granulation, curing processes and drying/sintering. 102 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  4. Mödrars upplevelser av att drabbas av postpartumdepression

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Rebecca; Pitkämäki, Kia

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Postpartumdepression (PPD) drabbar mellan 8-15% av alla kvinnor som föder barn och innebär stora påfrestningar för både modern, partnern och spädbarnet. Utvecklandet av PPD har multifaktoriella orsaker som tidigare psykiatrisk sjukdom, dåligt parförhållande och brist på socialt stöd. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka kvinnors upplevelser av postpartumdepression. Metod: Studien är en litteraturöversikt där vetenskapliga artiklar motsvarande studiens syfte granskades. Samtliga a...

  5. Psycho-acoustical valuation of pleasant and less perceptible sound characters in wind turbine noise; Psyko-akustisk vaerdering av behagliga och mindre maerkbara ljudkaraktaerer i vindkraftverksljud - interaktiv utvaerdering och akustisk beskrivning av den skvalpande karaktaeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Agge, Agneta

    2001-03-01

    The report describes phase 3 in the ongoing project 'Perception and annoyance of wind turbine sounds'. The overall aim of the project is to increase the knowledge of annoyance and perception of wind turbine sounds in order for the industry to optimise wind turbine constructions. The specific aim for phase 3 was to evaluate the most noticeable and annoying psycho-acoustical character described as 'lapping'. The lapping characteristic was evaluated in experimental studies comprising in total 24 test subjects. With the object to obtain a pleasant sound test subjects were asked to vary four parameters related to the psycho-acoustical perception of 'lapping' in the original sound. The variations of parameters were carried out using an interactive sound processing system and done in such a way so the resulting sound always had a constant dBA level. The resulting values of three of the four parameters were significantly different compared to the original sound. A pleasant sound thus had low contents of the different lapping characteristics. While no difference was found between the original sound and the resulting sound with regard to the equivalent frequency spectra, some differences could be detected using Zwickers loudness calculations. Some differences may be attributed to a lower degree of roughness in the 'pleasant sound'. It is however more likely that the difference between the noises as regard the content of specific loudness in the frequency range of 1270 to 3150 may be of greater importance. Analysis of conventional acoustical measures were not sufficient to predict subjects perception of noticeable and unpleasant characteristics in wind turbine sounds. Further analysis should be pursued of how to best describe an unpleasant or pleasant wind turbine sound.

  6. Evaluation of hearings. Results from reviews of the nuclear waste issue in the Swedish site candidate municipalities; Utvaerdering av utfraagningar. Resultat fraan genomlysningar av kaernavfallsfraagan i de svenska foerstudiekommunerna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to present an evaluation of the public hearings that took place in February of 2001 in the Swedish municipalities of Oesthammar, Tierp, and Aelvkarleby in Norduppland, Hultsfred and Oskarshamn in Smaaland, and Nykoeping in Soedermanland. These municipalities had participated in feasibility studies conducted by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). A company report on the results of these studies had been published shortly before the hearings (FUD-K). The regulatory authorities, i.e. the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), organized the hearings for additional information and aid in their ongoing evaluation of the SKB report. Representatives of the municipalities participated in the planning of the events, and a large meeting in Tierp in January 2001, that also involved the authorities, consultants and interested parties, agreed on the aims and practical arrangements. The authorities furthermore ordered a report for a summary and evaluation of the events, and the results are presented here. The aim of, and the preparations for, the hearings were based on a theoretical model developed within the RISCOM project, i.e. the RISCOM-model of transparency, which postulates three basic elements, i.e. technical/scientific issues, normative issues and authenticity. These elements combine to achieve an optimal clarification on the interaction between scientific and value-laden components in decision-making. An assumption is that the quality of decisions would improve given that transparency can be increased. The hearings were designed to 'stretch' the implementer by means of asking essential questions and to clarify what was achieved and known so far in the process, as well as to clarify what matters required further attention. The content covered technical, legal and social aspects on issues of nuclear waste management and the choices involved in the process towards building a future high level nuclear waste repository. The recently published report by SKB (FUD-K) contributed the main foundation for the program content, which was structured into the two parts of (a) the choice of methodology and (b) the choice of municipalities for the forthcoming site investigations. This report is based on the content of the actual hearings, e.g. questions, answers and comments from the proceedings and group discussions, as well as responses to three questionnaires. The report states that the majority of the participants at the hearings were those already involved, in one way or another, in the municipalities organized work related to the nuclear waste issue. Thus, the hearings did not attract a large number of novices or uninitiated individuals from the general public. The wide scope of considered aspects and the high level of knowledge among the participants were reflected by the questions put to the panel. The questionnaire responses also indicated high initial involvement in the hearings, and that the participants came well prepared to the meetings. The main preparation being studies of available reports and other materials, but also e.g. participation in information seminars or in meetings organized by the municipalities. Their reasons for participation often involved a desire to learn more in relation to specifically formulated questions and / or to gain a better understanding of the work and the overall process. The participants wanted to achieve a result that outlined pros and cons of various methodologies regarding waste management, and which stated the degree of reliability regarding the proposed technological solutions. Furthermore, to reach a substantial level of clarity regarding what can be considered as established facts in contrast to what remains uncertain or problematic. The results indicated that a majority of the participants preferred the proposed KBS-3 method to other alternatives with respect to the construction of a final repository. However, the need for a continuous awareness of current research and the developments of alternative methods was underlined. The participants were generally positive to the kind of hearings they had participated in, and they concluded that they had received responses to a substantial degree to the questions they had brought. The content of the hearings had to a large extent corresponded to their expectations, and they had not significantly changed their opinions. Ratings of central actors' credibility showed that the authorities enjoyed the highest trustworthiness and the local critics groups the lowest. The report points out that this result can only be related to the groups of participants at the hearings, and since that group can be considered relatively homogeneous and consisting of interested and active persons, any generalization to the larger population of the municipalities could be erroneous. (abstract truncated)

  7. Flame front. Evaluation of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding operation and emissions; Flamfront. Utvaerdering av drift och miljoe med hjaelp av kamerabaserad flamfrontsstyrning i rosterpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Myringer, Aase; Nordgren, Daniel

    2007-09-15

    This project aims at showing the usability of camera based flame front control in grate furnaces regarding increased possibilities to use fuels with fluctuating moisture/quality with stable/improved levels of emissions and ash quality. A furnace camera and the human eye make the detection of the flame front movements. Further, the flame front was fixed due to an increase/decrease of the speed of the fuel feeding system. The result is to be generalised for all grate furnaces with a movable grate. During the spring 2007 two weeks of tests were executed at E.ON Heat's plant Hammargaarden at Kungsbacka. Dry and wet fuel pulses of approximately 10 m3, with moisture content of approximately 40 and 60 weights percent, were induced to the grate. At the same time, tries to ward off the flame front movement were carried through. The most important result of the tests were the following: The results is based on a relatively small number of tests and it should be considered to be more of an indication of the usefulness of the control strategy that has been investigated rather than definitive results. The results indicate that the economical and environmental benefits from using a system involving only visual detecting followed by warding off a movement of the flame front mechanically are small, and most likely hard to pay off. It is important to start to ward off the flame front as soon as it seems to be moving. In this way the flame front can be kept stable and often improved emission levels follow. A slight tendency to lower CO-emissions was observed when dry fuel pulses were warded off. When no warding off of dry fuel pulses took place, the combustion took place close to the lower part of the fuel-feeding wall. This was prevented when the dry fuel pulses were warded off. The content of unburnt carbon in ash at wet fuel pulses was lower when warding off in comparison with cases where no warding off took place. An important element of future work is, apart from using a regular furnace camera, to investigate alternative detection principles. The most important parameter should be to have a fast and reliable indication that the flame front is moving. Already existing measurement values, as temperature sensors in the combustion chamber and/or primary air flow could be usable. An alternative to ward off the flame front movement mechanically is to adjust the distribution of primary air below the grate.

  8. Verdsettelse av Bremnes Seashore AS

    OpenAIRE

    Selle, Simon Flatebø

    2017-01-01

    Siden etablering i 1946 har Bremnes Seashore AS ønsket å levere verdens beste lakseprodukt. Det startet i det små med pigghå og regnbueørret før det i 1970 ble satset på det vi i dag kjenner som kommersiell lakseoppdrett. Bremnes beskrives av Innovasjon Norge som bransjerevolusjonær. Spesielt viktig var deres utvikling og implementering av pre-rigor foredling som i dag utgjør standarden for ethvert moderne fiskeslakteri. I nyere tid ønsker de å gjøre det igjen med utvikling av ...

  9. Lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    En miljømessig effektiv lokalisering av arbeidsplasser og boliger sikter mot å begrense - og helst redusere - biltrafikk og miljøproblemer knyttet til bytransport, sammenliknet med alternative lokaliseringer. En effektiv transportmessig lokalisering kan også bidra til å redusere tap av verdifulle...... arealer (f eks jordbruksareal eller natur- og friluftsområder) utenfor dagens tettstedsgrense. Tiltaket må samtidig utformes slik at en kan bevare viktige bomiljøkvaliteter og så mye som mulig av de grønne arealene innenfor tettbebyggelsen....

  10. Motorsystem : Roderstyrning av autonom segelrobot

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Examensarbetet har gjorts på begäran av ÅSR (Åland Sailing Robots) genom Anna Friebe. Syftet med arbetet är att skapa energisnålt motorsystem för styrning av vindflöjeln och roder till 4 meter lång segelrobot som ägs av ÅSR. Ett exemplar av den styranordningen som jag anser kommer att fungera bäst för en robotsegelbåt har konstruerats och kopplats upp på testbänk där jag sedan har lämnat över arbetet för programmering. I detta arbete har jag undersökt motorer, givare, motorstyrni...

  11. Effektivisering av arbetet med rumsbeskrivningar

    OpenAIRE

    Enström, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    För att ta byggbranschen till nästa steg i utvecklingen är BIM det naturliga steget. Iteorin tycks många av lösningarna som medföljer implementationen av BIM varaenkla att förstå och skapa, i praktiken ligger dock de tekniska lösningarna långt ifrånen full implementation i branschen. I arbetet med olika typer av beskrivningar inomett byggprojekt har utvecklingen med hjälp av BIM stått still länge. Då det inte finnsnågot vedertaget sätt att utnyttja en BIM-modells information för att fylla oli...

  12. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, V.; Alekseev, V.; Akim, E.; Eubanks, M.; Kingham, K.; Treuhaft, R.; Sukhanov, K.

    1995-01-01

    A proposed new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry is described. The Astrometry VLBI (very long baseline) in Space (AVS) nominal mission includes two identical spacecraft, each with a 4-m antenna sending data to a 70-m ground station. The goals of AVS are improving astrometry accuracy to the microarcsecond level and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames.

  13. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Reyes, George

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) called Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS). The ultimate goals of AVS are improving the accuracy of radio astrometry measurements to the microarcsecond level in one epoch of measurements and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames. This study will also assess the impact of this mission on astrophysics astrometry and geophysics.

  14. Klubbhusverksamheten - Betydelse av dagligt arbete

    OpenAIRE

    Niskanen, Karolina

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva klubbhusmedlemmarnas uppfattning om det dagliga arbetet och dess betydelse för välmående i vardagen. Undersökningen utfördes i form av kvalitativa intervjuer med fem medlemmar av klubbhuset Pelaren i Mariehamn. Forskningsfrågorna som skulle besvaras var hur klubbhusmedlemmarna uppfattar arbete, vad arbete har för betydelse för deras hälsa, vilka aktiviteter de upplever som betydelsefulla i klubbhusverksamheten samt vad i klubbhusmiljön som stöder dem ...

  15. Simulering av muskelaktivitet vid pedalbromsning

    OpenAIRE

    Ejdepalm, Erik; Westerdahl, Walter

    2009-01-01

    En muskeloskeletal kroppsmodell har undersökts med avseende på maximal muskelbelastning genom biomekanisk simulering i programmet AnyBody. En kroppsmodell har låtits interagera med ett reglage i form av en bromspedal från en Saab 9-3 och muskelbelastningen till följd av att pedalen trampas ned har minimerats. De parametrar hos pedalen som har varierats är initialvinkeln och returfjäderns fjäderkonstant. Den sits på vilken kroppsmodellen sitter har flyttats vertikalt och horisontellt i förhåll...

  16. Bruk av kartleggingsresultater i forbedringsarbeid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Thomas; Hansen, Line Skov

    . Barnehagen har gjerne tilgang på informasjon fra kartlegginger, men det er ikke alltid denne informasjonen blir systematisk analysert og aktivt brukt i forbedringsarbeid. Forfatterne viser hvordan slike analyser kan gjennomføres på forskjellige nivåer i den enkelte barnehage, og vektlegger viktigheten av...

  17. Calculation of additional costs in 2010 - for the demolition of the Swedish nuclear power plants and disposal of residues; Beraekning av merkostnader 2010 - foer rivning av de svenska kaernkraftsverken och omhaendertagande av restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewitz, Erica; Schoultz, Christian; Wetzel, Carina

    2010-09-15

    This report describes the SSM's calculation of additional costs for fee proposal for 2012-2014. The calculation is made pursuant to the Financing Act and includes all additional costs until the residue from the Swedish nuclear power plants is disposed of. According to current calculations, this should be done in 2069. Estimates of such a long time means a great deal of uncertainty and SSM uses, like SKB, the successive calculation method to estimate an expected value and tax association uncertainty. As a starting point for analysis, the SSM has made estimates of the future costs broken down into paragraphs in paragraph 2 Financing Act. The estimates were made after discussions within the organization and representatives of relevant external organizations. Assuming a total annual cost per worker of 1.24 million gave these estimates a total cost of over three billion. It should be emphasized that this sum is only a starting point for analysis and applies in particular circumstances. These circumstances critically reviewed the analysis and the reasonableness of assessments made by a analysis group. The analysis took place for 2.5 days in spring 2010. The analysis group consisted of 17 people including nine from the SSM. Lores Borg and Steen Lichtenberg were moderators. Via a brainstorming process, the analysis group presented a number of uncertainties and made a three-part assessment of their impact on the overall results (minimum, most likely and maximum). The result of the analysis: average in the 2010 monetary value was assessed to 4.24 billion Swedish crowns with a standard deviation of 920 million Swedish crowns. These values are undiscounted

  18. Impact assessment of the impact on nature values of the construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark; Konsekvensbedoemning av paaverkan paa naturvaerden av anlaeggande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-03-15

    Construction and operation of a repository at Soederviken in Forsmark, Oesthammar municipality means impact, effects and consequences for the environment. This report describes the natural conditions and natural values in Forsmark with particular focus on Soederviken. Furthermore, an assessment of consequences for the natural environment in the development and operation of a repository at Soederviken. Assessment of impacts from water activities are treated in a special report.

  19. Follow-up for the years 2000-2002 of productivity studies for the operation of CLAB; Uppfoeljning foer aaren 2000-2002 av undersoekning av produktivitetsutvecklingen vid driften av CLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Haakan [AaF-Energi and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    SKB hands every year over, on behalf of the power companies, to SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds, issued by the Swedish state. The cost development has been studied with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes based on the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 2002, the KBS-3-index has increased about 102%, but CPI only about 70%. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the productivity and efficiency development in the facilities operated by SKB is therefore applicable. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in economical means. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development of total productivity is increasing slightly, but decreasing in the end. Normal for a new business is that the productivity is rising sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, decreasing, rising and finally decreasing. The project 'compact storing' was finished in 1992, and the relocation to compact cassettes started in 1993. This is said to be the reason for the large decrease in total productivity that time. The relatively low productivity in 1997 is said to depend on failure of the gearbox in the cassette handling machine. Productivity increases with increased production, is the general experience from industry. The high productivity in 1998 coincides with a big production the same year. The compact storing terminated in 2002. That is the reason for the decrease in productivity then. The reason for the increased productivity up to 2002 is better technology and larger production. CLAB is lacking competition. However, the free power market has depressed the power prices. Analogous it can be expected that CLAB is experiencing a pressure to get the costs down and continue the efforts to increase the productivity. Suitable measures are review of operations, the opening to competition for parts of the works and benchmarking. An important task for CLAB is to decrease the residual heat and radiation from the fuel. From that point of view, the productivity is increasing all the time. That depends on the costs which are rather constant, but the amount of fuel stored is increasing until time for placing it in the repository. The operation of the encapsulation plant and the deep repository as well as the decommissioning service operation could be compared with the operation of CLAB.

  20. Analyse av LOD-tiltak

    OpenAIRE

    Kunduraci, Meltem

    2016-01-01

    Endrede klimatiske forhold og større urbanisering medfører økte oversvømmelsesskader i urbane områder. Ekstreme nedbørhendelser opptrer oftere og kraftigere. Utbygging med tette flater hindrer infiltrasjon til grunnen. Den naturlige utjevningen av overvann reduseres. Dette resulterer i økende belastninger på det eksisterende avløpssystemet. Kapasiteten på avløpsnettet er mange steder overbelastet og er ikke i stand til å håndtere overvannsmengder under styrtregn. Lokal overvannsdisponering el...

  1. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT - AVS SEMINAR

    CERN Multimedia

    Social Service

    2001-01-01

    The 500 or so participants in the fifth Preparation for Retirement seminar held at the end of March were unfortunately deprived of the planned session on the AVS due to the unavailability of the Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation (CCGC). We have since had formal confirmation that because of an extra workload due to important changes in the Swiss tax and social legislation and the implementation this summer of the maternity insurance in Geneva, the CCGC has suspended its participation in preparation for retirement seminars in the international organisations for the time being. Conscious of the necessity of offering a session dedicated to the AVS, it is with pleasure that we can inform you that one of our legal advisers, Mr Lorenz Stampfli, has accepted to lead this session. In order to allow for adequate preparation we have reserved the following date: Wednesday 26 September from 14.00 to 16.00 in the Main Amphitheatre The session will be open to all people already registered and any o...

  2. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  3. VISUALISERINGSTAVLA : Visualisering av Kanban boards

    OpenAIRE

    Y. F. Sam, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Hos många företag används whiteboards för att visualisera arbetsprocessen. En vanlig metodik för detta är så kallade Kanban boards, ett system av tabeller och lappar för att indikera olika avvikelser eller moment i projekt med datum och annan relevant information. Företag kan även välja att använda en mjukvara som simulerar samma metodik, ett exempel på detta är så kallade Elektroniska kanban boards. I detta arbete har båda dessa metoder (whiteboard samt en digital lösning) observerats hos tr...

  4. Effekt av ulike desinfeksjonsstrategier mot Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fossmo, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Kontroll med bakterier som Listeria utgjør en stor utfordring for mange matprodusenter. Listeria monocytogenes er hovedsakelig et produksjonshygienisk problem, forbedret hygiene kan derfor være tiltak for å redusere overlevelse og smitteoverføring av bakterien i produksjonsmiljø. Hensikten med forsøkene i oppgaven var å undersøke effekten av ulike desinfeksjonsstrategier på drap av L. monocytogenes, både når bakteriene var i biofilm og i suspensjon. Dette inkluderte bruk av tradisjonelle desi...

  5. Simulation and cost analysis of systems for handling of fuel straw - applied to a heating plant in Skaane; Simulering och kostnadsanalys av hanteringssystem foer braenslehalm - tillaempning foer en vaermeanlaeggning i Skaane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - The total costs for delivery of fuel straw to heating plants ranged from about 130 SEK/MWh to 180 SEK/MWh (1 SEK approx 0.14 USD), depending on the payment to farmers for the straw, the storage method used, the profit margins of the contractors, etc. - The area investigated, which covered parts of the municipalities of Svaloev, Esloev and Kaevlinge, has very good conditions for harvest of straw compared with other parts of Sweden. The yield of winter wheat (and straw) is high, the road network is well developed, the fields are concentrated and large, the straw crops ripen early, and security of supply between years is high. - For a harvest and handling system with an average capacity of about 8 000 tonnes of straw per year, the simulations showed that a machine system with six balers, two loaders in the field, four transporters (tractor), one loader at the stores and lorry transport to the heating plant was cost-effective with regard to system performance (for example, expressed as the average amount of straw baled per year with a moisture content below 18%, the average quantity of straw per year put into storage prior to 1 October, the average lying time for the straw between threshing and baling, etc.). - Harvesting straw from various crops (in this case winter rape, rye and winter wheat) instead of only winter wheat had no major impact on costs, but increased the chance to harvest 'greyer' straw with lower contents of alkali metals, chlorine, etc. Only including fields of at least 5 ha had a minor impact on costs. Noticeable cost savings occurred when the field size limit was set to 10 ha or more. Increasing the moisture content limit at baling to 20% made it possible to harvest more straw, especially in years with difficult weather conditions. - The storage method used had a decisive impact on costs. Outdoor storage decreased the total costs to 133 SEK/MWh (7% storage losses), compared with 154 SEK/MWh for an equivalent harvest system with storage in machine sheds (0% storage losses, 60% of the construction costs assigned to the straw, the rest for other uses). - Increasing the bale weight from 530 kg to 700 kg (with unchanged dimensions of 1.2 m x 1.3 m x 2.4 m) produced cost savings of 15%. Having bales with an unchanged weight of 530 kg, but with a height of 1.0 m so that three bales could be stacked on top of one another during transport, resulted in similar cost savings. - In-depth studies are needed regarding the capacity of modern harvest and handling machines, stoppage frequency, etc. (i.e. time studies), the impact of various weather parameters on straw quality, the costs and storage losses for different storage methods, etc. - Dynamic event simulation is a useful method for analysing complex logistics systems where weather, plant biology, geography, soil characteristics, etc. have a major impact on the outcome

  6. Sweden's Future Climate in the short- and medium-term perspective. Basis for development of climate adaptation tools; Sveriges framtida klimat paa kort och medellaang sikt. Underlag foer utveckling av verktyg foer klimatanpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Parmhed, Oskar

    2008-12-15

    This report studies two questions - how the actual amount of greenhouse gas emissions has changed over time in comparison with previous assumptions and what will happen to Sweden's climate from short and medium term perspectives given the future development of the climate in general. The content of this report shall be used as the basis for continued work in the development of climate adaptation tools that can be used primarily in Sweden. The first section of this report presents the development of actual greenhouse gas emissions in recent years. Eight years have passed since IPCC published its emissions scenarios (SRES) and for this reason a comparison between the emissions levels from the report and the experimental data from observations made in recent years is well due. Measurements show that current levels of emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels exceed the average of the SRES families as a whole. Among other implications, this means that emission levels are significantly higher than the levels assumed in the climate scenarios of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (Klimat- och saarbarhetsutredningen). There is little support from the experimental data to indicate that this rate of increase will subside. In addition, studies are indicating that the increased emissions are not solely attributable to a rise in population levels and increased wealth (GNP/capita). Another aspect is that the carbon intensity, measured as the amount of carbon dioxide per unit production price, has been declining since 2000. This is entirely contrary to the assumptions made in all of the emissions scenarios in SRES that carbon dioxide efficiency would continue to increase. The report therefore concludes that work with climate adaptation in Sweden must take into consideration to a greater extent than is currently done today the consequences of emissions levels that are in line with or exceed the highest SRES levels. The second section of this report takes a closer look at Sweden's future climate from both a short and medium term perspective. Socio-economic development and future climate conditions combined are the most influential factors in the creation of the context within which decisions about adaptation are made. Climate research generally tends to base the majority of its scenarios on relatively long time perspectives (100 years or more). Efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions also often need to apply a long-term perspective. However, it is more interesting within the framework of adaptation work to adopt a shorter perspective. There is currently a gap between the focus of climate research and the needs arising in conjunction with the adaptation of society to a changing climate. This report argues that society's need to adapt to a changing climate increases the demand for climate scenarios with shorter perspectives. The report revisits and compares several different estimations of what Sweden's climate might look like in the years 2030 and 2060. It can be stated that the uncertainty in the shorter-term perspective (2030) with regard to forced climate changes is relatively small, which is why focus should therefore lie on resolving the socio-economic uncertainties. However, in the longer-term perspective (2060), the uncertainty related to the development of the climate increases and for this reason a larger range of future climate scenarios should be considered. As a result of this reasoning, only one climate scenario is presented for 2030 while the climate in 2060 includes three scenarios

  7. Efficient Software HEVC to AVS2 Transcoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second generation of Audio and Video coding Standard (AVS is developed by the IEEE 1857 Working Group under project 1857.4 and was standardized in 2016 by the AVS Working Group of China as the new broadcasting standard AVS2. High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC is the newest global video coding standard announced in 2013. More and more codings are migrating from H.264/AVC to HEVC because of its higher compression performance. In this paper, we propose an efficient HEVC to AVS2 transcoding algorithm, which applies a multi-stage decoding information utilization framework to maximize the usage of the decoding information in the transcoding process. The proposed algorithm achieves 11×–17× speed gains over the AVS2 reference software RD 14.0 with a modest BD-rate loss of 9.6%–16.6%.

  8. Arvelig hemokromatose - nytten av screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Åsberg

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Arvelig hemokromatose fører til jernopphopning i kroppen, men gir sjelden alvorlig helseskade. Nesten alle hemokromatosepasienter i vårt land er homozygote for C282Y-mutasjonen i HFE-genet. Omtrent 7 per 1000 innbyggere har denne genotypen. Alvorlig syke blir bare omkring 5-15% av homozygote menn og nesten ingen kvinner. Likevel er det holdepunkter for at screening for hemokromatose blant friske, yngre menn kan være kostnadseffektivt. Det er relativt lett å påvise om en person er disponert for sykdommen, i god tid før den bryter ut, og forebyggende behandling er billig og effektiv. Imidlertid kan vi ikke forutsi hvilke screeningpositive personer som ubehandlet får alvorlig sykdom. Et kontrollert forsøk med screening bør gjennomføresHereditary hemochromatosis – benefits of screening. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to iron accumulation in the body; however, serious illness due to hemochromatosis is rare. In Norway, almost all patients with hemochromatosis are homozygous for the C282Ymutation in the HFE-gene, a genotype carried by about 7 per 1000 inhabitants. Serious complications are seen in only about 5-15% of homozygous men and in very few women. Nevertheless, screening young men for hemochromatosis may be cost-effective. Detecting predisposed men is relatively straightforward, and prophylactic treatment is cheap and effective. However, we can not predict, among screen-positive men, the few who untreated will become seriously ill. A controlled screening trial should be conducted.

  9. Undersøkelse av forekomst av elvemusling i Grense Jakobselv

    OpenAIRE

    Aspholm, Paul Eric; Brodersen, Christopher; Nilsen, Even; Terentjev, Nikolai; Kashulin, Nikolai; Polykarpova, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Sensommeren 2014 ble det midtre partiet av Grense Jakobselv fra Elvheim til sørenden av Lasaruskulpen undersøkt for forekomst av elvemusling. De nedre delene av Grense Jakobselv og sideelver har vært undersøkt tidligere (2003 og 2005). I disse tidligere undersøkelsene har det ikke blitt påvist elvemusling eller skall av døde muslinger. Under undersøkelsen i 22. – 23. juli 2014 ble de første elvemuslingene funnet like oppstrøms Sandvasselva. Denne undersøkelsen omfattet i alt 12 forhåndsutvalg...

  10. Fractional order absolute vibration suppression (AVS) controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi, Yoram

    2017-04-01

    Absolute vibration suppression (AVS) is a control method for flexible structures. The first step is an accurate, infinite dimension, transfer function (TF), from actuation to measurement. This leads to the collocated, rate feedback AVS controller that in some cases completely eliminates the vibration. In case of the 1D wave equation, the TF consists of pure time delays and low order rational terms, and the AVS controller is rational. In all other cases, the TF and consequently the controller are fractional order in both the delays and the "rational parts". The paper considers stability, performance and actual implementation in such cases.

  11. Optimization and Technical/Economical Evaluation of Biogas Production from Biosludge from Pulp and Paper Mills; Optimering och teknisk/ekonomisk utvaerdering av biogasproduktion fraan bioslam fraan massa-/pappersbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Xu-Bin; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Joergen; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2010-04-15

    The biogas potentials from biosludges from six different pulp- and paper mills have been evaluated. It ranged from 100 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS (volatile solids) for all six mills where five of them gave results between 150 - 200 mL CH{sub 4}/g VS. Long-term semi-continuous trials with biosludges from two of the mills showed stable biogas production throughout the testing period. Pretreatments with enzymes and ultrasound were tested but showed no significant effect on the methane potential. The investment costs for two production plants were calculated. For a small plant using 7 ton biosludge TS/d (total solids per day), producing 305 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 30 MSEK and for a larger plant using 20 ton biosludge TS/d, producing 871 000 Nm3 CH{sub 4}/yr the investment cost was estimated to 51 MSEK (1 USD approx 7 SEK)

  12. Evaluation of NO{sub x}-reduction with SNCR in a waste-fueled boiler; Utvaerdering av NO{sub x}-reduktion med SNCR i avfallspanna, Halmstads Kommunala Renhaallnings AB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromulski, J; Hinderson, A; Johansson, A; Sfiris, G; Sjoeberg, M; Westermark, M [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Vaellingby (Sweden)

    1994-10-01

    SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) is a method for reducing the level of nitrogen oxides in flue gas that has attracted a lot of attention and has been put to use in several units, both in Sweden and abroad. The chemical basis for this method is the fact that certain nitrogen compounds with a hydrogen content (ammonia, urea, etc) react with nitrogen oxides, forming elementary nitrogen. The maximum NO{sub x} removal is obtained when the reducing chemical is injected in the flue gas at a point where the temperature is about 870 - 1010 deg C. The plant has been operated mainly in the output power ranges of 10-13 MW and 14-16 MW. The emission spectra regarding NO{sub x} have been similar for the two load ranges. About 70% of the observed emission values lie in the range of 71-80 mg NO{sub 2}/MJ. The degree of removal was slightly higher with the lower loads. Reduction was 61-70%. Urea addition was relatively uniform in both load ranges. Most of the time (over 70%) 6-10 kg pure urea has been added per hour. There is no detectable correlation between air excess and the emission of CO or NO at the levels of oxygen in the flue gas at hand. The economic evaluation indicates that with the SNCR system used in 1993, with an average NO{sub x} removal of 62%, the NO{sub x} fee was reduced from 3248 kSEK/yr without treatment to 1249 kSEK/yr with treatment. With the total operating cost of the SNCR system being 82 kSEK/yr, the contribution to profit becomes 1916 kSEK/yr, capital cost excluded. Thus, the pay-off time is appr. 1.7 years, with an investment of 3162 kSEK. 17 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Evaluation of NO{sub x}-reduction with SNCR in a waste-fueled boiler; Utvaerdering av NO{sub x}-reduktion med SNCR i avfallspanna, Uppsala Energi AB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromulski, J; Hinderson, A; Johansson, A; Sfiris, G; Sjoeberg, M; Westermark, M [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Vaellingby (Sweden)

    1994-10-01

    SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) is a method for reducing the level of nitrogen oxides in flue gas that has attracted a lot of attention and has been put to use in several units, both in Sweden and abroad. The chemical basis for this method is the fact that certain nitrogen compounds with a hydrogen content (ammonia, urea, etc) react with nitrogen oxides, forming elementary nitrogen. The maximum NO{sub x} removal is obtained when the reducing chemical is injected in the flue gas at a point where the temperature is about 870 - 1010 deg C. The measured removal of NO{sub x} using the SNCR system was 35-50%. The stoichiometric addition of urea corresponded to 0.55-0.85 moles of urea per mole of NO{sub x} in the untreated flue gas. The addition of urea seems to be the main reason for the development of N{sub 2}O gas. Most of the observations (appr 70%) during long-term evaluation indicate a NO{sub x} removal of 40-60%. The economic evaluation indicates that during 1993, with an average NO{sub x} removal of 46%, the NO{sub x} fee was reduced from 5951 kSEK/yr without treatment to 3195 kSEK/yr with treatment. With the total cost of the urea used for the SNCR system being 144 kSEK/yr, the contribution to profit becomes 2612 kSEK/yr, capital, electricity, staff and maintenance costs excluded. Thus, the pay-off time is appr. 1.7 yrs, with an investment of 4500 kSEK. 58 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Evaluation of NO{sub x}-reduction with SNCR in a waste-fueled boiler; Utvaerdering av NO{sub x}-reduktion med SNCR i avfallspanna, Sydvaestra Skaanes Avfallsaktiebolag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromulski, J; Hinderson, A; Johansson, A; Sfiris, G; Sjoeberg, M; Westermark, M [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Vaellingby (Sweden)

    1994-10-01

    SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) is a method for reducing the level of nitrogen oxides in flue gas that has attracted a lot of attention and has been put to use in several units, both in Sweden and abroad. The chemical basis for this method is the fact that certain nitrogen compounds with a hydrogen content (ammonia, urea, etc) react with nitrogen oxides, forming elementary nitrogen. The maximum NO{sub x} removal is obtained when the reducing chemical is injected in the flue gas at a point where the temperature is about 870 - 1010 deg C. The measured removal of NO{sub x} using the SNCR system was 30-90%. Most of the observations indicate a NO{sub x} removal of 40-60%. The complete picture shows a somewhat improved removal of NO{sub x} at lower loads, but also higher emission values for ammonia and nitrous oxide. Within the tested temperature span (870-1020 deg C at high load, and 810-910 deg C at low loads) there is no detectable correlation between temperature and removal of NO{sub x}, NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O and CO. The dominant factors are stoichiometric ratio and boiler load. The economic evaluation indicates that during 1993, with an average emission reduction of 56%, the NO{sub x} emission fee is reduced from 12371 kSEK/yr without flue gas treatment to 5458 kSEK. The total operating costs for the SNCR system (capital cost excluded) being 1248 kSEK/yr, this means a net profit of 5665 kSEK/yr. This means the pay-off time will be about 0.7 year. Note that this figure is computed without regard to capital cost. 74 figs, 9 tabs

  15. Evaluation of a new SNCR intermixing technique applied on a waste incinerator at Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM}); Utvaerdering av ny SNCR inblandningsteknik vid avfallspanna hos Uppsala Energi (System ROTAMIX{sup TM})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, G [Mobotec AB (Sweden); Sollenberg, H; Westas, H [Uppsala Energi AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    A good intermixing of reductants in the exhaust gas is essential for good combustion and high NO{sub x} reduction. Good intermixing cuts down on the levels of reducing chemicals required for NO{sub x} reduction. Conventional SNCR is built on intermixing of reductants through a series of lances which are mounted to cover several cross sectional areas of the furnace. System ROTAMIX{sup TM} is a technique based on premixing the SNCR chemicals with air before entering the furnace by rotation. As a consequence, fewer numbers of mixing nozzles are needed. As a result; The investment cost can be kept down. Also the creation of unwanted byproducts are reduced. The reason for this is that a homogeneous mixture of gases inside the furnace results in more even temperature distribution through the cross-section of the furnace. Increasing the effectiveness of the reductants, so reducing the levels of chemicals required and so reducing the unwanted by-products. Furthermore; System ROTAMIX reduces levels of NO{sub x} by a further 50% over existing SNCR technology system; An increase in efficiency carried by needed lower levels of excess air; The actual levels of NO{sub x} are down to as low as 120-125 mg/MJ without the need for any addition, reducing chemical with Rotating Over Fire Air (ROFA). 4 figs, 9 tabs, 18 appendices

  16. Embolization of AV intra-hepatic fistulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallarini, G; Saitta, S; Cariati, M; Nicorelli, M; de Caro, G

    1982-05-01

    The use of therapeutic embolization in a case of hepatic AV fistula with portal flow inversion and portal hypertension is described. Indications, technique and an illustrative case followed up for one year after the intervention are presented.

  17. Evaluering av KS’ ulike ledelsesutviklingstilbud for kommunesektoren

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Hanne; Hafting, Tore; Haugstveit, Yngve; Odden, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    Norsk: Denne rapporten presenterer en evaluering av ledelsesutviklingstilbud i KS. De ledelsesutviklingsprogrammene som omfattes av evalueringen er i første rekke: Rådmentor, Krefter i bevegelse, Jazz endringsledelse, Medarbeiderskap, B-link og Skreddersydde program. Evalueringens hovedproblemstilling er å undersøke om og i hvilken grad KS’ ledelsesutviklingstilbud samsvarer med dominerende perspektiver og mål i KS’ arbeidsgiverstrategi «Stolt og unik, arbeidsgiverstrateg...

  18. Dynamic generation of socio-economic scenarios for climate change adaptation: methods, building blocks and examples; Dynamisk generering av socioekonomiska scenarier foer klimatanpassning: metod, byggstenar och exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Dreborg, Karl Henrik

    2008-05-15

    There is a need for socio-economic scenarios in climate change adaptation work in order to help planners cope with uncertainty of the long term development of society. The United Nations' Panel of climate change (IPCC) has developed climate scenarios with substantially different climatic characteristics in a hundred years' perspective. However, in a 25-30 years' perspective, which is very long term in societal planning, the difference between the scenarios is small, while society may develop in different directions. Since measures of adaptation to a changing climate may have different impacts depending on future socio-economic conditions, there is a need for scenarios that describe different possible developments. With a time frame of 25 years scenarios are more useful than projections of single factors such as GDP or demography, because scenarios can capture structural changes of society. This report presents results from a first step of the development of a scenario tool for climate adaptation work in municipalities, regions, and sectors of society in Sweden. The tool is to be further developed in regional case studies with the aim to make it adaptable to the specific focus of interest of various planning agencies. Therefore, we primarily concentrate on developing external factors and different possible future states for these, and a methodology for combining them into scenarios. The report presents the main steps of the scenario methodology and building blocks for the scenario construction consisting of socio-economic factors of special importance for climate adaptation work. The 13 socio-economic factors are: Demography; International mitigation policy; International climate change adaptation policy, Swedish economy; Ideology and social cohesion; Climate change perception; Swedish governance; Environmental policy; Global energy paradigm; Swedish energy paradigm; Land use; Built environment; Transportation. For each factor different possible future states are suggested. It is a leading idea that a specific set of Swedish socio-economic scenarios should be tailored for each specific planning situation: The national level will be described from the point of view of the actual focal issue. The report also entails three examples of socio-economic scenarios. However, these have been designed on the basis of the general question of what impacts the conditions for climate change for Sweden at large. Socio-economic scenarios can support adaptation work in several ways. They can reveal challenges, both opportunities and threats, related to different directions of development for society. Scenarios may also elicit ideas of adaptation measures by widening the perceptions of what may happen in the future. Furthermore, they may be used for assessing measures or combinations of measures as regards the impact they will have in the different scenarios. Such an assessment may facilitate the development of a strategy that works reasonably well under several plausible future conditions

  19. Technique for compressed bundles for harvest of whole straw willow. Pilot study; Teknik foer komprimerande helskottsskoerd av salix i buntform. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hans (Vaesteraeng Lantbruk AB (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    The pilot study was initiated by the need of a new technology that has been raised from the problem, and by the specifications of requirements, that has been described from the project 'Salix Maelardalen'. The need has been crystallized by the energy company Maelarenergi AB, Vaesteraas, in their handling of bio fuel, among many other fuels. The company Maelarenergi AB can see a potential in the use of Salix of a considerable volume. There is a special need by the means of the big volume handling of Salix, since the Salix raw material must be able to be delivered under a longer period or for intermediate storage. 8-9 months could be an adequate storage period. The possibility for intermediate storage could do the flow of fuel raw material to the combined power and heating plant is harmonized to the special requirements of fuel. The storage capability in chipped raw Salix chips is very short and that's why chipped Salix are not going to be a sustainable system combined with the handle of big volume together with portioned inflow to the plant. The production of Salix chips in a system of direct chipping is a very delicate system. The ground conditions with frozen and dry grounds are important for a system with heavy machines. The last years have not given such climate conditions. A big problem with practicability has been coming up. The number of days for contract work during the harvest period without interruption, because of hard conditions, has been decreased to the level that the capacity very considerably falls below what is economical defensible. The needs of larger areas for harvesting during fewer days under good conditions counteract each other. In the 'hot flow' during the harvest when the harvest machine will work with escort vehicles/container transports in the field can be impossible to realize because of for example the breakdown of the soil structure. The organization around 'hot flow system' is a very heavy programme and demand good and secure weather conditions. Heavy rain or snow is a big problem during harvest season. The proposal from Maelarenergi AB has been carefully analysed and they think this is a solution with high potential. It should mean lower costs than in compare to using a mobile fossil driven cutter. Chipped Salix on farmland is a 'hot' flowchart, with big demand on among other things the logistic in and around the system. The possibility to direct consumption with chipped Salix has a limited storage capability. Chipped Salix is not possible to transport long distance, maximum 30 - 35 km, if it should keep the capacity to pay the procedure. The costs of transport will be too big in comparison to production value. Another advantage is the costs for intermediate storage. For example the area of the intermediate storage station, can be reduced when smaller volumes with higher density are handled. An overall analysis over the project 'Salix Maelardalen' point out very obviously that an alternative to the today direct chipping system is necessary and that development work around harvest with compressing bundle technique is very important. Big positive effects on environment can also be shown. Questions around 'compressed whole straw harvest of Willow' can be answered by a pilot study. There are o lot of aspects to pay attention to and 'smooth the road' to the growing production of Salix and it's rising as fuel raw material. The pilot study is going to penetrate the development of new harvest technique and earlier systems for 'compressed whole shoot harvest' of Salix. Needs and potential of new technique will be analysed and the study will also give suggestions to a new specification of requirements. The study will also suggest future developing projects. One of the purposes with the pilot project is that it could be a platform for future technical and practical research and even to be as a base for coming application in the field of innovative machinery development. The pilot study expects to answer 'which measures that must be done' to use the advantages in a new harvest system. Consumers of Salix raw material and Salix entrepreneurs are the target groups for this pilot study. To handle the Salix raw material during a longer period than today the water content for further storage must reach a level that's acceptable for storage. Developer of machinery and machinery system is a target group which has to follow the specifications of requirements. People working with research in the field of what new techniques can come up with in comparison to the techniques of today is of course also one important target group. New calculations and analyses must be done on the whole chain that includes produce of fuel energy from energy forest. The realization of the project is going to be as a pilot study based on the project 'Salix Maelardalen'. The value of a production of a new type of harvest technique for Salix is very great.

