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Sample records for focussing ohmically heated

  1. Empirical scaling for present ohmic heated tokamaks

    Daughney, C.

    1975-06-01

    Empirical scaling laws are given for the average electron temperature and electron energy confinement time as functions of plasma current, average electron density, effective ion charge, toroidal magnetic field, and major and minor plasma radius. The ohmic heating is classical, and the electron energy transport is anomalous. The present scaling indicates that ohmic-heating becomes ineffective with larger experiments. (U.S.)

  2. EPR ohmic heating energy storage

    Heck, F.M.; Stillwagon, R.E.; King, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The Ohmic Heating (OH) Systems for all the Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) designs to date have all used temporary energy storage to assist in providing the OH current charge required to build up the plasma current. The energies involved (0.8 x 10 9 J to 1.9 x 10 9 J) are so large as to make capacitor storage impractical. Two alternative approaches are homopolar dc generators and ac generators. Either of these can be designed for pulse duty and can be made to function in a manner similar to a capacitor in the OH circuit and are therefore potential temporary energy storage devices for OH systems for large tokamaks. This study compared total OH system costs using homopolar and ac generators to determine their relative merits. The total system costs were not significantly different for either type of machine. The added flexibility and the lower maintenance of the ac machine system make it the more attractive approach

  3. Super high field ohmically heated tokamak operation

    Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Leclaire, R.J.; Potok, R.E.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a super high field mode of tokamak operation that uses ohmic heating or near ohmic heating to ignition. The super high field mode of operation uses very high values of Β/sup 2/α, where Β is the magnetic field and a is the minor radius (Β/sup 2/α > 100 T/sup 2/m). We analyze copper magnet devices with major radii from 1.7 to 3.0 meters. Minimizing or eliminating the need for auxiliary heating has the potential advantages of reducing uncertainty in extrapolating the energy confinement time of current tokamak devices, and reducing engineering problems associated with large auxiliary heating requirements. It may be possible to heat relatively short pulse, inertially cooled tokamaks to ignition with ohmic power alone. However, there may be advantages in using a very small amount of auxiliary power (less than the ohmic heating power) to boost the ohmic heating and provide a faster start-up, expecially in relatively compact devices

  4. Ohmic Heating Assisted Lye Peeling of Pears.

    Gupta, Sarvesh; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2018-05-01

    Currently, high concentrations (15% to 18%) of lye (sodium hydroxide) are used in peeling pears, constituting a wastewater handling and disposal problem for fruit processors. In this study, the effect of ohmic heating on lye peeling of pears was investigated. Pears were peeled using 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 3% NaOH under different electric field strengths at two run times and their peeled yields were compared to that obtained at 2% and 18% NaOH with conventional heating. Results revealed that ohmic heating results in greater than 95% peeled yields and the best peel quality at much lower concentrations of lye (2% NaOH at 532 V/m and 3% NaOH at 426 and 479 V/m) than those obtained under conventional heating conditions. Treatment times of 30 and 60 s showed no significant differences. Within the studied range, the effects of increasing field strength yielded no significant additional benefits. These results confirm that the concentration of lye can be significantly lowered in the presence of ohmic heating to achieve high peeled yields and quality. Our work shows that lye concentrations can be greatly reduced while peeling pears, resulting in significant savings in use of caustic chemicals, reduced costs for effluent treatment and waste disposal. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. TNS superconducting ohmic-heating system

    Wang, S.T.; Fuja, R.; Kim, S.H.; Kustom, R.L.; Praeg, W.F.; Thompson, K.; Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) system is the selected design for the General Atomics Co./Argonne National Laboratory TNS tokamak design studies. The key features of the OH system design are: (1) parallel coil connection, (2) better utilization of flux core by embedding support cylinder of the toroidal-field coil within the OH inner radius, (3) independent trim coils for correcting the stray fields, (4) low-loss high-current cryostable cable design and (5) OH coil cycling circuit using a reversing bridge. Detailed designs are presented

  6. Ignited tokamak devices with ohmic-heating dominated startup

    Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Startup of tokamaks such that the auxiliary heating power is significantly less than the ohmic heating power at all times during heating to ignition can be referred to as ''Ohmic-heating dominated startup.'' Operation in this mode could increase the certainty of heating to ignition since energy confinement during startup may be described by present scaling laws for ohmic heating. It could also reduce substantially the auxiliary heating power (the required power may be quite large for auxiliary-heating dominated startup). These advantages might be realized without the potentially demanding requirements for pure ohmic heating to ignition. In this paper the authors discuss the requirements for ohmic-heating dominated startup and present illustrative design parameters for compact experiment ignition devices that use high performance copper magnets

  7. Ohmic Heating: Concept and Applications-A Review.

    Kaur, Nimratbir; Singh, A K

    2016-10-25

    Ohmic heating, also known as Joule heating, electrical resistance heating, and direct electrical resistance heating, is a process of heating the food by passing electric current. In ohmic heating the energy is dissipated directly into the food. Electrical conductivity is a key parameter in the design of an effective ohmic heater. A large number of potential applications exist for ohmic heating, including blanching, evaporation, dehydration, fermentation, sterilization, pasteurization, and heating of foods. Beyond heating, applied electric field under ohmic heating causes electroporation of cell membranes, which increase extraction rates, and reduce gelatinization temperature and enthalpy. Ohmic heating results in faster heating of food along with maintenance of color and nutritional value of food. Water absorption index, water solubility index, thermal properties, and pasting properties are altered with the application of ohmic heating. Ohmic heating results in pre-gelatinized starches, which reduce energy requirement during processing. But its higher initial cost, lack of its applications in foods containing fats and oils, and less awareness limit its use.

  8. Empirical scaling for present Ohmically heated tokamaks

    Daughney, C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental results from the Adiabatic Toroidal Compressor (ATC) tokamak are used to obtain empirical scaling laws for the average electron temperature and electron energy confinement time as functions of the average electron density, the effective ion charge, and the plasma current. These scaling laws are extended to include dependence upon minor and major plasma radius and toroidal field strength through a comparison of the various tokamaks described in the literature. Electron thermal conductivity is the dominant loss process for the ATC tokamak. The parametric dependences of the observed electron thermal conductivity are not explained by present theoretical considerations. The electron temperature obtained with Ohmic heating is shown to be a function of current density - which will not be increased in the next generation of large tokamaks. However, the temperature dependence of the electron energy confinement time suggests that significant improvement in confinement time will be obtained with supplementary electron heating. (author)

  9. Theoretical scaling law for ohmically heated tokamaks

    Minardi, E.

    1981-06-01

    The electrostatic drift instability arising from the reduction of shear damping, due to toroidal effects, is assumed to be the basic source of the anomalous electron transport in tokamaks. The Maxwellian population of electrons constitutes a medium whose adiabatic nonlinear reaction to the instability (described in terms of an effective dielectric constant of the medium) determines the stationary electrostatic fluctuation level in marginally unstable situations. The existence of a random electrostatic potenial implies a fluctuating current of the Maxwellian electrons which creates a random magnetic field and a stocasticization of a magnetic configuration. The application of recent results allows the calculation of the realted radial electron transport. It is found that the confinement time under stationary ohmic conditions scales as n Tsub(i)sup( - 1/2) and is proportional roughly to the cube of the geometric dimenisions. Moreover, it is deduced that the loop voltage is approximateley the same for all tokamaks, irrespective of temperature and density and to a large extent, also of geometrical conditions. Thes results are characteristic of the ohmic stationary regime and can hardly be extrapolated to order heating regimes. (orig.)

  10. Period doubling in a model of magnetoconvection with Ohmic heating

    Osman, M. B. H.

    2000-01-01

    In this work it has been studied an idealized model of rotating nonlinear magneto convection to investigate the effects of Ohmic heating. In the over stable region it was found that Ohmic heating can lead to a period-doubling sequence

  11. Developing and modelling of ohmic heating for solid food products

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Frosch, Stina

    Heating of solid foods using the conventional technologies is time-consuming due to the fact that heat transfer is limited by internal conduction within the product. This is a big challenge to food manufactures who wish to heat the product faster to the desired core temperature and to ensure more...... uniform quality across the product. Ohmic heating is one of the novel technologies potentially solving this problem by allowing volumetric heating of the product and thereby reducing or eliminating temperature gradients within the product. However, the application of ohmic heating for solid food products...... such as meat and seafood is not industrially utilized yet. Therefore, the aim of the current work is to model and develop the ohmic heating technology for heating of solid meat and seafood. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during ohmic heating of meat products has been...

  12. Ohmic Heating System for the TFTR Tokamak

    Petree, F.; Cassel, R.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR Ohmic Heating (OH) System will apply 140,000 volt impulses upon the OH coils to start the plasma. In order to reduce the voltage stress to ground on the OH coils to 12 kV without changing the magnetic field induced by the OH system in the plasma, six d-c current interrupters will be applied to six entry points in the OH coil system. And in order to impart a nearly rectangular shape to these impulses, the voltage determining elements will be nonlinear resistances placed in parallel with the interrupters. These nonlinear resistors, made of semiconducting material, are not normally used in repetitive or continuous duty, and their proper functioning is crucial to the reliable operation of the system. The system described herein, is being revised owing to the impact of revisions to the Toroidal Field Coil System, and to refinements to the OH System design

  13. Technology, applications and modelling of ohmic heating: a review.

    Varghese, K Shiby; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic heating or Joule heating has immense potential for achieving rapid and uniform heating in foods, providing microbiologically safe and high quality foods. This review discusses the technology behind ohmic heating, the current applications and thermal modeling of the process. The success of ohmic heating depends on the rate of heat generation in the system, the electrical conductivity of the food, electrical field strength, residence time and the method by which the food flows through the system. Ohmic heating is appropriate for processing of particulate and protein rich foods. A vast amount of work is still necessary to understand food properties in order to refine system design and maximize performance of this technology in the field of packaged foods and space food product development. Various economic studies will also play an important role in understanding the overall cost and viability of commercial application of this technology in food processing. Some of the demerits of the technology are also discussed.

  14. Spectroscopic study of ohmically heated Tokamak discharges

    Breton, C.; Michelis, C. de; Mattioli, M.

    1980-07-01

    Tokamak discharges interact strongly with the wall and/or the current aperture limiter producing recycling particles, which penetrate into the discharge and which can be studied spectroscopically. Working gas (hydrogen or deuterium) is usually studied observing visible Balmer lines at several toroidal locations. Absolute measurements allow to obtain both the recycling flux and the global particle confinement time. With sufficiently high resolution the isotopic plasma composition can be obtained. The impurity elements can be divided into desorbed elements (mainly oxygen) and eroded elements (metals from both walls and limiter) according to the plasma-wall interaction processes originating them. Space-and time-resolved emission in the VUV region down to about 20 A will be reviewed for ohmically-heated discharges. The time evolution can be divided into four phases, not always clearly separated in a particular discharge: a) the initial phase, lasting less than 10 ms (the so-called burn-out phase), b) the period of increasing plasma current and electron temperature, lasting typically 10 - 100 ms, c) an eventual steady state (plateau of the plasma current with almost constant density and temperature), d) the increase of the electron density up to or just below the maximum value attainable in a given device. For all these phases the results reported from different devices will be described and compared

  15. Energy confinement comparison of ohmically heated stellarators to tokamaks

    Chu, T.K.; Lee, Y.C.

    1979-12-01

    An empirical scaling prescribes that the energy confinement time in ohmically heated stellarators and tokamaks is proportional to the internal energy of the plasma and the minor radius, and inversely proportional to the current density. A thermal-conduction energy transport model, based on a heuristic assumption that the effective momentum transfer in the radial direction is proportional to the classical parallel momentum transfer which results in ohmic heating, is used to explain this scaling

  16. Ohmic Heating: An Emerging Concept in Organic Synthesis.

    Silva, Vera L M; Santos, Luis M N B F; Silva, Artur M S

    2017-06-12

    The ohmic heating also known as direct Joule heating, is an advanced thermal processing method, mainly used in the food industry to rapidly increase the temperature for either cooking or sterilization purposes. Its use in organic synthesis, in the heating of chemical reactors, is an emerging method that shows great potential, the development of which has started recently. This Concept article focuses on the use of ohmic heating as a new tool for organic synthesis. It presents the fundamentals of ohmic heating and makes a qualitative and quantitative comparison with other common heating methods. A brief description of the ohmic reactor prototype in operation is presented as well as recent examples of its use in organic synthesis at laboratory scale, thus showing the current state of the research. The advantages and limitations of this heating method, as well as its main current applications are also discussed. Finally, the prospects and potential implications of ohmic heating in future research in chemical synthesis are proposed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Energy balance in the ohmically heated FT

    Bartiromo, R.; Brusati, M.; Cilloco, F.

    1981-01-01

    A typical discharge in the FT Tokamak at 60 kG has been studied in detail in order to derive the power balance between the ohmic input and the plasma losses. Impurity and radiation losses together with ion and electron energy balance are discussed. A power transport term for electrons is derived which is ascribed to anomalous thermal conduction. This resulting thermal transport is compared with those derived from different proposed scalings

  18. Computational studies of ohmic heating in the spheromak

    Olson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Time-dependent computational simulations using both single-fluid O-D and two-fluid 1 1/2-D models are developed for and utilized in an investigation of the ohmic heating of a spheromak plasma. The plasma density and composition, the applied magnetic field strength, the plasma size, and the plasma current density profile are considered for their effects on the spheromak heating rate and maximum achievable temperature. The feasibility of ohmic ignition of a reactor-size spheromak plasma is also contemplated

  19. The ohmic heating power supply for HL-1 tokamak

    Mingrui, Z.; Jiashun, C.

    1986-01-01

    A combination of capacitor banks, inductor and DC Fly wheel-Generator sets are used as ohmic heating power supply (OHPS) for HL-1, which is the largest tokamak in China. This system can give changeable waveform of current in a simple way, because of the use of protection for capacitor banks by changeable connection in easy way. Since the technology of forced zero current in the commutating breaker and synchronous self-triggering crowbar are used, the smooth conversion between the wave front provided by discharge of the capacitor banks and the flat top sustained by the inductor and flywheel realized. The performance of the system was tested by a dummy load and the system has been used in the HL-1 experiments. It is confirmed that this system is sufficiently available for the ohmic heating and has important effects on the long plasma lasting time on the order of 1 sec

  20. Parametric studies in ohmically heated plasmas in Heliotron E

    Mutoh, T.; Besshou, S.; Ijiri, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Parametric studies of volume averaged electron temperature and global electron energy confinement time /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ of ohmically heated Heliotron E plasmas have been performed using a data acquisition computer system. The scaling laws α (I /SUB OH/ x B/n /SUB e/) /SUP 1/2/ and /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ α n /SUP -1/2/ /SUB e/ x B/I /SUP 3/2/ /SUB OH/ are obtained directly by a code which fits the exponents of the plasma parameters ponents of the plasma parameters to the electron temperature and confinement time. The ohmically heated plasma confinement time /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ is shown to be related to the drift parameters xi (= V /SUB De/ /V /SUB Te/). The dependences of the energy confinement time on other plasma parameters is also presented. An investigation is made of the correlation between MHD activity and the confinement

  1. Poloidal ohmic heating in a multipole

    Holly, D.J.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1982-07-01

    The feasibility of using poloidal currents to heat plasmas confined by a multipole field has been examined experimentally in Tokapole II, operating the machine as a toroidal octupole. The plasma resistivity ranges from Spitzer to about 1500 times Spitzer resistivity, as predicted by mirror-enhanced resistivity theory. This allows large powers (approx. 2 MW) to be coupled to the plasma at modest current levels. However, the confinement time is reduced by the heating, apparently due to a combination of the input power location (near the walls of the vacuum tank) and fluctuation-enhanced transport. Current-driven drift instabilities and resistive MHD instabilities appear to be the most likely causes for the fluctuations

  2. Compound sawtooth study in ohmically heated TFTR plasmas

    Yamada, H.; McGuire, K.; Colchin, D.

    1985-09-01

    Compound sawtooth activity has been observed in ohmically heated, high current, high density TFTR plasmas. Commonly called ''double sawteeth,'' such sequences consist of a repetitive series of subordinate relaxations followed by a main relaxation with a different inversion radius. The period of such compound sawteeth can be as long as 100 msec. In other cases, however, no compound sawteeth or bursts of them can be observed in discharges with essentially the same parameters

  3. Power balance in an Ohmically heated fusion reactor

    Christiansen, J.P.; Roberts, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified power-balance equation (zero-dimensional model) is used to study the performance of an Ohmically heated fusion reactor with emphasis on a pulsed reversed-field pinch concept (RFP). The energy confinement time tausub(E) is treated as an adjustable function, and empirical tokamak scaling laws are employed in the numerical estimates, which are supplemented by 1-D ATHENE code calculations. The known heating rates and energy losses are represented by the net energy replacement time tausub(W), which is exhibited as a surface in density (n) and temperature (T) space with a saddle point (nsub(*), Tsub(*)), the optimum ignition point. It is concluded that i) ignition by Ohmic heating is more practicable for the RFP reactor than for a tokamak reactor with the same tausub(E), (ii) if at fixed current the minor radius can be reduced or at fixed minor radius the current can be increased, then it is found that Ohmic ignition becomes more likely when present tokamak scaling laws are used. More definitive estimates require, however, a knowledge of tausub(E), which can only be obtained by establishing a reliable set of experimental RFP scaling laws and, in particular, by extending RFP experiments closer to the reactor regime. (author)

  4. Energy confinement scaling in tokamaks: some implications of recent experiments with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating

    Goldston, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recent results from confinement scaling experiments on tokamaks with ohmic and strong auxiliary heating are reviewed. An attempt is made to draw these results together into a low-density ohmic confinement scaling law, and a scaling law for confinement with auxiliary heating. The auxiliary heating confinement law may also serve to explain the saturation in tau/sub E/ vs anti n/sub e/ observed in some ohmic heating density scaling experiments

  5. Alternate ohmic heating coil arrangements for compact tokamak

    Dawson, J.W.; Moretti, A.; Stevens, H.C.; Thompson, K.

    1978-01-01

    The results for a number of ohmic heating (OH) coil arrangements which will allow the reduction of the major radius of Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) tokamaks will be given. In each case the results are compared, at least indirectly, to the reference case, which has the OH solenoid inside the central core of the reactor. The goal for the alternate geometries studied was to stay within the requirements imposed by the EPR conditions on the plasma and to produce as much or more OH V-s as the reference case

  6. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Ohmic Heating on Microbial Counts and Denaturatiuon of Proteins in Milk

    SUN, Huixian; KAWAMURA, Shuso; HIMOTO, Jun-ichi; ITOH, Kazuhiko; WADA, Tatsuhiko; KIMURA, Toshinori

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of ohmic heating (internal heating by electric current) and conventional heating (external heating by hot water) on viable aerobes and Streptococcus thermophilus 2646 in milk under identical temperature history conditions. The effects of the two treatments on quality of milk were also compared by assessing degrees of protein denaturation in raw and sterilized milk (raw milk being sterilized by ohmic heating or conventional heating)...

  8. Ohmic heating of a spheromak to 100 eV

    Jarboe, T.R.; Barnes, C.W.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Knox, S.O.; Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The first spheromaks with Thomson-scattering-measured electron temperatures of over 100 eV are described. The spheromak is generated by a magnetized coaxial plasma source in a background gas of 30 mTorr of H/sub 2/, and it is stably confined in an oblate 80 cm diam copper mesh flux conserver. The open mesh design allows rapid impurity transport out of the spheromak. The peak temperature, measured using multipoint Thomson scattering, is observed to rise from approximately 25 eV to over 100 eV in about 0.2 msec due to Ohmic heating from the decaying magnetic fields. Density (approx.5 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/) and magnetic fields (approximately 2 kG) are measured using interferometry and magnetic probes.

  9. Ohmic heating of a spheromak to 100 eV

    Jarboe, T.R.; Barnes, C.W.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Knox, S.O.; Linford, R.K.; Sherwood, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The first spheromaks with Thomson-scattering-measured electron temperatures of over 100 eV are described. The spheromak is generated by a magnetized coaxial plasma source in a background gas of 30 mTorr of H 2 , and it is stably confined in an oblate 80 cm diam copper mesh flux conserver. The open mesh design allows rapid impurity transport out of the spheromak. The peak temperature, measured using multipoint Thomson scattering, is observed to rise from approximately 25 eV to over 100 eV in about 0.2 msec due to Ohmic heating from the decaying magnetic fields. Density (approx.5 x 10 13 cm -3 ) and magnetic fields (approximately 2 kG) are measured using interferometry and magnetic probes

  10. New fast switches for the Tore Supra ohmic heating circuit

    Zunino, K.; Bruneth, J.; Cara, P.; Louart, A.; Santagiustina, A.; Emelyanova, I.; Filippov, F.; Mikailov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Tore-Supra ohmic heating circuit is equipped with four fast make switches and one fast opening switch. After many years of operation, it became necessary to substitute this equipment by modern components with similar ratings. An extensive research has been undertaken to find fast switches able to withstand more than 2500 operations per year without maintenance, at a make current of 54 kA, a voltage of 12 kV and with a closing time of less than 15 ms. At the end of the investigation, it was decided to replace the old components by fast mechanical switches proposed by the Efremov Institute and based on a prototype developed for ITER. This paper presents the technical requirements and the characteristics of the switches and describes the operational experience gained with these components during operating campaigns of 2002 and 2003. (authors)

  11. An ohmic heating circuit for the CASTOR tokamak

    Valovic, M.

    1989-07-01

    To extend the duration of the CASTOR tokamak discharge to the limit given by the toroidal magnetic field pulse, a simple ohmic heating circuit is proposed. It exploits two condenser banks charged to different voltages and switched by means of an ignitron switch. The circuit parameters are chosen so as to achieve optimum current ramp-up and flat-top phases. The choice of parameters was checked using a simple computer code, with the nonlinear magnetization of the transformer core being taken into account. The results of calculation are compared with those of an experimental test shot with a discharge current and duration of 19 kA and 40 ms, respectively. (J.U.). 3 figs., 4 refs

  12. Analytical models of Ohmic heating and conventional heating in food processing

    Serventi, A.; Bozzoli, F.; Rainieri, S.

    2017-11-01

    Ohmic heating is a food processing operation in which an electric current is passed through a food and the electrical resistance of the food causes the electric power to be transformed directly into heat. The heat is not delivered through a surface as in conventional heat exchangers but it is internally generated by Joule effect. Therefore, no temperature gradient is required and it origins quicker and more uniform heating within the food. On the other hand, it is associated with high energy costs and its use is limited to a particular range of food products with an appropriate electrical conductivity. Sterilization of foods by Ohmic heating has gained growing interest in the last few years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of Ohmic heating with respect to conventional heat exchangers under uniform wall temperature, a condition that is often present in industrial plants. This comparison is carried out by means of analytical models. The two different heating conditions are simulated under typical circumstances for the food industry. Particular attention is paid to the uniformity of the heat treatment and to the heating section length required in the two different conditions.

  13. Ohmic Heating Technology and Its Application in Meaty Food: A Review

    Rishi Richa; N. C. Shahi; Anupama Singh; U. C. Lohani; P. K. Omre; Anil Kumar; T. K. Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current review paper is to investigate and analyze about the effects of ohmic heating (OH) different application in the field of fish, meat and its product and compare it with other conventional thermal methods of food processing such as thawing, heating, cooking etc. Food quality, food safety, convenience, freshness, healthy food, natural flavor and taste with extended shelf-life are the main criteria for the demand made by today’s consumers. Ohmic heating is a substitute ...

  14. Desgn of a 20-MJ superconducting ohmic-heating coil

    Singh, S.K.; Murphy, J.H.; Janocko, M.A.; Haller, H.E.; Litz, D.C.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.; Thullen, P.

    1979-01-01

    Conceptual designs of 20-MJ superconducting coils which were developed to demonstrate the feasibility of an ohmic-heating system were discussed. The superconductor materials were NbTi and Nb 3 Sn for the pool boil and forced-flow cooling, respectively. The coils were designed to be cryostable for bipolar operation from +7 to -7 tesla maximum field within one second. The structural design addresses the distribution of structure and structural materials used in the pulsed field environment. The cyclic stresses anticipated and the fatigue limits of the structural materials were examined in view of the operating life of the coil. The coils were designed to generate the flux swings while simultaneously meeting the limitations imposed by cooling, insulation, current density and the stresses in the materials. Both the pool and forced cooled conductors have the same criterion for cryostability, i.e., the conductor must return to the superconducting state from an initial temperature of 20 0 K while the full transport current is flowing through the conductor

  15. Nutritional impact of ohmic heating on fruits and vegetables—A review

    Ranvir Kaur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ohmic heating, also called electrical resistance heating, joule heating, or electro-conductive heating, is an advanced thermal food processing technique where heat is internally generated in a sample due to electrical resistance when electric current is passed through it. It is a novel technique which provides rapid and uniform heating, resulting in less thermal damage to the food product. According to the recent literature, plant products are most suitable and often used for ohmic heat processing. Beyond heating of fruits and vegetables, the applied electric field under ohmic heating causes various changes in quality and nutritional parameters which include inactivation of enzymes and micro-organisms, degradation of heat-sensitive compounds, changes in cell membranes, viscosity, pH, color, and rheology. Ohmic heating rate depends on the electrical field strength and electrical conductivity of product. This review focuses on various factors affecting the electrical conductivity of fruits and vegetables and the effect of ohmic heating on their quality and nutritional properties.

  16. Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology.

    Moreno, Jorge; Echeverria, Julian; Silva, Andrea; Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Mella, Karla; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Modern life has created a high demand for functional food, and in this context, emerging technologies such as vacuum impregnation and ohmic heating have been applied to generate functional foods. The aim of this research was to enrich the content of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine in apple cubes using vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, and ohmic heating. Additionally, combined vacuum impregnation/conventional heating and vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatments were evaluated. The above treatments were applied at 30, 40 and 50  ℃ and combined with air-drying at 40 ℃ in order to obtain an apple snack rich in L-arginine. Both the impregnation kinetics of L-arginine and sample color were evaluated. The impregnated samples created using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating at 50 ℃ presented a high content of L-arginine, an effect attributed primarily to electropermeabilization. Overall, vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatment at 50 ℃, followed by drying at 40 ℃, was the best process for obtaining an apple snack rich in L-arginine.

  17. Pasteurization of citrus juices with ohmic heating to preserve the carotenoid profile

    Achir , Nawel; Dhuique-Mayer , Claudie; Hadjal , Thiziri; Madani , Khodir; Pain , Jean-Pierre; Dornier , Manuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This study was carried out to assess, for the first time, the effect of ohmic heating on the carotenoid profile of two citrus fruit juices: grapefruit and blood orange. Two heat treatments were designed to obtain pasteurization values of 50 and 150 min (Tref= 70°C and z-value=10°C) with ohmic heating as compared to conventional heating. The results showed that xanthophyll losses could reach 70% for epoxyxanthophylls (cis-violaxanthin and cis-antheraxanthin) and 40% for...

  18. Selective heating of soft tissue-bone interfaces during scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia

    Hynynen, K.; De Young, D.; Roemer, R.; Kundrat, M.

    1987-01-01

    Bone heating has been a frequent problem with clinical hyperthermia treatments induced by plane ultrasonic transducers. In this study, detailed temperature distributions were measured in dogs' (5 dogs) thigh muscles and bone in vivo while focussed ultrasound was applied to elevate the muscle temperature next to the bone. Significantly higher temperature elevations were measured at the bone surface than in the target volume in front of the bone. The temperature distribution was sharp decreasing fast inside the bone and also in front of it. By using more sharply focussed and multiple beams the temperature elevation at the bone surface was reduced and by suitable choice of the distance between the bone surface and the acoustical focus almost uniform temperature could be induced in the overlying muscle tissue from the surface down to the bone - the bone surface being in the same temperature as the muscle. Similar result was obtained by using single, higher frequency focussed beam (3.58 MHz). Also the utilization of nonlinear ultrasonic propagation appeared to reduce bone heating. The results showed that by carefully planning ultrasound hyperthermia treatments, tissues close to bone can be heated without extensive temperature elevation at bone surface

  19. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is an important unit-operation in the production of cooked and peeled shrimps. The present study explores the feasibility of using ohmic heating for cooking of shrimps. The focus is on investigating the effects of different process parameters on heating time and quality of ohmic cooked...... shrimps (Pandalus Borelias). The shrimps were heated to a core temperature of 72 °C in a brine solution using a small batch ohmic heater. Three experiments were performed: 1) a comparative analyses of the temperature development between different sizes of shrimps and thickness (head and tail region...... of the shrimp) over varying salt concentrations (10 kg m−3 to 20 kg m−3) and electric field strengths (1150 V m−1 to 1725 V m−1) with the heating time as the response; 2) a 2 level factorial experiment for screening the impact of processing conditions using electric field strengths of 1250 V m−1 and 1580 V m−1...

  20. Remarks on the thermal stability of an Ohmic-heated nanowire

    Timsit, Roland S.

    2018-05-01

    The rise in temperature of a wire made from specific materials, due to ohmic heating by a DC electrical current, may lead to uncontrollable thermal runaway with ensuing melting. Thermal runaway stems from a steep decrease with increasing temperature of the thermal conductivity of the conducting material and subsequent trapping of the ohmic heat in the wire, i.e., from the inability of the wire to dissipate the heat sufficiently quickly by conduction to the cooler ends of the wire. In this paper, we show that the theory used to evaluate the temperature of contacting surfaces in a bulk electrical contact may be applied to calculate the conditions for thermal runaway in a nanowire. Implications of this effect for electrical contacts are addressed. A possible implication for memory devices using ohmic-heated nanofilms or nanowires is also discussed.

  1. Effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on color stability of fungal pigments.

    Aguilar-Machado, Diederich; Morales-Oyervides, Lourdes; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Aguilar, Cristóbal; Méndez-Zavala, Alejandro; Raso, Javier; Montañez, Julio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of ohmic heating processing conditions on the color stability of a red pigment extract produced by Penicillium purpurogenum GH2 suspended in a buffer solution (pH 6) and in a beverage model system (pH 4). Color stability of pigmented extract was evaluated in the range of 60-90 ℃. The degradation pattern of pigments was well described by the first-order (fractional conversion) and Bigelow model. Degradation rate constants ranged between 0.009 and 0.088 min -1 in systems evaluated. Significant differences in the rate constant values of the ohmic heating-treated samples in comparison with conventional thermal treatment suggested a possible effect of the oscillating electric field generated during ohmic heating. The thermodynamic analysis also indicated differences in the color degradation mechanism during ohmic heating specifically when the pigment was suspended in the beverage model system. In general, red pigments produced by P. purpurogenum GH2 presented good thermal stability under the range of the evaluated experimental conditions, showing potential future applications in pasteurized food matrices using ohmic heating treatment.

  2. D III-D divertor target heat flux measurements during Ohmic and neutral beam heating

    Hill, D.N.; Petrie, T.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Lao, L.; Howl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Time resolved power deposition profiles on the D III-D divertor target plates have been measured for Ohmic and neutral beam injection heated plasmas using fast response infrared thermography (τ ≤ 150 μs). Giant Edge Localized Modes have been observed which punctuate quiescent periods of good H-mode confinement and deposit more than 5% of the stored energy of the core plasma on the divertor armour tiles on millisecond time-scales. The heat pulse associated with these events arrives approximately 0.5 ms earlier on the outer leg of the divertor relative to the inner leg. The measured power deposition profiles are displaced relative to the separatrix intercepts on the target plates, and the peak heat fluxes are a function of core plasma density. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 11 refs, 7 figs

  3. Effect of ohmic heating of soymilk on urease inactivation and kinetic analysis in holding time.

    Li, Fa-De; Chen, Chen; Ren, Jie; Wang, Ranran; Wu, Peng

    2015-02-01

    To verify the effect of the ohmic heating on the urease activity in the soymilk, the ohmic heating methods with the different electrical field conditions (the frequency and the voltage ranging from 50 to 10 kHz and from 160 to 220 V, respectively) were employed. The results showed that if the value of the urease activity measured with the quantitative spectrophotometry method was lower than 16.8 IU, the urease activity measured with the qualitative method was negative. The urease activity of the sample ohmically heated was significantly lower than that of the sample conventionally heated (P urease inactivation. In addition, the inactivation kinetics of the urease in the soymilk could be described with a biphasic model during holding time at a target temperature. Thus, it was concluded that the urease in the soymilk would contain 2 isoenzymes, one is the thermolabile fraction, the other the thermostable fraction, and that the thermostable isoenzyme could not be completely inactivated when the holding time increased, whether the soymilk was cooked with the conventional method or with the ohmic heating method. Therefore, the electric field had no effect on the inactivation of the thermostable isoenzyme of the urease. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Confinement of ohmically heated plasmas and turbulent heating in high-magnetic field tokamak TRIAM-1

    Hiraki, N; Itoh, S; Kawai, Y; Toi, K; Nakamura, K [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1979-12-01

    TRIAM-1, the tokamak device with high toroidal magnetic field, has been constructed to establish the scaling laws of advanced tokamak devices such as Alcator, and to study the possibility of the turbulent heating as a further economical heating method of the fusion oriented plasmas. The plasma parameters obtained by ohmic heating alone are as follows; central electron temperature T sub(e0) = 640 eV, central ion temperature T sub(i0) = 280 eV and line-average electron density n average sub(e) = 2.2 x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/. The empirical scaling laws are investigated concerning T sub(e0), T sub(i0) and n average sub(e). The turbulent heating has been carried out by applying the high electric field in the toroidal direction to the typical tokamak discharge with T sub(i0) asymptotically equals 200 eV. The efficient ion heating is observed and T sub(i0) attains to about 600 eV.

  5. Internal transport barrier and β limit in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M

    Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    An Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) was found in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M (R 0 =53 cm, a l =22 cm - circular limiter configuration, B t ≤0.7T, I p ≤175 kA, ≤6.0·10 19 m -3 ). The barrier reveals itself as a formation of a steep gradient on electron temperature and density radial profiles. The regions with reduced diffusion and electron thermal diffusivity are in between r=0.5a and r=0.7a. The ITB appears more frequently in the shots with higher plasma current. At lower currents (I p N limit in the ohmically heated plasma are presented. Stored energy was measured using diamagnetic loops and compared with W calculated from kinetic data obtained by Thomson scattering and microwave interferometry. Measurements of the stored energy and of the β were performed in the ohmic H-mode before and after boronization and in the scenario with the fast Current Ramp-Down in the ohmic H-mode. Maximum value of β T of 2.0 % and β N of 2 were achieved. The β N limit achieved is 'soft' (nondisruptive) limit. The stored energy slowly decays after the Current Ramp-Down. No correlation was found between beta restriction and MHD phenomena. (author)

  6. Internal transport barrier and β limit in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M

    Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    An Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) was found in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M (R 0 = 53 cm, a l = 22 cm - circular limiter configuration, B t ≤ 0.7 T, I p ≤ 175 kA, ≤ 6.0·10 19 m -3 ). The barrier reveals itself as a formation of a steep gradient on electron temperature and density radial profiles. The regions with reduced diffusion and electron thermal diffusivity are in between r = 0.5a and r = 0.7a. The ITB appears more frequently in the shots with higher plasma current. At lower currents (I p N limit in the ohmically heated plasma are presented. Stored energy was measured using diamagnetic loops and compared with W calculated from kinetic data obtained by Thomson scattering and microwave interferometry. Measurements of the stored energy and of the β were performed in the ohmic H-mode before and after boronization and in the scenario with the fast Current Ramp-Down in the ohmic H-mode. Maximum value of β T of 2.0% and β N of 2 were achieved. The β N limit achieved is 'soft' (non-disruptive) limit. The stored energy slowly decays after the Current Ramp-Down. No correlation was found between beta restriction and MHD phenomena. (author)

  7. Mathematical model of solid food pasteurization by ohmic heating: influence of process parameters.

    Marra, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurization of a solid food undergoing ohmic heating has been analysed by means of a mathematical model, involving the simultaneous solution of Laplace's equation, which describes the distribution of electrical potential within a food, the heat transfer equation, using a source term involving the displacement of electrical potential, the kinetics of inactivation of microorganisms likely to be contaminating the product. In the model, thermophysical and electrical properties as function of temperature are used. Previous works have shown the occurrence of heat loss from food products to the external environment during ohmic heating. The current model predicts that, when temperature gradients are established in the proximity of the outer ohmic cell surface, more cold areas are present at junctions of electrodes with lateral sample surface. For these reasons, colder external shells are the critical areas to be monitored, instead of internal points (typically geometrical center) as in classical pure conductive heat transfer. Analysis is carried out in order to understand the influence of pasteurisation process parameters on this temperature distribution. A successful model helps to improve understanding of these processing phenomenon, which in turn will help to reduce the magnitude of the temperature differential within the product and ultimately provide a more uniformly pasteurized product.

  8. Space chamber experiments of ohmic heating by high power microwave from the solar power satellite

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.

    1981-12-01

    It is quantitatively predicted that a high power microwave from the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) nonlinearly interacts with the ionospheric plasma. The possible nonlinear interactions are ohmic heating, self-focusing and parametric instabilities. A rocket experiment called MINIX (Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment) has been attempted to examine these effects, but is note reported here. In parallel to the rocket experiment, a laboratory experiment in a space plasma simulation chamber has been carried out in order to examine ohmic heating in detail and to develop a system of the rocket experiment. Interesting results were observed and these results were utilized to revise the system of the rocket experiments. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 150% temperature increase was observed with little electron density decrease. It was shown that the temperature increase is not due to the RF breakdown but to the ohmic heating in the simulated ionospheric plasma. These microwave effects have to be taken into account in the SPS Project in the future.

  9. Ohmic heating of the reversed-field pinch

    Gerwin, R.

    1980-04-01

    Simple analytic expressions are found for the global heating rate and the time needed to achieve global power balance with radiation and other losses, in useful agreement with large RFP transport codes. A simple condition is noted, which insures that the heating can be accomplished before appreciable resistive evolution occurs in the pinch profile. The product of poloidal beta, β/sub theta/, and toroidal current, I, that characterizes a condition of global power balance is derived subject to the above-mentioned condition without making key assumptions used by earlier investigators. First, a perfectly steady state (with local power balance) is not assumed, nor is it appropriate to do so. Secondly, the cross-field resistivity is not required to be classical. Since the value of (β/sub theta/ I) plays a fundamental role in determining the kind of device one requires, the foundations of this value are important

  10. Structural analysis of equilibrium and ohmic heating coil assemblies for the TFTR

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1975-10-01

    The structural adequacy of the equilibrium and ohmic heating coils and their support systems for the TFTR device has been investigated. The capability of the coils to span ribs of the support structure has been established. The support structure has been found to be effective in resisting the magnetic forces in the coils. The bands encircling the outboard coils and the band tensioning devices have been found to perform adequately. The analysis is based on October 1975 conceptual design

  11. Ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) mobile ignition test reactor facility concept study

    Masson, L.S.; Watts, K.D.; Piscitella, R.R.; Sekot, J.P.; Drexler, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the use of an existing nuclear test complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the assembly, testing, and remote maintenance of the ohmically heated toroidal experiment (OHTE) compact reactor. The portable reactor concept is described and its application to OHTE testing and maintenance requirements is developed. Pertinent INEL facilities are described and several test system configurations that apply to these facilities are developed and evaluated

  12. Direct high-temperature ohmic heating of metals as liquid pipes.

    Grosse, A V; Cahill, J A; Liddell, W L; Murphy, W J; Stokes, C S

    1968-05-03

    When a sufficiently high electric current is passed through a liquid metal, the electromagnetic pressure pinches off the liquid metal and interrupts the flow of current. For the first time the pinch effect has been overcome by use of centrifugal acceleration. By rotation of a pipe of liquid metal, tin or bismuth or their alloys, at sufficiently high speed, it can be heated electrically without intermission of the electric current. One may now heat liquid metallic substances, by resistive (ohmic) heating, to 5000 degrees K and perhaps higher temperatures.

  13. Real-time protection of the Ohmic heating coil force limits in DIII-D

    Broesch, J.D.; Scoville, J.T.; Hyatt, A.W.; Coon, R.M.

    1997-11-01

    The maximum safe operating limits of the DIII-D tokamak are determined by the force produced in the ohmic heating coil and the toroidal field coil during a plasma pulse. This force is directly proportional to the product of the current in the coils. Historically, the current limits for each coil were set statically before each pulse without regard for the time varying nature of the currents. In order to allow the full time-dependent capability of the ohmic coil to be used, a system was developed for monitoring the product of the currents dynamically and making appropriate adjustments in real time. This paper discusses the purpose, implementation, and results of this work

  14. Design of TFTR movable limiter blades for ohmic and neutral-beam-heated plasmas

    Doll, D.W.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Cecchi, J.L.; Citrolo, J.C.; Weissenburger, D.; Bialek, J.

    1981-10-01

    A new set of movable limiter blades has been designed for TFTR that will meet both the requirements of the 4 MW ohmic heated and the 33 MW neutral beam heated plasmas. This is accomplished with three limiter blades each having and elliptical shape along the toroidal direction. Heat flux levels are acceptable for both ohmic heated and pre-strong compression plasmas. The construction consists of graphite tiles attached to cooled backing plates. The tiles have an average thickness of approx. 4.7 cm and are drawn against the backing plate with spring loaded fasteners that are keyed into the graphite. The cooled backing plate provides the structure for resisting disruption and fault induced loads. A set of rollers attached to the top and bottom blades allow them to be expanded and closed in order to vary the plasma surface for scaling experiments. Water cooling lines penetrate only the mid-plane port cover/support plate in such a way as to avoid bolted water connections inside the vacuum boundary and at the same time allow blade movement. Both the upper and lower blades are attached to the mid-plane limiter blade through pivots. Pivot connections are protected against arcing with an alumina coating and a shunt bar strap. Remote handling is considered throughout the design

  15. Hydrogen and deuterium pellet injection into ohmically and additionally ECR-heated TFR plasmas

    Drawin, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ablation clouds of hydrogen and deuterium pellets injected into ohmically and electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) plasmas of the Fontenay-aux-Roses tokamak TFR have been photographed, their emission has been measured photoelectrically. Without ECRH the pellets penetrate deeply into the plasma, the clouds are striated. Injection during ECRH leads to ablation in the outer plasma region. The position of the ECR layer has no influence on the penetration depth which is only a few centimeters. The ablation clouds show no particular structure when ECRH is applied

  16. Effect of indirect ohmic heating on quality of ready-to-eat pineapple packed in plastic pouch

    Hoang Pham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-eat fruits packed in sealed containers are highly perishable due to their intrinsic characteristics and lack of full thermal process. Ohmic heating has the advantages of rapid liquid heating through electrical current. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of indirect ohmic heating on pH, total soluble solids, polyphenol oxidase activity, color and texture of ready-to-eat pineapple packed in a polypropylene pouch with 1% calcium chloride and 0.3% ascorbic acid packing solution. The pre-packed sample in a pouch was placed in the ohmic heating jar filled with 0.5% sodium chloride ohmic heating solution which was then ohmic heated at different voltage gradients (20, 30, 40 V/cm, to different packing solution temperatures (60, 70, 80°C for 60s. Samples were kept at 4°C for quality measurement. It was found that browning index of ready-to-eat pineapple treated with 20 V/cm at 80°C, 30 V/cm at 70°C and 80°C, 40 V/cm at 80°C did not change during 12 days cold storage (p>0.05. Polyphenol oxidase was inactivated when the temperature of the pineapple was 62°C or higher. After 10 days at 4°C, the pineapple heated with 30 V/cm at 70°C had much higher firmness than the un-heated sample kept at the same storage condition. Indirect ohmic heating of pre-packed ready-to-eat pineapple in polypropylene pouch with 30 V/cm at 70°C packing solution temperature for 60s could be used as minimal heating methods to maintain the quality of ready-to-eat fruits in 12 days at 4°C.

  17. Ohmic heating coil power supply using thyristor circuit breaker in a thermonuclear fusion device

    Tani, Keiji; Shimada, Ryuichi; Tamura, Sanae; Yabuno, Kohei; Koseki, Shoichiro.

    1982-01-01

    In a large scale Tokamak thermonuclear fusion device such as the critical plasma testing facility (JT60) presently under construction, mechanical breakers such as vacuum and air breakers are mostly used for interrupting DC heavy current which is supplied to the ohmic heating coils of inductive energy accumulation method. The practical use of the DC breakers employing thyristors has just been started because the history of thyristor development is short and thristors are still expensive, in spite of the advantages. In this paper, the circuit is investigated in which the excellent high speed controllability of thyristors is fully utilized, while the economy is taken into accout, and the experiment carried out with a unit model is described. It was found that a thyristor switch, which was constructed by connecting the high speed thyristors of peak off-state voltage rating 2,000 V and mean current rating 500 A in direct parallel, was able to interrupt 12.7 kA current in the power supply circuit of ohmic heating coils developed this time. In addition, the switch configuration was able to be greatly simplified. When the multistage raising of plasma current is required, the raise can be performed with a single thyristor breaker because it can make high speed control. Therefore, the capacity of the breaker can be doubly and drastically reduced. Also, if current unbalance might occur between thyristor switch units, it gives no problem since the time of reverse voltage after current interruption dispersed smaller as current increased. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Enhancement of ohmic and stochastic heating by resonance effects in capacitive radio frequency discharges: a theoretical approach.