  20. Investigation and mapping of the requirements for lifting devices in a nuclear facility; Utredning och kartlaeggning av krav foer lyftanordningar inom kaernteknisk anlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell (Inspecta Sweden AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    This technical report covers the investigation and identification of requirements for lifting devices in nuclear facilities. The report is divided into the following Section: 1. A mapping of the regulatory framework for nuclear hoists in Finland, Germany and USA. 2. A description of how the international legal framework is applied in for replacement or modernization of lifts in the Swedish nuclear power plants. 3. In Europe, the new harmonized standard has been developed for conventional hoists. The rules appear in the 'EN-13 001'. The study will illustrate these rules, and how they currently apply in the nuclear industry in Sweden. 4. A comparison between the IKH's lifting standards and EN13001 which differences are highlighted and explained

  1. Measures for simultaneous minimization of alkali related operating problems, Phase 2; Aatgaerder foer samtidig minimering av alkalirelaterade driftproblem, Etapp 2. Ramprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Aamand, Lars-Erik; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Folkeson, Nicklas; Pettersson, Jesper; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Boss, Anna; Johansson, Linda; Kassman, Haakan

    2007-12-15

    Combustion of an increasing amount of biofuel and waste woods has resulted in certain environmental advantages, including decreased emissions of fossil CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and metals. On the other hand, a number of chloride and alkali related operational problems have occurred which are related to combustion of these fuels. Alkali related operational problems have been studied in a project consisting of two parts. The overall scope has been to characterise the operational problems and to study measures to minimise them. The first part was reported in Vaermeforsk report 997. In part two, additional measures have been included in the test plan and initial corrosion has been studied linked to the different measures. The tests have also in part two been carried out at the 12 MW CFB boiler at Chalmers. The effect of the selected measures has been investigated concerning both deposit formation and bed agglomeration, and at the same time emissions and other operational conditions were characterised. The second part of the project has among other things focused on: To investigate measures which decrease the content of alkali and chloride in the deposits, and consequently decrease the risk for corrosion (by investigating the initial corrosion). Focus was also on trying to explain favourable effects. To investigate if it is possible to combine a rather low dosage of kaolin and injection of ammonium sulphate. This was done in order to reduce both bed agglomeration and problems from deposits during combustion of fuels rich in chlorine. To investigate if co-combustion with sewage sludge, de-inking sludge or peat with high ash content, could give similar advantages as conventional additives. Investigate if ash from PFBC (coal ash and dolomite) is possible to use as an alternative bed material. In the reference case, straw pellets were co-combusted together with wood pellets. This fuel mixture gave high alkali and chlorine contents. Alkali was in surplus of chlorine. The agglomeration temperature is reduced by about 50 deg C after 12 h of combustion with wood and straw pellets. Sticky alkali-silicate particles reduce the agglomeration temperature. The bed sand particles are coated with alkali (potassium) and also calcium. The straw ash itself forms sticky parts which contribute to the low agglomeration temperature. Alkali chloride will be formed and vaporized to the gas phase. It will then be measured in the flue gas and will later condensate on the tubes in the back pass. Small amounts of alkali sulphates will also be formed. The alkali chloride content will increase from 1-2 ppm to 44 ppm in the flue gas when the straw pellets are added. The flue gas contains also 9 ppm SO{sub 2} and 85 ppm HCl. All measures had a positive influence on the agglomeration temperature (except the addition of ammonium sulphate which was added to the cyclone inlet and did not have any significant influence on the bed). The results also showed that all measures, except co-combustion with de-inking sludge and changing bed material to sieved bottom bed ash from a PFBC boiler (PFBC-ash), lowered the alkali chloride content in deposits and therefore the risk of corrosion. Initial corrosion was found in the reference case at test probes of 304L exposed 4 hours at 600 deg C. Chromium depletion of the tube material showed that the protected chromium oxide had been damaged. By comparing the different measures in part two, it could be concluded that cocombustion of sewage sludge gave the best overall effect. The judgement was based on the effects concerning bed agglomeration, level of alkali chloride in the flue gas, deposits and initial corrosion. One disadvantage of sewage sludge is the large amount of ash which increases the ash load significantly. In the tests the ash flow increased four times more than for the reference case. Simultaneous addition of kaolin and ammonium sulphate also had a favourable impact both in the bed and on the alkali chlorides in the gas phase. Dosage of kaolin did not reduce the effect of injected ammonium sulphate. Addition of kaolin will increase the ash load. The sulphur dioxide content will increase in the flue gas with addition of ammonium sulphate. Maybe sulphur reduction would be needed in some cases. The NO{sub x}-content decreases when adding ammonium sulphate but the ammonia content could increase. Co-combustion of peat could also be a very attractive alternative, but it is critical to select a suitable peat type. It is of special concern to avoid peat with a high content of calcium, since it can increase the vel of alkali chlorides by reacting with available sulphur. In these tests resulted 50% peat addition in higher agglomeration temperature and lower corrosion risk on the superheater tubes. Change of bed material to ash from the PFBC-boiler (coal ash and dolomite) can decrease problems with bed agglomeration, but there is a risk of increased deposit formation and corrosion.

  2. Strategies for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide. A study of some Annex 1 countries; Strategier foer att minska koldioxidutslaeppen. En studie av naagra Annex 1 laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, M.; Olofsdotter, A.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the development of carbon dioxide emissions and the energy systems in a number of countries. The analysis also includes the strategies chosen by the countries to reduce the emissions.

  3. Pre-treatment of waste fuel with low-speed shredding and screening for fluidized bed incineration; Foerbehandling av avfallsbraensle foer fluidbaeddpannor med laangsamtgaaende valskross och saekerhetssiktning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Sven; Victoren, Anders; Niklasson, Fredrik; Jones, Frida

    2013-09-01

    In FB combustion of waste, an important cost factor is the pre-treatment of the waste fuel. The most common method of final levigation of the waste fuel is using hammer mills, which crushes the fuel with high force and high rotational speed. The advantage of the powerful hammer mill is, however, also a disadvantage. The fraction of fines becomes large, and the method is experienced to cause high maintenance costs and problems with accidental fires. A plausible alternative to the hammer mill is the shredder. The rotational speed of the shreeder is lower, while it cutting and slicing the waste fuel instead of grinding it. The shredder is, therefore, expected to yield less wear and tear, lower electricity consumption and less accidental fires. On the other hand, the shreeder may yield a higher fraction of oversized fuel particles, which could cause problems in the combustion, especially in smaller FB-plants with one single fuel supply conveyor. In this project, the framing of question has been if low-speed shredding in combination with screening of over sizes fuel particles, may function for smaller FB plants with one single fuel supplying conveyor. The aim of the project has been to support FB plant owners and manufacturers for independent comparision of the different fuel pre-treatment methods, via pre-treatment and combustions trials and economical comparisons. The concept of lowspeed shreddning and screening has been compared economically with a traditional hammer mill system and a shredding system designed for a larger FB plant. Moreover, combustion trials have been carried out with shredded and screened fuel, and hammer milled fuel, in two smaller parallel FB furnaces with one single fuel supplying conveyor per furnace. The fuels were analysed for particle size distribution and composition, and the operation during the combustion trial was evaluated. The economical evaluation of the new pre-treatment concept, with lowspeed shredding and screening, yielded an approximate cost of 104-118 SEK/tonne (12-14 /tonne) treated waste, which is the same as for the larger FB plant shredder system. The cost for the hammer mill system was determined to 155-185 SEK/tonne (18-22 /tonne) treated waste. The higher cost for the hammer mill system rely on the estimated higher maintenance and electricity consumption costs. The analysis of the particle size distribution of the fuel treated with lowspeed shredding and screening shows that the fuel satisfy the demands stipu-lated for combustion in smaller FB furnaces. Furthermore, the combustion trials show no obvious differences in operation quality, compared to the normal hammer milled fuel; no significant differences in level or stability in power, bed temperature or emission levels could be found. Nor was the frequency of spikes of CO of NO{sub x} increased, nor the frequency of violation of the stipulated 24-hrs, halv-hour, or ten-minute stipulated emission limits increased. In summary, the study gives initial support for the thesis that shedding and screening is just as feasible for fuel pre-treatment in smaller FB furnaces with one single fuel supply conveyor as traditional hammer milling systems. Furthermore, it is cheaper. Lowspeed shreddning should, therefore, be concidered as pre-treatment method for both larger as well as smaller FB incineration plants. Beyond the parameters that have been investigated within the scope of this project, availability and safety are important factors that speek for lowspeed shedders. However, these are questions that have to be further investigated.

  4. Nuclear industry practice for clearance of materials, facilities and buildings as well as land. Tutorial; Kaerntekniska industrins praxis foer friklassning av material, lokaler och byggnader samt mark. Handledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    This handbook comprises the common practices of the Swedish nuclear industry for the clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil in order to be exempted from the Swedish Nuclear Activities Act and the Swedish Radiation Protection Act. After clearance the management/usage of material, rooms, buildings and soil is permitted without any control from the radiation protection point of view. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount radioactive waste. Cleared material can be reused according to its original form, recycled or, if these two possibilities are not available, disposed as conventional waste. The working procedures described in this handbook are mainly based on the regulation SSMFS 2011:2 from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority: 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionising radiation'. The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a tool and guidance for generating specific routines and instructions for clearance. It describes the principles, processes and routines that should be followed under a clearance procedure. The intention is to accomplish the current regulation by following the routines and principles described in this manual. This handbook spans over a large number of conditions towards clearance, such as facility specific conditions and different types of objects. Because not all the conceivable conditions and objects can be included here, the purpose has been to cover the most common types of clearance practices. The practices comprise: - Description of regulations and recommendations, Swedish and international, that represent the basis of the requirements in this handbook. - Presentation of the processes for clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil. Those which cannot be cleared are considered as radioactive waste. A proposal for the decision-making process is presented. - Illustration for radiological surveys to systems and components, buildings and soil in regard to the radioactive substances carried during the activities. - Description of measuring methods and related technical equipment that can be used in a clearance process. Issues on radiological background in measuring places, detection limits and confidence of measurements are addressed. - Presentation of proposals on routines for clearance, as well as grouping of material flows from a clearance point of view, and discussion on sorting criteria. - Principles for quality assurance and documentation. Detailed directives must be addressed in every company's leading system. - Review on the need of competence for the personnel performing measurements, evaluating results and approving cleared material. Competence profiles for the different roles involved in the clearance process

  5. Possibilities for improved practice, decision support for permit applications of ash utilization in constructions; Laett att goera raett, beslutsunderlag foer miljoeproevning av askor i anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna; Johansson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Erlandsson, Aasa; Lundberg, Kristina

    2011-02-15

    Combustion of solid biofuels, peat and different types of waste in Sweden for the purpose of energy production generates approximately 1.3 million tonnes of residues yearly. These have varying chemical and technical properties, depending on the type of fuel, the combustion process and the type of furnace. From a technical point of view, some of the ashes may be used for civil works. However, the Swedish Environmental Code requires that operators obtain a permit from the local environmental authorities if ashes are utilized for construction purposes. Previous studies on the application and permitting process have indicated that it can be improved, in particular both the information provided by the operators and the decision process. The stakeholders involved in the decision process have expressed that they have limited knowledge on expected environmental impacts from the utilization of ashes in civil works and that existing knowledge not is being fully applied in practice. The aim of this project was to improve the decision support for permit application of ash utilization in constructions. The goals were to - initiate and develop the discussion regarding which information should be used in the decision process - suggest the scope and content of the information to be supplied in the permit application - contribute to improved communication between different stakeholders - identify possibilities of using the knowledge obtained by research for decision support The stakeholders' (operators and environmental authorities) opinions and viewpoint on the assessment and application process were achieved through interviews. The results from the interviews were presented and discussed during a seminar. Both the interviews and the seminar provided information, but at the same time they served to initiate a discussion on permit application procedure and to increase the communication between different stakeholders. The outcomes from these activities (interviews and seminar) form the basis for the discussion in this report. The views and thoughts of the stakeholders differed greatly regarding both their previous experiences of permitting processes and their views on the preferred content of permit applications. It was therefore concluded that a general praxis is needed on the scope of the information that should be requested in an application. However, it is not possible and it is not desirable that this praxis is detailed. Instead, the general praxis needs to be complemented with separate guidelines for specific ashes and for the relevant and specified utilization of these ashes. Such guidelines need to be established and agreed upon by all the stakeholder groups involved. Suggestions are given on which aspects to be considered in the application process, based on the Swedish Environmental Code. Furthermore, improved cooperation and improved dialogue are needed between stakeholders involved in permitting processes for ash utilization. The aspects suggested need to be further elaborated and agreed upon and long term goals and strategies for ash management in Sweden should be discussed. The different stakeholders involved in the permitting process have sometimes very different starting-points and these needs to be understood by the other stakeholders in order to achieve a constructive communication. In conclusion, to obtain decisions that are based on current legislation and to achieve that through an efficient process, the demands from the authorities need to be more clearly expressed as well as good quality information needs to be provided by the operators. Finally, the different stakeholders involved in the permitting process need to discuss and agree upon goals and strategies for utilization of combustion residues

  6. Guidance for classification of residues from combustion and incineration in accordance with the Swedish ordinance for waste; Vaegledning foer klassificering av foerbraenningsrester enligt Avfallsfoerordningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Peter [AaF Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Haglund, Jan-Erik [Soederenergi AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    A new ordinance for waste came into force in Sweden on the first of January 2002, replacing some previous ordinances. The new ordinance is based on certain EU directives and contains amongst other things new rules regarding how certain streams of waste are to be classified into hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste. In a number of cases, the classification is to be made according to whether or not the waste possesses one or more of a number o properties H1 - H14, i e if the waste contains hazardous substances. The new rules are based on the regulation that exists for chemical substances and preparations. When attempts have been made to use these new rules in practice - e g for residues from incineration and combustion - it has become apparent that they are very difficult or even impossible to apply. The primary reason for this is that the residues contain a very large number (thousands) of substances which would have to be analysed and for which the hazard would have to be assessed correctly in accordance with the criteria for the properties (H4 - H8 and H10 - H11). Furthermore, some of the properties listed in the ordinance for waste lack criteria for assessment of hazard. These are H13 (can give rise to another substance which may be hazardous, e g leachate) and H14 (hazardous to the environment). Moreover, there are significant differences between the Ordinance of waste and the regulation of the National Chemicals Inspectorate. It is on the latter that the rules in the Ordinance of waste are based, and this is also the cause of many of the questions and of the uncertainties in the classification. In the present report, a method is developed and described for classification of residues from combustion and incineration. The method is to be applicable in practice without compromising environmental and health aspects. As a part of the present work, a compilation of content and alteration of chemical substances in is carried out. In another chapter, the experience from implementation of European Union directives in other countries is described. The proposed simplified method proposed in Chapter 7 implies the following: Reference substances are selected for different inorganic and organic chemical substances in the residues. These reference substances are utilised as a basis for the classification against the properties H4 - H8 and H10 - H11. This leads to a very substantially reduced need for analyses. The reference substances have been chosen in a conservative way so that the hazard for health and environment will not be underestimated. The main principles of the regulation on chemical products are applied, e g regarding weighting of the properties. The property H13 is assessed based on the properties H4 - H8 and H10 - H11. The property H14 is assessed based on the rules for environmental hazard in the regulations of the National Chemicals Inspectorate. In practice the simplified methodology in a normal practical case amounts to an assessment with respect to 15 metallic elements and four groups of organic substances. The degree of hazardousness is then figured based on certain schedules together with levels provided in available chemical data bases. One prerequisite for the application of the simplified methodology is that the residues at some point are contacted with water. In the end of the report (Chapter 8), the procedure for classification according to the simplified method is described and an example is given of a classification on a specific residue from combustion.

  7. Better and more efficient collaboration for increased use of field fuel in heating plants; Baettre och effektivare samverkan foer oekad anvaendning av aakerbraenslen i vaermeverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkeloev, Olof (Agrovaest, Skara (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Chris; Hollsten, Ronnie (KanEnergi Sweden AB, Skara (Sweden)); Lindh, Carina (LRF Konsult, Skara (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    Despite that the potential for field fuels in SW Sweden is great and that the combustion characteristics of fuels are known, the interest for field fuels has been low from farmers and heating plants. The purpose of the project is to identify why the introduction of field fuel into heating plants is going so slow and to suggest possible solutions. Field fuel is missing the general structure and tradition that is found in forest fuels in terms of harvesting, processing, logistics and business models. The overall long-term objective is a better and more effective cooperation between heating plants, farmers and logistic companies for the increased use of field fuels in heating plants. The potential for field fuel in the area is great but won't be sufficient to cover the need. The raw materials that exist today and are deemed will be relevant in the future are willow, straw and grain kernel. We have divided the heating plants into two groups; Small plants with a furnace less than 35 MW, and large plants with an effect over 35 MW. Common to both small and large heating plants is that there must be a willingness to receive and combust field fuels for the share of field fuels to increase. For the small heating plants to be able to receive and combust field fuels the knowledge of the combustion properties of these fuels must increase. Larger heating plants have better opportunities to use field fuels in their boilers when it comes to the technology and the know how. They have a more controlled handling and receiving of fuels. It is not uncommon that storing and blending of fuels will take place at their own facility. They also have more experience of handling a larger number of suppliers at the same time. The heating plants would like to see standardization in terms of fuel characteristics, and they prefer to obtain approximately the same burning performance regardless of delivery date. Today, the small heating plants do not have the routines to manage multiple small fuel suppliers. To increase the amount of field fuels in the small heating plants the farmers need to collaborate in small supplier groups and deliver a pre-mixed fuel with consistent quality. For this to work the heating plants need to find an effective method of quality assurance at the reception of the fuel and the supplier group needs to develop an internal quality assurance and billing system. The larger heating plants, over 35 MW, large fuel requirement means that the fuel shipments should be coordinated to minimize storage time and disruption of traffic to and from the facility. With a functioning transport system, where several farmers join forces to increase the delivery volume, and ensure the quality, the ability to be a reliable fuel supplier is increased. For a local market of field fuels to arise it requires that the local heating plant initiate by demanding different types of field fuel. Increased use of field fuels is also stimulated by greater integration in the value chain in order to obtain a more optimal allocation of value creation and to meet the demands of volume, quality and security of supply, which is required. The studies and analysis show that the development would be facilitated if: - Farmers integrate horizontally to bring up the volumes and better supply security. This also creates better conditions for rational harvesting and handling of fuels (chipping, storage, drying, mixing, etc.) through for example small fuel terminals and the control and management of the quality of the fuel. - Farmers integrate vertically by operating and/or owning small heating plants (up to a couple of MW) specially adapted for field fuels. - Horizontal integration or interaction between heating plants can be used for fuel purchase and coordination, where field fuels can be mixed with other fuels on the basis of individual requirements and possibilities. - Heating plants are working together on fuel supply, quality, technology and business models. - Heating plants and farmers can work jointly with logistics and quality issues

  8. Possible consequences of climate change on the Swedish energy sector - impacts, vulnerability and adaptation; Taenkbara konsekvenser foer energisektorn av klimatfoeraendringar. Effekter, saarbarhet och anpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Johan; Eriksson, Sara; Holmgren, Kristina; Hovsenius, Gunnar; Kjellstroem, Erik; Larsson, Per; Lundstroem, Love; Persson, Gunn

    2007-06-15

    The events of recent years clearly demonstrate the far-reaching consequences of extreme weather situations on the energy system, particularly in the case of severe damage to transmission lines in connection with violent storms. Many climate researchers predict an increase in extreme weather events. Against this background, in 2005 Elforsk initiated this project where the aim has been to examine how climate change can affect plant operation, production conditions and energy usage patterns, how undesirable consequences can be predicted and what long-term measures may be necessary. Another central objective has been to bring about a dialogue between climate researchers, energy consultants/engineers and buyers for the energy industry. The inclusion of both positive and negative consequences has been an important ambition of the project. One key aspect of the project has been to develop climate scenarios for the next 20-25 years that describe possible changes in climate variables with relevance for the energy system. Based on these and literature studies, contact with experts and internal assessments, an analysis has been made of the possible impacts on hydropower, wind power, biofuel supply, natural gas supply, the power transmission network and energy usage. The project findings, which have also been discussed at a workshop with representatives from the energy industry, did not reveal any acute need for adaptation aside from those measures already being taken, for example to make the transmission system less vulnerable to weather conditions. Furthermore, the results indicate increased production potential for both hydropower and wind power. The production potential for hydropower stations from the Dalaelven River northwards would appear to increase by 2-10%. Estimates for the southern watercourses are less certain, but the production potential may decrease. Since around 80% of the country's hydropower is produced in the northern watercourses, this indicates an increase in Sweden's overall production potential. For wind power, the growth potential is 5-20% based on an installed capacity of 4000 MW. It is also a possible that the bioenergy potential will increase in view of the predicted 5-10% growth in production potential for forestry and agriculture. On the other hand, the extent to which this potential will be used for bioenergy production is uncertain since is it strongly dependent on the price of biomass and use of biomass for other purposes. Some of the climate-related problems that exist today may lessen in scope, while others may increase and new problems arise in a future climate. It is difficult to assess future wind conditions, since different climate scenarios produce somewhat different results. Among other things, an increase in heavy winds could have a negative impact on the electricity transmission network, wind power, biofuel supply and natural gas supply. However, the natural gas platforms that supply Sweden have proven highly robust and weather resistant. For the transmission network, a number of measures are being taken to increase its robustness to extreme events. Thunderstorms are another somewhat unpredictable climate variable. The analyses made in the project indicate a possible increase in problems related to lightning overvoltage in the transmission network. An additional area that is complex to assess is how problems with icing of transmission lines and wind power plants can change in a future climate. It is probable that these problems will increase in certain areas, but decrease in others. In certain parts of Sweden, evaporation may exceed precipitation and give rise to a water shortage. This applies particularly to the southeastern part of the country, which could affect the biofuel supply and hydropower generation in these areas. An opposite problem is that of future floods, which may increase especially during the winter season and in central and northern Sweden. Flooding has no direct connection to hydropower other than the ability for regulation to control water levels. However, hydropower is indirectly affected by flooding since public attention is often focused on the industry when high flows occur. A warmer climate will reduce the country's heating requirement by approximately 15 TWh. While electricity usage for heating is estimated to decrease by around 3 TWh as a result of a warmer climate, a probable rise in demand for air conditioning could lead to increased electricity usage during the summer. However, future energy usage for heating and air conditioning will be strongly dependent on factors other than the climate, such as the implementation of energy efficiency measures, changes in behaviour, the use of heat generating appliances, population growth, etc. The project has included a rough assessment of how both climate-related and non climate-related factors may affect energy usage for heating of homes and businesses (not industrial facilities) in a 20- to 25-year perspective. A lower energy requirement for heating would also reduce the production base for CHP. To maintain production it will be necessary to expand district heating to areas that are currently without, convert from other heating systems to district heating and/or utilise new business opportunities such as absorption cooling or energy combines with CHP utilising renewable fuels like biomass or pellets. Changes in production potential and energy usage patterns and the occurrence of climate-related problems will affect the entire energy system. Increased production potential for the northern hydropower stations, particularly in combination with a growing share of power types that are difficult to regulate, may increase the need for power transmission capacity from north to south. This is especially true if the north-to-south shift continues and in the event of rising demand for electricity in the rest of Europe.

  9. Analysis of consequences of different incentives and tax-models for the Swedish energy system; Konsekvensanalyser av olika framtida styrmedels- och skattemodeller foer det svenska energisystemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Six different incentives and tax scenarios were used to study the short range (2004) and long range (2010) effects on the Swedish energy system. The competitive effects for Biofuels, Natural gas, District heating and Electric space heating analyzed. Four of the six models come from governmental enquiries that have not yet been published, the other two are the actual situation year 2002 and year 2003. A defined set of suppositions of the fuel prices were used for all scenarios: Wood chips: 145 SEK/MWh, Biofuel pellets: 225 SEK/MWh, Natural gas: 160 SEK/MWh, Light/heavy fuel oil: 170/145 SEK/MWh, Electricity: 230 SEK/MWh (1 USD {approx} 8 SEK). In a sensitivity analysis, variations on the prices were analyzed, together with variations in the price of electricity certificates and CO2 emissions. For all scenarios, biofuels are dominating the district heating and cogeneration sectors. It is uncertain if, under the scenarios studied, any of the three branches prepared for expansion: Biofuels, Natural gas and District heating will have a dramatic growth. However, there seem to be room for a moderate growth of all three sectors.

  10. Biomass functions for tree fractions from pine, spruce, and birch in Sweden; Biomassafunktioner foer traedfraktioner av tall, gran och bjoerk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Hans

    1999-07-01

    This report describes new functions for estimation of the biomass of a tree, separated in a number of fractions. The functions will be used to estimate the potential supply of wood fuel from the forests, and to make calculations of bound carbon and indirect nitrogen balance in the forest.

  11. Policies, strategies and systems for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In this report an up-to-date account is made of the status of different principles, strategies and systems for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As large scale use of nuclear power for the production of electricity began in the 1960s and 1970s, studies of various principles and strategies for the management of the spent nuclear fuel were initialised. In particular in the USA, comprehensive studies were conducted of all strategies described in this report

  12. Investigation of quality assurance routines of DAP-meters in Swedish hospitals; Kartlaeggning av kvalitetssaekringsrutiner foer DAP-maetare i svensk sjukvaard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Leitz, Wolfram

    2005-11-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority has investigated quality control of dose area product meters (DAP meters) used in x-ray diagnostics. A questionnaire was sent out to medical physics experts who are working with diagnostic radiology in Swedish hospitals. This report presents information about the routines practised and gives examples of measures to improve the quality of these practices.

  13. Water Activities in Forsmark (Part I). Removal of groundwater from final repository for spent fuel; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del I). Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [EmpTec (Sweden); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark are associated with a number of measures that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code. This report is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and describes water operations in the form of groundwater diversion from the repository (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). The main objective of the report is to describe hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the consequences that may arise in the surroundings of the repository due to the groundwater diversion. Moreover, the report presents prevention measures to reduce the effects of the groundwater diversion and mitigation measures that aim at its consequences

  14. Retrofitting oil fired boilers for pellets based pulverised wood firing at peak load; Konvertering av befintliga oljepannor till pulvereldning foer spetslast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmgren, A.; Tao, L.; Wennstroem, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    The types of equipment for grinding of pellets used by commercial heat producers today are discussed. Powder from a representative number of plants has been collected and classified using a traditional vibrating sieve and an aerodynamic method 'Aeroklass'. The results show clearly that the difference in 'fluffyness' between a powder produced from pellets, briquettes or directly from wood can be identified by the aerodynamic method. The shapes of different particles are shown in microscope pictures. The requirements of burners and combustion chambers for good burnout of fuel particles are discussed theoretically. Burnout time for wood particles of different size at different temperatures are calculated and the result is presented in diagrams. It is difficult to calculate the residence time for fuel particles in a flame in a generally useful way with any precision. Some diagrams that can be used to approximate the residence time of an aerodynamically small particle, in different parts of a flame, as a function of fuel load and burner diameter are presented. The results of CFD-simulations (with Fluent) of the trajectories of different sized fuel particles in a 20 and a 10 MW flame are shown in 20 pictures. Colour coding is used to show the particle temperature, residence time and combustion stage along the trajectories. The final discussion is based on the analysis of 3 real installations of burners in the size 9 - 20 MW.

  15. Combustion tests in a solid fuel boiler to clarify the emissions when co-firing refuse; Proveldning i fastbraenslepanna foer att kartlaegga emissioner vid inblandning av olika avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Lundborg, Rickard; Wrangensten, Lars

    2002-04-01

    In this Vaermeforsk-project tests have been performed in a 60 MW moving grate steam boiler at Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping. The boiler plant has an electrostatic filter for dust reduction and also a flue gas condensing plant with heat recovery. Vaermeforsk has financed the project. During the tests the following fuel fractions have been injected into the reference fuel, a mix of recovered wood chips (70 %) and bark (30 %): Paper/plastic/wood fuel (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Meat powder (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Napkin waste (10 % injection on an energy basis); Leather waste (10 % injection on an energy basis). The highest lower heating value was noted for meat powder, approx. 24 MJ/kg with a moisture content of 3,4 %. The heating values for the other fuel fractions were on the same level or just beneath the corresponding heating value for the reference fuel. The highest chlorine content was found in the paper/plastic/wood fraction respectively the leather waste fraction with 1,2 and 1,4 % (weight) of chlorine. The meat powder had the highest nitrogen content but all the fuel mixes had a quite high content of nitrogen with values over 1 % (weight). Analyses of sulphur in the fuels showed that leather waste had the lowest content just over 0, 1 %, considered as a low sulphur level for fuels in general. However, there are problems to get balance between in- and output for sulphur and chlorine based on fuel analysis. Difficulties to take representative fuel samples, especially when it comes to chlorine, can be an explanation. Video camera recordings and flue gas analysis in the furnace showed that the injection of refuse fractions seems to improve the combustion conditions with better local combustion of CO and hydrocarbons. The results from the emission measurements in the chimney can be summarised as follows (emission values at 11 % O{sub 2}): the lowest CO emission was noted with 25 % meat powder injection (<50 mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest HCI emission, before the flue gas condensing plant, was noted for the reference fuel (approx. 245 Mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest SO{sub 2} emission, in the upper furnace, was also noted for the reference fuel (over 50 mg/nm{sup 3}). Levels after the condensing plant could not be measured. 25 % meat powder injection gave the highest NO{sub x}-emission (approx. 50 mg/MJ). The high heavy metal content in ash could not bee correlated to the content in the fuel fractions. The unburnt carbon content in bottom ash is remarkably lower for 25 % meat powder injection into reference fuel. The conclusion is that the operation parameters for the oiler are optimized for this specific fuel fraction and the amount injected. Tests with a fouling probe near the first superheater showed that at a temperature of 400 deg C 10% napkin waste gave most fouling. This is interesting as the lowest HCl-emission level was noted for napkins, maybe depending on that the chlorine is present in the depositions. The project results point in the direction that co-combustion of different refuse fractions will be possible within the existing environmental legislation and maybe also within the new EU directive 2000/76/EG. Although flue gas condensation is necessary to get acceptable emissions of HCl and SO{sub 2}. Further general research is thus needed and several R and D project areas are listed in the report. Deeper studies of the combustion process in furnace are important in future project.

  16. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during continuous operation.

  17. Tools for system validation. Dynamic modelling of the direct condenser at Sandvik II in Vaexjoe; Hjaelpmedel foer systemvalidering. Dynamisk modellering av direktkondensorn paa Sandvik II i Vaexjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin [Dynasim AB, Lund (Sweden); Tuszynski, Jan [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The project reported here aimed to test the suitability of existing computer tools for modelling of energy processes. The suggested use for the models are at the early tests and validations of new, refurbished or modernised thermal plants. The technique presented in this report should be applicable for clarification of the scope of delivery and testing for both the process and tile control system. The validation process can thus be simplified, allowing risk reduction and predictability of the commissioning. The main delays and economical misfortune often occurs during commissioning. This report should prove the feasibility of the purchase routines where purchaser, vendor and quality inspection will use a common model of the process to validate system requirements and specifications. Later on it is used to validate structure and predefine testing. Thanks to agreement on the common model, early tests can be conducted on complex systems, minimizing the investment risks. The modelling reported here concerns the direct condenser at Sandvik 11, power and heating plant owned by Vaexjoe Energi AB in Sweden. We have chosen the direct condenser because it is an existing, well-documented and well-defined subsystem of high complexity in both structure and operation. Heavy transients made commissioning and test runs of similar condensers throughout Sweden costly and troublesome. The work resulted in an open, general, and physically correct model. The model can easily be re-dimensioned through physical parameters of common use. The control system modelled corresponds to the actual control system at the Sandvik II plant. Any improvement or deep validation of the controllers was not included in this work. The suitability is shown through four simulation cases. Three cases are based on a registered plant operation during a turbine trip. The first test case uses present plant data, the second an old steam valve actuator and the third uses the old actuator and an error in level measurement. The last test case is a ramped load change from stationary operation to a new higher operation point and then back to the original starting point. The size of the object simulated indicates that modelling is applicable to medium and small plants sizes. That was possible only through availability of the basic simulation tools, here Dymola / Modelica, and the well established model library ENERGY. All adapted to the common PCs of today.

  18. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  19. Species-specific guidelines for choosing forest regeneration material for northern Sweden; Beslutsunderlag foer val av skogsodlingsmaterial i norra Sverige med traedslagsvisa guider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosvall, O.; Andersson, Bengt; Ericsson, Tore

    1998-05-01

    To facilitate the selection of suitable seed-orchard and natural-stand regeneration material for sites in northern Sweden, a conceptual model was developed which includes a specification of the sites and genetic material, seed source transfer effects on various tree characters, and delineation of suitable utilization-areas for specific regeneration materials and management objectives. The most important site characteristics are photoperiod, temperature sum and local-climate pattern, specified by latitude, elevation and topography. The regeneration material is characterised by its specific properties, such as breeding value, and potential reaction to changes in the photoperiod (standardised latitudinal origin). A specification of transfer effects was made by the changes in the characteristics of a population when moved along photoperiod (latitudinal) or temperature (elevation) gradients. Optimum latitudinal seed-source transfer distances can be calculated for each temperature climate and management objective based on the economic value of the population characteristics and the species-specific transfer effects. On the basis of what were assessed to be common requirements, we drew up a baseline option whereby suitable utilization areas for seed-orchard and natural-stand progenies were delineated. An analysis was made of the consequences of the baseline option and the background information was reviewed and summarised for Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta, Picea abies and Betula pendula 95 refs, 24 figs, 16 tabs

  20. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  1. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  2. Report on the Swedish National Energy Administration's program for energy efficiency 1998-2001; Redovisning av Energimyndighetens insatser foer energieffektivisering aaren 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Support for raising energy efficiency is reported for the following five areas during 1998-2001: 1. Fuel-based energy systems with the sub-areas: Sustainable production of biofuels, including ash recycling; Cogeneration; and Large scale heat production. 2. Transport with two sub-areas: Internal combustion engines; and Electric drive-lines. 3. Power production/Power technology with the sub-areas: Hydropower; Wind power; Power transmission and distribution; and Photovoltaic solar cells. 4. Industry with the sub-areas: Processes; and Support systems in industry. 5. Buildings with the sub-areas: Heating, cooling and climatic shields; and Components and support systems. In total, 1,800 M SEK (about 180 M USD) was contributed by the Energy Administration during this period. An overview of the projects is presented in this report.

  3. Comparison between existing recycle processes for composite materials - a study regarding microwave pyrolysis; Jaemfoerelse av befintliga aatervinningsprocesser foer kompositmaterial - en foerstudie gaellande mikrovaagspyrolys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Carina; Andreasson, Sune (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Skrifvars, Mikael; Aakesson, Dan (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate the possibilities to use recycled composites as energy recycling based on microwave pyrolysis and also to evaluate the microwave pyrolysis technique for the recycling of combined materials, such as composites. Composites can be recycled by mechanically grinding into a material which can be used as a filler in virgin composites. However, several earlier studies have showed that this will give a material with inferior quality, and there is presently no economical viable use of the recycled material. Composites can be incinerated together with other waste materials but the high content of inorganic material results in a material with low energy content. Composites typically contain 40-50 weight-% glass fibres, and in some cases be as high as 60-75 weight-%. Consequently, composites often end up at landfill sites and processes to recycle composites do not exit. Large volumes of composites are produced in Europe and these products will largely end up on landfill site after end-of-life as systems to recycle these products do not exist. These composites represent a large amount of energy which presently is not utilized. Processes and materials to produce composites are being developed continuously. This in addition to the need for light weight materials in the aerospace, windmills and automotive industry spurs the use of composites. It is therefore of outmost importance to develop processes to recycle of composites. Recycling of composites by the use of microwave pyrolysis has been studied in this project. Microwave pyrolysis is a process where the material is heated by microwave in an inert environment. The project has been focusing on the recycling of glass fibre reinforced composites as this type of composite makes the large volume of composites. Pyrolysis of glass fibre reinforce composites will result in two fractions - one oil fraction and one inorganic fraction. The oil fraction was analyzed with calorimetry and by GC-MS. The oil largely consists of aromatic compounds, such as styrene and toluene. The energy content of the oil is relatively high and is comparable to petroleum based oils. The oil can be used to generate energy or as a starting material to produce synthesis gas. This will imply a new alternative and/or complement in order to use the oil in small refineries. After the pyrolysis, an inorganic fraction will also be formed, consisting of recycled glass fibres. A possible use of these fibres is to use them to produce new composites. Composites were produced by and evaluated thermo mechanically. The mechanical properties of these composites were relatively low. The low mechanical properties are probably caused by a low adhesion between the fibres and the matrix. The surface properties were therefore studied by TGA and scanning electron microscopy. The fibres were coated with particles which were not pyrolysed. This is probably the fibre sizing which was partly degraded after the pyrolysis

  4. Survey of development work and problems with different collection techniques of food waste; Kartlaeggning av utvecklingsarbete samt problem vid olika insamlingstekniker foer matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Gunilla

    2010-07-01

    In accordance with Sweden's environmental objectives it has been decided that, by 2010, 35 per cent of all food waste shall be recovered through biological treatment. In order to get there, the problems regarding collection methods needs to be solved. There are several different collection systems to choose between, but at the present time there is no complete list of the methods and techniques available on the market. Lists of advantages and disadvantages with each system, of potential improvements, and of completed or ongoing development projects are also missing, and creating difficulties for municipalities and businesses which are planning on introducing a system. The goal with this study is to provide a survey of technical problems with different systems and to identify previous studies as well as new innovations within collection techniques. The expectation is that this work eventually will lead to improved collection systems. The study will cover existing collection techniques in households, large-scale kitchens, restaurants and grocery stores in Sweden. The study will only cover the so called hard parameters, i.e. primarily technical issues. The target group is on the one hand municipalities planning on starting collection of food waste and on the other hand all actors in the area, such as innovators, producers and suppliers as well as Waste Refinery's organizations. Soft issues such as issues regarding information and quality are not included. The system limits of this project span between the recycling equipment of homes and businesses to the food waste's treatment at the biological treatment plant. The methods that have been used in this project are: questionnaire survey to 133 municipalities that today are recycling food waste, telephone interviews with a number of biological treatment plants and innovators in the business, and Internet searching for relevant reports and studies in the field. The results show that the paper bag and the bioplastic bag both have shortcomings. Many of the shortcomings are related to the supplier/producer. Other problems such as misplaced waste, problems with mould, fly-maggots/flies etc. can be solved with information. Problems as corrosion on the collection vehicles and metallic substance in the plant have also been observed. A common problem when it comes to stores is how to best treat packaged material. Today there are treatment plants that treat certain packaged food waste, but a solution for glass is still missing. An issue which is not directly linked to the producer or the supplier is the issue of standardization of sorting equipment in kitchens. Many kitchens have own sorting equipment under the sink where the bags rarely fit. This leads to the bags being used in the wrong way. An important project would therefore be to gather the waste industry and kitchen suppliers to try to come up with a solution to this. There are a lot of technical problems in the process as arise when the biogas plant will digest the food waste as not are a homogenous material. The plants inquire for more effective technology for pretreatment the food waste and this could be a new research working. All that somehow affects the quality of digestate and compost are of interest to Waste Refinery, since quality issues are and will continue to be main issues within biological treatment

  5. Wind power on Gabriel mountain - Follow-up of the consequences for reindeer herding, third year results; Vindkraft paa Gabrielsberget - Uppfoeljning av konsekvenserna foer rennaeringen, tredje aarets resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabriel Mountain the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. According to the Environmental Court's decision Gabrielsberget the wind plant's impact on reindeer husbandry followed up by a control program. The control program was initiated in autumn 2008. Reporting to the County Board will be made annually until the trial period ends. The construction of roads on Gabriel Mountains began in November / December 2008. No construction work was carried out, however, during the period that the reindeer were in the area (January-March 2009). The construction work started again in the summer / fall of 2009. The first 20 wind turbines began operating in January 2011. During these periods, the continuous interviews were held with reindeer herders from grazing district Byrkije. Reindeer herding utilization of the area before the wind farm been built and under construction has thus been mapped. Despite good grazing conditions Byrkije experienced difficulty in reindeer herding in and around wind power construction at Gabriel Mountain, especially during the second winter season (2010/11), when construction has been more extensive. Byrkije had to support feeding and use helicopter, something that previous seasons only was done in poor grazing conditions. The herders were also more people who worked actively with the reindeer and the working day has been longer and more strenuous compared to the seasons before the wind farm was built. The reindeer has moved more and were more spread out. The herders have also been forced to retrieve outside reindeer winter Loegdeaa land, something that has rarely happened in previous seasons. The reindeer's movement patterns and utilization of pastures have been different during the construction of the wind farm than in previous years. This report will be based on the new data over the years monitoring program runs.

  6. Preservation of information about the repository for spent nuclear fuels - proposal for action plan; Bevarande av information om slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle - foerslag till handlingsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen-Schrire, Monica; Eckerhall, Daniel; Jander, Hans; Waniewska, Katarina (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    This report is a proposal for an action plan with the ultimate aim of ensuring that information about the repository for spent nuclear fuel can be preserved and transferred for future generations. The purpose of the proposal for an action plan is to present ideas on tangible measures and guidelines for information preservation and transfer, in the short and long term. The report deals with a number of aspects relating to information preservation as well as risks that can lead to the loss of important information. The proposal for an action plan is based on reasoning about these subjects. The main emphasis is on measures that need to be implemented in the near future to ensure that successive and direct information transfer is handled in a suitable manner. It is suggested that the following measures should be implemented within a five-year period: - Designate a person responsible for information preservation. - Work out guidelines for information preservation and transfer. - Form a network with other organizations in Sweden. - Initiate a dialogue with other countries, especially USA and France. - Participate in seminars, conferences and workgroups on an international level within the IAEA and NEA. In a longer time perspective the following measures should also be implemented: - Implement guidelines for information preservation and transfer. - Document the archiving system. - Establish a communication plan. - Archive information about the repository. - Keep the action plan up to date

  7. Construction of a flexible pilot dryer for products such as biofuels and iron ore pellets; Uppbyggnad av flexibel pilottork foer produkter som biobraenslen och jaernmalmspellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik; Truedsson, Ida; Stenstroem, Stig

    2009-02-15

    Drying of different products is an operation that requires large amounts of energy in Sweden, a compilation from 2006 indicates a total use of over 32 TWh of thermal energy. A more energy efficient drying process can thus result in significant savings of energy for this process. The interest to use biofuels for heating purposes increases with increasing energy prices and thus also the interest to dewater and dry these products. Often an excess of low-value heat (flue gases, warm water etc.) is available and it would be desirable to use these streams for drying of different products. The goal in this project has been to carry out two subtasks: A Rebuild and modernise the old pilot dryer at the department so that it can be used for studies of drying kinetics for different products in a bed or as separate particles. B Perform a number of drying experiments with two representative bio-fuels which can be used for evaluation of different proposals for drying of these products. The results will mainly be of interest for companies handling biofuels in the forestry sector, for LKAB producing iron ore pellets and for manufacturers of industrial dryers. The constructed pilot dryer can be used for studies of drying kinetics of different types of products such as bark, wood chips, materials in the form of pellets such as iron ore pellets or wood pellets and foods. If the drying cell is designed so that fine particulate materials are not entrained with the gas flow, products such as municipal or industrial sludges can also be handled in the dryer. The results indicate specific energy use figures of between 2500 and 3000 kJ/kg evaporated water, both for different fractions of bark and independently if the origin of the bark was Vaeroe or Iggesund. The drying time to reach a dry matter content of 60 % for a bed with a thickness of 20 cm and an air velocity of 1 m/s is about 5000 seconds at an air temperature of 50 deg C. It increases to 15000 seconds to reach a dry matter content of 90 %. If the air temperature is increased to 100 deg C the drying time is reduced to 1800 seconds to reach a dry matter content of 60 %. The shrinkage of the bark at different dry matter contents and drying of bark particles smaller than 2 mm are two topics which should be considered in future projects. Also it would be desirable to equip the pilot dryer with instruments so that emissions of volatile organic components such as terpenes can be measured

  8. Environmental evaluation of electric power from a systems perspective. Guidance for sustainable development; Miljoevaerdering av el ur systemperspektiv. En vaegledning foer haallbar utveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Byman, Karin; Persson, Agneta; Trygg, Louise

    2009-12-15

    The electricity market is deregulated. This means that all electricity customers are free to choose their electricity supplier. Many utilities market renewable electricity products such as wind power or hydroelectric power, saying that the customer makes a contribution to the environment by choosing these products. But is that really true? In this report, four researchers and consultants give an account of their views on how environmental valuation of electricity should be made. Specifically they discusses the driving forces for the development of the electricity system and the purchase of environmentally certified electricity and the link to environmental benefits. An important objective is to provide guidance as to how individuals and businesses through their actions can contribute to sustainable development

  9. Stable control in FB-boilers. Guidelines for improved control of head fans; Stabilare drift hos FB-pannor. Riktlinjer foer foerbaettrad reglering av huvudflaektar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Hedlund, Johan

    2007-12-15

    The general aim is to present research that allows more stable performance in FB-boilers that cause decreased emissions of CO and NO{sub x}, less alarms caused of transient course of events. The primary goal for the project was to clarify how the control of air and flue-gas fans influence on operation stability and how control parameters shall be adjusted for optimized operation. Furthermore it should be clarified whether it is recommended to recirculate flue gas from pressure- or suction side of the flue gas fan. The target group is plant owners with plants that show periodic oscillations that cannot be related to fuel variations. The report can also be used as a support for new and rebuilding. Three plants has been visited and studied considering physical construction of recirculation of flue gas and also for control of air supply. One of the plants was studied more in detail and tests were performed to find the dynamics in components such as fans, dampers and control system. A computerized control model was build for this plant and verified the operation. Then the model was optimized to improve the operation of the plant. The results from the simulations shows that it is possible to build simulation models that correspond well with the real plant operation. Simulations also show that it is possible to optimize the operation of the plant by optimization tests in the simulation model. It is also shown that the constructions of recirculate flue gas from the suction side of the flue gas fan introduce disturbance in the primary air flow which give large consequences in the O2 control which introduce other control oscillations. The simulations also show that more even flow of primary gas flow, evens out the combustion and less oscillations is raised. One recommendation is therefore at new or rebuilding that the recirculation of flue gas is taken at the pressure side of the flue gas fan and that the control of the flow will be subordinated the primary airflow. If the flue gas is taken on the suction side where the pressure vary it must be secured that there is capacity on the fan and dampers to achieve enough flow at all differential pressures that can be expected. Though there will always be larger variations in recirculated flue gas if it is taken on the suction side

  10. Mechanical pre-treatment for enzymatically enhanced energy efficient TMP; Mekanisk foerbehandling av flis foer effektiv enzymatisk paaverkan vid energieffektiv TMP tillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2008-11-15

    Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) processes are high energy demanding. This together with the high energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, why less energy demanding processes are wished. This project has evaluated the potential for energy reductions in a TMP process by a mechanical pre-treatment of the wood chips combined with an enzymatic modification based on a cellulase mixture. The structure of the wood was opened up by the mechanical pre-treatment making it easier for the enzymes to penetrate into the pre-treated wood material. The enzymatic treatment was then run at optimum standard conditions. The EU project - Ecotarget 2004-2008 (www.ecotarget.com) have studied different types of enzymes that could be used for pre-treatment of wood chips in order to save energy during TMP processes. Based on these studies cellulose enzyme was recommended to be used at pre-treatment experiment performed by the Vaermeforsk project. Due to the fact that the Ecotarget-project has also been run during 2008 with activities involving enzymes, the steering board of the Vaermeforsk project took the decision to co-ordinate the experiments from both of the projects. This co-operation increased the funds and also the number of experiments for both of the projects. The experimental results from this project showed that energy reductions at a given tensile index could be achieved if gently mechanical pre-treated wood chips were enzymatically treated. An intensive mechanical pre-treatment gave negative effects on both fibre length and tear index while the light scattering coefficient was promoted, probably due to the fibre shortening. Enzymatic modification of mechanically pre-treated chips showed a favourable modification of the fibres, even regarding the fibre shortening, if compared to mechanical pre-treated chips only. The effects of cellulases was however not as expected, why a high amount of cellulases was used. Other types of enzymes which could attack the primary wall of the wood cell should be tested in mechanical pre-treatment of wood chips for energy savings in TMP processes. Such enzymes could be xylanases, pectinases or proteases. New equipments that could pre-treat wood chips more gently may also be desired

  11. Oxidation catalysts for cleaning of CO and TOC in flue gases - step 1; Oxidationskatalysatorer foer rening av ofoerbraenda roekgaser - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Harnevie, H. [SwedPower AB (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Environmental demands on the firing of solid fuels are gradually being sharpened and will in the future be regulated by different EG directives. Of particular importance is an EG directive on the incineration and co-incineration of waste. Most fractions of recycled wood fuel will be included in this directive. In the directive, high demands are placed above all on the restriction of the release of unburned compounds such as CO, TOC and dioxins. In many cases, it will be very difficult to optimise combustion in order to reduce releases of these compounds in question to the level regulated by legislation. This has therefore led to the initiation of this project on oxidation catalysts as a tool in the reduction of such emission components. In this preliminary study, 11 suppliers of oxidation catalysts have been contacted on this issue. An investigation has been carried out into their principles and costs and also interest in the application of these. Of the suppliers interviewed, 7 were seriously interested in the current application and at least 5 can be considered interesting for further discussion at later stages. Based on the information received, it could also be noted that costs for monolithium catalysts which can clean 12.000 m{sup 3}{sub n} flue gas/hour varied between approximately 60.000 and 240.000 SEK. This flow of flue gas corresponds to the amount generated by a 5 MW plant fired with normal forest chips (50% TS). Within the scope of this stage, an application study of two boilers has also been carried out (Vattenfall's boiler at Swedish Match and Marbodal). In both cases, the catalysts are considered to be able to be assembled without much reconstruction. However, it remains uncertain whether the catalysts can endure the current concentration of particles in the flue gas duct or for Swedish Match also the concentration of HCl and SO{sub 2} respectively. Finally is a proposal of how continued work in this area should be carried out described. This should take place via a combination of work in both laboratory and full scale. During laboratory experiments, the sensitivity of the catalysts for variations in H{sub 2}O, HCl, SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} should be examined. Full-scale attempts should include approximately 6 months continuous follow-up in two separate plants. Preferably a plant fired with a fuel containing both chlorine and sulphur and also preferably a plant that fires a fuel relatively free from both these components.

  12. Utilization of controllable load for system operations services - Potential in the power system; Utnyttjande av styrbara laster foer systemdrifttjaenster - Potential i kraftsystemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojrup, Martin; Petersson, Andreas; Agneholm, Evert

    2013-04-15

    The frequency quality in the synchronized Nordic power system has decreased significantly during the last years. At the same time the procurement costs for frequency control services from the producers has increased dramatically. The decreased frequency quality has also resulted in an increased wear on production units taking part in frequency control. The large scale integration of renewable s, such as wind power, will probably result in a need for more frequency control resources. In order to increase the frequency control resources in the power system and find more cost efficient solutions this project suggests a development of a method for load control based on grid frequency. The suggested load control is applicable on loads fed by a variable-speed drive (VSD) and the purpose is to use energy loads, i.e. loads that not necessary need a constant power. By using the control capacity in these loads the power consumption from these loads can be controlled without causing any notable inconveniences for the customers. In the report the future potential is estimated for different ancillary services. As the installation of new VSDs and exchange of existing VSDs are performed to a large extent every year it is possible, already some years after implementation, to see an impact in the power system.

  13. Technical development to increase the use of reed canary grass - Full scale demonstration; Teknikutveckling foer oekad etablering och nyttjande av roerflen - Demonstrationsfoersoek i fullskala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerberg, Haakan; Skoglund, Nils; Grimm, Alejandro; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus

    2010-06-15

    Introducing fuels from agricultural crops into the heat and power sector in Sweden is a desired and needed development, thus it is connected to some obstacles. For the crop producers it is important to use the most efficient handling for harvest, collection, loading and transport technology in order to reach low production costs. For the fuel consumers it is of high importance that these fuels work together with other utilized fuels in mixtures without complications. This includes fuel mixing, fuel feeding, combustion behavior and ash transformation mechanisms. Specifically for the combustion process, gaseous and particle emissions, ash behavior and deposit formation on cooled surfaces should not be negatively effected by mixing in agricultural crops. In this study these aspects of the energy crop reed canary grass (RCG) have been examined. The recommended harvest period for harvesting RCG in Sweden is during springtime when the crop from the year before is collected, called delayed harvest. During this period the grass is very dry and has been harvested in this project with an average water content of 11,3 %. Two major different harvest systems have been tested. One where the energy grass is chopped directly in the field by a chopper connected to a wagon. The other system was based on baling the crop with round balers or big square balers. The chopped or baled material is transported 6 km to a farm center or terminal for unloading. Further transport to CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plant, 12 km, was done with road truck (135 m3). In the case of field chopped RCG the mixing of the other fuels has been easily done since the material was well chopped (40-50 mm). The RCG was mixed into a mixture of peat and wood to a share of 10-12% of the total energy content of the mixture. Also the baled material was transported to a farm centre or terminal for unloading the farm wagon and loading on a road truck (135 m3). In this case an additional procedure is needed for chopping the bales before mixing them into the fuel mixture. Chopping of baled crops is sometimes problematic since it generates dust and noise, and it might also cause fire. For this reason some CHP plants will not accept this handling inside the gates. This study has started from the state that the RCG was moved with a conditioning mover (3,5-4,0 m). The capacity of balers and forage choppers were registered. The transport capacity was also registered. Results from the harvest and transport operations show that field chopping system are very efficient up to the farm level. The very low density of the chopped material 81-85 kg/m3 leads to low transport capacity on the road to CHP plant. A fully loaded truck could only take 11 ton dry RCG. The low density will also complicate dry storing of the chopped material. For storing purposes, big square bales with a density of 380 kg/m3 are more optimal. One full loaded truck of square bales could take 20,9 ton in average. The field chopping was done with a self propelled forage harvester with pick up (3,0 m) and tractor transported containers in the field and on trucks on the road. The overall capacity was very high. In spite of the high water content (77%) the total time consumption for all operation was the lowest compared to the other harvest systems when recalculated to 11,3% water content. Four different combustion tests were done with RCG in mixture with peat and wood. In Hedensbyn (98 MW CFB) two tests were made, one in June 2008 and one in November 2009, using field directly chopped RCG. In both test the RCG share of the mixture was 10% of the total fuel energy. The other components were peat 10-20% and wood 70-80%. The results show no negative influence of mixing in RCG at this level. Both particle and gaseous emissions were at the same level as reference mixture without RCG. The deposits on cooled probes were slightly higher on the test in June but on the other hand it was slightly lower on the test in November. The XRF characterization of fly ashes from electric filter and bed material does not show any changes in chemical composition. Thus from these test it can be concluded that mixing in 10% RCG on energy base has no negative influence of combustion process in a CFB boiler. Two tests were done with briquettes made of RCG and peat, one in Eskilstuna 4MW grate fired boiler and one in Roebaecksdalen 600 kW grate fired boiler. The RCG was produced on organic soil to obtain low ash content. Comparisons were made between briquettes made with 100% RCG (high ash content) and with briquettes with 15% peat on weight base mixed with 85% RCG with low ash content. Results from these combustion tests show that NO{sub x} emissions increased when RCG was used compared to wood pellets (600 kW boiler) explained by high N content in RCG. Even the total dust in flue gas increased with RCG compared with wood pellets (600 kW boiler) but total dust emissions were reduced with 50% when peat was mixed in briquettes.

  14. Harvest and logistics for better profitability from small cultivations of Short Rotation Willow Coppice; Skoerdeteknik och logistik foer baettre loensamhet fraan smaa odlingar av Salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Forsberg, Maya; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Jonsson, Nils; Sundberg, Martin

    2010-06-15

    In Sweden, the political desire to increase the amount of short rotation willow coppice (Salix) plantations has been expressed. However, for various reasons interest from farmers has been low. The hypothesis of this study is that the total area of Salix cultivation can be increased by also cultivating fields smaller than those generally considered economic today. In order to lower production costs, machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields are required. The possibility of using farmers' existing tractors and more convenient machines, as well as achieving lower machine costs for smaller fields, may increase farmers' interest. The long-term objective is to achieve large-scale deliveries of willow with small-scale solutions at farm level, as an option and complement to today's more large-scale systems for harvesting willow. Costs, energy use and climatic impact (CO{sub 2} emissions) for two harvest and logistical chains suitable for small fields have been calculated from field to energy plant, and methods for minimizing these costs have been analyzed. Comparison is made with the direct chipping system, the most commonly used in Sweden today. The systems studied comprised: 1. Direct bundling harvest system with a tractor-towed harvester, collection of bundles in the field with a trailer-mounted crane, and storage in a pile before delivery. Chipping is performed at the energy plant. 2. Direct billeting with a tractor-towed harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and trailer for collection, and storage in a pile before delivery. 3. Direct chipping with a self-propelled modified forage harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and container for collection, and direct delivery to plant. Both the billet and bundle systems show higher costs than the direct chipping system, irrespective of field size. The analysis of different scenarios and conditions shows possibilities of lowering the costs through certain measures. Furthermore, the billets and bundles can be stored for longer periods at field's edge, unlike chips, which facilitates increased security of supply according to the needs of energy plants. This can motivate a higher payment from the plant. The drying process taking place during storage, delivers a dryer fuel, which may give added value for some customers. Hence, the choice of machine system seems to be more dependent on whether the product needs to be stored or not, rather than on field size. In addition, there are other possible advantages with the two systems that should be taken into account when comparing with the currently-used direct chipping system, such as the possibility of increased rural employment or characteristics that suit smaller fields better. An example of the latter is the fact that harvest and delivery does not need to take place at the same time, i.e. extra costs for disruptions in harvest or delivery are avoided. The most important measure for reducing total system costs for the studied billet system is to increase the harvesters' capacity. For the studied bundle system costs for field- and road transport need to be reduced. These costs can be reduced by using a more efficient system for collection of bundles in the field and by utilizing a lorry's load capacity better during transport to the plant. One way of increasing utilisation of the load capacity is to increase the density of the bundles. However this requires a new or modified construction of the harvesting machine and more knowledge of how the drying process of the bundles is affected by this

  15. Energy savings in dust collector plants of bag house filter type. Phase 1 - Literature study; Energieffektivisering av anlaeggningar foer stoftrening med slangfilter. Etapp 1-Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi and Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The largest energy demands in connection with the operation of bag house filters are the electric energy consumption for the fans, securing the flow of flue gas through the filter, and the electric energy consumption when producing the pressurized air (compressors or high pressure fans). Considering the significantly increased fan work when having a non-optimised cleaning of the filters, it seems justified to investigate the possibilities to minimise the unnecessary pressure drop. There is also a saving potential in the filter cleaning process, which otherwise may cost an unacceptable amount of pressurized air or other energy. The main purpose of this work is to develop methods to optimize the operation of bag house filters, which is started up with this report containing a follow-up of what has been done in Denmark and a confirmation of the technology status. In the next step, a case study where two-three plants are examined more in detail is suggested followed by a potential study to estimate the total energy saving potential in Sweden. Dust precipitation with bag house filters is basically a rather simple technique, which has existed in flue gas cleaning for about 50 years. From the literature study it can be established that there has been no revolutionary development in the field, but there are some work being done mainly to introduce new filter material but also to optimise the use of bag house filters with new computer based control systems. The largest potential of energy saving prevails if the filter from the beginning is overloaded, which usually is the case. The reason for overload may be a too large volume flow in relation to the filter area, that the dust has penetrated and blocked the filter, a defective filter cleaning process or that wrong filter material has been chosen. In Denmark a study has been made with the purpose to investigate the possibilities to optimise the energy consumption for bag house filters. For the three plants studied, an average energy saving of 50% was noted by exchange of filter material and improvement of the cleaning process. Other plants in Denmark have been rebuilt during the latest years but for these plants no reports have been found concerning how efficient the measures have been regarding energy demand for the filters. Today the suppliers of bag house filters have refined the control systems for the on-line cleaning of the filters. The systems differs in advance but are usually based on minimising the pressure drop on the flue gas side by keeping the dust layer thickness on the filter constant on the smallest possible level considering the flue gas dust emission. Very often this is combined with minimising the energy consumption of the cleaning process. Also the consumption of chemicals (for example limestone, active coal) are minimised by these control systems, which mainly in larger plants may be prior to minimising the electric energy consumption.

  16. Measures for simultaneous minimization of alkali related operating problems, Phase 3. Frame work; Aatgaerder foer samtidig minimering av alkalirelaterade driftproblem, Etapp 3. Ramprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Aamand, Lars-Erik (and others)

    2011-01-15

    The positive effects of co-combustion with digested sewage sludge on bed agglomeration, deposit composition and initial corrosion have been studied at Chalmers 12 MW CFB-boiler. The trials comprised co-combustion of 4 different sludges and the results were compared with addition of phosphate and sulphate in the cyclone inlet. The base fuel was a mixture of 20 % sorted waste pellets and 80 % bark pellets. Corrosion studies were also carried out at the Haendeloe 75 MW CFB boiler firing 50% household waste and 50% industrial waste. Test rings of chromium rich material (304L and Sanicro 28) were exposed for 24 and about 400 hours with and without cocombustion with digested sewage sludge. Two lab studies have also been carried out; the corrosivity of different phosphates and the effect on bed agglomeration when co-firing 'small amounts' of digested sewage sludge

  17. The significance of the golden eagles domestic areas, the habitat and movements for wind power establishment; Betydelsen av kungsoernars hemomraaden, biotopval och roerelser foer vindkraftsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipkiss, Tim; Dettki, Holger; Moss, Edward; Hoernfeldt, Birger [Inst. foer vilt, fisk och miljoe, Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Ecke, Frauke [Inst. foer vilt, fisk och miljoe, Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Inst. foer vatten och miljoe, Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Sandgren, Carolin [Inst. foer vilt, fisk och miljoe, Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Uppsala (Sweden); Naturvaardsenheten, Laensstyrelsen i Jaemtlands laen, Oestersund (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    There is a need for developing methods for reliable environmental impact assessment of wind farms in Sweden, and to facilitate the establishment of 'eagle friendly' wind farms. During 2010 and 2011 a total of 43 adult and juvenile golden eagles in northern Sweden were marked with GPS transmitters, to provide information on the species home range, habitat selection and ranging behaviour. These transmitters have so far provided more than 100 000 valid GPS positions. Individual eagles fitted with the most effective type of transmitter provided on average more than 2,000 positions during the 2012 breeding season. The home ranges of adult golden eagles covered an average area of over 200 km{sup 2} during the breeding season, although there was considerable variation among eagles. Fledged juvenile eagles used a smaller area within their parents home range, until they left their natal area and their parents in October. Within their home ranges juvenile and adult eagles showed a particular preference for clear cuts, but also for coniferous forest on lichen-dominated bedrock, while dense, young forest and mires were avoided. Steep slopes were preferred over flatter areas. Adult golden eagles occasionally undertook long-distance movements during both summer and winter. Juveniles migrated south and spent their first winter in southern and central Sweden, and migrated north the following spring to the Scandinavian mountain region. The results in this report are largely based on one breeding season, and should thus be treated with some degree of caution. However, this also highlights the need for the project to continue, so that incoming transmitter data can continue to be processed and analysed, and that annual variation can be assessed. Nevertheless, we do not suspect that the results for e.g. habitat selection are in any way unusual, since they generally agree with what is known from other parts of the world, that golden eagles require open habitats for hunting and therefore avoid dense, impenetrable habitats.

  18. Air quality and residential wood combustion - application of the model system SIMAIRrwc for some Swedish municipalities; Luftkvalitet och smaaskalig biobraensleeldning. Tillaempningar av SIMAIRved foer naagra kommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Stefan; Johansson, Christer; Loefgren, Bengt-Erik

    2008-11-15

    SIMAIRrwc is a Web based evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits in residential areas using wood combustion. The background is a four-year research program (2001-2004) called Biomass Combustion Health and Environment. Some conclusions from this program were that emissions from small scale wood combustion can influence human health mainly due to high emitting old wood stoves during cold weather conditions and that the air quality in such areas can improve significantly if old wood stoves were replaced by modern wood boilers attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler. SIMAIRrwc is based on the same principles as SIMAIRroad, which is a Web based evaluation tool for road traffic i.e. coupled model system using different models on local, urban and regional geographical scales, best available emission data, but at the same time presented in a very simplified way. In this project SIMAIRrwc has been applied in five different Swedish municipalities. The aim has been to apply and improve the model in cooperation with the municipalities. The conclusions from the project are: Small scale wood combustions in residential areas are local problems which sometimes include only a few houses and/or wood-burners. Air quality problems related to the EU directive are mainly due to particles. Combinations of residential areas with wood combustion and emissions from nearby dense traffic roads might give rise to bad air quality. Actions require knowledge about individual equipment which needs information from the local chimney sweeps. The best way to identify problem areas is to use model calculations. If model calculations indicate risks of exceeding air quality limits, then new calculations should be made with improved input data taking into account for example information of district heating or other installations that can effect the emissions. Before actions are taken it may also be useful to make measurements. The measurement site can then be selected in the area where the model calculations show the largest impact. SIMAIRrwc is a powerful tool that can be used for identification and visualisation of areas where there might be air quality problems due to residential wood combustion

  19. System identification methodology for grate modeling. Black- and grey-box models; Metodik foer modellering av foerbraenningsrost med systemidentifiering. Svart- och graalaademodeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, Astrid; Sjoeberg, Jonas; Ramstroem Erik; Sunnerstam, Fredrik

    2004-10-01

    The possibility to use system identification to model combustion on a grate was studied. The identification was based on collected data from the combustion unit, data which was used to determine the model parameters. A number of step response experiments have been performed, for instance with varying pusher speed and air supply. No clear response was seen and thus it is concluded that the system is poorly excited. The initial requirements on the input parameters were not met. For instance many of the input parameters are co-varying with each other which limits the possibilities to single out the influence from each parameter on the combustion process. This will obstruct the identification procedure. In an attempt to improve the model, and compensate for the poor data, theoretical insights, i.e. a mass- and heat balances, have been included. Two model approaches were suggested, one based on the measured grate temperature, and another based on the fuel bed extension on the grate (particularly the position of the burn-out of the fuel). The first approach was implemented in an existing grey-box identification software MoCaVa, but the model output was concluded to be in poor agreement with measured data. The second approach was never tested since it could not be implemented in the MoCaVa software due to a discontinuous optimisation criteria. Instead a linear model based on the grate temperature has been used for comparison. In this model, it was shown that the response time of the grate temperature signal is significantly shorter than the fuel transportation time on the grate, thus a change in grate temperature is not only a result of the fuel transport. Radiation and conduction of heat to the grate is influencing the grate temperature and needs to be included in future modeling work. A strategy in order to separate the response from each signal during normal operation have been suggested. In future work the model need to be identified by exciting the system further and without covariance of the parameters. The time of each experiment needs to increase since the time constant of the system is long. Also it could be of interest to sample (and control) the fuel composition to the boiler, which is preferably done in a laboratory scale equipment. In this work, all models have the grate temperatures as output. This was motivated by the fact that this temperature is simple to measure and that it indicates the char burn out zone position on the grate. However, it is suggested for future work that the power output, also could be used as a model output. For instance the primary air might decrease the grate temperature due to convective cooling or it might increase the temperature due to more intense combustion in the fuel bed resting on the grate. If the convective cooling and the more intense combustion are in the same order of magnitude, the influence on the grate temperature from primary air will be low. It is believed that the power output is a better model output than the grate temperature, from which the grate temperature and the burn-out zone can be estimated.

  20. Smart management - Driving forces and conditions for the development of advanced electricity networks; Smart ledning - Drivkrafter och foerutsaettningar foer utveckling av avancerade elnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Oerjan; Staahl, Benjamin (Blue Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    This report describes the development of Intelligent Networks, or Smart Grids. It is divided into two sections. The first section highlights the basics of what is called 'smart' grid technology, what the underlying driving forces are and how the conditions for market looks like. It also depicts the impact on consumers, emerging business logics and ongoing investment and incentives in the world. The first part ends with an operator map of the market. The second part takes a closer look on some key areas and includes a simple reminder of technology related to smart grids

  1. Methodology for geometric modelling. Presentation and administration of site descriptive models; Metodik foer geometrisk modellering. Presentation och administration av platsbeskrivande modeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report presents a methodology to construct, visualise and present geoscientific descriptive models based on data from the site investigations, which the SKB currently performs, to build an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. It is designed for interaction with SICADA (SKB:s site characterisation database) and RVS (SKB:s Rock Visualisation System). However, the concepts of the methodology are general and can be used with other tools capable of handling 3D geometries and parameters. The descriptive model is intended to be an instrument where site investigation data from all disciplines are put together to form a comprehensive visual interpretation of the studied rock mass. The methodology has four main components: 1. Construction of a geometrical model of the interpreted main structures at the site. 2. Description of the geoscientific characteristics of the structures. 3. Description and geometrical implementation of the geometric uncertainties in the interpreted model structures. 4. Quality system for the handling of the geometrical model, its associated database and some aspects of the technical auditing. The geometrical model forms a basis for understanding the main elements and structures of the investigated site. Once the interpreted geometries are in place in the model, the system allows for adding descriptive and quantitative data to each modelled object through a system of intuitive menus. The associated database allows each geometrical object a complete quantitative description of all geoscientific disciplines, variabilities, uncertainties in interpretation and full version history. The complete geometrical model and its associated database of object descriptions are to be recorded in a central quality system. Official, new and old versions of the model are administered centrally in order to have complete quality assurance of each step in the interpretation process. The descriptive model is a cornerstone in the understanding of the investigated site and forms a basis for subsequent planning of the repository layout as well as for safety assessment studies.

  2. Biofuels from the forest. A study of environmental impacts and economy of different uses; Biobraensle fraan skogen. En studie av miljoekonsekvenser och ekonomi foer olika anvaendningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Amnell, Goesta; Anheden, Marie; Eidensten, Lars; Kirkegaard, Gunilla [Vattenfall Utveckling AB (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The energy and environmental council of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences initiated this study of how an additional 30 TWh/year of forest biofuel could be used in the Swedish energy system within a 10-year period. The specifications include that the forest biofuel shall be used in such a manner that the greatest possible reduction in carbon dioxide emissions will be achieved at the lowest cost without risking other environmental goals, such as good quality of local air. The figure chosen as starting point for the study, 30 TWh/year, was selected as it is this amount that available data have suggested could be extracted without negatively affecting the long-term productive capacity of forest land. The long-term potential of biofuel will probably be much larger than the volume used today, together with the additional use of 30 TWh/yr. We therefore studied fields of use that, totally, will be considerably larger than 30 TWh/yr. The starting point for comparisons of different uses for forest biofuel was the available benefit/utility for industrial, transportation and service sectors, together with domestic uses. The reference alternative was the existing uses of fossil fuels. Comparisons of different alternatives were made including differences in fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} emissions, emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust, as well as costs without environmental and energy taxes or subsidies. Monetary estimations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and dust in accordance with the EU ExternE Project were included in the costs. In our study, we have used two scenarios as starting points in order to cover the range of results. Summary of results: The largest reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions (generally about 0.6-1 Mtonnes CO{sub 2} /TWh forest biofuel and for heat pumps slightly more than 2 Mtonnes CO{sub 2}/TWh forest fuel) at the lowest cost are obtained when bioenergy replaces electricity produced by coal fired condensing power stations in neighbouring countries. In some of these cases, bioenergy would not imply any additional cost in comparison with the use of electricity produced by coal condensing plants. In most other cases the estimated additional costs will not be higher than about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions (up to 90 SEK/MWh electricity). If bioenergy in cases with additional costs is to replace electricity from coal condensing plants it is necessary to place a price on the CO{sub 2} emissions by coal power stations and/or submit them to carbon dioxide taxation. This is not the case today. Pellet boilers in multi-family houses can utilise considerable amounts of forest biofuel and provide heating at lower costs than electric boilers. District heating and cogeneration of power and district heating can also utilise large volumes of forest biofuel (up to 20 TWh resulting in more than 12 Mtonnes/year reduced CO{sub 2} emissions) at low added costs (about 60 SEK/tonne reduced CO{sub 2} emissions corresponding to 20-40 SEK/MWh district heating) in comparison with fossil alternatives. Emissions of other air pollutants can then more easily be minimised and will occur further from built-up areas. The amount of electricity that can be produced from forest biofuel at these low added costs in comparison with fossil alternatives is restricted by the level of district-heating production. Today the power transmission systems permit only limited exports of electrical power, and consequently important reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at low cost if electricity from biofuel-fired cogeneration plants, that cannot be exported, is used by new heat pumps in villas. This would also give lower emissions of other air pollutants in urban areas than if pellets or oil were used to fire the villa boilers. Heat pumps and pellet boilers will be the most favourable forest biofuel based heating alternative for villas heated by water radiators. Heat pumps give greater reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions at lower cost provided they can be assumed to be powered by electricity obtained from a forest biofuel based cogeneration plant. If transmission of electricity between Sweden and northern Europe could take place with considerably less physical restrictions than the case today, then the largest CO{sub 2} reductions at the lowest added costs would be obtained through maximal production of district heating and cogeneration electricity, heating of homes and premises that are not linked to the district heating using pellet boilers instead of electric boilers, and by reducing consumption of electricity in villas with direct electric heating by introduction of pellet stoves. In this scenario, the use of heat pumps in villas instead of electric boilers would mean reduced consumption of electricity produced by coal condensing plants and thus result in reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. However, this cannot be related to the use of forest biofuel. (abstract truncated)

  3. Model based monitoring functions for safer and more efficient operation of remotely operated plants; Modellbaserade oevervakningsfunktioner foer saekrare och effektivare drift av fjaerrstyrda anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Thomas; Raaberg, Martin [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    The increasing demands on profitability lead to an increase in the demands on production units. These demands include an increase in production capacity, in efficiency and a decrease in production costs. To accommodate these demands the tendency is to connect several production units to control and monitor them in one central control room. This generates a huge demand on the operators. They should understand a large amount of different plants. They should understand how the plants act in several operation points and in addition understand how they operate together. This results in the fact that the monitoring and maintenance personnel are not able to have full knowledge about the processes in all these plants. The implementation of a simple device oriented, model based monitoring function will help the personnel in the decision making in process related issues. This report describes methods to easily include process knowledge in the I-C-system. Emanating from known physical facts about the functionality of the devices and use them to combine process values into functions that will describe the status of the device alarms can be created. These alarms are activated if the functionality deviates from the normal operating procedure in specific ways. The primary target group is the plant owners of district heating plants, but the process industry in general is faced with the same problems. The work includes three parts; an investigative part, a compiling part and a describing part. The investigative part involves investigating theories, the normal level of instrumentation and discussions with operators to confirm the alarms and the appropriate actions. The compiling part involves to in the best way mace use of the normal level of instrumentation to achieve the operator's goals with respect to valid alarms. These goals are attained through adapting the existing theory in the area. The describing part includes the presentation of the equations and relations involved in a way that a programmer could implement it in a control system. The studies shows that the interesting objects are pumps and heat exchanges. These objects have an essential function in heat and power plants. By securing the function of these objects, the accessibility of the plant is increased and the risk for unplanned outages is decreased. These objects are the focus of the report. For these objects all variables shown to be of interest are described in general programming code. In addition additional variables has been identified and described. The goal of the work is thus achieved.

  4. Products based on the mixes of fly ashes and fibre sludge (fibre-ashes) for road construction; Produkter baserade paa blandningar av flygaska och fiberslam (fiberaskor) foer vaegbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Maijala Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-03-01

    The project has derived benefits from the earlier Finnish research and development as well as from the experience in the fibre-ash materials for geotechnical applications. The fly ashes used for the project have been taken from the same sources as the fly ashes for the earlier Vaermeforsk project 870: FACE. The project's objective was to develop construction materials based on mixtures of fibre sludge and fly ash for geotechnical applications, and for the final commercialisation of the fibre-ash materials. The mixtures are based on fly ashes from energy production (bark, peat and sludge used for incineration) and on kaolin containing fibre sludge from the paper industry. With help of laboratory tests the project has been searching for fibre ashes with excellent technical characteristics like good frost resistance combined with a good bearing capacity and resilience in geotechnical structures. The project's results has given additional knowledge about alternative road construction materials to construct technically good, sustainable and environmentally friendly roads and other constructions with lower costs than the conventional constructions. The results of laboratory tests have shown that this is possible. However, it has to be verified with help of field tests and pilot constructions. The first tasks of the project were to make choices of the appropriate fibre sludge and fly ashes for the project targets. The laboratory tests have been carried out in the geotechnical laboratory of Ramboll Finland Oy (earlier SCC Viatek Oy, SGT - later in the report SGT). After arrival of all test material in the laboratory the test programme started in order to find out the most optimal fibre-ash mixtures with or without any activator. The most potential mixtures were tested for their geotechnical long-term properties (mainly resistance against climatic load) and for their environmental risk potential. The results comprise of several technically, environmentally and economically potential fibre-ash mixtures and recommendations for their further development with the help of field tests and test construction. The most noteworthy benefits of the fibre ashes as soil construction materials are their elasticity and resistance against permanent deformation. These properties make the fibre-ash materials significantly more frost resistant than the conventional materials. Also, the fibre-ashes are easier and simpler to use in the construction process than the fly ashes because the fibre-ashes are practically dust-tight materials. The results of the project will be background information for the further studies, and for the guidelines and commercialisation of e.g. road construction with fibre ashes.

  5. Long term effects on wet stored calcium rich fly ash with bearing on ground improvement work; Laangtidspaaverkan av kalkrika flygaskor vid vaatlagring foer anvaendning inom markstabilisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerlund, Johan; Jansing, Christiane

    2012-02-15

    Generation of electricity and heat by means of thermal power demands a product that can be ignited. This combustible material is usually coal, oil, gas, biomass and waste. If using solid fuels as coal, biomass and waste a by product known as ash is formed in the process; FA, (FA) and bottom ash. Roughly 600 Mt ashes are annually produced throughout the world and 70 weight % of these ashes are FA, 25 weight % bottom ashes and 5 weight % slag. 41 weight % of all ashes are annually reused in some form. Given the environmental impact of combustion i.e. CO{sub 2} emissions, a widened use of biomass fuels and co-combustion is expected in the near future. This will however create new problems when reusing ashes and FA in particular. The reuse of FA within the concrete industry stand for a total of about 25 % but the reuse of non-coal derived FA in the concrete industry is prohibited. Non-coal derived FA usually has higher amounts of calcium oxide, which acts expansively in concrete. Less than 20 % of biomass or co-combustion FA are reused today in Europe. A new standard, the EN 450, is however under construction. This standard will deal with the reuse of noncoal derived FA within the cement and concrete industry. In Sweden, coal is very seldom used as a fuel. More common is the use of biomass, peat and waste. It means that the FA are all non-coal derived and thus derived from reuse within the cement and concrete industry. Beside their non-coal origin, the main part of the FA is produced during November- March. This means that it might be hard to find available FA all year around, making the reuse of FA less attractive. Hence, FA must be stored prior to use. Little research have been made on the storage of calcium rich FA from biomass and co-combustion. Storing FA in a cheap way requires an addition of water to prevent from dusting when stockpiled outdoors. Addition of water in calcium rich FA will however cause an hardening of the material, thus causing detrimental effects within the FA

  6. Outcomes of AV Fistulas and AV Grafts after Interventional Stent-Graft Deployment in Haemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelter, Christopher, E-mail: christopher.schmelter@klinikum-ingolstadt.de; Raab, Udo, E-mail: udo.raab@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lazarus, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.lazarus@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Nephrology (Germany); Ruppert, Volker, E-mail: volker.ruppert@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Vascular Surgery (Germany); Vorwerk, Dierk, E-mail: dierk.vorwerk@klinikum-ingolstadt.de [Klinikum Ingolstadt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe study was designed to assess outcomes of arteriovenous (AV) accesses after interventional stent-graft deployment in haemodialysis patients.Materials and Methods63 haemodialysis patients with 66 AV fistulas and AV grafts were treated by interventional stent-graft deployment from 2006 to 2012 at our hospital. Data of these patients were retrospectively analysed for location of deployed stent-grafts, occurrence and location of (re-)stenosis and (re-)thrombosis. Complex stenosis was the most frequent indication for stent-graft deployment (45.5 %), followed by complications of angioplasty with vessel rupture or dissection (31.8 %).ResultsA high rate of procedural success was achieved (98.5 %). The most frequent location of the deployed stent-graft was the draining vein (66.7 %). Stent-graft deployment was more frequent in AV grafts than in AV fistulas. Primary patency was 45.5 % at 6 month, 31.3 % at 12 month and 19.2 % at 24 month. Primary patency was significantly better for AV fistulas than for AV grafts with deployed stent-grafts. Patency of the deployed stent-graft was much better than overall AV access primary patency with deployed stent-graft. Re-stenosis with thrombosis was the most frequent indication for re-intervention. Most frequent location of re-stenosis was the draining vein (37.1 %), followed by stenosis at the AV access (29.5 %) and the deployed stent-graft (23.5 %).ConclusionRe-stenosis and re-thrombosis remain frequent in AV fistulas and AV grafts in haemodialysis patients despite stent-graft deployment. Re-stenosis of the deployed stent-graft is, only in the minority of the cases, responsible for AV access dysfunction.

  7. Analyse av overvannsnettet i Ås sentrum ved bruk av simuleringsprogrammet SWMM

    OpenAIRE

    Dvergsnes, Eirunn

    2016-01-01

    Jorden står ovenfor klimaendringer med økende temperaturer og en hyppigere forekomst av intense nedbørshendelser. For overvannssystemer i urbane strøk er den økte nedbørintensiteten en stor utfordring. Urbanisering har medført en stor andel tette flater, og lukking av naturlige bekkesystemer. Dette krever en raskere bortledning av regnvannet gjennom rør i bakken. Store deler av det norske overvannssystemet er ikke dimensjonert etter dagens norske standard. Denne ble revidert se...

  8. Veileder for kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorarealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Førland-Larsen, Arne

    Investorer og leietakere blir stadig mer interessert i helse- og miljøkvaliteter. Men kunnskapen er lav hos de fleste om hva de skal etterspørre og hvordan slike kvaliteter kan dokumenteres. Meglere har en viktig rolle som formidler av kvaliteter. Grønn Byggallianse har i samarbeid med blant annet...... Norsk Eiendom, Enova og NGBC utarbeidet en mal for standard kravspesifikasjon for leie av kontorlokaler. Målet med malen er å bidra til at leietager får det produktet han trenger til riktig pris og at man unngår unødig miljøbelastning. Målet er videre at å bidra og stimulere til, at innleie....../utleie prosesser startes med en dialogbasert prosess. Standarden er tenkt som et hjelpemiddel til en systematisk gjennomgang av, og diskusjon av hvilke kvaliteter som har prioritet, høy, middel eller lav prioritet for leietaker. Resultatet av dialog og diskusjon fastlegger endelige krav til kvalitet og...