    Mussenbrock, T; Brinkmann, R P; Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J; Kawamura, E

    2008-08-22

    In low-pressure capacitive radio frequency discharges, two mechanisms of electron heating are dominant: (i) Ohmic heating due to collisions of electrons with neutrals of the background gas and (ii) stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from the oscillating boundary sheath. In this work we show by means of a nonlinear global model that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance which arises in asymmetric capacitive discharges due to nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath significantly affects both Ohmic heating and stochastic heating. We observe that the series resonance effect increases the dissipation by factors of 2-5. We conclude that the nonlinear plasma dynamics should be taken into account in order to describe quantitatively correct electron heating in asymmetric capacitive radio frequency discharges.

  19. Conceptual designs of 50 kA 20 MJ superconducting ohmic heating coils

    Singh, S.K.; Murphy, J.H.; Janocko, M.A.; Haller, H.E.; Litz, D.C.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.; Thullen, P.

    1979-01-01

    Two designs of 20 Mj superconducting coils are described which were developed to demonstrate the feasibility of an ohmic heating system. NbTi and Nb;sub 3;Sn superconductors were considered for both 7 tesla and 9 tesla maximum fields. Cabled and braided conductors were investigated and the braided conductor is identified as the best alternative due to its high operating current densities and because of its porosity. The coils are designed to be cryostable for bipolar operation from +7 tesla to -7 tesla and from +9 tesla to -9 tesla maximum fields within 1 sec. The structural design addresses the distribution of structure and structural materials used in the pulsed field environment. Immersion cooled (pool boil) and forced flow cooled coils are described. 2 refs

  20. Evolution of the electron temperature profile of ohmically heated plasmas in TFTR

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.

    1985-08-01

    Blackbody electron cyclotron emission was used to ascertain and study the evolution and behavior of the electron temperature profile in ohmically heated plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The emission was measured with absolutely calibrated millimeter wavelength radiometers. The temperature profile normalized to the central temperature and minor radius is observed to broaden substantially with decreasing limiter safety factor q/sub a/, and is insensitive to the plasma minor radius. Sawtooth activity was seen in the core of most TFTR discharges and appeared to be associated with a flattening of the electron temperature profile within the plasma core where q less than or equal to 1. Two types of sawtooth behavior were identified in large TFTR plasmas (minor radius, a less than or equal to 0.8 m) : a typically 35 to 40 msec period ''normal'' sawtooth, and a ''compound'' sawtooth with 70 to 80 msec period

  1. A 1.5 MJ cryostatic stable superconducting ohmic-heating coil

    Wang, S.-T.; Kim, S.H.; Praeg, W.F.; Krieger, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    As early as FY 1975, ANL had recognized the clear advantage of a superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coil and proposed a five-year pulsed coil and power supply development program to ERDA. With modest funding made available by ERDA in FY 1977 and the use of substantial equipment inventory at ANL, a small but agressive development program was advanced to the construction of a 1.5 MJ model coil. The principle objective in building the 1.5 MJ ac coil is to demonstrate ac cryostability of a large coil with a dB/dt ranging from 2 T/s up to 14 T/s. The results of basic cable development and tests will be described. The design and construction of a prototype 1.5 MJ cryostable pulsed coil and its nonmetallic cryostat will be presented. (author)

  2. Radiation losses and global energy balance for Ohmically heated discharges in ASDEX

    Mueller, E.R.; Behringer, K.; Niedermeyer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Global energy balance, radiation profiles and dominant impurity radiation sources are compared for Ohmically heated limiter and divertor discharges in the ASDEX tokamak. In discharges with a poloidal stainless-steel limiter, total radiation from the plasma is the dominant energy loss channel. The axisymmetric divertor reduces this volume-integrated radiation to 30-35% of the heating power and additional Ti-gettering halves it again to 10-15%. Local radiation losses in the plasma centre, which are mainly due to the presence of iron impurity ions, are reduced by about one order of magnitude. In high-current (Isub(p) = 400 kA) and high-density (nsub(e)-bar = 6 x 10 13 cm -3 ) ungettered divertor discharges, up to 55% of the heating power is dumped into a cold-gas target inside the divertor chambers. The bolometrically detected volume power losses in the chambers can mainly be attributed to neutral hydrogen atoms with kinetic energies of a few eV. In this parameter range, the divertor plasma is dominated by inelastic molecular and atomic processes, the main process being Franck-Condon dissociation of H 2 molecules. (author)

  3. Plasma rotation and radial electric field with a density ramp in an ohmically heated tokamak

    Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Marchal, B.

    1991-10-01

    Measurements of toroidal and poloidal rotation of the TCA plasma with Alfven Wave Heating and different levels of gas feed are reported. The temporal evolution of the rotation was inferred from intrinsic spectral lines of CV, CIII and, using injected helium gas, from HeII. The light collection optics and line intensity permitted the evolution of the plasma rotation to be measured with a time resolution of 2ms. The rotation velocities were used to deduce the radial electric field. With Alfven heating there was no observable change of this electric field that could have been responsible for the density rise which is characteristic of the RF experiments on TCA. The behaviour of the plasma rotation with different plasma density ramp rates was investigated. The toroidal rotation was observed to decrease with increasing plasma density. The poloidal rotation was observed to follow the value of the plasma density. With hard gas puffing, changes in the deduced radial electric field were found to coincide with changes in the peaking of the plasma density profile. Finally, with frozen pellet injection, the expected increase in the radial electric field due to the increased plasma density was not observed, which may explain the poorer confinement of the injected particles. Even in an ohmically heated tokamak, the measurement of the plasma rotation and the radial electric field are shown to be strongly related to the confinement. A thorough statistical analysis of the systematic errors is presented and a new and significant source of uncertainty in the experimental technique is identified. (author) 18 figs., 18 refs

  4. Nonlinear error-field penetration in low density ohmically heated tokamak plasmas

    Fitzpatrick, R

    2012-01-01

    A theory is developed to predict the error-field penetration threshold in low density, ohmically heated, tokamak plasmas. The novel feature of the theory is that the response of the plasma in the vicinity of the resonant surface to the applied error-field is calculated from nonlinear drift-MHD (magnetohydrodynamical) magnetic island theory, rather than linear layer theory. Error-field penetration, and subsequent locked mode formation, is triggered once the destabilizing effect of the resonant harmonic of the error-field overcomes the stabilizing effect of the ion polarization current (caused by the propagation of the error-field-induced island chain in the local ion fluid frame). The predicted scaling of the error-field penetration threshold with engineering parameters is (b r /B T ) crit ∼n e B T -1.8 R 0 -0.25 , where b r is the resonant harmonic of the vacuum radial error-field at the resonant surface, B T the toroidal magnetic field-strength, n e the electron number density at the resonant surface and R 0 the major radius of the plasma. This scaling—in particular, the linear dependence of the threshold with density—is consistent with experimental observations. When the scaling is used to extrapolate from JET to ITER, the predicted ITER error-field penetration threshold is (b r /B T ) crit ∼ 5 × 10 −5 , which just lies within the expected capabilities of the ITER error-field correction system. (paper)

  5. Limits on the field of ohmic heating solenoids, applied to a tokamak TNS

    Turner, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    If the ohmic heating solenoid for the TNS or other large tokamak is an ungraded cryostable superconducting solenoid, with NbTi at 4.2 K as the superconductor, then the smallest outer diameter is not achieved at the highest attainable field. There is a lower optimum field which minimizes the outer diameter for a given volt-second requirement. At higher fields the mean diameter decreases; but the high fields require more superconductor, more copper stabilizer, more stainless steel for support, and more liquid helium coolant. For the GA-ANL design for TNS, the optimum field is 7.55 T and the minimum outside diameter for the solenoid is 2.15 m. If, on the other hand, the solenoid is graded, with more NbTi, copper, and stainless steel on the inner turns where the field is higher, than the volt-seconds can always be increased, for a given outer diameter, by adding more turns at a higher field inside until either the critical field is reached or the solenoid bore is filled. However, the material and money required to add a few more volt-seconds increases rapidly with field

  6. Limits on the field of ohmic heating solenoids, applied to a tokamak TNS

    Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    If the ohmic heating solenoid for the TNS or other large tokamak is an ungraded cryostable superconducting solenoid, with NbTi at 4.2 K as the superconductor, then the smallest outer diameter is not achieved at the highest attainable field. There is a lower optimum field which minimizes the outer diameter for a given volt-second requirement. At higher fields the mean diameter decreases; but the high fields require more superconductor, more copper stabilizer, more stainless steel for support, and more liquid helium coolant. For the GA-ANL design for TNS, the optimum field is 7.55 T and the minimum outside diameter for the solenoid is 2.15 m. If, on the other hand, the solenoid is graded, with more NbTi, copper, and stainless steel on the inner turns where the field is higher, then the volt-seconds can always be increased, for a given outer diameter, by adding more turns at a higher field inside until either the critical field is reached or the solenoid bore is filled. However, the material and money required to add a few more volt-seconds increases rapidly with field

  7. Modeling of the L.F. turbulent spectrum during ohmic discharges, auxiliary heating and disruptions in Tokamak

    Truc, A.

    1983-07-01

    The spectrum of low frequency turbulence in the TFR tokamak, as observed along a central chord by a CO 2 laser light diffusion diagnostic, appears to be representable by four monomial branches joining to three vertices. This schematic representation permits to follow more easily the evolution of the turbulence during the life of the plasma, including the ohmic regime, the transitions to auxiliary heating and the minor and major disruptions

  8. Effect of milk fat content on the performance of ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Kim, S-S; Kang, D-H

    2015-08-01

    The effect of milk fat content on ohmic heating compared to conventional heating for inactivation of food-borne pathogens was investigated. Sterile cream was mixed with sterile buffered peptone water and adjusted to 0, 3, 7, 10% (w/v) milk fat content. These samples with varying fat content were subjected to ohmic and conventional heating. The effect of milk fat on temperature increase and electrical conductivity were investigated. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens was studied. For conventional heating, temperatures of samples increased with time and were not significantly (P > 0.05) different regardless of fat content. Although the inactivation rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and L. monocytogens decreased in samples of 10% fat content, a protective effect was not observed for conventional heating. In contrast with conventional heating, ohmic heating was significantly affected by milk fat content. Temperature increased more rapidly with lower fat content for ohmic heating due to higher electrical conductivity. Nonuniform heat generation of nonhomogeneous fat-containing samples was verified using a thermal infrared camera. Also, the protective effect of milk fat on E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes was observed in samples subjected to ohmic heating. These results indicate that food-borne pathogens can survive in nonhomogeneous fat-containing foods subjected to ohmic heating. Therefore, more attention is needed regarding ohmic heating than conventional heating for pasteurizing fat-containing foods. The importance of adequate pasteurization for high milk fat containing foods was identified. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Engineering design solutions of flux swing with structural requirements for ohmic heating solenoids

    Smith, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Here a more detailed publication is summarized which presents analytical methods with solutions that describe the structural behavior of ohmic heating solenoids to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between the functional variables that can provide the basis for recommended design improvements. The solutions relate the requirements imposed by structural integrity to the need for producing sufficient flux swing to initiate a plasma current in the tokamak fusion machine. A method is provided to perform a detailed structural analysis of every conducting turn in the radial build of the solenoid, and computer programmed listings for the closed form solutions are made available as part of the reference document. Distinction is made in deriving separate models for the regions of the solenoid where turn-to-turn radial contact is maintained with radial compression or with a bond in the presence of radial tension, and also where there is turn-to-turn radial separation due to the absence or the loss of bonding in the presence of would be radial tension. The derivations follow the theory of elasticity for a body possessing cylindrical anisotropy where the material properties are different in the radial and tangential directions. The formulations are made practical by presenting the methods for reducing stress and for relocating the relative position for potential turn-to-turn radial delamination by permitting an arbitrary traction at the outer radial surface of the solenoid in the form of pressure or displacement such as may be applied by a containment or a shrink fit structural cylinder

  10. Analysis and testing of the DIII-D ohmic heating coil lead repair clamp

    Reis, E.E.; Anderson, P.M.; Chin, E.; Robinson, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    DIII-D has been operating for the last year with limited volt-second capabilities due to structural failure of a conductor lead to one of the ohmic heating (OH) solenoids. The conductor failure was due to poor epoxy impregnation of the overwrap of the lead pack, resulting in copper fatigue and a water leak. A number of structural analyses were performed to assist in determining the failure scenario and to evaluate various repair options. A fatigue stress analysis of the leads with a failed epoxy overwrap indicated crack initiation after 1,000 cycles at the maximum operating conditions. The failure occurred in a very inaccessible area which restricted design repair options to concepts which could be implemented remotely. Several design options were considered for repairing the lead so that it can sustain the loads for 7.5 Vs conditions at full toroidal field. A clamp, along with preloaded banding straps and shim bags, provides a system that guarantees that the stress at the crack location is always compressive and prevents further crack growth in the conductor. Due to the limited space available for the repair, it was necessary to design the clamp system to operate at the material yield stress. The primary components of the clamp system were verified by load tests prior to installation. The main body of the clamp contains a load cell and potentiometer for monitoring the load-deflection characteristics of the clamp and conductors during plasma operation. Strain gages provides redundant instrumentation. If required, the preload on the conductors can be increased remotely by a special wrench attached to the clamp assembly

  11. Ohmic heating of peaches in the wide range of frequencies (50 Hz to 1 MHz).

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Ji, Taehyun; Alvarez, Valente B; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2010-09-01

    The ohmic heating (OH) rate of peaches was studied at fixed electric field strength of 60 V.cm⁻¹, square-shaped instant reversal bipolar pulses, and frequencies varying within 50 Hz to 1 MHz. Thermal damage of tissue was evaluated from electrical admittivity. It showed that the time for half disruption (τ(T)) of tissue was required more than 10 h at temperatures below 40 °C. However, cellular thermal disruption occurred almost instantly (τ(T) 90 °C). Electrical conductivity σ(o) and admittivity σ(o)* of tissue at T(o)= 0 °C and their temperature coefficients (m, m*) were calculated. For freeze-thawed tissues, σ and σ* as well as m and m* were nearly indifferent to the frequency. However, for the intact tissue, both σ(o), σ(o)* and m, m* were frequency dependent. For freeze-thawed product, the power factor (P) was approximately equal to 1 and indifferent to the frequency and temperature. On the other hand, strong frequency dependence was observed for intact tissue with the minimum P approximately equal to 0.68 in the range of tens of kHz. The time required to reach a target temperature t(f) was evaluated. The t(f) increased with frequency up to the middle of the range of tens of kHz and thereafter continuously decreased. Samples exposed to the low-frequency electric field demonstrated faster electro-thermal damage rates. The textural relaxation data supported more intense damage kinetics at low-frequency OH. It has been demonstrated that a combination of high-frequency OH with pasteurization at moderate temperature followed by rapid cooling minimizes texture degradation of peach tissue. In this study, we investigated the electric field frequency effect on the rate of OH of peaches. It was shown that the time required for reaching the target temperature is strongly dependent upon the frequency. Samples exposed to low-frequency OH demonstrated higher electro-thermal damage rates. It has been shown that the combination of high-frequency OH with

  12. Scaling of energy confinement with minor radius, current and density in Doublet III Ohmically heated plasmas

    Ejima, S.; Petrie, T.W.; Riviere, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The dependence of plasma energy confinement on minor radius, density and plasma current is described for Ohmically heated near-circular plasmas in Doublet III. A wide range of parameters is used for the study of scaling laws; the plasma minor radius defined by the flux surface in contact with limiter is varied by a factor of 2 (a = 44, 32, and 23 cm), the line average plasma density, nsub(e)-bar, is varied by a factor of 20 from 0.5 to 10 x 10 13 cm -3 (nsub(e)-bar R 0 /Bsub(T) = 0.3 to 6 x 10 14 cm -2 .kG -1 ) and the plasma current, I, is varied by a factor of 6 from 120 to 718 kA. The range of the limiter safety factor, qsub(L), is from 2 to 12. - For plasmas with a = 23 and 32 cm, the scaling law at low nsub(e)-bar for the gross electron energy confinement time can be written as (s, cm) tausub(Ee)sup(G) approx.= 3.6 x 10 -19 nsub(e)-bar a 2 qsub(c)sup(3/4), where qsub(c) = 2πa 2 Bsub(T)/μ 0 IR 0 . For the 44-cm plasmas, tausub(Ee)sup(G) is about 1.8 times less than predicted by this scaling, possibly owing to the change in limiter configuration and small plasma-wall separation and/or the aspect ratio change. At high nsub(e)-bar, tausub(Ee)sup(G) saturates and in many cases decreases with nsub(e)-bar but increases with I in a classical-like manner. The dependence of tausub(Ee)sup(G) on a is considerably weakened. The confinement behaviour can be explained by taking an ion thermal conductivity 2 to 7 times that given by Hinton-Hazeltine's neoclassical theory with a lumped-Zsub(eff) impurity model. Within this range the enhancement factor increases with a or a/R 0 . The electron thermal conductivity evaluated at half-temperature radius where most of the thermal insulation occurs sharply increases with average current density within that radius, but does not depend on a within the uncertainties of the measurements. (author)

  13. Optimization of ohmic heating parameters for polyphenoloxidase inactivation in not-from-concentrate elstar apple juice using RSM

    Abedelmaksoud, Tarek; Mohsen, Sobhy Mohamed; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    In this study, optimization of ohmic heating (OH) process parameters (temperature and voltage gradient) to inactivate polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of not-from-concentrate (NFC) apple juice was conducted. Response surface methodology was used for optimization of OH parameters, where the voltage gradient...... and temperature on the PPO activity in the NFC apple juice was evaluated. Then the optimized condition was used to produce the NFC apple juice and the quality parameters were evaluated and compared to NFC apple juice prepared by conventional heating (CH). The studied parameters were: PPO activity, total phenolic......, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, cloud value, color as well as physical properties (i.e., TSS, acidity, electric conductivity and viscosity). The reduction of PPO activities was 97 and 91% for OH (at 40 V/cm and 80 °C) and CH (at 90 °C and 60 s), respectively. The reduction of the ascorbic acid...

  14. Analysis of Electron Thermal Diffusivity and Bootstrap Current in Ohmically Heated Discharges after Boronization in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Zhang, X.M.; Wan, B.N.

    2005-01-01

    Significant improvements of plasma performance after ICRF boronization have been achieved in the full range of HT-7 operation parameters. Electron power balance is analyzed in the steady state ohmic discharges of the HT-7 tokamak. The ratio of the total radiation power to ohmic input power increases with increasing the central line-averaged electron density, but decreases with plasma current. It is obviously decreased after wall conditioning. Electron heat diffusivity χ e deduced from the power balance analysis is reduced throughout the main plasma after boronization. χ e decreases with increasing central line-averaged electron density in the parameter range of our study. After boronization, the plasma current profile is broadened and a higher current can be easily obtained on the HT-7 tokamak experiment. It is expected that the fact that the bootstrap current increases after boronization will explain these phenomena. After boronization, the plasma pressure gradient and the electron temperature near the boundary are larger than before, these factors influencing that the ratio of bootstrap current to total plasma current increases from several percent to above 10%

  15. Density scaling on n  =  1 error field penetration in ohmically heated discharges in EAST

    Wang, Hui-Hui; Sun, You-Wen; Shi, Tong-Hui; Zang, Qing; Liu, Yue-Qiang; Yang, Xu; Gu, Shuai; He, Kai-Yang; Gu, Xiang; Qian, Jin-Ping; Shen, Biao; Luo, Zheng-Ping; Chu, Nan; Jia, Man-Ni; Sheng, Zhi-Cai; Liu, Hai-Qing; Gong, Xian-Zu; Wan, Bao-Nian; Contributors, EAST

    2018-05-01

    Density scaling of error field penetration in EAST is investigated with different n  =  1 magnetic perturbation coil configurations in ohmically heated discharges. The density scalings of error field penetration thresholds under two magnetic perturbation spectra are br\\propto n_e0.5 and br\\propto n_e0.6 , where b r is the error field and n e is the line averaged electron density. One difficulty in understanding the density scaling is that key parameters other than density in determining the field penetration process may also be changed when the plasma density changes. Therefore, they should be determined from experiments. The estimated theoretical analysis (br\\propto n_e0.54 in lower density region and br\\propto n_e0.40 in higher density region), using the density dependence of viscosity diffusion time, electron temperature and mode frequency measured from the experiments, is consistent with the observed scaling. One of the key points to reproduce the observed scaling in EAST is that the viscosity diffusion time estimated from energy confinement time is almost constant. It means that the plasma confinement lies in saturation ohmic confinement regime rather than the linear Neo-Alcator regime causing weak density dependence in the previous theoretical studies.

  16. Radiation, impurity effects, instability characteristics and transport in Ohmically heated plasmas in the PLT tokamak

    Bol, K.; Arunasalam, V.; Bitter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Titanium-gettered deuterium plasmas, with graphite or steel limiters to define the plasma minor radius, have Zsub(eff) approximately 1 for 3x10 13 14 cm -3 . In ungettered discharges the density limit set by disruptions is about half the value in gettered discharges. The bolometrically measured energy flux from the whole plasma volume is 80-100% of the Ohmic input power for ungettered discharges and 50-70% for gettered ones. The strucutre of MHD modes continues to be intensively studied by means of soft X-ray detector arrays; however, the connection with the disruptive instability remains unclear. Microinstabilities, studied by means of a 2-mm homodyne scattering system, appear to be of sufficient magnitude to influence energy and particle transport. Ion energy confinement times in the central region of the plasma have been estimated to be 50-100ms. Gross electron energy confinement time increases linearly with density at constant temperature. The longest electron energy confinement times observed are approximately >40ms in dense gettered discharges, giving total energy confinement times approximately 80ms. (author)

  17. Summary of experimental core turbulence characteristics in ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated discharges in T-10 tokamak plasmas

    Vershkov, V.A.; Shelukhin, D.A.; Soldatov, S.V.; Urazbaev, A.O.; Grashin, S.A.; Eliseev, L.G.; Melnikov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of experimental turbulence investigations carried out at T-10 for more than 10 years. The turbulence characteristics were investigated using correlation reflectometry, multipin Langmuir probe (MLP) and heavy ion beam probe diagnostics. The reflectometry capabilities were analysed using 2D full-wave simulations and verified by direct comparison using a MLP. The ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated discharges show the distinct transition from the core turbulence, having complex spectral structure, to the unstructured one in the scrape-off layer. The core turbulence includes 'broad band, quasi-coherent' features, arising due to the excitation of rational surfaces with high poloidal m-numbers, with a low frequency near zero and specific oscillations at 15-30 kHz. All experimentally measured properties of low frequency and high frequency quasi-coherent oscillations are in good agreement with predictions of linear theory for the ion temperature gradient/dissipative trapped electron mode instabilities. Significant local changes in the turbulence characteristics were observed at the edge velocity shear layer and in the core near q = 1 radius after switching off the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The local decrease in the electron heat conductivity and decrease in the turbulence level could be evidence of the formation of an electron internal transport barrier. The dynamic behaviour of the core turbulence was also investigated for the case of fast edge cooling and the beginning phase of ECRH

  18. Destruction of Bacillus cereus spores in a thick soy bean paste (doenjang) by continuous ohmic heating with five sequential electrodes.

    Ryang, J H; Kim, N H; Lee, B S; Kim, C T; Rhee, M S

    2016-07-01

    This study selected spores from Bacillus cereus FSP-2 strain (the isolate from a commercial doenjang processing line) as the test strain which showed significantly higher thermal resistance (P 1·5 National Bureau of Standards units), treatment at 105°C for 60 s was selected and applied on a large scale (500 kg of product). Reliable and reproducible destruction of B. cereus spores occurred; the reductions achieved (to < 4 log CFU g(-1) ) met the Korean national standards. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural alterations in the spores (shrinkage and a distorted outer spore coat). OH is an effective method for destroying B. cereus spores to ensure the microbiological quality and safety of a thick, highly viscous sauce. This study shows that an ohmic heating (OH) using a five sequential electrode system can effectively destroy highly heat-resistant Bacillus cereus spores which have been frequently found in a commercial doenjang processing line without perceivable quality change in the product. In addition, it may demonstrate high potential of the unique OH system used in this study that will further contribute to ensure microbiological quality and safety of crude sauces containing high levels of electrolyte other than doenjang as well. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Application of low frequency pulsed ohmic heating for inactivation of foodborne pathogens and MS-2 phage in buffered peptone water and tomato juice.

    Kim, Sang-Soon; Choi, Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to inactivate foodborne pathogens effectively by ohmic heating in buffered peptone water and tomato juice without causing electrode corrosion and quality degradation. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were used as representative foodborne pathogens and MS-2 phage was used as a norovirus surrogate. Buffered peptone water and tomato juice inoculated with pathogens were treated with pulsed ohmic heating at different frequencies (0.06-1 kHz). Propidium iodide uptake values of bacterial pathogens were significantly (p heating is applicable to inactivate foodborne pathogens effectively without causing electrode corrosion and quality degradation in tomato juice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. On radiative-magnetoconvective heat and mass transfer of a nanofluid past a non-linear stretching surface with Ohmic heating and convective surface boundary condition

    Shweta Mishra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper magnetoconvective heat and mass transfer characteristics of a two-dimensional steady flow of a nanofluid over a non-linear stretching sheet in the presence of thermal radiation, Ohmic heating and viscous dissipation have been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of the Brownian motion and the presence of nanoparticles in the base fluid. The governing equations are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. The numerical solutions are obtained by using fifth order Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method with shooting technique. The non-dimensional parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles and also on local Nusselt number and Sherwood number are discussed. The results indicate that the local skin friction coefficient decreases as the value of the magnetic parameter increases whereas the Nusselt number and Sherwood number increase as the values of the Brownian motion parameter and magnetic parameter increase.

  1. Investigation of optimum ohmic heating conditions for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in apple juice.

    Park, Il-Kyu; Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-05-19

    Control of foodborne pathogens is an important issue for the fruit juice industry and ohmic heating treatment has been considered as one of the promising antimicrobial interventions. However, to date, evaluation of the relationship between inactivation of foodborne pathogens and system performance efficiency based on differing soluble solids content of apple juice during ohmic heating treatment has not been well studied. This study aims to investigate effective voltage gradients of an ohmic heating system and corresponding sugar concentrations (°Brix) of apple juice for inactivating major foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes) while maintaining higher system performance efficiency. Voltage gradients of 30, 40, 50, and 60 V/cm were applied to 72, 48, 36, 24, and 18 °Brix apple juices. At all voltage levels, the lowest heating rate was observed in 72 °Brix apple juice and a similar pattern of temperature increase was shown in18-48 °Brix juice samples. System performance coefficients (SPC) under two treatment conditions (30 V/cm in 36 °Brix or 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix juice) were relatively greater than for other combinations. Meanwhile, 5-log reductions of the three foodborne pathogens were achieved after treatment for 60 s in 36 °Brix at 30 V/cm, but this same reduction was observed in 48 °Brix juice at 60 V/cm within 20 s without affecting product quality. With respect to both bactericidal efficiency and SPC values, 60 V/cm in 48 °Brix was the most effective ohmic heating treatment combination for decontaminating apple juice concentrates.

  2. Effect of frequency and waveform on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in salsa by ohmic heating.

    Lee, Su-Yeon; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The effect of frequency of alternating current during ohmic heating on electrode corrosion, heating rate, inactivation of food-borne pathogens, and quality of salsa was investigated. The impact of waveform on heating rate was also investigated. Salsa was treated with various frequencies (60 Hz to 20 kHz) and waveforms (sine, square, and sawtooth) at a constant electric field strength of 12.5 V/cm. Electrode corrosion did not occur when the frequency exceeded 1 kHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on frequency up to 500 Hz, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the heating rate when the frequency was increased above 1 kHz. The electrical conductivity of the sample increased with a rise in the frequency. At a frequency of 60 Hz, the square wave produced a lower heating rate than that of sine and sawtooth waves. The heating rate between waveforms was not significantly (P > 0.05) different when the frequency was >500 Hz. As the frequency increased, the treatment time required to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g) decreased without affecting product quality. These results suggest that ohmic heating can be effectively used to pasteurize salsa and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on frequency and electrical conductivity rather than waveform.

  3. Pellet fueling of JET plasmas during ohmic, ICRF and NBI heating

    Gondhalekar, A.; Cheetham, A.; Bures, M.

    1986-01-01

    Pellet fueling experiments have been performed on JET using a single-shot pneumatic injector giving 4.6mm (4.5 x 10 21 D atoms) and 3.6mm (2.2 x 10 21 D atoms) diameter cylindrical deuterium pellets with velocity 0.8 ≤ V(km.s -1 ) ≤ 1.2. Z/sub eff/ 20 m -3 and T/sub e/(0) ≅ 1keV. Separately, high value of n/sub D/(0)tau/sub E/T/sub i/(0) = 1.3 x 10 20 m -3 .s.keV at T/sub i/90) = 6.5keV has been obtained with pellet fueling followed by NBI heating

  4. Evaluation of heat focuss and Monte Alegre formula in Chapada dos Guimarães National park

    Arlindo de Paula Machado Neto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the behavior of the Monte Alegre Formula (MAF and to quantify the heat focus detected by reference satellites, comparing them with the fires that occurred in Chapada dos Guimarães National Park from 2007 to 2015. Heat analysis was performed using images from AQUA, TERRA and NOAA satellites, whose daily data of detected foci were used to compose the time series over the years, allowing the analysis of trends in the numbers of foci for the park. The data were acquired in the platform of the National Institute of Space Research, in the historical data base of the National Institute of Meteorology and by to the manager of the park. In most years there was an overestimation of the number of heat sources in relation to the number of fire occurrences. The TERRA satellite presented values were closer to the number of fire records in the park. It was observed that 87.69% of the fires were validated in relation to MAF, where 60% belonged to very high hazard class and 27.69% were classified in the high hazard class, demonstrating the effectiveness of MAF in relation to records of fires occurring in the park.

  5. Modelling of coupled heat and electric field distribution during ohmic heating of solid foods with varying sizes

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Bøknæs, Niels; Nielsen, P.L.

    factors leading to variations and uncertainties in prediction of the right process parameters. The current work is focused on modelling of OH of solid food pieces of varying sizes cooked in one batch. A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat transfer and electric field during OH of shrimps has been...

  6. Effect of continuous ohmic heating to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice.

    Lee, S-Y; Sagong, H-G; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different treatment times. The temperature of the samples increased with increasing treatment time and electric field strength. The rate of temperature change for tomato juice was higher than for orange juice at all voltage gradients applied. Higher electric field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was reduced by more than 5 log after 60-, 90- and 180-s treatments in orange juice with 40, 35 and 30 V cm(-1) electric field strength, respectively. In tomato juice, treatment with 25 V cm(-1) for 30 s was sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. Similar results were observed in Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The concentration of vitamin C in continuous ohmic heated juice was significantly higher than in conventionally heated juice (P pasteurize fruit and vegetable juices in a short operating time and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strengths, treatment time and electric conductivity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Evolution of Electrically Active Defects in n-GaN During Heat Treatment Typical for Ohmic Contact Formation

    Boturchuk, Ievgen; Scheffler, Leopold Julian; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted

    2018-01-01

    Ohmic contact formation to n-type GaN often involves high temperature steps, for example sintering at about 800 °C in the case of Ti-based contacts. Such processing steps might cause changes in the distribution, concentration, and properties of the defects. The present work aims at contributing...... to the knowledge about defect evolution in GaN upon processing at different temperatures. The processing temperatures are selected according to fabrication procedures for commonly used ohmic contacts to n-GaN: 300 °C (In-based), 550 °C (Ta-based), and 800 °C (Ti-based). Properties and concentration of the defects...

  8. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer of nanofluids over a nonlinear stretching/shrinking sheet with viscous-Ohmic dissipation and thermal radiation

    Dulal Pal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD convective heat and mass transfer near a stagnation-point flow over stretching/shrinking sheet of nanofluids is presented in this paper by considering thermal radiation, Ohmic heating, viscous dissipation and heat source/sink parameter effects. Non-similarity method is adopted for the governing basic equations before they are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method using shooting technique. The numerical results are validated by comparing the present results with previously published results. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of some selected governing parameters such as Richardson number, radiation parameter, Schimdt number, Eckert number and magnetic parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number.

  9. Effect of electropermeabilization by ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in buffered peptone water and apple juice.

    Park, Il-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The effect of electric field-induced ohmic heating for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in buffered peptone water (BPW) (pH 7.2) and apple juice (pH 3.5; 11.8 °Brix) was investigated in this study. BPW and apple juice were treated at different temperatures (55°C, 58°C, and 60°C) and for different times (0, 10, 20, 25, and 30 s) by ohmic heating compared with conventional heating. The electric field strength was fixed at 30 V/cm and 60 V/cm for BPW and apple juice, respectively. Bacterial reduction resulting from ohmic heating was significantly different (Pheating at 58°C and 60°C in BPW and at 55°C, 58°C, and 60°C in apple juice for intervals of 0, 10, 20, 25, and 30 s. These results show that electric field-induced ohmic heating led to additional bacterial inactivation at sublethal temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and the propidium iodide (PI) uptake test were conducted after treatment at 60°C for 0, 10, 20, 25 and 30 s in BPW to observe the effects on cell permeability due to electroporation-caused cell damage. PI values when ohmic and conventional heating were compared were significantly different (Pheating can more effectively reduce bacterial populations at reduced temperatures and shorter time intervals, especially in acidic fruit juices such as apple juice. Therefore, loss of quality can be minimized in a pasteurization process incorporating ohmic heating.

  10. Design and experimental results of feedback control of Ohmic-heating transformer magnetic flux by LHCD power in HT-7 Tokamak

    Yiyun Huang

    2006-01-01

    In order to make a research on long pulse or even steady state operation with non-inductive drive in plasma discharge, a new feedback control scheme instead of the previous one has been designed and operated in HT-7 [HT-7 team presented by J. Li, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 (2) (2000) 135-146] Tokamak experiment, 2004. Consumption of iron-core transformer magnetic flux (MFT) is feedback controlled for the first time by power of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) P LH , when the Ohmic-heating circuit current can maintain the plasma current I P constant with another feedback control loop, which make MFT evolve at alternating-change state to avoid flux saturation. Plasma current I P can be maintained steadily up to 120s in this operation mode at reduced plasma parameters (I P ∼50-100KA, average density n-bar e =0.4-0.5x10 19 m -3 , P LH =100-200KW). Design and experimental results are presented in the paper, which including control model analysis, configurations of control system and MFT feedback control experiments in HT-7. The high voltage power supply (HVPS) of LHCD is the main controller that regulates the LHCD power into the plasma to control the MFT

  11. Broad wavenumber turbulence and transport during Ohmic and electron cyclotron heating in the DIII-D tokamak

    Rhodes, T L [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); Peebles, W A [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); DeBoo, J C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Prater, R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Staebler, G M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Candy, J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bravenec, R V [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); De Grassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Doyle, E J [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); Gohil, P; Greenfield, C M; Groebner, R J; Lohr, J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Nguyen, X V [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States); Petty, C C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); John, H E St; Zeeland, M A Van [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Wang, G.; Zeng, L [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The response of plasma parameters and broad wavenumber turbulence (1-39 cm{sup -1}, k{rho}{sub s} = 0.1-10, relevant to ion temperature gradient, trapped electron mode and electron temperature gradient mode turbulence, here {rho}{sub s} = ion gyroradius) to auxiliary electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is reported on. One fluid thermal fluxes and diffusivities increase appreciably with ECH. Significant changes to the density fluctuations over the full range of measured wavenumbers are observed, with an increase for lower wavenumbers and a more spatially complicated response at high k. Spatially resolved high k measurements (k = 39 cm{sup -1}, k{rho}{sub s} = 4-10) show a varying response to ECH, with n-bar decreasing at r/a = 0.35 and increasing at r/a = 0.6 and 1. These variations were found to have a positive correlation with {nabla}T{sub e} evaluated at nearby locations, consistent with a {nabla}T{sub e} drive. Comparison of the changes in high k fluctuation levels with linear gyrokinetic growth rates show qualitative agreement at the innermost location, r/a = 0.35 and disagreement at r/a = 0.6.

  12. Broad wavenumber turbulence and transport during Ohmic and electron cyclotron heating in the DIII-D tokamak

    Rhodes, T L; Peebles, W A; DeBoo, J C; Prater, R; Kinsey, J E; Staebler, G M; Candy, J; Austin, M E; Bravenec, R V; Burrell, K H; De Grassie, J S; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Greenfield, C M; Groebner, R J; Lohr, J; Makowski, M A; Nguyen, X V; Petty, C C; Solomon, W M; John, H E St; Zeeland, M A Van; Wang, G.; Zeng, L

    2007-01-01

    The response of plasma parameters and broad wavenumber turbulence (1-39 cm -1 , kρ s = 0.1-10, relevant to ion temperature gradient, trapped electron mode and electron temperature gradient mode turbulence, here ρ s = ion gyroradius) to auxiliary electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is reported on. One fluid thermal fluxes and diffusivities increase appreciably with ECH. Significant changes to the density fluctuations over the full range of measured wavenumbers are observed, with an increase for lower wavenumbers and a more spatially complicated response at high k. Spatially resolved high k measurements (k = 39 cm -1 , kρ s = 4-10) show a varying response to ECH, with n-bar decreasing at r/a = 0.35 and increasing at r/a = 0.6 and 1. These variations were found to have a positive correlation with ∇T e evaluated at nearby locations, consistent with a ∇T e drive. Comparison of the changes in high k fluctuation levels with linear gyrokinetic growth rates show qualitative agreement at the innermost location, r/a = 0.35 and disagreement at r/a = 0.6

  13. Direct observation of electrothermal instability structures on intensely Ohmically heated aluminum with current flowing in a surface skin layer

    Awe, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Implosions on the Z Facility assemble high-energy-density plasmas for radiation effects and ICF experiments, but achievable stagnation pressures and temperatures are degraded by the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. While the beryllium liners (tubes) used in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments are astonishingly smooth (10 to 50 nm RMS roughness), they also contain distributed micron-scale resistive inclusions, and large MRT amplitudes are observed. Early in the implosion, an electrothermal instability (ETI) may provide a perturbation which greatly exceeds the initial surface roughness of the liner. Resistive inhomogeneities drive nonuniform current density and Joule heating, resulting in locally higher temperature, and thus still higher resistivity. Such unstable temperature and pressure growth produce density perturbations which seed MRT. For MagLIF liners, ETI seeding of MRT has been inferred by evaluating late-time MRT, but a direct observation of ETI is not made. ETI is directly observed on the surface of 1.0-mm-diameter solid Al rods pulsed to 1 MA in 100 ns via high resolution gated optical imaging (2 ns temporal and 3 micron spatial resolution). Aluminum 6061 alloy rods, with micron-scale resistive inclusions, consistently first demonstrate overheating from distinct, 10-micron-scale, sub-eV spots, which 5-10 ns later merge into azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and discrete strata (40-100 microns wide by 10 microns tall). Axial plasma filaments form shortly thereafter. Surface plasma can be suppressed for rods coated with dielectric, enabling extended study of the evolution of stratified ETI structures, and experimental inference of ETI growth rates. This fundamentally new and highly 3-dimensional dataset informs ETI physics, including when the ETI seed of MRT may be initiated.

  14. Start-up of the ohmic phase in JET

    Tanga, A.; Christiansen, J.P.; Cordey, J.G.; Ejima, S.; Kellman, A.; Lazzaro, E.; Lomas, P.J.; Thomas, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    JET has been designed to permit the study of plasmas in which alphaparticle heating is a significant part of the power balance. In order to have a sufficient thermonuclear yield and to trap the resulting alphaparticles, JET is similar in its dimensions and plasma current to the next generation of reactor-like devices such as NET, FER and INTOR. For this reason, the authors see the results from the study of the start-up of ohmically heated plasmas in JET as highly relevant. Discussed is the range that has been achieved in all major parameters with ohmic heating. Experiences with the wall conditioning technique and the results of ion cyclotron heating experiments in JET are outlined. This paper also describes the stages of plasma formation, current rise and ohmic flat-top

  15. Radial profiles of neutron emission from ohmic discharges in JET

    Cheetham, A.; Gottardi, N.; Jarvis, O.N.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron emission profiles from several ohmically heated discharges have been studied using a variety of analytical techniques to extract the ion temperature profiles which are found to agree well, both in shape and magnitude, with the electron temperature profiles as measured by the LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs

  16. Physicochemical properties of masa and corn tortilla made by ohmic ...

    Instant corn flour obtained by ohmic heating (OHICF) was used to prepare masa and tortillas. In this study, the effect of average particle size, moisture, and the final temperature on the physicochemical properties of masa and tortillas elaborated from OHICF was evaluated and were compared with flour obtained by the ...

  17. Ohmic discharges in Tore Supra - Marfes and detached plasmas

    Vallet, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Tore Supra plasma characteristics are given. The observed discharges are either leaning on the graphite inner first wall or limited by movable pump limiters located outboard and at the bottom of the vacuum chamber. The particular plasma conditions which lead to marfes and detached plasmas in ohmically heated He and D2 discharges limited by the inner wall are investigated. The results show that the ratio of radiated power to ohmic power increase linearly with M.g. As M.g rises, attached plasma, marfe and detached plasma are sequentially observed. Detached plasma with an effective radius as small as. 7 times the limiter radius was observed on Tore Supra

  18. Ohmic ignition of Neo-Alcator tokamak with adiabatic compression

    Inoue, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi

    1992-01-01

    Ohmic ignition condition on axis of the DT tokamak plasma heated by minor radius and major radius adiabatic compression is studied assuming parabolic profiles for plasma parameters, elliptic plasma cross section, and Neo-Alcator confinement scaling. It is noticeable that magnetic compression reduces the necessary total plasma current for Ohmic ignition device. Typically in compact ignition tokamak of the minor radius of 0.47 m, major radius of 1.5 m and on-axis toroidal field of 20 T, the plasma current of 6.8 MA is sufficient for compression plasma, while that of 11.7 MA is for no compression plasma. Another example with larger major radius is also described. In such a device the large flux swing of Ohmic transformer is available for long burn. Application of magnetic compression saves the flux swing and thereby extends the burn time. (author)

  19. Cost Focussed Firms and Internet Usage

    Joanne Loundes

    2002-01-01

    This paper looks at Internet usage by Australian firms that have a cost focussed competitive strategy. The data source for this analysis is the Melbourne Institute Business Survey, conducted by the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research. The survey was conducted in late 2001, and targeted large Australian firms. Instrumental variables estimation found that cost-focussed organizations utilised the Internet more intensively for both internal organizational activities and ex...

  20. Effects of chemical reaction in thermal and mass diffusion of micropolar fluid saturated in porous regime with radiation and ohmic heating

    Kumar Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the chemically reacting free convection MHD micropolar flow, heat and mass transfer in porous medium past an infinite vertical plate with radiation and viscous dissipation. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller-box method. The results for concentration, transverse velocity, angular velocity and temperature are obtained and effects of various parameters on these functions are presented graphically. The numerical discussion with physical interpretations for the influence of various parameters also presented.

  1. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  2. Improvement of sizing methods using focussed probes

    Birac, A.M.; Saglio, R.; Frappier, J.C.

    1983-05-01

    Three methods are described; these three methods, using the advantages of focussed probes allow, used simultaneously according to the nature of the detected defects, to evaluate with a good accuracy the dimensions and the orientation of the real or artificial defects [fr

  3. Ohmic H-mode studies in TUMAN-3

    Lebedev, S.V.; Andrejko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.; Kornev, V.A.; Levin, L.S.; Tukachinsky, A.S.; Tendler, M.

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous transition from Ohmically heated limiter discharges into the regime with improved confinement termed as ''Ohmic H-mode'' has been investigated in ''TUMAN-3''. The typical signatures of H-mode in tokamaks with powerful auxiliary heating have been observed: sharp drop of D α radiation with simultaneous increase in the electron density and stored energy, suppression of the density fluctuations and establishing the steep gradient near the periphery. The crucial role of the radial electric field in the L-H transition was found in the experiments with boundary biasing. The possibility of initiating the H-mode using single pellet injection was demonstrated. In Ohmic H-mode strong dependencies of τ E on plasma current and on input power and weak dependence on density were found. Thermal energy confinement time enhanced by a factor of 10 compared to predictions of Neo-Alcator scaling. Longest energy confinement time (30 ms) was obtained in the small tokamak TUMAN-3. Absolute values of the energy confinement time are in agreement with scaling proposed for description of the ELM-free H-modes in devices with powerful auxiliary heating (''DIII-D/JET H-mode'' scaling). (author)

  4. Ohmic cooking of whole beef muscle--evaluation of the impact of a novel rapid ohmic cooking method on product quality.