  9. Steam slaking of lime - kinetics and technology. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Aangslaeckning av kalk - kinetik och teknik. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2008-06-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional lime burning and slaking methods are that heat recovery is bad and heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant, and to recover heat at higher temperatures. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with water vapour, for example combined with an indirect heated lime mud drier and a lime kiln. This project is a follow-up to pilot tests performed in a specific machine equipment at year 2006. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The owner of this new project is Carnot AB and the project is performed inside the Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2006-2008. Partners and advisers in project group have been KTH Energy Processes, CTH Energy and Environment, LTH Chemical Technology, SMA Mineral AB, and reference group from STORA Enso Skoghall, Sodra Cell, M-Real Husum and SCA Packaging Piteaa. The task in this stage has included market investigations and laboratory tests. Contacts have been made with suppliers, preliminary dimensioning of process equipment and budget offers are received. Economic calculations have been made out of the offers. The laboratory tests are done as an examination paper at KTH Energiprocesser on the reactivity of burned lime from kraft lime kiln when it is slaked with water vapour instead of green liquor. The vapour intended to be used is at atmospheric pressure or even down to 0,2 atm. Complementary addition to these laboratory tests are performed at Carnot AB. The evaluation indicate that a combination of lime slaking with water vapour from indirect heated lime mud dryer could be technically possible in the evaluated/studied equipments. The laboratory tests show however that the reaction speed is considerably lower than expected, leading to need for larger and somewhat more expensive equipment. Tests in the suppliers pilot test plants are necessary to guarantee the process and to determine the capacity. Such tests are offered. (author)

  10. Potential utilization of biomass in production of electricity, heat and transportation fuels including energy combines - Regional analyses and examples; Potentiell avsaettning av biomassa foer produktion av el, vaerme och drivmedel inklusive energikombinat - Regionala analyser och raekneexempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Karin; Boerjesson, Paal

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study is to analyse how the use of biomass may increase in the next 10-20 years in production of heat, electricity and transportation fuels in Sweden. In these analyses, the biomass is assumed to be used in a resource and cost efficient way. This means for example that the demand for heat determines the potential use of biomass in co-generation of heat and electricity and in energy combines, and that the markets for by-products determine the use of biomass in production of certain transportation fuels. The economic conditions are not analysed in this study. In the heat and electricity production sector, we make regional analyses of the potential use of biomass in production of small-scale heat, district heat, process heat in the forest industry and electricity produced in co-generation with heat in the district heating systems and forest industry. These analyses show that the use of biomass in heat and electricity production could increase from 87 TWh (the use in 2004/2005, excluding small-scale heat production with firewood) to between 113 TWh and 134 TWh, depending on the future expansion of the district heating systems. Geographically, the Stockholm province accounts for a large part of the potential increase owing to the great opportunities for increasing the use of biomass in production of district heat and CHP in this region. In the sector of transportation fuels we applied a partly different approach since we consider the market for biomass-based transportation fuels to be 'unconstrained' within the next 10-20 years. Factors that constrain the production of these fuels are instead the availability of biomass feedstock and the local conditions required for achieving effective production systems. Among the first generation biofuels this report focuses on RME and ethanol from cereals. We estimate that the domestic production of RME and ethanol could amount to up to 1.4 TWh/y and 0.7-3.8 TWh/y, respectively, where the higher figure describes future opportunities. The analysis of biofuels produced using second-generation technology focuses on the design of energy combines and the physical conditions for utilising the produced heat in the district heating systems. Since we consider the utilisation of district heating systems as heat sinks to be relatively limited, it is of great importance to design the energy combines so that the heat production is limited. This can be achieved through good heat integration and optimisation of the biofuel production. Taking the development over the past few years and current policy instruments into account, we find it realistic that the use of biomass in heat and electricity production will increase in line with our estimates, i.e. by 30-50% within the next 10 to 20 years. Future use of biomass in production of transportation fuels, on the other hand, is more difficult to assess

  11. Contents of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in the safety evaluation of a repository for spent fuels; Innehaallet i en strategi foer myndighetsbedoemning av framtida maenskligt handlande vid vaerdering av saekerheten for slutfoervar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Wickham, S.M.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this report is to discuss issues that should be considered in the development of a regulatory strategy for assessing future human actions in any forthcoming license application for a deep repository for spent fuel in Sweden and for sites of other repositories. The report comprises an outline of key issues concerning the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, reviews of regulatory developments, recent safety assessments and supporting studies, and international initiatives on the treatment of future human actions in safety assessment, and the principal elements of a regulatory strategy. Performance assessments (PAs) are generally accepted as providing illustrations of system performance under given sets of assumptions. The results of PAs are clearer and easier to understand if certain large uncertainties are accounted for by determining performance under several different sets of assumptions or scenarios, each of which defines a possible evolution of the disposal system. A number of assumptions can be made that would restrict the scope of an assessment without reducing the credibility of the corresponding safety case. Reducing speculation about technological development, by assuming that the techniques used in future human activities are similar to those currently in use in the region or at similar sites, will simplify the assessment. A distinction is generally made between inadvertent and intentional intrusion, with intentional activities excluded because society cannot protect future populations from their own actions if they understand the potential consequences. A division of human activities into 'recent and ongoing' and 'future' activities considers not only the timing of the activities but also the degree of control or influence that can be imposed on them. Recent and ongoing human activities are those that affect an area beyond the immediate vicinity of the disposal facility and which neither the proponent nor the regulator can influence. Examples include anthropogenic climate change and activities that have recently taken place in the vicinity of the disposal site, such as groundwater abstraction. Future human activities are those that may take place in the vicinity of the disposal system at some time in the future and which may affect the performance of the disposal system by by-passing or affecting the characteristics of the engineered and natural barriers. Institutional controls can prevent or reduce the likelihood of any disruptive activities. It may be inappropriate to treat recent and ongoing human activities in the same way as future human activities. Scenarios that include the occurrence of future human activities are conditional and are used to illustrate the potential behaviour of the system. Scenarios including recent and ongoing human activities are not conditional and may provide a better estimate of system performance than those that exclude such activities. The focus of assessments of future human actions should be on longer-term doses received by groups of people who might anyway be considered in the Reference Scenario In particular, human intrusion assessments should include groups considered in assessments of groundwater releases who may receive additional doses from new pathways arising from future human actions, and groups consuming foodstuffs contaminated by radionuclides brought to the surface during or subsequent to an intrusion and dispersed into, the biosphere. Members of a drilling crew that intrude into a repository do not fulfil the definition of a potentially exposed group because any intrusion would be an isolated activity not occurring on a day-to-day basis. The dose received by one individual from a specific short-term event cannot be compared with a regulatory criteria expressed as an average annual dose. The following outline strategy is proposed as a basis for consultation on the treatment of future human actions. Assessments must include calculations of disposal system performance without any disruptive future human actions. These calculations should include the effects of any recent and ongoing human activities that might affect the performance of the disposal system. Additional calculations should illustrate the potential effects of disruptive human actions. Assessments of future human actions should be based on present-day conditions in the region of the disposal site and similar sites. Site-specific definitions of the region considered and the period examined for defining rates and frequencies should be provided by the proponent. Assessments should consider the long-term effects of disruption through the formation of new pathways and the dispersal of radioactive material in the biosphere. The proponent should develop and justify the scenarios analysed in an assessment. (abstract truncated)

  12. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  13. Deletion of groundwater from a disposal facility in Laxemar. Description of the consequences for nature values and production land; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan en slutfoervarsanlaeggning i Laxemar. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och produktionsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values, agriculture and forestry due to groundwater diversion from a repository at the non-chosen Laxemar site in the municipality of Oskarshamn. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface. Laxemar is a valuable area from a nature conservation point of view, primarily associated to the cultural- and forest landscape and its prior use for pasture and hay-making. Hence, these values depend on factors other than the level of the groundwater table. Except for old pastures and haymaking areas, many high nature values consist of hardwood-forest groves and old solitary deciduous trees. 67 groundwater-dependent or groundwater-favoured nature objects (wetlands, pieces of forest and surface water) are identified in the investigated area. No nature object is judged to have national value (class 1). 15 nature objects (pieces of forest) are judged to have regional value (class 2), 18 have municipal value (class 3) and 34 local value (class 4). It is judged that a drawdown of the groundwater table only would result in small consequences for the nature values of the area in its entirety. The nature objects that would be affected by the largest groundwater-table drawdown have relatively low nature values and consist of small wetlands with local value (class 4). The low nature values of these objects imply that the consequences of the groundwater diversion would be small. Nature objects with higher nature values (regional or municipal value) consist of forest key habitats and ancient pastures on previously argued land. The nature values of these objects are hence dependent on factors other than the level of the groundwater table, which implies that the consequences would be small also for these objects. The consequences would be largest (noticeable) for the stream Laxemaraan, due to reduced stream discharge and drier conditions along parts of the stream. The groundwater diversion would not cause any consequences for protected areas. The investigated area does not contain any known red-listed species associated to wetlands or wet forest areas. It is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to insignificant to small consequences for protected frogs. There is a proposal concerning restoration of a wetland in Laxemaraan. This measure would partly counterbalance the consequences for frogs of the groundwater-table drawdown in Laxemar. It is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to a harvest reduction of slightly more than 10% and a forest-yield reduction of approximately 20 % in the influence area of the groundwater table drawdown. These are rough judgements that provide upper reduction limits

  14. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part II; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  15. Potential assessment of using fly ash as a binding agent for stabilization and solidification of dredged material; Potentialbedoemning av flygaskor som bindemedelskomponent foer stabilisering och solidifiering (s/s) av muddermassor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsson, Anna; Holm, Goeran; Lagerlund, Johan; Maijala, Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2010-04-15

    Over the next few years, about 200 000-800 000 m3 of contaminated sediments, with a muddy, slimy texture, high water ratio and low strength, shall be dredged annually in the development of ports and maintenance dredging of navigable waterways. Dumping at sea is limited since the dredged materials are contaminated. Land disposal requires transports and land area and is thus high in costs. In the construction of new port areas, large volumes of crushed rock, etc. are normally used as construction filling materials. These materials can be replaced by stabilised and solidified dredged materials, with modified geotechnical properties. The method of stabilising/solidifying (s/s) contaminated dredged materials has been used internationally for a long period of time, and, in more recent years, also in the Nordic countries. In Sweden, for instance, the Port of Gaevle and the Port of Oxeloesund have received permissions to reuse s/s-treated contaminated dredged materials in the port structures. Reuse of the stabilised/solidified masses in a geotechnical structure is supported by the new Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) on waste where great emphasis is placed on recycling. Within the project, fly ashes were inventoried with respect to suitability and availability. Five fly ashes, both individual fly ashes and mixtures of different fly ashes, were investigated in the laboratory as a binder component in a binder mix consisting of 50% cement, 20% Merit 5000 and 30% fly ash. Sediment from the Port of Gaevle were stabilised with a binder mixture amount of 150 kg/m3. Produced samples were examined in terms of strength, permeability and leaching. An assessment of the fly ashes' potential was performed based on technological, environmental and economical aspects, as well as market demand and the acceptance of stabilised and solidified dredged materials as construction material. The results show that fly ash, together in a binder mixture with construction cement and slag cement, has good potential as a binder. There is a clear correlation between the CaO content of fly ashes and compressive strength of the stabilised samples, whereas maximum compressive strength was obtained with the fly ash with a maximum content of CaO. All stabilised samples passed the basic criterion of compressive strength > 140 kPa, with the lowest value being 300 kPa and with a median of just over 500 kPa after 91 days. The samples had a low permeability between 10-8 m/s and 10-9 m/s. Leaching tests showed that the stabilised material's leaching of metals was low and that organic pollutants were barely detectable. A binder mixture with 30% fly ash provides a cost reduction of the binder of approximately 25%. High standards are required for port constructions, which means high demands on the quality of the binders used in the stabilisation and solidification processes. Therefore, a sturdy binder mixture that is capable of handling a variation in the quality of fly ash and sediment materials, plus a variation in the binder quantity involved in the stabilised material. The need for large volumes of binders means that binder suppliers must cooperate and that the logistics needed to ensure delivery of fly ash in an s/s project is a process that requires good preparation

  16. Development of the SKI Handbook for reviewing PSA after the review of the of a PSA level 2 study; Utveckling av SKIs Tillsynshandbok foer PSA utifraan granskningen av en PSA Nivaa-2 studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Ilona; Sairanen, Risto [VTT Processes, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-02-01

    A review of the Oskarshamn 2 Level 2 PSA has been conducted by VTT Processes. One objective of the review was validation and development of Tillsynshandbok PSA applying it to Oskarshamn 2 PSA Level 2 study. The review was based on the PSA Level 2 documentation: the main report, the supporting reports on containment success criteria and release calculations with the MAAP4 code, and five phenomenological reports for selected specific questions. The main result of the phenomenological analyses is that none of the phenomena considered contributes to the conditional failure probability of the Oskarshamn 2 containment in severe accidents. The project was conducted as a set of separate studies and the project quality assurance has also focused on one part at the time. As such, the quality assurance is adequate. A high level QA ensuring that all separate studies and analysis steps use same assumptions seems to be missing. Results from the phenomenology reports are not always transferred to accident analyses and vice versa. There is no specific discussion of uncertainty or sensitivity analyses. In general, the number of sensitivity analyses could be larger. Such should have been provided for sequences or phenomena that could result in early or unmitigated release. Examples are pressure vessel failure at high pressure, the effect of larger hydrogen production, and the key assumptions used for steam explosion and direct containment heating. Suggestions for additional sensitivity studies have been given in discussion of phenomenological reports. The project documentation is generally good. Missing information is usually associated with transfer of results from one study to another. It can be assumed that the information exists also in this cases but has not been documented in the reports above. Documentation of the containment event trees and the assumptions used for them could be more detailed, maybe similar to the approach used in the Appendix of this report. More effort should have been taken to harmonise the formalism which is different in case of the HS3 event trees. There is very little discussion on utilisation of the results. Half of the core damage frequency results in the containment end state SAM, which is not very well defined. SAM states in which the core is not damaged should have been separated from the SAM states in which the core damage occurs but containment is calculated to remain intact. A discussion should be presented how the plant could be taken to a stable state from SAM conditions. The SKI handbook was utilised in the review. It was generally found suitable although the guide focuses more on conduction of PSA than review of it. Quality control, documentation of central assumptions and the goal for comprehensive assessment is emphasised. Tables showing the most important aspects of the a PSA review are useful. To reflect the usual way of conducting a Level 2 PSA, the Guide should even more emphasise the need for consistency between the specific phenomenological studies and with the source term estimates. The guide points out that a result from a PSA does not only mean the quantitative results but also the background information, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis and description of models and data. Availability of this material was found central also when conducting the review.

  17. Modelling of a hybrid plant and development of a control system for the Vaesthamn plant based on artificial neural networks; Modellering av hybridanlaeggning samt utveckling av oevervakningssystem foer Vaesthamnsverket baserat paa Artificiella Neurala Naetverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2006-12-15

    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN). The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The models in the present project are based on operational data from the plant in contrary to previous projects where synthetic (simulated) data has been used in a large extent. The gas turbine represents the subsystem that has received most attention in previous projects, which will also be the case for the present project although models of the HRSG, steam boiler and steam turbine are created since the whole plant is of interest. The completed ANN sub modules are connected in a network, which can be used for e.g. offline simulation and real-time condition monitoring of the plant. A product, including all sub modules, is created in shape of a user-friendly interface in an MS Excel environment. This user interface can be used for continuous monitoring, training personnel and in planning of the operation. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The plant owners interest lies in receiving a product that can assist them when operating the plant, for instance supply them with information about the grade of degradation. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANNs, based on synthetic data, along with their new gas turbines. Vaesthamnsverket have contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their gas turbine, the SGT800. The received data has been examined and filtered before used for training ANN models. The models have been evaluated with independent data. The results are very promising with ANN models showing high prediction accuracy. All subsystems can be modeled with ANN and there are also possibilities of further development. The results have shown that there is potential in developing gas turbine models based on synthetic data but in order to draw any conclusions in this matter further research has to be carried out. A conclusion about the project as a whole is that ANN shows great versatility along with potential to be used within the field of thermal power plants. The project goals are considered to be fulfilled by the authors.

  18. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  19. The development of fast reactors - Effects on the Swedish system of management of spent fuel; Utveckling av snabba reaktorer - Paaverkan paa det svenska systemet foer hantering av anvaent braensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Forsstroem, Hans [SKB International AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Since the start of the nuclear power era studies have been performed of how to utilise the uranium energy resource in the most effective way. Only about one percent of the energy potential of uranium is utilised in the light water reactors of today. To improve the utilization other types of reactors are needed. With fast reactors theoretically 50-100 times more energy can be extracted from the uranium. This will require reprocessing of the uranium and multiple recycling of the plutonium. Plutonium and uranium can also be recycled in light water reactors, but this will only improve the uranium utilisation by about 20 %. Recycling of plutonium on a routine basis is presently only done in France. The development of fast reactors has been going on since the end of the 1940ies. During the 1970ies the planning was that a large number of fast reactors and their associated fuel cycle facilities would be in operation by the year 2000. The development has, however, for different reasons been much slower than planned. The general assessment today is that fast reactor, if they will be realised, will hardly give an important contribution to energy production until after 2050. Nuclear power production has instead been dominated by light water reactors similar to the ones in use in Sweden. Light water reactors are believed to continue to dominate during the next decades. To start a fast reactor system plutonium (or highly enriched uranium) will be needed. Such plutonium is contained in spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. This raises the question: Should the spent nuclear fuel be stored so that the potential energy resource in the fuel can be used in the future instead of disposing of it as a waste? The answer to this question will depend on when the material will be useful, i.e. when fast reactors have been introduced on a large scale. It will also depend on the demand for plutonium at this time, i.e. will plutonium be a scarce redundant resource at this point of time. In this context it should be considered that fast reactors will generate their own plutonium, as breeder reactors. Plutonium from other reactors will thus only be needed for the first years of operation. To provide a basis for the answer to the question if the Swedish spent fuel is a resource or a waste this report provides an overview of the present development status for fast reactors and their potential for large scale commercial use. It further describes the impact on the Swedish system for management of spent nuclear fuel if the fuel were to be reprocessed and the uranium and plutonium reused as fuel for fast reactors or for the present reactors.

  20. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Forsmark; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Pia [Atrax Energi AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-07-15

    This report describes how the area around Forsmark is used with respect to recreation and outdoor life. It also describes the impact of the final repository on recreation and outdoor life if it is located in Forsmark. The studied area is situated in the parish of Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar. Forsmark nuclear power plant and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR, are situated within the area and there are both houses and holiday houses. The area is used for leisure pursuit by inhabitants and employees at FKA and SKB, but also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Statistical data shows that the parish of Forsmark is sparsely populated. The area was previously dominated by one big landowner and the land surrounding the nuclear power plant was inaccessible to the general public during that period. The outdoor life is therefore less widespread here than along other parts of the east coast. The value of the area does not lie in paths and trails, bike tracks and bathing places, but in the unspoiled countryside, the wildlife and the bird life. Recreation such as hunting and fishing is very popular in the area. The construction of a final repository will increase traffic and hence increase noise and motion in the area. This will mainly impact the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. No other significant consequences are expected as the final repository will be mainly situated within the existing industrial complex and hence the character of the area should remain unchanged.

  1. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2003-07-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Project owner has been the Swedish company Torkapparater AB, and the project is performed inside the 'Vaermeforsk Program for Pulp and Paper Industry 2004-2005'. Other partners, besides SMA Svenska Mineral AB, has been Stora Enso Skoghalls Bruk, Carnot AB, AaF Process AB and KTH Energiprocesser. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  2. Hygroscopic slaking of lime with steam or humid air. New energy effective lime slaking technology in kraft pulping; Hygroskopisk slaeckning av kalk med aanga eller fuktig luft. Ny energieffektiv teknik foer slaeckning av mesakalk i sulfatmassaindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Roland

    2005-12-15

    Lime stone is widely used in chemical recovery for regeneration of white liquor in kraft pulping. Slaked (hydrated) lime is used to convert (causticize) sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, whereby lime mud (calcium carbonate) precipitates from the solution. Lime mud is dried and reburned in a lime kiln, where burned lime (calcium oxide) is formed. The circle is closed when lime is slaked (hydrated) in green liquor in an exotherm reaction. Problems with traditional slaking method is that heat is recovered at low temperatures. With the method described in this report there is potential to increase heat recovery in the causticizing plant. The forecasted method means that lime is slaked with steam or humid air, for example combined with a lime mud drier and a lime kiln. The task has included slaking of burned lime with steam or humid hot air, on purpose to test a specific machine equipment in pilote scale, and to investigate temperatures and hydratization rates able to reach. Also the lime slaked with steam/humid air should be compared with burned lime slaked in green liquor when green liquor is causticized, and to investigate the dewatering properties of formed lime mud. The target group is pulp and paper industry using the kraft process. The tests have been performed at SMA Svenska Mineral AB plant (lime burning) at Sandarne Sweden in years 2004-2005. Hydrated lime of varying slaking rates has been produced at temperatures up to 270 deg C. Caustizicing being performed show that dewatering properties of lime mud formed is quite up to the standard of lime mud from burned lime slaked in green liquor. The apprehension, that the hygroscopic slaked lime should result in lime mud difficult to dewater, has not become true. Important experiences have come out which could be used as a base in further investigations.

  3. Present status and an appreciation of the consequences for recreation and outdoor leisure activities from siting a nuclear waste repository at Oskarshamn; Nulaegesanalys samt bedoemning av konsekvenser foer rekreation och friluftsliv av ett slutfoervar i Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstroem, Kristina

    2007-07-15

    This report describes recreation and outdoor life in and around Simpevarp/Laxemar area. It also describes the impact of constructing a final repository for spent nuclear fuel on the outdoor life. The study area in this report is situated in the parish of Misterhult, in the municipality of Oskarshamn. Oskarshamn nuclear power plant (OKG) and the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab) are situated within the area. The parish of Misterhult is sparsely populated and includes both houses and holiday cottages. The area is used for various kinds of recreation by inhabitants from surrounding villages and employees at OKG and SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), and also by a number of different associations and by tourists. Misterhult archipelago has the highest values for recreation and outdoor life in the study area. Many water related activities, such as swimming, sailing, fishing, diving, kayaking and canoeing are conducted in the region Hamnefjaerden, Kraakelund and a walking track called Ostkustleden are three other places in the study area which are popular for outdoor life. SKB and OKG facilities are also visited by many tourists. Disturbances to the recreation and outdoor life during construction and operation of a final repository and a interim storage facility will occur in the form of increased noise and movement in the area, mostly from the traffic. The consequences of these disturbances are: Decreased serenity, which will probably decrease the enjoyment value for the people spending time in the area. The final repository in Laxemar will likely require road access that will cross the walking track. Various prevention and compensation measures, such as noise restrictions and a new section of the walking track at Ostkustleden, are suggested to minimise and/or mitigate the consequences. Also measures that increase the value of recreation and outdoor life are listed, for example an exhibition about the areas nature and culture. Specific compensation and mitigation measures will be outlined in the next design step.

  4. Prerequisites for carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Sweden - a synthesis of the Baltic Sea Project; Foerutsaettningar foer avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid (CCS) i Sverige - En syntes av Oestersjoeprojektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Stigson, Peter; Hoeglund, Jonas; Bingel, Eva

    2011-07-01

    This publication summarizes a project on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the Baltic region conducted at the initiative of the Energy Agency. The project is called 'the Baltic Project' and the aim has been to highlight the prospects for CCS in Sweden and how the Baltic Sea region affects this

  5. Power, heat and cooling production for a group of buildings (CHCP); Integrerade loesningar foer produktion av kraft, vaerme och kyla (CHCP) i grupper av byggnader med el-, vaerme- och kylbehov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Corfitz [Svenskt Gastekniskt Center AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Bjurstroem, Henrik; Cronholm, Lars-Aake; Forsberg, Maya [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    Small-scale production and distribution of power, heat and cooling (CHCP) for a group of buildings is described in this report on a general level. Possible system solutions are identified and a summary of the state-of-the-art is provided. Costs have been compared for different system solutions using a fictitious group of buildings in a case study. CHCP (Combined Heat, Cooling and Power) is an acronym used for a compact cogeneration unit (CHP) that also provides cooling, where cooling may be produced using an absorption cooling machine. The advantage of heat-driven cooling process combined with a cogeneration unit offers is an increase of the annual number of hours during which the cogeneration is operated. This should lead to an increased competitiveness for small-scale cogeneration also in Sweden, which should become even better if the price for electricity continues to increase. Systems with cogeneration and cooling are often associated with the concept of 'distributed generation' of electricity and with units in single buildings such as hotels, hospitals, offices, shopping centers etc. They could also be considered for groups of buildings connected to a small distribution network for district heating, and district cooling. Both steam and hot water are possible energy carriers. The focus of the study was small-scale cogeneration units in the range 0,1 to 2 MW{sub e} with natural gas as fuel. For the sake of the analysis of profitability and of investment, a fictitious area has been defined with four buildings: two hotels, an office and a shopping centre. The maximum total heat and cooling loads of this area are 8 MW heat and 3.5 MW cooling. The alternatives to heat-only boilers and electric chillers in each building studied were based on piping networks. The results from the calculations show that local production of electric power, heat and cooling is possible in buildings and areas with large energy consumption. With prices and assumptions as in the basic case, the payback period for a network bound system with centralised production of district heating and district cooling is about 10 years. Heat and cooling are produced with a CHP unit common to all four buildings and a common electric chiller. Using an absorption chiller is not economically interesting. Placing a CHP unit and an electric chiller in each building in the area considered yields a payback period of about 8 years, which is somewhat shorter. As for a system with a common CHP, absorption chillers are not economically attractive. Systems where heat is distributed as steam or hot water to local cooling units are not economically interesting because investments in the absorption machines are too large.

  6. Characterization of limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2} and sulfur capture modelling under fluidized bed combustion conditions; Bestaemning av kalkstensreaktivitet med avseende paa SO{sub 2} och modellering av avsvavling foer foerbraenning i fluidiserad baedd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattisson, T. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology and Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Lyngfelt, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1996-12-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels, SO{sub 2} is released to the atmosphere. Because of environmental concern with acid rain, the capture of SO{sub 2} is a very important process. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion method where limestone may be added to the furnace chamber to capture SO{sub 2} as the stable product CaSO{sub 4}. In the present work a relatively simple laboratory method has been developed for characterizing limestone reactivity with SO{sub 2}. The reactivity data from such investigations are used, together with residence time and particle size distribution, in a sulfur capture model for fluidized bed boilers that predicts the sulfur capture as a function of the Ca/S molar ratio. In addition, the model predicts the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} for all particle sizes present in a boiler. The model was developed and verified using data from two boilers, a 12 and a 40 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler, and showed reasonable agreement for both boilers. In addition to the development of a sulfur capture model, the effects of SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations, particle size, temperature variations, and reducing conditions on the sulfation reaction was studied using a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The sulfation reaction was also studied for long periods of time, up to 60 hours. This was done because of the long residence times of certain particle sizes that may exist in a fluidized bed boiler. From the parameter study it was found that particle size and variations between oxidizing and reducing conditions had a large effect on the sulfation behaviour. The investigation of long sulfation times showed that the reaction continued even at high degrees of conversion, although at a very slow rate. CO{sub 2} concentration had a moderate effect on the sulfation reaction while temperature variations showed no effect on the final conversion between CaO and CaSO{sub 4}. 29 refs, 25 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Flue gas wells to minimize dust and acidic components in small-scale burning of field fuel, further development; Roekgasbrunn foer minimering av stoft och sura komponenter vid smaaskalig foerbraenning av aakerbraenslen, vidareutveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngvesson, Johan; Roennbaeck, Marie; Arkeloev, Olof

    2011-01-15

    Agricultural derived solid fuels are more problematic to combust in small-scale heating plants than conventional wood fuels. Their high content of ash, chlorine and sulphur leads to increased emissions of dust, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride in the flue gases. By transporting the flue gases to a flue gas well where it condenses, and separates dust and sour components, enables a cost effective flue gas purification for small-scale heating plants (50 kW - 10 MW) of agricultural derived solid fuels. This project have studied two heating plants using flue gas wells with the aim to add to the knowledge about how a flue gas wells may look like and to quantify how much emissions of dust, chlorine and sulphur in the flue gases are reduced. The project also aimed to summon regulations and laws regarding the handling of the condensate that develop in the flue gas well. In the project measures were conducted on two different heating plants with mounted flue gas wells: a 60 kW biofuels boiler combusting grains and red canary grass and a 1 MW batch fired boiler combusting wheat straw. Measurements on flue gases were conducted with and without water injection in the flue gases. The flue gas wells reduced dust emissions of up to 80 %. The best reduction was achieved at the 60 kW heating plant when firing red canary grass. Firing grains in the same plant lead to 7 % reduction of the dust emissions. In the 1 MW heating plant firing wheat straw the flue gas well accomplished 40 % reduction of dust emissions. The boiler ability to achieve complete combustion, hence minimize the content of volatile and semi-volatile components in the flue gas, is largely affecting the flue gas well ability to reduce dust emissions. This did not, however, affect the reduction of dust in the flue. Chlorine emissions was reduced by up to 88 % by a flue gas well. Water injection made a big difference on reduction of chlorine emission from grain combustion. Sulphur emissions was reduced by 50 %, from wheat straw combustion, by a flue gas well. No reduction of sulphur was achieved from grains combustion in the 60 kW heating plant and water injection had little or no effect on the reduction rate. As the condensate was very acetic and potentially erosive an ejector fan was used to cool down the flue gases enough to enable acid resilient plastic pipes to be used for the flue gas canal. The well was drained of condensate continuously and the piping must be sweeped with regular intervals to prevent blockage of the flue gas. Plants below 20 MW is excluded from national regulations on activity emission regarding flue gas condensate. The Swedish Environmental Code does however place the responsibility for preventing harm to nature upon the practicer. The possibilities of managing the condensate from the flue gas well are spillage to a manure reservoir for spreading it as fertilization on farmland, or spillage directly to receiving waters. The later method require neutralization of the pH, commonly by using sodium hydroxide, but possibly also limestone

  8. Removal of groundwater from final repository in Forsmark. Description of consequences for nature values and forest production; Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen i Forsmark. Beskrivning av konsekvenser foer naturvaerden och skogsproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per; Allmer, Johan (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) has chosen Forsmark in the Municipality of Oesthammar as site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. This report describes consequences for nature values and forestry due to groundwater diversion during construction and operation of the repository. The report concerns nature values that depend on, or are favoured by, a groundwater table close to or above the ground surface

  9. Materials in Sweden for future production of fuel pellets. A review of possible materials in short- and medium long-term; Raavaror foer framtida tillverkning av braenslepellets i Sverige. En kartlaeggning av taenkbara alternativa raavaror paa kort och medellaang sikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsson, Lars [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    The use of fuel pellets, mainly produced from sawdust and shavings from the Swedish sawmill industry, has increased during the 1990s among small-scale users such as private houses as well as large-scale users such as thermal power stations. During the last years this increase has continued for small-scale use. Due to a significant increase of the pellet prices the last couple of years the increase for the large-scale users seems to have stopped. It is reasonable to believe that these higher prices depend mostly on lack of raw materials for the fuel pellet production. The greater part of sawdust from Swedish saw mills is used in the pellet industry, the board industry or as an internal fuel. It is reasonable to assume a small increase of present raw material available for pellet production without a further decrease in the use for the board industry. Another sawmill by-product, dry chips, may increase in importance as a fuel pellet raw material and give a small contribution while the green chips should be for use in the pulp industry only. If the use of fuel pellets should increase there is a need for new raw materials. In the short-term, thinning material and cull tree could be alternatives that could give pellets with similar characteristics as present fuel pellets. For large-scale consumers with greater ability to handle problems concerning ash, such as sintering and fouling, as well as particle and gaseous emissions a further choice of raw materials could be possible, such as bark, peat and logging residues. In the longer term energy crops could be used as well as lignin, derived from energy effective pulp industry and from possible large-scale production of ethanol from woody biomass. Nearly all of the different raw materials studied in this review have higher amounts of substances not desirable in combustion such as potassium, chlorine and nitrogen. However, pelletizing gives an unique opportunity to mix different raw materials and possible additives in order to obtain a fuel more optimized than the raw materials on there own.

  10. The influence of particle shape on the combustion properties and emission of nitrogen oxides when using pulverized biofuels; Partikelformens betydelse foer foerbraenningsegenskaper och utslaepp av kvaeveoxider (NO{sub x}) vid anvaendning av biobraenslepulver 970701-991231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastberg, Susanne; Nilsson, Calle [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden

    2000-08-01

    The objectives of the project are: 1. to make a detailed fuel characterisation of wood- and reed canary-grass powder with respect to particle size distribution and particle shape, 2. to compare the result from this characterisation with a more quick and simple field method, 3. to perform studies of how the powder characteristics influences combustion performance and emissions and to define critical parameters using a 150 kW powder burner, and 4. to make more detailed flame studies by simulations. This report gives the result from the project covering 970701-991231 and includes the installation and function verification of the 150 kW powder burner using wood and reed canary grass powder. It also includes a performance test using wood powder utilising experimental design and parameter study. In addition characterisation of powder fuel from various mills by sieving, laser diffraction and image analysis is reported. The results shows that after some minor modifications the burner performed well, the ignition of the powder was easy and a stable combustion was achieved. Optimisation with wood powder showed stable, low emission levels at an air excess of 4-5 % (mean values CO 30-40 ppm, HC 2-3 ppm, NO 40-50 mg/MJ). These emissions were obtained using a low level of secondary air and high primary and tertiary air levels. Three different industrial mills were tested for reed canary-grass. A preliminary combustion test was performed, however not showing the same stable emission levels as for wood powder. Mean CO and HC were low but peaks were noted for CO. The combustion chamber became covered with porous slag products due to the ash composition and high ash content of the fuel. For powder characterisation the techniques sieving, laser diffraction and image analysis were used on different powder qualities obtained using lab mills as well as industrial mills. Valving experiments were also performed. Principal component analysis was used for evaluation of the results from image analysis. The results using the three different characterisation methods show that there are certain differences in the powder obtained from the various mills. Also the valving tendency showed wide variation between the different powder fuels. In general, powder from a knife mill gave the best handling characteristics.

  11. Status, remaining service-life and quality assurance of PP-materials in flue-gas applications; Status, kvarvarande livslaengd och kvalitetssaekring av PP-material i anlaeggningar foer rening och kondensering av roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Karin

    2011-10-15

    Background: The project is intended to provide a better understanding of how the service life of PP-materials is affected when used in flue-gas applications. It intends to form a basis for the development of relevant techniques and a methodology from which it is possible to give advice and guidance so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. In addition it aims as being able to assess the status and remaining life of PP-materials in current components. Project outline - An inventory, contact and choice of facilities for closer cooperation. Plants with high proportions of PP in the equipment have been prioritised. - Visits to the chosen sites during shut-down periods for inspection and collection of samples from different PP details for further analysis in the laboratory. Collection of operating data and experiences of the use of PP (operating time/exposure conditions in different parts, component substitutions that have been made, etc.). - Systematic studies of the processes and mechanisms for stabiliser consumption over time. - Developing methods and methodology on which advice and guidance can be based so that the quality of PP-materials can be ensured for a given desired service life. The goal is to be able to assess the status and remaining service-life of the PP-materials in flue-gas applications. Results and Conclusions: It has been found that corrosion is relatively rare and that the main factors limiting the use and longevity of polypropylene are the thermal properties (thermal expansion and heat distortion). Leaching of stabilisers from the material is also commonly found but only a few cases of oxidative degradation, as a result of this, have been observed. An important part of the project has been to develop techniques and methodologies to assure the quality PP-material for a desired service life, and to assess the status and remaining life of the PP- materials in flue-gas applications. To do this, samples that had been exposed in the Brista and Igelsta works for an earlier Vaermeforsk Project (Materials for flue gas condensation, Stage 2, M4-303, 2004) were very useful for this. Here the OIT method, which has traditionally been the most commonly used to assess the remaining service life with respect to stabiliser concentration, was compared with FTIR and FTIR line-scan. It turned out that, especially the latter method, gives a clearer and fuller picture of the remaining amount of stabiliser than OIT. It also has the potential to be even more sensitive by further method development. However, none of the methods can provide a clear picture of the remaining life. It turned out that one material which would have been recommended to be taken out of service after only eight months in operation (according to all three techniques) survived another 3 years without detecting even the smallest decline in material properties. News value The results from the method development are interesting not only for the use of PP in flue-gas applications, but for all environments where PP is used. Further development of the line-scan FTIR technique may provide new opportunities for more correct lifetime predictions.

  12. Open absorption heat pump for waste heat utilization in the forest industry. A study of technical and economic potential; Oeppen absorptionsvaermepump foer uppgradering av spillvaerme fraan skogsindustrin. Studie av teknisk och ekonomisk potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermark, Mats; Vidlund, Anna

    2006-02-15

    Waste heat from the forest industry is mainly humid air or humid flue gases with somewhat too low dew point for direct use as district heating or for other qualified purposes. Upgrading of the temperature by heat pumps is thus often necessary for the full use of the waste heat. This study evaluates an open absorption heat, based on hygroscopic condensation. The hygroscopic condenser has the potential to replace mechanical heat pumps or conventional absorption heat pumps (based on lithium bromide) for the upgrading of heat from humid gases. The goal for the project is to evaluate technology and potential for an open absorption heat pump for heat recovery from humid gases in the forest industry. In an open heat pump the humid gas is brought in direct contact with the hygroscopic liquid (whereas a conventional heat pump uses an intermediate circuit with evaporation of water in the evaporator). The direct contact makes it possible to recover the heat at a higher temperature than the dew point of the humid gas without the use of evaporator. The target group for the study is the forest industry and its suppliers of technology and knowledge. The study has been carried out in cooperation with representatives from the forest industry and from suppliers of equipment. The study shows that the forest industry has good potential to upgrade waste heat from humid air to district heating. The waste heat can be extracted from various humid gases such as exit air from paper machines, wood driers, green liquid quenchers and flue gases from soda boilers, mesa kilns, bark-fired boilers and gas engines. Hygroscopic condensation is considered to give economic and environmental advantages compared to conventional absorption heat pumps due to much less consumption of driving heat. An interesting special case is the regeneration of the hygroscopic medium by direct contact with hot flue gases and for this application a patent application has been filed. Upgrading of waste heat to process steam (for use in pulp and paper plants) is technically more advanced. The high temperature level demands absorption liquids with high boiling point elevation (sodium hydroxide) and driving steam at 25 bar. The example studied uses waste heat at 50 deg C for production of low pressure steam at 1.2 bar, i.e. slightly above atmospheric pressure. Such low pressure steam can be used for steam injection in paper machines or upgraded to process steam of higher pressure by steam compression.

  13. Å speide etter spiritualitet. En analyse av spiritualitetsbegrepet i speiderbevegelsen

    OpenAIRE

    Holmefjord, Aina

    2015-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven inneholder analyser av speiderbevegelsens bruk av begrepet "spiritualitet" i to bøker skrevet av bevegelsens grunnlegger; "Scouting for Boys" og "Rovering to Succes" og to dokumenter av The World Organization of he Scoutmovement . Robert Baden-Powell grunnlag speiderbevegelsen i 1908 og hans litteratur og bøker publisert på tidlig 1900-tallet setter rammeverk for mye av dagens speiderbevegelses ideologi og visjon. Speiderbevegelsen har et r...

  14. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS)- a comment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The review by Rickard and Morse (this volume) adequately summarizes our current understanding with respect to acid-volatile sulfides (AVS). At the same time, this review addresses some of the misunderstandings with regard to measurements and dynamics of this important sedimentary sulfur pool. In

  15. Tilsetningsstoff og tekniske hjelpestoff ved produksjon av filet av hvitfisk. Faglig sluttrapport

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentzen, Grete Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Målsettingen med dette prosjektet har vært å øke den generelle kunnskapen om bruk av tilsetningsstoffer og tekniske hjelpestoffer ved produksjon av hvitfiskfilet. I prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudium på hvilken effekt ulike tilsetningsstoffer har på fiskefilet. Deretter er det laget en veileder hvor målet har vært å gi en lettfattet og oversiktlig informasjon om hvilke tilsetningsstoffer det er lov å bruke, hvilken effekt de har, og eksempler på praktisk bruk av tilsetningssto...

  16. Bruk av urtemedisiner blant gravide i Mali : Intervju av 72 healere i Bamako, Siby og Dioila

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zayadi, Waled

    2012-01-01

    WHO’s rapport fra 2001 viser til at hele 75 % av Mali sin populasjon bruker tradisjonell medisin. Det er beregnet til å være 1 medisinmann pr 500 innbyggere. Hovedmålet med denne oppgaven var å undersøke tradisjonelle medisinmenns behandling av sykdom og plager i svangerskapet i Mali. Det er lite som vites om bruk av urtemedisiner blant gravide i Mali. Det er heller ingen studier gjort fra healerens side. Studien var med på å kartlegge hvilke urter som brukes til den enkelte plagen. I ette...

  17. Forskere i norske avisers dekning av skole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Andersson-Bakken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skolen er stadig i medienes søkelys, og i denne artikkelen ser vi nærmere på hvordan forskere bidrar med sine fagkunnskaper i skoledebatten i mediene. Den problemstillingen vi ønsker å besvare, er: Hvilken rolle har forskere i norske avisers dekning av skole? For å svare på dette har vi gjort en analyse av samtlige artikler om skole i VG, Bergens Tidende og Aftenposten i 2013. Resultatene viser at det forekommer en navngitt forsker i ca. 12 % av avisenes artikler om skole (209 av 1712 artikler. Det er imidlertid forskjell mellom avisene, og i VG opptrer det forskere i ca. 24 % av artiklene om skole, mens andelen både i Aftenposten og BT er ca. 11 %. Undersøkelsen viser videre at det er mange forskere som får mulighet til å uttale seg om skole i disse tre avisene, men det store flertallet av disse uttaler seg kun én gang. Vi fant også at forskere ofte uttaler seg om rammene for skolens undervisningsvirksomhet, og sjelden om det som foregår i klasserommene. Resultatene av vår empiriske undersøkelse stemmer i stor grad overens med hovedtendensene i tidligere studier av forskere i media, noe som indikerer at forskernes rolle i norske avisers skoledekning ikke skiller seg markant ut fra den rollen forskere har i media generelt. Våre resultater peker imidlertid på én viktig forskjell: Forskere ser ut til å være uvanlig godt synlige i norske avisers dekning av skole.Nøkkelord: skoleforskning, media, forskningsformidlingAbstractSchool is a frequently debated topic in the media, and this article investigates how researchers contribute with their knowledge in this media debate. The research question is: What characterizes researcher participation in Norwegian newspaper coverage of school? To answer this question we have analyzed all articles about school in the Norwegian newspapers VG, Bergens Tidende and Aftenposten during 2013. The results show that there is a named researcher in about 12 % of the newspaper articles about school

  18. Redesign av Escola forlag sine skoleordbøker

    OpenAIRE

    Heggen, Inger Helene

    2007-01-01

    Rapporten består av en litteraturstudie (med begrepsavklaringer og en gjennomgang av ordboktypografiens historie – med hovedvekt på engelsk ordboktypografi), en analyse av ettspråklige ordbøker i dag (både norske og engelske), og en analyse av Escola Forlags ordbøker (bokmål og nynorsk utgave). Til slutt – en demononstrasjon av min resulterende redesign av ordbøkene (omslag og innmat). Her har det vært særlig viktig å tydeliggjøre oppslagsordene og oppslagsordenes underelementer s...

  19. Kartlegging av PCB i sedimenter fra Indre Sørfjord

    OpenAIRE

    Skei, J.; Klungsøyr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Som følge av forhøyede nivåer av PCB i fiskelever innerst i Sørfjorden er det gjennomført en sedimentundersøkelse for om mulig å finne kilden til PCB. Det ble ikke registrert høye nivåer av PCB i sedimentene. Høyeste konsentrasjoner ble målt i munningen av Eitrheimsvågen. Analyser av trafooljer brukt i Tyssedalsområdet viste spor av PCB. Statens forurensningstilsyn (SFT)

  20. Distributed Trust Management and Rogue AV Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    Integrate with QTM – Particularly important in federated systems (e.g., dynamically composable SOAs) • Investigate the use of reactive mechanisms – Global...of demonstrators surfaced on Capitol Hill in opposition to the Democrats’ health care legislation. MAGAZINE PREVIEW Making Health Care Better By...sale will be sent on saving green forests in Amazonia . Have more questions? You can contact us easy via Online Supoort. Green AV an award-winning

  1. Outlook on renewable fuels in Sweden - Update and extension of the study 'Opportunities for renewable fuels in Sweden to 2030' by Grahn and Hansson, 2010; Utsikt foer foernybara drivmedel i Sverige - Uppdatering och utvidgning av studien 'Moejligheter foer foernybara drivmedel i Sverige till aar 2030', av Grahn och Hansson 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Julia [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden); Grahn, Maria [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to update and extend the authors' analysis, from 2010. The report includes a compilation of other actors visions for the development of renewable fuels, a compilation of control means for renewable fuels, a survey of existing and planned production for biofuels in Sweden and outlook to the world. There is a discussion of Sweden's future import opportunities, a survey of the state of infrastructure and vehicles, and finally scenarios for the development of renewable fuels in Sweden to 2030, with different assumptions. The study's analysis is based on literature studies, contacts with actors in the field and on the results of our own scenarios. The scenarios provide a picture of the potential contribution of renewable fuels, to the Swedish road transport sector, can range from 7 to 16 TWh in 2020 and 13-30 TWh in 2030 (of which 5 to 13 TWh in 2020 and 13-26 TWh in 2030 is the possible domestic contribution that is., without imports)

  2. Operators tool to control fibre quality in the production of CTMP/TMP in an energy efficient way. New view shows a potential to reduce energy input; Operatoersverktyg foer styrning av fiberkvalitet vid tillverkning av CTMP/TMP paa ett energieffektivt saett. Ny syn visar paa potential foer energibesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferritsius, Olof; Johansson, Ola; Ferritsius, Rita

    2011-10-15

    The main objective of the project was to provide operators in the two factories the opportunity to more actively identify causes of variations in energy efficiency in the production of TMP and CTMP. To achieve this, it was done in collaboration with the Umeaa Inst. of Design at Umeaa Univ., new types of operator interfaces that clearly demonstrate when changes are about to occur in the process variables respectively quality variables. In addition, a method was developed to calculate the energy efficiency on-line with regard to quality.

  3. Methodology for classification of the H14 criterion according to the directive 2008/98/EC on waste. Proposal of a biotest battery for the classification of hazardous waste. Ecotoxicological testing with bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish embryo; Metodik foer klassificering av H14-kriteriet i Avfallsfoerordningen. Foerslag till biotestbatteri foer klassificering av farligt avfall. Ekotoxikologisk testning med bakterie, alg, kraeftdjur och fiskembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiernstroem, Sara; Hemstroem, Kristian; Wik, Ola; Carlsson, Gunnar; Breitholtz, Magnus

    2009-02-15

    Waste, including ashes that can cause ecotoxicological effects, should be classified under criterion H-14 in the Directive on Waste 2008/98/EC. The complex nature of ash production and the fact that it has a complex chemical composition makes ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of ashes based on mere chemical analysis insufficient. Biological test systems are thus indispensable tools to support the ecotoxicological characterisation and classification of the properties of ashes. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a leaching procedure suitable for preparation of water extracts for ecotoxicity testing, and (2) to evaluate an ecotoxicological test battery for the characterisation of ashes. A leaching procedure developed for organic compounds was assumed to be more realistic than existing standard methods for preparation of eluates for ecotoxic tests from complex matrices. A modified version of a recirculation column test, the ER-H method, developed for leaching of nonvolatile organic compounds and validated for PAHs and CPs, was used in this study and compared with the batch test EN 14735 (Characterization of waste - Preparation of waste samples for ecotoxicity tests). The ecotoxicological test battery included species representing different trophic levels; the bacterium Vibrio fisheri, a growth inhibition test with the micro algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata formerly known as Selenastrum capricornutum, a larval development test with the copepod Nitocra spinipes and an embryo toxicity test with sebra fish (Danio rerio). These test species show a relatively low sensitivity to elevated salinity levels. This test battery can be used to test a wide variety of matrices (e.g. single chemicals, complex effluents, eluates and sediments), and therefore offers flexible solutions for testing of leachates with differing and difficult properties. Both the ashes and their leachates were also analyzed chemically for organic and inorganic substances. All the test organisms responded with distinct concentration-responses when exposed to different bottom/fly ash leachates. The larval development test with Nitocra spinipes was the overall most sensitive test. Despite that, the project demonstrated that no single species or endpoint were the most sensitive to all the ashes. This emphasizes the importance of using a battery of biotests when evaluating ecotoxicological effects of ashes. The observed toxicological effects were not possible to foresee with mere chemical analyses and literature ecotoxicological data, which shows the importance of using a combination of chemical and biological tests when evaluating the ecotoxicological effects of complex eluates. The leaching of inorganic substances, when using the column leaching test developed for leaching of organic compounds, was largely in agreement with the leaching from the standardized batch test (EN 14735). In our opinion the column leaching test is in general more suitable for preparation of eluates used for ecotoxicological characterisation since standard leaching methods for wastes contain features that have been proven to be less suitable for leaching of hydrophobic organic compounds, e.g. end-over-end rotating or shaking and filtration. The preparation of ashes (ageing, drying etc.) before leaching will affect the properties of the eluates. Clearly, this will influence their ecotoxicological properties. Sample treatment should therefore follow a fixed routine before the ecotoxicological tests with ashes are conducted and evaluated. For example, the role of pH in the leaching process must be understood, as well as its importance for the outcome of the ecotoxicity tests. An important conclusion from this study was that to fully understand the hazard potential of the tested ashes, an integrated analysis of biological and chemical data is necessary

  4. Energy- and carbondioxide intensities for 319 products and services - examples of analyses using a tool for analysis of environmental impacts of consumption; Energi- och koldioxidintensiteter foer 319 varor och tjaenster - exempel paa analyser med ett verktyg foer analys av miljoepaaverkan av konsumtion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, Riitta; Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika

    2007-03-15

    This report presents calculations of energy use and carbondioxide emissions for different products and services. The calculations have been done with a computer program called EAP, that calculates the so called energy and carbon dioxide intensity for products and services. The calculations take into account the whole life cycle of the product including raw materials, production, transportation, sales, and recycling. These data can then be combined with expenditure surveys to investigate some of the environmental impacts of household consumption patterns.

  5. Review of cost estimates and the calculation of the 2014 Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc. ; Granskning av kostnadsberaekningar och beraekning av avgift foer 2014 enligt lagen (1988:1597) om finansiering av hanteringen av visst radioaktivt avfall m.m.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, Staffan; Engqvist, Stefan; Eliasson, John; Siegers, Andrea; Millner, Anna

    2013-08-15

    Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has based on the licensee's submitted cost estimates for 2013 and SSM cost-adjustments to those rates calculated under the Act (1988:1597) on the financing of the management of certain radioactive waste, etc. (Studsvik Act) to 0.12 SEK per kWh delivered nuclear electricity for the period 2014 to 2017. The fee calculation has not taken into account the remaining uncertainties in the data. SSM's calculations show that the net present value for measures under Studsvik Act amounts to 1743 million Swedish kronor. This amount is in turn composed of two subtotals. The first installment amounting to 1512 million Swedish kronor and indicates the present value of the costs that have been submitted by the licensee in their cost estimates for 2013. The second partial sum represents the present value of the adjusted cost of 231 million Swedish kronor that SSM chosen to add to the submitted cost estimates.

  6. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  7. Design av oppbevaringsprodukt: Utvikling av et entrémøbel for IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Bosvik, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Et av IKEAs store satsingsområder er oppbevaring. IKEA ønsker å nå ut til så mange mennesker som mulig med sine produkter. Deres visjon om å skape en bedre hverdag for de mange menneskene er et bevis på dette. Temaet for dette masterprosjektet har vært oppbevaring. En del av oppgaven har også vært å finne fokusområde innenfor temaet oppbevaring. Valget falt på entreen og utviklingen av entrémøbelet RÅDE. Oppgaven er gjort i samarbeid med IKEA Leangen i Trondheim. RÅDE er utviklet blant an...

  8. Barns opplevelse av postoperativ smerte og smertebehandling

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Torgun

    2016-01-01

    Master i intensivsykepleie Bakgrunn: Postoperativ smerte hos barn er underbehandlet til tross for mye smerteforskning. Ulike studier har vist at barn opplever moderat til sterk smerte postoperativt. Ubehandlet smerte kan skape unødvendig lidelse for barn og øker risiko for komplikasjoner. Hensikt: Det finnes ingen forskning på norske barns opplevelse av postoperativ smerte og smertebehandling. Studiens hensikt er å få en større forståelse for hvordan barn opplever postoperativ smerte og sm...

  9. Implementering av BIM i bærekraftig oppgradering av bygninger: Mulighetsstudie for utføring av tilstandsanalyser med nettbrett

    OpenAIRE

    Vik, Vidar Samson

    2012-01-01

    Vi opplever i dag en økt hyppighet av klimakatastrofer som flom og tørke som følge av økt konsentrasjon av klimagasser i atmosfæren. Dette har ført til et behov for å redusere klimagassutslippene fra industrien på jorden. Byggebransjen, ofte kalt 40 % -bransjen, står for om lag 40 % av klimagassutslippene, og har dermed et stort potensial for reduksjon. BIM er en prosess som søker å redusere ressursbruken, og er dermed en bærekraftig prosess som har blitt tatt i bruk i stor skala i nybygg. Re...

  10. Surhetsvariasjoner som følge av nedtapping av et regulert vann.

    OpenAIRE

    Selmer-Olsen, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Det har vært utført analyser og lagringsforsøk med prøver av tørrlagt bunnmateriale fra Trevatn tatt våren 1976. Prøver tatt ute i terrenget om høsten etter en lang tørr sommer viste stort sett samme bilde som prøvene fra våren etter lagring i laboratoriet under aerobe betingelser. Tabell 2 viser hvordan pH og SO4-S varierer med Iagringsbetingelsene. Oksydasjonsprosessene som slikt materiale blir utsatt for ved lufttilgang over et lengre tidsrom kan resultere i utvasking av meget sure forbind...

  11. Utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå

    OpenAIRE

    Trofast, Tobias; Haugum, Dag; Lundberg, Jonas; Nygren, Victoria; Nyström, Tommie; Svensson, Gary; Thunborg, Maria; Törnqvist, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Detta paper beskriver arbetet med att utveckla en modell för utveckling av examination av examensarbeten på kandidatnivå (UEX) vid Institutionen för Teknik och Naturvetenskap, Linköpings Universitet under läsåret 2010-2011. Modellen har utvecklats och testats vid utbildningsprogrammet Grafisk Design och Kommunikation (GDK), men med syfte att kunna appliceras även på andra kandidatprograms examensarbete. Det projektet prövat är om man kan höja kvaliteten på examensarbeten och effektiviteten i ...

  12. Upplevelser av "Employer Branding" : En kvalitativ fallstudie av anställda hos BA

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansson, Otto; Elisabeth, Mackenhauer

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur medarbetarna på BA (fiktivt namn) upplever organisationens interna Employer Branding-arbete samt att belysa de aspekter som eventuellt skiljer strategi mot upplevelse. Det gjordes ett målinriktat urval av organisation medan valet av deltagare var ett slumpmässigt urval vilket resulterade i åtta respondenter (n= 8). Studien var en kvalitativ fallstudie med ett psykologiskt angreppssätt och innehöll en ostrukturerad intervju som tillsammans m...

  13. AVS user's guide on the basis of practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi; Kume, Etsuo; Fujii, Minoru.

    1997-07-01

    The special guides for the use of visualization software AVS have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The purpose of these guides is to help the AVS users understand easily the use of the one, due to the fact that it is so difficult for beginners to understand the original manuals. In this report, 'Transportation Evacuation Simulation' is taken up as an object of visualization, and the procedure of visualization and images recording by using the AVS are described. By using the AVS according to this report, a series of the procedure which are necessary for use of the AVS can be acquired. (author)

  14. Implementeringsforskning: vitenskap for forbedring av praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Flottorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medisinsk forskning har ført til store framskritt de siste tiårene. Det er investert mye mer ressurser på basalforskning og klinisk forskning enn på å utvikle og evaluere metoder for å sikre at pasientene får nytte av forskningen. Formålet med implementeringsforskning er å redusere gapet mellom forskning og praksis, ved å utvikle og evaluere tiltak som kan sikre at behandlingen som pasientene mottar er kunnskapsbasert, at den er omsorgsfull og av god kvalitet.I denne artikkelen gjør vi rede for hva implementering og implementeringsforskning er. Vi belyser historikken til denne unge vitenskapen, og illustrerer mangfoldet i de faglige tilnærmingene og begrepene som brukes om det å få forskning brukt i praksis. Det finnes en rekke teorier om endring av atferd, både på individnivå og på organisatorisk nivå. Teoriene er imidlertid i liten grad testet empirisk, særlig når det gjelder å endre atferd i helsetjenesten.Systematiske oversikter over metodisk gode studier er den beste kilden til informasjon om effekt av implementeringstiltak. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC er en viktig kilde for slike oversikter. De systematiske oversiktene som er utarbeidet på dette feltet viser at passive dissemineringstiltak har begrenset effekt, mens mer aktive tiltak kan ha liten til moderat effekt. Det er ofte betydelig variasjon i effekt på tvers av studiene. Det er derfor viktig å få bedre kunnskap om hvilke faktorer som kan forklare slike forskjeller i effekt.Vi gir eksempler på norske implementeringsstudier, og refererer bidrag fra forskere ved Kunnskapssenteret. Implementeringsforskningen kan, hvis den lykkes, sikre pasientene bedre behandling.Flottorp S, Aakhus E. Implementation research: science for improving practice. Nor J Epidemiol 201 3; 23 (2: 187-196.ENGLISH SUMMARY Medical research has led to major advances in recent decades. More resources have been invested in basic and clinical research

  15. Bruk av amniocenteser og chorionbiopsier i Norge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttorm Haugen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGInvasiv prenatal diagnostikk i form av amniocentese (fostervannsprøve og chorionbiopsi (morkakeprøveutføres i ca. 2% av alle svangerskap i Norge per år. Dette er betydelig færre undersøkelser ennhva som utføres i de andre nordiske land. De fleste får utført amniocentese pga. høy maternell alder(aldersindikasjon som her i landet er ≥ 38 år ved fødselstermin. Chorionbiopsi er forbeholdt kvinnermed kjente arvelige lidelser i familien, dvs. kvinner med høy risiko for å få et affisert foster. De undersøkelsersom foreligger over svangerskapsutfall samt forekomst av komplikasjoner etter amniocenteseog chorionbiopsi er hovedsakelig utført i andre land på kvinner med generelt lavere risiko ( ≥ 35 år ennfor dem som får utført invasiv prenatal diagnostikk i Norge. Pga. vår restriktive praksis kan ikke disseresultatene uten videre overføres til Norge. Vi mangler eksakte data over svangerskapsutfall og evt.komplikasjoner etter disse undersøkelsene i en norsk populasjon.Haugen G, van der Hagen CB. The use of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling in Norway.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYAmniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling are performed in about 2% of all pregnancies in Norwaywhich is far less than in the other Nordic countries. Most of the amniocenteses are performed due toadvanced maternal age. In Norway this is defined as maternal age ≥ 38 years at term. Couples withknown chromosomal aberrations or genetic diseases in their families, i.e. women at a high risk of havingan affected fetus, are offered chorionic villus sampling. Earlier studies on complications and pregnancyoutcome following amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling have been performed in other countriesmainly on women at a lower risk ( ≥ 35 years than for the women having such tests in Norway. We donot have data on pregnancy outcome and possible complications following amniocentesis and chorionicvillus sampling in a Norwegian

  16. Analys av nickel med ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Wallman, Karin; Löfgren, Stefan; Sonesten, Lars; Demandt, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vid en granskning av nickelhalter för perioden 1985-2007 upptäcktes ett nivåskifte i tidsserierna på flera stationer mellan 2001 och 2002. Skiftet visade sig bero på att prover innan 2002 inte korrigerades för kalciuminterferens, medan prover under åren 2002-2007 korrigerades. Syftet med denna rapport är att utreda om resultaten före 2002 i efterhand kan korrigeras för kalciuminterferensen. Från 2002 finns ett antal prover (N=347) med resultat som både är kalciumkorrigerade och som inte är de...

  17. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Yonge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking connectivity. Moreover, HomePlug AV2 guarantees backward interoperability with other HomePlug systems. In this paper, the HomePlug AV2 system architecture is introduced and the technical details of the key features at both the PHY and MAC layers are described. The HomePlug AV2 performance is assessed, through simulations reproducing real home scenarios.

  18. Avveckling av aktiebolag : Case: Likvidation av Företag X Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med detta lärdomsprov är att ta reda på hur man idag i Finland kan avveckla ett aktiebolag. De fyra olika avvecklingssätten likvidation, konkurs, fusion och delning av aktiebolag är de sätt som används i Finland för att upplösa aktiebolag. I lärdomsprovet har fokus mest lagts på likvidation av aktiebolag. Lärdomsprovet ger svar på bl.a. hur en likvidation går till, vem som kan vara likvidator, vad som är skillnaden mellan en frivillig likvidation och en tvångsmässig likvidation m.m. Lä...

  19. Når kontakter betyr alt : En studie av bruken av nettverksmediet LinkedIn

    OpenAIRE

    Blaalid, Maren Hyvang

    2012-01-01

    LinkedIn er et av de mest populære sosiale mediene i Norge og tiltrekker seg stadig flere medlemmer. I denne masteroppgaven studerer jeg bruken av LinkedIn for å undersøke hva som er det særegne ved dette nettverksmediet. Jeg har utført en spørreundersøkelse blant 280 brukere for å få innsikt i hvem de er, hvorfor de bruker LinkedIn og hvordan de gjør det. Funnene fra analysen viser at brukerne kjennetegnes ved at de er selvstendige og formålsrasjonelle, som bruker LinkedIn strategisk for å n...

  20. Pollen transmission of asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) may facilitate mixed infection by two AV-2 isolates in asparagus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ryusuke; Shimura, Hanako; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Ohki, Satoshi T; Masuta, Chikara

    2014-09-01

    Asparagus virus 2 (AV-2) is a member of the genus Ilarvirus and thought to induce the asparagus decline syndrome. AV-2 is known to be transmitted by seed, and the possibility of pollen transmission was proposed 25 years ago but not verified. In AV-2 sequence analyses, we have unexpectedly found mixed infection by two distinct AV-2 isolates in two asparagus plants. Because mixed infections by two related viruses are normally prevented by cross protection, we suspected that pollen transmission of AV-2 is involved in mixed infection. Immunohistochemical analyses and in situ hybridization using AV-2-infected tobacco plants revealed that AV-2 was localized in the meristem and associated with pollen grains. To experimentally produce a mixed infection via pollen transmission, two Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were infected with each of two AV-2 isolates were crossed. Derived cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence analysis identified each AV-2 isolate in the progeny seedlings, suggesting that pollen transmission could indeed result in a mixed infection, at least in N. benthamiana.

  1. Spa-typing av stammer av Staphylococcus aureus fra blodkulturer analysert ved UNN Tromsø 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Midtgard, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Staphylococcus aureus er et av de vanligste patogenene som kan skape sykdom hos mennesket. Mange av oss er bærere av bakterien i nese eller hals, og det er vist at persisterende bærere har høyere risiko for å utvikle S. aureus-infeksjoner enn andre. De fleste S. aureus-infeksjonene blant bærere er forårsaket av pasientens egen bakteriestamme. Materiale og metode: 140 blodkulturisolater fra pasienter med S. aureus bakteriemi analysert ved Avdeling for mikrobiologi og smitte...

  2. Effekt av melkesyrebakteriers metabolisme på utviklingen av Escherichia coli O157:H7 i melk

    OpenAIRE

    Westblad, Anne Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    Dagens regelverk sier at all melk som omsettes skal være varmebehandlet, men åpner samtidig for salg av melkeprodukter basert på upasteurisert melk, forutsatt overholdelse av visse krav. Dermed kan småskalavirksomheter framstille melkeprodukter av upasteurisert melk hvis de skulle ønske det. Et slikt ønske er ofte begrunnet i tradisjoner og praktiske forhold. I tillegg er det flere som påstår at råmelk er sunnere enn pasteurisert melk og at råmelkas mikroflora hemmer vekst av uønskede bakteri...

  3. EST Table: AV398539 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398539 NV021929 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...0769|gb|EEZ97216.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC011009 [Tribolium castaneum] AV398539 NV02 ...

  4. AVS-1357 inhibits melanogenesis via prolonged ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Seo-Hyoung; Chae, Chong Hak; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that a derivative of imidazole, AVS-1357, is a novel skin-whitening compound. AVS-1357 was found to significantly inhibit melanin production in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not directly inhibit tyrosinase. Furthermore, we found that AVS-1357 induced prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, while it downregulated microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase. It has been reported that the activation of ERK and/or Akt is involved in melanogenesis. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVS-1357 on melanogenesis in the absence or presence of PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway) and/or LY294002 (a specific inhibitor of the Akt pathway). PD98059 dramatically increased melanogenesis, whereas LY294002 had no effect. Furthermore, PD98059 attenuated AVS-1357 induced ERK activation, as well as the downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase. These findings suggest that the effects of AVS-1357 occur via downregulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which is caused by AVS-1357-induced prolonged ERK activation. Taken together, our results indicate that AVS-1357 has the potential as a new skin whitening agent.

  5. Mineralogical Mapping of Quadrangle Av-2 (belicia) and Av-3 (caparronia) on 4 Vesta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, K.; Frigeri, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Sunshine, J.; Jaumann, R.; Palomba, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Yingst, A.; Marchi, S.; De Sanctis, C. M.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, Th.; Preusker, F.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at 4 Vesta on July 16, 2011 the Visible and InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (VIR) has acquired hyperspectral images of Vesta's surface, which enable to characterize Vesta's mineralogical composition in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 5.1µm. As part of the analysis of Vesta's surface composition the science team is preparing a series of 15 quadrangle maps showing the results derived from the spectroscopic analysis of the VIR and FC color data. We present preliminary results of the spectroscopic analysis achieved for the quadrangles Av-2 (Belicia) and Av-3 (Caparronia), which show Vesta's surface between 21°N - 66° N°, 0° - 90°E and 90° - 180° E, respectively. These results are based on the analysis of the combination of the visible albedo, spectral parameters including the position, depth of the pyroxene absorptions, as well as color ratio composites using the VIR channels centering at 749nm/438nm (Red), 749nm/917nm (Green) and 438nm/749nm (Blue). Vesta's rotation axis, however, is tilted ~29° with respect to its orbital plane. Since Dawn arrived during northern winter, portions of Vesta north of ~45° N are dominated by extended shadows or have not yet been imaged due to permanent night. Thus, limited FC color or VIR hyperspectral data have been available for the quadrangles Av-2 and Av-3. The illuminated parts are dominated by a heavily-cratered northern terrain with ancient troughs and grooves and named after the prominent relatively large impact craters Belicia (~37°N/48°E) and Caparronia (~36°N/167°E). Numerous impact craters of different size, morphology, and state of surface degradation are apparent. Most spectral variations are strongly affected by the extreme illumination conditions, making the analysis of albedo variations and spectral signatures rather difficult. Their interpretation thus remains. Nevertheless, VIR spectra show clear evidence of Vesta's surface composition similar to those of HED

  6. Cofactor requirement of HpyAV restriction endonuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Hong Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is the etiologic agent of common gastritis and a risk factor for gastric cancer. It is also one of the richest sources of Type II restriction-modification (R-M systems in microorganisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have cloned, expressed and purified a new restriction endonuclease HpyAV from H. pylori strain 26695. We determined the HpyAV DNA recognition sequence and cleavage site as CCTTC 6/5. In addition, we found that HpyAV has a unique metal ion requirement: its cleavage activity is higher with transition metal ions than in Mg(++. The special metal ion requirement of HpyAV can be attributed to the presence of a HNH catalytic site similar to ColE9 nuclease instead of the canonical PD-X-D/EXK catalytic site found in many other REases. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to verify the catalytic residues of HpyAV. Mutation of the conserved metal-binding Asn311 and His320 to alanine eliminated cleavage activity. HpyAV variant H295A displayed approximately 1% of wt activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Some HNH-type endonucleases have unique metal ion cofactor requirement for optimal activities. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that HpyAV is a member of the HNH nuclease family. The identification of catalytic residues in HpyAV paved the way for further engineering of the metal binding site. A survey of sequenced microbial genomes uncovered 10 putative R-M systems that show high sequence similarity to the HpyAV system, suggesting lateral transfer of a prototypic HpyAV-like R-M system among these microorganisms.

  7. [AVS concentrations in Xinan Creek and the influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Bing; Wen, Yan-Mao; Li, Feng; Wu, Chang-Hua; Duan, Zhi-Peng

    2012-07-01

    Sediment and overlying water samples were collected at 10 sampling stations at Xinan Creek, a tidal river in Pearl River Delta, and analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics as well as microbial incicators, in order to reveal the main factors dominating the spatial distribution of acid volatile sulfide (AVS). The effects of Eh, SRB OC and TS on the spatial distribution of AVS were investigated and the impact of AVS on the toxicity of heavy metals in the studied area was evaluated. The results showed that the range of AVS was 0.207-41.453 micromol x g(-1), with an average of 6.684 micromol x g(-1), which is relatively high compared to the results in other studies. The AVS value of the surface layer was higher than the bottom layer in 5 stations. The AVS values in both the surface layer and the bottom layer were highly variable, the coefficients of variation being 93.61% and 153.09% , respectively. The analytical results revealed that TS was the factor with the greatest impact on the spatial distribution of AVS, and the order was TS > OC > Eh > SRB. Potential ecological risk of heavy metals existed in 60% of the smpling stations based on the value of Sigma (SEM5-AVS), however, with the criterion of [Sigma(SEM5-AVS)]/foc, none of them had inacceptable ecological risk. Furthermore, in terms of single species of heavy metals, there was certain risk of toxic effect for all the five heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb). The above mentioned results will provide valuable data for the in-depth study of the formation mechanism of AVS and helpful reference for environmental impact assessment and scientific rehabilitation of heavy metals in polluted rivers.

  8. Modellering av urbane pluviale flommer ved bruk av værradar

    OpenAIRE

    Kjølseth, Tora Marie Hveem; Vatne, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Ekstreme nedbørhendelser med påfølgende pluviale flommer forårsaker store skader på infrastruktur og bebyggelse. Skadene fører til betydelige samfunnskostnader, og problemet er økende. Avrenningsmodeller kan benyttes for å simulere flomforløpet til en nedbørhendelse, og er et mye brukt verktøy i planlegging, prosjektering, dimensjonering og drift av overvann-systemer. Som inngangsdata i avrenningsmodeller er det vanlig å bruke konstruert nedbør, der det tas utgangspunkt i målinger og statisti...

  9. Transport og akkumulering av jern i profiler av et dyrket myrareal

    OpenAIRE

    Ødelien, M.; Selmer-Olsen, A. R.; Lie, Ole

    1980-01-01

    En mindre del av et stort dyrket myrareal på eiendommen Vivang, Våler i Solør, har uvanlig jernrik torv. Her har havre hatt god vegetativ vekst, men meget dårlig kjerneutvikling (5,10). Det siste har vist seg å skyldes molybdenmangel, som særlig må antas å ha årsakssammenheng med det store jerninnholdet i torva. I denne artikkelen er arealet med molybdenmangel kalt A og et tilgrensende areal uten synlige tegn til slik mangel B. Tabellene 1-3 viser kjemiske analyseresultater for torv fra 3 pro...

  10. En undersökning av Norwegians kriskommunikation under flygstrejken 2015. : En textanalys av Facebookinlägg och pressmeddelanden.

    OpenAIRE

    Emma, Mickelsson

    2016-01-01

    Numera lever vi i ett krissamhälle där vi nästan varje dag nås av budskap från olika typer av kriser. När en organisation drabbas av en kris är det viktigt att tänka på vilken kommunikation man använder för att nå ut med sitt budskap. Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur en organisation använder sig av olika försvarsstrategier och retoriska appeller i sin kriskommunikation. Organisationen som valdes ut var flygbolaget Norwegian och deras hantering av den 11 dagar långa flygs...

  11. Slutrapport - utökad samordning av landskapsövervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Göran; Gardfjell, Hans; Glimskär, Anders; Hagner, Åsa; Holm, Sören; Walheim, Mats

    2007-01-01

    I denna kortversion av 2006 års slutrapport från projektet ”utökad samordning av landskaps- övervakning och uppföljning av Natura 2000” redovisas de viktigaste resultaten på ett sätt som gör dem enklare tillgängliga för inriktningsbeslut om ambitionsnivå för uppföljnings- arbetet. Nuvarande målsättning är att Naturamoment införlivas i Nationell Inventering av Landskapet i Sverige (NILS) och Riksinventeringen av Skog (RIS) från och med 2008; under 2009 beräknas kompletteran...

  12. An Overview of the HomePlug AV2 Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yonge, Larry; Abad, Jose; Afkhamie, Kaywan; Guerrieri, Lorenzo; Katar, Srinivas; Lioe, Hidayat; Pagani, Pascal; Riva, Raffaele; Schneider, Daniel M.; Schwager, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    HomePlug AV2 is the solution identified by the HomePlug Alliance to achieve the improved data rate performance required by the new generation of multimedia applications without the need to install extra wires. Developed by industry-leading participants in the HomePlug AV Technical Working Group, the HomePlug AV2 technology provides Gigabit-class connection speeds over the existing AC wires within home. It is designed to meet the market demands for the full set of future in-home networking co...

  13. A case of pancreatic AV malformation in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipin; Kedia, Saurabh; Sonika, Ujjwal; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Pal, Sujoy; Garg, Pramod

    2018-06-01

    A 60-year-old man presented with recurrent abdominal pain and weight loss for 6 months. Abdominal imaging showed a large vascular lesion in the head and neck of pancreas suggestive of arteriovenous malformation (AV malformation). Endoscopic ultrasound was done which showed features of AV malformation with no evidence of pancreatic malignancy. Surgery was planned for definitive treatment of malformation. Digital subtraction angiography with angioembolization was done prior to surgery to reduce vascularity of the lesion. He recovered after a pylorus preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathology of the resected specimen confirmed the pancreatic AV malformation. There has been no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.

  14. Förändring av förpackning som utökning av marknadsmixen : En studie av fem snabbrörliga konsumentvaror inom livsmedelsbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Carolina; Eriksson, Sofie

    2011-01-01

    Denna uppsats behandlar förändring av förpackning som en möjlig utökning av produktkategorin i Kotler & Kellers utvidgade marknadsmix. I marknadsmixen behandlas förpackningen som statisk under en varas livstid och studiens syfte var att se om förpackningsförändringar istället bör ske vid flertalet tillfällen. Genom existerande litteratur identifierades tre centrala begrepp som ansågs betydelsefulla för studien; förpackning, förändring av förpackning och differentiering. Fem olika företag ...

  15. Open Source AV solution supporting In Situ Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Kristian; Pociunas, Gintas; Dahl, Mads Ronald

    the software to meet our expectations for a portable AV system for VAD. The system would make use of “off the shelf” hardware components which are widely available and easily replaced or expanded. The developed AV software and coding is contracted to be available as Copyleft Open Source to ensure low cost...... a stable AV software that has be developed and implemented for an in situ simulation initiative. This version (1.3) is the first on released as Open Source (Copyleft) software (see QR tag). We have found that it is possible to deliver multi-camera video assisted debriefing in a mobile, in situ simulation...... environment using an AV system constructed from “off the shelf” components and Open Source software....

  16. Practically perfect: learning by doing at AVS congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-18

    It has been some time since Cambridge vet school last hosted the annual AVS congress, which meant that this year's congress committee faced a steep learning curve. However, as Gill Harris reports, it rose to the occasion. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Knihovna Sociologického ústavu AV ČR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hesová, Nela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : library Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies https://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/knihovna-sociologickeho-ustavu-av-cr/

  18. Particle dispersion at road building using fly ash - model review, investigation of influence of humidity content for dust emission and fly ash particle characterisation; Partikelspriding vid byggnation av vaeg med aska - modelloeversikt, undersoekning av fuktighetsgradens betydelse foer damning och karaktaerisering av partiklar fraan flygaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Frogner-Kockum, Paul

    2009-03-15

    Ashes from incineration may have very good properties, such as building materials in roads. This use assumes that the ashes do not have serious environmental and health effects. Since ash might generate large amounts of dust in handling the issue on the extent of dusting and dust properties has proved to be important to assess the risks of environmental impacts during use. Inhalable particles in the ambient air are a problem that has attracted much attention and is regarded as one of the most serious health related air pollutants. The present project has aimed to: describe appropriate models for calculating the emission and dispersion of dust in the air during the construction of ash containing roads, evaluate a new method to examine the importance of moisture for dusting from fly ash and investigate the properties of fly ash, making it possible to identify ash in samples of airborne particles. The target audience is ash manufacturers, contractors and consultants with a need for knowledge of ash dusting. Project modules have included: a literature review to identify appropriate modelling tools to describe the emission and dispersion of dust from road building with ash a method study in which a piece of equipment called Duster, have been evaluated for assessing the significance of the ash humidity to dusting, and an electron microscope study where morphology and composition of some ashes, cement and Merit have been studied to find ways to identify ash particles in dust samples. The results show that there is a lack of overall model tools that can describe the emissions from all the management operations of ashes at road building and that existing models sometimes lack key variables. Also, because of high silt content of ashes, some models are deemed inferior compared to when used for ordinary mineral material. Furthermore, attempts with the Duster shows that the method works, but with limited precision, and that dusting from the ash samples was reduced significantly at moisture contents above about 15%. The particle characterization study showed that ash specific chemical signal elements are preferred in the characterization. Important signal elements of ash can be S, Hg, Cd, and the ratio Mg/Al, but elements most appropriate might vary between specific types of ash and applications. The project has brought new knowledge about the possibilities to characterize ash particles and on the moisture needed to avoid dusting from ash. A method to try dusting from ash surfaces has been evaluated in laboratory and the project has also shown available, but in some respects inadequate, models for emission and dispersion of dust from handling of ash

  19. Effects of biomass removal from forests on soil acidification, nutrient balances and tree growth - Upscaling based on experimental data and model calculations as a base for mapping the need for ash recycling; Effekter av skogsbraensleuttag paa markfoersurning, naeringsbalanser och tillvaext - Uppskalning baserat paa experimentella data och modellberaekningar som grund foer kartlaeggning av behov av askaaterfoering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Sofie; Akselsson, Cecilia; Olsson, Bengt; Belyazid, Salim; Zetterberg, Therese

    2008-12-15

    Increased biomass removal from forests has become more important as the demand for renewable energy has increased due to climate change. Stump removal, in addition to wholetree harvesting, is now considered in Sweden. However, increased biomass removal may affect the nutrient balances in forest soils causing nutrient depletion and increased acidification . It is therefore important to improve the understanding of the effects of different levels of biomass removal and to assess the need for liming. In this study, the effect of different levels of biomass removal regarding nutrient balances (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Na), acidification and tree growth has been assessed in three ways; i) assessing the effect of wholetree harvesting from three site experiments, ii) calculations of nutrient balances in forest soils applying a nutrient mass balance model, and iii) dynamic modelling. Three different biomass scenarios have been assessed; stem harvesting, wholetree harvesting, and stump removal. It is important to develop and refine the calculation for stumps, and to develop realistic forestry scenarios for removal of stem, wholetree and stumps. i) Three site experiments : The experiments showed that biomass is reduced by about 15 % at the time of the first thinning following wholetree harvesting. Furthermore, the concentrations of nutrients in the trees are reduced by up to 10 % after wholetree harvesting. The studies also showed that base saturation in the organic layer and in the upper part of the mineral soil was reduced, often between 10 and 30 %, 15 and 26 years after the wholetree harvesting. It was also possible to find a relation between the C/N-ratio in the humus layer and the nitrogen content in the needles. ii) Mass balance calculation: This study shows that there is a great potential to use nutrient mass balance calculations and calculations of excess acidity to assess the rate of depletion for base cations and the need for liming. The mass balance calculation showed losses of Ca and Mg in practically all of Sweden, for stem-, wholetree harvesting and stump removal. These losses were not as significant for K. Increased biomass removal may lead to depletion of P in forest soils in all of Sweden. The calculation also showed that nitrogen accumulates in forest soil at stem harvesting, particularly in the south of Sweden. However, if the biomass removal increases (wholetree harvesting and stump removal), there is a risk of nitrogen depletion in the north, which may result in reduced tree growth. A calculated value for excess acidity was compared with the pool of exchangeable base cations in the root zone of the soil and showed that there are large areas in Sweden where the pool of base cations is depleted rather quickly both in pine and spruce forests. The rate of depletion is significantly quicker in spruce forest and increases with increased biomass removal. These areas may therefore be considered for liming. A sensitivity analysis, testing different levels of nutrient concentrations in trees as input to the mass balance calculation, showed that uncertainties in the nutrient concentrations result in uncertainties in the calculated result with wholetree harvesting, particularly for N, Ca and K. iii) Dynamic modelling: The results of the dynamic modelling was in agreement with the site experiments, regarding decreased base saturation in the organic layer. Furthermore, the dynamic modelling showed that this reduction was still evident at the second harvest, hence indicating that this effect is long lasting. The dynamic modelling showed small or no effects on stem biomass at harvesting where wholetree harvesting had been carried out at the previous harvest occasion. Further work with dynamic modelling (more sites, more scenarios and more forest rotations) can increase the understanding for wholetree harvesting even further

  20. EST Table: AV399390 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399390 NV120162 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/181 aa ref|YP_002884244.1| Ac13-like ...yhedrovirus] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV399390 NV12 ...

  1. AVS (Application Visualization System) user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuko, Kenji; Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Gorai, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Kazuhiko

    1996-03-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS for image processing software and an animation processing system (video, frame scan converter). This report summarizes the information to use AVS and to develop and maintain computer and network environment for image processing. (author).

  2. Effekt av ulike kjemiske- og biologiske preparater på forekomsten av Fusarium og mykotoksiner i havre

    OpenAIRE

    Shakery, Bita

    2013-01-01

    Aksfusariose er en vanlig sykdom på korn forårsaket av flere ulike Fusarium-arter. En Fusarium-infeksjon på akset gir tap av avling i tillegg til en reduksjon i kvaliteten på kornet. Reduksjonen i kvalitet skjer i hovedsak gjennom produksjon av en rekke toksiske metabolitter (mykotoksiner) som kan være en helserisiko for både dyr og mennesker. I de senere årene har det vært økt fokus på Fusarium og mykotoksiner i korn både i Norge og i store deler av verden. En årsak til det...

  3. The role of AV and VV optimization for CRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Brabham, M.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective therapy for patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a ventricular conduction delay; however, approximately 30% of patients do not experience significant clinical improvement with this treatment. Modern devices allow individualized programming of the AV delay and VV offset, which offer the possibility of improving clinical response rates with optimized programming. AV and VV delay optimization techniques have included echocardiography, device-based algorithms, and several other novel noninvasive techniques. While an acute improvement in hemodynamic function has been clearly demonstrated with optimized device settings, long-term clinical benefit is limited. In the majority of cases, an empiric AV delay with simultaneous biventricular or left ventricular pacing is adequate. The value of optimization of these intervals in “non-responders” still requires further investigation.

  4. Lesing av delvis motstridende tekster i syvende klasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Mork Rogne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen ser vi på hvilken type informasjon elever i 7. klasse vektlegger for å konstruere en sammenhengende oppsummering av fire til dels motstridende tekster. Elever møter ofte flere tekster om samme tema – multiple tekster – og vi trenger økt kunnskap om hvordan de leser slike tekster. Elevene leste fire ulike tekster om en sykkelulykke. Tekstene presenterte informasjon som var delvis sammenfallende på tvers av alle tekstene, og delvis motstridende informasjon som innebar at enkelte tekster ga ulike beskrivelser av hendelsesforløpet. Vi testet elevenes ordavkodingsferdigheter, fikk dem til å fylle ut et spørreskjema om lesevaner og vi innhentet elevenes resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve. Etter lesing ba vi elevene gi en oppsummering av sykkelulykken. Elevene gjenga relativt mer sammenfallende informasjon enn motstridende informasjon. Gode resultater på Nasjonal leseprøve ser ut til å ha en sammenheng med elevenes ferdigheter i å konstruere en sammenhengende forståelse av de fire tekstene. Elever som oppga å lese mye på Internett hadde imidlertid fått med mindre av informasjonen som var felles for de fire tekstene i sine oppsummeringer. Vi fant også en negativ sammenheng mellom fritidslesing på Internett og resultatene fra Nasjonal leseprøve. Samlet sett indikerer resultatene at når elevene skal skape sammenheng mellom flere delvis motstridende tekster, så blir sammenfallende informasjon vektlagt mer enn motstridende informasjon. Dessuten ser det ut til at de elevene som bruker mest fritid til å lese på Internett, sliter mer med å sammenfatte innholdet i de fire tekstene enn de andre elevene.

  5. EST Table: AV403981 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available terminase large subunit (DNA packaging protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV403981 pg-- ... ...AV403981 pg--0297 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 100 %/265 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packag...ing protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1|

  6. Kvantifisering av overvann: Case Brøset

    OpenAIRE

    Huurnink, Jon Egenberg

    2012-01-01

    Oppgaven forsøker å vise den systemresponsen som er særegen for konvensjonelle tiltak og blå-grønne tiltak. Dette er aktuelt på Brøset bydel som en del av Fremtiden byer prosjektet og skal bygges om til boligområde. MIKE URBAN og MIKE 21 er benyttet til å lage en konseptuell modell.Ved å sammenligne sommer- og vinterforhold, i tillegg til ulike gjentaksintervaller (1, 20 og 100år), vil kurver for videreført vannmengde gi et inntrykk av tiltakenes effekt. Dette gir beslutningsstøtte for Komm...

  7. EST Table: AV398396 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV398396 NV021762 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0005622(intracellular)|GO:0008270(zinc ion bin...ding) 10/09/28 n.h 10/08/28 n.h 10/08/27 n.h 10/09/10 30 %/120 aa AGAP003111-PA Protein|2R:32505726:32508690:1|gene:AGAP003111 10/09/10 n.h 10/09/10 n.h AV398396 NV02 ...

  8. Vindkraftverk av UHPC 2.2 : En undersökning av högpresterande betong med syntetfiberarmeringen STRUX

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Michaéla; Nilsson, Thina

    2013-01-01

    Användandet av betong som ersättare för stål vid produktionen av vindkraftverkstorn har ökat den senaste tiden. Betongtorn är betydligt billigare än ståltorn men problem som sprickbildningar, frostsprängningar och följaktligen armeringskorrosion har uppstått bl a på grund av vibrationer från rotorn. I fundamentet i vindkraftverk kan ovan nämnda problem också uppstå och det uppfyller således inte alltid funktionskraven. Det här examensarbetet undersöker möjligheten att eliminera dessa problem ...