    Zell, Markus; Lyng, James G; Cronin, Denis A; Morgan, Desmond J

    2010-10-01

    Cylindrical cores of beef semitendinosus (500g) were cooked in a combined ohmic/convection heating system to low (72 degrees C, LTLT) and high (95 degrees C, HTST) target end-point temperatures. A control was also cooked to an end-point temperature of 72 degrees C at the coldest point. Microbial challenge studies on a model meat matrix confirmed product safety. Hunter L-values showed that ohmically heated meat had significantly (pHTST)) relative to the control (56.85). No significant texture differences (p>/=0.05) were suggested by Warner-Bratzler peak load values (34.09, 36.37 vs. 35.19N). Cook loss was significantly (pHTST and the control were more comparable (6.09 and 7.71, respectively). These results demonstrate considerable potential for this application of ohmic heating for whole meats. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternating phase focussing including space charge

    Cheng, W.H.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Longitudinal stability can be obtained in a non-relativistic drift tube accelerator by traversing each gap as the rf accelerating field rises. However, the rising accelerating field leads to a transverse defocusing force which is usually overcome by magnetic focussing inside the drift tubes. The radio frequency quadrupole is one way of providing simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing without the use of magnets. One can also avoid the use of magnets by traversing alternate gaps between drift tubes as the field is rising and falling, thus providing an alternation of focussing and defocusing forces in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. The stable longitudinal phase space area is quite small, but recent efforts suggest that alternating phase focussing (APF) may permit low velocity acceleration of currents in the 100-300 ma range. This paper presents a study of the parameter space and a test of crude analytic predictions by adapting the code PARMILA, which includes space charge, to APF. 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. Investigation of the density turbulence in ohmic ASDEX plasmas

    Dodel, G.; Holtzhauer, E.

    1989-01-01

    A 119 μm homodyne laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency of the density fluctuations occuring in the different operational conditions of the machine. The changes of the density turbulence caused by additional heating are of primary interest with regard to a possible correlation to anomalous transport. Therefore, in the current experiment particular emphasis is placed on these investigations. On the other hand it is the ohmic phase which constitutes the least complicated physical situation in a tokamak and is therefore best suited to reveal the basic physical nature of the density turbulence. In the following we present a summary of our findings in the ohmic phase and make an attempt to compare these findings with what would be expected from the simplest model of density-gradient-driven driftwave turbulence saturated at the mixing-length level. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  7. Investigation of the density turbulence in ohmic ASDEX plasmas

    Dodel, G; Holtzhauer, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-01-01

    A 119 {mu}m homodyne laser scattering experiment is used on ASDEX to investigate wavenumber and frequency of the density fluctuations occuring in the different operational conditions of the machine. The changes of the density turbulence caused by additional heating are of primary interest with regard to a possible correlation to anomalous transport. Therefore, in the current experiment particular emphasis is placed on these investigations. On the other hand it is the ohmic phase which constitutes the least complicated physical situation in a tokamak and is therefore best suited to reveal the basic physical nature of the density turbulence. In the following we present a summary of our findings in the ohmic phase and make an attempt to compare these findings with what would be expected from the simplest model of density-gradient-driven driftwave turbulence saturated at the mixing-length level. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Confinement requirements for OHMIC-compressive ignition of a Spheromak plasma

    Olson, R.; Gilligan, J.; Miley, G.

    1980-01-01

    The Moving Plasmoid Reactor (MPR) is an attractive alternative magnetic fusion scheme in which Spheromak plasmoids are envisioned to be formed, compressed, burned, and expanded as the plasmoids translate through a series of linear reactor modules. Although auxiliary heating of the plasmoids may be possible, the MPR scenario would be especially interesting if ohmic decay and compression along were sufficient to heat the plasmoids to an ignition temperature. In the present work, we will study the transport conditions under which a Spheromak plasmoid could be expected to reach ignition via a combination of ohmic and compression heating

  9. Confinement requirements for ohmic-compressive ignition of a Spheromak plasma

    Olson, R.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Moving Plasmoid Reactor (MPR) is an attractive alternative magnetic fusion scheme in which Spheromak plasmoids are envisioned to be formed, compressed, burned, and expanded as the plasmoids translate through a series of linear reactor modules. Although auxiliary heating of the plasmoids may be possible, the MPR scenario would be especially interesting if ohmic decay and compression alone is sufficient to heat the plasmoids to an ignition temperature. In the present work, we examine the transport conditions under which a Spheromak plasmoid can be expected to reach ignition via a combination of ohmic and compression heating

  10. Analysis of the ion energy transport in ohmic discharges in the ASDEX tokamak

    Simmet, E.E.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Herrmann, W.; Stroth, U.

    1996-10-01

    An analysis of the local ion energy transport is performed for more than one hundred well documented ohmic ASDEX discharges. These are characterized by three different confinement regimes: the linear ohmic confinement (LOC), the saturated ohmic confinement (SOC) and the improved ohmic confinement (IOC). All three are covered by this study. To identify the most important local transport mechanism of the ion heat, the ion power balance equation is analyzed. Two methods are used: straightforward calculation with experimental data only, and a comparison of measured and calculated profiles of the ion temperature and the ion heat conductivity, respectively. A discussion of the power balance shows that conductive losses dominate the ion energy transport in all ohmic discharges of ASDEX. Only inside the q=1-surface losses due to sawtooth activity play a role, while at the edge convective fluxes and CX-losses influence the ion energy transport. Both methods lead to the result that both the ion temperature and the ion heat conductivity are consistent with predictions of the neoclassical theory. Enhanced heat losses as suggested by theories eg. on the basis of η i modes can be excluded. (orig.)

  11. Focussed approach to verification under FMCT

    Bragin, V.; Carlson, J.; Bardsley, J.; Hill, J.

    1998-01-01

    FMCT will have different impacts on individual states due to the enormous variance in their nuclear fuel cycles and the associated fissile material inventories. The problem is how to negotiate a treaty that would achieve results favourable for all participants, given that interests and priorities vary so much. We believe that focussed verification, confined to safeguarding of enrichment and reprocessing facilities in NWS and TS, coupled with verification of unirradiated direct-use material produced after entry-into-force of a FMCT and supported with measures to detect possible undeclared enrichment and reprocessing activities, is technically adequate for the FMCT. Eventually this would become the appropriate model for all states party to the NPT

  12. Focussing magnets for proton Linac of ADS

    Malhotra, Sanjay; Mahapatra, U.; Singh, Pitamber; Choudhury, R.K.; Goel, Priyanshu; Verma, Vishnu; Bhattacharya, S.; Srivastava, G.P.; Kailas, S.; Sahni, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    A linear accelerator comprising of Radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) and drift tube linac (DTL) is being developed by BARC. The Alvarez type post-coupled cw DTL accelerates protons from an energy of 3 MeV to 20 MeV. The drift tube linac is excited in TM010 mode, wherein the particles are accelerated by longitudinal electric fields at the gap crossings between drift tubes. The particles are subjected to transverse RF defocusing forces at the gap crossings due to the increasing electric fields in the gap. The transverse defocusing is corrected by housing magnetic quadrupole focussing lenses inside the drift tubes. The permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs) are placed inside the hermetically sealed drift tubes and provide a constant magnetic field gradient in the beam aperture. This paper discusses various aspects of magnetic design, selection of magnetic materials and the engineering development involved in the prototype development of these drift tubes for proton Linac. (author)

  13. A thermal transport coefficient for ohmic and ICRF plasmas in alcator C-mode

    Daughton, W.; Coppi, B.; Greenwald, M.

    1996-01-01

    The energy confinement in plasmas produced by Alcator C-Mod machine is markedly different from that observed by previous high field compact machines such as Alcator A and C, FT, and more recently FTU. For ohmic plasmas at low and moderate densities, the confinement times routinely exceed those expected from the so-called open-quotes neo-Alcatorclose quotes scaling by a factor as high as three. For both ohmic and ICRF heated plasmas, the energy confinement time increases with the current and is approximately independent of the density. The similarity in the confinement between the ohmic and ICRF regimes opens the possibility that the thermal transport in Alcator C-Mod may be described by one transport coefficient for both regimes. We introduce a modified form of a transport coefficient previously used to describe ohmic plasmas in Alcator C-Mod. The coefficient is inspired by the properties of the so-called open-quotes ubiquitousclose quotes mode that can be excited in the presence of a significant fraction of trapped electrons and also includes the constraint of profile consistency. A detailed series of transport simulations are used to show that the proposed coefficient can reproduce the observed temperature profiles, loop voltage and energy confinement time for both ohmic and ICRF discharges. A total of nearly two dozen ohmic and ICRF Alcator C-Mod discharges have been fit over the range of parameter space available using this transport coefficient

  14. Transport simulations of ohmic ignition experiment: IGNITEX

    Uckan, N.A.; Howe, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The IGNITEX device, proposed by Rosenbluth et al., is a compact, super-high-field, high-current, copper-coil tokamak envisioned to reach ignition with ohmic (OH) heating alone. Several simulations of IGNITEX were made with a 0-D global model and with the 1-D PROCTR transport code. It is shown that OH ignition is a sensitive function of the assumptions about density profile, wall reflectivity of synchrotron radiation, impurity radiation, plasma edge conditions, and additional anomalous losses. In IGNITEX, OH ignition is accessible with nearly all scalings based on favorable OH confinement (such as neo-Alcator). Also, OH ignition appears to be accessible for most (not all) L-mode scalings (such as Kaye-Goldston), provided that the density profile is not too broad (parabolic or more peaked profiles are needed), Z/sub eff/ is not too large (≤2), and anomalous radiation and alpha losses and/or other enhanced transport losses (/eta//sub i/ modes, edge convective energy losses, etc.) are not present. In IGNITEX, because the figure-of-merit parameters (aB 0 2 /q* /approximately/ IB 0 , etc.) are large, ignition can be accessed (either with OH heating alone or with the aid of a small amount of auxiliary power) at relatively low beta, far from stability limits. Once the plasma is ignited, thermal runaway is prevented naturally by a combination of increased synchrotron radiation, burnout of the fuel in the plasma core and replacement by thermal alphas, and the reduction in the thermal plasma confinement assumed in L-mode-like scalings. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Transport simulations of ohmic ignition experiment: IGNITEX

    Uckan, N.A.; Howe, H.C.

    1987-12-01

    The IGNITEX device, proposed by Rosenbluth et al., is a compact, super-high-field, high-current, copper-coil tokamak envisioned to reach ignition with ohmic (OH) heating alone. Several simulations of IGNITEX were made with a 0-D global model and with the 1-D PROCTR transport code. It is shown that OH ignition is a sensitive function of the assumptions about density profile, wall reflectivity of synchrotron radiation, impurity radiation, plasma edge conditions, and additional anomalous losses. In IGNITEX, OH ignition is accessible with nearly all scalings based on favorable OH confinement (such as neo-Alcator). Also, OH ignition appears to be accessible for most (not all) L-mode scalings (such as Kaye-Goldston), provided that the density profile is not too broad (parabolic or more peaked profiles are needed), Z/sub eff/ is not too large, and anomalous radiation and alpha losses and/or other enhanced transport losses (eta/sub i/ modes, edge convective energy losses, etc.) are not present. In IGNITEX, because the figure-of-merit parameters are large, ignition can be accessed (either with OH heating alone or with the aid of a small amount of auxiliary power) at relatively low beta, far from stability limits. Once the plasma is ignited, thermal runaway is prevented naturally by a combination of increased synchrotron radiation, burnout of the fuel in the plasma core and replacement by thermal alphas, and the reduction in the thermal plasma confinement assumed in L-mode-like scalings. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  16. High throughput imaging cytometer with acoustic focussing.

    Zmijan, Robert; Jonnalagadda, Umesh S; Carugo, Dario; Kochi, Yu; Lemm, Elizabeth; Packham, Graham; Hill, Martyn; Glynne-Jones, Peter

    2015-10-31

    We demonstrate an imaging flow cytometer that uses acoustic levitation to assemble cells and other particles into a sheet structure. This technique enables a high resolution, low noise CMOS camera to capture images of thousands of cells with each frame. While ultrasonic focussing has previously been demonstrated for 1D cytometry systems, extending the technology to a planar, much higher throughput format and integrating imaging is non-trivial, and represents a significant jump forward in capability, leading to diagnostic possibilities not achievable with current systems. A galvo mirror is used to track the images of the moving cells permitting exposure times of 10 ms at frame rates of 50 fps with motion blur of only a few pixels. At 80 fps, we demonstrate a throughput of 208 000 beads per second. We investigate the factors affecting motion blur and throughput, and demonstrate the system with fluorescent beads, leukaemia cells and a chondrocyte cell line. Cells require more time to reach the acoustic focus than beads, resulting in lower throughputs; however a longer device would remove this constraint.

  17. Energy confinement in Ohmic H-mode in TUMAN-3M

    Andrejko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.; Kornev, V.A.; Lebedev, S.V.; Levin, L.S.; Tukachinsky, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The spontaneous transition from Ohmically heated limiter discharges into the regime with improved confinement termed as ''Ohmic H-mode'' has been investigated in ''TUMAN-3''. The typical signatures of H-mode in tokamaks with powerful auxiliary heating have been observed: sharp drop of D α radiation with simultaneous increase in the electron density and stored energy, suppression of the density fluctuations and establishing the steep gradient near the periphery. In 1994 new vacuum vessel had been installed in TUMAN-3 tokamak. The vessel has the same sizes as old one (R 0 =0.55 m, a 1 =0.24 m). New vessel was designed to reduce mechanical stresses in the walls during B T ramp phase of a shot. Therefore modified device - TUMAN-3M is able to produce higher B T and I p , up to 2 T and 0.2 MA respectively. During first experimental run device was operated in Ohmic Regime. In these experiments the possibility to achieve Ohmic H-mode was studied. The study of the parametric dependencies of the energy confinement time in both OH and Ohmic H-mode was performed. In Ohmic H-mode strong dependencies of τ E on plasma current and on input power and weak dependence on density were found. Energy confinement time in TUMAN-3/TUMAN-3M Ohmic H-mode has revealed good agreement with JET/DIII-D/ASDEX scaling for ELM-free H-mode, resulting in very long τ E at the high plasma current discharges. (author)

  18. Nanodevices produced with focussed ion beams

    Doetsch, U.; Wieck, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    In directly writing the 30 nm focus of a focussed Ga-ion beam (FIB) with an energy of 100 keV we define insulating lines in two-dimensional electronic layers in semiconductors. Ga ions act in GaAs and silicon as deep impurities or p-type doping, respectively. In this way the insulation by such written lines is due to lateral depletion within npn-like interfaces. In writing two FIB lines with a close spacing we define conducting channels between them. In applying a voltage of several Volts to the adjacent areas of the channel relative to it we can tune the effective width of the channel in the range of a few 100 nm to zero and obtain thus a one-dimensional field-effect-transistor-type structure. This transistor exhibits a pure lateral field effect and is thus topologically very different to current transistor concepts. Due to its particular geometry it is called in-plane-gate (IPG) transistor, since the gate and the channel are in the same plane. The fabrication of this type of transistor is thus completely maskless and does not require any alignment procedures since gate, source and drain are all written in the same writing process. Due to the computer-control of the beam deflection even more complex structures are just a question of software and do not need a set of specific masks or photoresist like in the classical lithography. The required line ion dose is of the order of 10 6 cm -1 which means that there are about 100 ions per μm implanted. For devices with maximum micron dimensions only a few hundred ions need thus to be implanted. (orig.)

  19. Kinetics of Maillard reactions in model infant formula during UHT treatment using a static batch ohmic heater

    Roux , Stéphanie; Courel , Mathilde; Ait-Ameur , Lamia; Birlouez-Aragon , Inès; Pain , Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The impact of a UHT treatment on a model infant formula was examined by assessing the advancement of Maillard reactions during a thermal treatment by ohmic heating. The heating and holding steps of the heat treatment were carried out in a static batch ohmic heater equipped with a nitrogen counter-pressure system, allowing reaching five temperature levels from 100 to 140 °C. A heat treatment was characterized by monitoring a holding time at a given temperature. Samples were taken during heatin...

  20. Neoclassical MHD equilibria with ohmic current

    Tokuda, Shinji; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Okamoto, Masao.

    1989-01-01

    MHD equilibria of tokamak plasmas with neoclassical current effects (neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current) were calculated self-consistently. Neoclassical effects on JFT-2M tokamak plasmas, sustained by ohmic currents, were studied. Bootstrap currents flow little for L-mode type equilibria because of low attainable values of poloidal beta, β J . H-mode type equilibria give bootstrap currents of 30% ohmic currents for β J attained by JFT-2M and 100% for β J ≥ 1.5, both of which are sufficient to change the current profiles and the resultant MHD equilibria. Neoclassical conductivity which has roughly half value of the classical Spitzer conductivity brings peaked ohmic current profiles to yield low safety factor at the magnetic axis. Neoclassical conductivity reduces the value of effective Z(Z eff ) which is necessary to give the observed one-turn voltage but it needs impurities accumulating at the center when such peaked current profiles are not observed. (author)

  1. Improvements in or relating to electron beam focussing

    Ely, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electron beam focussing system for use in x-ray microscopes is described. In this design the focussing assembly is completely separated mechanically from the rest of the electron gun thus avoiding insulation problems which are normally encountered in this type of equipment. (U.K.)

  2. Energy Confinement of both Ohmic and LHW Plasma on EAST

    Yang Yao; Gao Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Study on the characters of energy confinement in both Ohmic and lower hybrid wave (LHW) discharges on EAST is conducted and the linear Ohmic confinement (LOC), saturated ohmic confinement (SOC) and improved Ohmic confinement (IOC) regimes are investigated in this paper. It is observed that an improved confinement mode characterized by both a drop of D α line intensity and an increase in line average density can be triggered by a gas puffing pulse. (magnetically confined plasma)

  3. Ohmic ITBs in Alcator C-Mod

    Fiore, C. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Dominguez, A.; Hubbard, A. E.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Greenwald, M. J.; Lin, L.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Zhurovich, K.

    2007-11-01

    Internal transport barrier plasmas can arise spontaneously in ohmic Alcator C-Mod plasmas where an EDA H-mode has been developed by magnetic field ramping. These ohmic ITBs share the hallmarks of ITBs created with off-axis ICRF injection in that they have highly peaked density and pressure profiles and the peaking can be suppressed by on-axis ICRF. There is a reduction of particle and thermal flux in the barrier region which then allows the neoclassical pinch to peak the central density. Recent work on ITB onset conditions [1] which was motivated by turbulence studies [2] points to the broadening of the Ti profile with off-axis ICRF acting to reduce the ion temperature gradient. This suppresses ITG instability driven particle fluxes, which is thought to be the primary mechanism for ITB formation. The object of this study is to examine the characteristics of ohmic ITBs to find whether the stability of plasmas and the plasma parameters support the onset model. [1]K. Zhurovich, et al., To be published in Nuclear Fusion [2] D. R. Ernst, et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2637 (2004)

  4. Ohmic Treatment of Pear Purées (cv. ‘Conference’ in Terms of Some Quality Related Attributes

    Oana Viorela NISTOR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ohmic treatment on some quality related characteristics of pear purée (cv. ‘Conference’ such as color, reducing sugars, total phenols, rheological behavior and microbial counts, was analyzed. The inactivation kinetics of pectin methyl esterase (PME in pear crude extract and purée were studied by conventional thermal and ohmic treatments. Thermal inactivation of PME in crude extract was described by a first-order kinetic model. The activation energy values suggested the presence of two isoenzymes with different thermostability. The ohmic heating reduced PME activity by 96% at 25 V·cm-1. Minimal changes induced by ohmic heating on above quality related aspects were observed. Supporting this statement, there were no significant changes in the nutritional and sensorial attributes. It was reported an increase of 3% of reducing sugar content for the ohmic heated samples. The phenolic content of the treated samples registered a reduction of 59% in comparison with fresh pear purée. The pear purée presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour. The Ostwald de Waele model was fitted to rheograms and the consistency coefficient (m and flow behavior index (n were determined. Results obtained for the microbial charge were higher in the control samples. Thus, microbial counts showed complete inactivation of yeast and mold at voltage gradient higher than 17.5 V·cm-1.

  5. Impurity toroidal rotation and transport in Alcator C-Mod ohmic high confinement mode plasmas

    Rice, J. E.; Goetz, J. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E. S.; Mossessian, D.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Snipes, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Central toroidal rotation and impurity transport coefficients have been determined in Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] Ohmic high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas from observations of x-ray emission following impurity injection. Rotation velocities up to 3x10 4 m/sec in the co-current direction have been observed in the center of the best Ohmic H-mode plasmas. Purely ohmic H-mode plasmas display many characteristics similar to ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas, including the scaling of the rotation velocity with plasma parameters and the formation of edge pedestals in the electron density and temperature profiles. Very long impurity confinement times (∼1 sec) are seen in edge localized mode-free (ELM-free) Ohmic H-modes and the inward impurity convection velocity profile has been determined to be close to the calculated neoclassical profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  6. Ohmic ion temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles from the JET neutron emission profile monitor

    Esposito, B. (ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Marcus, F.B.; Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    The JET neutron emission profile monitor was used to study ohmically heated deuterium discharges. The radial profile of the neutron emissivity is deduced from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature, T[sub i], and ion thermal diffusivity, [chi][sub i], are derived under steady-state conditions. The ion thermal diffusivity is higher than, and its scaling with plasma current opposite to, that predicted by neoclassical theory. (author).

  7. Ohmic ion temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles from the JET neutron emission profile monitor

    Esposito, B.

    1993-01-01

    The JET neutron emission profile monitor was used to study ohmically heated deuterium discharges. The radial profile of the neutron emissivity is deduced from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature, T i , and ion thermal diffusivity, χ i , are derived under steady-state conditions. The ion thermal diffusivity is higher than, and its scaling with plasma current opposite to, that predicted by neoclassical theory. (author)

  8. Turbulence and energy confinement in TORE SUPRA ohmic discharges

    Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Saha, S.K.; Capes, H.; Chen, X.P.; Coulon, J.P.; Gil, C.; Harris, G.; Hutter, T.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1992-06-01

    Results on confinement and turbulence from a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra are discussed. The attention is focused on the saturation of the energy confinement time and it is emphasized that this saturation could be explained by a saturation of the electron heat diffusivity. Ion behaviour is indeed governed by dilution and equipartition effects. Although the ion heat transport is never neoclassical, there is no enhanced degradation at the saturation. This behaviour is confirmed by turbulence measurements given by CO 2 laser coherent scattering. The density fluctuations level follows the electron heat diffusivity variations with the average density. Waves propagating in the ion diamagnetic direction are always present in turbulence frequency spectra. Thus, the saturation cannot be explained by the onset of an ion turbulence. The existence of an ion turbulence at the edge at all densities cannot be excluded. However, this ion feature in scattering spectra could be explained by a Doppler shift associated to an inversion point of the radial electric field at the edge

  9. Imaging and focussing of neutrons by a zone plate

    Kearney, P.D.; Klein, A.G.; Opat, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    The use of refractive lenses for long wavelength neutrons, though possible, is severely limited by the fact that the refractive index differs only very slightly from unity. However, only a relatively thin layer of material is needed to produce an optical path difference of half a wavelength. This fact led the authors in 1978 to propose focussing by diffraction from a phase grating of variable spacing which is, in fact, a type of zone plate. They have been shown to work satisfactorily over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwaves, through visible light, and more recently soft X-rays. Their use in focussing matter waves has not heretofore been demonstrated

  10. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  11. Simulation of core turbulence measurement in Tore Supra ohmic regimes

    Hacquin, S.; Citrin, J.; Arnichand, H.; Sabot, R.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Tore Supra team,

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a simulation of reflectometry measurement in Tore Supra ohmic discharges, for which the experimental observations as well as gyrokinetic non-linear computations predict a modification of turbulence spectrum between the linear (LOC) and the saturated ohmic confinement (SOC)

  12. Transport analysis of ohmic, L-mode and improved confinement discharges in FTU

    Esposito, B [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Marinucci, M [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Romanelli, M [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bracco, G [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Castaldo, C [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cocilovo, V [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Giovannozzi, E [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Leigheb, M [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Monari, G [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Nowak, S [IFP CNR, Via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Sozzi, C [IFP CNR, Via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Tudisco, O [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cesario, R [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Frigione, D [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Gormezano, C [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Granucci, G [IFP CNR, Via R. Cozzi, 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Panaccione, L [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pericoli-Ridolfini, V [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pieroni, L [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2004-11-01

    A thorough investigation of confinement in Frascati Tokamak Upgrade has been carried out on a new database of ohmic, L-mode and advanced scenario discharges (multiple pellet-fuelled, radiation improved and internal transport barriers (ITBs)) obtained with the available auxiliary heating systems, namely electron cyclotron resonant heating, lower hybrid and ion Bernstein wave. A general agreement of the measured {tau}{sub E} with ITER97 L-mode scaling is found in ohmic and L-mode discharges. An improvement of the energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E}) of up to about 60% over the ITER97 L-mode scaling has been obtained in ITB discharges, together with a reduction in local electron transport in the region of high pressure gradient, and up to about 30% in pellet-fuelled discharges (where {tau}{sub E} as large as {approx}120 ms have been reached). The linear density dependence of {tau}{sub E} in ohmic discharges has been found to extend above the saturation density threshold in pellet-fuelled plasmas.

  13. Sawtooth-free Ohmic discharges in ASDEX and the aspects of neoclassical ion transport

    Stroth, U.; Fussmann, G.; Krieger, K.; Mertens, V.; Wagner, F.; Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Buechse, R.; Giannone, L.; Herrmann, H.; Simmet, E.; Steuer, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    Sawtooth-free Ohmic discharges can serve as a model case for a quiescent Tokamak plasma. We report on the properties and the global parameters of these discharges observed in ASDEX and make comments on the mechanism which seems to be responsible for the stabilization of the sawtooth instability. Stationary Ohmic discharge were used to investigate particle, impurity and energy transport in the absence of the sawtooth instability. Particular emphasis has been devoted to a comparison with the predictions of neoclassical theories. We find that the ion energy transport is on the level predicted by neoclassical theory and can explain particle and impurity transport with neoclassical inward drift velocities and diffusion coefficients with the same small anomalous contribution. In the central region of the plasma, where the power flux is low, very small values were found for the electron heat conductivity. (orig.)

  14. Influence of infrared final cooking on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked meatball.

    Yildiz Turp, Gulen; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to improve the quality characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs via infrared cooking as a final stage. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooker at a voltage gradient of 15.26 V/cm for 92 s. Infrared cooking was then applied to the pre-cooked samples at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, and 8.475 kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, and 16.5 cm) and application durations (4, 8, and 12min). Effects of these parameters on color, texture and cooking characteristics of ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. The appearance of ohmically pre-cooked meatball samples was improved via infrared heating. A dark brown layer desired in cooked meatballs formed on the surface of the meatballs with lowest application distance (10.5 cm) and longest application duration (12 min). The texture of the samples was also improved with these parameters. However the cooking yield of the samples decreased at the longest application duration of infrared heating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A multipoint feedback control system for scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia

    Johnson, C.; Kress, R.; Roemer, R.; Hynynen, K.

    1987-01-01

    A multipoint feedback control system has been developed and tested for use with a scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia system. Extensive in-vivo tests (using a perfused organ model) have been made to evaluate the basic performance characteristics of the feedback control scheme for control of temperature in perfused media. The results of these tests are presented and compared with the predictions of a simulation routine. The control scheme was also tested in vivo using dogs' thighs and kidneys. Thigh experiments show the control scheme responds well to the affects of vasodilation and is able to maintain the targeted temperatures. In kidney experiments, where the rate of perfusion was controllable, the power adjusting algorithm successfully maintained uniform temperature distributions across regions of varying rates of perfusion. As a conclusion, the results show that this multipoint feedback controller scheme induces uniform temperature distributions when used with scanned focussed ultrasound systems

  16. Quantitative comparison of electron temperature fluctuations to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges

    Sung, C., E-mail: csung@physics.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Churchill, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Theiler, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SPC, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    Long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} < 0.3) are measured in the outer core region (r/a > 0.8) of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [E. S. Marmar et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104014 (2009)] with a correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. The relative amplitude and frequency spectrum of the fluctuations are compared quantitatively with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] in two different confinement regimes: linear Ohmic confinement (LOC) regime and saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) regime. When comparing experiment with nonlinear simulations, it is found that local, electrostatic ion-scale simulations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} ≲ 1.7) performed at r/a ∼ 0.85 reproduce the experimental ion heat flux levels, electron temperature fluctuation levels, and frequency spectra within experimental error bars. In contrast, the electron heat flux is robustly under-predicted and cannot be recovered by using scans of the simulation inputs within error bars or by using global simulations. If both the ion heat flux and the measured temperature fluctuations are attributed predominantly to long-wavelength turbulence, then under-prediction of electron heat flux strongly suggests that electron scale turbulence is important for transport in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges. In addition, no evidence is found from linear or nonlinear simulations for a clear transition from trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient turbulence across the LOC/SOC transition, and also there is no evidence in these Ohmic L-mode plasmas of the “Transport Shortfall” [C. Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)].

  17. Overview of recent focussing horns for the BNL neutrino program

    Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the two magnetic focussing horn systems recently constructed, installed, and operated in the fast extracted beam for the neutrino physics program at the AGS. These horn systems consist of a number of interrelated subsystems which operate together to produce a very intense, parallel beam of pions. The strong magnetic focussing is generated by pulsing the coaxial structures of the horns with currents of up to 300kA during the 2.5 μsec proton beam spill. Because of their high levels of induced radioactivity, these horns had to be designed for reliability and ease in installation. Both horn systems built had the same overall features, but the broad band system focussed pions over as large a momentum band as possible to maximize the neutrino flux. The narrow band systems restricted the momentum to +-15% of 3 GeV/c to provide kinematic constraints for the experiment. A synopsis of the design concepts and critical engineering requirements is given. Detailed discussion of the subsystems follows in the subsequent papers

  18. Heating in toroidal plasmas

    Knoepfel, H.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1984-01-01

    The article is a rather detailed report on the highlights in the area of the ''Heating in toroidal plasmas'', as derived from the presentations and discussions at the international symposium with the same name, held in Rome, March 1984. The symposium covered both the physics (experiments and theory) and technology of toroidal fusion plasma heating. Both large fusion devices (either already in operation or near completion) requiring auxiliary heating systems at the level of tens of megawatts, as well as physics of their heating processes and their induced side effects (as studied on smaller devices), received attention. Substantial progress was reported on the broad front of auxiliary plasma heating and Ohmic heating. The presentation of the main conclusions of the symposium is divided under the following topics: neutral-beam heating, Alfven wave heating, ion cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating, RF current drive, electron cyclotron heating, Ohmic heating and special contributions

  19. Alternating-current ohmic heating in a helical stellarator

    Funato, Yasuyuki; Kitajima, Sumio; Watanabe, Hiroshige

    1984-01-01

    A toroidal plasma is generated successively by an alternating-current discharge in a helical or non-planar torus, and is confined quasi-stationarily by a longitudinal magnetic field with a high rotational transform angle. The particle confinement time obtained experimentally is estimated to be 3-10 ms, which is compared with theoretical values for this system, and is much larger than the time of pulse interval of the plasma production. (author)

  20. Global properties of ohmically heated reversed-field pinches

    Gerwin, R.A.

    The simultaneous requirements of power balance and pressure balance have been considered. The treatment generalizes the Pease-Braginskii pinch current limit by including toroidal magnetic field, anomalous resistivity, nonradiative losses, and time-dependent fields. The rise of the temperature to a state of power balance proves to be amenable to a very simple and unified description. Finally, the practical parameter windows implied by the joint action of power balance and pressure balance are displayed

  1. Confinement studies of ohmically heated plasmas in TFTR

    Efthimion, P.C.; Bretz, N.L.; Bell, M.G.

    1985-03-01

    Systematic scans of density in large deuterium plasmas (a = 0.83 m) at several values of plasma current and toroidal magnetic field strength indicate that the total energy confinement time, tau/sub E/, is proportional to the line-average density anti n/sub e/ and the limiter q. Confinement times of approx. 0.3 s have been observed for anti n/sub e/ = 2.8 x 10 19 m -3 . Plasma size scaling experiments with plasmas of minor radii a = 0.83, 0.69, 0.55, and 0.41 m at constant limiter q reveal a confinement dependence on minor radius. The major-radius dependence of tau/sub E/, based on a comparison between TFTR and PLT results, is consistent with R 2 scaling. From the power balance, the thermal diffusivity chi/sub e/ is found to be significantly less than the INTOR value. In the a = 0.41 m plasmas, saturation of confinement is due to neoclassical ion conduction (chi/sub i/ neoclassical >> chi/sub e/)

  2. Energy balance in TM-1-MH Tokamak (ohmical heating)

    Stoeckel, J.; Koerbel, S.; Kryska, L.; Kopecky, V.; Dadalec, V.; Datlov, J.; Jakubka, K.; Magula, P.; Zacek, F.; Pereverzev, G. V.

    1981-10-01

    Plasma in the TM-1-MH Tokamak was experimentally studied in the parameter range: tor. mg. field B = 1,3 T, plasma current I sub p = 14 kA, electron density N sub E 3.10 to the 19th power cubic meters. The two numerical codes are available for the comparison with experimental data. TOKATA-code solves simplified energy balance equations for electron and ion components. TOKSAS-code solves the detailed energy balance of the ion component.

  3. Achieving improved ohmic confinement via impurity injection

    Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Soeldner, F.X.

    1991-01-01

    Improved Ohmic Confinement (IOC) was obtained in ASDEX after a modification of the divertors that allowed a larger (deuterium and impurity) backflow from the divertor chamber. The quality of IOC depended crucially on the wall conditions, i.e. IOC was best for uncovered stainless steels walls and vanished with boronization. Furthermore, IOC was found only in deuterium discharges. These circumstances led to the idea that IOC correlates with the content of light impurities in the plasma. To substantiate this working hypothesis, we present observations in deuterium discharges with boronized wall conditions into which various impurities have been injected with the aim to induce IOC conditions. Firstly, the plasma behaviour in typical IOC discharges is characterized. Secondly, injection experiments with the low-Z impurities nitrogen and neon as well as with the high-Z impurities argon and krypton are discussed. Then, we concentrate on optimized neon puffing that yields the best confinement results which are similar to IOC conditions. Finally, these results are compared with eperiments in other tokamaks and some conclusions are drawn about the effects of the impurity puffing on both, the central and the edge plasma behaviour. (orig.)

  4. Ohmic Contacts to P-Type SiC

    Crofton, John

    2000-01-01

    Alloys of aluminum (Al) have previously been used as ohmic contacts to p-type SiC, however the characteristics and performance of these contacts is drastically affected by the type and composition of the Al alloy...

  5. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  6. Optimized design of polarizers with low ohmic loss and any polarization state for the 28 GHz QUEST ECH/ECCD system

    Tsujimura, Toru Ii, E-mail: tsujimura.tohru@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Idei, Hiroshi [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kubo, Shin; Kobayashi, Sakuji [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ohmic loss was calculated on the grooved mirror surface in simulated polarizers. • Polarizers with a low ohmic loss feature were optimally designed for 28 GHz. • Smooth rounded-rectangular grooves were made by mechanical machining. • The designed polarizers can realize all polarization states. - Abstract: In a high-power long-pulse millimeter-wave transmission line for electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH/ECCD), the ohmic loss on the grooved mirror surface of polarizers is one of the important issues for reducing the transmission loss. In this paper, the ohmic loss on the mirror surface is evaluated in simulated real-scale polarizer miter bends for different groove parameters under a linearly-polarized incident wave excitation. The polarizers with low ohmic loss are optimally designed for a new 28 GHz transmission line on the QUEST spherical tokamak. The calculated optimum ohmic loss is restricted to only less than 1.5 times as large as the theoretical loss for a copper flat mirror at room temperature. The copper rounded-rectangular grooves of the polarizers were relatively easy to make smooth in mechanical machining and the resultant surface roughness was not more than 0.15 μm, which is only 0.38 times as large as the skin depth. The combination of the designed elliptical polarizer and the polarization rotator can also realize any polarization state of the reflected wave.

  7. Density limit in FTU tokamak during Ohmic operation

    Frigione, D.; Pieroni, L.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of the physical mechanisms that regulate the density limit in a Tokamak is very important in view of a future fusion reactor. On one hand density enters as a factor in the figure of merit needed to achieve a burning plasma, and on the other hand a high edge density is a prerequisite for avoiding excessive erosion of the first walls and to limit the impurity influx into the hot plasma core. Furthermore a reactor should work in a safe zone of the operation parameters in order to avoid disruptive instabilities. The density limit problem has been tackled since the 70's, but so far a unique physics picture has not still emerged. In the last few years, due to the availability of better diagnostics, especially for the plasma edge, the use of pellet injectors to fuel the plasma and the experience gained on many different Tokamak, a consensus has been reached on the edge density as the real parameter responsible for the density limit. There are still two main mechanisms invoked to explain this limit: one refers to the power balance between the heat conducted and/or convected across the plasma radius and the power lost by impurity line radiation at the edge. When the latter overcomes the former, shrinking of the current channel occurs, which leads to instabilities due to tearing modes (usually the m/n=2/1) and then to disruption. The other explanation, for now valid for divertor machines, is based on the particle and energy balance in the scrape off layer (SOL). The limit in the edge density is then associated with the thermal collapse of the divertor plasma. In this work we describe the experiments on the density limit in FTU with Ohmic heating, the reason why we also believe that the limit is on the edge density, and discuss its relation to a simple model based on the SOL power balance valid for a limiter Tokamak. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs

  8. Ti(r) profiles from the JET neutron profile monitor for ohmic discharges

    Esposito, B. (ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Marcus, F.B.; Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    A study has been made of the neutron emissivity, using the JET neutron profile monitor, obtained for ohmically heated deuterium discharges. Both one-dimensional (1-D) best-fit inversion procedures and 2-D tomography have been used to deduce the radial profile of the neutron emission from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature and ion thermal conductivity are then derived. The scaling of the ion thermal conductivity with plasma current is found to be opposite to that of neoclassical theory. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Von Bibra, M L; Roberts, A; Nugent, K; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  10. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  11. Focuss algorithm application in kinetic compartment modeling for PET tracer

    Huang Xinrui; Bao Shanglian

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is in the process of becoming. Its application mostly depends on the molecular discovery process of imaging probes and drugs, from the mouse to the patient, from research to clinical practice. Positron emission tomography (PET) can non-invasively monitor . pharmacokinetic and functional processes of drugs in intact organisms at tracer concentrations by kinetic modeling. It has been known that for all biological systems, linear or nonlinear, if the system is injected by a tracer in a steady state, the distribution of the tracer follows the kinetics of a linear compartmental system, which has sums of exponential solutions. Based on the general compartmental description of the tracer's fate in vivo, we presented a novel kinetic modeling approach for the quantification of in vivo tracer studies with dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which can determine a parsimonious model consisting with the measured data. This kinetic modeling technique allows for estimation of parametric images from a voxel based analysis and requires no a priori decision about the tracer's fate in vivo, instead determining the most appropriate model from the information contained within the kinetic data. Choosing a set of exponential functions, convolved with the plasma input function, as basis functions, the time activity curve of a region or a pixel can be written as a linear combination of the basis functions with corresponding coefficients. The number of non-zero coefficients returned corresponds to the model order which is related to the number of tissue compartments. The system macro parameters are simply determined using the focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) algorithm. The FOCUSS algorithm is a nonparametric algorithm for finding localized energy solutions from limited data and is a recursive linear estimation procedure. FOCUSS algorithm usually converges very fast, so demands a few iterations. The effectiveness is verified by simulation and clinical

  12. Mechanisms of current flow in metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts

    Blank, T. V.; Gol'dberg, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    Published data on the properties of metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts and mechanisms of current flow in these contacts (thermionic emission, field emission, thermal-field emission, and also current flow through metal shunts) are reviewed. Theoretical dependences of the resistance of an ohmic contact on temperature and the charge-carrier concentration in a semiconductor were compared with experimental data on ohmic contacts to II-VI semiconductors (ZnSe, ZnO), III-V semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN, GaAs, GaP, InP), Group IV semiconductors (SiC, diamond), and alloys of these semiconductors. In ohmic contacts based on lightly doped semiconductors, the main mechanism of current flow is thermionic emission with the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height equal to 0.1-0.2 eV. In ohmic contacts based on heavily doped semiconductors, the current flow is effected owing to the field emission, while the metal-semiconductor potential barrier height is equal to 0.3-0.5 eV. In alloyed In contacts to GaP and GaN, a mechanism of current flow that is not characteristic of Schottky diodes (current flow through metal shunts formed by deposition of metal atoms onto dislocations or other imperfections in semiconductors) is observed

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION MODELS OF HD 189733b AND HD 209458b WITH CONSISTENT MAGNETIC DRAG AND OHMIC DISSIPATION

    Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    We present the first three-dimensional circulation models for extrasolar gas giant atmospheres with geometrically and energetically consistent treatments of magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation. Atmospheric resistivities are continuously updated and calculated directly from the flow structure, strongly coupling the magnetic effects with the circulation pattern. We model the hot Jupiters HD 189733b (T eq ≈ 1200 K) and HD 209458b (T eq ≈ 1500 K) and test planetary magnetic field strengths from 0 to 30 G. We find that even at B = 3 G the atmospheric structure and circulation of HD 209458b are strongly influenced by magnetic effects, while the cooler HD 189733b remains largely unaffected, even in the case of B = 30 G and super-solar metallicities. Our models of HD 209458b indicate that magnetic effects can substantially slow down atmospheric winds, change circulation and temperature patterns, and alter observable properties. These models establish that longitudinal and latitudinal hot spot offsets, day-night flux contrasts, and planetary radius inflation are interrelated diagnostics of the magnetic induction process occurring in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters and other similarly forced exoplanets. Most of the ohmic heating occurs high in the atmosphere and on the dayside of the planet, while the heating at depth is strongly dependent on the internal heat flux assumed for the planet, with more heating when the deep atmosphere is hot. We compare the ohmic power at depth in our models, and estimates of the ohmic dissipation in the bulk interior (from general scaling laws), to evolutionary models that constrain the amount of heating necessary to explain the inflated radius of HD 209458b. Our results suggest that deep ohmic heating can successfully inflate the radius of HD 209458b for planetary magnetic field strengths of B ≥ 3-10 G.

  14. Ohmic contacts to InN-based materials

    Sai P. O.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The key aspects of ohmic contact formation to InN-based materials were investigated. Detailed analysis of studies conducted over the past three decades, allows determining the basic principles of such contacts. The contact structure properties and optimal conditions for them are presented. Different types of metallization are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of each are determined, including the basic requirements that such contact must meet. There is emphasis on the using multilayer metallization with the barrier layers. In the case of the InAlN/GaN systems, the general approaches of forming ohmic contacts were considered.

  15. Pentacene ohmic contact on the transparent conductive oxide films

    Chu, Jian-An; Zeng, Jian-Jhou; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2010-01-01

    Low-resistance ohmic contacts are essential to improve the performance of pentacene-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, we reported ohmic contact formation at the indium tin oxide (ITO)/pentacene and indium cerium oxide (ICO)/pentacene interfaces. According to the observed results from current-voltage and Kelvin probe measurements, we found that the lower contact resistivity of the ICO/pentacene sample than the ITO/pentacene sample may be attributed to the higher surface work function of ICO than ITO.

  16. The Quantum Focussing Conjecture and Quantum Null Energy Condition

    Koeller, Jason

    Evidence has been gathering over the decades that spacetime and gravity are best understood as emergent phenomenon, especially in the context of a unified description of quantum mechanics and gravity. The Quantum Focussing Conjecture (QFC) and Quantum Null Energy Condition (QNEC) are two recently-proposed relationships between entropy and geometry, and energy and entropy, respectively, which further strengthen this idea. In this thesis, we study the QFC and the QNEC. We prove the QNEC in a variety of contexts, including free field theories on Killing horizons, holographic theories on Killing horizons, and in more general curved spacetimes. We also consider the implications of the QFC and QNEC in asymptotically flat space, where they constrain the information content of gravitational radiation arriving at null infinity, and in AdS/CFT, where they are related to other semiclassical inequalities and properties of boundary-anchored extremal area surfaces. It is shown that the assumption of validity and vacuum-state saturation of the QNEC for regions of flat space defined by smooth cuts of null planes implies a local formula for the modular Hamiltonian of these regions. We also demonstrate that the QFC as originally conjectured can be violated in generic theories in d ≥ 5, which led the way to an improved formulation subsequently suggested by Stefan Leichenauer.

  17. Compact turnkey focussing neutron guide system for inelastic scattering investigations

    Brandl, G., E-mail: g.brandl@fz-juelich.de [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) and Physik Department E21, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany and Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum - MLZ, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 85748 Garching (Germany); Georgii, R. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) and Physik Department E21, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dunsiger, S. R. [Physik Department E21, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany and Center for Emergent Materials, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Tsurkan, V. [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg, Germany and Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, MD 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Germany); Loidl, A. [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Adams, T.; Pfleiderer, C.; Böni, P. [Physik Department E21, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-21

    We demonstrate the performance of a compact neutron guide module which boosts the intensity in inelastic neutron scattering experiments by approximately a factor of 40. The module consists of two housings containing truly curved elliptic focussing guide elements, positioned before and after the sample. The advantage of the module lies in the ease with which it may be reproducibly mounted on a spectrometer within a few hours, on the same timescale as conventional sample environments. It is particularly well suited for samples with a volume of a few mm{sup 3}, thus enabling the investigation of materials which to date would have been considered prohibitively small or samples exposed to extreme environments, where there are space constraints. We benchmark the excellent performance of the module by measurements of the structural and magnetic excitations in single crystals of model systems. In particular, we report the phonon dispersion in the simple element lead. We also determine the magnon dispersion in the spinel ZnCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} (V = 12.5 mm{sup 3}), where strong magnetic diffuse scattering at low temperatures evolves into distinct helical order.

  18. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account.

  19. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account

  20. Electron heating in low pressure capacitive discharges revisited

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) absorb energy via ohmic heating due to electron-neutral collisions and stochastic heating due to momentum transfer from high voltage moving sheaths. We use Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to explore these heating mechanisms and to compare the PIC results with available theories on ohmic and stochastic heating. The PIC results for ohmic heating show good agreement with the ohmic heating calculation of Lafleur et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 124503 (2013)]. The PIC results for stochastic heating in low pressure CCPs with collisionless sheaths show good agreement with the stochastic heating model of Kaganovich et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 696 (2006)], which revises the hard wall asymptotic model of Lieberman [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 638 (1988)] by taking current continuity and bulk oscillation into account.

  1. Flexible carbon-based ohmic contacts for organic transistors

    Brandon, Erik (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and method of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). More specifically, the present invention relates to employing a flexible, conductive particle-polymer composite material for ohmic contacts (i.e. drain and source).

  2. Effect of composition on the polarization and ohmic resistances of ...

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... Solid oxide fuel cell; composite cathodes; polarization resistance; ohmic resistance; ... of Oad on LSM, (iii) conversion of Oad into oxygen ion ... ions need to flow through the low temperature sintered ..... TPB's are present) suggest the formation of face-to-face con- ..... calculated using the following equation.

  3. Visual search and spatial attention: ERPs in focussed and divided attention conditions.

    Wijers, A A; Okita, T; Mulder, G; Mulder, L J; Lorist, M M; Poiesz, R; Scheffers, M K

    1987-08-01

    ERPs and performance were measured in divided and focussed attention visual search tasks. In focussed attention tasks, to-be-attended and to-be-ignored letters were presented simultaneously. We varied display load, mapping conditions and display size. RT, P3b-latency and negativity in the ERP associated with controlled search all increased with display load. Each of these measures showed selectivity of controlled search, in that they decreased with focussing of attention. An occipital N230, on the other hand, was not sensitive to focussing of attention, but was primarily affected by display load. ERPs to both attended and unattended targets in focussed attention conditions showed and N2 compared to nontargets, suggesting that both automatic and controlled letter classifications are possible. These effects were not affected by display size. Consistent mapping resulted in shorter RT and P3b-latency in divided attention conditions, compared to varied mapping conditions, but had no effect in focussed attention conditions.

  4. Improved Ohmic-contact to AlGaN/GaN using Ohmic region recesses by self-terminating thermal oxidation assisted wet etching technique

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhu, L.; Wu, W.

    2017-06-01

    Lower Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contact resistance on AlGaN/GaN with wider rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature window was achieved using recessed Ohmic contact structure based on self-terminating thermal oxidation assisted wet etching technique (STOAWET), in comparison with conventional Ohmic contacts. Even at lower temperature such as 650°C, recessed structure by STOAWET could still obtain Ohmic contact with contact resistance of 1.97Ω·mm, while conventional Ohmic structure mainly featured as Schottky contact. Actually, both Ohmic contact recess and mesa isolation processes could be accomplished by STOAWET in one process step and the process window of STOAWET is wide, simplifying AlGaN/GaN HEMT device process. Our experiment shows that the isolation leakage current by STOAWET is about one order of magnitude lower than that by inductivity coupled plasma (ICP) performed on the same wafer.

  5. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ohmic contact formation process on low n-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)

    Yang, Seong-Uk [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Product and Test Engineering Team, System LSI Division, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lee, In-Yeal; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Gil-Ho [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Hong, E-mail: jhpark9@skku.edu [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We propose a method to fabricate non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs with IGZO. • 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current and 1.5 on/off-current ratio are achieved in the junction. • InAs and InGaAs formed by this process decrease an electron barrier height. • Traps generated by diffused O atoms also induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon. - Abstract: Here, an excellent non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs is demonstrated by using indium gallium zinc oxide and investigating through time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, J–V measurement, and H [enthalpy], S [entropy], Cp [heat capacity] chemistry simulation. In is diffused through GaAs during annealing and reacts with As, forming InAs and InGaAs phases with lower energy bandgap. As a result, it decreases the electron barrier height, eventually increasing the reverse current. In addition, traps generated by diffused O atoms induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon, increasing generation current and subsequently the reverse current. Therefore, an excellent Ohmic contact with 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current density and 1.5 on/off-current ratio is achieved on n-type GaAs.

  7. Laminar forced convection in a cylindrical collinear ohmic sterilizer

    Pesso Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with a thermo-fluid analysis of a collinear cylindrical ohmic heater in laminar flow. The geometry of interest is a circular electrically insulated glass pipe with two electrodes at the pipe ends. For this application, since the electrical conductivity of a liquid food depends strongly on the temperature, the thermal analysis of an ohmic heater requires the simultaneous solution of the electric and thermal fields. In the present work the analysis involves decoupling the previous fields by means of an iterative procedure. The thermal field has been calculated using an analytical solution, which leads to fast calculations for the temperature distribution in the heater. Some considerations of practical interest for the design are also given.

  8. Transport and turbulence in TORE SUPRA ohmic discharges

    Garbet, X.; Payan, J.; Laviron, C.; Devynck, P.; Saha, S.K.; Capes, H.; Chen, X.P.; Coulon, J.P.; Gil, C.; Harris, G.; Hutter, T.; Pecquet, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the energy confinement behaviour in ohmic tokamak discharges are not yet understood. It is well known that the confinement time increases with the average density and saturates above a critical value of the density, but several explanations exist for this saturation. The present study is an analysis of a set of ohmic discharges in Tore Supra with I p =1.6 MA, B=4 T, R=2.35 m and a=0.78 m, where the average density was increased from 0.9 to 4.2 10 19 m -3 . For these plasma parameters, the energy confinement time given by magnetic measurements saturates for e > ≥ 2.5 10 19 m -3 . It is emphasized here that the onset of ionic turbulence is unlikely in Tore Supra. This conclusion relies on a transport analysis and turbulence measurements by CO 2 laser scattering, whose results are presented in this paper

  9. Effects of the ohmic current on collective scattering spectra

    Castiglioni, S.; Lontano, M.; Tartari, U.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical and analytical study of the modifications induced in the collective scattering spectra by the ohmic current governing the equilibrium magnetic configuration in toroidal plasmas is presented. The spectral density function is calculated assuming equilibrium distributions for the (bulk and impurity) ion species and a Spitzer-like distribution to describe the response of the electrons to the applied DC electric field. As expected, the spectral asymmetries can be non-negligibly enhanced in the region of the ion-acoustic frequency. They reach their maxima for tangential scattering geometries, where the magnetic effects on the spectra are negligible. This justifies the assumption of the non-magnetized spectra. A theoretically motivated potential is shown to exist for a more detailed experimental investigation of the feasibility of current-density measurements in ohmic plasmas, based on collective scattering. (author)

  10. Experimental study of the β-limit in ohmic H-mode in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    Lebedev, S.V.; Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.; Kornev, V.A.; Krikunov, S.V.; Levin, L.S.; Rozhdestvensky, V.V.; Tukachinsky, A.S.; Yaroshevich, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Because of its high confinement properties, the H-mode provides good opportunities to achieve high beta values in a tokamak. In this paper the results of an experimental study of β T and β N limits in the H-mode, obtained in a circular cross section tokamak without auxiliary heating are presented. The experiments were performed in the TUMAN-3M tokamak. The device has the following parameters: R 0 =0.53m, a s =0.22m (limiter configuration), B T ≤1.2T, I p ≤175kA, n-bar e ≤6.2x10 19 m -3 . The stored energy was measured using diamagnetic loops and compared with W calculated from kinetic data obtained by Thomson scattering and microwave interferometry. Measurements of the stored energy and of the β were performed in the ohmic H-mode before and after boronization and in the scenario with fast current ramp-down in ohmic H-mode. A maximum value of β T of 2.0% and β N of 2.0 were achieved. The β N limit achieved reveals itself as a 'soft' (non-disruptive) limit. The stored energy slowly decays after the current ramp-down. No correlation was found between beta restriction and MHD phenomena. Internal transport barrier (ITB) formation was observed in ohmic H-mode. An enhancement factor of 2.0 over ITER93H(ELM-free) was found in the ohmic H-mode with ITB. (author)

  11. Statistical analyses of local transport coefficients in Ohmic ASDEX discharges

    Simmet, E.; Stroth, U.; Wagner, F.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Herrmann, W.; Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; Mayer, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tokamak energy transport is still an unsolved problem. Many theoretical models have been developed, which try to explain the anomalous high energy-transport coefficients. Up to now these models have been applied to global plasma parameters. A comparison of transport coefficients with global confinement time is only conclusive if the transport is dominated by one process across the plasma diameter. This, however, is not the case in most Ohmic confinement regimes, where at least three different transport mechanisms play an important role. Sawtooth activity leads to an increase in energy transport in the plasma centre. In the intermediate region turbulent transport is expected. Candidates here are drift waves and resistive fluid turbulences. At the edge, ballooning modes or rippling modes could dominate the transport. For the intermediate region, one can deduce theoretical scaling laws for τ E from turbulent theories. Predicted scalings reproduce the experimentally found density dependence of τ E in the linear Ohmic confinement regime (LOC) and the saturated regime (SOC), but they do not show the correct dependence on the isotope mass. The relevance of these transport theories can only be tested in comparing them to experimental local transport coefficients. To this purpose we have performed transport calculations on more than a hundred Ohmic ASDEX discharges. By Principal Component Analysis we determine the dimensionless components which dominate the transport coefficients and we compare the results to the predictions of various theories. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Magnetic Shear and Transport in ECRH Discharges of the TJ-II under Ohmic Induction

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Castejon, F.; Romero, J. A.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ascasibar, E.; Herranz, J.; Sanchez, E.; Luna, E. de la; Pastor, I.

    2006-07-01

    TJ-II is ha heliac type stellarator characterised by high, but almost constant, vacuum rotational transform throughout the confining volume. In ECRH plasmas, moderate induced ohmic currents (negligible heating and modification of the magnetic field nodules) are enough to disregard the bootstrap contribution, which allows us performing a fair calculation of the evolution of the rotational transform. We use the loop voltage diagnostic to estimate the plasma electrical conductivity. Then the evolution of the rotational transform and shear is related to changes in the profiles of electron and thermal diffusivities: negative shear correlates with decreasing diffusivities in the region of steepest density gradient; transport increases toward zero shear but the achieved positive values are too small to draw conclusions. The radial sweeping of lowest order rational magnetic surfaces does not determine the observed trends in transport. (Author)43 refs.

  13. Magnetic Shear and Transport in ECRH Discharges of the TJ-II under Ohmic Induction

    Lopez-Bruna, D.; Castejon, F.; Romero, J. A.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ascasibar, E.; Herranz, J.; Sanchez, E.; Luna, E. de la; Pastor, I.

    2006-01-01

    TJ-II is ha heliac type stellarator characterised by high, but almost constant, vacuum rotational transform throughout the confining volume. In ECRH plasmas, moderate induced ohmic currents (negligible heating and modification of the magnetic field nodules) are enough to disregard the bootstrap contribution, which allows us performing a fair calculation of the evolution of the rotational transform. We use the loop voltage diagnostic to estimate the plasma electrical conductivity. Then the evolution of the rotational transform and shear is related to changes in the profiles of electron and thermal diffusivities: negative shear correlates with decreasing diffusivities in the region of steepest density gradient; transport increases toward zero shear but the achieved positive values are too small to draw conclusions. The radial sweeping of lowest order rational magnetic surfaces does not determine the observed trends in transport. (Author)43 refs

  14. Bayesian Analysis of Hot-Jupiter Radius Anomalies: Evidence for Ohmic Dissipation?

    Thorngren, Daniel P.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2018-05-01

    The cause of hot-Jupiter radius inflation, where giant planets with {T}eq} > 1000 K are significantly larger than expected, is an open question and the subject of many proposed explanations. Many of these hypotheses postulate an additional anomalous power that heats planets’ convective interiors, leading to larger radii. Rather than examine these proposed models individually, we determine what anomalous powers are needed to explain the observed population’s radii, and consider which models are most consistent with this. We examine 281 giant planets with well-determined masses and radii and apply thermal evolution and Bayesian statistical models to infer the anomalous power as a fraction of (and varying with) incident flux ɛ(F) that best reproduces the observed radii. First, we observe that the inflation of planets below about M = 0.5 M J appears very different than their higher-mass counterparts, perhaps as the result of mass loss or an inefficient heating mechanism. As such, we exclude planets below this threshold. Next, we show with strong significance that ɛ(F) increases with {T}eq} toward a maximum of ∼2.5% at T eq ≈ 1500 K, and then decreases as temperatures increase further, falling to ∼0.2% at T eff = 2500 K. This high-flux decrease in inflation efficiency was predicted by the Ohmic dissipation model of giant planet inflation but not other models. We also show that the thermal tides model predicts far more variance in radii than is observed. Thus, our results provide evidence for the Ohmic dissipation model and a functional form for ɛ(F) that any future theories of hot-Jupiter radii can be tested against.

  15. Ohmic losses in coaxial resonators with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation

    Shenyong Hou, A. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408001 (China); Sheng Yu, B.; Hongfu Li, C.; Qixiang Zhao, D. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiang Li, E. [Terahertz Science and Technology Research Center, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, a coaxial resonator with longitudinal inner-outer corrugation is introduced. Its eigen-equation and expression of ohmic losses are derived. Ohmic losses in the cavity are investigated. Results show that ohmic losses in the outer and inner conductors share a similar variation trend, while the former is larger than the later. What's more, changes of the inner and outer slot depth and width induce different variations of ohmic losses on the surface of the inner and outer conductors.

  16. Periodic refractive index modifications inscribed in polymer optical fibre by focussed IR femtosecond pulses

    Stecher, Matthias; Williams, Robert J.; Bang, Ole

    Focussed femtosecond laser pulses were used to inscribe a periodic array of modifications in the core of a polymer optical fibre. Structural and refractive-index modifications have been observed at different pulse energies using DIC microscopy.......Focussed femtosecond laser pulses were used to inscribe a periodic array of modifications in the core of a polymer optical fibre. Structural and refractive-index modifications have been observed at different pulse energies using DIC microscopy....

  17. Interaction-focussed therapy for aphasia: Effects on communication and quality of life.

    Barnes, Scott; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2017-07-06

    This study examined the effects of an interaction-focussed therapy for aphasia, which involved both people with aphasia and their familiar conversation partners. It was hypothesised the interaction-focussed therapy would lead to positive changes in targeted conversation behaviours, and improved quality of life for participants with aphasia. Three people with chronic aphasia and three of their familiar conversation partners completed an 8-week interaction-focussed therapy programme. A series of single case multiple-baseline ABA experiments were conducted. Outcome measures focussed on changes in targeted behaviours between pre- and post-therapy conversation samples, and changes in quality of life. All participant dyads improved their conversations. Familiar conversation partners demonstrated significant changes in targeted behaviours, while only one participant with aphasia achieved significant improvements. There was little evidence of a positive impact on quality of life for participants with aphasia. Interaction-focussed therapy enhances everyday communication for people with aphasia and their conversation partners. However, the complex nature of learning in this intervention means that further, likely interdisciplinary work is required to better understand what mediates skill acquisition and therapeutic change and its psychosocial impact. This information is particularly important for optimising interaction-focussed therapy for people with aphasia.

  18. Ohmic H-mode and confinement in TCV

    Moret, J.-M.; Anton, M.; Barry, S.

    1995-01-01

    The unique flexibility of TCV for the creation of a wide variety of plasma shapes has been exploited to address some aspects of tokamak physics for which the shape may play an important role. The electron energy confinement time in limited ohmic L-mode plasmas whose elongation and triangularity have been varied (κ = 1.3 - 1.9, δ 0.1 - 0.7) has been observed to improve with elongation as κ 0.5 but to degrade with triangularity as (1 - 0.8 δ), for fixed safety factor. Ohmic H-modes have been obtained in several diverted and limited configurations, with some of the diverted discharges featuring large ELMs whose effects on the global confinement have been quantified. These effects depend on the configuration: in double null (DN) equilibria, a single ELM expels on average 2%, 6% and 2.5% of the particle, impurity and thermal energy content respectively, whilst in single null (SN) configurations, the corresponding numbers are 3.5%, 7% and 9%, indicative of larger ELM effects. The presence of absence of large ELMs in DN discharges has been actively controlled in a single discharge by alternately forcing one or other of the two X-points to lie on the separatrix, permitting stationary density and impurity content (Z eff ∼ 1.6) in long H-modes (1.5 s). (Author)

  19. Ohmic H-mode and confinement in TCV

    Moret, J.M.; Anton, M.; Barry, S.

    1995-01-01

    The unique flexibility of TCV for the creation of a wide variety of plasma shapes has been exploited to address some aspects of tokamak physics for which the shape may play an important role. The electron energy confinement time in limited ohmic L-mode plasmas whose elongation and triangularity have been varied, has been observed to improve with elongation as κ 0.5 but to degrade with triangularity as (1-0.8 δ), for fixed safety factor. Ohmic H-modes have been obtained in several diverted and limited configurations, with some of the diverted discharges featuring large ELMs whose effects on the global confinement have been quantified. These effects depend on the configuration: in double null (DN) equilibria, a single ELM expels on average 2%, 6% and 2.5% of the particle, impurity and thermal energy content respectively, whilst in single null (SN) configurations, the corresponding numbers are 3.5%, 7% and 9%, indicative of larger ELM effects. The presence or absence of large ELMs in DN discharges has been actively controlled in a single discharge by alternately forcing one or other of the two X-points to lie on the separatrix, permitting stationary density and impurity content (Z eff ≅1.6) in long H-modes (1.5 s). (author) 9 figs., 9 refs

  20. Quench of non-Markovian coherence in the deep sub-Ohmic spin–boson model: A unitary equilibration scheme

    Yao, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The deep sub-Ohmic spin–boson model shows a longstanding non-Markovian coherence at low temperature. Motivating to quench this robust coherence, the thermal effect is unitarily incorporated into the time evolution of the model, which is calculated by the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group algorithm combined with the orthogonal polynomials theory. Via introducing a unitary heating operator to the bosonic bath, the bath is heated up so that a majority portion of the bosonic excited states is occupied. It is found in this situation the coherence of the spin is quickly quenched even in the coherent regime, in which the non-Markovian feature dominates. With this finding we come up with a novel way to implement the unitary equilibration, the essential term of the eigenstate-thermalization hypothesis, through a short-time evolution of the model

  1. Formation of an internal transport barrier in the ohmic H-mode in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    Andrejko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.; Zhubr, N.A.; Kornev, V.A.; Krikunov, S.V.; Lebedev, S.V.; Levin, L.S.; Razdobarin, G.T.; Rozhdestvensky, V.V.; Smirnov, A.I.; Tukachinsky, A.S.; Yaroshevich, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    In experiments on studying the ohmic H-mode in the TUMAN-3M tokamak, it is found that, in high-current (I p ∼ 120-170 kA) discharges, a region with high electron-temperature and density gradients is formed in the plasma core. In this case, the energy confinement time τ E attains 9-18 ms, which is nearly twice as large as that predicted by the ELM-free ITER-93H scaling. This is evidence that the internal transport barrier in a plasma can exist without auxiliary heating. Calculations of the effective thermal diffusivity by the ASTRA transport code demonstrate a strong suppression of heat transport in the region where the temperature and density gradients are high

  2. Dynamical determination of ohmic states of a cylindrical pinch

    Schnack, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The dual problems of generation and sustainment of the reversed axial field are studied. It is shown that, if a cylindrical plasma is initially in an axisymmetric state with a sufficient degree of paramagnetism, field reversal can be attained by mode activity of a single helicity. The initial paramagnetism may be due to the method of pinch formation, as in fast experiments, or to a gradual altering of the pitch profile resulting from a succession of instabilities. Furthermore, if the total current is kept constant and energy loss and resistivity profiles are included in an ad hoc manner, one finds that the final steady state of the helical instability can be maintained for long times against resistive diffusion without the need for further unstable activity. These states, which possess zero order flow and possibly reversed axial field, represent steady equilibria which simultaneously satisfy force balance and Ohm's law, and are termed Ohmic states

  3. Modelling ohmic confinement experiments on the START tokamak

    Roach, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    Ohmic confinement data from the tight aspect ratio tokamak START has been analysed using the ASTRA transport simulation code. Neoclassical expressions have been modified to describe tight aspect ratio configurations, and the comparison between START data and models of anomalous transport has been made quantitative using the standard χ 2 test from statistics. Four confinement models (T11, Rebut-Lallia-Watkins, Lackner-Gottardi, and Taroni et al's Bohm model) have been compared with the START data. Three of the models are found to simulate START's electron temperature data moderately well, while Taroni et al's Bohm model overestimates electron temperatures in START by an order of magnitude. Thus comparison with START data tends to discriminate against Bohm models; these models are pessimistic or ITER. (author)

  4. Effect of Boronization on Ohmic Plasmas in NSTX

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Blanchard, W.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; LaMarche, P.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Na, H.K.; Nishino, N.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2001-01-01

    Boronization of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has enabled access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas. A glow discharge with 4 mTorr helium and 10% deuterated trimethyl boron deposited 1.7 g of boron on the plasma facing surfaces. Ion beam analysis of witness coupons showed a B+C areal density of 10 to the 18 (B+C) cm to the -2 corresponding to a film thickness of 100 nm. Subsequent ohmic discharges showed oxygen emission lines reduced by x15, carbon emission reduced by two and copper reduced to undetectable levels. After boronization, the plasma current flattop time increased by 70% enabling access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas

  5. Ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors for Coulomb blockade devices

    Lotkhov, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication and low-temperature characterization of ultra-high-ohmic microstripline resistors made of a thin film of weakly oxidized titanium. Nearly linear voltage–current characteristics were measured at temperatures down to T ∼ 20 mK for films with sheet resistivities as high as ∼7 kΩ, i.e. about an order of magnitude higher than our previous findings for weakly oxidized Cr. Our analysis indicates that such an improvement can help to create an advantageous high-impedance environment for different Coulomb blockade devices. Further properties of the Ti film addressed in this work show the promise of low-noise behavior of the resistors when applied in different realizations of the quantum standard of current. (paper)

  6. Triple focussing electron spectrum selector (TESS-II) with a pair of sector magnets

    Nagai, Y.; Ejiri, H.; Shibata, T.; Okada, K.; Nakayama, S.; Suzuki, H.; Ohsumi, H.; Adachi, Y.; Osaka Univ., Toyonaka; Sakai, H.

    1982-01-01

    An achromatic geminate nuclear electron selector (AGNES) has been constructed for in-beam electron spectroscopy. It is essentially a pair of triple-focussing electron spectrum selectors (TESS). It consists of a pair of sector magnets with a field index n = 0. Conversion electrons emitted at 90 0 and 180 0 with respect to the beam axis are transported achromatically through the pair of sector magnets to two focussing points. Electrons are triply focussed in radial, vertical and momentum axes, and their energies are analyzed by cooled Si(Li) detectors. It has a large solid angle of 50 msr x 2 and a large momentum range of 57%. It is quite useful not only for measuring conversion coefficients and electron anisotropy but also for nuclear electron pairs. (orig.)

  7. Plasma edge cooling during RF heating

    Suckewer, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to prevent the influx of high-Z impurities into the core of a tokamak discharge by using RF power to modify the edge plasma temperature profile is presented. This concept is based on spectroscopic measurements on PLT during ohmic heating and ATC during RF heating. A one dimensional impurity transport model is used to interpret the ATC results

  8. Novel optics for conditioning neutron beams. II Focussing neutrons with a 'lobster-eye' optic

    Allman, B.E.; Cimmino, A.; Griffin, S.L.; Klein, A.G.; Nugent, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Square-channel capillary, or 'Lobster-eye' arrays have been shown to be the optimum geometry for array optics. This configuration leads to a novel class of conditioning devices for X-ray and neutron beams. We present the first results of the focussing of neutrons with a Pb glass square-channel array. (authors)

  9. A randomised controlled trial of carer-focussed multi-family group psychoeducation in bipolar disorder.

    Madigan, K

    2012-05-01

    In a RCT of family psychoeducation, 47 carers of 34 patients were allocated to one of three groups; Multifamily Group Psychoeducation, Solution Focussed Group Therapy or Treatment as Usual. Carers in both the MFGP intervention and the SFGP arm demonstrated greater knowledge and reduction in burden than those in the TAU arm.

  10. Dual ohmic contact to N- and P-type silicon carbide

    Okojie, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous formation of electrical ohmic contacts to silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor having donor and acceptor impurities (n- and p-type doping, respectively) is disclosed. The innovation provides for ohmic contacts formed on SiC layers having n- and p-doping at one process step during the fabrication of the semiconductor device. Further, the innovation provides a non-discriminatory, universal ohmic contact to both n- and p-type SiC, enhancing reliability of the specific contact resistivity when operated at temperatures in excess of 600.degree. C.

  11. On the breakdown modes and parameter space of Ohmic Tokamak startup

    Peng, Yanli; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Ya; Hu, Xiwei; Zhuang, Ge; Innocenti, Maria; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Tokamak plasma has to be hot. The process of turning the initial dilute neutral hydrogen gas at room temperature into fully ionized plasma is called tokamak startup. Even with over 40 years of research, the parameter ranges for the successful startup still aren't determined by numerical simulations but by trial and errors. However, in recent years it has drawn much attention due to one of the challenges faced by ITER: the maximum electric field for startup can't exceed 0.3 V/m, which makes the parameter range for successful startup narrower. Besides, this physical mechanism is far from being understood either theoretically or numerically. In this work, we have simulated the plasma breakdown phase driven by pure Ohmic heating using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo code, with the aim of giving a predictive parameter range for most tokamaks, even for ITER. We have found three situations during the discharge, as a function of the initial parameters: no breakdown, breakdown and runaway. Moreover, breakdown delay and volt-second consumption under different initial conditions are evaluated. In addition, we have simulated breakdown on ITER and confirmed that when the electric field is 0.3 V/m, the optimal pre-filling pressure is 0.001 Pa, which is in good agreement with ITER's design.

  12. Study of internal transport barriers in the initial phase of Ohmic discharges in TUMAN-3M

    Askinazi, L G; Bulanin, V V; Vildjunas, M I; Golant, V E; Gorokhov, M V; Kornev, V A; Krikunov, S V; Lebedev, S V; Petrov, A V; Rozhdestvensky, V V; Tukachinsky, A S; Zhubr, N A

    2004-01-01

    A regime with electron heat confinement improvement was recently found in the initial phase of discharges in the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in this regime was confirmed by Thomson scattering measurements and by transport modelling. Two possible reasons for the ITB formation are discussed in the paper: by reduction of turbulent transport in the presence of low magnetic shear or by plasma sheared rotation. It is demonstrated that low magnetic shear formation is possible in the current ramp-up phase of the Ohmic discharge. The low magnetic shear does not seem to be the only reason for the transport reduction. Results of Doppler reflectometry measurements of poloidal rotation of density fluctuations are presented. It is found that core confinement improvement correlates with the appearance of sheared rotation of the density fluctuations and with a burst of the MHD activity. The ITB formation in the regime seems to be a result of a combined action of reduced magnetic shear and plasma sheared rotation

  13. Transport simulations of ohmic TFTR experiments with profile-consistent microinstability-based models for chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/

    Redi, M.H.; Tang, W.M.; Efthimion, P.C.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1987-03-01

    Transport simulations of ohmically heated TFTR experiments with recently developed profile-consistent microinstability models for the anomalous thermal diffusivities, chi/sub e/ and chi/sub i/, give good agreement with experimental data. The steady-state temperature profiles and the total energy confinement times, tau/sub e/, were found to agree for each of the ohmic TFTR experiments simulated, including three high radiation cases and two plasmas fueled by pellet injection. Both collisional and collisionless models are tested. The trapped-electron drift wave microinstability model results are consistent with the thermal confinement of large plasma ohmic experiments on TFTR. We also find that transport due to the toroidal ion temperature gradient (eta/sub i/) modes can cause saturation in tau/sub E/ at the highest densities comparable to that observed on TFTR and equivalent to a neoclassical anomaly factor of 3. Predictions based on stabilized eta/sub i/-mode-driven ion transport are found to be in agreement with the enhanced global energy confinement times for pellet-fueled plasmas. 33 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Evidence for reduction of the toroidal ITG instability in the transition from saturated to improved Ohmic confinement in the tokamak TEXTOR

    Kreter, A; Schweer, B; Tokar, M Z; Unterberg, B

    2003-01-01

    In high density Ohmically heated discharges in the tokamak TEXTOR a transition from the saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) to the improved Ohmic confinement (IOC) was observed triggered by a sudden reduction of the external gas flow. The SOC-IOC transition was investigated regarding the influence of the toroidal ITG instability driven by the ion temperature gradient (ITG). The ion temperature profiles were measured with high radial resolution by means of charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) with a high-energetic diagnostic hydrogen beam recently installed at TEXTOR. On the basis of the measured ion temperature distributions the η i parameter (ratio of the density and ion temperature decay lengths) and the growth rate of the toroidal ITG instability were calculated. After the SOC-IOC transition η i drops and lies in a noticeably smaller radial region over the threshold for the toroidal ITG. In consequence of it, the IOC regime is characterized by a clear reduction of the ITG growth rate γ ITG which was calculated including finite Larmor radius effects. The steepening of the plasma density profile after the decrease of the external gas flow is the main reason for the reduction of the ITG growth rate and the subsequent confinement transition to the IOC regime

  15. Metallization systems for stable ohmic contacts to GaAs

    Tandon, J.L.; Douglas, K.D.; Vendura, G.; Kolawa, E.; So, F.C.T.; Nicolet, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A metallization scheme to form reproducible and stable ohmic contacts to GaAs is described. The approach is based on the configuration: GaAs/X/Y/Z; where X is a thin metal film (e.g. Pt, Ti, Pd, Ru), Y is an electrically conducting diffusion barrier layer (TiN, W or W/sub 0.7/N/sub 0.3/), and Z is a thick metal layer (e.g. Ag) typically required for bonding or soldering purposes. The value and reproducibility of the contact resistance in these metallization systems results from the uniform steady-state solid-phase reaction of the metal X with GaAs. The stability of the contacts is achieved by the diffusion barrier layer Y, which not only confines the reaction of X with GaAs, but also prevents the top metal layer Z from interfering with this reaction. Applications of such contacts in fabricating stable solar cells are also discussed

  16. Ohmic metallization technology for wide band-gap semiconductors

    Iliadis, A.A.; Vispute, R.D.; Venkatesan, T.; Jones, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Ohmic contact metallizations on p-type 6H-SiC and n-type ZnO using a novel approach of focused ion beam (FIB) surface-modification and direct-write metal deposition will be reviewed, and the properties of such focused ion beam assisted non-annealed contacts will be reported. The process uses a Ga focused ion beam to modify the surface of the semiconductor with different doses, and then introduces an organometallic compound in the Ga ion beam, to effect the direct-write deposition of a metal on the modified surface. Contact resistance measurements by the transmission line method produced values in the low 10 -4 Ω cm 2 range for surface-modified and direct-write Pt and W non-annealed contacts, and mid 10 -5 Ω cm 2 range for surface-modified and pulse laser deposited TiN contacts. An optimum Ga surface-modification dosage window is determined, within which the current transport mechanism of these contacts was found to proceed mainly by tunneling through the metal-modified-semiconductor interface layer

  17. Analysis of a global energy confinement database for JET ohmic plasmas

    Bracco, G.; Thomsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    A database containing global energy confinement data for JET ohmic plasmas in the campaigns from 1984 to 1992 has been established. An analysis is presented of this database and the results are compared with data from other tokamaks, such as the Axially Symmetric Divertor Experiment (ASDEX), Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) and Tore Supra. The trends of JET ohmic confinement appear to be similar to those observed on other tokamaks: a linear dependence of the global energy confinement time on density is observed up to a density value where a saturation is attained; this density value defines the border between the linear and the saturated ohmic confinement regimes; this border is shifted towards higher density values if the q value of the discharge is decreased; the global confinement time in the saturated ohmic regime increases less than linearly with the value of the magnetic field. (author). 20 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Controlled fusion and plasma heating

    1990-06-01

    The contributions presented in the 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating were focused on Tore Supra investigations. The following subjects were presented: ohmic discharges, lower hybrid experiments, runaway electrons, Thomson scattering, plasma density measurements, magnetic fluctuations, polarization scattering, plasma currents, plasma fluctuation measurements, evaporation of hydrogen pellets in presence of fast electrons, ripple induced stochastic diffusion of trapped particles, tearing mode stabilization, edge effects on turbulence behavior, electron cyclotron heating, micro-tearing modes, divertors, limiters

  19. Ultrasonic inspection of primary pump casing by means of focussing probes

    Dombret, Ph.; Cermak, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in laboratory on ultrasonic defect detection capabilities in primary pump casings and welds, in the framework of the joint research programme appointed by Framatome, EdF, CEA and Westinghouse, and devoted to improving the ultrasonic inspection of austenitic stainless steel components. Several transducers, including focussing probes and transmitter-receivers, were designed and compared on two 180 mm thick blocks strictly representative of the statically cast casing and of the electroslag welding, and containing various artificial and simulated reflectors. Detection trial results show that focussing probes can achieve fair sensitivity levels even through the full thickness, and appear promising as for on-site applications of this technique. 5 refs

  20. Elastic wave surfaces and phonon focussing for the A-15 compounds

    Viswanathan, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the section of the energy surface corresponding to the longitudinal mode by the principal xy-plane for the A-15 compounds will degenerate into four points at the corners of a square at very low temperatures in the cubic phase. When the quasi-shear mode propagating along the (110) direction becomes soft, simultaneously the longitudinal mode will exhibit unusually high phonon focussing. (author)

  1. Sustainable Medical and Wellness Destinations: Client-, Result- and Innovation-Focussed Case Studies

    Joukes, Veronika; Lourenço-Gomes, Lina; Marta-Costa, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    In a first client-focussed section (Part 1), Rosa Maria Riveiro Conde, Andrés Mazaira and Patrício Ricardo Soares Costa surveyed customers of northern Portuguese thermal tourism units about their perceptions of the service quality (Chapter 1.1). Joaquim Antunes then relates the results of a questionnaire he distributed among clients at similar businesses in the centre of Portugal in order to highlight the importance of relationship marketing for the medical and wellness tourism br...

  2. Embedding the results of focussed Bayesian fusion into a global context

    Sander, Jennifer; Heizmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Bayesian statistics offers a well-founded and powerful fusion methodology also for the fusion of heterogeneous information sources. However, except in special cases, the needed posterior distribution is not analytically derivable. As consequence, Bayesian fusion may cause unacceptably high computational and storage costs in practice. Local Bayesian fusion approaches aim at reducing the complexity of the Bayesian fusion methodology significantly. This is done by concentrating the actual Bayesian fusion on the potentially most task relevant parts of the domain of the Properties of Interest. Our research on these approaches is motivated by an analogy to criminal investigations where criminalists pursue clues also only locally. This publication follows previous publications on a special local Bayesian fusion technique called focussed Bayesian fusion. Here, the actual calculation of the posterior distribution gets completely restricted to a suitably chosen local context. By this, the global posterior distribution is not completely determined. Strategies for using the results of a focussed Bayesian analysis appropriately are needed. In this publication, we primarily contrast different ways of embedding the results of focussed Bayesian fusion explicitly into a global context. To obtain a unique global posterior distribution, we analyze the application of the Maximum Entropy Principle that has been shown to be successfully applicable in metrology and in different other areas. To address the special need for making further decisions subsequently to the actual fusion task, we further analyze criteria for decision making under partial information.

  3. A variational master equation approach to quantum dynamics with off-diagonal coupling in a sub-Ohmic environment

    Sun, Ke-Wei [School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito [Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Zhao, Yang, E-mail: YZhao@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-05-28

    A master equation approach based on an optimized polaron transformation is adopted for dynamics simulation with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal spin-boson coupling. Two types of bath spectral density functions are considered, the Ohmic and the sub-Ohmic. The off-diagonal coupling leads asymptotically to a thermal equilibrium with a nonzero population difference P{sub z}(t → ∞) ≠ 0, which implies localization of the system, and it also plays a role in restraining coherent dynamics for the sub-Ohmic case. Since the new method can extend to the stronger coupling regime, we can investigate the coherent-incoherent transition in the sub-Ohmic environment. Relevant phase diagrams are obtained for different temperatures. It is found that the sub-Ohmic environment allows coherent dynamics at a higher temperature than the Ohmic environment.

  4. Development of a focussing-crystal spectrograph for x-rays from laser-fusion targets. Final report for the period ending September 30, 1982

    Yaakobi, B.; Burek, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The report is arranged in five major sections, Section II describes the measurements of mica and lithium fluoride crystal properties before and after the cylindrical bending required for a Von-Hamos spectrograph. It also describes the property of mosaic focussing and the measurements of the spatial as well as spectral resolutions of bent crystals. Section III describes the imaging calculations which relate the instrument focussing capability to source misalignment. These calculations demonstrate the necessity to maintain fabrication and alignment precision which is about equal to the radiation source size, if the full potential of the instrument is to be realized. Section IV shows x-ray spectra obtained on the OMEGA 24 laser facility at LLE. The targets used were plastic shells, coated with copper either on the outside or the inside surface, germania shells, and krytpon-filled glass shells. The data indicate deeper heat penetration on the target surface, than predicted by a flux-limited heat transport model. In Section V, we list new spectral lines involving multiple electron excitation, which are observed here for the first time and whose wavelengths are calculated using Hartrer-Fock methods

  5. Study of Ti/Si/Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contact for AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    Shostachenko, S. A.; Porokhonko, Y. A.; Zakharchenko, R. V.; Burdykin, M. S.; Ryzhuk, R. V.; Kargin, N. I.; Kalinin, B. V.; Belov, A. A.; Vasiliev, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper is dedicated to the experimental investigation of Ohmic contacts to the n+-doped region of AlGaN/GaN transistor heterostructure based on Ti/Si/Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization. Effect of annealing temperature on the specific resistance of Ohmic contact was studied. Ohmic contact with the resistance of 3.4·10-6 Ω·cm2 was formed by optimization of the annealing temperature and introduction of the additional doping silicon layer.

  6. Non-ohmic transport behavior in ultra-thin gold films

    Alkhatib, A.; Souier, T.; Chiesa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → C-AFM study on ultra-thin gold films. → Connection between ultra-thin film morphology and lateral electrical transport. → Transition between ohmic and non-ohmic behavior. → Electrical transition correlation to the film structure continuity. → Direct and indirect tunneling regimes related to discontinuous structures. - Abstract: Structure and local lateral electrical properties of Au films of thicknesses ranging from 10 to 140 nm are studied using conductive atomic force microscopy. Comparison of current maps taken at different thicknesses reveals surprising highly resistive regions (10 10 -10 11 Ω), the density of which increases strongly at lower thickness. The high resistivity is shown to be directly related to discontinuities in the metal sheet. Local I-V curves are acquired to show the nature of electrical behavior relative to thickness. Results show that in Au films of higher thickness the electrical behavior is ohmic, while it is non-ohmic in highly discontinuous films of lower thickness, with the transition happening between 34 and 39 nm. The non-ohmic behavior is explained with tunneling occurring between separated Au islands. The results explain the abrupt increase of electrical resistivity at lower thin film thicknesses.

  7. Effects of combined gate and ohmic recess on GaN HEMTs

    Sunil Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AlGaN/GaN, because of their superior material properties, are most suitable semiconductor material for High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. In this work we investigated the hidden physics behind these materials and studied the effect of recess technology in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The device under investigation is simulated for different recess depth using Silvaco-Atlas TCAD. Recess technology improves the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. We considered three kinds of recess technology gate, ohmic and combination of gate and ohmic. Gate recess improves transconductance gm but it reduces the drain current Id of the device under investigation. Ohmic recess improves the transconductance gm but it introduces leakage current Ig in the device. In order to use AlGaN/GaN for high voltage operation, both the transconductance and the drain current should be reasonably high which is obtained by combining both gate and ohmic recess technologies. A good balance in transconductance and drain current is achieved by combining both gate and ohmic recess technologies without any leakage current.

  8. The propagation of charged particles in a focussing magnetic field with random components

    Pauls, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    Boltzmann's equation which describes the evolution of the particle distribution function in a focussing magnetic field with finite helicity, is solved by expanding the distribution function in terms of orthogonal focussing eigenfunctions. The present work advances upon previous work by carrying the expansion of the particle distribution function to a higher order (Ν=7 compared to Ν=3), the adding of magnetic helicity, and the injection of a delta function instead of a Gaussian as initial distribution. Results from this model compare very well with those from other known numerical models, provided that a time constraint, which is a direct consequence of the truncation of the eigenfunction expansion, is satisfied. This model, which gives the solution of Boltzmann's equation to a very high degree of accuracy, is used to evaluate the densities predicted by three lower order (and hence easier to implement) models. Two of these models, where the anisotropic component of the distribution function is approximated to first and second order respectively, follow from the Born approximation technique, while the third follows from a truncated eigenfunction expansion of the particle distribution function. It is shown that the latter two models, which include the effect of the dispersion of the so-called coherent pulses, give a better description of the isotropic density than the model which ignores the effect. The main use of this dispersionless model is that it provides a zeroth order approximation to the speed of the coherent pulses in the presence of helicity and focussing. When the dispersion in the pulse is small, its speed is shown to be predicted quite well by this simple model. (author). 67 refs

  9. Using isoelectric focussing and neutron activation analysis to study protein-bound tracer elements

    Schmelzer, W.

    1976-01-01

    A method to determine protein-bound tracer elements was determined by combining a protein separation method with neutron activation analysis. Gel filtration, disk electrophoresis, and isoelectric focussing were studied with regard to their suitability as separation methods. Using isoelectric focussing, human serum protein could be separated with good resolution on a preparative scale. The Se, Cr, Ag, Sc, Fe, Zn, Co, Br, Na, Rb, and Cs contents of the various protein fractions were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by gamma-spectroscopic identification of their long-lived nuclides. Particular attention was paid to the main source of error with this method, i.e. contamination of the proteins in the course of the separation process. Information on the binding of the elements to protein was obtained by comparing the contents in the serum and in the protein separated by gel chromatography. For example, 75% of the Se and 30% of the Cs are bound to protein. Contamination of the protein fractions was studied by means of tracer elements with the element Se, errors due to contamination could be ruled out. The method was modified for the special imvestigation of Se-protein complexes in the serum. The Se content was determined by activation analysis via the short-lived radionuclide sup(77m)Se, this considerably reducing the duration of analysis. With regard to focussing, discrimination was improved in the pH region in which specific Se complexes were found. The activity distribution in fractionated serum protein labelled in vitro with 75 Se in the presence of erythrocytes showed that specific labelling is possible in this way. It is thus possible to study the distribution of Se carrier proteins with the aid of a radiotracer technique. (orig./RB) [de

  10. Evolution of the Turbulence Radial Wavenumber Spectrum near the L-H Transition in NSTX Ohmic Discharges

    Kubota, S.; Peebles, W.A., E-mail: skubota@ucla.edu [UCLA, Los Angeles (United States); Bush, C. E.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Zweben, S. J.; Bell, R.; Crocker, N.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Park, J. K.; Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton (United States); Maqueda, R. J. [Nova Photonics, Princeton (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: The measurement of radially extended meso-scale structures such as zonal flows and streamers, as well as the underlying microinstabilities driving them, is critical for understanding turbulence-driven transport in plasma devices. In particular, the shape and evolution of the radial wavenumber spectrum indicate details of the nonlinear spectral energy transfer, the spreading of turbulence, as well as the formation of transport barriers. In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), the FMCW backscattering diagnostic is used to probe the turbulence radial wavenumber spectrum (k{sub r} = 0 - 22 cm-1 ) across the outboard minor radius near the L- to H-mode transition in Ohmic discharges. During the L-mode phase, a broad spectral component (k{sub r} {approx} 2 - 10 cm{sup -1} ) extends over a significant portion of the edge-core from R = 120 to 155 cm ({rho} = 0.4 - 0.95). At the L-H transition, turbulence is quenched across the measurable k{sub r} range at the ETB location, where the radial correlation length drops from {approx} 1.5 - 0.5 cm. The k{sub r} spectrum away from the ETB location is modified on a time scale of tens of microseconds, indicating that nonlocal turbulence dynamics are playing a strong role. Close to the L-H transition, oscillations in the density gradient and edge turbulence quenching become highly correlated. These oscillations are also present in Ohmic discharges without an L-H transition, but are far less frequent. Similar behavior is also seen near the L-H transition in NB-heated discharges. (author)

  11. The isotope effect on divertor conditions and neutral pumping in horizontal divertor configurations in JET-ILW Ohmic plasmas

    J. Uljanovs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of isotope mass and divertor configuration on the divertor conditions and neutral pressures is critical for predicting the performance of the ITER divertor in DT operation. To address this need, ohmically heated hydrogen and deuterium plasma experiments were conducted in JET with the ITER-like wall in varying divertor configurations. In this study, these plasmas are simulated with EDGE2D-EIRENE outfitted with a sub-divertor model, to predict the neutral pressures in the plenum with similar fashion to the experiments. EDGE2D-EIRENE predictions show that the increased isotope mass results in up to a 25% increase in peak electron densities and 15% increase in peak ion saturation current at the outer target in deuterium when compared to hydrogen for all horizontal divertor configurations. Indicating that a change from hydrogen to deuterium as main fuel decreases the neutral mean free path, leading to higher neutral density in the divertor. Consequently, this mechanism also leads to higher neutral pressures in the sub-divertor. The experimental data provided by the hydrogen and deuterium ohmic discharges shows that closer proximity of the outer strike point to the pumping plenum results in a higher neutral pressure in the sub-divertor. The diaphragm capacitance gauge pressure measurements show that a two to three-fold increase in sub-divertor pressure was achieved in the corner and nearby horizontal configurations compared to the far-horizontal configurations, likely due to ballistic transport (with respect to the plasma facing components of the neutrals into the sub-divertor. The corner divertor configuration also indicates that a neutral expansion occurs during detachment, resulting in a sub-divertor neutral density plateau as a function of upstream density at the outer-mid plane.