  9. Test and evaluation of multiple lambda-sensors for use in combustion gases; Multi {lambda}-sond - Utveckling och test av enkel teknik foer O{sub 2}-maetning oever tvaersnitt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallner, Per; Gaardman, Lennart; Engel, Erik [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Fluctuations and zones with fuel rich conditions are the main causes of CO-emissions and abnormal deposit formation. This project was initiated to try and trace such disturbances. 'Multi-sensor-probes' is a quick and easy way of mapping fluctuations in many points along an axis simultaneously. This project is concentrated on such measurement systems, based on lambda({lambda})-sensor technology. The project was run in a few steps: - The use of {lambda}-sensors for O{sub 2} measurements in hot flue gases (>800 deg C), - Development and testing of probe-constructions for multi-point measurements, and - Performing measurement series in Vaermeforsk-related boilers, to identify fluctuations and fuel rich zones. This project shows how standard {lambda}-sensors can be utilised also in hot flue gases. In-situ measurements with a single-sensor probe is demonstrated in CFB, PF and grate boilers. It is a water-cooled probe, with the {lambda}-sensor mounted inside the tip of the probe. To perform multi-point measurements with the standard {lambda}-sensors, an extractive probe design had to be developed. With the standard {lambda}-sensors no sensible design for multi-point in-situ measurements could be found. A way to achieve such designs would be development of {lambda}-sensors where the zirconium oxide measurement cell is separated from the electrical wiring. This would give much smaller pieces to include in the probe and especially solve the problem of low temperature demand for the parts just behind the measurement cell in standard {lambda}-sensors. This could mean a multi-probe cooled to just 500-600 deg C. The construction of the extractive multi-probe tested in this project suffered from leakage in the suction lines when exposed inside the PF boiler. A proposed design with better function in this aspect is presented in this report. The results show that by combining a cooled probe-design with standard {lambda}-sensor components a tool for measurements of O{sub 2}-fluctuations in hot flue gases is achieved. All this with low cost and easily available parts.

  10. The SSI and SKI review of the updated Final Safety Report for SFR 1 issued by SKB. Review report; SSI:s och SKI:s granskning av SKB:s uppdaterade Slutlig Saekerhetsrapport foer SFR 1. Granskningsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Jensen, Mikael; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Lund, Ingemar; Loefgren, Tomas; Moberg, Leif; Norden, Maria; Wiebert, Anders [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Thomas; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Hedberg, Bengt; Kautsky, Fritz; Lilja, Christina; Simic, Eva; Stroemberg, Bo; Sundstroem, Benny; Toverud, Oeivind; Wingefors, Stig; Zika, Helmuth [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The repository for operational radioactive wastes in Sweden, SFR1, has been the object for a new safety assessment study by SKB (The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.). The findings of the review group will form the basis for decisions by the authorities on the provisions for the future operation of the repository.

  11. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other political goals which produce national solutions and measures that are incompatible with the Kyoto Protocol. There are quite a number of factors that shape the possibilities of linking EU ETS to the systems that are discussed and planned in the countries studied, e.g. the existence of a price cap and rules for offset. The final selection of the system design in the countries studied will thus have a decisive significance on the possibilities of linking these systems to EU ETS in the future.

  12. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other political goals which produce national solutions and measures that are incompatible with the Kyoto Protocol. There are quite a number of factors that shape the possibilities of linking EU ETS to the systems that are discussed and planned in the countries studied, e.g. the existence of a price cap and rules for offset. The final selection of the system design in the countries studied will thus have a decisive significance on the possibilities of linking these systems to EU ETS in the future.

  13. Consequences of the quota requirement for energy efficiency. Can a Swedish quota obligation systems give less energy usage?; Konsekvenser av kvotplikt foer energieffektivisering. Kan ett svenskt kvotpliktssystem ge mindre energianvaendning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerkroth, Sara; Bladh, Mats; Holmberg, Rurik; Lock, Anna; Naderi, Ronak; Widerstroem, Glenn

    2012-11-01

    The Agency has on behalf of the government investigated what the consequences would be of the introduction of a compulsory quota system in Sweden. Under the proposed new EU directive on energy efficiency, all Member States should introduce a compulsory quota system, where energy companies actively initiate measures for energy efficiency among end users. In Sweden, a quota obligation system of this kind would mean energy efficiency of about 3 TWh per year, which can be difficult to achieve. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that if a compulsory quota system is introduced, the quota obligation should be placed on the network companies. If not, there is a risk of complications in the Swedish and Nordic electricity market. The Energy Markets Inspectorate consider that the quota obligation can not be on the network companies because of their function as regulated monopoly. The Swedish Energy Agency suggests that efficiency measures can be implemented in all sectors, including transport.

  14. Organisational culture at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation; Organisationskulturen inom den finlaendska Straalsaekerhetscentralens (STUK) avdelning foer oevervakning av kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Norros, L. [VTT Automation, Esbo (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    A case study to investigate the organisational culture of the regulatory authority was conducted at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's (STUK) Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) - department. Organisational culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, which are basically unconscious. Objectives of the study were to conceptualise and describe the main characteristics of YTO's organisational culture and to carry out a tentative core task analysis of the inspectors' work. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the research. YTO's culture was identified as a hierarchy-focused culture with less emphasis on innovation or social support. However, the ideal values of the personnel emphasised also social support and goal setting. Ambiguous goals were felt by some personnel as increased uncertainty about the meaningfulness of one's job. Also a lack of feedback was mentioned. The core task analysis identified the critical functions of the regulatory practice. These functions specify the three roles of the regulatory authority, the expert role, the public role and the authority role. The culture must support the fulfilment of the requirements of all the three roles. Development needs in YTO's culture were identified and recommendations were made. (au)

  15. Comparison between the KBS-3 method and the deep borehole for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    In this report a comparison is made between disposal of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method with disposal in very deep boreholes. The objective has been to make a broad comparison between the two methods, and by doing so to pinpoint factors that distinguish them from each other. The ambition has been to make an as fair comparison as possible despite that the quality of the data of relevance is very different between the methods

  16. Water Activities in Laxemar Simpevarp. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel - removal of groundwater and water activities above ground; Vattenverksamhet i Laxemar-Simpevarp. Slutfoervarsanlaeggning foer anvaent kaernbraensle - bortledande av grundvatten samt vattenverksamheter ovan mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent (EmpTec (Sweden)); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per (Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report concerns water operations (Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code) below and above ground associated with construction, operation, and decommissioning of a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar in the municipality of Oskarshamn. SKB has chosen Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar as site for the repository, and the report hence describes a non-chosen alternative. The report provides a comprehensive description of how the water operations would be executed, their hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the resulting consequences. The description is a background material for comparisons between the two sites in terms of water operations. The underground part of a repository in Laxemar would, among other things, consist of an access ramp and a repository area at a depth of approximately 500 metres. The construction, operation, and decommissioning phases would in total comprise a time period of 60-70 years. Inflowing groundwater would be diverted during construction and operation. The modelling tool MIKE SHE has been used to assess the effects of the groundwater diversion, for instance in terms of groundwater levels and stream discharges. According to MIKE SHE calculations for a hypothetical case with a fully open repository, the total groundwater inflow would be in the order of 55-90 litres per second depending on the permeability of the grouted zone around ramp, shafts and tunnels. In reality, the whole repository would not be open simultaneously, and the inflow would therefore be less. The groundwater diversion would cause groundwater- level drawdown in the rock, which in turn would lead to drawdown of the groundwater table in relatively large areas above and around the repository. According to model calculations, there would be an insignificant drawdown of the water level in Lake Frisksjoen, the largest lake in the area. The discharge in the most important stream of the area (Laxemaraan) would be reduced by less than ten percent. Comprehensive field inventories have been performed in the area, for instance concerning ecological conditions, agriculture, forestry and private wells. In total, 67 nature objects have been identified, geographically delineated, and classified in terms of nature values. These consist of forest key habitats (or so called objects with nature values), wetlands, lakes and streams. In general, the objects are judged to have low nature values (municipal or local value). Forest key habitats are judged to have higher nature values (regional value), but the main nature values for these objects are not associated to wet or moist conditions. It has neither been found any red-listed or protected species whose survival depends on the level of the groundwater table. However, the area contains species (bats, for instance) that are favoured by a mosaic landscape, including moist/wet areas and ponds. With one exception, it is judged that the groundwater diversion would lead to none, insignificant or small consequences for the identified nature objects. The principal ecological consequence of the groundwater diversion concerns the stream Laxemaraan, for which the consequences of a discharge reduction would be noticeable. Concerning agriculture and forestry it is judged that within the influence area, groundwater table drawdown would reduce the crop yield and the forest yield by up to 10% and 20%, respectively. The groundwater diversion would not affect municipal water supply. However, the Laxemar area contains a large number of private wells, which implies that the groundwater diversion possibly would affect private water supply in terms of reduced well capacity. It would require more detailed investigations of separate buildings and road stretches in order to assess subsidence risks. Buildings and other infrastructure owned by Oskarshamns Kraftgrupp AB (including the reactor buildings O1-O3) and associated water handling would not be affected by the groundwater diversion. Above-ground water operations would include a bridge across Laxemaraan and measures in the vicinity of the surface facility (the industrial area) for the repository, in Laxemaraan and in a ditch (Oxhagsbaecken). During construction of the bridge, measures would be taken to reduce the consequences of turbid water, for instance for spawning fish. No intermediate support in the stream would be required, and the bridge would be constructed not to influence the flow conditions of the stream and not to be a wandering obstacle for people and animals. Other water operations above ground would be executed for handling of drainage water from the underground part of the repository and leachate from a rock dump. These waters would be diverted to Laxemaraan via a constructed 'lake' adjacent to the stream. The leachate would also be treated in a broad irrigation area with a recirculation- and detention pond (Laxemarkaerren).

  17. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000; Oeversikt av resuItat fraan SKB:s FoU inom injekteringsteknik foer bergtaetning aaren 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [Swedpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eklund, D. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. Soil and Rock Mechanics; Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Geology; Hansson, Paer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindblom, U. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Wilen, P. [Swedpower AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling and experiments indicate that the specific capacity, Q/{delta}h, (flow/head) is a robust parameter and that the distribution of specific capacities and calculated apertures pictures the geometric variations within the fracture. This distribution may, together with the area, also give an estimate of the fracture volume. The distribution of specific capacities and apertures within a fracture may help when choosing grouting strategy like choice of grout and order of grouting. The work in the subproject 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock ' has dealt with laboratory tests, numerical modelling and a summarising conceptual model. The results of the laboratory tests are a number of phenomenological studies of the spreading mechanisms. Preliminary attempts to take care of filtration and separation while grouting are incorporated in a numerical model. Software that generates fracture geometry, calculates penetration with respect to filtration and separation and evaluates the effect of grouting has been developed. A conceptual model has been developed, describing how to calculate the sealing efficiency and how a prediction of the leakage into a tunnel can be done. The subproject 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' has aimed to create a theoretical base for the modelling of the behaviour of weakness zones under the influence of different reinforcement systems in combination with pre-grouting of the zone. Freezing of a zone weathered down to gravel has also been studied. By, analytically or graphically, putting the ground reaction curve (GRC) together with the reaction curve of the reinforcement, the tunnel wall deformation is obtained in the current case. The studies show that, when using modern software for rock mechanical analyses, it is possible to create the necessary theoretical base for a decision on driving through a weakness zone in good bedrock. When driving, the great difficulty is probably to, fast enough, obtain relevant material parameters as input in the model. Therefore field investigations and rock mechanical analyses should be carried through already at the planning stage. The subproject 'Cement based grouting material' is divided into three parts. The part 'Inventory and characterisation of material' has mainly dealt with finely ground cements and different types of super plasticizers. The biggest durability problem regarding cement-based grouts is that they contain water-soluble components. Durability will mainly be a function water penetration through the grouted zone. This will, in turn, depend on the coefficient of fullness in the fracture system and the permeability of the stiffened grout. Therefore, a valuation of leaching and durability has to be based on studies of grout in fractures in the rock and calcium content of the penetrating water. Grout based on granulated blast-furnace slag and/or silica fume contains less calcium hydroxide, which decreases the leaching. These cements are, however, very slow if they aren't accelerated.(abstract truncated)

  18. Follow-up of the project 'Methodology for classification of the H14 criterion in the EU Directive on waste'; Uppfoeljning till projektet 'Metodik foer klassificering av H14-kriteriet i Avfallsfoerordningen'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiernstroem, Sara; Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik; Breitholtz, Magnus (Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Hemstroem, Kristian; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    Within the European Union, ash materials and other waste types, which may cause ecotoxicological effects, should be classified based on their inherent hazardous effects under criterion H-14 ('Ecotoxic': substances and preparations which present or may present immediate or delayed risks for one or more sectors of the environment) in the Directive on waste 2008/98/EC. According this directive the classification of waste as hazardous waste should also be based on the Community legislation on chemicals, in particular concerning the regulation for classification and labelling CLP. In recent years, recommendations on how to classify waste based on analytical measurement of solid material have been published by Swedish organizations and/or interest groups. A limitation of these recommendations is that a classification procedure based on measurement of metals and metal compounds in many cases are defective with respect to speciation and bioavailability of the metals. This makes it difficult to evaluate inherent hazardous properties, and may lead to either over- or underestimations of hazard potential of the waste material. To overcome this limitation, there is currently an international consensus that biological test systems can be used for the ecotoxicological characterization and classification of the intrinsic properties of waste in general. Today, there are, however, no quantitative criterions on how to feed in information from ecotoxicological tests to the regulatory system. A further shortcoming is that the proposed test methods for classification of waste with regards to H-14 mainly have been used for hazard assessment and classification of single chemical substances, which means that they may not be optimal for classification of complex waste materials. The main aim with current study was to further refine the methods proposed (both for biological testing and leaching) and used in earlier studies for classification of waste as hazardous waste. In view of the fact that earlier studies on ashes has shown that organic compounds are of insignificant importance with respect to hazard classification, leaching methods where adopted to OECD's guidance on transformation/dissolution of metals and metal compounds in aqueous media. As model ash materials one fly ash from incineration of peat and one bottom ash from incineration municipal waste were selected. These ash materials were prepared for subsequent ecotoxicological testing using both a standardized batch test and a pH-stat test (to mimic OECD guidelines as above). The eluates were tested with ecotoxicological tests using test organisms representative for tempered regions, i.e. both an acute and a larval development test with the crustacean Nitocra spinipes, which has been used in our earlier studies on ash materials, and a growth inhibition test with the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, a species which has not been used for classification of waste materials before. The most important finding from the study is that depending on whether the classification of the ash was based on chemical analysis of either the solid material or the leachate, or toxicity of the ash elaute, the outcome was disparate. For instance, the bottom ash was classified as very toxic based on measurements of (mainly) metals in the solid material, whereas the toxicity index based on levels of the same metals in the ash eluates and the acute toxicity in Nitocra spinipes indicated low toxicity. At the same time, very high toxicity was observed in the subchronic larval development test with the same species, although only when leaching was performed at LS/10 and at the natural ash pH of 10.2 (before pH-adjustment). The pH-stat test used in this study showed good repeatability and may be an option for preparation of ash eluates for subsequent ecotoxicological testing. This would in turn, at least partly, offer a possibility to harmonize current waste and chemical legislations. It should be noted however that the pH-stat test used in the current study gives very low L/S conditions as compared to recommendations within OECD. For the studied bottom ash, a change in leaching conditions from L/S 10 to L/S 1000 and from the ash material's natural pH to pH 7, resulted in a relatively small change in both toxicity index based on levels of Cu, Pb and Zn in the eluate and growth inhibition in Ceramium tenuicorne. The toxicity observed in the subchronic test with Nitocra spinipes however was drastically reduced when leaching was performed with the pH-stat test as compared to the batch test. Aging of the fly ash from incineration of peat during 28 days in the laboratory resulted in a slight reduction of hazard potential in the sense that the eluates from the aged ash were less toxic in the ecotoxicological tests. Finally, the ecotoxicological characterization of the selected ash materials in the current study showed that none of the test organisms was most sensitive to all ash eluates.

  19. Choices of action and its influence on farmers' attitudes regarding willow and reed canary grass cultivation; Betydelsen av olika handlingsalternativ foer oekat intresse hos lantbrukare att odla salix och roerflen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Aasa; Paulrud, Susanne; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-02-15

    The contribution of energy crops from the agricultural sector is an example of a resource that has a potential to increase substantially in the near future. However, one problem is the lack of interest in cultivating energy crops within the agricultural Several studies have shown that there are a number of reasons for farmers not becoming involved in energy crops. Besides biological aspects, market potential and profitability the farmers are also affected by the available resources on the farm, the effect of the crops on the surroundings, work load, liquidity and the perceived risks. The overall aim with the present study is to increase the knowledge about how to change farmers' attitudes regarding energy crop cultivation, i.e. making them more interested. This study also shows that there is a large fraction of farmers that generally believe they have no or little knowledge of energy crops, such as willow, reed canary grass and hemp. The fraction of farmers considering there is a larger probability of future cultivation of these crops with increased knowledge is also quite large. Energy crop cultivation does not suit everybody. Generally, growing willow and reed canary grass is an alternative for farmers having another business besides agricultural business. Characteristics for these farms are working hours <1500 hours and that the machines are partly owned

  20. A method for mapping the motion and temperature history of fuel particles in grate boilers and waste incinerators - stage 1; Metod foer kartlaeggning av braenslepartiklars roerelse och temperaturhistorik i rosterpannor/avfallsugnar - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Blom, Elisabeth; Hald Pedersen, Niels; Moritz, Anders; Maardsjoe, Olle; Oskarsson, Jan; Petersson, Mats

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted where methods using radioactive tracer techniques for studying the behaviour of fuel particles on a grate are proposed and assessed. The following topics are addressed: - the possibility to continuously register the position of a single fuel particle on a grate from the fuel feed to burn-out; - the possibility to determine when a single fuel particle reach a certain temperature; and - the possibility to study drying and pyrolysis processes for a single fuel particle. In addition, a method to determine the height and density profiles of a fuel bed on a grate is proposed. The method for continuous determination of position is based on including a radiation source of the isotope {sup 24}Na in a fuel particle which is then supplied to the fuel feed. The gamma radiation emitted is registered by a number of detectors, mounted on the outside of the boiler. Since the radiation registered is dependent on both the distance between the source and detector and on the materials in the pathway, it is possible to continuously calculate the position of the fuel particle with the aid of Monte Carlo simulation. The inaccuracy in the determination is estimated to less than 5 cm. This is deemed to be accurate enough to be interesting. In order to study when a fuel particle reach a certain temperature, it is proposed that vials, manufactured in materials that will be broken at a defined temperature, is filled with the isotope {sup 85}Kr and mounted in fuel particles. When this noble gas is released, it follows the flue gases through the boiler and can be detected in the flue gas duct through its beta emission. The drying process of a fuel particle is proposed to be studied through impregnating fuel particles with tritium-containing water. The tritium-containing water is evaporated as the fuel particle dries and through analysing the tritium content of the flue gases the drying process can be followed. The feasibility study also deals with the radiation hazards connected to the proposed methods. Use of the methods requires authorization by the radiation protection agency. However, this is not believed to be a problem, although the radioactive isotopes must only be handled by authorized persons. It should be emphasised that the planned use do not mean that persons are exposed to radiation of any health-related significance whatsoever. Action plans for near-accident scenarios are described, which mean that no risks for persons and/or the plant should arise. In contrast, the risks for limited access to the boiler or shutdown during 10-14 days in case of near-accident must be assessed in each case. The assessment of the proposed methods leads to the conclusion that the technical possibilities to use the methods are realistic. Validation trials are therefore proposed to be conducted on a biomass boiler and on a waste incinerator. The prerequisites for these trials, a proposed validation program as well as a preliminary time schedule, is finally given.

  1. Nuclear Energy, Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Reports to the Energy Commission's Expertgroup for Safety and Environment. Kaernenergi, geotermisk energi och miljoe. Underlagsrapporter till rapport om miljoeeffekter och risker vid utnyttjandet av energi fraan Expertgruppen foer saekerhet och miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains reports on uranium mining, working conditions in the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, risks at storage of spent fuel elements, environmental impact of future reactor technology, effects of waste heat disposal and risks at geothermal energy extraction in Sweden. These reports have been use by the expert group to produce their final paper.

  2. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff - for energy purposes. Influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics; Samtidig skoerd av halm och agnar foer energiaendamaal - inverkan paa avkastning, baldensitet, faelttorkningsfoerlopp och foerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Gunnar; Roennbaeck, Marie

    2010-04-15

    Introductory field experiments were carried out in central Sweden during 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Two different types of combine harvesters were used with somewhat different methods of kernel separation. Both harvesters were equipped with the Combi System from Rekordverken. This enabled them to mix the chaff in the straw swath as well as distribute this fraction over the working width. The measurement of crop residue moisture immediately after combine harvesting showed that admixture of chaff reduced the initial moisture in the straw swaths. The added chaff increased the total yield of crop residue with 14%, showing that about half the biologically available chaff was harvested. The combustion analyses showed a slight increase in ash content when chaff was mixed in. This did not cause any significant change in net calorific value or ash melting behavior

  3. Acceptance-criteria for the bedrock for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Proceedings from a seminar at Gothenburg University; Acceptanskriterier foer berggrunden vid djup geologisk slutfoervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The seminar was directed to Nordic participants, and discussed disposal in the Nordic crystalline bedrock. Criteria for the bedrock should include: It should give durable mechanical protection for the engineered barriers; give a stable and favorable chemical environment for these barriers; have a low turnover of ground water in the near field; be easy to characterize; give favorable recipient-conditions; not have valuable minerals in workable quantities. These general criteria raise several questions coupled to the safety analysis: e.g. the need for geological, hydrological and geochemical parameters. Which data are missing, which are most difficult to find? What should the site characterization program look like to focus on factors that are of the highest importance according to the safety analysis. The demands on the conditions at a site need to be translated into quantitative criteria, which should be expressed as values that can be measured at the site or deduced from such measurements. These questions were discussed at the seminar, and 21 contributions from Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish participants are reported in these proceedings under the chapters: Coupling to the safety analysis; Methodology and criteria for site selection in a regional geoscientific perspective; Rock as a building material - prognosis and result; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Mechanical protection; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Low ground water turnover, chemically favorable and stable environment in the near field; Geoscientific criteria for the bedrock at the repository - Demands on the bedrock concerning the migration of radionuclides.

  4. Decision support system on line to minimize the NO{sub x} emission. Results from Oerebro Energi; Beslutsstoed on line foer minimering av NO{sub x}. Resultat fraan Oerebro Energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, B G; Liao, B; Sieurin, J [EuroSim AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-05-01

    A Decision Support System to reduce NO{sub x} emission from combustion processes with SNCR system have been developed and tested in full scale at Oerebro Energy. The boiler is a 165 MWh{sub th} CFB and have been fired with a mixture of biomass, peat and coal. The results proves that the EuroSim method works to calculate the derivative included in the Decision Support System. The Decision Support System is a tool for the operator of the plant, he will be informed of the advantage of making an increase or decrease of the ammonia flow or excess air. The trend curves that are presented to the operator includes information about the economic value to make an adjustment of the ammonia flow. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dO{sub 2} shows the advantage of making a reduction in the excess air level, concerning the fee for NO{sub x}. In this case it is important to take into consideration the risk for understoichiometric combustion and corrosion. The results from the full scale test in the Oerebro Plant shows that during some time periods it is economical to shut off the ammonia flow. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dAF is under the profitability limit. This indicate that the cost for the ammonia is higher than the fee for the NO{sub x} emission. If the ammonia flow is added in excess, the emission of ammonia and N{sub 2}O will increase. During other time periods the Decision Support System shows that it is profitable to increase the ammonia flow, the derivative is lower than -0,2. The derivative dNO{sub x}/dO{sub 2} is normally between 10 and 20 (ppm/%). This indicate that it is a great potential to reduce the NO{sub x} fee by decreasing the excess air level in the boiler. 3 refs, 23 figs

  5. The basis for decisions in the nuclear waste issue. Experiences of the legislative basis and the EIA process; Grunden foer beslut i kaernavfallsfraagan. Upplevelser av lagstiftningsgrund och MKB-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskitalo, Carina; Nordlund, Annika; Lindgren, Urban (Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the multi-level governance process in conjunction with the siting and design of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Since no similar activities have ever been implemented in Sweden, there is no available practice for how different laws should be coordinated and interpreted. The study sheds light on three general questions: 1) What is the formal decision-making mandate and what are the decision-making bodies at different levels (municipal level, regional or county level, and national level) according to the legislation, and what interpretation problems have these actors experienced with regard to the legislation and the EIA process? 2) What 'broader public' and organizations besides groups within the formal decision-making mandate have participated in the consultations, and what viewpoints have they expressed regarding the EIA process and consultations? 3) How have judgements and understanding of, and reactions to, risk related to the final repository been handled in the process? The study is mainly based on two different sources of material. A literature review with a focus on nuclear fuel management has been carried out within the social sciences field. Special interest has been devoted to discussing the content of legislation in relation to the EIA process and licensing, and the background and design of the EIA process. The EIA process is of special interest here, since it brings in both formal decision-making bodies and participation by broader groups. Furthermore, the literature review deals with theoretical perspectives regarding perceptions and communication of risk assessments. Literature reviews have also been conducted on minutes from EIA consultations during the period 2001 to 2007. The main source of the material used in the study is interview studies. The interview subjects represent both government authorities and non governmental organizations at the national, regional and local level. The results of the studies show that there are differences in participation between actors at different levels. The interviews show that the municipal level and local environmental organizations have played an active role in the process, while the role played at the regional level by the county administrative boards has been more limited. On the national level, particular attention is given to the state's impact on the EIA process via recommendations for research and financial support for the participation of different groups via the Nuclear Waste Fund. A universal perception of the legislation is that most of the actors feel secure in their own role within their particular profession, but that the interaction between sectoral laws and the Environmental Code is unclear in some respects when it comes to the complex issue of nuclear waste. The interview subjects express the view that the process for EIA and consultations has been based on practice established between the parties who have participated in the site selection process since the early 1990s. The forms for the consultation were thus worked out before the beginning of the formal consultation process in 2001. Many of the environmental organizations perceive that they have entered this process after the consultation form had already been developed, which has somewhat curtailed their chances to influence it. The broadening of participation via the Environmental Code has, however, given the environmental organizations access in another way than they have had via their traditional oppositional role as non governmental organizations outside the establishment. The environmental organizations and established parties have, however, largely had different perspectives on EIA and the role of the consultations. Here established parties, including regulatory authorities, can to some extent be seen as representing a planning paradigm (where the project itself and political decisions about it are in focus), while many environmental organizations traditionally represent an environmental paradigm that focuses on the precautionary principle for potentially environmentally hazardous processes. These differences have characterized much of the consultation process, and can also be seen as symptomatic for inclusion of parts of an environmental paradigm within legislation such as the Environmental Code. The results of the interviews also show that non-profit organizations and private citizens have difficulty participating in the process on the same terms as government authorities and activity operators, and that the resources of the developer cannot be matched by any other party when it comes to information, participation and expertise. Some believe that the County Administrative Board should play a more central role in this context, given its overall responsibility for coordination under the law.

  6. Geologic facts for priority site selection in the area west of Simpevarp. Reports 1-4; Geologiskt underlag foer val av prioriterad plats inom omraadet vaester om Simpevarp. Delrapport 1-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Persson, Lena [SGU, Uppsala (Sweden); Danielsson, Peter; Berglund, Johan [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    The area west of Simpevarp at Oskarshamn is a candidate site for the Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. Since the available information of geologic structures in the area is not very detailed, measurements and interpretation of existing data have been performed in order to find inhomogeneities and local lineaments. Surveys were made air and by geophysical measurements in the field.

  7. Flyash and sewage sludge as liner material - Preparations for a pilot test with fly-ash stabilised sewage sludge as landfill liner; Linermaterial med aska och roetslam - Underlag foer genomfoerande av pilotfoersoek med stabiliserat avloppsslam som taetskiktsmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, J.; Rogbeck, Y.; Svedberg, B.; Uhlander, O. [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Mossakowska, A. [Stockholm Vatten AB (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a new liner material based on biofuel fly ash and sewage sludge and to plan for a pilot test with this new liner (FSA) on a landfill. The investigation shows that FSA has potential to fulfil technical and economical requirements as well as requirements of durability. This project constitutes part of a larger one, where the overall aim is to collect information/experience of FSA as a liner for presentation in a handbook. During the conducted laboratory work recipes for mixture proportions for application as landfill liner were controlled according to technical and environmental aspects. A recipe for FSA material has been prepared, which has permeability values lower than 10-9 m/s. This low permeability can assure a low percolation of precipitated water through the landfill liner, < 50 litre/m{sup 2}/year. FSA has sufficient un-drained shear strength and has an estimated slow bio-degradation, which can assure a long duration period. Based on results from tests conducted in this and other projects, where FSA materials were tested, necessary quality verifications has been conducted for the ingredients bio-fly-ash and sewage sludge and for the FSA-mixture. The FSA materials potential as liner increases with darker colour (bordering black). FSA-40 is a mixture of 40 % dry solid (DS) fly ash and 60 % DS sewage sludge, and FSA-60 is a mixture containing 60 % DS fly ash and 40 % DS sewage sludge and so on. Some important parameters of the ingredient materials are DS content (or water content) and pH and CaO content of the fly ash. A liner made of FSA should have surrounding layers of high water containing capacity in order to protect the FSA-liner from drying. The drainage and oxidation protection layers have to transport precipitated water as well as contain sufficient pore water in order to be an oxygen barrier above the liner (FSA). In addition, the investigation shows that a paddle blender should be used in order to guarantee a continuous FSA-mixture. The evaluation made in this report shows that FSA liner has about the same price as traditional liner materials (with bentonite mats etc.) if material costs are not accounted for. However, when the non-payment of waste taxes and deposition costs are accounted for, fly ash and sewage sludge can contribute to cover work and material costs of the liner with FSA. The investigation indicates that the results presented in this report are universal for FSA. This is valid as far as certain qualities of the fly ash and the sewage sludge are granted. Still, FSA with new fly-ash material and/or sewage sludge should be investigated in laboratories before using it at a field application. The proposed pilot/field investigation will provide important management, operational and working information on the FSA material as a liner. According to plans, the test site will be located at Dragmossen landfill site, Aelvkarleby, Sweden. The test site will be controlled at least for a one-year period. Geotechnical and environmental aspects, as settlement, densities, permeability, un-drained shear strength, biological activity etc. will be followed up. New laboratory tests on bio degradation (long term durability) of the proposed FSA liner will be conducted as well.

  8. 'Finnova Development Group'. Comb Configurated Costumer-close Network Installations with Underground Service Boxes; 'Finnova' Innovativ Montage och Systemloesning foer Fjaerrvaermeanslutning av Villaomraade. Huvudloesning 'Kamfoerlaeggning med Serviceskaap'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundson, Tommy [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (SE)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    In this report a completely new approach to the distribution of District Heating Services is presented. The general idea of the solution, here presented under the name Comb Configurated Costumer close Network Installations with Underground Service Boxes (in the following referred to as Finnova AF), was given birth during a very early stage of the working process of the FDG. The goal for our 'Vaermegles'- project ('Vaermegles' means for a residential area to have a low heat demand) is to present a technical solution that implies a substantial cost reduction for establishing DH in such low heat demand residential areas, when compared with what is recognized as to-day applied 'best technology'. The aim point was, in the cost level of 2003/2004, VAT not included, a total investment sum of SEK 50,000 (about 7,000 USD). Using flexible piping, delivered to the site as coils of 100 m of pipes each, installed according to the Comb configuration principle, no joints installed directly in the ground are needed. The number of street crossings is strongly reduced, as compared with today's practice. The total of the joint assembly work takes place inside underground service boxes, situated at the building site boundaries. In this way the continuity of the building process is strongly improved. The stages of operation: digging, installing of pipes, backfilling and arranging of service boxes will take place in shortest possible time. As a prototype, the so called service box (e g a service and connection box, let us call it an 'S/C' box) is square, made of concrete and will be installed with its roof 4-8 inches above ground. Inside the box, a fully equipped DH 'substation', designed as an easily replaceable cassette. In the prototype the closing cap is made from a galvanised steel sheet. The same box and cassette designs can be used for almost all single family houses with a heat demand not exceeding 10 kW. This gives a possibility for a high degree of standardisation. The main reason for abandoning the classical DH substation is purely economical. According to available statistics, the conventional Swedish substation normally counts for nearly 40 % of the total costs. Thus, the DH substation is moved out from the customer's house. The DH energy supply is transformed, checked and metered before it is delivered to the premises of the end-user. The costumer will be given 'four holes in the wall' - holes that at demand supply refined hot water directly to existing radiator- and hot water systems. In addition to the already mentioned low investment costs, the two most important advantages are the following: The DH supplier, not the costumer, will be able to perform a life long supervision, and maintenance of the DH S/C box as a whole. All maintenance work and metering can be performed without any inconvenience for the costumer. He will be given 'four pipes through the wall' and more indoor space and a better indoor climate. For the DH supplier: The most evident improvement is the low investment costs. It is substantially lower than to day's best choice. The main reason for this that the all building site work are harmonised to be performed with high continuity and with minimized open excavation time. Also the possible drawbacks are given in the report. For the costumer the S/C box, as situated in the prototype, may be a hard to like new part of a since long familiar and beloved garden view. Another drawback is of course that the heat losses from the box to the house are added to the billed heat consumption. As part of the report, advantages and drawbacks for three different solutions have been listed and discussed. The three approaches are: The Finnova AF, one traditional Swedish high temperature system (temperatures up to + 120 C), with individual substation and a low temperature system called EPSPEX, supported by a common substation. In the aggregated evaluation, including investment costs, service and maintenance and environment, Finnova AF comes out best. As a result of the ongoing demonstration in Trelleborg, new experiences are forwarding further improvements. There is a definite need for further development in the field of flexible DH heating piping. The costs for steel and copper will certainly continue to rise rapidly, as will they be an increasing demand for sophisticated plastic materials. There is a need to further develop plastic materials to have an increased endurance to high temperature and pressures. There is also a need to improve the flexibility to allow lower bending radii at installation. As has been demonstrated, the most important parameter with respect to a comprehensive and continuously performed pipe installation is that no joints directly in the ground are needed. Consequently, these also affect the costs to a high degree. Therefore, one simple way of further development is to increase the diameter on as coils to the site supplied piping. At present, the summed up economy of the system is not yet totally settled. However, the presented investment cost calculation is fairly well supported; about 75 % of the installations in Trelleborg are finished without any surprises. With the Finnova AF approach, the investment costs for a installed network of 1,425 m, serving 50 single family houses, the costs will amount to less than SEK 49,900 per house. This is a cost reduction with 32 %, compared with best choice, today's applied 'best technology'.

  9. Bottom ash from fluidising bed boilers as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Chemical and geotechnical characterisation; Pannsand som kringfyllnadsmaterial foer fjaerrvaermeroergravar. Kemisk och geoteknisk karaktaerisering av fluidbaeddsand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Roger; Rogbeck, Jan; Suer, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Bottom ashes from fluid bed boilers have been characterised, both geotechnically and chemically, in order to investigate the possibility to use them as filler material in district heating pipe culverts. Bottom ashes from both biofuel boilers and waste boilers are represented in this project. The companies which ashes have been characterised are Sundsvall Energi AB, Sydkraft OestVaerme AB, Sydkraft MaelarVaerme AB, Eskilstuna Miljoe och Energi, Stora Enso Fors, Soederenergi and Fortum Vaerme. A total of ten ashes have been analysed where three ashes originates from Sundsvall Energi AB, two from Sydkraft OestVaerme AB and one from the each of the remaining companies. The chemical analyses have been performed both on fresh ashes and on ashes aged for three months. The geotechnical analyses performed are grain size distribution, packing abilities and permeability. Chemical analyses performed are total content, available content, leaching tests (leaching both by shaking method and column procedure) and organic analyses (PAH, EOX, TOC, dioxin and fenol). The geotechnical analyses show that the ashes fulfils the demands that are put on the filler material used in district heating pipe culverts. When using the ashes in applications, light compaction should be performed due to the risk of crushing the material which may cause an increased amount of fine material. The leachability of fine material is larger than for coarse material. The ashes are relatively insensitive to precipitation. Bio fuel based bottom ashes have a lower content of environmental affecting substances than waste fuel based ashes. This is also shown in the leaching analyses. The leaching water from fresh ashes contains a higher concentration of leachable components than aged ashes. When aged the pH in the ashes decreases due to carbon uptake and hydration and this makes metals as Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn less mobile. On the other hand, an increase in leachability of Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4} is shown when the ashes are aged. If the leaching values of the ashes are compared to the limits set by the European Union for placing waste on an inert landfill the bio fuel based ashes generally fulfil the demands. Corresponding comparison for waste fuel based ashes shows generally high values for Sb, Mo and SO{sub 4}. As a recommendation the bio fuel based should be used in district heating pipe culverts. The leachability of antimony for waste based fuels is critical and further investigations of the environmental effects caused by Sb are needed to secure the use of waste fuel based ashes.

  10. Noise and noise disturbances from wind power plants - Tests with interactive control of sound parameters for more comfortable and less perceptible sounds; Buller och bullerstoerningar fraan vindkraftverk - Foersoek med interaktiv styrning av ljudparametrar foer behagligare och mindre maerkbara ljud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson-Waye, K.; Oehrstroem, E.; Bjoerkman, M.; Agge, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2001-12-01

    In experimental pilot studies, a methodology has been worked out for interactively varying sound parameters in wind power plants. In the tests, 24 persons varied the center frequency of different band-widths, the frequency of a sinus-tone and the amplitude-modulation of a sinus-tone in order to create as comfortable a sound as possible. The variations build on the noise from the two wind turbines Bonus and Wind World. The variations were performed with a constant dba level. The results showed that the majority preferred a low-frequency tone (94 Hz and 115 Hz for Wind World and Bonus, respectively). The mean of the most comfortable amplitude-modulation varied between 18 and 22 Hz, depending on the ground frequency. The mean of the center-frequency for the different band-widths varied from 785 to 1104 Hz. In order to study the influence of the wind velocity on the acoustic character of the noise, a long-time measurement program has been performed. A remotely controlled system has been developed, where wind velocity, wind direction, temperature and humidity are registered simultaneously with the noise. Long-time registrations have been performed for four different wing turbines.

  11. The conditions for use of reed canary grass briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in small heating plants; Foerutsaettningar foer anvaendning av roerflensbriketter och hackad roerflen i mindre vaermecentraler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Davidsson, Kent; Holmgren, Magnus A. (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)); Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Rikard; Leffler, Joel (ETC, Piteaa (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this study was to test fuel blends of briquettes and chopped reed canary grass in three existing heating plants (50 kW - 500 kW) and elucidate the requirements for good performance and low emissions. In addition, the study investigated production of reed canary grass briquettes using a Polish screw press developed for straw. Some tests with a bale shredder were also undertaken. The screw press technique is of interest for reed canary grass because it is a simple technique, easy to handle, developed for small scale production, and for straw. The test with reed canary grass in this study showed that the technique worked well but that further adjustments and a longer test period are needed in order to achieve higher bulk density and mechanical strength. The test with chopped reed canary grass shows that a system with a forage harvester is slightly more effective than baling and cutting in a bale shredder. The study concluded that few existing heating plants of size 50 kW-1 MW that currently use wood fuels will be able to use reed canary grass without adjustment, conversion or replacement of the combustion equipment. Reed canary grass has 15-20 times higher ash content than wood briquettes and 2-3 times higher ash content than forest residue; the combustion equipment must be able to handle these properties. The boiler must be equipped with a continuously operating ashing system and it must be possible to move the ash bed mechanically. There is a risk of high content of unburned matter if the residence time in the boiler is too short, due to the structure and low bulk density of the reed canary grass ash. Using a blend of wood briquettes and reed canary briquettes results in lower ash content, but also affects the ash chemistry and tends to lower the initial ash fusion temperature compared to using 100 % reed canary grass. Blending chopped reed canary grass and wood chips in an existing small scale heating plant also requires measures to achieve an even fuel blend and uniform feed to the boiler. To facilitate the development of reed canary grass as an energy crop, it is important that potential users have access to an overview and assessment of appropriate combustion techniques on the European market today. More demonstration projects are also needed, as well as practical development of fuel handling systems, combustion systems, flue gas cleaning and combustion control systems

  12. Effects of wood-ash addition on nitrogen turnover in a highly nitrogen loaded spruce site. Final project report; Effekter av askaaterfoering paa kvaeveomsaettningen i ett kvaeverikt granbestaand i Halland. Slutrapport foer projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Hoegbom, Lars; Nordlund, Sten [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    During two consecutive years, it was studied how a fertilization with 4.2 tonnes pelleted bark ash per ha, made six-seven years earlier, affected soil chemistry, nitrogen turnover and soil-water chemistry on a Norway spruce site in SW Sweden. The actual site has a very acidic soil. At the same time, the supply of inorganic N is rich. Measures against soil acidification, e. g. addition of ash or lime, may significantly influence the turnover of N with a subsequent risk for increased leaching. Thus, there is a potential conflict between two urgent environmental goals, i. e. to decrease acidification and to decrease the N load on aquatic ecosystems. In the humus layer and the upper 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH(H{sub 2}O) had increased with at the most 0.2 units because of the ash addition. The easily extractable amounts of Mg, P and nitrate were slightly increased. The potential nitrification in the humus layer was generally higher in the ash treatment, but the difference. was not statistically significant. The soil water at 50 cm depth was 0.1-0.2 pH-units more acidic where ash had been applied. Simultaneously, there were tendencies for higher concentrations of nitrate, Al and K. This is the first time in Sweden that ash fertilization of a closed forest has given clear indications of an increased N leaching. As expected, the ash fertilization decreased the acidity of the top soil. On the contrary, the runoff became more acidic and more rich in Al. Thus, the ash fertilization has counteracted one of its primary goals, i. e. to produce a runoff less toxic to aquatic life. The acidification of the runoff may partially be because of acid production during nitrification.