  12. Focussed probes ultrasonic follow-up of actual flaw growth during fatigue testing

    Cinotti, C.; Dufresne, J.; Prot, A.C.; Touffait, A.M.; Saglio, R.

    1979-01-01

    A programme was undertaken to follow-up the growth of actual flaws purposely introduced during the welding process of five test specimens. The aim of this programme is to measure the actual size of the cracks which develop from the known defects during the fatigue testing. The sizing method is based on the use of focussed probes, which allow good accuracy and repeatability, as well as good sensitivity. Examples are given of the first results: sizing before testing, then step by step during the fatigue testing and also under compression. This last point is very important in view of the ultrasonic testing during periodic in-service inspection

  13. An x-ray microprobe using focussing optics with a synchrotron radiation source

    Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Wu, Y.; Giauque, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray microprobe can be used to produce maps of the concentration of elements in a sample. Synchrotron radiation provides x-ray beams with enough intensity and collimation to make possible elemental images with femtogram sensitivity. The use of focussing x-ray mirrors made from synthetic multilayers with a synchrotron x-ray beam allows beam spot sizes of less than 10 μm /times/ 10 μm to be produced. Since minimal sample preparation is required and a vacuum environment is not necessary, there will be a wide variety of applications for such microprobes. 8 refs., 6 figs

  14. Bismuth nanowire growth under low deposition rate and its ohmic contact free of interface damage

    Ye Tian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High quality bismuth (Bi nanowire and its ohmic contact free of interface damage are quite desired for its research and application. In this paper, we propose one new way to prepare high-quality single crystal Bi nanowires at a low deposition rate, by magnetron sputtering method without the assistance of template or catalyst. The slow deposition growth mechanism of Bi nanowire is successfully explained by an anisotropic corner crossing effect, which is very different from existing explanations. A novel approach free of interface damage to ohmic contact of Bi nanowire is proposed and its good electrical conductivity is confirmed by I-V characteristic measurement. Our method provides a quick and convenient way to produce high-quality Bi nanowires and construct ohmic contact for desirable devices.

  15. Minimization of Ohmic Losses for Domain Wall Motion in a Ferromagnetic Nanowire

    Tretiakov, O. A.; Liu, Y.; Abanov, Ar.

    2010-11-01

    We study current-induced domain-wall motion in a narrow ferromagnetic wire. We propose a way to move domain walls with a resonant time-dependent current which dramatically decreases the Ohmic losses in the wire and allows driving of the domain wall with higher speed without burning the wire. For any domain-wall velocity we find the time dependence of the current needed to minimize the Ohmic losses. Below a critical domain-wall velocity specified by the parameters of the wire the minimal Ohmic losses are achieved by dc current. Furthermore, we identify the wire parameters for which the losses reduction from its dc value is the most dramatic.

  16. Minimization of Ohmic losses for domain wall motion in ferromagnetic nanowires

    Abanov, Artem; Tretiakov, Oleg; Liu, Yang

    2011-03-01

    We study current-induced domain-wall motion in a narrow ferromagnetic wire. We propose a way to move domain walls with a resonant time-dependent current which dramatically decreases the Ohmic losses in the wire and allows driving of the domain wall with higher speed without burning the wire. For any domain wall velocity we find the time-dependence of the current needed to minimize the Ohmic losses. Below a critical domain-wall velocity specified by the parameters of the wire the minimal Ohmic losses are achieved by dc current. Furthermore, we identify the wire parameters for which the losses reduction from its dc value is the most dramatic. This work was supported by the NSF Grant No. 0757992 and Welch Foundation (A-1678).

  17. Improvement of Metal-Graphene Ohmic Contact Resistance in Bilayer Epitaxial Graphene Devices

    He Ze-Zhao; Yang Ke-Wu; Yu Cui; Li Jia; Liu Qing-Bin; Lu Wei-Li; Feng Zhi-Hong; Cai Shu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report on an improved metal-graphene ohmic contact in bilayer epitaxial graphene on a SiC substrate with contact resistance below 0.1 ω·mm. Monolayer and bilayer epitaxial graphenes are prepared on a 4H-SiC substrate in this work. Their contact resistances are measured by a transfer length method. An improved photoresist-free device fabrication method is used and is compared with the conventional device fabrication method. Compared with the monolayer graphene, the contact resistance R c of bilayer graphene improves from an average of 0.24 ω·mm to 0.1 ω·mm. Ohmic contact formation mechanism analysis by Landauer's approach reveals that the obtained low ohmic contact resistance in bilayer epitaxial graphene is due to their high carrier density, high carrier transmission probability, and p-type doping introduced by contact metal Au. (paper)

  18. Universal strategy for Ohmic hole injection into organic semiconductors with high ionization energies.

    Kotadiya, Naresh B; Lu, Hao; Mondal, Anirban; Ie, Yutaka; Andrienko, Denis; Blom, Paul W M; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A H

    2018-04-01

    Barrier-free (Ohmic) contacts are a key requirement for efficient organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and field-effect transistors. Here, we propose a simple and robust way of forming an Ohmic hole contact on organic semiconductors with a high ionization energy (IE). The injected hole current from high-work-function metal-oxide electrodes is improved by more than an order of magnitude by using an interlayer for which the sole requirement is that it has a higher IE than the organic semiconductor. Insertion of the interlayer results in electrostatic decoupling of the electrode from the semiconductor and realignment of the Fermi level with the IE of the organic semiconductor. The Ohmic-contact formation is illustrated for a number of material combinations and solves the problem of hole injection into organic semiconductors with a high IE of up to 6 eV.

  19. Integrated optical waveguides and inertial focussing microfluidics in silica for microflow cytometry applications

    Butement, Jonathan T; Rowe, David J; Sessions, Neil P; Hua, Ping; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Clark, Owain; Chad, John E; Hunt, Hamish C

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of a microflow cytometry platform is the integration of the optical components with the fluidics as this requires compatible micro-optical and microfluidic technologies. In this work a microflow cytometry platform is presented comprising monolithically integrated waveguides and deep microfluidics in a rugged silica chip. Integrated waveguides are used to deliver excitation light to an etched microfluidic channel and also collect transmitted light. The fluidics are designed to employ inertial focussing, a particle positioning technique, to reduce signal variation by bringing the flowing particles onto the same plane as the excitation light beam. A fabrication process is described which exploits microelectronics mass production techniques including: sputtering, ICP etching and PECVD. Example devices were fabricated and the effectiveness of inertial focussing of 5.6 µ m fluorescent beads was studied showing lateral and vertical confinement of flowing beads within the microfluidic channel. The fluorescence signals from flowing calibration beads were quantified demonstrating a CV of 26%. Finally the potential of this type of device for measuring the variation in optical transmission from input to output waveguide as beads flowed through the beam was evaluated. (paper)

  20. Modelling of Ohmic discharges in ADITYA tokamak using the Tokamak Simulation Code

    Bandyopadhyay, I; Ahmed, S M; Atrey, P K; Bhatt, S B; Bhattacharya, R; Chaudhury, M B; Deshpande, S P; Gupta, C N; Jha, R; Joisa, Y Shankar; Kumar, Vinay; Manchanda, R; Raju, D; Rao, C V S; Vasu, P

    2004-01-01

    Several Ohmic discharges of the ADITYA tokamak are simulated using the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), similar to that done earlier for the TFTR tokamak. Unlike TFTR, the dominant radiation process in ADITYA is through impurity line radiation. TSC can follow the experimental plasma current and position to very good accuracy. The thermal transport model of TSC including impurity line radiation gives a good match of the simulated results with experimental data for the Ohmic flux consumption, electron temperature and Z eff . Even the simulated magnetic probe signals are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental values

  1. Modelling of Ohmic discharges in ADITYA tokamak using the Tokamak Simulation Code

    Bandyopadhyay, I; Ahmed, S M; Atrey, P K; Bhatt, S B; Bhattacharya, R; Chaudhury, M B; Deshpande, S P; Gupta, C N; Jha, R; Joisa, Y Shankar; Kumar, Vinay; Manchanda, R; Raju, D; Rao, C V S; Vasu, P [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2004-09-01

    Several Ohmic discharges of the ADITYA tokamak are simulated using the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), similar to that done earlier for the TFTR tokamak. Unlike TFTR, the dominant radiation process in ADITYA is through impurity line radiation. TSC can follow the experimental plasma current and position to very good accuracy. The thermal transport model of TSC including impurity line radiation gives a good match of the simulated results with experimental data for the Ohmic flux consumption, electron temperature and Z{sub eff}. Even the simulated magnetic probe signals are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental values.

  2. Long-time impurity confinement as a precursor to disruptions in ohmically heated tokamaks

    Isler, R.C.; Rowan, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    It has been observed in several tokamaks that the confinement of test impurities increases dramatically when operating near density limits. The characteristics of the working gas transport coefficients also change character under these conditions. These changes appear to be caused by a suppression of the anomalous transport mechanisms. This series of vugraphs investigates the role of these changes in initiating disruptions

  3. Radiation loss and global energy balance of ohmically heated divertor discharge in JT-60 tokamak

    Koide, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Kimio; Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Hiroo; Niikura, Setsuo; Tsuji, Shunji

    1986-03-01

    Divertor experiment in JT-60 with a small divertor chamber has been successfully performed up to 1.6 MA discharge. Several divertor effects were experimentally confirmed as follows. Radiation loss in main plasma saturates with the increase of plasma current and its ratio to the input power is about 20 % at 1.5 MA. The rest of input power is exhausted into the divertor chamber and a half of it is dissipated as the radiation loss. Impurity accumulation is not observed during a few sec without internal MHD activity and gross impurity confinement time is several hundred msec. (author)

  4. Self-organized helical equilibria as a new paradigm for ohmically heated fusion plasmas

    Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Piovesan, P.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Zuin, M.; Alfier, A.; Bonfiglio, D.; Bonomo, F.; Canton, A.; Cappello, S.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; Escande, D.F.; Fassina, A.; Franz, P.; Gobbin, M.; Innocente, P.; Marrelli, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Puiatti, M.E.; Spolaore, M.; Valisa, M.; Vianello, N.; Martin, P.; Apolloni, L.; Adámek, Jiří; Agostini, M.; Annibaldi, S.V.; Antoni, V.; Auriemma, F.; Barana, O.; Baruzzo, M.; Bettini, P.; Bolzonella, T.; Brombin, M.; Brotánková, Jana; Buffa, A.; Buratti, P.; Cavinato, M.; Chapman, B.E.; Chitarin, G.; Dal Bello, S.; De Lorenzi, A.; De Masi, G.; Ferro, A.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Grando, L.; Guazzotto, L.; Guo, S.C.; Igochine, V.; Liu, Y.Q.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Martini, S.; McCollam, K.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Novello, L.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piron, L.; Pizzimenti, A.; Pomaro, N.; Predebon, I.; Reusch, J.A.; Rostagni, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sarff, J.S.; Sattin, F.; Scarin, P.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Sopplesa, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spizzo, G.; Taliercio, C.; Toigo, V.; Villone, F.; White, R.B.; Yadikin, D.; Zaccaria, P.; Zamengo, A.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zohm, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 8 (2009), s. 570-574 ISSN 1745-2473 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * fusion * ITER * helical equilibrium Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 15.491, year: 2009

  5. Commutator dc machines used as mechanical capacitors in a series resonant ohmic-heating circuit simulation

    Thullen, P.; Weldon, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    Rotating electrical machines, and in particular commutator dc machines can serve as a high-power energy-source for testing large, pulsed magnets. This paper describes a pulsed power supply based on traction motors which will be used to test the LASL prototype 20-MJ superconducting tokamak induction coil

  6. Design and fabrication of a Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) 180 keV negative ion accelerator

    Matuk, C.A.; Anderson, O.A.; Owren, H.M.; Paterson, J.A.; Purgalis, P.

    1985-11-01

    The 180 keV Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) negative ion accelerator described is the final component of a negative ion based neutral beam acceleration system which is being developed as proof-of-principle demonstration of a radiation hardened neutral beamline. The 180 keV beamline consists of: a surface conversion negative ion source, a 80 keV pre-accelerator, a TFF pumping, matching, and transport section, and the 180 keV TFF accelerator presented. This beamline is expected to provide 1 A of H - at 180 keV. In the design of the accelerator, particular importance was given to the rigidity of the accelerator electrode mounting structures and to the electrical isolation of the electrodes along with their related cooling lines. An optical alignment scheme was developed to assemble and to insure precision alignment of the electrodes

  7. A new therapeutic community: development of a compassion-focussed and contextual behavioural environment.

    Veale, David; Gilbert, Paul; Wheatley, Jon; Naismith, Iona

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships and communities provide the context and impetus for a range of psychological developments, from genetic expression to the development of core self-identities. This suggests a need to think about the therapeutic changes and processes that occur within a community context and how communities can enable therapeutic change. However, the 'therapeutic communities' that have developed since the Second World War have been under-researched. We suggest that the concept of community, as a change process, should be revisited within mainstream scientific research. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of therapeutic communities and critically evaluates their current theory, practice and outcomes in a systematic review. Attention is drawn to recent research on the nature of evolved emotion regulation systems, the way these are entrained by social relationships, the importance of affiliative emotions in the regulation of threat and the role of fear of affiliative emotions in psychopathology. We draw on concepts from compassion-focussed therapy, social learning theory and functional analytical psychotherapy to consider how members of a therapeutic community can be aware of each other's acts of courage and respond using compassion. Living in structured and affiliative-orientated communities that are guided by scientific models of affect and self-regulation offers potential therapeutic advantages over individual outpatient therapy for certain client groups. This conclusion should be investigated further. Key Practitioner Message Current therapeutic community practice is not sufficiently evidence based and may not be maximizing the potential therapeutic value of a community. Compassion-focussed therapy and social learning theory offer new approaches for a therapeutic environment, involving an understanding of the role, nature and complexities of compassionate and affiliative relationships from staff and members, behavioural change guided by

  8. Reducing the acidity of Arabica coffee beans by ohmic fermentation technology

    Reta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polygons, and it stimulates brain performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. Arabica coffee has high acidity that needs to be reduced than Luwak coffee, although it is cheaper. Hence, the ohmic technology with a time and temperature variation were applied to measure the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed that the total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions (0.18% – 0.73%. Generally, the longer the fermentation and the higher the temperature, the lower the total acidity. The acidity of the Luwak coffee through natural fermentation was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the total acidity from the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality.

  9. Silver antimony Ohmic contacts to moderately doped n-type germanium

    Dumas, D. C. S.; Gallacher, K.; Millar, R.; Paul, D. J., E-mail: Douglas.Paul@glasgow.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); MacLaren, I. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Myronov, M.; Leadley, D. R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-21

    A self doping contact consisting of a silver/antimony alloy that produces an Ohmic contact to moderately doped n-type germanium (doped to a factor of four above the metal-insulator transition) has been investigated. An evaporation of a mixed alloy of Ag/Sb (99%/1%) onto n-Ge (N{sub D}=1×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}) annealed at 400 °C produces an Ohmic contact with a measured specific contact resistivity of (1.1±0.2)×10{sup −5} Ω-cm{sup 2}. It is proposed that the Ohmic behaviour arises from an increased doping concentration at the Ge surface due to the preferential evaporation of Sb confirmed by transmission electron microscope analysis. It is suggested that the doping concentration has increased to a level where field emission will be the dominate conduction mechanism. This was deduced from the low temperature electrical characterisation of the contact, which exhibits Ohmic behaviour down to a temperature of 6.5 K.

  10. Characterization of recessed Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN

    Hajlasz, M.; Donkers, J.J.T.M.; Sque, S.J.; Heil, S.B.S.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Rietveld, F.J.R.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2015-01-01

    In this work the choice of appropriate test structures and characterization methods for recessed Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN is discussed. It is shown that, in the worst-case scenario, the prevailing assumption of identical sheet resistance between and under the contacts can lead to errors of up to

  11. Voltage Controlled Hot Carrier Injection Enables Ohmic Contacts Using Au Island Metal Films on Ge.

    Ganti, Srinivas; King, Peter J; Arac, Erhan; Dawson, Karl; Heikkilä, Mikko J; Quilter, John H; Murdoch, Billy; Cumpson, Peter; O'Neill, Anthony

    2017-08-23

    We introduce a new approach to creating low-resistance metal-semiconductor ohmic contacts, illustrated using high conductivity Au island metal films (IMFs) on Ge, with hot carrier injection initiated at low applied voltage. The same metallization process simultaneously allows ohmic contact to n-Ge and p-Ge, because hot carriers circumvent the Schottky barrier formed at metal/n-Ge interfaces. A 2.5× improvement in contact resistivity is reported over previous techniques to achieve ohmic contact to both n- and p- semiconductor. Ohmic contacts at 4.2 K confirm nonequilibrium current transport. Self-assembled Au IMFs are strongly orientated to Ge by annealing near the Au/Ge eutectic temperature. Au IMF nanostructures form, provided the Au layer is below a critical thickness. We anticipate that optimized IMF contacts may have applicability to many material systems. Optimizing this new paradigm for metal-semiconductor contacts offers the prospect of improved nanoelectronic systems and the study of voltage controlled hot holes and electrons.

  12. On the evaluation of currents in a tokamak plasma during combined Ohmic and RF current drive

    Eckhartt, D.

    1986-09-01

    By taking into account the rf-generated enhancement of the plasma electric conductivity (as formulated by Fisch in the limit of weak dc electric fields) a relation is derived between the ratio of rf to Ohmically driven currents and other plasma parameters to be measured before and after the rf onset under the condition of constant net plasma current. (author)

  13. A new method for the compensation of ohmic drop in galvanic cells

    Kooijman, D.J.; Sluyters, J.H.

    Generally the ohmic potential drop in a galvanic cell that occurs if a rectangular pulse is led through the cell, is compensated by means of a well-known bridge circuit. A better method making use of a phase reverter is described and its features are discussed. Exchange current densities up to 1200

  14. Low ohmic multilayer contacts in lead-tin-telluride diode lasers

    Herrmann, K.; Sumpf, B.; Boehme, D.; Hannemann, M.

    1983-01-01

    The preparation and the influence of low ohmic multilayer thin film contacts of lead-salt homo- and heterolasers on the degradation of lasing parameters during recycling processes between low working temperatures and room temperatures storage are described and discussed in detail. (author)

  15. Schottky and Ohmic Au contacts on GaAs: Microscopic and electrical investigation

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gronsky, R.; Washburn, J.; Newman, N.; Spicer, W.E.; Weber, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    We report here a systematic study which uses electrical device measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods to investigate the electrical, morphological, and structural properties of Au/GaAs Schottky diodes. The electrical characteristics of Au diodes formed on atomically clean and air-exposed GaAs(110) surfaces are found to change from rectifying to Ohmic behavior after annealing above the Au--Ga eutectic temperature (360 0 C). This change is shown to be due to an Ohmic-like contact at the periphery of the device. TEM studies of these structures indicate that the Ohmic peripheral current pathway can be correlated with the formation of near surface Ga-rich Au crystallites at the diode circumference upon annealing. Further evidence of the correlation of the Ohmic electrical characteristics with the morphology of the periphery comes from data which indicate that the removal of these Au crystallites by mesa etching is also accompanied with the elimination of the Ohmic current. The morphology of the overlayer was found to depend strongly on annealing and surface treatment. TEM indicates that the interface is flat and abrupt for all unannealed diodes, as well as for annealed diodes formed on atomically clean surfaces. For annealed diodes formed on the air-exposed surfaces, the metal--semiconductor interface contains large metallic protrusions extending up to several hundred angstroms into the semiconductor. For comparison to practical structures, the morphology of annealed diodes formed using typical commercial processing technology [i.e., formed on chemically prepared (100) surfaces annealed in forming gas] was also investigated using TEM. The interface for these structures is more complex than interfaces formed on the atomically clean and air-exposed cleaved (110) surfaces

  16. Electron and ion heat transport with lower hybrid current drive and neutral beam injection heating in ASDEX

    Soeldner, F.X.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Bartiromo, R.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Leuterer, F.; Murmann, H.D.; Staebler, A.; Steuer, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    Transport code calculations were made for experiments with the combined operation of lower hybrid current drive and heating and of neutral beam injection heating on ASDEX. Peaking or flattening of the electron temperature profile are mainly explained by modifications of the MHD induced electron heat transport. They originate from current profile changes due to lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive and to contributions from the bootstrap current. Ion heat transport cannot be described by one single model for all heating scenarios. The ion heat conductivity is reduced during lower hybrid heated phases with respect to Ohmic and neutral beam heating. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  17. Do trauma-focussed psychological interventions have an effect on psychotic symptoms? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Brand, Rachel M; McEnery, Carla; Rossell, Susan; Bendall, Sarah; Thomas, Neil

    2018-05-01

    There is growing recognition of the relationship between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosis. There may be overlaps in causal mechanisms involved in the development of PTSD and psychosis following traumatic or adverse events. Trauma-focussed treatments found to be effective in treating PTSD may therefore represent a new direction in the psychological treatment of psychosis. This systematic review examined the literature on trauma-focussed treatments conducted with people with schizophrenia spectrum or psychotic disorders to determine effects on psychotic symptoms. Secondary outcomes were symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Twenty-five studies were included in the review, with 12 being included in the meta-analysis. Trauma-focussed treatments had a small, significant effect (g=0.31, CI [0.55, 0.06]) on positive symptoms immediately post-treatment, but the significance and magnitude of this effect was not maintained at follow-up (g=0.18, CI [0.42, -0.06]). Trauma-focussed treatments also had a small effect on delusions at both post-treatment (g=0.37, CI [0.87, -0.12]) and follow-up (g=0.38, CI [0.67, 0.10]), but this only reached significance at follow-up. Effects on hallucinations and negative symptoms were small and non-significant. Effects on PTSD symptoms were also small (post-treatment g=0.21, CI [0.70, -0.27], follow up g=0.31, CI [0.62, 0.00]) and only met significance at follow-up. No significant effects were found on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Results show promising effects of trauma-focussed treatments for the positive symptoms of psychosis, however further studies developing and evaluating trauma-focussed treatments for trauma-related psychotic symptoms are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of mental illness within families in a regional child-focussed mental health service.

    Naughton, Michael F A; Maybery, Darryl J; Goodyear, Melinda

    2018-04-01

    Nearly 50% of all mental illnesses begin in childhood before the age of 14 years, and over 20% of parents have a mental illness. Few studies have examined the co-occurrence of mental illnesses in parents and children. In the present study, we examined the extent of mental illness within families of 152 clients attending an Australian regional child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS). A cross-sectional study design was employed involving a case record review and clinician-completed questionnaire of the children and youth attending a CAMHS. It was found that 79% of these children were living with a parent with mental illness. The predominant diagnosis of both child and parent was an anxiety or mood disorder, and many families had co-occurring risk factors of domestic violence and limited social supports. The findings in this Australian cohort are similar to those of other international research. While novel in nature, the present study has highlighted the extent of both mental illness and scarce supports for both children and parents in the same family. The findings indicate the need for a coordinated multiservice delivery of appropriate and consistent family-focussed interventions, responding to both mental illness and social supports for children and parents. Further research should examine specific components of family need and support, as seen through the eyes of the child and their parent. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  19. Role of stochasticity in turbulence and convective intermittent transport at the scrape off layer of Ohmic plasma in QUEST

    Banerjee, Santanu; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; Mishra, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishino, N.; Liu, H. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical features of fluctuations are investigated using the fast camera imaging technique in the scrape of layer (SOL) of electron cyclotron resonance heated Ohmic plasma. Fluctuations in the SOL towards low field side are dominated by coherent convective structures (blobs). Two dimensional structures of the higher order moments (skewness s and kurtosis k) representing the shape of probability density function (PDF) are studied. s and k are seen to be functions of the magnetic field lines. s and k are consistently higher towards the bottom half of the vessel in the SOL showing the blob trajectory along the field lines from the top towards bottom of the vessel. Parabolic relation (k=As 2 +C) is observed between s and k near the plasma boundary, featuring steep density gradient region and at the far SOL. The coefficient A, obtained experimentally, indicates a shift of prominence from pure drift-wave instabilities towards fully developed turbulence. Numerical coefficients characterizing the Pearson system are derived which demonstrates the progressive deviation of the PDF from Gaussian towards gamma from the density gradient region, towards the far SOL. Based on a simple stochastic differential equation, a direct correspondence between the multiplicative noise amplitude, increased intermittency, and hence change in PDF is discussed

  20. Low resistance and transparent Ag/AZO ohmic contact to p-GaN

    Han, T.; Wang, T.; Gan, X. W.; Wu, H.; Shi, Y.; Liu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag)/ aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited on p-GaN by using electron beam evaporation. After the annealing process, current -voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out to determine the characteristic of the contacts. The Ag/AZO films annealed at 600 .deg. C were found to present an ohmic contact behavior. The specific contact resistance was calculated to be 9.76 x 10 -4 Ωcm 2 and the transmittance was over 80% for visibly light. The atomic force microscope was used to measure the aggregation of Ag grains which may have been the main factor in the formation of the Ag/AZO ohmic contact to p-GaN.

  1. Methylation effect on the ohmic resistance of a poly-GC DNA-like chain

    Moura, F.A.B.F. de, E-mail: fidelis@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió AL 57072-970 (Brazil); Lyra, M.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió AL 57072-970 (Brazil); Almeida, M.L. de; Ourique, G.S.; Fulco, U.L.; Albuquerque, E.L. [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2016-10-14

    We determine, by using a tight-binding model Hamiltonian, the characteristic current–voltage (IxV) curves of a 5-methylated cytosine single strand poly-GC DNA-like finite segment, considering the methyl groups attached laterally to a random fraction of the cytosine basis. Striking, we found that the methylation significantly impacts the ohmic resistance (R) of the DNA-like segments, indicating that measurements of R can be used as a biosensor tool to probe the presence of anomalous methylation. - Highlights: • Ohmic resistance of finite segments of poly-CG DNA-like segments. • Possibility for the development of biosensor devices. • Methylation effect and electronic transport in DNA-like segments.

  2. Dynamics of the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model: A time-dependent variational study

    Wu Ning; Duan Liwei; Zhao Yang; Li Xin

    2013-01-01

    The Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variation is employed to probe the dynamics of the zero temperature sub-Ohmic spin-boson model with strong friction utilizing the Davydov D 1 ansatz. It is shown that initial conditions of the phonon bath have considerable influence on the dynamics. Counterintuitively, even in the very strong coupling regime, quantum coherence features still manage to survive under the polarized bath initial condition, while such features are absent under the factorized bath initial condition. In addition, a coherent-incoherent transition is found at a critical coupling strength α≈ 0.1 for s= 0.25 under the factorized bath initial condition. We quantify how faithfully our ansatz follows the Schrödinger equation, finding that the time-dependent variational approach is robust for strong dissipation and deep sub-Ohmic baths (s≪ 1).

  3. Graphene in ohmic contact for both n-GaN and p-GaN

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Shi, Lin; Xu, Gengzhao; Fan, Yingmin; Huang, Zengli [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang; Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-05-26

    The wrinkles of single layer graphene contacted with either n-GaN or p-GaN were found both forming ohmic contacts investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy. The local I–V results show that some of the graphene wrinkles act as high-conductive channels and exhibiting ohmic behaviors compared with the flat regions with Schottky characteristics. We have studied the effects of the graphene wrinkles using density-functional-theory calculations. It is found that the standing and folded wrinkles with zigzag or armchair directions have a tendency to decrease or increase the local work function, respectively, pushing the local Fermi level towards n- or p-type GaN and thus improving the transport properties. These results can benefit recent topical researches and applications for graphene as electrode material integrated in various semiconductor devices.

  4. Investigation of the Energy Confinement in Ohmic and LHCD Plasmas in HT-7

    Zhang Xiaoqing; Wan Baonian; Shen Biao; Hu Xiwei; Qian Jinping; Fan Hengyu; Ding Yonghua

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of the energy confinement in ohmic and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) plasmas in HT-7 has been performed. In ohmic discharges at low densities the global energy confinement time τ E increases almost linearly with the density, saturates at a critical density (2.5 x 10 13 /cm 3 for HT-7) and is nearly constant at higher densities. The energy confinement time is in good agreement with the Neo-Alcator scaling law at different densities and currents. In the LHCD plasmas the global energy confinement time similar to that of the L-mode discharges has been observed to be in good agreement with the low confinement mode (L mode) scaling law of ITER89-P in higher electron density and plasma current

  5. Observations of core toroidal rotation reversals in Alcator C-Mod ohmic L-mode plasmas

    Rice, J.E.; Reinke, M.L.; Podpaly, Y.A.; Churchill, R.M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Ennever, P.C.; Fiore, C.L.; Granetz, R.S.; Greenwald, M.J.; Hubbard, A.E.; Hughes, J.W.; Irby, J.H.; Ma, Y.; Marmar, E.S.; McDermott, R.M.; Porkolab, M.; Duval, B.P.; Bortolon, A.; Diamond, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Direction reversals of intrinsic toroidal rotation have been observed in Alcator C-Mod ohmic L-mode plasmas following modest electron density or toroidal magnetic field ramps. The reversal process occurs in the plasma interior, inside of the q = 3/2 surface. For low density plasmas, the rotation is in the co-current direction, and can reverse to the counter-current direction following an increase in the electron density above a certain threshold. Reversals from the co- to counter-current direction are correlated with a sharp decrease in density fluctuations with k R ≥ 2 cm -1 and with frequencies above 70 kHz. The density at which the rotation reverses increases linearly with plasma current, and decreases with increasing magnetic field. There is a strong correlation between the reversal density and the density at which the global ohmic L-mode energy confinement changes from the linear to the saturated regime.

  6. Information of Zeff from the sawtooth-performances in the center of ohmic tokamak discharges

    Eberhagen, A.

    1987-09-01

    Achievement of information on the mean effective ion charge in the center of ohmic tokamak discharges from sawtooth-relaxations of the plasma is considered. This method is found to supply trustworthy results for usual tokamak parameters. While its application requires some effort in data analysis, it can provide a valuable determination of Z eff -data, independent of the information from bremsstrahlung radiation losses of the plasma. (orig.)

  7. Reducing the acidity of Arabica coffee beans by ohmic fermentation technology

    Reta; Mursalim; Salengke; Junaedi, M.; Mariati; Sopade, P.

    2017-01-01

    Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polygons, and it stimulates brain performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. Arabica coffee has...

  8. A new method of making ohmic contacts to p-GaN

    Hernández-Gutierrez, C.A., E-mail: chernandez@fis.cinvestav.mx [DNyN, Cinvestav-IPN, México, DF, 07360 (Mexico); Kudriavtsev, Yu. [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, Cinvestav-IPN, México, DF, 07360 (Mexico); Mota, Esteban [ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México, DF, 07738 (Mexico); Hernández, A.G.; Escobosa-Echavarría, A.; Sánchez-Resendiz, V. [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, Cinvestav-IPN, México, DF, 07360 (Mexico); Casallas-Moreno, Y.L.; López-López, M. [Departamento Física, Cinvestav-IPN, México, DF, 07360 (Mexico)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Low resistance Ohmic contacts preparation is based on low energy high dose In{sup +} ion implantation into Metal/p-GaN to achieve a thin layer of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N just at the interface. • The specific ohmic contact was reduced from 10{sup −2} Ωcm{sup 2} to 2.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm{sup 2}. - Abstract: The structural, chemical, and electrical characteristics of In{sup +} ion-implanted Au/Ni, Au/Nb and Au/W ohmic contacts to p-GaN were investigated. After the preparation of Ni, Nb and W electrode on the surface of p-GaN, the metal/p-GaN contact interface was implanted by 30 keV In{sup +} ions with an implantation dose of 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature to form a thin layer of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N located at the metal-semiconductor interface, achieved to reduce the specific contact resistance due to the improving quantum tunneling transport trough to the structure. The characterization was carried out by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry to investigate the formation of ternary alloy, re-crystallization by rapid thermal annealing process after In{sup +} implantation, and the redistribution of elements. The specific contact resistance was extracted by current-voltage (I-V) curves using transmission line method; the lowest specific contact resistance of 2.5 × 10{sup −4} Ωcm{sup 2} was achieved for Au/Ni/p-In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/p-GaN ohmic contacts.

  9. Laser-annealed GaP OHMIC contacts for high-temperature devices

    Eknoyan, O.; Van der Hoeven, W.; Richardson, T.; Porter, W.A.; Coquat, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of successful Nd:YAG laser annealed ohmic contacts on n-type GaP are reported. Comparisons on identical laser and thermal annealed contacts on the same substrates are performed. Aging investigations are also studied. The results indicate that laser annealed contacts have far superior electrical characteristics, much better surface morphology and are substantially more stable with aging than the same but thermally alloyed ones

  10. Influence factors and temperature reliability of ohmic contact on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Liang Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the performance of Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contact with different Al and Au thicknesses and pretreatments. The temperature dependence of contact resistances (Rc was investigated and it shows that there are different optimal annealing temperatures with different metal thicknesses and pretreatments. The optimal annealing temperature is affected by Al and Au thickness and AlGaN thickness. The etched AlGaN barrier is useful to achieve good ohmic contact (0.24 Ω·mm with a low annealing temperature. Only the contact resistances of the samples with 130 nm Al layer kept stable and the contact resistances of the samples with 100nm and 160 nm Al layers increased with the measurement temperatures. The contact resistances showed a similar increase and then keep stable trend for all the samples in the long-term 400 °C aging process. The ohmic metal of 20/130/50/50 nm Ti/Al/Ni/Au with ICP etching is the superior candidate considering the contact resistance and reliability.

  11. AlGaN channel field effect transistors with graded heterostructure ohmic contacts

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Akyol, Fatih; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Zhang, Yuewei; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-09-01

    We report on ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) Al0.75Ga0.25N channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) with heterostructure engineered low-resistance ohmic contacts. The low intrinsic electron affinity of AlN (0.6 eV) leads to large Schottky barriers at the metal-AlGaN interface, resulting in highly resistive ohmic contacts. In this work, we use a reverse compositional graded n++ AlGaN contact layer to achieve upward electron affinity grading, leading to a low specific contact resistance (ρsp) of 1.9 × 10-6 Ω cm2 to n-Al0.75Ga0.25N channels (bandgap ˜5.3 eV) with non-alloyed contacts. We also demonstrate UWBG Al0.75Ga0.25N channel MISFET device operation employing the compositional graded n++ ohmic contact layer and 20 nm atomic layer deposited Al2O3 as the gate-dielectric.

  12. 1.0 MeV irradiation of OHMIC, MS, MIS contacts to InP

    Warren, C.E.; Wagner, B.F.; Anderson, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation effects of 1.0 MeV electrons with a dose of 10/sup 15/cm/sup -2/ to MS and MIS Schottky diodes on InP have been compared to the radiation effects of MIS diodes on GaAs and Si. The radiation effects to ohmic contacts were also investigated. The metal for the diodes on the InP was gold. Au/Ti/Al was used for the GaAs diodes and Cr for the silicon diodes. Oxide layers on InP were grown by anodization in 0.1 N KOH. Oxides to GaAs and Si were grown thermally. Ohmic contacts to InP were formed using AuGe/Ni and AuSn alloys, followed by annealing in N/sub 2//H/sub 2/ (85%/15%). Metal Semiconductor diodes on InP were found to be at least sensitive to the irradiation. The InP MS and MIS diodes showed only small changes in the current voltage (I-V) characteristic, whereas the GaAs and Si devices showed a decrease in reverse current after irradiation. The ohmic contact resistance was increased by a factor of 2 to 5 after irradiation

  13. Comparative Study Between Internal Ohmic Resistance and Capacity for Battery State of Health Estimation

    M. Nisvo Ramadan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid battery failure, a battery management system (BMS is necessary. Battery state of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are part of information provided by a BMS. This research analyzes methods to estimate SOH based lithium polymer battery on change of its internal resistance and its capacity. Recursive least square (RLS algorithm was used to estimate internal ohmic resistance while coloumb counting was used to predict the change in the battery capacity. For the estimation algorithm, the battery terminal voltage and current are set as the input variables. Some tests including static capacity test, pulse test, pulse variation test and before charge-discharge test have been conducted to obtain the required data. After comparing the two methods, the obtained results show that SOH estimation based on coloumb counting provides better accuracy than SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance. However, the SOH estimation based on internal ohmic resistance is faster and more reliable for real application

  14. Regulatory focussing of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive materials in Argentina

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Novo, R.G.; Bianchi, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This paper points out a summary of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive material in Argentina treated only from a regulatory focussing, it is to say from the point of view of its competent authority of application the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in Spanish, the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN). Firstly, it is introduced the legal and regulatory framework applicable to the transport of radioactive material and the corresponding authorities involved (ARN, Secretary of Transport, and the Argentine Air Force, Naval Prefecture and Navy). Then, it is presented a schedule of the main characteristics of the shipments of radioactive material used in both the nuclear cycle and in medicine, industry and research, and an average of the shipments annually transported in Argentina. Further on the paper briefly analyses the ARN sources and the way in which it performs the compliance assurance with the in-force transport regulations in the country. Particularly, it is explained certain main tools used by the compliance system, as for example, transport notice, data base, licensing of certain design packages, shipments and materials, inspection and audits, and fees and sanctions regimes. On the other hand, it is mentioned the Argentine experience in the development, licensing, manufacture and use of domestic designs of Type B(U) packages and special form radioactive material (cobalt 60 and iridium 192 sealed sources). Moreover, it is concisely described test facilities available in the country necessary to perform the mentioned designs. Finally, the paper shortly describes the ARN main transport activities exclusively concerning the relationship with other national organisations (Federal Police, Gendarmerie, Naval Prefecture and Argentine Institute of Material Rationalisation, in Spanish Instituto Argentino de Racionalizacion de Materiales - IRAM) and with regional and inter regional organisations (South American Common Market, in Spanish

  15. Methods of driving current by heating a toroidal plasma

    Fisch, N.J.

    1980-08-01

    In addition to the usual mechanism which utilizes the Ohmic transformer current, which is necessarily pulsed, there exist several steady-state mechanisms. Heating mechanisms which can lend themselves efficiently to continuous current generation include neutral beams, Alfven waves, ion-cyclotron waves, lower-hybrid waves and electron-cyclotron waves

  16. Second-harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating scenarios of ...

    description of the rf system and experimental conditions can be found in [3]. In all the cases, the ion temperature equal to half of the electron temperature as generally observed in ohmically heated Aditya plasma [8] is considered. The parameters of the representa- tive shot # 20685 taken for the numerical simulation of fast ...

  17. Exploring risk communication - results of a research project focussed on effectiveness evaluation

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Mostert, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The need for effective science communication and outreach efforts is widely acknowledged in the academic community. In the field of Disaster Risk Reduction, the importance of communication is clearly stressed, e.g. in the newly adopted Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (under the 1st priority of action: understanding disaster risk). Consequently, we see increasing risk communication activities. However, the effectiveness of these activities is rarely evaluated. To address this gap, several research activities were conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "Changes", the results of which we will present and discuss. First, results of a literature review show, among others, that research on effectiveness is mainly focussed on the assessment of users' needs and their ability to understand the content, rather than on the final impact of the risk communication efforts. Moreover, lab-environment research is more often undertaken than assessment of real communication efforts. Second, a comparison between perceptions of risk managers and the general public of risk communication in a French Alps Valley highlighted a gap between the two groups in terms of amount of information needed (who wants more), the important topics to address (what) and the media to use (how). Third, interviews with developers of smartphone applications for disseminating avalanche risk information showed a variety of current practices and the absence of measurements of real their effectiveness. However, our analysis allowed identifying good practices that can be an inspiration for risk communication related to other hazards. Fourth, an exhibition has been set up following a collaborative approached based on stakeholder engagement. Using a pre/post-test design, the immediate impact of the exhibition, which aimed at increasing the risk awareness of the population (Ubaye Valley, France), was measured. The data obtained suggests that visiting the exhibition

  18. Bias induced transition from an ohmic to a non-ohmic interface in supramolecular tunneling junctions with Ga2O3/EGaIn top electrodes.

    Wimbush, Kim S; Fratila, Raluca M; Wang, Dandan; Qi, Dongchen; Liang, Cao; Yuan, Li; Yakovlev, Nikolai; Loh, Kian Ping; Reinhoudt, David N; Velders, Aldrik H; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2014-10-07

    This study describes that the current rectification ratio, R ≡ |J|(-2.0 V)/|J|(+2.0 V) for supramolecular tunneling junctions with a top-electrode of eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) that contains a conductive thin (0.7 nm) supporting outer oxide layer (Ga2O3), increases by up to four orders of magnitude under an applied bias of >+1.0 V up to +2.5 V; these junctions did not change their electrical characteristics when biased in the voltage range of ±1.0 V. The increase in R is caused by the presence of water and ions in the supramolecular assemblies which react with the Ga2O3/EGaIn layer and increase the thickness of the Ga2O3 layer. This increase in the oxide thickness from 0.7 nm to ∼2.0 nm changed the nature of the monolayer-top-electrode contact from an ohmic to a non-ohmic contact. These results unambiguously expose the experimental conditions that allow for a safe bias window of ±1.0 V (the range of biases studies of charge transport using this technique are normally conducted) to investigate molecular effects in molecular electronic junctions with Ga2O3/EGaIn top-electrodes where electrochemical reactions are not significant. Our findings also show that the interpretation of data in studies involving applied biases of >1.0 V may be complicated by electrochemical side reactions which can be recognized by changes of the electrical characteristics as a function voltage cycling or in current retention experiments.

  19. Heat tolerance in wheat

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...

  20. Development of high temperature stable Ohmic and Schottky contacts on n-gallium nitride

    Khanna, Rohit

    In this work the effort was made to towards develop and investigate high temperature stable Ohmic and Schottky contacts for n type GaN. Various borides and refractory materials were incorporated in metallization scheme to best attain the desired effect of minimal degradation of contacts when placed at high temperatures. This work focuses on achieving a contact scheme using different borides which include two Tungsten Borides (namely W2B, W2B 5), Titanium Boride (TiB2), Chromium Boride (CrB2) and Zirconium Boride (ZrB2). Further a high temperature metal namely Iridium (Ir) was evaluated as a potential contact to n-GaN, as part of continuing improved device technology development. The main goal of this project was to investigate the most promising boride-based contact metallurgies on GaN, and finally to fabricate a High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) and compare its reliability to a HEMT using present technology contact. Ohmic contacts were fabricated on n GaN using borides in the metallization scheme of Ti/Al/boride/Ti/Au. The characterization of the contacts was done using current-voltage measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) measurements. The contacts formed gave specific contact resistance of the order of 10-5 to 10-6 Ohm-cm2. A minimum contact resistance of 1.5x10-6 O.cm 2 was achieved for the TiB2 based scheme at an annealing temperature of 850-900°C, which was comparable to a regular ohmic contact of Ti/Al/Ni/Au on n GaN. When some of borides contacts were placed on a hot plate or in hot oven for temperature ranging from 200°C to 350°C, the regular metallization contacts degraded before than borides ones. Even with a certain amount of intermixing of the metallization scheme the boride contacts showed minimal roughening and smoother morphology, which, in terms of edge acuity, is crucial for very small gate devices. Schottky contacts were also fabricated and characterized using all the five boride

  1. Ion beam studies. Pt. 3(a): the modelling of electrostatic mirrors for the manipulation and focussing of heavy ions

    Beanland, D.G.; Freeman, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Electrostatic mirrors have been used to steer, focus and scan intense beams of heavy ions. In this paper, an account is given of the computer modelling of such mirrors. Consideration is given to aperture effects in the lens and it is shown that shaped fields can be used to control the focussing behaviour. The mirror structure incorporates an additional negatively-biased electrode to prevent the penetration of the electric field through the apertures and along the beam trajectories outside the mirror space. This factor and the compact design minimise the space-charge de-focussing effects which normally militate against the use of such electrostatic lenses with high intensity ion beams. The experimental verification of the modelling for a variety of ion-beam manipulation requirements will be described in a subsequent paper. (author)

  2. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral beam injection, and radio-frequency (rf). Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, neutral beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The experimental plan requires 3 MW of 50-keV balanced neutral beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 ms for initial experiments, to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 s. Subsequent upgrades will add 3MW of neutral beam injection (NBI). This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M NBI system. In addition, estimations are given for beam heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size and magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of rf heating by mode conversion ion Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the rf system lend themselves to current drive, so if current drive became desirable for any reason, only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The rf system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly IBW-generated sheared flows

  3. NCSX Plasma Heating Methods

    Kugel, H.W.; Spong, D.; Majeski, R.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2003-01-01

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) has been designed to accommodate a variety of heating systems, including ohmic heating, neutral-beam injection, and radio-frequency. Neutral beams will provide one of the primary heating methods for NCSX. In addition to plasma heating, beams are also expected to provide a means for external control over the level of toroidal plasma rotation velocity and its profile. The plan is to provide 3 MW of 50 keV balanced neutral-beam tangential injection with pulse lengths of 500 msec for initial experiments, and to be upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. Subsequent upgrades will add 3 MW of neutral-beam injection. This Chapter discusses the NCSX neutral-beam injection requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M (Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification) neutral-beam injection system. In addition, estimations are given for beam-heating efficiencies, scaling of heating efficiency with machine size an d magnetic field level, parameter studies of the optimum beam-injection tangency radius and toroidal injection location, and loss patterns of beam ions on the vacuum chamber wall to assist placement of wall armor and for minimizing the generation of impurities by the energetic beam ions. Finally, subsequent upgrades could add an additional 6 MW of radio-frequency heating by mode-conversion ion-Bernstein wave (MCIBW) heating, and if desired as possible future upgrades, the design also will accommodate high-harmonic fast-wave and electron-cyclotron heating. The initial MCIBW heating technique and the design of the radio-frequency system lend themselves to current drive, so that if current drive became desirable for any reason only minor modifications to the heating system described here would be needed. The radio-frequency system will also be capable of localized ion heating (bulk or tail), and possibly ion-Bernstein-wave-generated sheared flows

  4. Transport in Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bitte, M.L.; Bourdelle, C.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The NSTX spherical torus (ST) provides a unique platform to investigate magnetic confinement in auxiliary-heated plasmas at low aspect ratio. Auxiliary power is routinely coupled to ohmically heated plasmas by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI) and by high-harmonic fast waves (HHFW) launch. While theory predicts both techniques to preferentially heat electrons, experiment reveals the electron temperature is greater than the ion temperature during HHFW, but the electron temperature is less than the ion temperature during NBI. In the following we present the experimental data and the results of transport analyses

  5. MHD-activity in ohmic, diverted and limited H-mode plasmas in TCV

    Pochelon, A.; Anton, M.; Buehlmann, F.; Dutch, M.J.; Duval, B.P.; Hirt, A.; Hofmann, F.; Joye, B.; Lister, J.B.; Llobet, X.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.M.; Nieswand, C.; Pietrzyk, A.Z.; Tonetti, G.; Weisen, H.