  13. HMI-Design of System Solutions in Control Rooms. Description of a Working Process from a Human-Machine Perspective; MMI-design av systemloesningar i kontrollrum. Arbetsprocess foer utformning utifraan ett maenniska-maskinperspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligaard, Lars-Ola; Andersson, Jonas; Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa

    2008-01-15

    To stay competitive, the process industry of today faces increasing demands of continuous development for efficient use of both technical and human resources. An important step is to create new useful technical solutions, which also bring demands on functionality and usability. Functionality means that the new technology fulfils its purpose, while usability means that the human operator knows how to handle the new technology. If any of these two components are inferior, the potential of new technology will never be fully utilized. Today, a growing amount of advanced information technology is being used in supervisory control, at the same time as the process complexity is increasing. The technology has thereby become more difficult to understand, supervise and control, when processes, connections and logics are not visible in the same way as earlier. An increased level of automation together with reduced work force is also a contributing factor. Due to this, human-machine interaction (HMI) has become a more important aspect of quality in the development of new technology. From the operators' point of view, it is important that the development takes place with an increased transparency of the technical system, as well as reduction of the amount of information that has to be processed by the operator. To achieve a good human-machine interaction, it has to be considered during all phases in the development process of control room design. It is important that relevant hand-books and guidelines are used, but also a working process, which describes how the development work should be performed and the relationship between different parts in the process. The aim of this project was to present a general report in Swedish, which describes a working process for development of useful operator interfaces, work tasks, instructions, and working environments. The report is primarily aimed for the process industry, but can be useful in all other areas including interaction between operators and machines. The content can be used both for new development projects and for upgrading of already existing control room designs. The main target group for the report is the development engineers at the plant, who work close to the supplier, and the people who should plan and guide the development work in the control room. The purpose of the report is to deliver knowledge about how to consider a human-machine perspective in the development process. The report presents what is important to consider, but does not in detail show design solutions. The report is also a usable tool for those people who should do the actual screen designs, but then it should be used together with hand-book data and guide-lines referred to. The report begins with a description of basic concepts and definitions within the area of HMI. This is followed by a description of the HMI development working process. The working process includes five steps; planning, requirements, conceptual design, detailed design, and commissioning. The steps also include methodology for data collection and evaluation. Finally, the handbook also contains short summaries of the different steps in the working process, where important points to consider are brought forward

  14. Combined environmental impacts from production and use of the products. An EIS-application project for refineries; Sammanvaegd miljoepaaverkan fraan produktion och anvaendning av produkterna. Ett MKB-tillaempningsprojekt foer raffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindbom, K; LoevbIad, G.; Stripple, H.

    2001-12-01

    At European refineries a change in production is planned in order to obtain better qualities of gasoline and diesel, from an environmental point of view. This change will, however, lead to higher emissions at the refineries. The present study of the combined effects of emissions at the refineries and the use of the products gives the opportunity for considering the entire system and gives a stronger positive signal than the traditional EIS would do. Three different methods were used: Net change in emissions to air; Exposure of men and ecosystems for air pollutants; and Exceeding norms and critical levels. The results for the Swedish refinery at Lysekil shows that the emissions from using the products are much higher than the emissions from the refinery for all cases studied. The net emissions from production and use of the products will be reduced for the new products compared to the present situation. Risks for exceeding norms and critical levels due to the changes at the refinery exist for emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, but a lower background load will probably mean that the total future load will be reasonably close to the critical level in the area affected by the refinery. In the urban environment, reduced risks for exceeding the levels for benzen and low levels for toluene and xylene give greater advantages than the increased emissions of sulfur and nitrogen close to the refinery.

  15. 'Finnova Development Group'. Comb Configurated Costumer-close Network Installations with Underground Service Boxes. From project objectives to main solutions; 'Finnova' Innovativ Montage och Systemloesning foer Fjaerrvaermeanslutning av Villaomraade. Fraan projektmaal till huvudloesningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudmundson, Tommy [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (SE)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    The overall goal for a project, presented in this report, together with and three additional ones, is to produce at least one new, economically competitive solution for distribution of DH in residential areas with low heat demand density - which normally means distribution in villa areas. As a built in sub goal, the work was anticipated to end up in one demo project. The report presents how both goals are achieved. The presentation gives exhaustive descriptions of the system technologies, of the foreseen installation methods but also of working procedures used by the Finnova Development Group to reach the goals. A great deal of work has been dedicated to the issue of harmonizing system design and layout and methods for construction. The report gives, based on through literature studies both regarding Sweden and internationally, together with many decades of personal experiences for the members of the Finnova Development Group, an enveloping presentation of branch experiences related to system design, choice of materials and methods of installation and operation. Having this as a background, the report highlights on one hand which problems has to be dealt with on the other what should be avoided - if you want to avoid high installation costs and future problems - when designing a DH distribution system. Parallel to this, the success factors for distribution DH in low heat density areas are crystallized and discussed. Consequently, the work presented in this report has three 'foundation bolts': What should be avoided, what we want to achieve and success factors that are there to be used. With these identified and used a generally fit for use foundation for innovative solution can be built. This structure for innovative solution is thoroughly scrutinized with respect to material as well functional issues. The rather great complexity of a DH system, with all its components and functional requirements, are clearly demonstrated. Two main solutions are presented in the report. For the first one, 'Finnova AF', evidence is given that the overall goal is fulfilled. The goal being investment costs lower than SEK 50,000 per costumer - VAT not included and in the cost level of 2003/2004. The possibilities for the second one, 'Finnova LTH', may in the long run be even more promising, with respect to economy as well as functionally. The fulfilling of this requires, however, investigations and research and the time for these are not to be found within the time schedule given for this project. Other important issues dealt with regarding the two solutions are: estimated technical life length, need for and accessibility at maintenance and heat losses The two main solutions are named Comb Configurated Costumer Close Network (Finnova AF) and Villa Connection with Distribution Chambers (Finnova LTH). Both are in general terms presented in this report and fully and more detailed in reports no 2 and 3. A demo for the Finnova AF approach is right now being built in a villa area in the Granlunda suburb of Trelleborg in south Sweden. The system decisive features of the Finnova AF are three: The conventional DH substation is abandoned and replaced with a service and connection box in the garden at the site boundary, no pipe joints directly in ground are to be found, and almost all needed working moments can be performed by anyone of a working crew of 5 people. Among the identified success factors, especially the following should be mentioned: Maximum continuity. No 'extern specialists' needed, the civil works contractor should be able to perform 'almost' all working procedures with his own crew. One-step finished backfilling must be applied. And to obtain continuity, flexible coiled pipes and cold installation of network are necessary. The DH substation moved out of the customer's house. The DH supplier is supposed to be the owner of the service and maintenance box replacing the FC. This box contains a prefabricated, standardised, easily replaceable cassette. This cassette contains all necessary functions needed to deliver, measure and check the quality of heating and tap water being delivered. A new philosophy for the supply of tap hot water. Two pipes instead of one are used for the hot tap water supply. The smaller one normally is used for mere circulation. At higher sudden demands, both pipes serve as forward pipes, increasing the capacity. A high degree of standardization. A high degree of standardization, with respect to components as well as to interfaces, is necessary to minimize the gross working time, including periods of waiting during construction. And more time used can be directly transformed into higher costs for more than half of the working steps that sums up into a contract like this. Adding to this, standardisation and systemisation make life much easier for the DH supplier, when it comes to such things as future maintenance and renewal of the network as well as connecting new costumers in the area in question. As a spin-off, and as a result of the methodology of the Finnova Development Group, the report series can be used as a well of knowledge for further innovative solutions. In appendices, the following is presented: Definitions of technical and economical expressions used in the reports Rules of design for fluid pipes A market survey for machinery and other equipment suitable for the installation of DH piping in residential areas with low heat density.

  16. Review of construction criteria for nuclear fuels under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences - a literature study; Oeversyn av konstruktionskriterier foer kaernbraensle under normaldrift och foervaentade driftsstoerningar - en litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudling, P. [Advanced Nuclear Technology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-06-01

    General Design Criteria 10, GDC 10, in the Code of Federal Regulation Part 50 of Nuclear Regulatory Commission specifies that the fuel assembly including the fuel rod may not be damaged during normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences. No damaged, means that the fuel rods do not fail, that fuel rod and assembly dimensions remain within operational tolerances, and that functional capabilities are not reduced below those assumed in the safety analysis. This objective is given by GDC 10, and the design limits that are required to accomplish this objective are called Specified Acceptable Fuel Design Limits, SAFDLs. The SAFDLs are specified in Standard Review Plan, SRP, chapter 4.2. This report summarises and analyses published open data that are relevant for the below-specified SAFDLs. It also summarises the current view of NRC on the discussed SAFDLs as well as the margin towards fuel failure of the SAFDLs. The following SAFDLs are discussed herein: Avoidance of fuel centre melting; Avoidance of liftoff; Maximum cladding creep deformation; Avoidance of cladding collapse; Maximum fretting; Maximum dimensional changes; Maximum stresses; Maximum fatigue stresses; Maximum oxide thickness; Maximum hydrogen content; Avoidance of PCI - failures.

  17. Multiphase flow in the geosphere around a repository for spent nuclear fuels. Inventory of the present knowledge; Flerfasfloede i geosfaeren kring ett foervar foer utbraent kaernbraensle. Inventering av kunskapslaeget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalen, Bengt [Bergab, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Important quantities of gas can form in an underground repository for nuclear wastes. Gas can be formed through: corroding metals; water and certain organic substances that undergo radiolysis; organic material degrading through microbial activity. The last point is of concern mainly for intermediate-level wastes, which can hold large amounts of organic materials. The first point is the main process for high-level wastes. The gas could transport radioactive substances through the buffer and the geosphere into the biosphere, or affect the performance of the repository in a negative way. The present report gives a review of the knowledge about two-phase flow in connection with deep geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel.

  18. Inventory of future power and heat production technologies. Partial report Boilers/Combustion/Steam cycle for district heating and cogeneration; Inventering av framtidens el- och vaermeproduktionstekniker. Delrapport Pannor/Foerbraenning/Aangcykel foer fjaerrvaerme och kraftvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert (AaF Process, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The energy market of today is turbulent and it is quite clear that big changes in the consumption pattern are going to occur, due to the expansion in Asia and the expected Climate Change. The EU has, as a first step, stated in a directive that the consumption of renewable energy in the heat and power sector should be increased to 20 % and in the transportation sector to 10 % by the year 2020, a target which is high above current levels in most of the EU countries. It is reasonable to believe the European demand of renewable energy will create a shortage of biomass and that the development and use of technology for energy production will therefore not only depend on what is technically possible. One scenario is that biomass is mainly used for the markets that have very few alternatives, such as the transportation sector and small scale CHP units. We have today a relatively high electrical consumption through a stable grid and district heating nets in almost all densely populated areas. Large high efficiency power plants combined with heat pump technology will probably prevent any significant expansion of the district heating nets. A third major net for gas distribution seems not to be a feasible solution. Local nets for production of biogas from wet waste for different purposes, including EvGT units with 55% efficiency may however be good solution for some areas. There are a number of cycles and technical solutions to increase the electrical efficiency which could be applied also on smaller plants. The total efficiency will however not increase, only the el/heat ratio and it is not obvious that the higher investment cost for indirect cycles, bottom cycles or extreme steam data in combination with the risk of lower availability is a feasible solution. Especially waste to energy plants, with their need of high utilisation time, are sensitive to long production interruptions. The existing heat sinks in Sweden will however be efficiently used for electrical production of some kind, though they can be expected to be decreased due to warmer climate and energy efficiency measures in buildings. The big manufacturers and energy companies are today heavily involved in RandD to develop climate friendly fossil fuel plants. The goal is to increase the efficiency and to develop the CCS-technology. With the amount of money involved it is plausible that they are going to be successful and that Post Combustion technology will be commercial around the year 2015, OxyFuel/Carbon around 2020 and Chemical looping after year 2030. This development includes also a significant efficiency increase, mainly based on material development and development of oxygen and carbon dioxide separation. It can be assumed that Sweden in the year 2030, as the other countries in the EU union, will produce electricity mainly in large high efficiency plants with low CO{sub 2} emissions. The plants could be natural gas fired combined cycles (efficiency without CCS of eta{sub el} = 65%), coal fired CHP-plants (efficiency without CCS eta{sub el} >55%) and/or nuclear power plants at our coast line. Inland there could be waste and bio fired CHP plants and Pulp and paper plants, both types producing biofuel from all the different types of biomass that are available

  19. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet. Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Hansson, Christina [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    As a consequence of the growing impact on water resources the Water Framework Directive was legislated in 2000. The directive should ensure that a 'good water status' and entail a coordinated legislation striving for a long-term protection of all water resources. Stakeholders should be able to participate in the preparations of river basin management plans and programs of measures. District based water authorities will administrate the implementation and are mandated to decide upon regional environmental quality standards and promulgate fees for water use and discharges. The Directive contains a list of 33 prioritized substances that should be reduced or phased out. Discharges from combustion plants contain twelve, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals. PAH and heavy metals impacts growth and vital functions as respiration and photosynthesis of water living organisms and induces cancer in humans. NOEC-values (NO Effect Concentration) state manageable substance concentrations for an organism. Flue gas condensate contains concentrations of some of the substances which impact exceeds the critical state level. Extended sewage treatment could thus be needed. Sludge, wash and soot water contains elevated levels of heavy metals. This water is normally treated by municipal sewage treatment. Further treatment at plant site could be relevant. Presence of PAH and heavy metals in leach water depends on the precipitation. Additional flowing-independent water treatment could be relevant. It is very uncertain how plant owners will be affected. Licenses could be reviewed and standards could be raised for sensitive recipients; new limits for prioritized substances and standards for other types of discharges and water fees could be added. Respites could be given if costs exceed the benefits. Location, ecotoxicological risk assessments and precautionary measures could become more relevant in an EIA. Pricing of water could take place by using a system of emissions trading. Plant owners could make an impact by participating in development of environmental quality standards plans and programs by representation in public consultations and cooperative groups. Methods for improvement to meet the new standards are presented in the categories fuel, combustion, flue gas- and flue gas condensate treatment. The prioritized substances shouldn't be introduced or generated in the system to avoid costly investments of advanced technologies. Heavy metals are reduced by the choice of fuel and complete combustion generates less PAH. Both of the substances could be reduced by the separation of particles. An example of an appropriateness assessment according to a model considering the overall plant conditions including technological, economic and organizational aspects is demonstrated. For a 'standard plant' the best choice of fuel would be wood chips combined with stable combustion. Given the prerequisites of the model, the most appropriate flue gas treatment were a bag filter without chemical dosing and the most appropriate flue gas condensate-, slug-, wash-, and soot water treatment would be sand- or lamella filter with pH-adjustment, together with leach water treatment by sedimentation and sand filter. If another type of plant would be considered, other methods would be more optimal Hence, the model should be used in a 'plant specific' manner and then be a useful tool in negotiations with authorities if/when measures will be taken to reach the standards of the Water Framework Directive.

  20. Fly ashes as binders for the stabilisation of gravel. Laboratory tests and preparations for a field test; Flygaskor som bindemedel foer stabilisering av grusmaterial. Laboratorieundersoekningar samt foerberedelser infoer provbyggandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Jyraevae, Harri; Maijala, Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-04-01

    The project is based on the results of a significant research project FACE (Fly Ash in Civil Engineering). The project aims at the development of binder recipes based on a chosen fly ash from Holmen Paper's Hallsta Pappersbruk for the renovation of a road. The development will benefit from the Finnish research and experience on this type of binders for geotechnical applications. The stabilisation should result in improving bearing capacity and better long-term durability and service life of the gravel roads. The environmentally friendly stabilisation system comprises also the possibility to reuse and recycle the material that already exists in the road to be renovated. The test materials for the development project were the gravel from a chosen test road and the fly ash of Holmen Paper AB. The fly ash was used as the binder material. The geotechnical tests included characterisation tests of the test materials, tests on the stabilised mixes and control tests for the stabilisation recipe. Also, there were tests for the assessment of the environmental impact of the stabilisation. Side by side with those tests there has been a full-scale test, a separate project in Hallstavik, to test the stabilisation process with respect to the technical, environmental and economical aspects of construction. The full-scale test will be reported separately. The project results imply that fly ash can be beneficially used as a binder for the stabilisation of gravel materials and similar materials. Fly ash can be used also with small amounts of other binder materials like cement or blast-furnace slag in order to have a frost resistant material. The project gives also basis for the development of binders for other types of applications, both for the renovation purposes and for the improvement of spoils for construction purposes.

  1. User guide of AVS/ITBL for numerical environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Nobuko; Yamagishi, Nobuhiro; Arakawa, Takuya; Kuraishi, Hideaki

    2005-02-01

    The Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the ITBL (Information-Technology Based Laboratory) project which is one of e-Japan priority policy programs. The goal of the ITBL project is to create the vertical research environment in which intellectual resources such as remote computers, programs and data can be shared in Japanese research institutions and cooperative studies among researchers can be supported. AVS/ITBL is the visualization tool which has been developed aiming at realizing the efficient visualization in the ITBL environment. This visualization tool is one of the tools of ITBL infrastructure software and operates in cooperation with AVS/Express. Main functions of AVS/ITBL are as follows: it can directly read data files located on remote computers, it can display and control an image on the web browser, it can collaboratively display an image among remote researchers, and it can perform visualization process as a batch. In this paper, utilization of AVS/ITBL to the numerical environmental system, which is one of the applications in ITBL project, is presented. And the outline of the operation in this utilization is indicated. (author)

  2. EST Table: AV403752 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403752 pg--0009 10/09/28 100 %/257 aa ref|YP_002411376.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging... protein A) from bacteriophage origin [Escherichia coli UMN026] emb|CAR11828.1| terminase large subunit (DNA packaging

  3. EST Table: AV403922 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV403922 pg--0214 10/09/28 91 %/142 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  4. EST Table: AV404246 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV404246 pg--0747 10/09/28 91 %/130 aa ref|ZP_06118881.2| DNA packaging protein FI ...[Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479] gb|EFC94454.1| DNA packaging protein FI [Clostridium hathewayi DSM 13479

  5. EST Table: AV403894 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ref|XP_001605691.1| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/08/28 52...%/206 aa gi|189241712|ref|XP_968082.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase app(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] AV403894 pg-- ...

  6. EST Table: AV399990 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399990 br--0239 10/09/28 100 %/110 aa ref|NP_001037364.1| cellular retinoic acid .../09/10 57 %/107 aa gnl|Amel|GB15299-PA 10/09/10 59 %/107 aa gi|282165782|ref|NP_001164130.1| cellular FABP-like protein isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] NM_001043899 br-- ...

  7. Rektorers forståelse av mobbing i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    2008-01-01

    PÅ opfordring fra redaktionen gives en kommentar med dansk vinkel til den norske artikel 'Rektorers forståelse av mobbning i skolen'.Den omtalte artikel er at betragte som første trin i indførelse af en nordisk mobbeforståelse med undgangspunkt i Dan Olweus begrebsafgrænsning.Der savnes også en i...

  8. EST Table: AV400897 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400897 br--1948 10/09/28 47 %/180 aa ref|XP_967144.2| PREDICTED: similar to corneal wound healing...TED: similar to corneal wound healing-related protein [Tribolium castaneum] CK493011 br-- ...

  9. EST Table: AV399507 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399507 NV120319 10/09/28 70 %/144 aa ref|YP_803401.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticars...ia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus] gb|ABI13791.1| baculovirus repeated ORF-b [Anticarsia gemmatali

  10. EST Table: AV401629 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401629 e96h0968 10/09/28 70 %/161 aa ref|XP_002431431.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, ...putative [Pediculus humanus corporis] gb|EEB18693.1| Karyogamy protein KAR4, putative [Pediculus humanus cor

  11. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabach, Martin; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Herzke, Dorte; Hanssen, Linda; Routti, Heli; Borgen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a screening study into the occurrence of selected perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and dechloranes in Arctic top predators. The emerging PFCs F53 F53B, and PFBS were not detected neither in bird eggs nor in mammals. However, different dechloranes were detected in all samples. Screening av PFAS og Dekloran forbindelser i utvalgte arktiske toppredatorer

  12. EST Table: AV400925 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400925 br--1989 10/09/28 35 %/122 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...nl|Amel|GB19565-PA 10/09/10 35 %/122 aa gi|91093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  13. EST Table: AV400204 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV400204 br--0896 10/09/28 36 %/111 aa ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephen...093471|ref|XP_967620.1| PREDICTED: similar to anopheles stephensi ubiquitin, putative [Tribolium castaneum] FS914988 br-- ...

  14. Analysis of AVS-penogram in 3000 impotent patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Young Guy; Choi, Hyung Ki [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-01

    Audio visual simulation penogram(AVS-penogram) is used as a screening method for evaluation of erectile dysfunction. In this study, 3000 patients were evaluated from Dec. 1986 to Dec. 1992 and finally diagnosed by comprehensive diagnostic methods. The patients were classified according to AVS-penogram curves into 4 types and correlated with the patient`s final diagnosis. For 800 patients who were evaluated with combined AVS-penogram and NPT monitoring, compatibility ratios between psychogenic and organic group were compared. After correlating each of the curve type with the patients and comparing erotic and nocturnal erection, following results were obtained. 1. The mean age of the patients was 41.25 years. 2. The overall rate of final diagnosis were 57.5%, 14.3%, 8.9% in psychogenic, arteriogenic and veogenic impotence. 3. Type I group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 87% of the patients. 4. Type IIA group was proved as organic impotence in 79% of the patients and most of them had neurogenic and arteriogenic impotence. 5. Type IIB group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 51%, organic impotence in 49% of the patients. Among the organic impotence group, most of them had arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic impotence. The difference of both group was statically insignificant. 6. Type IIC group was proved as psychogenic impotence in 39%, organic impotence in 61% of the patients. Further studies are needed for sub-classification of both groups. 7. The compatibility ratio of the AVS-penogram and NPTM was 85.9% in psychogenic group with normal finding in both tests and 44.7% in organic group with abnormal finding in both tests. In conclusion, AVS-penogram is a primary diagnostic method in screening impotent patients and type I is regarded as psychogenic impotence. In Type IIB and IIC, sub-classification of curve type is needed for differential diagnosis between psychogenic and organic impotence. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Small-scale power production for sustainable development. Households', Utilities' and Retailers' experiences from the market for small-scale solar panels and wind turbines; Smaaskalig elproduktion foer en haallbar utveckling. Hushaalls, energibolags och aaterfoersaeljares erfarenheter av marknaden foer smaaskaliga solpaneler och vindturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, Jenny; Tengvard, Maria

    2009-06-15

    In this report, a special form of small scale renewable solutions marketed towards Swedish households is targeted. During the autumn 2008 the Swedish companies 'Egen El i Stockholm AB' ('Egen El') and 'Home Energy' launched a concept with small scale wind turbines and solar cells that the households connect to the electricity socket so that the own produced electricity can be used directly. The purpose with this report is to analyze how users, retailers and grid companies look upon such small scale production of electricity and discuss what institutional effects own produced energy could have on the electricity market. The main research method used was in-depth interviews. We conducted interviews with representatives of eight retail companies, five grid companies, the industry organization Swedenergy, IKEA Greentech, and 20 households. A main conclusion is that the market concerning households small scale production of electricity is still immature. Though, the media attention that Egen El relieved during spring 2008 has made more households aware of the concept and householders increased interest in the concept is also recognized by other retailers and amongst the grid companies. According to the retailers, it is still hard to make a living from selling these kind of products to household. Nevertheless, they are optimistic and believe that the changes in regulations concerning small scale production of electricity and IKEA's investment in PVs will improve the situation. The grid companies, too, have a positive outlook. Though, they stress a number of problems that could occur with many households producing their own electricity. This is mainly related to security and whether the grid will be able to handle this produced electricity. As for the households, environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle, so such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area. This investment is symbolic for some, displaying environmental consciousness to others - to set an example. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. Such micro-generation installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine. For these solutions to reach a majority of Swedish households, some important measures are needed to be implemented to eliminate the economic hindrances and to simplify the rules and installation process

  16. Kokken lagar mat! Utøving og utvikling av yrkeskunnskap på kjøkenet sett i lys av 2300 år gamle kunnskapsformer.

    OpenAIRE

    Gascogne, Marit

    2011-01-01

    Master i yrkespedagogikk Tema for masteroppgåva er utøving og utvikling av yrkeskunnskap i kokkfaget. Bakgrunnen for arbeidet er resultat frå andre forskingsprosjekt i masterstudiet og innføringa av den nye reforma, kunnskapsløftet, i den vidaregåande skulen. Analyse av litteratur, observasjon og intervju av yrkesutøvarar er metodane som er brukt for å finne svar på problemstillinga: Korleis kan Aristoteles sine gnosis-former brukast til å skildre yrkeskunnskap og utvikling av yrkesk...

  17. Påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. Svalbardstudien 1988-89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Høyer m. fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSvalbard er spesielt godt egnet til å vurdere påliteligheten av selvrapportert alkoholkonsum. På grunn av detlave prisnivået for alkohol er ulovlig import eller hjemmeproduksjon av alkohol ukjent på Svalbard. Dessutener samfunnet lite og oversiktlig, slik at det er praktisk mulig å undersøke hele befolkningen. I den aktuellestudien registrerte vi alt salg av alkohol til fastboende nordmenn på Svalbard i oktober og november 1988. Isamme tidsperiode ble alle nordmenn 18 år eller eldre invitert til å ta del i en helseundersøkelse der det inngikkspørsmål om alkoholbruk. Vi fant at selvrapportert alkoholkonsum utgjorde rundt 40% av salgsvolumet.På grunn av de spesielle forhold når det gjelder alkoholomsetning på Svalbard er det grunn til å anta atestimatet i denne studien er mer pålitelig sammenlignet med tilsvarende studier fra andre områder.Høyer G, Nilssen O, Brenn T, Schirmer H. The reliability of self-reported alcohol consumption.The Svalbard study 1988-89. Nor J Epidemiol 1996; 6 (1: 109-113.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe Norwegian island of Spitzbergen, Svalbard offers a unique setting for validation studies on self-reportedalcohol consumption. No counterfeit production or illegal import exists, thus making a complete registrationof all sources of alcohol possible. In this study we recorded sales from all agencies selling alcohol onSvalbard over a two month period in 1988. During the same period all adults living permanently on Svalbardwere invited to take part in a health screening. As part of the screening a self-administered questionnaire onalcohol consumption was introduced to the participants. We found that the self-reported volume accounted forapproximately 40 percent of the sales volume. Because of the unique situation applying to Svalbard, theestimate made in this study is believed to be more reliable compared to other studies using sales volume tovalidate self-reports.

  18. Hvilken rolle spiller hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk?

    OpenAIRE

    Varem, Andrea; Nervik, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Temaet for denne bacheloroppgaven er hybrid shopping i kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk. Etter en omfattende gjennomgang av eksisterende teori rundt kundereisen fikk vi et inntrykk av at det er et gap i forskningen knyttet til kundereisen ved kjøp av kosmetikk, på tross av størrelsen på dette markedet. Det vi fant av teori på feltet var i stor grad basert på kvantitative undersøkelser, og vi ønsker derfor å belyse kundereisen i denne konteksten gjennom et kvalitativt forskningsdesign. Med ut...

  19. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Brandrud, Tor Erik; Dima, Bàlint

    2017-01-01

    Brandrud, T.E. & Dima, B. 2017. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016. – NINA Kortrapport 80. 15 s. Kartlegging (start av overvåking) av habitat-spesifikke, jordboende kalksopper i nordre del av Røsskleiva NR ble gjennomført i 2016, før oppstart av skjøtselstiltak med storfébeiting. Tilsammen 27 habitat-spesifikke arter, inkludert 18 rødlistede arter ble registrert i løpet av to registreringsrunder i 2016. Funnene fordelte seg på 10 kalkbarskogsopper, 5 kalklinde-skogs...

  20. Validation of a Real-time AVS Encoder on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Fang Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A whole I frame AVS real-time video encoder is designed and implemented on FPGA platform in this paper. The system uses the structure of the flow calculation, coupled with a dual-port RAM memory between/among the various functional modules. Reusable design and pipeline design are used to optimize various encoding module and to ensure the efficient operation of the pipeline. Through the simulation of ISE software and the verification of Xilinx Vritex-4 pro platform, it can be seen that the highest working frequency can be up to 110 MHz, meeting the requirements of the whole I frame real- time encoding of AVS in CIF resolution.

  1. Leaning av arbetspunkt för urindiagnostik

    OpenAIRE

    Romar, Arne Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Lean är en metod som ämnar förbättra arbetsprocesser, öka kvalitén och förhindra slöseri av resurser. Fler och fler företag och institutioner i västvärlden har den senaste tiden börjat implementera läran och verktygen som ursprungligen kom från Toyota och deras produktionssystem. Sjukhus och sjukhuslaboratorier är inget undantag, patienterna och provmängderna blir större samtidigt som krav på inbesparningar sker. Därför behövs alternativa lösningar i form av lean för att få tillstånd en effek...

  2. Wirevagn : Utvecklingen av en utrullare för hisslinor

    OpenAIRE

    Rehnsfeldt, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Kandidatexamensarbetet som utgick från en förfrågan från företaget Irongrip AB hade som mål att utveckla ett produktförslag på en utlindare av stålvajer för hissmontörer. Irongrip AB som tillverkar och säljer verktyg för hantering av stålvajer hade uppmärksammat att en efterfrågan på en sådan produkt fanns på marknaden då befintliga lösningar var bristfälliga och inte hade alla de funktioner som är önskvärda hos en sådan produkt.Arbetet inleddes med en förstudie där studiebesök vid lindragnin...

  3. Nyttan av franchising i den svenska fastighetsmäklarbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Herke, Marie; Olivers, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    Franchising är det mest vanliga kedjekonceptet i fastighetsmäklarbranschen och flera av de största fastighetsmäklarkedjorna är franchisekedjor. De fristående mäklarbyråerna får allt svårare att klara sig i den ökade konkurrensen. Det är främst fristående mäklarbyråer på mindre orter med ett etablerat varumärke samt nischade mäklarbyråer som klarar sig i konkurrensen med de stora kedjorna. På senare år har antalet kedjeanslutna fastighetsmäklare ökat betydligt och flertalet av mäklarkedjorna ä...

  4. Utforming av stålrammer til ridehall

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsrud, Roar

    2013-01-01

    NORSK: Oppgaven går ut på å dimensjonere forskjellige bærerammer til en ridehall på kobberud gård i Lier kommune i Buskerud. Kriterier i oppgaven er at alle forbindelser mellom søyler og bjelker skal kunne utføres som en boltet forbindelse for en så praktisk oppreising av bygget som mulig. Det gir også mulighet for og montere selve bæresystemet på egenhånd om man har nødvendig utstyr. Det er dermed viktig at man bruker så lite stål som mulig for å redusere vekt av søyler og bjelker. Bearbe...

  5. Electrical storm after CRT implantation treated by AV delay optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Nicolas; Marijon, Eloi; Boveda, Serge; Albenque, Jean-Paul

    2010-02-01

    We present a case of symptomatic ischemic heart failure with an indication for cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardiac defibrillator therapy in primary prevention. After implantation, the patient developed a severe electrical storm with multiple shocks. Hemodynamic improvement based only on AV delay, guided by echocardiography and ECG, brought about a dramatic improvement in the situation. We discuss the pathophysiology of electrical storm occurring immediately after LV pacing.

  6. EST Table: AV401797 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV401797 heS00172 10/09/28 94 %/235 aa ref|NP_001036831.1| saposin-related [Bombyx ...9/10 low homology 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 41 %/191 aa gi|91077504|ref|XP_966852.1| PREDICTED: similar to saposin isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS791050 heS0 ...

  7. Inkludering av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn i NIF-organisert idrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kristin Sisjord

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Norges Idrettsforbund og Olympiske og Paralympiske Komité (NIF har en uttalt målsetting om en åpen og inkluderende idrett. Hvordan kommer dette til uttrykk i den praktiske virksomheten? Denne artikkelen, som bygger på data fra en undersøkelse om likestilling og mangfold i den organiserte idretten (NIF, retter søkelyset mot arbeid med inklusjon av ungdom med minoritetsbakgrunn på ulike organisasjonsnivå i NIF: særforbund, idrettskretser og idrettslag. Datamaterialet er kvalitative intervju med representanter fra ulike organisasjonsnivå. Resultatene viser at NIFs overordnede politikk i varierende grad nedfelles i særforbundenes virksomhet, i idrettskretsene og i idrettslagene. Av særforbundene skiller Fotballforbundet og Klatreforbundet seg ut som aktive pådrivere i arbeidet med inkludering. Mange idrettslag oppfattet slike spørsmål som lite aktuelle i sitt rekrutteringsområde. Representanter for lag som hadde erfaring med inkludering og rekruttering av minoritetsungdom, tilkjennega varierte erfaringer og synspunkter.

  8. Final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in very deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research of bedrock conditions at great depths; Slutfoervaring av hoegaktivt kaernavfall i djupa borrhaal. En utvaerdering baserad paa senare aars forskning om berggrunden paa stora djup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    This report evaluates the feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of high-level nuclear waste, e.g., spent nuclear fuel, in the light of recent technological developments and research on the characteristics of bedrock at extreme depths. The evaluation finds that new knowledge in the field of hydrogeology and technical advances in drilling technology have advanced the possibility of using very deep boreholes (3-5 km) for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Decisive factors are (1) that the repository can be located in stable bedrock at a level where the groundwater is isolated from the biosphere, and (2) that the waste can be deposited and the boreholes permanently sealed without causing long-term disturbances in the density-stratification of the groundwater that surrounds the repository. Very deep borehole disposal might offer important advantage compared to the relatively more shallow KBS approach that is presently planned to be used by the Swedish nuclear industry in Sweden, in that it has the potential of being more robust. The reason for this is that very deep borehole disposal appears to permit emplacement of the waste at depths where the entire repository zone would be surrounded by stable, density-stratified groundwater having no contact with the surface, whereas a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by upwardly mobile groundwater. This hydro-geological difference is a major safety factor, which is particularly apparent in all scenarios that envisage leakage of radioactive substances. Another advantage of a repository at a depth of 3 to 5 km is that it is less vulnerable to impacts from expected events (e.g., changes in groundwater conditions during future ice ages) as well as undesired events (e.g. such as terrorist actions, technical malfunction and major local earthquakes). Decisive for the feasibility of a repository based on the very deep borehole concept is, however, the ability to emplace the waste without failures. In order to achieve this further research and technological development is required.

  9. ANALYSE AV SAMVARIASJON MELLOM MÅLT ARBEIDSBELASTNING (NAS) OG DEN SUBJEKTIVE OPPLEVELSEN AV ARBEIDSBELASTNINGEN (NASA-TLX) VED INTENSIVAVDELINGER

    OpenAIRE

    Graarud, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    SAMMENDRAG Sykehus generelt og intensivavdelinger spesielt er under økende press for å kunne drive god og riktig ressursforvaltning. Dermed øker også behov for å kunne dokumentere intensiv-avdelingenes aktivitet og ressursbehov. Nursing Activities Score (NAS) blir ved flere av landets intensivavdelinger brukt som scoringsverktøy for arbeidsbelastning. Det er et verktøy som har til hensikt å kartlegge behovet for antall sykepleiere per pasient. Det er i Norge flere sykepleiere per intensivpasi...

  10. Å LESE MEDIETEKSTER PÅ IPADEN. Observasjoner av en medievant fireårings bruk av iPad i hjemmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Jæger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i tre observasjoner av en gutt på fire år som bruker iPad på fritiden. Den søker å synliggjøre de strategiene dette barnet velger for å skaffe seg tilgang til ulike medietekster, hvordan han leser og tolker dem, og den undersøker eventuelle spor av kritisk refleksjon hos barnet over disse tekstene. Teoretisk sett hviler den på en forståelse av mediekompetanse som en parallell prosess til utvikling av lese- og skrivekyndighet (literacy, og medieopplevelsene omtales som viktige møter med tekst. Artikkelen undersøker hvordan å lese medietekster kan legge et grunnlag for å utvikle en utvidet tekstkompetanse eller mediekompetanse. Konklusjonen legger vekt på motivasjon og lekenhet som barns primære inngang til medietekstene og som et grunnlag for å utvikle mediekompetanse (media literacy. The article is based on three observations of a four-year-old boy who uses the iPad in his spare time. It demonstrates the strategies that this boy applies to gain access to various media texts, and how he reads and interprets them. It also seeks to examine traces of critical reflection that he may demonstrate in relation to these texts. Theoretically, it rests on an understanding of media literacy as a parallel process to the development of literacy, and it seeks to demonstrate how reading media texts can create an important starting point for the development of media literacy. The Kindergarten practitioner’s role and opportunities to develop children's media literacy within a kindergarten context is a focus towards the end of the article. In conclusion, I argue that motivation and playfulness are important approaches to media texts and create an important foundation for the development of media literacy

  11. Har forhold under svangerskapet betydning for utviklingen av otitis media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari J. Kværner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGMed utgangspunkt i data fra et populasjonsbasert utvalg av 7 992 norske tvillinger ble sammenhengenmellom gjentatte ørebetennelser og forhold under svangerskapet studert. Som parametre på intrauterinevekstforhold ble informasjon om fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder fra Medisinsk Fødselsregister benyttet.Informasjon om rapporterte øreinfeksjoner ble basert på spørreskjemaer som ble besvart av tvillingene ialderen 18–25 år. Først studerte vi individuelle effekter av fødselsvekt og gestasjonsalder på forekomsten avotitis media (OM. Rapportert fødselsvekt hos individer med OM var signifikant lavere enn hos kontrollene,med en gjennomsnittsforskjell på 86 gram. Hos de som rapporterte OM var gjennomsnittlig gestasjonsalder3 dager kortere enn i kontrollmaterialet. Deretter beregnet vi effekten av fødselsvekt ved bruk av co-twinkontroll metoden. Blant monozygote (MZ tvillingpar gjenspeiler fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparetintra-uterine miljøforskjeller. Blant dizygote (DZ par kan vektforskjellen være både genetiske ogmiljøbetinget. Ved sammenligning av fødselsvektforskjeller innenfor tvillingparene er tvillingen som ikkehar gjentatte øreinfeksjoner en matchet kontroll blant OM diskordante par. Resultatene antyder at lavfødselsvekt er en risikofaktor for otitis media. Gjennomsnittlig vektforskjell blant par diskordante for OMvar 48 gram, og den av tvillingen som ikke rapporterte OM hadde signifikant høyere fødselsvekt.Kværner KJ, Tambs K, Harris J, Magnus P. Do pregnancy-related factors influence the development ofotitis media? Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (1: 55-58.  ENGLISH SUMMARYThe association between intrauterine growth, as measured by weight and gestational age, and the occurrenceof recurrent ear infections was studied using data from a population based sample of 7992 Norwegian twins.Perinatal measures were collected from the Medical Birth Registry, and reports of recurrent ear infectionswere based on

  12. Overvåking av norsk kosthold - metoder og resultater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johansson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKunnskap om endringer i matvarenes sammensetning og befolkningens kosthold er grunnleggende for utformingog oppfølging av en helsefremmende mat- og ernæringspolitikk. Dagens system for overvåking avkostholdet bygger først og fremst på en matvaredatabase og opplysninger om forbruket av matvarer fra tretyper datasett; matforsyningsstatistikk, forbruksundersøkelser og kostholdsundersøkelser. Det avgis årlig envurdering av utviklingen i norsk kosthold i forhold til mat- og ernæringspolitiske målsettinger. Det norskesystemet for overvåking av kostholdet er blitt betydelig styrket i løpet av 1990-årene ved innføringen avregelmessige kostholdsundersøkelser blant landsrepresentative utvalg av befolkningen i ulike aldersgrupperog økte ressurser til analyse av næringsinnholdet i matvarer. Det er imidlertid beskjedent sammenlignet meddatainnsamlingen i land som USA og Storbritannia. Det norske overvåkingssystemet er forsatt i enutviklingsfase, og det må justeres og kompletteres etter hvert. Dessuten vil det arbeides med å kvalitetssikredatainnsamlingen.Johansson L. Surveillance of the diet in Norway – methods and results.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYKnowledge about changes in composition and intake of foods, as well as changes in the prevalence of dietrelatedhealth problems is fundamental for an effective food and nutrition policy. The National Council onNutrition and Physical Activity is responsible for evaluating changes in the diet. Annually the Council publishesreports about trends in the Norwegian diet, and suggests measures to improve the diet. The Council, incooperation with the National Food Authority and the Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo,has established a national food and dietary surveillance system. This system is mainly based on a fooddatabase and food consumption data. The food consumption data include three principally different datasets: food supplies, household consumption surveys

  13. Diffusjon av influensa i Norge under spanskesyken 1918-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenn-Erik Mamelund

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGSpanskesyken var en verdensomspennende influensaepidemi som tok livet av minst 30 millioner mennesker,de fleste i løpet av noen få høstmåneder i 1918, men den strakk seg også inn i 1919. En siste svakbølge fant sted vinteren 1920. De første sporadiske tilfellene av spanskesyken i Norge oppsto i militærleirei begynnelsen av april 1918. Over tre måneder senere kom de første spredte tilfellene av det som skullevise seg å være starten på en ny stor influensapandemi. De første av disse oppsto i Kristiania, mest sannsynligetter smitteimport fra Skottland over Nordsjøen. Sommeren 1918 spredte spanskesyken seg raskt frasør til nord, fra kysten til innlandet innover fjordene, og fra de største byene og industrisentra via mindrebyer og andre tettsteder til landsbygda langs de viktigste ferdselsveiene. Da spanskesyken blusset opp igjenhøsten 1918 spredte den seg langsommere og trolig fra nord til sør, fortsatt fra kysten innover fjordene,men spredning fra byene langs kommunikasjonsveiene var mindre fremtredende. Vinteren 1918/19opptrådte influensaen spredt og sporadisk, tilsynelatende uten bestemt spredningsmønster og rekkefølge.Jernbanen, hurtigruten og automobilrutene spilte trolig en viktig rolle i spredningsprosessen, spesielt andrehalvår 1918. Ulik sosial interaksjon, for eksempel et marked som samlet store folkemengder, kan bidra til åforklare eksplosive utbrudd av influensa og diffusjon på lavt geografisk nivå.Mamelund S-E. The diffusion of influenza in Norway during the 1918-19 Pandemic.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYIn 1918-1919, a world-wide pandemic, the Spanish Influenza, swept over the entire globe, killing at least30 million people, most of them during the fall of 1918. A last, but small and less defined wave occurred inthe winter of 1920. The first sporadic cases of Spanish Influenza in Norway are known from army campsin the early days of April 1918. More than three months later, the first scattered

  14. IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge LVIS POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data (IPPLV1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 and 610 POS AV systems flown...