    1994-01-01

    During its first year of operation the TCV tokamak has produced a variety of plasma configurations with currents in the range 150 to 800 kA and elongations in the range of 1.0 to 2.05. Ohmic H-modes have been obtained in diverted discharges and discharges limited on the graphite tiles inner wall. After boronisation in May 1994 H-modes with line average densities up to 1.7x10 20 m -3 , corresponding to a Murakami parameter of 10, were obtained. (author) 5 figs., 2 refs

  6. Design of constant current charging power supply for J-TEXT ohmic field capacitor banks

    Lv Shudong; Zhang Ming; Rao Bo; Yu Kexun; Yang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The charging characteristic of the capacitor charging power supply was analyzed with practical series resonant topology. The method that setting two current taps and regulating PWM switching frequency was putted forward with close loop controlling algorithm to charge the multi-group capacitor banks with constant current. A capacitor charging power supply with the max output current 6.5 A and the max output voltage 2000 V is designed. Experimental results show that, this power supply can charge the four capacitor banks to any four different voltages in 1 minute with charging accuracy less than 1%, and meet the requirements of J-TEXT ohmic field power system. (authors)

  7. Transient snakes in an ohmic plasma associated with a minor disruption in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Mao, Songtao; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Kaiyun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2014-05-15

    A transient burst (∼2 ms, an order of the fast-particle slowdown timescale) of a spontaneous snake is observed for the first time in a HT-7 heavy impurity ohmic plasma. The features of the low-Z impurity snake are presented. The flatten electron profile due to the heavy impurity reveals the formation of a large magnetic island. The foot of the impurity accumulation is consistent with the location of the transient snake. The strong frequency-chirping behaviors and the spatial structures of the snake are also presented.

  8. Effect of morphology on the non-ohmic conduction in ZnO nanostructures

    Praveen, E.; Jayakumar, K.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructures of ZnO is synthesized with nanoflower like morphology by simple wet chemical method. The structural, morphological and electrical characterization have been carried out. The temperature dependent electrical characterization of ZnO pellets of thickness 1150 µm is made by the application of 925MPa pressure. The morphological dependence of non-ohmic conduction beyond some arbitrary tunneling potential and grain boundary barrier thickness is compared with the commercially available bulk ZnO. Our results show the suitability of nano-flower like ZnO for the devices like sensors, rectifiers etc.

  9. Density fluctuations in ohmic-, L-mode an H-mode discharges of ASDEX

    Dodel, G; Holzhauer, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaforschung; Niedermeyer, H; Endler, M; Gerhardt, J; Giannone, L.; Wagner, F; Zohm, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1991-01-01

    The 119 [mu]m laser scattering device ASDEX was used to investigate the direction of propagation and temporal development of density fluctuations. In ohmic discharges the density fluctuations propagate predominantly in the electron-diamagnetic direction and change direction with NI co-injection. A strong drop in total scattered power together with a further increase in the frequency shift is observed after the build-up of the transport barrier. Similar observations have been reported on other tokamaks. Due to the finite spatial resolution of the scattering system the variation of the fluctuations with local parameters cannot be sufficiently resolved to confirm their nature. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Density fluctuations in ohmic-, L-mode an H-mode discharges of ASDEX

    Dodel, G.; Holzhauer, E.

    1991-01-01

    The 119 μm laser scattering device ASDEX was used to investigate the direction of propagation and temporal development of density fluctuations. In ohmic discharges the density fluctuations propagate predominantly in the electron-diamagnetic direction and change direction with NI co-injection. A strong drop in total scattered power together with a further increase in the frequency shift is observed after the build-up of the transport barrier. Similar observations have been reported on other tokamaks. Due to the finite spatial resolution of the scattering system the variation of the fluctuations with local parameters cannot be sufficiently resolved to confirm their nature. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  11. Backscattering analysis of AuGe-Ni ohmic contacts of n-GaAs

    Nassibian, A.G.; Kalkur, T.S.; Sutherland, G.J.; Cohen, D.

    1985-01-01

    AuGe-Ni is widely used for the fabrication of ohmic contacts to n-GaAs. The alloying behaviour of evaporated AuGe-Ni alloyed by furnace and Scanning Electron Beam, is characterised by Rutherford backscattering with 2MeV 4 He ions. Since the formation of alloyed AuGe-Ni contacts involves redistribution and diffusion of Ga, As, Ni, Ge and Au, it is difficult to separate the corresponding yields due to gold, Ga As, Ni and Ge in the spectrum. The technique used in the investigation involves assumption of depth distribution of elements and computing the resultant spectrum

  12. AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors with implanted ohmic contacts

    Wang, H.T.; Tan, L.S.; Chor, E.F.

    2007-01-01

    Selective area silicon implantation for source/drain regions was integrated into the fabrication of molecular beam epitaxy-grown AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. Dopant activation was achieved by rapid thermal annealing at 1100 deg. C in flowing N 2 ambient for 120 s with an AlN encapsulation. Linear transmission line measurements showed that the resistance of the overlay Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contacts was reduced by 61% compared to the control sample. After the Schottky Ni/Au gate formation, the typical DC characteristics displayed a higher current drive, smaller knee voltage and better gate control properties for HEMTs with implanted source and drain regions

  13. Tokamak heating by neutral beams and adiabatic compression

    Furth, H.P.

    1973-08-01

    ''Realistic'' models of tokamak energy confinement strongly favor reactor operation at the maximum MHD-stable β-value, in order to maximize plasma density. Ohmic heating is unsuitable for this purpose. Neutral-beam heating plus compression is well suited; however, very large requirements on device size and injection power seem likely for a DT ignition experiment using a Maxwellian plasma. Results of the ATC experiment are reviewed, including Ohmic heating, neutral-beam heating, and production of two-energy-component plasmas (energetic deuteron population in deuterium ''target plasma''). A modest extrapolation of present ATC parameters could give zero-power conditions in a DT experiment of the two-energy-component type. (U.S.)

  14. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  15. Modelling the metal–semiconductor band structure in implanted ohmic contacts to GaN and SiC

    Pérez-Tomás, A; Fontserè, A; Placidi, M; Jennings, M R; Gammon, P M

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a method to model the metal–semiconductor (M–S) band structure to an implanted ohmic contact to a wide band gap semiconductor (WBG) such as GaN and SiC. The performance and understanding of the M–S contact to a WBG semiconductor is of great importance as it influences the overall performance of a semiconductor device. In this work we explore in a numerical fashion the ohmic contact properties to a WBG semiconductor taking into account the partial ionization of impurities and analysing its dependence on the temperature, the barrier height, the impurity level band energy and carrier concentration. The effect of the M–S Schottky barrier lowering and the Schottky barrier inhomogeneities are discussed. The model is applied to a fabricated ohmic contact to GaN where the M–S band structure can be completely determined. (paper)

  16. Conduction noise absorption by ITO thin films attached to microstrip line utilizing Ohmic loss

    Kim, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    For the aim of wide-band noise absorbers with a special design for low frequency performance, this study proposes conductive indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films as the absorbent materials in microstrip line. ITO thin films were deposited on the polyimide film substrates by rf magnetron cosputtering of In 2 O 3 and Sn targets. The deposited ITO films show a typical value of electrical resistivity (∼10 -4 Ω m) and sheet resistance can be controlled in the range of 20-230 Ω by variation in film thickness. Microstrip line with characteristic impedance of 50 Ω was used for determining their noise absorbing properties. It is found that there is an optimum sheet resistance of ITO films for the maximum power absorption. Reflection parameter (S 11 ) is increased with decrease in sheet resistance due to impedance mismatch. On the while, transmission parameter (S 21 ) is decreased with decrease in sheet resistance due to larger Ohmic loss of the ITO films. Experimental results and computational prediction show that the optimum sheet resistance is about 100 Ω. For this film, greater power absorption is predicted in the lower frequency region than ferrite thin films of high magnetic loss, which indicates that Ohmic loss is the predominant loss parameter for power absorption in the low frequency range.

  17. INCORPORATING AMBIPOLAR AND OHMIC DIFFUSION IN THE AMR MHD CODE RAMSES

    Masson, J.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Chabrier, G.; Teyssier, R.; Hennebelle, P.

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects in the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, namely, ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation, as additional source terms in the ideal MHD equations. We describe in details how we have discretized these terms using the adaptive Cartesian mesh, and how the time step is diminished with respect to the ideal case, in order to perform a stable time integration. We have performed a large suite of test runs, featuring the Barenblatt diffusion test, the Ohmic diffusion test, the C-shock test, and the Alfvén wave test. For the latter, we have performed a careful truncation error analysis to estimate the magnitude of the numerical diffusion induced by our Godunov scheme, allowing us to estimate the spatial resolution that is required to address non-ideal MHD effects reliably. We show that our scheme is second-order accurate, and is therefore ideally suited to study non-ideal MHD effects in the context of star formation and molecular cloud dynamics.

  18. The particle fluxes in the edge plasma during discharges with improved ohmic confinement in ASDEX

    Verbeek, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Fu, J.K.; Soeldner, F.X.

    1989-01-01

    In the recent experimental period of ASDEX a new regime of improved ohmic confinement (IOC) was discovered. So far the energy confinement time τ E increased linearly with increasing line averaged density n e up to n e = 3·10 13 cm -3 saturated, however, at higher densities. In the new IOC regime τ E increases further with increasing n e up to ∼5·10 13 cm -3 . The IOC regime is achieved for D 2 discharges only since the last modification of the ASDEX divertor which substantially increased the recycling from the divertor through the divertor slits. It also led to a reduction in gas consumption for a discharge by a factor of about 2. As it appears, the high fuelling rate required during a fast ramp-up of the plasma density leads to a transition into the Saturated Ohmic Confinememt (SOC) regime. Vice versa, the strong reduction in the external gas feed when the preprogrammed density plateau is reached seems to be essential for establishing the IOC. It is characterized by a pronounced peaking of the density profile. During the transition from the SOC to the IOC regime large variations in the signals of all edge and divertor related diagnostics are observed. In this paper we concentrate on the results of the Low Energy Neutral Particle Analyser (LENA), the sniffer probe, on the mass spectrometers measuring the divertor exhaust pressure. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs

  19. W and WSix Ohmic contacts on p- and n-type GaN

    Cao, X.A.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Zeitouny, A.; Eizenberg, M.; Zolper, J.C.; Abernathy, C.R.; Han, J.; Shul, R.J.; Lothian, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    W and WSi Ohmic contacts on both p- and n-type GaN have been annealed at temperatures from 300 to 1000 degree C. There is minimal reaction (≤100 Angstrom broadening of the metal/GaN interface) even at 1000 degree C. Specific contact resistances in the 10 -5 Ω cm 2 range are obtained for WSi x on Si-implanted GaN with a peak doping concentration of ∼5x10 20 cm -3 , after annealing at 950 degree C. On p-GaN, leaky Schottky diode behavior is observed for W, WSi x and Ni/Au contacts at room temperature, but true Ohmic characteristics are obtained at 250 - 300 degree C, where the specific contact resistances are, typically, in the 10 -2 Ω cm 2 range. The best contacts for W and WSi x are obtained after 700 degree C annealing for periods of 30 - 120 s. The formation of β-W 2 N interfacial phases appear to be important in determining the contact quality. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  20. Plasma heating: NBI ampersand RF, an introduction

    Koch, R.

    1996-01-01

    The additional heating and non-inductive current-drive methods are reviewed. First, the limitations of ohmic heating in tokamaks are examined and the motivations for using additional heating in tokamaks or other machines are discussed. Next we sketch the principles of heating by injection of fast neutrals - or Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The principle of the injector is briefly outlined. Positive and negative ion based concepts are discussed. The remainder of the lecture focuses on the processes by which the beam transfers energy to the plasma: the ionisation and slowing-down processes. Next, I make a review of the different heating schemes based on the transfer of electromagnetic energy to the plasma. The different wave heating frequency ranges are listed and the propagation and damping peculiarities are sketched in each domain. Heating in the Alfven and lower hybrid wave domains are described in some more details. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. Social cognition interventions for people with schizophrenia: a systematic review focussing on methodological quality and intervention modality.

    Grant, Nina; Lawrence, Megan; Preti, Antonio; Wykes, Til; Cella, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    People with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have significant social and functional difficulties. Social cognition was found to influences these outcomes and in recent years interventions targeting this domain were developed. This paper reviews the existing literature on social cognition interventions for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia focussing on: i) comparing focussed (i.e. targeting only one social cognitive domain) and global interventions and ii) studies methodological quality. Systematic search was conducted on PubMed and PsycInfo. Studies were included if they were randomised control trials, participants had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and the intervention targeted at least one out of four social cognition domains (i.e. theory of mind, affect recognition, social perception and attribution bias). All papers were assessed for methodological quality. Information on the intervention, control condition, study methodology and the main findings from each study were extracted and critically summarised. Data from 32 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, considering a total of 1440 participants. Taking part in social cognition interventions produced significant improvements in theory of mind and affect recognition compared to both passive and active control conditions. Results were less clear for social perception and attributional bias. Focussed and global interventions had similar results on outcomes. Overall study methodological quality was modest. There was very limited evidence showing that social cognitive intervention result in functional outcome improvement. The evidence considered suggests that social cognition interventions may be a valuable approach for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, evidence quality is limited by measure heterogeneity, modest study methodology and short follow-up periods. The findings point to a number of recommendations for future research, including measurement standardisation

  2. Relativistic self focussing of laser beams at fast ignitor inertial fusion with volume ignition

    Osman, F.; Castillo, R.; Hora, H.

    1999-01-01

    The alternative to the magnetic confinement fusion is inertial fusion energy mostly using lasers as drivers for compression and heating of pellets with deuterium and tritium fuel. Following the present technology of lasers with pulses of some megajoules energy and nanosecond duration, a power station for very low cost energy production (and without the problems of well erosion of magnetic confinement) could be available within 15 to 20 years. For the pellet compression, the scheme of spark ignition was mostly applied but its numerous problems with asymmetries and instabilities may be overcome by the alternative scheme of high gain volume ignition. This is a well established option of inertial fusion energy with lasers where a large range of possible later improvements is implied with respect to laser technology or higher plasma compression leading to energy production of perhaps five times below the present lowest level cost from fission reactors. A further improvement may be possible by the recent development of lasers with picosecond pulse duration using the fast igniter scheme which may reach even higher fusion gains with laser pulse energies of some 100 kilojoules

  3. The role of titanium aluminide in n-gallium nitride ohmic contact technology

    Pelto, Christopher M.

    Ohmic contacts are essential to the realization of efficient and affordable nitride-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Currently, the most successful ohmic contact schemes to n-GaN are based on the Al/Ti bilayer structure, although the mechanism responsible for the low resistance in these contacts is not sufficiently understood. In this work, the intermetallic TiAl3 has been employed both as a model ohmic contact system to help understand the essential features of the Al/Ti standard contact, as well as a thermally stable oxidation cap for the bilayer structure. A quaternary isotherm of the Al-Ti-Ga-N system was calculated at 600°C, which showed that a sufficient phase topology was present to apply the exchange mechanism to the TiAl 3/GaN couple. The exchange mechanism rationalized the selection of the TiAl3 intermetallic by predicting that an Al-rich AlGaN layer will form at the metal/semiconductor interface. As part of the investigation of these novel contact systems, a thorough characterization was undertaken on both a standard Al/Ti and Au/Ni/Al/Ti contact to n-GaN in which the essential processing parameters and metallurgical properties were identified. The TiAl 3 contact was found to exhibit inferior electrical behavior compared to the Al/Ti bilayer, requiring significantly higher annealing temperatures to achieve comparable specific contact resistance. It is conjectured that this is due to the early formation of a TiN layer at the metal/semiconductor interface of the bilayer contact, even though both contacts are suspected to form the Al-rich nitride layer at higher temperature. As an oxidation cap, the TiAl3 metallization was found to provide much improved performance characteristics compared to the four-layer Au/Al/Ni/Ti standard. The TiAl 3/Al/Ti contact proved to achieve optimal performance at a much lower temperature than the standard, and furthermore showed complete insensitivity to the oxidation content of the annealing ambient. Reaction

  4. Achieving Ohmic Contact for High-quality MoS2 Devices on Hexagonal Boron Nitride

    Cui, Xu

    MoS2, among many other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), holds great promise for future applications in nano-electronics, opto-electronics and mechanical devices due to its ultra-thin nature, flexibility, sizable band-gap, and unique spin-valley coupled physics. However, there are two main challenges that hinder careful study of this material. Firstly, it is hard to achieve Ohmic contacts to mono-layer MoS2, particularly at low temperatures (T) and low carrier densities. Secondly, materials' low quality and impurities introduced during the fabrication significantly limit the electron mobility of mono- and few-layer MoS2 to be substantially below theoretically predicted limits, which has hampered efforts to observe its novel quantum transport behaviours. Traditional low work function metals doesn't necessary provide good electron injection to thin MoS2 due to metal oxidation, Fermi level pinning, etc. To address the first challenge, we tried multiple contact schemes and found that mono-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and cobalt (Co) provide robust Ohmic contact. The mono-layer spacer serves two advantageous purposes: it strongly interacts with the transition metal, reducing its work function by over 1 eV; and breaks the metal-TMDCs interaction to eliminate the interfacial states that cause Fermi level pinning. We measure a flat-band Schottky barrier of 16 meV, which makes thin tunnel barriers upon doping the channels, and thus achieve low-T contact resistance of 3 kohm.um at a carrier density of 5.3x10. 12/cm. 2. Similar to graphene, eliminating all potential sources of disorder and scattering is the key to achieving high performance in MoS2 devices. We developed a van der Waals heterostructure device platform where MoS2 layers are fully encapsulated within h-BN and electrically contacted in a multi-terminal geometry using gate-tunable graphene electrodes. The h-BN-encapsulation provides excellent protection from environmental factors, resulting in

  5. Establishing an upper bound on contact resistivity of ohmic contacts to n-GaN nanowires

    Blanchard, Paul; Bertness, Kris A; Harvey, Todd; Sanford, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Contact resistivity ρ c is an important figure of merit in evaluating and improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Due to the small size, unique morphology, and uncertain transport properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs), measuring ρ c of contacts to NWs can be particularly challenging. In this work, Si-doped n-GaN NWs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Four-contact structures with 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al contacts were fabricated on individual NWs by photolithography, and the contacts were annealed to achieve ohmic behavior. Two-point resistances R 23  and four-point collinear resistances R 23collinear  were measured between the middle two contacts on each NW. These resistances were then modeled by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of current flow along the length of each contact. Contrary to the assumption that the resistance difference R 23 −R 23collinear  is equal to the total contact resistance R c , the distributed-current-flow contact model shows that R 23 −R 23collinear  ≪ R c when ρ c is sufficiently small. Indeed, the measured R 23 −R 23collinear  was so small in these devices that it was within the measurement uncertainty, meaning that it was not possible to directly calculate ρ c from these data. However, it was possible to calculate an upper bound on ρ c for each device based on the largest possible value of R 23 −R 23collinear . In addition, we took into account the large uncertainties in the NW transport properties by numerically maximizing ρ c with respect to the uncertainty range of each measured and assumed parameter in the contact model. The resulting upper limits on ρ c ranged from 4.2 × 10 −6  to 7.6 × 10 −6  Ω cm 2 , indicating that 20 nm Ti/200 nm Al is a good choice of ohmic contact for moderately-doped n-GaN NWs. The measurement and numerical analysis demonstrated here offer a general approach to modeling ohmic contact resistivity via NW four

  6. Applicability of the lattice Boltzmann method to determine the ohmic resistance in equivalent resistor connections

    Espinoza-Andaluz, Mayken; Barzola, Julio; Guarochico-Moreira, Víctor H.; Andersson, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Knowing the ohmic resistance in the materials allow to know in advance its electrical behavior when a potential difference is applied, and therefore the prediction of the electrical performance can be achieved in a most certain manner. Although the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been applied to solve several physical phenomena in complex geometries, it has only been used to describe the fluid phase, but applicability studies of LBM on the solid-electric-conducting material have not been carried out yet. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the accuracy of calculating the equivalent resistor connections using LBM. Several series and parallel resistor connections are effected. All the computations are carried out with 3D models, and the domain materials are designed by the authors.

  7. Fokker-Planck equation of the reduced Wigner function associated to an Ohmic quantum Langevin dynamics

    Colmenares, Pedro J.

    2018-05-01

    This article has to do with the derivation and solution of the Fokker-Planck equation associated to the momentum-integrated Wigner function of a particle subjected to a harmonic external field in contact with an ohmic thermal bath of quantum harmonic oscillators. The strategy employed is a simplified version of the phenomenological approach of Schramm, Jung, and Grabert of interpreting the operators as c numbers to derive the quantum master equation arising from a twofold transformation of the Wigner function of the entire phase space. The statistical properties of the random noise comes from the integral functional theory of Grabert, Schramm, and Ingold. By means of a single Wigner transformation, a simpler equation than that mentioned before is found. The Wigner function reproduces the known results of the classical limit. This allowed us to rewrite the underdamped classical Langevin equation as a first-order stochastic differential equation with time-dependent drift and diffusion terms.

  8. High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum

    Yonkee, Benjamin P.; Young, Erin; DenBaars, Steven P; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Ohmic contacts to both c-plane and (202 ̅1 ̅) n-GaN are demonstrated using a pure aluminum layer which was vacuum annealed to prevent oxidation. Specific contact resistivities of 4.4 × 10-7 and 2.3 × 10-5 Ωcm2 were obtained without annealing for c-plane and (202 ̅1 ̅ ) samples respectively. A reflectivity of over 85% at 450 nm was measured for both samples. After a 300 °C anneal specific contact resistivities of 1.5 × 10-7 and 1.8 × 10-7 Ωcm2 were obtained for c-plane and (202 ̅1 ̅ ) samples respectively and the reflectivities remained higher than 80%.

  9. High reflectivity Ohmic contacts to n-GaN utilizing vacuum annealed aluminum

    Yonkee, Benjamin P.

    2017-10-31

    Ohmic contacts to both c-plane and (202 ̅1 ̅) n-GaN are demonstrated using a pure aluminum layer which was vacuum annealed to prevent oxidation. Specific contact resistivities of 4.4 × 10-7 and 2.3 × 10-5 Ωcm2 were obtained without annealing for c-plane and (202 ̅1 ̅ ) samples respectively. A reflectivity of over 85% at 450 nm was measured for both samples. After a 300 °C anneal specific contact resistivities of 1.5 × 10-7 and 1.8 × 10-7 Ωcm2 were obtained for c-plane and (202 ̅1 ̅ ) samples respectively and the reflectivities remained higher than 80%.

  10. Optimisation of the Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contact on AlGaN/GaN FET structures

    Jacobs, B.; Krämer, M.C.J.C.M.; Geluk, E.J.; Karouta, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic approach to reduce the resistance of ohmic contacts on AlGaN/GaN FET structures. We have optimised the Ti/Al/Ni/Au contact with respect to the metal composition and annealing conditions. Our optimised contact has a very low contact resistance of 0.2 ohm mm (7.3 x 10^-7 ohm

  11. Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-based Ohmic contact formation on n-type gallium antimony (GaSb)

    Shin, Jeong-Hun; Jung, Hyun-Wook [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Park, Jin-Hong, E-mail: jhpark9@skku.edu [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    In this paper, Ohmic-like contact on n-type GaSb with on/off-current ratio of 1.64 is presented, which is formed at 500 °C by inserting IGZO between metal (Ni) and GaSb. The resulting Ohmic contact is systematically investigated by TOF-SIMS, HSC chemistry simulation, XPS, TEM, AFM, and J–V measurements. Two main factors contributing to the Ohmic contact formation are (1) InSb (or InGaSb) with narrow energy bandgap (providing low electron and hole barrier heights) formed by In diffusion from IGZO and Sb released by Ga oxidation, and (2) free Sb working as traps that induces tunneling current. - Highlights: • We demonstrate Ohmic-like contact on n-type GaSb with on/off-current ratio of 1.64. • The reverse current is increased by low electron barrier height and high TAT current. • The low electron barrier height is achieved by the formation of InGaSb. • Free Sb atoms also work as traps inducing high TAT current.

  12. Plasma-assisted ohmic contact for AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Qingpeng; Jiang, Ying; Li, Liuan; Ao, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Huichao

    2016-01-01

    An Al-based ohmic process assisted by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) recess treatment is proposed for AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) to realize ohmic contact, which is only needed to anneal at 500 °C. The recess treatment was done with SiCl 4 plasma with 100 W ICP power for 20 s and annealing at 575 °C for 1 min. Under these conditions, contact resistance of 0.52 Ωmm was confirmed. To suppress the ball-up phenomenon and improve the surface morphology, an Al/TiN structure was also fabricated with the same conditions. The contact resistance was further improved to 0.30 Ωmm. By using this plasma-assisted ohmic process, a gate-first HFET was fabricated. The device showed high drain current density and high transconductance. The leakage current of the TiN-gate device decreased to 10 −9 A, which was 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of the device annealed at 800 °C. The results showed that the low-temperature ohmic contact process assisted by ICP treatment is promising for the fabrication of gate-first and self-aligned gate HFETs. (paper)

  13. Enhanced TiC/SiC Ohmic contacts by ECR hydrogen plasma pretreatment and low-temperature post-annealing

    Liu, Bingbing; Qin, Fuwen; Wang, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-temperature ECR microwave hydrogen plasma were pretreated for moderately doped (1 × 10"1"8 cm"−"3) SiC surfaces. • The relationship among Ohmic properties, the SiC surface properties and TiC/SiC interface properties were established. • Interface band structures were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism by which the Ohmic contacts were formed. - Abstract: We proposed an electronic cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave hydrogen plasma pretreatment (HPT) for moderately doped (1 × 10"1"8 cm"−"3) SiC surfaces and formed ideal TiC/SiC Ohmic contacts with significantly low contact resistivity (1.5 × 10"−"5 Ω cm"2) after low-temperature annealing (600 °C). This is achieved by reducing barrier height at TiC/SiC interface because of the release of pinned Fermi level by surface flattening and SiC surface states reduction after HPT, as well as the generation of donor-type carbon vacancies, which reduced the depletion-layer width for electron tunneling after annealing. Interface band structures were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism of Ohmic contact formations.

  14. Design of a multistage 250 kJ capacitor bank for ohmic transformer of tokamak ''ADITYA''

    Sathyanarayana, K.; Saxena, Y.C.; John, P.I.; Pujara, H.D.; Jain, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    Tokamaks require toroidal loop voltage for breakdown of the neutral gas, current rise, and the flat top phase. The temporal profile of the loop voltage established by the change of flux linked by the ohmic transformer has to be a noncosine waveform. In this paper a multistage capacitor bank is described which was used to energize the ohmic transformer in tokamak ADITYA with a major radius of 0.75 m, minor radius of 0.25 m, and a toroidal field of 1.5 T at the plasma center. A combination of capacitors charged to different voltages are switched in at appropriate times, to realize an experimental demand for initial high loop voltage followed by a lower sustaining loop voltage. Theoretical prediction for the duration of the secondary loop voltage as a function of circuit parameters, for a fast bank operation of 6 kV, slow bank, 4--4.5 kV, and slow bank, 2--2.5 kV yield t 0 =1.25 mS, t 1 =4.95 mS, and t 2 =24.1 mS. These values are in close agreement to the measured values of t 0 =1.39 mS, t 1 =5.7 mS, and t 2 =23.7 mS. The trigger delays to the various capacitor bank sections are parameter dependent. To avoid repetitive adjustments in the delays, a novel scheme for consistent triggering is also highlighted

  15. Measurement of the drift velocities of electrons and holes in high-ohmic silicon

    Scharf, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of the drift velocities of electrons and holes as a function of the electric field and the temperature in high-ohmic silicon of crystal orientation are presented. Significant differences between our results and literature values are observed. A new parametrization of the mobility is introduced. Current transients of n-type pad diodes, generated by fast laser pulses, were investigated in order to determine the drift velocity of electrons and holes separately. Two diodes of high-ohmic silicon (1.5 kΩcm and 5.5 kΩcm) from different manufacturers were investigated as cross check. The drift velocities were determined at electric fields ranging from 5 kV/cm to 50 kV/cm at temperatures ranging from 233 K to 333 K. The mobility parameters were obtained by fitting a simulation of charge drift in silicon to the measurements. Using the convolution theorem the response function of the read-out circuit was determined with the Fourier transforms of the measurement and the simulation. The simulated transient current pulses with the new mobility parametrization are consistent with the measured ones for the temperature and electric field range investigated here. Additionally, the mobility results from the fit are consistent with the mobility determined using the simpler time-of-flight method in the field range where this method is applicable. However, our measurements show a difference of up to 14 % to the values by Canali et al. (1971). The difference to the mobility parametrization by Jacoboni et al. (1977) is up to 24 % while this parametrization is widely used for simulations of the direction due to the lack of data for silicon.

  16. Initial Thomson Scattering Survey of Local Helicity Injection and Ohmic Plasmas at the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  17. The LUSI LAB project: a multidisciplinary study of focussed fluid flow

    Mazzini, A.

    2012-12-01

    The 29th of May 2006 several gas and mud eruption sites suddenly appeared along a fault in the NE of Java, Indonesia. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active. This disaster has forced 50.000 people to be evacuated and an area of more than 7 km2 is covered by mud. The social impact of the eruption and its spectacular dimensions still attract the attention of international media reporting on the "largest mud eruption site on Earth". Our investigations revealed that the Watukosek fault system reactivated after the 27-05-2006 Yogyakarta earthquake allowing the release of overpressured fluids along the fault planes. Sampling results indicate that the main source of clay and fluids was traced from the overpressured units located at ~1500 m depth. Further, analyses and modelling indicate that Lusi gas was generated at high temperatures (>220°C) with maturity and isotopic characteristics corresponding to the oil-prone Eocene, Ngimbang shales situated at 4,400 m. Hydrocarbon, CO2 and helium analyses are consistent with a scenario of deep sited (>4000 m) magmatic intrusions and hydrothermal fluids responsible for the enhanced heat that altered source rocks and/or gas reservoirs. The neighbouring magmatic Arjuno complex and its fluid-pressure system combined with high seismic activity could have played a key role in the Lusi genesis and evolution. Despite the work done, still many unanswered questions remain. What lies beneath Lusi? If Lusi is not a mud volcano, how large is the connected hydrothermal system? How do the frequent seismic activity and the neighbouring Arjuno Welirang volcanic complex effect pulsating Lusi behaviour? What are the mechanisms triggering the eruption? How long will the eruption last? Are more eruptions like this one likely to occur? LUSI LAB is an ambitious project that aims to answer these questions and to perform a multidisciplinary study using

  18. ICRF heating experiments in JFT-2 tokamak

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    This is an experimental study of ICRF heating on JFT-2 Tokamak in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this study, we first clarified physical and engineering problems of ICRF heating of tokamak plasma. Next, we optimized the design of the ICRF heating system, and the plasma parameters for the heating. Finally, we could demonstrate a high efficiency of this additional heating method by launching RF power which is two or three times as large as an ohmic input power to a plasma. And we achieved following things. (1) We optimized a design of an antenna, and we improved a durability of the system for high voltage. With the result that we achieved the maximum power density on an antenna. (2) We demonstrated that electron heating regime and ion heating regime can be easily accessed by controlling plasma parameters. Also we found the optimum heating conditions in each heating regime. (3) We experimentally clarified the production mechanism of impurities during ICRF heating. We could reduce the influx of metal impurity ions to a plasma by employing low z materials for limiters and antenna shields. Consequently, we improved a heating efficiency of electrons. Next, we studied a power balance of plasma during ICRF heating, and we could compare heating characteristics of ICRF with other additional heatings on JFT-2. (author)

  19. Papers presented by the SIG at the 13. European conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating

    1986-05-01

    In this report, papers gathered essentially around lower hybrid wave heating and current drive. Efficiency, saturation, conduction are studied; design studies are made for multijunction grill. Optimization of wave launching and absorption is researched. Lower hybrid current drive which is non-inductive current drive together with ohmic current is studied. At last suppression of sawtooth instabilities by current drive is also presented

  20. High-power neutral-beam heating in the adiabatic toroidal compressor

    Ellis, R.A.; Eubank, H.P.; Goldston, R.; Smith, R.R.; Nagashima, T.

    1976-05-01

    Neutral-beam injection experiments on ATC have resulted in net power deposited in the plasma of up to 230 kW. The power deposited in the plasma ions is large compared to that from ohmic heating. For a variety of beam and plasma ion species, the increase in ion temperature is proportional to beam power

  1. Study of the ion density of a radio-frequency plasma using electrostatic probes and focussed microwave interferometers

    Nguyen Cao, L.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1976-01-01

    In order to verify experimentally and compare recent ion theories for cylindrical electrostatic probes, the ion density in a radio-frequency plasma was evaluated from V-I curves by means of six different theories. At low pressures, the theories of Bernstein and Rabinowitz, of Lam and Laframboise, give values of density which differ respectively by 20, 25 and 30% compared with the values obtained using a 10GHz focussed microwave interferometer. At the continuum limit, The Schulz and Brown's, and Su and Kiel's theories give density values which disagree respectively by 55 and 20%, compared with the values obtained by microwaves. For pressures varying from 0.05 to 3mmHg, the decrease of ion current, as predicted theorically by Waymouth, was observed. The density perturbation near the probe was found to be a dominant factor affecting the precision of density measurements, for pressures up to 2mmHg at least for our experimental conditions [fr

  2. Two-step deposition of Al-doped ZnO on p-GaN to form ohmic contacts

    Su, Xi; Zhang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Chao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were deposited directly on p-GaN substrates by using a two-step deposition consisting of polymer assisted deposition (PAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) methods. Ohmic contacts of the AZO on p-GaN have been formed. The lowest sheet resistance of the two-step prepared AZO films reached to 145 Ω/sq, and the specific contact resistance reduced to 1.47 × 10-2 Ω·cm2. Transmittance of the AZO films remained above 80% in the visible region. The combination of PAD and ALD technique can be used to prepare p-type ohmic contacts for optoelectronics.

  3. Enhanced piezoelectric output voltage and Ohmic behavior in Cr-doped ZnO nanorods

    Sinha, Nidhi; Ray, Geeta; Godara, Sanjay; Gupta, Manoj K.; Kumar, Binay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Low cost highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized. • Enhancement in dielectric, piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties were observed. • A high output voltage was obtained in AFM. • Cr-doping resulted in enhanced conductivity and better Ohmic behavior in ZnO/Ag contact. - Abstract: Highly crystalline Cr-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) were synthesized by solution technique. The size distribution was analyzed by high resolution tunneling electron microscope (HRTEM) and particle size analyzer. In atomic force microscope (AFM) studies, peak to peak 8 mV output voltage was obtained on the application of constant normal force of 25 nN. It showed high dielectric constant (980) with phase transition at 69 °C. Polarization vs. electric field (P–E) loops with remnant polarization (6.18 μC/cm 2 ) and coercive field (0.96 kV/cm) were obtained. In I–V studies, Cr-doping was found to reduce the rectifying behavior in the Ag/ZnO Schottky contact which is useful for field effect transistor (FET) and solar cell applications. With these excellent properties, Cr-doped ZnO NRs can be used in nanopiezoelectronics, charge storage and ferroelectric applications

  4. Facet formation and ohmic contacts for laser diodes on non- and semipolar GaN

    Rass, Jens; Ploch, Simon; Vogt, Patrick [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Institute of Solid State Physics; Wernicke, Tim; Redaelli, Luca; Einfeldt, Sven [Ferdinand- Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany). Institute of Solid State Physics; Ferdinand- Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Group-III-Nitride heterostructures grown on nonpolar and semipolar planes allow the realization of highly efficient devices such as laser diodes and LEDs due to the reduction or elimination of the quantum confined Stark effect. However, the realization of these devices poses a number of challenges, in particular the formation of smooth laser facets and the fabrication of ohmic contacts. In this talk optimized schemes for facet formation and contact resistance reduction for nitride based devices on non- and semipolar planes are presented, and various concepts are discussed. We discuss a laser scribing process that allows the cleaving of facets along the c- and a-plane for devices grown on nonpolar substrates. For semipolar planes there is no low-index cleavage plane in order to form resonators along the projection of the c-axis. Therefore we have investigated etching techniques in order to produce flat facets perpendicular to the plane of growth. For the challenging formation of p-type contacts to GaN we discuss different methods such as chemical treatments, different metallization schemes and capping layers to reduce the contact resistivity.

  5. Power deposition to the pump limiters in Tore-Supra with ohmic plasmas

    Guilhem, D.; Chatelier, M.; Chappuis Fleury, I.; Klepper, C.

    1990-01-01

    The modification of power scrape-off-length, λq, and power deposition are studied both with the horizontal limiter alone and with the full set of 7 pump limiters for 1MW ohmic plasmas in TORE-SUPRA. By making spatially resolved infrared surface temperature measurements during the plasma discharge, the magnitude and distribution of the energy flux can be derived. For comparison, the surface temperature of the horizontal pump limiter is calculated with a finite element code using a 3D description of the field lines, an exponential scrape-off-layer, and the pump limiter geometry. From comparison of the infrared images of the limiter we derived that the λq for power deposition was slightly less than 9 mm (±1mm) which is in agreement with the predicted design value of 10 mm. For an 8 seconds discharge, the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter is 450 0 C. Inserting the 7 limiters does not modify λq (which becomes 10 mm). The power is shared by all the limiters and the maximum surface temperature on the horizontal limiter decreased to 320 0 C. These λq values have been independently measured by the integrated energy deposition on the horizontal limiter and other internal structures 5 cm into the scrape-off layer. These values agree with the infrared measurements in the two cases

  6. Al and Cu Implantation into Silicon Substrate for Ohmic Contact in Solar Cell Fabrication

    Sri Sulamdari; Sudjatmoko; Wirjoadi; Yunanto; Bambang Siswanto

    2002-01-01

    Research on the implantation of Al and Cu ions into silicon substrate for ohmic contact in solar cell fabrication has been carried using ion accelerator machine. Al and Cu ions are from 98% Al and 99.9% Cu powder ionized in ion source system. provided in ion implantor machine. Before implantation process, (0.5 x 1) cm 2 N type and P type silicon were washed in water and then etched in Cp-4A solution. After that, P type silicon were implanted with Al ions and N type silicon were implanted with Cu ions with the ions dose from 10 13 ion/cm 2 - 10 16 ion/cm 2 and energy 20 keV - 80 keV. Implanted samples were then annealed at temperature 400 o C - 850 o C. Implanted and annealed samples were characterized their resistivities using four point probe FPP-5000. It was found that at full electrically active conditions the ρ s for N type was 1.30 x 10 8 Ω/sq, this was achieved at ion dose 10 13 ion/cm 2 and annealing temperature 500 o C. While for P type, the ρ s was 1.13 x 10 2 Ω/sq, this was achieved at ion dose 10 13 ion/cm 2 and energy 40 keV, and annealing temperature 500 o C. (author)

  7. Temperature dependent diffusion and epitaxial behavior of oxidized Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contact

    Hu, C.Y.; Qin, Z.X.; Feng, Z.X.; Chen, Z.Z.; Ding, Z.B.; Yang, Z.J.; Yu, T.J.; Hu, X.D.; Yao, S.D.; Zhang, G.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependent diffusion and epitaxial behavior of oxidized Au/Ni/p-GaN ohmic contact were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy/channeling (RBS/C) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is found that the Au diffuses to the surface of p-GaN to form an epitaxial structure on p-GaN after annealing at 450 deg. C. At the same time, the O diffuses to the metal-semiconductor interface and forms NiO. Both of them are suggested to be responsible for the sharp decrease in the specific contact resistance (ρ c ) at 450 deg. C. At 500 deg. C, the epitaxial structure of Au develops further and the O also diffuses deeper into the interface. As a result, the ρ c reaches the lowest value at this temperature. However, when annealing temperature reaches 600 deg. C, part or all of the interfacial NiO is detached from the p-GaN and diffuses out, which cause the ρ c to increase greatly

  8. Ti/Al Ohmic Contacts to n-Type GaN Nanowires

    Gangfeng Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium/aluminum ohmic contacts to tapered n-type GaN nanowires with triangular cross-sections were studied. To extract the specific contact resistance, the commonly used transmission line model was adapted to the particular nanowire geometry. The most Al-rich composition of the contact provided a low specific contact resistance (mid 10−8 Ωcm2 upon annealing at 600 °C for 15 s, but it exhibited poor thermal stability due to oxidation of excess elemental Al remaining after annealing, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, less Al-rich contacts required higher annealing temperatures (850 or 900 °C to reach a minimum specific contact resistance but exhibited better thermal stability. A spread in the specific contact resistance from contact to contact was tentatively attributed to the different facets that were contacted on the GaN nanowires with a triangular cross-section.

  9. Decoherence plus spontaneous symmetry breakdown generate the ''ohmic'' view of the state-vector collapse

    Ne'eman, Y.; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX

    1993-06-01

    The collapse of the state-vector is described as a phase transition due to three features. First, there is the atrophying of indeterminacy for macroscopic objects -- including the measurement apparatus. Secondly, there is the environment decohering mechanism, as described by Zeh, Joos and others -- dominant in macroscopic objects. As a result, the classical background, an input in the Copenhagen prescriptions, is generated as an ''effective'' picture, similar to the ''effective'' introduction of Ohmic resistance or of thermodynamical variables, when going from the micro to the macroscopic; in this case, the collectivized substrate is provided by the multiplicity of photon scatterings, etc., on top of the effect of the large number of particles in macroscopic objects. Thirdly, there is the Everett ''branching'', i.e. the materialization of one of the now decoherent states, accompanied by the destruction of the other branches. By definition, quantum indeterminancy represents a symmetry; in a measurement, or in a branching, this symmetry is broken ''spontaneously'', involving a Ginzburg-Landau type potential with asymmetric minima, thus concretizing the quantum ''dice'' without the burden of ''many worlds''. The authors review and systematize the various phase transitions relating quantum to classical phenomena

  10. Plasma interaction with tungsten samples in the COMPASS tokamak in ohmic ELMy H-modes

    Dimitrova, M; Weinzettl, V; Matejicek, J; Dejarnac, R; Stöckel, J; Havlicek, J; Panek, R; Popov, Tsv; Marinov, S; Costea, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on plasma interaction with tungsten samples with or without pre-grown He fuzz. Under the experimental conditions, arcing was observed on the fuzzy tungsten samples, resulting in localized melting of the fuzz structure that did not extend into the bulk. The parallel power flux densities were obtained from the data measured by Langmuir probes embedded in the divertor tiles on the COMPASS tokamak. Measurements of the current-voltage probe characteristics were performed during ohmic ELMy H-modes reached in deuterium plasmas at a toroidal magnetic field B T = 1.15 T, plasma current I p = 300 kA and line-averaged electron density n e = 5×10 19 m -3 . The data obtained between the ELMs were processed by the recently published first-derivative probe technique for precise determination of the plasma potential and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). The spatial profile of the EEDF shows that at the high-field side it is Maxwellian with a temperature of 5 -- 10 eV. The electron temperatures and the ion-saturation current density obtained were used to evaluate the radial distribution of the parallel power flux density as being in the order of 0.05 -- 7 MW/m 2 . (paper)

  11. Investigation of silicon sensors quality as a function of the ohmic side processing technology

    Bloch, P; Golubkov, S A; Golutvin, I A; Egorov, N; Konjkov, K; Kozlov, Y; Peisert, Anna; Sidorov, A; Zamiatin, N I; Cheremuhin, A E

    2002-01-01

    Silicon sensors designed for the CMS Preshower detector must have a high breakdown voltage in order to be fully efficient after a strong irradiation. Studies made by several groups left bracket 1,2,3 right bracket have underlined the importance of the p**+ side geometrical parameters, such as the metal width and the number and spacing of guard rings. We have in addition investigated the effects related to the ohmic side processing and found that the breakdown voltage depends strongly on the depth of the effective "dead" n**+ layer. By increasing this thickness from mum to 2.5mum, the fraction of sensors with breakdown voltage higher than 500V increased from 22% to more than 80%. On the other hand, it was noticed that the starting surface quality of the wafer (double side polished or single side polished) does not affect the detectors parameters for a given production technology. The thick n**+-layer protects against initial wafer surface and defects caused by the technological treatment during the detector pr...