  15. IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge POS/AV L1B Corrected Position and Attitude (IPAPP1B) data set contains georeferencing data from the Applanix 510 POS AV system flown with the Digital...

  16. KS-LAB Kontroll av hydrometer ASTM 152H : (prosess 14-433 i hb014 og NS8005)

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, El Hadj

    2007-01-01

    I forbindelse med kvalitetssikring av slemmeanalyser ved bruk av hydrometer har det vist seg å være behov for systematisk kontroll ved innkjøp og bruk av hydrometre. Rapporten beskriver registrerte avvik ved sammenligning av hydrometre og angir hvorledes kontroll av hydrometer skal foregå for å sikre at anvendt utstyr tilfredsstiller gjeldende krav.

  17. Et studium av samfunnsansvar (CSR) for norske utenlandsetablerte akvakulturselskaper; Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream i Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er et studium av samfunnsansvar for norsk utenlandsetablert akvakulturnæring. Valg av tema er motivert av interessen for den eksisterende samfunnsdebatten omkring næringen og internasjonale næringsstrukturer med fotfeste i utviklingsland. Norsk tilstedeværelse i Chile eksemplifisert ved Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream er anvendt som case studium. Presentasjon og drøfting av Corporate social responsibility (CSR), oversatt til norsk som Selskapers samfunnsansvar, ...

  18. Det afghanska valet i svensk media : En diskursanalys av svensk medias rapportering om parlamentsvalet 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Arvidsson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Den här uppsatsen analyserar svensk medias rapportering om valet i Afghanistan 2010. Med hjälp av metoder framtagna av Van Dijk har en analys av artiklar som berör valet 2010 gjorts. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna är postkolonialism och orientalism. Med hjälp av de perspektiven och Van Dijks medieanalys analyseras materialet för att tydliggöra strukturer i media.

  19. Ungdommers opplevelser med overdreven bruk av online-rollespillet World of Warcraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flaaten, Øivind; Torp, Steffen; Aarseth, Espen

    2010-01-01

    Ungdommers bruk av online-rollespill blir ofte problematisert (Falkner 2007). På bakgrunn av kvalitative intervjuer med ti ungdommer og fem pårørendekontakter beskrives i denne artikkelen ungdommenes opplevelser av online-spillet World of Warcraft (WoW). Denne pilotstudien gir en nyansert...... for konflikt og hjelpeløshet. Helsefremmende arbeid basert på dialog og tidlig intervensjon kan forhindre at online-spilladferd kommer ut av kontroll....

  20. En obekväm sanning eller en stor bluff? : En analys av den visuella gestaltningen av fenomenet "global uppvärmning" i filmmediet

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anton; Oretoft, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    En uppsats som kritiskt granskar och analyserar den visuella gestaltningen i två dokumentärfilmer. Huvudtemat i filmerna är global uppvärmning och konsekvenserna av detta. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka den visuella gestaltningen av den miljödebatt som filmerna är en del i och genom detta belysa frågor som berör visuell kultur och popularisering av vetenskap.

  1. Forbuden frukt smaker best en studie av nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av sjokolade, søtsaker, salt snacks, sukkerholdige leskedrikker og lignende

    OpenAIRE

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2010-01-01

    Denne studien er en del av forskningsprosjektene Young Food og HealthMeal. Begge prosjektene er finansiert av Norges forskningsråd. Temaet i rapporten er nordmenns spise- og drikkemønster av en type mat og drikke som helsemyndighetene ønsker at befolkningen skal redusere forbruket sitt av – slik som sjokolade, søtsaker, søte bakervarer, salt snacks og sukkerholdige drikker. Selv om forbruksutviklingen de seneste par årene har vist positive tendenser, har altså nordmenn fremdeles et langt høye...

  2. …med andre ord. ”10 stadier i oversettelse av sangtekst”. Oversettelse av Stevie Wonder og Stephen Sondheim til norsk

    OpenAIRE

    Iveland, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Norges musikkhøgskole. Masteroppgave. Utøving med fordypningsemne SAMMENDRAG AV OPPGAVEN --- Denne masteroppgaven er en del av en utøvende master og inneholder en analytisk og en praktisk del. Formålet er å finne en metode, et verktøy, for oversettelse av sangtekst, og å identifisere faktorer i språket som må tas hensyn til i oversettelse. Samlet viser den ulike språklige egenskaper som er med på å prege arbeidet med oversettelser av sangtekster. Med utgangspunkt i teorier om tolknin...

  3. Rettferdige minutter: Fordeling av spilletid i fotballkamper for aldersbestemte klasser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trine Anker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available På et fotballag i overgangen mellom barne- og ungdomsfotballen er spilletid på fotballbanen under kamp både en knapp ressurs og en kilde til diskusjoner om fordeling. Spørsmålet som er utgangspunkt for denne artikkelen, er hvilke hensyn som bør tas når trener og lagleder skal fordele samlet spilletid på enkeltspillere. Er det viktigst å vinne fotballkampen, eller har det størst betydning å fordele spilletiden mest mulig likt mellom spillerne? Skal det tas hensyn til guttenes evner, motivasjon og preferanser? Er deres familiebakgrunn og personlighet av betydning? Diskusjonen baserer seg på en gjennomgang av ulike politiske rettferdighetsteorier for fordeling av knappe goder.Nøkkelord: rettferdighet, practice, fordelingsrettferdighet, diskursetikk, idrettsetikkEnglish summary: Minutes of justice: Distribution of time during football matches in a boys' teamDuring a football match, time for playing can be considered as a limited good. In this article the point of departure is the redistribution of time in a boys' football team in the transition phase between children and youth football. The questions are how and under which conditions time for playing should be distributed among the players. Is winning the game more important than trying to let every player play for an equal amount of time? Should the boys' talents, motivation, and preferences be considered while distributing time, or are family background and personality of importance? Different theories of political justice for the distribution of limited goods underpin the discussion of how to distribute the minutes of playing time during a football match.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1737

  4. Artificial vision support system (AVS(2)) for improved prosthetic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Tarbell, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    State-of-the-art and upcoming camera-driven, implanted artificial vision systems provide only tens to hundreds of electrodes, affording only limited visual perception for blind subjects. Therefore, real time image processing is crucial to enhance and optimize this limited perception. Since tens or hundreds of pixels/electrodes allow only for a very crude approximation of the typically megapixel optical resolution of the external camera image feed, the preservation and enhancement of contrast differences and transitions, such as edges, are especially important compared to picture details such as object texture. An Artificial Vision Support System (AVS(2)) is devised that displays the captured video stream in a pixelation conforming to the dimension of the epi-retinal implant electrode array. AVS(2), using efficient image processing modules, modifies the captured video stream in real time, enhancing 'present but hidden' objects to overcome inadequacies or extremes in the camera imagery. As a result, visual prosthesis carriers may now be able to discern such objects in their 'field-of-view', thus enabling mobility in environments that would otherwise be too hazardous to navigate. The image processing modules can be engaged repeatedly in a user-defined order, which is a unique capability. AVS(2) is directly applicable to any artificial vision system that is based on an imaging modality (video, infrared, sound, ultrasound, microwave, radar, etc.) as the first step in the stimulation/processing cascade, such as: retinal implants (i.e. epi-retinal, sub-retinal, suprachoroidal), optic nerve implants, cortical implants, electric tongue stimulators, or tactile stimulators.

  5. Tillämpning av IAS 40 i onoterade fastighetsbolag

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Fredrik; Nilsson, Karolina; Ericsson, Marina

    2006-01-01

    Enligt IAS 40 – Förvaltningsfastigheter, definieras förvaltningsfastigheter som ”mark eller byggnader eller del av byggnad som innehas i syfte att generera hyresinkomster eller värdestegring”. Onoterade fastighetsbolag i Sverige har idag möjlighet att välja mellan att värdera sina fastigheter till anskaffningsvärde eller verkligt värde. IAS – International Accounting Standards är en internationell redovisningsstandard inom EU som började tillämpas i januari 2001, men blev obligatorisk för bör...

  6. EST Table: AV404130 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 53...78 aa gnl|Amel|GB30360-PB 10/09/10 54 %/199 aa gi|189241063|ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expres...sed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 pg-- ... ...AV404130 pg--0509 10/09/28 54 %/199 aa ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to resti

  7. Kjønnsforskjeller i forekomst av legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig Nordeng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKvinnelig kjønn er blitt identifisert som risikofaktor for legemiddelrelaterte bivirkninger både i primærhelsetjenestenog under sykehusopphold. Hyppigere forekomst av bivirkninger kan forklares delvis,men ikke fullstendig, av at kvinner som gruppe konsumerer oftere og flere legemidler. Videre har legemiddelbrukhos kvinner i mange tilfeller tilknytning til biologiske tilstander som menstruasjon, graviditetog menopause, og den øker med alderen. Det er viktig å ta i betraktning kulturelle forskjeller hoskvinner og menn som kan være med på å overestimere kjønnsforskjellene i bivirkningsforekomsten.Kvinner bruker helsevesenet hyppigere og rapporterer oftere bivirkninger. Høyere bivirkningsfrekvenshos kvinner kan også være resultat av at kvinner generelt får høyere dose per kg enn menn fordikvinner veier mindre. Kjønnsforskjeller i bivirkninger kan i tillegg være knyttet til forskjellig aktivitet ileverenzymene cytochrom P450, som metaboliserer de fleste legemidler. Strukturelle og funksjonellekjønnsforskjeller finnes også i nyrer, lunger, hjerte/kar- og mage/tarmsystemet, og påvirker i varierendegrad effekt og sikkerhet av legemidler.Nordeng H. Gender differences in the occurrence of adverse drug events.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYBoth pharmacoepidemiological and clinical studies have identified female gender as a risk factor foradverse events of drugs, both in primary care and in a hospital setting. Frequent occurrence of adverseevents can partly, but not totally, be explained by the fact that women as a group consume more drugsthan men. Women’s drug consumption can to a certain degree be related to menstruation, pregnancyand menopause, and increases with age. It is essential to take into account cultural differences that cancontribute to an overestimation of the gender effect of adverse drug events. Women use the health caresystem more frequently and report more often and more willingly adverse events. Higher

  8. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi [Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called {sup p}hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency{sup .} Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology.

  9. Physiologic AV valvular insufficiency in cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yoon Hyung; Kang, Eun Joo; Baik, Seung Kug; Ahn, Woo Hyun; Choi, Han Yong; Kim, Bong Gi

    1994-01-01

    To give a help in the interpretation of cardiac cine-MR examination, the extent, shape, and timing of appearance of signal void regions near atrioventricular(A-V) valve prospectively evaluate in the healthy population. Using an axial gradient-echo technique with small flip angle, repetition time(TR) of 36 msec and echo time(TE) of 22 msec, 20 volunteers without known valvular abnormalities undertook cardiac cine-MR imaging including atrioventricular valve areas. Transient signal void was observed within the near the tricuspid(13/20 = 65%) and mitral valves(9/20 = 45%), respectively, which is so called p hysioloic atrioventricular valvular insufficiency . Eight subjects revealed the signal void areas near both tricuspid and mitral valves but, 5 subjects did not show any evidence of physiologic insufficiency. This physiologic condition does not extend more than 1 cm proximal to A-V valve plane and is generally observed only during early systole. Its morphology is semilunar or triangular configuration with the base to the valve plane in most cases of normal tricuspid insufficiency and small globular appearance in most cases of normal mitral insufficiency. Awareness of normal signal void areas near the A-V valve and their characteristics is critical in the interpretation of cardiac cine MR examinations and maybe helpful in the study of the normal cardiac physiology

  10. UNIPASS for AvSP? A Broader View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N. Eva

    2001-01-01

    UNIPASS is a general-purpose probabilistic computer program consisting of three major modules, including preprocessor, solver and postprocessor. UNIPASS contains a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI), numerous state-of-the-art probabilistic analysis techniques, a large library of statistical distributions and a function module with a large library of support functions that can easily define any complex limit-state function in a scripting FORTRAN-like syntax format. Its inverse probability analysis and sensitivities analysis capabilities make it a powerful design aid in any product cycle. Its precise numerical analysis engine is accurate enough to push the failure probabilities of a design to well below 10 (exp -50). UNIPASS is equipped with advanced artificial intelligence that is designed to handle systems with an essentially unlimited number of random variables with ease and efficiency. Its modular arrangement allows you to tailor an analysis to the desired level of accuracy and efficiency. The depth and comprehensiveness of UNIPASS are built upon the decades of experience and expertise of industry leaders including Boeing Aircraft, NASA and the DoD. Its rich content also makes UNIPASS a valuable instructional tool for random processes and probabilistic mechanics. The topics include: 1) Reliability in AvSP; 2) Role of UNIPASS in AvSP; and 3) Examples. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  11. Cerebral av angiomas: 3-dimensional demonstration by spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.; Hosten, N.; Neumann, K.; Lemke, A.J.; Langer, R.; Lanksch, W.R.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Felix, R.

    1994-01-01

    In 20 patients with known or suspected supratentorial arteriovenous malformations, an attempt was made to see how far CT angiography with 3-dimensional reconstructions is able to make a diagnosis and to differentiate the various components of the angioma. Spiral CT was performed following an intravenous bolus injection of 60-80 ml of iodine containing contrast medium. In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed by intra-arterial DSA of the vertebral vessels. In 13 patients, av malformations could be diagnosed following multiplanar 3-D reconstructions which agreed with the findings on DSA. The large supplying vessels, the nidus and the large draining veins could be defined with certainty. In 6 patients follow-up examination after embolisation was performed. The results could be demonstrated in three dimensions and the success of treatment could be documented unequivocally. CT angiography with 3-D reconstruction is able to supply important information in the majority of intracranial av malformations, both during initial investigation and following treatment. (orig.) [de

  12. Selvbestemmelse og oppdragelse : en teoretisk analyse av oppdragelsens påvirkning på utviklingen av selvbestemmelse

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Marit Svennevig; Haugstvedt, Merete Lehne Rugdal

    2007-01-01

    1) Problemstilling Hensikten med oppgaven er å rette fokus mot oppdragelse som en påvirkningsfaktor på utviklingen av selvbestemmelsen, og hvilken betydning behovstilfredsstillelse har for individets subjektive velvære. Oppdragelse er et populært tema som stadig blir debattert i mediene. Det diskuteres blant annet hvorfor oppdragelse er viktig, hvordan det er mulig å oppdra barn på best mulig måte og hvem som er viktige oppdragere i dagens samfunn. Vår oppgave handler om individets selvbes...

  13. Are acid volatile sulfides (AVS) important trace metals sinks in semi-arid mangroves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Hermano Melo; Nóbrega, Gabriel Nuto; Otero, Xose L; Ferreira, Tiago Osório

    2018-01-01

    Acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) formation and its role on trace metals bioavailability were studied in semi-arid mangroves. The semi-arid climatic conditions at the studied sites, marked by low rainfall and high evapotranspiration rates, clearly limited the AVS formation (AVS contents varied from 0.10 to 2.34μmolg -1 ) by favoring oxic conditions (Eh>+350mV). The AVS contents were strongly correlated with reactive iron and organic carbon (r=0.84; r=0.83 respectively), evidencing their dominant role for AVS formation under semi-arid conditions. On the other hand, the recorded ΣSEM/AVS values remained >1 evidencing a little control of AVS over the bioavailability of trace metals and, thus, its minor role as a sink for toxic metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long term effects on water streams of wood ash recycling to a forest plantation; Laangtidsverkan paa avrinnande vatten av askaaterfoering till plantskog. Slutrapport foer en delstudie inom det av Energimyndigheten finansierade projektet 'Skogliga aatgaerder - effekter paa kol-, naering- och tungmetallfloeden'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hillevi; Nilsson, Torbjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Soils

    2001-12-01

    The chemical composition of runoff from a wood ash fertilized catchment in central Sweden have been studied during eight years after the treatment. The effects of the ash treatment was compared with a 12ayear long reference period and a reference catchment close to the ash treated catchment. The ash treated area was earlier (winter 1980/81) whole-tree-harvested to 90 %. At the same time the reference area was stemwood harvested on 60 % of the area. Both areas were planted with spruce and pine. Granulated ash was spread on the whole-tree-harvested area, by helicopter, on two occasions (1aton per hectare in May 1989 and 2 tonnes per hectare in October 1991). During the first ash application a marked peak in K concentration was observed. The second ash application caused a high peak in K concentration. Short-lived peaks was also observed for pH, electric conductivity, ANC, Mg, Na and Cl. Significant increases of pH, electric conductivity, Ca, K and Cl was observed in runoff water from the ash treated area during the 8-year-period after the last ash spreading. However, during the same period concentrations of NH4-N, N03-N and total N have shown a relative decrease in runoff water from the ash treated area, compared to the reference area.

  15. Optimizing reed canary grass cropping to increase profitability. Field studies of plant varieties, intercropping with legumes and barley, fertilization and soil compaction; Optimering av odlingsaatgaerder i roerflen foer oekad loensamhet. Faeltstudier av sorter, samodling med baljvaexter och korn, goedsling samt markpackning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Reed Canary Grass is a promising crop for biofuel production. For reed canary grass the first year is an establishment year when the small biomass is not harvested. The second year the biomass is usually cut in late autumn but the harvest (removal of the biomass from the field) is delayed until spring. This technique has resulted in lower costs and increases in fuel quality through lower ash contents, including lower contents of chlorine, sodium and potassium. However costs for production are still high, especially establishment costs, fertilization costs and harvesting costs. The aim of this project was to test ways to cut costs per MWh by increased yields, and decreased establishment costs. The methods used have been variety trials to develop more productive plant material, intercropping with nitrogen fixing legumes to reduce the nitrogen demand of the crop, fertilization with waste material (sewage sludge, reed canary grass ash or poultry manure) and harvest at frozen ground as a strategy to reduce soil compaction and harvest damages on the crop. Reed canary grass grown as a fuel has so far been grown as a mono culture. However, when it is been grown for forage, or as a biogas crop, intercropping with legumes has been successful in some studies. In addition to NPK-fertilizers sewage sludge, ash from combustion of reed canary grass and poultry manure was used. An economic calculation showed that the establishment costs (the first two growing seasons) can be lowered by intercropping with red clover. However it is also involves more risks, related to weeds, and cannot be recommended on fallow soil with a large seed bank of weeds. A ten year old reed canary grass ley was used for the experiment. Two 25 m wide strips were harvested with a mower on November 19 2008 when the top soil was frozen. The harvested material was chopped and removed from the field the following day. The following spring, May 19 2009, the remaining reed canary grass on the field was cut with a mower and harvested with a square baler weighing 7.5 tons. There were no measurable advantages on biomass growth or soil compaction after late autumn harvest compared to spring harvest, and the method cannot be recommended to sustain high reed canary grass harvests

  16. Methods to use biomass, consisting of peat and wood material, to extract fiber substance to be used to make paper pulp and a fuel product. Saett att ur biomassa, bestaaende av torv och vedmatarial, utvinna en foer tillverkning av en pappersmassaprodukt laemplig fibermassa samt en braensleprodukt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, J A.I.

    1985-12-16

    Peat cut from the upper layers is used to make paper pulp of low density. The wood material of the peat is mechanically separated three times. The result is a pulp of peat fibres and wood fibres and dewatered colloidal peat to be used as a fuel. (M.B).

  17. Radioactive waste from non-licensed activities - identification of waste, compilation of principles and guidance, and proposed system for final management; Radioaktivt avfall fraan icke tillstaandsbunden verksamhet (RAKET) - identifiering av aktuellt avfall, sammanstaellning av relevanta regler och principer, foerslag paa system foer omhaendertagande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Pers, K. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Presently national guidelines for the handling of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities are lacking in Sweden. Results and information presented in this report are intended to form a part of the basis for decisions on further work within the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute on regulations or other guidelines on final management and final disposal of this type of waste. An inventory of radioactive waste from non-licensed activities is presented in the report. In addition, existing rules and principles used in Sweden - and internationally - on the handling of radioactive and toxic waste and non-radioactive material are summarized. Based on these rules and principles a system is suggested for the final management of radioactive material from non-licensed activities. A model is shown for the estimation of dose as a consequence of leaching of radio-nuclides from different deposits. The model is applied on different types of waste, e.g. peat ashes, light concrete and low-level waste from a nuclear installation.

  18. O tornar-se avó no processo de individuação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dal Ri Kipper

    Full Text Available O tornar-se avó assinala um período de transição no ciclo de vida familiar, marcado por transformações psíquicas significativas para os avós, caracterizando a quarta individuação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a experiência de tornar-se avó e sua importância no processo de individuação. Foi utilizado delineamento de estudo de caso coletivo. Onze avós maternas, com idades entre 49 e 66 anos, cujas filhas tiveram seu primeiro filho, responderam a uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Todas as avós tinham tido seus primeiros netos e a entrevista referia-se a sua experiência como avós desses netos. Os dados mostraram que o ser avó é uma fonte de renovação e renascimento. O estudo propiciou que as participantes refletissem sobre seus diferentes papéis familiares: avó, mãe, neta e filha. Os dados sugerem que tornar-se avó possibilita que antigos conflitos sejam repensados, renovando antigos vínculos e desejos, o que permite que a avó dê mais um passo rumo à sua individuação.

  19. American AV: Edgar Dale and the Information Age Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the influential scholar Edgar Dale, alongside a generation of educational technologists, helped build an essential place for AV materials and pedagogical methods in the American classroom. It also shows that, for decades, the Payne Fund philanthropy supported multimedia research agendas that shaped ideas about teaching and technology, far beyond involvement in their famed studies on motion pictures and children in the 1930s. With his writings and research programs, Dale advanced concepts of media experience and systematicity, which came to be understood as common sense to the information society. In so doing he was a leading contributor to the discursive and ideological structure of our age of technological and informational abundance.

  20. EST Table: AV399395 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399395 NV120168 10/09/28 100 %/139 aa ref|NP_001037386.1| glyceraldehyde-3-phosph...ate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] gb|ABA43638.2| glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Bombyx mori] 10/08/28 81 %/139...id:CAA88697.1 10/09/10 89 %/142 aa AGAP009623-PA Protein|3R:37154051:37155049:1|gene:AGAP009623 10/09/10 79 %/139... aa gnl|Amel|GB14798-PA 10/09/10 84 %/139 aa gi|91088023|ref|XP_974181.1| PREDICTED: similar to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Tribolium castaneum] DN237090 NV12 ...

  1. Finansiering av investeringar i immateriella tillgångar

    OpenAIRE

    Voltaire, Christian; Gillebrink, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Vid en bedömning av ett kreditärende ser banken till projektets företagsekonomiska förutsättningar. För företag som har immateriella tillgångar som de viktigaste tillgångarna i sin redovisning kan det uppstå problem när de ansöker om kredit hos banker. Detta beror på att immateriella tillgångar inte fungerar på samma sätt som materiella och därigenom tillbringar vag säkerhet för en beviljad kredit. Syftet med denna uppsats är att söka finna vad det är som krävs för att ett tjänsteföretag ska ...

  2. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  3. Verksamhetsanalys, Planering och Utveckling av en webbtjänst

    OpenAIRE

    Kindstedt, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Arbetet behandlar utvecklingsprocessen av programmet SECTMA, ett cirkeltränings-program designat för människor som utövar kampsporter. Programmet är designat för alla konditionsnivåer från toppidrottare till de som endast vill förbättra sin kondition. Arbetet är tudelat, i den första delen går jag igenom teori för STOF och Agile för att skapa en grund och en förståelse för hur jag vill utveckla programmet. Den andra delen följer med utvecklingsprocessen stegvis. STOF erbjuder ett ramverk...

  4. Prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation in DDD pacemaker patients with complete AV block under nominal AV intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram C Poller

    Full Text Available Optimization of the AV-interval (AVI in DDD pacemakers improves cardiac hemodynamics and reduces pacemaker syndromes. Manual optimization is typically not performed in clinical routine. In the present study we analyze the prevalence of E/A wave fusion and A wave truncation under resting conditions in 160 patients with complete AV block (AVB under the pre-programmed AVI. We manually optimized sub-optimal AVI.We analyzed 160 pacemaker patients with complete AVB, both in sinus rhythm (AV-sense; n = 129 and under atrial pacing (AV-pace; n = 31. Using Doppler analyses of the transmitral inflow we classified the nominal AVI as: a normal, b too long (E/A wave fusion or c too short (A wave truncation. In patients with a sub-optimal AVI, we performed manual optimization according to the recommendations of the American Society of Echocardiography.All AVB patients with atrial pacing exhibited a normal transmitral inflow under the nominal AV-pace intervals (100%. In contrast, 25 AVB patients in sinus rhythm showed E/A wave fusion under the pre-programmed AV-sense intervals (19.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI: 12.6-26.2%. A wave truncations were not observed in any patient. All patients with a complete E/A wave fusion achieved a normal transmitral inflow after AV-sense interval reduction (mean optimized AVI: 79.4 ± 13.6 ms.Given the rate of 19.4% (CI 12.6-26.2% of patients with a too long nominal AV-sense interval, automatic algorithms may prove useful in improving cardiac hemodynamics, especially in the subgroup of atrially triggered pacemaker patients with AV node diseases.

  5. TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND INTERSTELLAR DUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.; Aldering, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    TIME VARIATION OF AV AND RV FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BEHIND NON-UNIFORM INTERSTELLAR DUST ABSTRACT We investigate the time variation of the visual extinction, AV, and the total-to-selective extinction ratio, RV, resulting from interstellar dust in front of an expanding photospheric disk of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia). We simulate interstellar dust clouds according to a power law power spectrum and produce extinction maps that either follow a pseudo-Gaussian distribution or a lognormal distribution. The RV maps are produced through a correlation between AV and RV. With maps of AV and RV generated in each case (pseudo-Gaussian and lognormal), we then compute the effective AV and RV for a SN as its photospheric disk expands behind the dust screen. We find for a small percentage of SNe the AV and RV values can vary by a large factor from day to day in the first 40 days after explosion.

  6. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, H J; Van Griethuysen, C; Koelmans, A A

    2008-01-01

    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics.

  7. Rommet som den tredje pedagog - En studie av pedagogers forståelse av rommets betydning - med fokus på estetisk virksomhet

    OpenAIRE

    Krokstad, Inger Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgaven «Rommet som den tredje pedagog i tre Reggio Emilia-inspirerte barnehager. En studie av pedagogers forståelse av rommets betydning –med fokus på estetisk virksomhet» har til hensikt å bidra til økt kunnskap om estetisk virksomhet som er forbundet med Reggio Emilias tanke om rommet som den tredje pedagog. Avhandlingens problemstilling er: Hvilke mønster kan identifiseres i barnehagepedagogens forståelse av rommet som den tredje pedagog-med fokus på estetisk virksomhet? ...

  8. Rehabilitering efter dekompression och diskoperation - framställandet av en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning : Ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Examensarbetet är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete med fokus på rehabiliteringen efter en dekompressions- och diskoperation. Det är ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus med syftet att framställa en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning. Önskemål från uppdragsgivare var att utforma en tydlig patientanvisning för ryggopererade bestående av skriftliga instruktioner angående postoperativ rehabilitering i form av vardagliga aktiviteter, fysisk aktivitet, ryggens viloställningar, vi...

  9. Vad vill kvinnor ha? : En undersökning av en lokaltidnings bilaga i form av ett livsstilsmagasin.

    OpenAIRE

    Heurling, Åsa; Lovisa, Lesse

    2011-01-01

    Folkbladet är en dagstidning i Norrköping med en stark lokal prägel vars prenumeranter till största delen är sportintresserade män. För att försöka bredda sin läsekrets har man sedan 2009 gett ut en tidning kallad Trend, som vänder sig till kvinnor i åldern 20 - 50 år. Denna tidning med lokal prägel, i form av ett livsstilsmagasin för kvinnor, handlar om mode, skönhet, heminredning och resor. Maga- sinet ges ut i fyra nummer per år och delas ut gratis till alla hushåll i Norrköping med omnejd...

  10. Akzo Nobel Science Award: Svensk upptaeckt botar framtidens cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'Akzo Nobel Science Award: Svensk upptaeckt botar framtidens cancerStockholm, 27 februari, 2003. Aarets Akzo Nobel Science Award Sweden paa 500 000 kronor gaar till professorn i medicinsk straalningsfysik Anders Brahme. Han prisas foer "sin unika forskargaerning inom straalbehandlingsysiken samt kombinationen av grundforskning, tillaempad forskning och interaktion med industrin"' (1 page).

  11. Dialogmøte om teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksen, Kristian; Sunde, Leif Magne; Digre, Hanne; Svendsen, Erik; Rundtop, Per; Erikson, Ulf Gøran

    2013-01-01

    SINTEF Fiskeri og havbruk arrangerte den 19. mars 2013, i samarbeid med Fiskeri- og havbruksnæringens forskningsfond (FHF), et dialogmøte med fokus på teknologi for trenging av fisk i merd. Under møtet ble status for gjeldene teknologi og operasjoner for trenging av fisk i merd, samt resultater fra forskningsprosjekter tilknyttet trengeprosessen, presentert. Videre ble det samlet innspill om utfordringer tilknyttet trenging av fisk i produksjons- og ventemerd fra oppdrettsbedrifter, leverandø...

  12. "Dem vil at barna skal ha noe å gjøre" : En casestudie av Habbo.no

    OpenAIRE

    Kvaale, Torkel

    2012-01-01

    Denne oppgaven er en kvalitativ casestudie av Habbo.no, en virtuell verden der hovedgruppen av brukere er barn og unge. Det kvalitative forskningsintervju representerer metodeverktøyet som er brukt for innsamlingen av data, og datamaterialet består av 10 intervjuer med tilsammen 13 brukere av Habbo.no, i alderen 10-12 år. Habbo ble skapt av det finske selskapet Sulake i 2000 som hevder at denne er verdens største virtuelle verden for tenåringer. Habbo.no er kun én av til sammen 35 unike H...

  13. Lyden av de mørke sjeler - Lyd og musikk i videospillet Dark Souls

    OpenAIRE

    Burdal, Kristin Johnsrud

    2014-01-01

    Dark Souls er et videospill som skiller seg fra måten de fleste moderne videospill er bygget opp. Lyd og musikk er en viktig del av dette, og i denne oppgava har vi sett på hvordan lyd og musikk brukes i videospillet. Målet var å finne ut hva lyd og musikk har å si for spillopplevelsen. Dette har vi kommet fram til ved analyse av lyden, og analyse av et utvalg av musikkstykker. For å peke på hvordan lydbruken i Dark Souls skiller seg ut, har vi i tillegg sammenligna det med lydbruken andre vi...

  14. Magnetic hard disks for audio-visual use; AV yo jiki disk baitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tei, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Uwazumi, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Computers, consumer, and communications are converging and fusing. The key device in homes in the near future will be an audiovisual hard disk drive (AV-HDD). The reason is that there is no other AV cash memory with high capacity, high speed, and a low price than the HDD. Fuji Electric has early started developing an AV magnetic hard disk, a core-functional element of the AV-HDD, to take the initiative in the market. This paper describes the state of plastic medium development, which is regarded as a next-generation strategic commodity. (author)

  15. Effekt av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å fremme sunne levevaner

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Hensikten med denne systematiske oversikten er å svare på spørsmålet: Hva er effekten av å benytte sosiale medier i kampanjer for å påvirke holdninger, kunnskap og atferd knyttet til sunne levevaner? Metode: Systematiske søk ble gjort i 11 bibliografiske baser. Tilleggssøk ble gjort i Google Scholar. Utvelgelse og vurdering av publikasjoner ble gjort av to personer uavhengig av hverandre. Risiko for systematiske feil ble vurdert med sjekklisten til Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation...

  16. Open-Loop Audio-Visual Stimulation (AVS): A Useful Tool for Management of Insomnia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hsin-Yi Jean; Riegel, Barbara; McCurry, Susan M; Vitiello, Michael V

    2016-03-01

    Audio Visual Stimulation (AVS), a form of neurofeedback, is a non-pharmacological intervention that has been used for both performance enhancement and symptom management. We review the history of AVS, its two sub-types (close- and open-loop), and discuss its clinical implications. We also describe a promising new application of AVS to improve sleep, and potentially decrease pain. AVS research can be traced back to the late 1800s. AVS's efficacy has been demonstrated for both performance enhancement and symptom management. Although AVS is commonly used in clinical settings, there is limited literature evaluating clinical outcomes and mechanisms of action. One of the challenges to AVS research is the lack of standardized terms, which makes systematic review and literature consolidation difficult. Future studies using AVS as an intervention should; (1) use operational definitions that are consistent with the existing literature, such as AVS, Audio-visual Entrainment, or Light and Sound Stimulation, (2) provide a clear rationale for the chosen training frequency modality, (3) use a randomized controlled design, and (4) follow the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and/or related guidelines when disseminating results.

  17. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk

    OpenAIRE

    Foldvik, Anders; Pettersen, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Foldvik, A. & Pettersen, O. 2017. Inventering av Suldalslågen. Produksjonspotensial for sjøvandrende laksefisk. - NINA Kortrapport 75, 18 s. Reguleringen av Suldalslågen til kraftproduksjon har hatt negative effekter for habitat for laksefisk, blant annet i form av sedimentering og begroing av substratet. Disse prosessene har blitt forsøkt motvirket ved å ha en serie med spyleflommer på over 200 m3/s om høsten. På oppdrag fra Statkraft inverterte NINA oppvekst- og gyteforhold for laks i Su...

  18. IAS 40 i ljuset av ägarförhållanden : Värdering av förvaltningsfastigheter i börsnoterade respektive statliga bolag

    OpenAIRE

    Klarin, Olof; Sandell, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Sammanfattning: Redovisningen av förvaltningsfastigheter enligt IAS 40 har tidigare beskrivits i ett stort antal olika vetenskapliga alster. Merparten av dessa har dock tittat på börsnoterade bolag men det finns även andra företag som tillämpar IAS-reglerna. En grupp företag som gör det är de bolag som ägs av svenska staten. Ett av målen med IFRS är att skapa jämförbarhet och då bör inte ägarformen ha någon betydelse för redovisning och värdering. Denna studies syfte är därför att skapa insik...

  19. Idag lever Kjell med Britt-Marie : En kritisk diskursanalys av framställningen av homosexualitet i TV-reklam

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensson, Sophia; Olsson, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur homosexualitet skildras i svensk TV-reklam. Detta med anledning av mediers möjligheter till att påverka publiken samt utifrån heteronormen i samhället. För att uppfylla målet med studien har ett par frågeställningar formulerats: “Vilka diskursiva teman framkommer i resultatet och vad säger de om framställningen av homosexualitet i TV-reklam?” och “Skiljer sig framställningen av homosexualitet från framställningen av heterosexualitet och i så fall hur?”. Sex...

  20. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Powell; M. Reich

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 {+-} 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards.

  1. ADVANCED VITRIFICATION SYSTEM (RIC AVS) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this AVS testing program is to use bench-scale test equipment to produce a vitrified product at maximum waste loading from the specified AZ-101 waste simulant and conduct a TTT analysis using laboratory scale melts to show compliance with the DOE Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS). The vitrified product complies with the following WAPS. A borosilicate glass with a waste loading of 60.9-wt% was produced from a slurry feed of AZ101 simulant. Glass durability testing, glass characterization testing, and testing methodology were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy approved Test Plan. The glass has two crystalline phases and good uniformity of composition. The Product Consistency Test on the 6 location-specific samples are at least 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below the mean PCT results for the EA glass. Standard deviations were less than 10% of measured values. The glass transition temperature averaged 658 ± 9 C. A TTT diagram was produced. There was measured cesium loss of about 2%, and compliance with the Universal Treatment Standards

  2. Geologic and Mineralogic Mapping of Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria) Quadrangles of Asteroid 4 Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R. A.; Jaumann, R.; Ammannito, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Preusker, F.; Palomba, E.; Roatsch, T.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Pieters, C. M.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4 Vesta in July 2011 and is now collecting imaging and spectroscopic data during its one-year orbital mission. The maps we present are based on information obtained by the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer VIR-MS and the multi-color Framing Camera FC. VIR covers the wavelength range between 0.25 to 5.1 µm while FC covers the range 0.4 to 1.0 µm. The VIR instrument has a significant higher spectral resolution than FC but the latter achieves higher spatial resolution data. As part of the geological and mineralogical analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangles have been defined covering the entire surface of Vesta. We report about the mapping results of quadrangle Av-6 (Gegania) and Av-7 (Lucaria). The Gegania quadrangle is dominated by old craters showing no ejecta blankets and rays while several small fresh craters do. The most obvious geologic features are a set of equatorial troughs, a group of three ghost craters of similar diameter (~57 km), an ejecta mantling of the Gegania crater and three smaller craters showing bright and dark ejecta rays. The quadrangle contains two main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain and 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain. The quadrangle shows moderate variation in Band II center wavelength and Band II depth. FC color ratio variations of some recent craters and their ejecta are linked to the bright and dark material. The bright material is possibly excavated eucritic material while the dark material could be remnants of a CM2 impator(s) or an excavated subsurface layer of endogenic origin. The most prominent geologic features in the Lucaria quadrangle are the 40 km long hill Lucaria Tholus, a set of equatorial troughs, some relatively fresh craters with bright and dark material and mass wasting. The quadrangle contains three main geologic units: 1) the northern cratered trough terrain, 2) the equatorial ridge and trough terrain, and 3) the

  3. Elevers oppfatning av lærers tilbakemeldingspraksis: om sammenheng mellom graden av VfL-praksis og elevenes opplevde nytte av lærers skriftlige tilbakemeldinger i skriftlig norsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Eriksen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Formålet med denne studien var å undersøke elevers oppfatninger av norsklærerens tilbakemeldingspraksis i skriftlig norsk. På bakgrunn av omfattende internasjonal forskning innen feltet ‘Vurdering for læring’ (VfL er det i denne studien utviklet teoridrevne hypoteser som testes ved å analysere et datasett fra to videregående skoler. Hypotesene er at elevene oppfatter lærers tilbakemelding som mer nyttig hvis den 1 retter seg mot målet med opplæringen, 2 gir elevene informasjon via en forklaring eller instruks om hvordan de skal komme nærmere målet og 3 at lærer legger til rette for bruk av tilbakemeldingen. Strukturell likningsmodellering (SEM av resultater fra en spørreundersøkelse blant elever (N = 213 er brukt som metode til å estimere forholdet mellom de fire latente variablene kriterier, forklaring, bruk og nytte (avhengig variabel. SEM er brukt fordi metoden egner seg til å undersøke sammenhenger i komplekse datasett. Funn er at elevene oppfatter at hvis lærer forklarer hvordan de kan forbedre seg, er dette positivt statistisk assosiert med opplevd nytte. Et mer overraskende funn er at lærerens tilrettelegging for bruk av tilbakemeldinger ikke er signifikant assosiert med opplevd nytte. Resultatene blir diskutert i artikkelen.

  4. AVS/Express (application visualization system) user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kume, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    Computer and network environment for image processing has been developed and maintained under the course of establishing a distributed processing environment by the information system operating division. We introduced a server for image processing, AVS/Express for image processing software and Stereo viewing system. This report summarizes the information to use AVS/Express efficiently in the computer environment for image processing. (author)

  5. Association of temporary complete AV block and junctional ectopic tachycardia after surgery for congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paech, Christian; Dähnert, Ingo; Kostelka, Martin; Mende, Meinhardt; Gebauer, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a postoperative complication with a mortality rate of up to 14% after surgery for congenital heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors of JET and explored the association of postoperative temporary third degree atrioventricular (AV) block and the occurrence of JET. Data were collected retrospectively from 1158 patients who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease. The overall incidence of JET was 2.8%. Temporary third degree AV block occurred in 1.6% of cases. Permanent third degree AV block requiring pacemaker implantation occurred in 1% of cases. In all, 56% of patients with JET had temporary AV block (P < 0.001), whereas no case of postoperative JET was reported in patients with permanent AV block (P = 0.56). temporary third degree AV block did not suffer from JET. A correlation between temporary third degree AV block and postoperative JET could be observed. The risk factors identified for JET include younger age groups at the time of surgery, longer aortic cross clamping time and surgical procedures in proximity to the AV node

  6. InterProScan Result: AV399409 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 429 Baculovirus LEF-11 Biological Process: viral infectious cycle (GO:0019058)|Biological Process: regulation of transcription (GO:0045449) ... ...AV399409 AV399409_1_ORF2 07DC81A7C7B2FA42 PFAM PF06385 Baculo_LEF-11 3e-33 T IPR009

  7. InterProScan Result: AV399408 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399408 AV399408_2_ORF1 5D6D9219C673BB29 PFAM PF05274 Baculo_E25 1.3e-78 T IPR007938 unintegrated Cellular... Component: viral envelope (GO:0019031)|Cellular Component: host cell nucleus (GO:0042025) ...

  8. Temporal dynamics of AVS and SEM in sediment of shallow freshwater floodplain lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griethuysen, van C.; Lange, de H.J.; Heuij, van der M.; Bies, S.C.; Gillissen, F.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Acid volatile sulfide (AVS) is an operationally defined sulfide fraction, which is considered important for trace metal fate in reduced sediments. Understanding AVS formation rates is important for the management of metal polluted sediment. However, little lis known about the fate and dynamics of

  9. InterProScan Result: AV399740 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AV399740 AV399740_3_ORF2 7A42A41D4F3F6388 PFAM PF00067 p450 1.2e-19 T IPR001128 Cytochrome P450 Molecular... Function: monooxygenase activity (GO:0004497)|Molecular Function: iron ion binding (GO:0005506)|Molecular... Function: electron carrier activity (GO:0009055)|Molecular Function: heme binding (GO:0020037) ...

  10. Examination of office visit patient preferences for the after-visit summary (AVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Marolee; Dontje, Katherine; Holzman, Greg; Corser, Bill; Keskimaki, Abigail; Chant, Ericka

    2014-01-01

    The federal government advocates the practice of routinely providing an after-visit summary (AVS) to patients after each office-based visit as an element of stage 1 meaningful use. A significant potential benefit of the AVS is improved patient engagement achieved by enabling patients and family members to better understand and retain key health information. The methodology for this study was a mixed-methods pilot study to examine, through the perspectives of adult primary care patients, how relevant and actionable data can be better formatted in the AVS. Results of this study suggest that the goal of the AVS to serve as a communication tool to engage and support patients is frequently not being met. Further study is needed to understand, from the viewpoints of patients and providers, what barriers are keeping them from optimally providing and using the information on the AVS.