  12. Method of separate determination of high-ohmic sample resistance and contact resistance

    Vadim A. Golubiatnikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A method of separate determination of two-pole sample volume resistance and contact resistance is suggested. The method is applicable to high-ohmic semiconductor samples: semi-insulating gallium arsenide, detector cadmium-zinc telluride (CZT, etc. The method is based on near-contact region illumination by monochromatic radiation of variable intensity from light emitting diodes with quantum energies exceeding the band gap of the material. It is necessary to obtain sample photo-current dependence upon light emitting diode current and to find the linear portion of this dependence. Extrapolation of this linear portion to the Y-axis gives the cut-off current. As the bias voltage is known, it is easy to calculate sample volume resistance. Then, using dark current value, one can determine the total contact resistance. The method was tested for n-type semi-insulating GaAs. The contact resistance value was shown to be approximately equal to the sample volume resistance. Thus, the influence of contacts must be taken into account when electrophysical data are analyzed.

  13. Global gyrokinetic simulations of intrinsic rotation in ASDEX Upgrade Ohmic L-mode plasmas

    Hornsby, W. A.; Angioni, C.; Lu, Z. X.; Fable, E.; Erofeev, I.; McDermott, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Lebschy, A.; Peeters, A. G.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2018-05-01

    Non-linear, radially global, turbulence simulations of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) plasmas are performed and the nonlinear generated intrinsic flow shows agreement with the intrinsic flow gradients measured in the core of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at nominal parameters. Simulations utilising the kinetic electron model show hollow intrinsic flow profiles as seen in a predominant number of experiments performed at similar plasma parameters. In addition, significantly larger flow gradients are seen than in a previous flux-tube analysis (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). Adiabatic electron model simulations can show a flow profile with opposing sign in the gradient with respect to a kinetic electron simulation, implying a reversal in the sign of the residual stress due to kinetic electrons. The shaping of the intrinsic flow is strongly determined by the density gradient profile. The sensitivity of the residual stress to variations in density profile curvature is calculated and seen to be significantly stronger than to neoclassical flows (Hornsby et al 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046008). This variation is strong enough on its own to explain the large variations in the intrinsic flow gradients seen in some AUG experiments. Analysis of the symmetry breaking properties of the turbulence shows that profile shearing is the dominant mechanism in producing a finite parallel wave-number, with turbulence gradient effects contributing a smaller portion of the parallel wave-vector.

  14. Effect of the ohmic drop in a RPC-LIKE chamber for measurements of electron transport parameters

    Petri, Anna R.; Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Bueno, Carmen C., E-mail: annapetri@usp.br, E-mail: josemary@ipen.br, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mangiarotti, Alessio, E-mail: alessio@if.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Física

    2017-07-01

    The main advantage of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), applied, for instance, in High-Energy Experiments and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), is that it is spark-protected due to the presence of, at least, one high resistive electrode. However, the ohmic drop across the latter can affect the charge multiplication significantly. In this work, we investigate this effect in a RPC-like chamber. The counter was filled with nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and the primary ionization was produced by the incidence of nitrogen pulsed laser beam on an aluminum cathode. The illumination area of the cathode was measured using a foil of millimetric paper overlaid on this electrode. In this way, the resistance of the glass anode could be estimated using the known resistivity of the glass (ρ=2×10{sup 12} Ω.cm). Therefore, the voltage drop across the dielectric was calculated by the product of the current across the gas gap and the anode resistance. In order to mitigate the effect of the resistive electrode, the laser beam intensity was limited by interposing metallic meshes between the laser and the chamber window. The dependence of the ohmic drop from the applied voltage was analyzed. The results obtained shown that, without the meshes, the ohmic drop corresponds up to 7% of the applied voltage, preventing the detection system to reach values of density-normalized electric fields in the gas gap (E{sub eff}/N) higher than 166 Td. By minimizing the laser beam intensity and, consequently, the primary ionization, the ohmic drop represented only 0.2% of the applied voltage, extending the E{sub eff} /N range up to 175 Td. (author)

  15. Intermittent fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer for ohmic and high confinement mode plasmas

    Garcia, O. E.; Kube, R.; Theodorsen, A.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.

    2018-05-01

    Plasma fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak in ohmic and high confinement modes have been analyzed using gas puff imaging data. In all cases investigated, the time series of emission from a single spatially resolved view into the gas puff are dominated by large-amplitude bursts, attributed to blob-like filament structures moving radially outwards and poloidally. There is a remarkable similarity of the fluctuation statistics in ohmic plasmas and in edge localized mode-free and enhanced D-alpha high confinement mode plasmas. Conditionally averaged waveforms have a two-sided exponential shape with comparable temporal scales and asymmetry, while the burst amplitudes and the waiting times between them are exponentially distributed. The probability density functions and the frequency power spectral densities are similar for all these confinement modes. These results provide strong evidence in support of a stochastic model describing the plasma fluctuations in the scrape-off layer as a super-position of uncorrelated exponential pulses. Predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in both ohmic and high confinement mode plasmas. The stochastic model thus provides a valuable tool for predicting fluctuation-induced plasma-wall interactions in magnetically confined fusion plasmas.

  16. Formation Process and Properties of Ohmic Contacts Containing Molybdenum to AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures

    Wojciech Macherzynski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of wide bandgap semiconductors as chemical inertness to harsh conditions and possibility of working at high temperature ensure possible applications in the field as military, aerospace, automotive, engine monitoring, flame detection and solar UV detection. Requirements for ohmic contacts in semiconductor devices are determined by the proposed application. These contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructure for application as high temperature, high frequency and high power devices have to exhibit good surface morphology and low contact resistance. The latter is a crucial factor in limiting the development of high performance AlGaN/GaN devices. Lowering of the resistance is assured by rapid thermal annealing process. The paper present studies of Ti/Al/Mo/Au ohmic contacst annealed at temperature range from 825°C to 885°C in N2 atmosphere. The electrical parameters of examined samples as a function of the annealing process condition have been studied. Initially the annealing temperature increase caused lowering of the contacts resistance. The lowest value was noticed for the temperature of annealing equal to 885°C. Further increase of annealing temperature led to deterioration of contact resistance of investigated ohmic contacts.

  17. Thermal stability of Ni/Ti/Al ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC

    Yu, Hailong; Shen, Huajun, E-mail: shenhuajun@ime.ac.cn; Tang, Yidan; Bai, Yun; Liu, Xinyu [Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Xufang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wu, Yudong; Liu, Kean [Zhuzhou CSR Times Electric Co., Ltd, ZhuZhou 412001 (China)

    2015-01-14

    Low resistivity Ni/Ti/Al ohmic contacts on p-type 4H-SiC epilayer were developed, and their thermal stabilities were also experimentally investigated through high temperature storage at 600 °C for 100 h. The contact resistance of the Al/Ti/Ni/SiC contacts degraded in different degrees, and the contact morphology deteriorated with the increases of the average surface roughness and interface voids. X-ray spectra showed that Ni{sub 2}Si and Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2}, which were formed during ohmic contact annealing and contributed to low contact resistivity, were stable under high temperature storage. The existence of the TiAl{sub 3} and NiAl{sub 3} intermetallic phases was helpful to prevent Al agglomeration on the interface and make the contacts thermally stable. Auger electron spectroscopy indicated that the incorporation of oxygen at the surface and interface led to the oxidation of Al or Ti resulting in increased contact resistance. Also, the formation of these oxides roughened the surface and interface. The temperature-dependence of the specific contact resistance indicated that a thermionic field emission mechanism dominates the current transport for contacts before and after the thermal treatment. It suggests that the Ni/Ti/Al composite ohmic contacts are promising for SiC devices to be used in high temperature applications.

  18. Study of degradation processes kinetics in ohmic contacts of resonant tunneling diodes based on nanoscale AlAs/GaAs heterostructures under influence of temperature

    Makeev, M. O.; Meshkov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    The artificial aging of resonant tunneling diodes based on nanoscale AlAs/GaAs heterostructures was conducted. As a result of the thermal influence resonant tunneling diodes IV curves degrade firstly due to ohmic contacts' degradation. To assess AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diodes degradation level and to predict their reliability, a functional dependence of the contact resistance of resonant tunneling diode AuGeNi ohmic contacts on time and temperature was offered.

  19. Plasma Heating and Losses in Toroidal Multipole Fields

    Armentrout, C. J.; Barter, J. D.; Breun, R. A.; Cavallo, A. J.; Drake, J. R.; Etzweiler,; Greenwood, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The heating and loss of plasmas have been studied in three pulsed, toroidal multipole devices: a large levitated octupole, a small supported octupole and a very small supported quadrupole. Plasmas are produced by gun injection and heated by electron and ion cyclotron resonance heating and ohmic heating. Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured over a wide range of parameters, and the results are in quantitative agreement with stochastic heating theory. Electron cyclotron resonance heating produces ions with energies larger than predicted by theory. With the addition of a toroidal field, ohmic heating gives densities as high as 10 13 cm -3 in the toroidal quadrupole and 10 12 cm -3 in the small octupole. Plasma losses for n=5 x 10 9 cm -3 plasmas are inferred from Langmuir probe and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements, and measured with special striped collectors on the wall and rings. The loss to a levitated ring is measured using a modulated light beam telemeter. The confinement is better than Bohm but considerably worse than classical. Low frequency convective cells which are fixed in space are observed. These cells around the ring are diminished when a weak toroidal field is added, and loss collectors show a vastly reduced flux to the rings. Analysis of the spatial density profile shows features of B-independent diffusion. The confinement is sensitive to some kinds of dc field errors, but surprisingly insensitive to perturbations of the ac confining field

  20. Electrical characterization and nanoscale surface morphology of optimized Ti/Al/Ta/Au ohmic contact for AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

    Wang, Cong; Kim, Nam-Young

    2012-02-07

    Good ohmic contacts with low contact resistance, smooth surface morphology, and a well-defined edge profile are essential to ensure optimal device performances for the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors [HEMTs]. A tantalum [Ta] metal layer and an SiNx thin film were used for the first time as an effective diffusion barrier and encapsulation layer in the standard Ti/Al/metal/Au ohmic metallization scheme in order to obtain high quality ohmic contacts with a focus on the thickness of Ta and SiNx. It is found that the Ta thickness is the dominant factor affecting the contact resistance, while the SiNx thickness affects the surface morphology significantly. An optimized Ti/Al/Ta/Au ohmic contact including a 40-nm thick Ta barrier layer and a 50-nm thick SiNx encapsulation layer is preferred when compared with the other conventional ohmic contact stacks as it produces a low contact resistance of around 7.27 × 10-7 Ω·cm2 and an ultra-low nanoscale surface morphology with a root mean square deviation of around 10 nm. Results from the proposed study play an important role in obtaining excellent ohmic contact formation in the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs.

  1. Memory functions and focussed attention in middle-aged and elderly subjects are unaffected by a low, acute dose of caffeine.

    Schmitt, J A J; Hogervorst, E; Vuurman, E F P M; Jolles, J; Riedel, W J

    2003-01-01

    The putative beneficial effects of caffeine on cognitive performance may vary between ages. The acute cognitive effects of 100 g caffeine on memory functions and focussed attention were investigated in sixteen middle-aged (45-60 years) and fourteen elderly (60-75 years) healthy men and women according to a cross-over design. Caffeine did not affect short-term memory span or speed, long-term memory retrieval functions or focussed attention. It is proposed that in middle-aged and elderly subjects cognitive effects may occur predominantly at higher caffeine dosages.

  2. Comparative study between probe focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of cadmium and copper in plants

    Pereira, Sara; Fonseca, Luis P. [Technical University of Lisbon, Centro de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Capelo, Jose L. [University of Vigo at Ourense Campus, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Science Faculty, Ourense (Spain); Armas, Teresa; Vilhena, Fernanda; Goncalves, Maria L.S.; Mota, A.M. [Technical University of Lisbon, Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Pinto, Ana P. [University of Evora, Herdade Experimental da Mitra, ICAAM-Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas, Evora (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    Ultrasound (US)-assisted extraction has been widely used for metal ion extraction in plants due to its unique properties of decreased extraction time, minimal contamination, low reagent consumption and low cost. However, very few papers present a sound comparison between probe-focussed sonication and conventional stirring in the evaluation of metal ion extraction in plants. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted digestion has been evaluated and compared to magnetic stirring for total copper and cadmium determination by atomic absorption spectrometry in biological samples (plants, plankton and mussels). The same experimental conditions of sample amount and particle size, extractant solution and extraction time were applied for both ultrasound and magnetic stirring-assisted extraction methods in order to truly compare their effect on metal ion solubilisation. To gain further insight in this issue, dried and fresh plants were tested. The results obtained indicated that osmotic tension in cell walls, produced when dried and powdered samples were immersed in the extractant solution, had an important contribution to metal ion solubilisation, the enhancement due to US for the same purpose being negligible. (orig.)

  3. The use of soft system methodology (SSM) in a serviced-focussed study on the personal tutor's role.

    Por, Jitna

    2008-09-01

    Soft system methodology (SSM) is described as a system-based methodology for tackling real world problems. SSM may be used as a means of articulating complex social processes in a particular way. SSM allows peoples' viewpoints and assumptions about the world to be bought to light, challenged and tested. This paper reports on the use of SSM in a service-focussed study (SFS) to explore the role of a personal tutor in nurse education. [Checkland, P., 1981. Systems Thinking Systems Practice. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester] highlighted the importance of considering cultural, social and political systems in the analysis. The seven stages of SSM are discussed in relation to the SFS and some of the findings are expressed through a 'Rich Picture'. It encourages commitment, brings diverse interests together and opens up the organizational culture. It also enables feasible and desirable changes to be recommended within the context of limited resources and competing demands upon lecturers' time. The SSM was an appropriate systematic model for this study and could be potentially useful in nurse education research.

  4. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T.; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface

  5. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K

    2000-07-11

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface.

  6. A reward-centred model of anorexia nervosa: a focussed narrative review of the neurological and psychophysiological literature.

    O'Hara, Caitlin B; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-05-01

    This focussed narrative review examines neurobiological and psychophysiological evidence supporting a role for altered reward processes in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). In AN, there does not appear to be a generalised inability to experience reward. Rather, data suggest that a reluctance to gain weight leads to an aversive appraisal of food- and taste-related stimuli. As a result, cues compatible with this aberrant mode of thinking become rewarding for the individual. Evidence also suggests that attribution of motivational salience to such cues promotes anorectic behaviours. These findings are consistent with models in which interactions between cognition and reward are important in eliciting the anorectic "habit". A model is proposed which is consistent with elements of other theoretical frameworks, but differs in that its emphasis is towards neural overlaps between AN and addiction. It is consistent with AN being a reward-based learned behaviour in which aberrant cognitions related to eating and shape alter functioning of central reward systems. It proposes that the primary neural problem responsible for the development, maintenance, and treatment resistance is centred in the striatal reward system. This helps shift the emphasis of aetiological models towards reward processing, particularly in the context of illness-compatible cues. Furthermore, it suggests that continuing to explore the utility and valued nature of AN in the patient's life would be a useful inclusion in treatment and prevention models. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Assessment of scaling laws and propagation windows for focussing of ion beams in fusion target chambers. Final report

    1980-04-01

    Intense beams of multi-GeV high atomic weight ions are being actively investigated as possible ignitors for pellet fusion reactors. Beam transport models were developed for the final focussing of these beams in the reactor chamber, and investigated the role of microinstabilities, filamentation, conductivity, multiple scattering, and knockon electrons. Two propagation windows exist, namely the vacuum window at pressures below about 10 -3 - 10 -4 torr and a window around 1 torr. The 1 torr window (which is desirable from a reactor viewpoint) became less certain this year due to our discovery of the major role played by knock-on electrons which are sufficiently numerous to produce a reversed (ion-defocussing) magnetic field ahead of the ion pulse. Unless most of the knock-on current is wiped out by self-fields, this effect appears to eliminate use of self-pinched ion beams, and may degrade ballistic mode spot sizes as well. Intermediate energy knock-on electrons (0.3 less than or equal to v/sub z//V/sub b/ less than or equal to 1) may also dominate the electrical conductvity in the ion pulse, and will influence micro-instability and filamentation calculations

  8. Head and Neck Anatomy: Effect of Focussed Near-Peer Teaching on Anatomical Confidence in Undergraduate Medical Students.

    Morris, Simon; Osborne, Max Sallis; Bowyer, Duncan

    2018-05-11

    To assess the effect of near-peer head and neck anatomy teaching on undergraduates and to quantify the benefit from a focussed teaching course. Near-peer teaching involves colleagues within close seniority and age proximity teaching one another on a specified topic. Small group teaching sessions were delivered to medical students on 3 key areas of ENT anatomy. Participants were given a precourse and postcourse questionnaire to determine the benefit attained from the course. An undergraduate anatomy course taking place at the University of Birmingham Medical School. A total of 30 medical students: 15 preclinical (years 1-2) and 15 clinical (years 3-5) medical students participated from a single institution. A total of 71% of students expressed inadequate teaching of head and neck anatomy in undergraduate curriculum. All students (n = 30) expressed benefit from the course, however the patterns of learning differed: preclinical students showed a significant improvement in both their ability to name anatomical structures and their application (p peer learning provides benefit to all medical undergraduates in the context of teaching anatomy which may make it a valuable teaching tool for the future of medical education. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cavitation enhances coagulated size during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound ablation in an isolated liver perfusion system.

    Zhao, Lu-Yan; Liu, Shan; Chen, Zong-Gui; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Feng

    2016-11-24

    To investigate whether cavitation enhances the degree of coagulation during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) in an isolated liver perfusion system. Isolated liver was treated by pulsed HIFU or continuous-wave HIFU with different portal vein flow rates. The cavitation emission during exposure was recorded, and real-time ultrasound images were used to observe changes in the grey scale. The coagulation size was measured and calculated. HIFU treatment led to complete coagulation necrosis and total cell destruction in the target regions. Compared to exposure at a duty cycle (DC) of 100%, the mean volumes of lesions induced by 6 s exposure at DCs of 50% and 10% were significantly larger (P cavitation activity for the pulsed-HIFU (P > .05). For continuous-wave HIFU exposure, there was a significant decrease in the necrosis volume and cavitation activity for exposure times of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 s with increasing portal perfusion rates. Perfusion flow rates negatively influence cavitation activity and coagulation volume. Ablation is significantly enhanced during pulsed HIFU exposure compared with continuous-wave HIFU.

  10. "Make Not Your Prisons Your Prisons": Participant-Percieved Potential Outcomes of a Shakespeare Focussed Alternative to Juvenile Incarceration in the USA

    Nicklin, Laura Louise

    2017-01-01

    For over two decades, there has been a progressive emergence of Shakespeare-focussed, performance-based programmes intended for use as criminal rehabilitation in the USA. Prison based criminal retribution, though historically prevalent, remains controversial. Although it is still used as a common method for rehabilitation, evidence demonstrates…

  11. Lead-germanium ohmic contact on to gallium arsenide formed by the solid phase epitaxy of germanium: A microstructure study

    Radulescu, Fabian

    2000-12-01

    Driven by the remarkable growth in the telecommunication market, the demand for more complex GaAs circuitry continued to increase in the last decade. As a result, the GaAs industry is faced with new challenges in its efforts to fabricate devices with smaller dimensions that would permit higher integration levels. One of the limiting factors is the ohmic contact metallurgy of the metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET), which, during annealing, induces a high degree of lateral diffusion into the substrate. Because of its limited reaction with the substrate, the Pd-Ge contact seems to be the most promising candidate to be used in the next generation of MESFET's. The Pd-Ge system belongs to a new class of ohmic contacts to compound semiconductors, part of an alloying strategy developed only recently, which relies on solid phase epitaxy (SPE) and solid phase regrowth to "un-pin" the Fermi level at the surface of the compound semiconductor. However, implementing this alloy into an integrated process flow proved to be difficult due to our incomplete understanding of the microstructure evolution during annealing and its implications on the electrical properties of the contact. The microstructure evolution and the corresponding solid state reactions that take place during annealing of the Pd-Ge thin films on to GaAs were studied in connection with their effects on the electrical properties of the ohmic contact. The phase transformations sequence, transition temperatures and activation energies were determined by combining differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for thermal analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for microstructure identification. In-situ TEM annealing experiments on the Pd/Ge/Pd/GaAs ohmic contact system have permitted real time determination of the evolution of contact microstructure. The kinetics of the solid state reactions, which occur during ohmic contact formation, were determined by measuring the grain growth rates

  12. Thermal management of magnetic focussing horns used in the narrow and broad band neutrino beams at the AGS

    Leonhardt, W.; Carroll, A.; Monaghan, R.

    1987-01-01

    Operation of the AGS Neutrino Horns and their internal and external targets takes place in an environment of high voltage, severe shock and vibration, and high radiation. To insure reliable operation, energy from Joulean heating and the proton beam interaction must be dissipated to keep component temperatures at the lowest levels practical. This has been accomplished by carefully choosing component materials and providing dedicated air and water cooling systems to transfer the 6 kW of heat efficiently and safely to the environment. This paper describes how the rigid horn and target thermal design constraints were satisfied, and provides some record of the current operating experience

  13. Synergetic aspects of gas-discharge: lateral patterns in dc systems with a high ohmic barrier

    Purwins, H.-G.; Stollenwerk, L.

    2014-12-01

    The understanding of self-organized patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. Such patterns are also referred to as dissipative structures. We review this phenomenon in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices with a high ohmic barrier. It is demonstrated that for these systems a deep qualitative understanding of dissipative structures can be obtained from the point of view of synergetics. At the same time, a major contribution can be made to the general understanding of dissipative structures. The discharge spaces of the experimentally investigated systems, to good approximation, have translational and rotational symmetry by contraction. Nevertheless, a given system may exhibit stable current density distributions and related patterns that break these symmetries. Among the experimentally observed fundamental patterns one finds homogeneous isotropic states, fronts, periodic patterns, labyrinth structures, rotating spirals, target patterns and localized filaments. In addition, structures are observed that have the former as elementary building blocks. Finally, defect structures as well as irregular patterns are common phenomena. Such structures have been detected in numerous other driven nonlinear dissipative systems, as there are ac gas-discharge devices, semiconductors, chemical solutions, electrical networks and biological systems. Therefore, from the experimental observations it is concluded that the patterns in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices exhibit universal behavior. From the theoretical point of view, dissipative structures of the aforementioned kind are also referred to as attractors. The possible sets of attractors are an important characteristic of the system. The number and/or qualitative nature of attractors may change when changing parameters. The related bifurcation behavior is a central issue of the synergetic approach chosen in the present

  14. Synergetic aspects of gas-discharge: lateral patterns in dc systems with a high ohmic barrier

    Purwins, H-G; Stollenwerk, L

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of self-organized patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. Such patterns are also referred to as dissipative structures. We review this phenomenon in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices with a high ohmic barrier. It is demonstrated that for these systems a deep qualitative understanding of dissipative structures can be obtained from the point of view of synergetics. At the same time, a major contribution can be made to the general understanding of dissipative structures. The discharge spaces of the experimentally investigated systems, to good approximation, have translational and rotational symmetry by contraction. Nevertheless, a given system may exhibit stable current density distributions and related patterns that break these symmetries. Among the experimentally observed fundamental patterns one finds homogeneous isotropic states, fronts, periodic patterns, labyrinth structures, rotating spirals, target patterns and localized filaments. In addition, structures are observed that have the former as elementary building blocks. Finally, defect structures as well as irregular patterns are common phenomena. Such structures have been detected in numerous other driven nonlinear dissipative systems, as there are ac gas-discharge devices, semiconductors, chemical solutions, electrical networks and biological systems. Therefore, from the experimental observations it is concluded that the patterns in planar low temperature dc gas-discharge devices exhibit universal behavior. From the theoretical point of view, dissipative structures of the aforementioned kind are also referred to as attractors. The possible sets of attractors are an important characteristic of the system. The number and/or qualitative nature of attractors may change when changing parameters. The related bifurcation behavior is a central issue of the synergetic approach chosen in the present

  15. Transport mechanisms in low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing

    Clausen, Thomas; Leistiko, Otto

    1993-01-01

    process is related to interdiffusion and compound formation between the metal elements and the InP. The onset of low specific contact resistance is characterized by a change in the dominant transport mechanism; from predominantly a combination of thermionic emission and field emission to purely thermionic......Thermionic emission across a very small effective Schottky barrier (0-0.2 eV) are reported as being the dominant transport process mechanism in very low-resistance ohmic contacts for conventional AuZn(Ni) metallization systems top-InP formed by rapid thermal annealing. The barrier modulation...

  16. Lack of dependence on resonant error field of locked mode island size in ohmic plasmas in DIII-D

    La Haye, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Strait, E. J.

    2015-02-01

    DIII-D experiments show that fully penetrated resonant n = 1 error field locked modes in ohmic plasmas with safety factor q95 ≳ 3 grow to similar large disruptive size, independent of resonant error field correction. Relatively small resonant (m/n = 2/1) static error fields are shielded in ohmic plasmas by the natural rotation at the electron diamagnetic drift frequency. However, the drag from error fields can lower rotation such that a bifurcation results, from nearly complete shielding to full penetration, i.e., to a driven locked mode island that can induce disruption. Error field correction (EFC) is performed on DIII-D (in ITER relevant shape and safety factor q95 ≳ 3) with either the n = 1 C-coil (no handedness) or the n = 1 I-coil (with ‘dominantly’ resonant field pitch). Despite EFC, which allows significantly lower plasma density (a ‘figure of merit’) before penetration occurs, the resulting saturated islands have similar large size; they differ only in the phase of the locked mode after typically being pulled (by up to 30° toroidally) in the electron diamagnetic drift direction as they grow to saturation. Island amplification and phase shift are explained by a second change-of-state in which the classical tearing index changes from stable to marginal by the presence of the island, which changes the current density profile. The eventual island size is thus governed by the inherent stability and saturation mechanism rather than the driving error field.

  17. Changes in core electron temperature fluctuations across the ohmic energy confinement transition in Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    Sung, C.; White, A.E.; Howard, N.T.; Oi, C.Y.; Rice, J.E.; Gao, C.; Ennever, P.; Porkolab, M.; Parra, F.; Ernst, D.; Walk, J.; Hughes, J.W.; Irby, J.; Kasten, C.; Hubbard, A.E.; Greenwald, M.J.; Mikkelsen, D.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of long wavelength (k y ρ s < 0.3) electron temperature fluctuations in Alcator C-Mod made with a new correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic support a long-standing hypothesis regarding the confinement transition from linear ohmic confinement (LOC) to saturated ohmic confinement (SOC). Electron temperature fluctuations decrease significantly (∼40%) crossing from LOC to SOC, consistent with a change from trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence domination to ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence as the density is increased. Linear stability analysis performed with the GYRO code (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) shows that TEMs are dominant for long wavelength turbulence in the LOC regime and ITG modes are dominant in the SOC regime at the radial location (ρ ∼ 0.8) where the changes in electron temperature fluctuations are measured. In contrast, deeper in the core (ρ < 0.8), linear stability analysis indicates that ITG modes remain dominant across the LOC/SOC transition. This radial variation suggests that the robust global changes in confinement of energy and momentum occurring across the LOC/SOC transition are correlated to local changes in the dominant turbulent mode near the edge. (paper)

  18. Low-resistance and highly transparent Ag/IZO ohmic contact to p-type GaN

    Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.k [Department of Display Materials Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochoen-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Min-Su [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju, Gyeongbuk, 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Nam [Department of Engineering in Energy and Applied Chemistry, Silla University, Busan, 617-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    The electrical, structural, and optical characteristics of Ag/ZnO-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (IZO) ohmic contacts to p-type GaN:Mg (2.5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) were investigated. The Ag and IZO (10 nm/50 nm) layers were prepared by thermal evaporation and linear facing target sputtering, respectively. Although the as-deposited and 400 {sup o}C annealed samples showed rectifying behavior, the 500 and 600 {sup o}C annealed samples showed linear I-V characteristics indicative of the formation of an ohmic contact. The annealing of the contact at 600 {sup o}C for 3 min in a vacuum ({approx} 10{sup -3} Torr) resulted in the lowest specific contact resistivity of 1.8 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}.cm{sup 2} and high transparency of 78% at a wavelength of 470 nm. Using Auger electron spectroscopy, depth profiling and synchrotron X-ray scattering analysis, we suggested a possible mechanism to explain the annealing dependence of the electrical properties of the Ag/IZO contacts.

  19. Postannealing Effect at Various Gas Ambients on Ohmic Contacts of Pt/ZnO Nanobilayers toward Ultraviolet Photodetectors

    Chung-Hua Chao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a fabrication and characterization of ultraviolet (UV photodetectors based on Ohmic contacts using Pt electrode onto the epitaxial ZnO (0002 thin film. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system was employed to deposit ZnO (0002 thin films onto silicon substrates, and radio-frequency (RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit Pt top electrode onto the ZnO thin films. The as-deposited Pt/ZnO nanobilayer samples were then annealed at 450∘C in two different ambients (argon and nitrogen to obtain optimal Ohmic contacts. The crystal structure, surface morphology, optical properties, and wettability of ZnO thin films were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, photoluminescence (PL, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, and contact angle meter, respectively. Moreover, the photoconductivity of the Pt/ZnO nanobilayers was also investigated for UV photodetector application. The above results showed that the optimum ZnO sample was synthesized with gas flow rate ratio of 1 : 3 diethylzinc [DEZn, Zn(C2H52] to carbon dioxide (CO2 and then combined with Pt electrode annealed at 450∘C in argon ambient, exhibiting good crystallinity as well as UV photo responsibility.

  20. Microstructure of V-based ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures at a reduced annealing temperature

    Schmid, A., E-mail: alexander.schmid@physik.tu-freiberg.de; Schroeter, Ch.; Otto, R.; Heitmann, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Schuster, M. [Namlab gGmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D. [Institute of Materials Science, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2015-02-02

    Ohmic contacts with V/Al/Ni/Au and V/Ni/Au metalization schemes were deposited on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The dependence of the specific contact resistance on the annealing conditions and the V:Al thickness ratio was shown. For an optimized electrode stack, a low specific contact resistance of 8.9 × 10{sup −6} Ω cm{sup 2} was achieved at an annealing temperature of 650 °C. Compared to the conventional Ti/Al/Ni/Au contact, this is a reduction of 150 K. The microstructure and contact formation at the AlGaN/metal interface were investigated by transmission electron microscopy including high-resolution micrographs and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was shown that for low-resistive contacts, the resistivity of the metalization has to be taken into account. The V:Al thickness ratio has an impact on the formation of different intermetallic phases and thus is crucial for establishing ohmic contacts at reduced annealing temperatures.

  1. The role of creep in the time-dependent resistance of Ohmic gold contacts in radio frequency microelectromechanical system devices

    Rezvanian, O.; Brown, C.; Zikry, M. A.; Kingon, A. I.; Krim, J.; Irving, D. L.; Brenner, D. W.

    2008-07-01

    It is shown that measured and calculated time-dependent electrical resistances of closed gold Ohmic switches in radio frequency microelectromechanical system (rf-MEMS) devices are well described by a power law that can be derived from a single asperity creep model. The analysis reveals that the exponent and prefactor in the power law arise, respectively, from the coefficient relating creep rate to applied stress and the initial surface roughness. The analysis also shows that resistance plateaus are not, in fact, limiting resistances but rather result from the small coefficient in the power law. The model predicts that it will take a longer time for the contact resistance to attain a power law relation with each successive closing of the switch due to asperity blunting. Analysis of the first few seconds of the measured resistance for three successive openings and closings of one of the MEMS devices supports this prediction. This work thus provides guidance toward the rational design of Ohmic contacts with enhanced reliabilities by better defining variables that can be controlled through material selection, interface processing, and switch operation.

  2. Radioprotective effect against gamma-irradiation of methylene blue in the rat with reference to serum enzymes and pancreatic protein fractions examined by isoelectric focussing

    Chung, S O; Nam, S Y [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Biology

    1975-12-01

    The Sprague-Dawley male rats were given 360 rads of single whole-body gamma-irradiation following an intraperitoneal injection of methylene blue (40 mg/kg). Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum amylase, serum lipase, and serum lecithinase A activities, and isoelectric focussing pattern of pancreatic juice proteins were determined at various time intervals after exposure. Methylene blue reduced generally the rise of SGOT, sGPT, amylase, and lipase activities. Methylene blue delayed also the serum lecithinase A fall after exposure. Mean number of protein bands as revealed by isoelectric focussing of pancreatic juice were significantly altered in both the control and the methylene blue-treated group after exposure. Especially methylene blue-treated group showed a marked delay in the decrease in number of protein bands after exposure. The possibility of using the SGOT, the SGPT, the serum amylase, the serum lipase, and the serum lecithinase A levels, and the number of protein bands in isoelectric focussing pattern of pancreatic juice as an early index of radiation injury is suggested.

  3. Effects of nanoscale coatings on reliability of MEMS ohmic contact switches

    Tremper, Amber Leigh

    also increases the dependence on force. This thesis also details that the relative contribution of contact resistance to the total measured resistance can be maximized by decreasing the probe spacing and tip radius. AFM testing of the layered systems showed that the coated samples had larger predicted plane strain moduli than the Au sample, in contrast to the nanoindentation testing. Thus, when the contact depth was kept sufficiently small, the contact stiffness increased as predicted by substrate models. When the contact depth was on the order of the coating thickness, the contact stiffness actually decreased. Additionally, the forceseparation plots showed that the Ru and Pt surfaces either accumulated large amounts of contamination or were less susceptible to being wiped clean than the Au film. Further, scratch testing of the Au film and Ru and Pt coatings show that the hard surface coatings reduce material removal and contact wear. Ultra-thin Ru and Pt surface coatings on Au films are shown to be improved material systems for ohmic contact switches. The wear is reduced for coated materials, while the resistance and power consumption through the coating are not significantly affected.

  4. Combined use of a field-plate and narrow p-barriers for a wide-pitch ohmic-side readout of the BELLE double-sided SVD

    Ikeda, H.; Matsuda, T.

    1997-01-01

    We explored wide-pitch ohmic-side structures for the BELLE SVD, where we proposed a field-plate structure combined with narrow p-barriers in between the readout electrodes of 90, 113, 180, and 226 μm-pitch detectors. The effect of the p-barriers was studied with a numerical model to trace the carrier trajectories. The charge collection and sharing properties were examined in practice for prototype small-size detectors with an IR pulse shining from either the junction side or the ohmic side. The channel separation capabilities were also shown to be appropriate under nominal operation conditions. (orig.)

  5. Heating effects in a liquid metal ion source

    Mair, G.L.R.; Aitken, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A reassessment is made of the heating occurring at the anode of a liquid metal ion source, in the light of new microscopic observations. The apex region of the cones is in the form of a cusp, or jet, even at very low currents. The calculation for ohmic heating is conclusive for low currents; no heating occurs at the anode; for high currents (approx. 50-100 μA), substantial heating is conceivable, if a long, very thin, cylindrical jet exists at the apex of the anode. The answer to the problem of external heating, in the form of electrons bombarding the anode, is not quite conclusive; this is because of the impossibility of correctly assessing the electron flux entering the anode. However, it would appear to be a definite conclusion that for reasons of self-consistency field-ionisation of thermally released atoms cannot be a significant ion emission mechanism. (author)

  6. Solar heating systems

    1993-01-01

    This report is based on a previous, related, one which was quantitative in character and relied on 500 telephone interviews with house-owners. The aim of this, following, report was to carry out a more deep-going, qualitative analysis focussed on persons who already own a solar heating system (purchased during 1992) or were/are considering having one installed. Aspects studied were the attitudes, behaviour and plans of these two groups with regard to solar heating systems. Some of the key questions asked concerned general attitudes to energy supply, advantages and disadvantages of using solar heating systems, related decision-making factors, installation problems, positive and negative expectations, evaluation of the information situation, suggestions related to information systems regarding themes etc., dissemination of information, sources of advice and information, economical considerations, satisfaction with the currently-owned system which would lead to the installation of another one in connection with the purchase of a new house. The results of this investigation directed at Danish house-owners are presented and discussed, and proposals for following activities within the marketing situation are given. It is concluded that the basic attitude in both groups strongly supports environmental protection, renewable energy sources and is influenced by considerations of prestige and independence. Constraint factors are confusion about environmental factors, insecurity in relation to the effect of established supplementary energy supply and suspicion with regard to the integrity of information received. (AB)

  7. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  8. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  9. Ohmic contacts to n+-GaN capped AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Wang Liang; Mohammed, Fitih M.; Ofuonye, Benedict; Adesida, Ilesanmi

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contact formation, premetallization plasma treatment effects, and interfacial reactions for n + -GaN capped AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures are presented. Ti thickness played an important role in determining contact performance. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirmed that thick Ti layer was necessary to fully consume the GaN cap and the top of AlGaN to enable a higher tunneling current flow. A direct correlation of plasma treatment conditions with I-V linearity, current level, and contact performance was established. The plasma-affected region is believed to extend over 20 nm into the AlGaN and GaN

  10. Ohmic contacts on n-type β-Ga2O3 using AZO/Ti/Au

    Patrick H. Carey IV

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AZO interlayers between n-Ga2O3 and Ti/Au metallization significantly enhance Ohmic contact formation after annealing at ≥ 300°C. Without the presence of the AZO, similar anneals produce only rectifying current-voltage characteristics. Transmission Line Measurements of the Au/Ti/AZO/Ga2O3 stacks showed the specific contact resistance and transfer resistance decreased sharply from as-deposited values with annealing. The minimum contact resistance and specific contact resistance of 0.42 Ω-mm and 2.82 × 10-5 Ω-cm2 were achieved after a relatively low temperature 400°C annealing. The conduction band offset between AZO and Ga2O3 is 0.79 eV and provides a favorable pathway for improved electron transport across this interface.

  11. Ohmic contacts on n-type β-Ga2O3 using AZO/Ti/Au

    Carey, Patrick H.; Yang, Jiancheng; Ren, F.; Hays, David C.; Pearton, S. J.; Jang, Soohwan; Kuramata, Akito; Kravchenko, Ivan I.

    2017-09-01

    AZO interlayers between n-Ga2O3 and Ti/Au metallization significantly enhance Ohmic contact formation after annealing at ≥ 30 0°C. Without the presence of the AZO, similar anneals produce only rectifying current-voltage characteristics. Transmission Line Measurements of the Au/Ti/AZO/Ga2O3 stacks showed the specific contact resistance and transfer resistance decreased sharply from as-deposited values with annealing. The minimum contact resistance and specific contact resistance of 0.42 Ω-mm and 2.82 × 10-5 Ω-cm2 were achieved after a relatively low temperature 40 0°C annealing. The conduction band offset between AZO and Ga2O3 is 0.79 eV and provides a favorable pathway for improved electron transport across this interface.

  12. Rigorous treatment of the non-ohmic d.c. conductivity due to phonon-assisted tunneling from localized to extended states

    Majernikova, E.

    1984-03-01

    A quantitative treatment of the non-ohmic current response due to delocalization of shallow localized electrons in a model of a disordered solid is given. A phonon-assisted tunneling in electric field from shallow localized to extended states is confirmed as a mechanism leading to the dependence which was experimentally found for chalcogenide glasses. (author)

  13. An “ohmic-first” self-terminating gate-recess technique for normally-off Al2O3/GaN MOSFET

    Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Jinyan; Li, Mengjun; He, Yandong; Wang, Maojun; Yu, Min; Wu, Wengang; Zhou, Yang; Dai, Gang

    2018-04-01

    In this article, an ohmic-first AlGaN/GaN self-terminating gate-recess etching technique was demonstrated where ohmic contact formation is ahead of gate-recess-etching/gate-dielectric-deposition (GRE/GDD) process. The ohmic contact exhibits few degradations after the self-terminating gate-recess process. Besides, when comparing with that using the conventional fabrication process, the fabricated device using the ohmic-first fabrication process shows a better gate dielectric quality in terms of more than 3 orders lower forward gate leakage current, more than twice higher reverse breakdown voltage as well as better stability. Based on this proposed technique, the normally-off Al2O3/GaN MOSFET exhibits a threshold voltage (V th) of ˜1.8 V, a maximum drain current of ˜328 mA/mm, a forward gate leakage current of ˜10-6 A/mm and an off-state breakdown voltage of 218 V at room temperature. Meanwhile, high temperature characteristics of the device was also evaluated and small variations (˜7.6%) of the threshold voltage was confirmed up to 300 °C.

  14. Current-voltage curves of atomic-sized transition metal contacts: An explanation of why Au is ohmic and Pt is not

    Nielsen, S.K.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, K.

    2002-01-01

    We present an experimental study of current-voltage (I-V) curves on atomic-sized Au and Pt contacts formed under cryogenic vacuum (4.2 K). Whereas I-V curves for Au are almost Ohmic, the conductance G=I/V for Pt decreases with increasing voltage, resulting in distinct nonlinear I-V behavior...

  15. 'Non-local' response of RTP ohmic plasmas to peripheral perturbations

    Galli, P.; Gorini, G.; Mantica, P.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.; Kloe, J. de; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 'non-local' response of the plasma core triggered by peripheral plasma perturbations other than laser ablation is found in the RTP tokamak. Oblique pellet injection (OPI) has been used to induce fast cooling of the peripheral plasma. In response, an inward cold pulse (T e drop) and a slightly delayed core T e rise are observed. A somewhat similar 'non-local' response is observed when the peripheral plasma is heated by modulated electron cyclotron heating or by fast current ramps, i.e. the core temperature drops in response to the peripheral heating. The plasma conditions for the occurrence of the 'non-local' response have been investigated. The core T e rise following OPI is associated with the formation of a large temperature gradient in the region 1 e rise is largest at low electron density and for large pellet deposition radii. Above a critical density the T e rise disappears and only the (weaker) drop in core T e is observed. Time dependent transport simulations show that the propagation of the inward cold pulse is consistent with local transport, while the core T e rise is a slower phenomenon requiring a large transient drop of χ e in the region 1 < q < 2. (author)

  16. Heat transfer

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Heat transfer. Heat conduction in solid slab. Convective heat transfer. Non-linear temperature. variation due to flow. HEAT FLUX AT SURFACE. conduction/diffusion.

  17. Heat Waves

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  18. Heat Islands

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  19. Evaluation of a focussed protocol for hand-held echocardiography and computer-assisted auscultation in detecting latent rheumatic heart disease in scholars.

    Zühlke, Liesl J; Engel, Mark E; Nkepu, Simpiwe; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Echocardiography is the diagnostic test of choice for latent rheumatic heart disease. The utility of echocardiography for large-scale screening is limited by high cost, complex diagnostic protocols, and time to acquire multiple images. We evaluated the performance of a brief hand-held echocardiography protocol and computer-assisted auscultation in detecting latent rheumatic heart disease with or without pathological murmur. A total of 27 asymptomatic patients with latent rheumatic heart disease based on the World Heart Federation criteria and 66 healthy controls were examined by standard cardiac auscultation to detect pathological murmur. Hand-held echocardiography using a focussed protocol that utilises one view - that is, the parasternal long-axis view - and one measurement - that is, mitral regurgitant jet - and a computer-assisted auscultation utilising an automated decision tool were performed on all patients. The sensitivity and specificity of computer-assisted auscultation in latent rheumatic heart disease were 4% (95% CI 1.0-20.4%) and 93.7% (95% CI 84.5-98.3%), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the focussed hand-held echocardiography protocol for definite rheumatic heart disease were 92.3% (95% CI 63.9-99.8%) and 100%, respectively. The test reliability of hand-held echocardiography was 98.7% for definite and 94.7% for borderline disease, and the adjusted diagnostic odds ratios were 1041 and 263.9 for definite and borderline disease, respectively. Computer-assisted auscultation has extremely low sensitivity but high specificity for pathological murmur in latent rheumatic heart disease. Focussed hand-held echocardiography has fair sensitivity but high specificity and diagnostic utility for definite or borderline rheumatic heart disease in asymptomatic patients.

  20. Optics of a double focussing magnetic sector by fringe effect (1960); Optique d'un secteur magnetique a double focalisation par effet de franges (1960)

    Krafft, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    General study of the optical elements of a double focussing magnetic selector by fringe effect, with a view to its application to the monochromatization of the proton, deuteron or triton beam of the 1.4 MeV accelerator. (author) [French] Etude generale des elements optiques d'un selecteur magnetique a double focalisation par effet de franges, en vue de l'application a la monochromation du faisceau de protons, deutons ou tritons de l'accelerateur 1,4 MeV. (auteur)

  1. Towards a well-being focussed language pedagogy: enabling arts-based, multilingual learning spaces for young people with refugee backgrounds

    Frimberger, K

    2016-01-01

    The following article explores the conceptual background and pedagogical realities of establishing a well-being focussed language pedagogy in the context of an informal educational event called ‘Language Fest’. The event was organised as part of the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council-funded large grant project ‘Researching Multilingually at the Borders of Language, the Body, Law and the State’ – for the UK’s ‘Being Human Festival’ 2014. The event aimed to celebrate the multiple languages...

  2. Electron Bernstein wave heating and current drive effects in QUEST

    Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Watanabe, H.; Yoshida, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Kalinnikova, E.; Sakaguchi, M.; Itado, T.; Tashima, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Toi, K.; Isobe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Nishino, N.; Ueda, Y.; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Fujita, Takaaki; Mitarai, O.; Maekawa, T.

    2012-11-01

    Electron Bernstein Wave Heating and Current Drive (EBWH/CD) effects have been first observed in over dense plasmas using the developed phased-array antenna (PAA) system in QUEST. Good focusing and steering properties tested in the low power facilities were confirmed with a high power level in the QUEST device. The new operational window to sustain the plasma current was observed in the RF-sustained high-density plasmas at the higher incident RF power. Increment and decrement of the plasma current and the loop voltage were observed in the over dense ohmic plasma by the RF injection respectively, indicating the EBWH/CD effects. (author)

  3. Heat exchangers

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  4. High-ohmic low-noise resistor for spectrometers with cooled semiconductor detectors

    Baldin, S.A.; Zhargal, Ch.; Zorin, G.N.; Laskus, T.; Osipenko, B.P.; Revenko, A.V.; Ryakhovskaya, T.I.

    1985-01-01

    BackgroUnd noise and energy resolution of a new type of resistors, designed to be used as a resistance in a feedback circuit of an X-ray spectrometer preamplifier are studied. The resistors are manufactured using the method of photolithography from high-resistance films, formed on the surface of lead-silicate glasses, as a result of redox processes during heat treatment in hydrogen atmosphere. Energy resolution of the spectrometer is measured on the line 55 FeKX(Mn) with the energy 5.8 keV. The conclusion is made, that the level of background noises in the resistors studied is approximately 4 times lower the level of noises in the KVM type resistors, which are commercially produced in industry

  5. On a two-layer Si_3N_4/SiO_2 dielectric mask for low-resistance ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Arutyunyan, S. S.; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, B. Yu.; Tomosh, K. N.; Fedorov, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of a two-layer Si_3N_4/SiO_2 dielectric mask and features of its application in the technology of non-fired epitaxially grown ohmic contacts for high-power HEMTs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are described. The proposed Si_3N_4/SiO_2 mask allows the selective epitaxial growth of heavily doped ohmic contacts by nitride molecular-beam epitaxy and the fabrication of non-fired ohmic contacts with a resistance of 0.15–0.2 Ω mm and a smooth surface and edge morphology.

  6. Heat Stress

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir OSHA-NIOSH ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  7. Controlling interface oxygen for forming Ag ohmic contact to semi-polar (1 1 -2 2) plane p-type GaN

    Park, Jae-Seong; Han, Jaecheon; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2014-11-01

    Low-resistance Ag ohmic contacts to semi-polar (1 1 -2 2) p-GaN were developed by controlling interfacial oxide using a Zn layer. The 300 °C-annealed Zn/Ag samples showed ohmic behavior with a contact resistivity of 6.0 × 10-4 Ω cm2 better than that of Ag-only contacts (1.0 × 10-3 Ω cm2). The X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that annealing caused the indiffusion of oxygen at the contact/GaN interface, resulting in the formation of different types of interfacial oxides, viz. Ga-oxide and Ga-doped ZnO. Based on the XPS and electrical results, the possible mechanisms underlying the improved electrical properties of the Zn/Ag samples are discussed.

  8. Effects of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN

    Wu, L L; Zhao, D G; Jiang, D S; Chen, P; Le, L C; Li, L; Liu, Z S; Zhang, S M; Zhu, J J; Wang, H; Zhang, B S; Yang, H

    2013-01-01

    The growth condition of thin heavily Mg-doped GaN capping layer and its effect on ohmic contact formation of p-type GaN were investigated. It is confirmed that the excessive Mg doping can effectively enhance the Ni/Au contact to p-GaN after annealing at 550 °C. When the flow rate ratio between Mg and Ga gas sources is 6.4% and the layer width is 25 nm, the capping layer grown at 850 °C exhibits the best ohmic contact properties with respect to the specific contact resistivity (ρ c ). This temperature is much lower than the conventional growth temperature of Mg-doped GaN, suggesting that the deep-level-defect induced band may play an important role in the conduction of capping layer. (paper)

  9. Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors

    Guo, D. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; An, Y. H.; Guo, X. C.; Chu, X. L.; Sun, C. L.; Tang, W. H., E-mail: whtang@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Li, L. H. [Physics Department, The State University of New York at Potsdam, Potsdam, New York 13676-2294 (United States); Li, P. G., E-mail: pgli@zstu.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Department of Physics, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, 310018 Zhejiang (China)

    2014-07-14

    β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films were deposited using laser molecular beam epitaxy technique and oxygen atmosphere in situ annealed in order to reduce the oxygen vacancy. Metal/semiconductor/metal structured photodetectors were fabricated using as-grown film and annealed film separately. Au/Ti electrodes were Ohmic contact with the as-grown films and Schottky contact with the annealed films. In compare with the Ohmic-type photodetector, the Schottky-type photodetector takes on lower dark current, higher photoresponse, and shorter switching time, which benefit from Schottky barrier controlling electron transport and the quantity of photogenerated carriers trapped by oxygen vacancy significant decreasing.

  10. Ultralow nonalloyed Ohmic contact resistance to self aligned N-polar GaN high electron mobility transistors by In(Ga)N regrowth

    Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Nidhi,; Brown, David F.; Wu, Feng; Keller, Stacia; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Ultralow Ohmic contact resistance and a self-aligned device structure are necessary to reduce the effect of parasitic elements and obtain higher f t and f max in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). N-polar (0001) GaN HEMTs, offer a natural advantage over Ga-polar HEMTs, in terms of contact resistance since the contact is not made through a high band gap material [Al(Ga)N]. In this work, we extend the advantage by making use of polarization induced three-dimensional electron-gas through regrowth of graded InGaN and thin InN cap in the contact regions by plasma (molecular beam epitaxy), to obtain an ultralow Ohmic contact resistance of 27 Ω μm to a GaN 2DEG.

  11. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments

    Fauvarque, Jean-Francois; Clauzon, Pierre Paul; Lalleve, Gerard Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    A simple calorimeter has been designed that works at constant temperature; that of boiling water. Heat Losses can be estimated accurately with an ohmic heater. As expected, losses are independent of the electric power input to the heater and the amount of evaporated water is linearly dependant on the power input. The device has been used to determine the heating power of a plasma electrolysis (the Ohmori-Mizuno experiment). We confirm that in this experiment, the heat output from electrolysis is greater than the electrical power input. The excess energy increases as the electrolysis voltage is increased from 200 up to 350 V (400 V input). The excess energy may be as high as 120 W. (author)

  12. Direct Observation of 2D Electrostatics and Ohmic Contacts in Template-Grown Graphene/WS2 Heterostructures.

    Zheng, Changxi; Zhang, Qianhui; Weber, Bent; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Chen, Fan; Sahasrabudhe, Harshad; Rahman, Rajib; Li, Shiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Hellerstedt, Jack; Zhang, Yupeng; Duan, Wen Hui; Bao, Qiaoliang; Fuhrer, Michael S

    2017-03-28

    Large-area two-dimensional (2D) heterojunctions are promising building blocks of 2D circuits. Understanding their intriguing electrostatics is pivotal but largely hindered by the lack of direct observations. Here graphene-WS 2 heterojunctions are prepared over large areas using a seedless ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy characterize the doping in graphene-WS 2 heterojunctions as-grown on sapphire and transferred to SiO 2 with and without thermal annealing. Both p-n and n-n junctions are observed, and a flat-band condition (zero Schottky barrier height) is found for lightly n-doped WS 2 , promising low-resistance ohmic contacts. This indicates a more favorable band alignment for graphene-WS 2 than has been predicted, likely explaining the low barriers observed in transport experiments on similar heterojunctions. Electrostatic modeling demonstrates that the large depletion width of the graphene-WS 2 junction reflects the electrostatics of the one-dimensional junction between two-dimensional materials.

  13. Impact of Ohmic-Assisted Decoction on Bioactive Components Extracted from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Leaves: Comparison with Conventional Decoction

    Forough Khajehei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. leaves are a potentially rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. In this study, the effect of the extraction method (ohmic-assisted decoction (OH-DE and decoction (DE, yacon cultivar (red and white, and leaf age (young and old on the quality/quantity of extracted phytochemicals were investigated. Extraction yield, energy consumption, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP were determined. Additionally, HPLC-DAD was used to identify the major individual phenolic and flavonoid compounds of yacon leaves. The results showed that a three-way interaction of process-variables (extraction method×yacon cultivar×age of leaves influenced the extraction yield, TPC, TFC, ABTS, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, and FRAP, significantly (p < 0.05. However, energy consumption of the extraction process was only affected by method of extraction (p < 0.05 and was halved when OH-DE was applied as compared to DE alone. Additionally, the phytochemical quality of extracts was either improved or comparable when OH-DE was used for extraction. Also, it was shown that yacon leaves contained considerable amounts of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferrulic acid, myricetin, p-coumaric acid, and rutin, while leaves of the red cultivar had higher contents of each compound compared to leaves of the white cultivar.

  14. Uncovering nonperturbative dynamics of the biased sub-Ohmic spin-boson model with variational matrix product states

    Gonzalez-Ballestero, C.; Schröder, Florian A. Y. N.; Chin, Alex W.

    2017-09-01

    We study the dynamics of the biased sub-Ohmic spin-boson model by means of a time-dependent variational matrix product state (TDVMPS) algorithm. The evolution of both the system and the environment is obtained in the weak- and the strong-coupling regimes, respectively characterized by damped spin oscillations and by a nonequilibrium process where the spin freezes near its initial state, which are explicitly shown to arise from a variety of reactive environmental quantum dynamics. We also explore the rich phenomenology of the intermediate-coupling case, a nonperturbative regime where the system shows a complex dynamical behavior, combining features of both the weakly and the strongly coupled case in a sequential, time-retarded fashion. Our work demonstrates the potential of TDVMPS methods for exploring otherwise elusive, nonperturbative regimes of complex open quantum systems, and points to the possibilities of exploiting the qualitative, real-time modification of quantum properties induced by nonequilibrium bath dynamics in ultrafast transient processes.

  15. Structural and electrical characterization of AuPtAlTi ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN with varying annealing temperature and Al content

    Fay, Mike W.; Han, Y.; Brown, Paul D.; Harrison, Ian; Hilton, K.P.; Munday, A.; Wallis, D.; Balmer, R.S.; Uren, M.J.; Martin, T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of varying annealing temperature and Al layer thickness on the structural and electrical characteristics of AuPtAlTi/AlGaN/GaN ohmic contact structures has been systematically investigated. The relationship between annealing temperature, Al content, interfacial microstructure, surface planarity and contact resistance is\\ud examined. In particular, the presence of a detrimental low temperature Pt-Al reaction is identified. This is implicated in both the requirement for a higher Al:T...

  16. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the composition of Au/Ti/Al/Ti ohmic contacts for GaN-based microdevices

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Ynsa, M.D.; Romero, M.F.; Alves, L.C.; Muñoz, E.

    2013-01-01

    The homogeneity of Au/Ti/Al/Ti ohmic contacts for AlGaN/GaN devices was analyzed as a function of the thickness of the Ti barrier (30 nm 50 nm, although several compositional deficiencies were identified in the distribution maps obtained with the ion microprobe, including the formation of craters. A clear interplay between Ti and Au was found, suggesting the relevance of lateral flows during the rapid thermal annealing

  17. Electrical and structural properties of surfaces and interfaces in Ti/Al/Ni Ohmic contacts to p-type implanted 4H-SiC

    Vivona, M.; Greco, G.; Bongiorno, C.; Lo Nigro, R.; Scalese, S.; Roccaforte, F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the electrical and structural properties of Ti/Al/Ni Ohmic contacts to p-type implanted silicon carbide (4H-SiC) were studied employing different techniques. With increasing the annealing temperature, an improvement of the electrical properties of the contacts is highlighted, until an Ohmic behavior is obtained at 950 °C, with a specific contact resistance ρc = 2.3 × 10-4 Ω cm2. A considerable intermixing of the metal layers occurred upon annealing, as a consequence of the formation of different phases, both in the uppermost part of the stack (mainly Al3Ni2) and at the interface with SiC, where the formation of preferentially aligned TiC is observed. The formation of an Ohmic contact was associated with the occurrence of the reaction and the disorder at the interface, where the current transport is dominated by the thermionic field emission mechanism with a barrier height of 0.56 eV.

  18. Effects of plasma treatment on the Ohmic characteristics of Ti/Al/Ti/Au contacts to n-AlGaN

    Cao, X. A.; Piao, H.; LeBoeuf, S. F.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment using Cl 2 /BCl 3 and Ar inductive coupled plasmas on the Ohmic characteristics of Ti/Al/Ti/Au contacts to n-type Al x Ga 1-x N (x=0-0.5) were investigated. Plasma treatment significantly increased the surface conductivity of GaN and Al 0.1 Ga 0.9 N, leading to improved Ohmic behaviors of the contacts. However, it reduced the surface doping level in Al x Ga 1-x N (x≥0.3) and degraded the contact properties. Following a 900-1000 deg. C anneal, the Ti/Al/Ti/Au contacts to Al x Ga 1-x N (x=0-0.3) became truly Ohmic, with specific contact resistances of (3-7)x10 -5 Ω cm 2 , whereas the contact to Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 N remained rectifying even without the plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed that the Fermi level moved toward the conduction band in GaN after the plasma treatment, but it was pinned by plasma-induced deep-level states in Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 N. This study emphasizes the need to mitigate plasma damage introduced during the mesa etch step for AlGaN-based deep-UV emitters and detectors

  19. InAlN high electron mobility transistor Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contact optimisation assisted by in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscopy

    Smith, M. D.; Parbrook, P. J.; O'Mahony, D.; Conroy, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper correlates the micro-structural and electrical characteristics associated with annealing of metallic multi-layers typically used in the formation of Ohmic contacts to InAlN high electron mobility transistors. The multi-layers comprised Ti/Al/Ni/Au and were annealed via rapid thermal processing at temperatures up to 925 °C with electrical current-voltage analysis establishing the onset of Ohmic (linear IV) behaviour at 750–800 °C. In-situ temperature dependent transmission electron microscopy established that metallic diffusion and inter-mixing were initiated near a temperature of 500 °C. Around 800 °C, inter-diffusion of the metal and semiconductor (nitride) was observed, correlating with the onset of Ohmic electrical behaviour. The sheet resistance associated with the InAlN/AlN/GaN interface is highly sensitive to the anneal temperature, with the range depending on the Ti layer thickness. The relationship between contact resistivity and measurement temperature follow that predicted by thermionic field emission for contacts annealed below 850 °C, but deviated above this due to excessive metal-semiconductor inter-diffusion

  20. Electron cyclotron heating for current profile control of non-circular plasmas

    Chan, V.S.; Davidson, R.; Guest, G.; Hacker, M.; Miller, L.

    1981-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) offers a promising approach to modifying the radial profiles of electron temperature and plasma current in tokamaks to increase the ideal MHD beta limits and permit experimental access to particular noncircular cross-section tokamaks that cannot be achieved with the peaked current profiles characteristic of ohmically heated tokamaks. We use a one-and-one-half-dimensional, time-dependent transport model that incorporates a self-consistent model of electron cyclotron power absorption to study the temporal evolution of electron temperature and plasma current profiles and the resulting noncircular equilibria. Startup scenarios for high-beta dees and doublets are investigated with this transport modeling

  1. Heat pumps

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  2. Effects of heat from high-level waste on performance of deep geological repository components

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of heat on the deep geological repository systems and its different components. The report is focussed specifically on effects due to thermal energy release solely from high-level waste or spent fuel. It reviews the experimental data and theoretical models of the effects of heat both on the behaviour of engineered and natural barriers. A summary of the current status of research and repository development including underground test facilities is presented

  3. Avoiding vibration-induced tube failures in shell and tube heat exchangers

    Franklin, R.E.; Soper, B.M.H.; Whittle, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The past few years has seen a very significant increase of activity in heat exchangers tube vibration research, both analytical and experimental. Some of the results of this work are examined and discussed in the context of how best they may be applied in the assessment of heat exchangers at the design stage. Special attention is focussed on the overall picture and on the simplifications which can be made in many instances. (author)

  4. Lower-hybrid heating and current drive on PLT

    Hooke, W.; Bernabei, S.; Boyd, D.

    1983-02-01

    Steady currents up to 165 kA for 3.5 seconds and 420 kA for 0.3 seconds have been maintained by 800 MHz lower hybrid waves. For line-averaged densities up to 7 x 10 12 cm - 3 the current is maintained with no input power from the ohmic heating transformer. The waves are launched with an array of six waveguides. Measurements of X rays and electron cyclotron radiation show that the rf power produces and maintains a suprathermal tail of electrons apparently independent of the number of fast electrons in the plasma prior to turning on the rf power. Measurements of current-drive efficiency and the electron tail provide direct evidence for a resonant wave-particle interaction. The radial profile of the rf-sustained current inferred from x-ray measurements is peaked in the center of the plasma and appears to obey the same q-value restraints as the inductively driven ohmic heating current. Current drive is observed to be accompanied always by radiation at frequencies greater than or equal to #betta#/sub ce/ and less than or equal to #betta#/sub pe/. The connection between this radiation and the current-drive mechanism is under study

  5. REVIEW OF FOCUSSED ANTENATAL CARE

    Sreelatha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care is a comprehensive antepartum programme which involves a coordinated approach to medical care , continuous risk assessment , and psychological support that optimally begins before conception and extends throughout the postpartum period and int erconceptional period . [1] One of major responsibility of obstetrician providing antenatal care is to identify high risk factors based on past history, examination and investigation results. The objective of antenatal care therefore is to assure that every wanted pregnancy results in the delivery of a healthy baby without impairing the mothers health . [2] In a 1914 study by Williams antenatal care reduced fetal mortality by 40%

  6. Poloidal and toroidal heat flux distribution in the CCT tokamak

    Brown, M.L.; Dhir, V.K.; Taylor, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma heat flux to the Faraday shield panels of the UCLA Continuous Current Tokamak (CCT) has been measured calorimetrically in order to identify the dominant parameters affecting the spatial distribution of heat deposition. Three heating methods were investigated: audio frequency discharge cleaning, RF heating, and AC ohmic. Significant poloidal asymmetry is present in the heat flux distribution. On the average, the outer panels received 25-30% greater heat flux than the inner ones, with the ratio of maximum to minimum values attaining a difference of more than a factor of 2. As a diagnostic experiment the current to a selected toroidal field coil was reduced in order to locally deflect the toroidal field lines outward in a ripple-like fashion. Greatly enhanced heat deposition (up to a factor of 4) was observed at this location on the outside Faraday panels. The enhancement was greatest for conditions of low toroidal field and low neutral pressure, leading to low plasma densities, for which Coulomb collisions are the smallest. An exponential model based on a heat flux e-folding length describes the experimentally found localization of thermal energy quite adequately. (orig.)

  7. Heat pumps

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  8. Heat transfer

    Saad, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer takes place between material systems as a result of a temperature difference. The transmission process involves energy conversions governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The heat transfer proceeds from a high-temperature region to a low-temperature region, and because of the finite thermal potential, there is an increase in entropy. Thermodynamics, however, is concerned with equilibrium states, which includes thermal equilibrium, irrespective of the time necessary to attain these equilibrium states. But heat transfer is a result of thermal nonequilibrium conditions, therefore, the laws of thermodynamics alone cannot describe completely the heat transfer process. In practice, most engineering problems are concerned with the rate of heat transfer rather than the quantity of heat being transferred. Resort then is directed to the particular laws governing the transfer of heat. There are three distinct modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. Although these modes are discussed separately, all three types may occur simultaneously

  9. Heat exchanger

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  10. Electro-magnetic heating in viscous oil reservoir

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper discussed electromagnetic (EM) heating techniques for primary and secondary enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Ohmic, induction, and formation resistive heating techniques were discussed. Issues related to energy equivalence and hardware requirements were reviewed. Challenges related to heat losses in vertical wellbores, well integrity, and galvanic corrosion were also outlined. A pair of 1500 foot horizontal wells in a heavy oil reservoir were then modelled in order to optimize EM recovery processes. DC current was used in a base case water flood run. Electrical conductivities were measured. The model was converted to a homogenous model in order to study injector and producer electrodes. The study showed that reservoir resistance was low, and most of the heating took place near the electrode area where electric lines diverged or converged. Results of the study suggested that EM heating in formations is not as efficient as steam-based processes. Accurate simulations of EM heating processes within reservoirs are difficult to obtain, as the amounts of estimated heat input are sensitive to grid refinement. It was concluded that hot spots in the EM electrodes have also caused failures in other field applications and studies. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Trap-assisted tunneling in aluminum-doped ZnO/indium oxynitride nanodot interlayer Ohmic contacts on p-GaN

    Ke, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: wcke@mail.ntust.edu.tw; Yang, Cheng-Yi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fang-Wei; Chen, Wei-Kuo [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hao-Ping [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-21

    This study developed an Ohmic contact formation method for a ZnO:Al (AZO) transparent conductive layer on p-GaN films involving the introduction of an indium oxynitride (InON) nanodot interlayer. An antisurfactant pretreatment was used to grow InON nanodots on p-GaN films in a RF magnetron sputtering system. A low specific contact resistance of 1.12 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm{sup 2} was achieved for a sample annealed at 500 °C for 30 s in nitrogen ambient and embedded with an InON nanodot interlayer with a nanodot density of 6.5 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}. By contrast, a sample annealed in oxygen ambient exhibited non-Ohmic behavior. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results showed that the oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) in the InON nanodots played a crucial role in carrier transport. The fitting I–V characteristic curves indicated that the hopping mechanism with an activation energy of 31.6 meV and trap site spacing of 1.1 nm dominated the carrier transport in the AZO/InON nanodot/p-GaN sample. Because of the high density of donor-like oxygen vacancy defects at the InON nanodot/p-GaN interface, positive charges from the underlying p-GaN films were absorbed at the interface. This led to positive charge accumulation, creating a narrow depletion layer; therefore, carriers from the AZO layer passed through InON nanodots by hopping transport, and subsequently tunneling through the interface to enter the p-GaN films. Thus, AZO Ohmic contact can be formed on p-GaN films by embedding an InON nanodot interlayer to facilitate trap-assisted tunneling.

  12. Electrical property heterogeneity at transparent conductive oxide/organic semiconductor interfaces: mapping contact ohmicity using conducting-tip atomic force microscopy.

    MacDonald, Gordon A; Veneman, P Alexander; Placencia, Diogenes; Armstrong, Neal R

    2012-11-27

    We demonstrate mapping of electrical properties of heterojunctions of a molecular semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine, CuPc) and a transparent conducting oxide (indium-tin oxide, ITO), on 20-500 nm length scales, using a conductive-probe atomic force microscopy technique, scanning current spectroscopy (SCS). SCS maps are generated for CuPc/ITO heterojunctions as a function of ITO activation procedures and modification with variable chain length alkyl-phosphonic acids (PAs). We correlate differences in small length scale electrical properties with the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on CuPc/C(60) heterojunctions, built on these same ITO substrates. SCS maps the "ohmicity" of ITO/CuPc heterojunctions, creating arrays of spatially resolved current-voltage (J-V) curves. Each J-V curve is fit with modified Mott-Gurney expressions, mapping a fitted exponent (γ), where deviations from γ = 2.0 suggest nonohmic behavior. ITO/CuPc/C(60)/BCP/Al OPVs built on nonactivated ITO show mainly nonohmic SCS maps and dark J-V curves with increased series resistance (R(S)), lowered fill-factors (FF), and diminished device performance, especially near the open-circuit voltage. Nearly optimal behavior is seen for OPVs built on oxygen-plasma-treated ITO contacts, which showed SCS maps comparable to heterojunctions of CuPc on clean Au. For ITO electrodes modified with PAs there is a strong correlation between PA chain length and the degree of ohmicity and uniformity of electrical response in ITO/CuPc heterojunctions. ITO electrodes modified with 6-8 carbon alkyl-PAs show uniform and nearly ohmic SCS maps, coupled with acceptable CuPc/C(60)OPV performance. ITO modified with C14 and C18 alkyl-PAs shows dramatic decreases in FF, increases in R(S), and greatly enhanced recombination losses.

  13. Heat pipe

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  14. Influence of low-order rational magnetic surfaces on heat transport in TJ-II heliac ECRH plasmas

    Castejon, F.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of low-order rational surfaces on electron heat transport in plasmas confined in the TJ-II stellarator (Alejaldre et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 131) and heated by electron cyclotron waves. Enhancement of core electron heat confinement is observed when the rational surface is placed in the vicinity of the power deposition zone, either by performing a magnetic configuration scan or by inducing Ohmic current in a single discharge. The key to improving heat confinement seems to be a locally strong positive radial electric field, which is made possible by a synergistic effect between enhanced electron heat fluxes through radial positions around low-order rationals and pump out mechanisms in the heat deposition zone. (author)

  15. Quantum Optical Heating in Sonoluminescence Experiments

    Kurcz, Andreas; Capolupo, Antonio; Beige, Almut

    2009-01-01

    Sonoluminescence occurs when tiny bubbles rilled with noble gas atoms are driven by a sound wave. Each cycle of the driving field is accompanied by a collapse phase in which the bubble radius decreases rapidly until a short but very strong light flash is emitted. The spectrum of the light corresponds to very high temperatures and hints at the presence of a hot plasma core. While everyone accepts that the effect is real, the main energy focussing mechanism is highly controversial. Here we suggest that the heating of the bubble might be due to a weak but highly inhomogeneous electric field as it occurs during rapid bubble deformations [A. Kurcz et al.(submitted)]. It is shown that such a field couples the quantised motion of the atoms to their electronic states, thereby resulting in very high heating rates.

  16. Coexistence and competition of surface diffusion and geometric shielding in the growth of 1D bismuth nanostructures and their ohmic contact

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lianjun; Zhang, Xuejun; Deng, Yangbao; Deng, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    We study the physical-vapor-deposition of 1D bismuth nanostructures. Bi nanowire elongating along [012] and/or [110] direction as well as anisotropic Bi nano-columns are physical-vapor-deposited successfully. The coexistence and competition of surface diffusion and geometric shielding are critical to their formation as well as growth mode transition among them. Since physical-vapor-deposition is a vacuum process, we make use of it to fabricate the ohmic contact to prevent the damage to the bismuth nanostructures brought by the etching to their thick surface oxide layer. (paper)

  17. Role of Ag-alloy in the thermal stability of Ag-based ohmic contact to GaN(0 0 0 1) surface

    Xiong, Zhihua; Qin, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Lanli

    2015-01-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to study Ag and Ag-alloy adsorption stability on GaN(0 0 0 1) surface. We find Ag only contact to GaN surface is unstable under high temperature. While Ag-alloy adsorption exhibits better adsorption stability and electronic properties than that of the Ag only contact,due to the enhanced interaction between Ag-alloy and GaN(0 0 0 1) surface. The Ag-alloy, particularly AgNi, is proposed to be used as very promising ohmic contact to GaN for practical applications

  18. Simulation of D and E region high-power microwave heating with HF ionospheric modification experiments

    Meltz, G.; Rush, C.M.; Violette, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The microwave power beam from a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is sufficiently intense to cause large changes in the properties of the lower ionosphere by ohmic heating of the plasma. Power is absorbed from the beam at a rate that is proportional to the ratio of the flux s and the square of an effective frequency f/sub e/. Throughout most of the lower ionosphere f/sub e/ = f -+ f/sub L/, where f is the wave frequency and f/sub L is a reduced electron gyrofrequency. It follows that SPS equivalent heating can be simulated at much lower power fluxes with HF radio waves. A detailed examination of the frequency scaling, based on fluid and kinetic theory estimates of the change in electron temperature and density, shows that the high-power HF facility at Platteville, CO, can simulate or exceed the ohmic effects of the SPS beam up to 90 km. This paper describes the results of a series of 5.2 and 9.9 MHz underdense heating experiments undertaken to study the effect of high-power microwaves on the lower ionosphere. A pulsed ionosonde probe, located nearly below the most intense portion of the high-power beam, was used to observe the changes in the D and lower E region. Both phase and amplitude measurements were recorded during CW and intermittent heating

  19. High power heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Wisconsin Tokapole II

    Biddle, A.P.; Sprott, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Fast wave heating at the second, third and fourth harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance, and slow wave heating at the fundamental in a single ion species hydrogen plasma, are found to be in good agreement with warm plasma theory at rf power levels <= 130 kW. Ion heating is negligible off an eigenmode. Ion body temperatures are more than doubled to 75 eV from the 35 eV ohmically heated case with tails comprising 8% of the plasma at 320 eV. No deleterious effects except a non-disruptive 10% shortening of the discharge length caused by impurity influx are noted. A passive mode tracking technique allows approximately equal to 40% increase in power deposition in a passing eigenmode over that of a fixed frequency rf source. Ion temperatures are limited by charge exchange due to the < 50 eV central temperature and the small 13 cm radius current channel. (author)

  20. On a two-layer Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric mask for low-resistance ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Arutyunyan, S. S., E-mail: spartakmain@gmail.com; Pavlov, A. Yu.; Pavlov, B. Yu.; Tomosh, K. N.; Fedorov, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultrahigh Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The fabrication of a two-layer Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric mask and features of its application in the technology of non-fired epitaxially grown ohmic contacts for high-power HEMTs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are described. The proposed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} mask allows the selective epitaxial growth of heavily doped ohmic contacts by nitride molecular-beam epitaxy and the fabrication of non-fired ohmic contacts with a resistance of 0.15–0.2 Ω mm and a smooth surface and edge morphology.

  1. The Improvement of Electrical Characteristics of Pt/Ti Ohmic Contacts to Ga-Doped ZnO by Homogenized KrF Pulsed Excimer Laser Treatment

    Oh, Min-Suk

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the effect of KrF excimer laser surface treatment on Pt/Ti ohmic contacts to Ga-doped n-ZnO ( N d = 4.3 × 1017 cm-3). The treatment of the n-ZnO surfaces by laser irradiation greatly improved the electrical characteristics of the metal contacts. The Pt/Ti ohmic layer on the laser-irradiated n-ZnO showed specific contact resistances of 2.5 × 10-4 ˜ 4.8 × 10-4 Ω cm2 depending on the laser energy density and gas ambient, which were about two orders of magnitude lower than that of the as-grown sample, 8.4 × 10-2 Ω cm2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements showed that the KrF excimer laser treatments increased the electron concentration near the surface region of the Ga-doped n-ZnO due to the preferential evaporation of oxygen atoms from the ZnO surface by the laser-induced dissociation of Zn-O bonds.

  2. Correlation between the electrical properties and the interfacial microstructures of TiAl-based ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC

    Tsukimoto, S.; Nitta, K.; Sakai, T.; Moriyama, M.; Murakami, Masanori

    2004-05-01

    In order to understand a mechanism of TiAl-based ohmic contact formation for p-type 4H-SiC, the electrical properties and microstructures of Ti/Al and Ni/Ti/Al contacts, which provided the specific contact resistances of approximately 2×10-5 Ω-cm2 and 7×10-5 Ω-cm2 after annealing at 1000°C and 800°C, respectively, were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Ternary Ti3SiC2 carbide layers were observed to grow on the SiC surfaces in both the Ti/Al and the Ni/Ti/Al contacts when the contacts yielded low resistance. The Ti3SiC2 carbide layers with hexagonal structures had an epitaxial orientation relationship with the 4H-SiC substrates. The (0001)-oriented terraces were observed periodically at the interfaces between the carbide layers and the SiC, and the terraces were atomically flat. We believed the Ti3SiC2 carbide layers primarily reduced the high Schottky barrier height at the contact metal/p-SiC interface down to about 0.3 eV, and, thus, low contact resistances were obtained for p-type TiAl-based ohmic contacts.

  3. Influence of lateral and in-depth metal segregation on the patterning of ohmic contacts for GaN-based devices

    Redondo-Cubero, A; Alves, L C; Corregidor, V; Vázquez, L; Romero, M F; Muñoz, E; Pantellini, A; Lanzieri, C

    2014-01-01

    The lateral and in-depth metal segregation of Au/Ni/Al/Ti ohmic contacts for GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were analysed as a function of the Al barrier's thickness (d). The surface of the contacts, characterized by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, shows a transition from a fractal network of rough and complex island-like structures towards smoother and cauliflower-like fronts with increasing d. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) at different energies were used to confirm the in-depth intermixing of the metals relevant for the final contact resistance. EDXS mapping reveals a significant lateral segregation too, where the resulting patterns depend on two competing NiAl x and AuAl x phases, the intermixing being controlled by the available amount of Al. The optimum ohmic resistance is not affected by the patterning process, but is mainly dependent on the partial interdiffusion of the metals. (paper)

  4. ICRF heating and transport of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    Murakami, M.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bush, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes results of the first experiments utilizing high-power ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) to heat deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in reactor-relevant regimes on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Results from these experiments have demonstrated efficient core, second harmonic, tritium heating of D-T supershot plasmas with tritium concentrations ranging from 6%--40%. Significant direct ion heating on the order of 60% of the input radio frequency (rf) power has been observed. The measured deposition profiles are in good agreement with two-dimensional modeling code predictions. Confinement in an rf-heated supershot is at least similar to that without rf, and possibly better in the electron channel. Efficient electron heating via mode conversion of fast waves to ion Bernstein waves (IBW) has been demonstrated in ohmic, deuterium-deuterium and DT-neutral beam injection plasmas with high concentrations of minority 3 He (n 3 He /n e > 10%). By changing the 3 He concentration or the toroidal field strength, the location of the mode-conversion radius was varied. The power deposition profile measured with rf power modulation showed that up to 70% of the power can be deposited on electrons at an off-axis position. Preliminary results with up to 4 MW coupled into the plasma by 90-degree phased antennas showed directional propagation of the mode-converted IBW. Heat wave propagation showed no strong inward thermal pinch in off-axis heating of an ohmically-heated (OH) target plasma in TFIR

  5. Heating efficiency of high-power perpendicular neutral-beam injection in PDX

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, M.

    1982-03-01

    The heating efficiency of high power (up to 7.2 MW) near-perpendicular neutral beam injection in the PDX tokamak is comparable to that of tangential injection in PLT. Collisionless plasmas with central ion temperatures up to 6.5 keV and central electron temperatures greater than 2.5 keV have been obtained. The plasma pressure, including the contribution from the beam particles, increases with increasing beam power and does not appear to saturate, although the parametric dependence of the energy confinement time is different from that observed in ohmic discharges

  6. Heat transfer in the spin-boson model: a comparative study in the incoherent tunneling regime.

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-07-01

    We study the transfer of heat in the nonequilibrium spin-boson model with an Ohmic dissipation. In the nonadiabatic limit we derive a formula for the thermal conductance based on a rate equation formalism at the level of the noninteracting blip approximation, valid for temperatures T>T(K), with T(K) as the Kondo temperature. We evaluate this expression analytically assuming either weak or strong couplings, and demonstrate that our results agree with exact relations. Far-from-equilibrium situations are further examined, showing a close correspondence to the linear response limit.

  7. Confinement of Stellarator plasmas with neutral beam and RF heating in W VII-A

    Grieger, G.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.

    1986-01-01

    WENDELSTEIN VII-A has been operated for ten years. It is a low-shear, high-aspect-ratio device. The confinement properties have been thoroughly studied for both ohmically heated and net-current free plasmas. For the latter case, NBI- and ECF-maintained plasmas were of particular importance. It was found that under optimized conditions the core of high-pressure, net-current free plasmas is mainly governed by collisional effects. The experiment will now be shut down for upgrading it into the Advanced Stellarator WEDNDELSTEIN VII-AS. (author)

  8. Heat exchanger

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  9. Direct Heat

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  10. Plasma heating

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Zeff measurements and low-Z impurity transport for NBI and ICRF heated plasma in JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    Ida, K.; Amano, T.; Kawahata, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1988-12-01

    A visible bremsstrahlung detector array system for Z eff measurements and a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system for fully ionized impurity profile measurements were installed on JIPP TII-U to study impurity transport for NBI and ICRF heated plasma. More impurities are sputtered by ICRF heating than by NBI and/or ohmic heatings. The carbon contribution to Z eff is 80-90 % for NBI heated plasmas, and 60 % for NBI + ICRF heated plasmas. With a carbon coating of vacuum vessel, the Z eff value decreases 2.4 to 1.7 and the carbon contribution to Z eff increases up to 80-90 %. We obtain the diffusion coefficient D a = 1.0 m 2 /s and the convective velocity V a (a) = 13 m/s at the plasma edge for carbon impurity from the radial profile and time evolution of fully ionized carbon after the ICRF pulse is turned on. (author)

  12. Efficient ion heating of tokamak plasma by application of positive and negative current pulse in TRIAM-1

    Toi, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Mitarai, Osamu; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    1980-01-01

    The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one / attains around 0.5, which suggests that the efficient ion heating may be due to the current-driven turbulence. (author)

  13. Efficient ion heating of tokamak plasma by application of positive and negative current pulse in TRIAM-1

    Toi, K; Hiraki, N; Nakamura, K; Mitarai, O; Kawai, Y [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-02-01

    The efficient heating of bulk ions of tokamak plasma is observed by application of the pulsed toroidal electric field much higher than the Dreicer field with the positive and negative polarities for the ohmic heating field. No deleterious effect on the confinement properties of tokamak plasma appears by the heating. The decay time of ion temperature raised by the heating pulse agrees well with the prediction by the neoclassical transport theory. The magnitude of the current induced by the pulsed electric field with the positive polarity is limited by the violent current disruption. In the case of the negative polarity, this is limited by lack of the MHD equilibrium due to vanishing the total plasma current. The ratio of drift velocity to electron thermal one / attains around 0.5, which suggests that the efficient ion heating may be due to the current-driven turbulence.

  14. Heat Stroke

    Mørch, Sofie Søndergaard; Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Bestle, Morten Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat......Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity...... and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were...

  15. Anomalous Ion Heating, Intrinsic and Induced Rotation in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Thome, K. E.

    2014-10-01

    Pegasus plasmas are initiated through either standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of anomalous impurity ion heating has been observed, with Ti ~ 800 eV but Te < 100 eV. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n = 1 MHD mode. Chordal Ti spatial profiles indicate centrally peaked temperatures, suggesting a region of good confinement near the plasma core surrounded by a stochastic region. LHI plasmas are observed to rotate, perhaps due to an inward radial current generated by the stochastization of the plasma edge by the injected current streams. H-mode plasmas are initiated using a combination of high-field side fueling and Ohmic current drive. This regime shows a significant increase in rotation shear compared to L-mode plasmas. In addition, these plasmas have been observed to rotate in the counter-Ip direction without any external momentum sources. The intrinsic rotation direction is consistent with predictions from the saturated Ohmic confinement regime. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  16. ICRF heating and transport of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.E.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Bretz, N.L.; Darrow, D.; Fredrickson, E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes results of the first experiments utilizing high-power ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) to heat deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in reactor-relevant regimes on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Results from these experiments have demonstrated efficient core, second harmonic, tritium beating of D-T supershot plasmas with tritium concentrations ranging from 6%-40%. Significant direct ion heating on the order of 60% of the input radio frequency (rf) power has been observed. The measured deposition profiles are in good agreement with two-dimensional modeling code predictions. Energy confinement in an rf-heated supershot is at least similar to that without rf, and possibly better in the electron channel. Efficient electron heating via mode conversion of fast waves to ion Bernstein waves (IBW) has been demonstrated in ohmic, deuterium-deuterium and DT-neutral beam injection plasmas with high concentrations of minority 3 He (n 3He /n e = 15% - 30%). By changing the 3 He concentration or the toroidal field strength, the location of the mode-conversion radius was varied. The power deposition profile measured with rf power modulation indicated that up to 70% of the power can be deposited on electrons at an off-axis position. Preliminary results with up to 4 MW coupled into the plasma by 90-degree phased antennas showed directional propagation of the mode-converted IBW. Analysis of heat wave propagation showed no strong inward thermal pinch in off-axis heating of an ohmically-heated target plasma in TFTR

  17. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  18. Heat conduction

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  19. Assessing the health equity impacts of regional land-use plan making: An equity focussed health impact assessment of alternative patterns of development of the Whitsunday Hinterland and Mackay Regional Plan, Australia (Short report)

    Gunning, Colleen; Harris, Patrick; Mallett, John

    2011-01-01

    Health service and partners completed an equity focussed health impact assessment to influence the consideration of health and equity within regional land-use planning in Queensland, Australia. This project demonstrated how an equity oriented assessment matrix can assist in testing regional planning scenarios. It is hoped that this HIA will contribute to the emerging interest in ensuring that potential differential health impacts continue to be considered as part of land-use planning processes.

  20. Seasonal changes in the atmospheric heat balance simulated by the GISS general circulation model

    Stone, P. H.; Chow, S.; Helfand, H. M.; Quirk, W. J.; Somerville, R. C. J.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of the ability of numerical general circulation models to simulate the atmosphere have focussed so far on simulations of the January climatology. These models generally present boundary conditions such as sea surface temperature, but this does not prevent testing their ability to simulate seasonal changes in atmospheric processes that accompany presented seasonal changes in boundary conditions. Experiments to simulate changes in the zonally averaged heat balance are discussed since many simplified models of climatic processes are based solely on this balance.

  1. Regulatory focussing of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive materials in Argentina; Enfoque regulatorio de los aspectos relevantes del transporte de materiales radiactivos en Argentina

    Lopez Vietri, J R; Novo, R G; Bianchi, A J [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-12-31

    Full text: This paper points out a summary of the relevant aspects related to the transport of radioactive material in Argentina treated only from a regulatory focussing, it is to say from the point of view of its competent authority of application the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in Spanish, the Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN). Firstly, it is introduced the legal and regulatory framework applicable to the transport of radioactive material and the corresponding authorities involved (ARN, Secretary of Transport, and the Argentine Air Force, Naval Prefecture and Navy). Then, it is presented a schedule of the main characteristics of the shipments of radioactive material used in both the nuclear cycle and in medicine, industry and research, and an average of the shipments annually transported in Argentina. Further on the paper briefly analyses the ARN sources and the way in which it performs the compliance assurance with the in-force transport regulations in the country. Particularly, it is explained certain main tools used by the compliance system, as for example, transport notice, data base, licensing of certain design packages, shipments and materials, inspection and audits, and fees and sanctions regimes. On the other hand, it is mentioned the Argentine experience in the development, licensing, manufacture and use of domestic designs of Type B(U) packages and special form radioactive material (cobalt 60 and iridium 192 sealed sources). Moreover, it is concisely described test facilities available in the country necessary to perform the mentioned designs. Finally, the paper shortly describes the ARN main transport activities exclusively concerning the relationship with other national organisations (Federal Police, Gendarmerie, Naval Prefecture and Argentine Institute of Material Rationalisation, in Spanish Instituto Argentino de Racionalizacion de Materiales - IRAM) and with regional and inter regional organisations (South American Common Market, in Spanish

  2. District heating

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  3. From coherent motion to localization: II. Dynamics of the spin-boson model with sub-Ohmic spectral density at zero temperature

    Wang Haobin; Thoss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: □□□ - Abstract: The dynamics of the spin-boson model at zero temperature is studied for a bath characterized by a sub-Ohmic spectral density. Using the numerically exact multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method, the population dynamics of the two-level subsystem has been investigated in a broad range of parameter space. The results show the transition of the dynamics from weakly damped coherent motion to localization upon increase of the system-bath coupling strength. Comparison of the exact ML-MCTDH simulations with the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA) shows that the latter performs rather poorly in the weak coupling regime with small Kondo parameters. However, NIBA improves significantly upon increase in the coupling strength and is quantitatively correct in the strong coupling, nonadiabatic limit. The transition from coherent motion to localization as a function of the different parameters of the model is analyzed in some detail.

  4. Impact of recess etching and surface treatments on ohmic contacts regrown by molecular-beam epitaxy for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Joglekar, S.; Azize, M.; Palacios, T. [Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Beeler, M.; Monroy, E. [Université Grenoble-Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA Grenoble, INAC-PHELIQS, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-25

    Ohmic contacts fabricated by regrowth of n{sup +} GaN are favorable alternatives to metal-stack-based alloyed contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors. In this paper, the influence of reactive ion dry etching prior to regrowth on the contact resistance in AlGaN/GaN devices is discussed. We demonstrate that the dry etch conditions modify the surface band bending, dangling bond density, and the sidewall depletion width, which influences the contact resistance of regrown contacts. The impact of chemical surface treatments performed prior to regrowth is also investigated. The sensitivity of the contact resistance to the surface treatments is found to depend upon the dangling bond density of the sidewall facets exposed after dry etching. A theoretical model has been developed in order to explain the observed trends.

  5. Unsteady Hydromagnetic Flow of Radiating Fluid Past a Convectively Heated Vertical Plate with the Navier Slip

    O. D. Makinde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the unsteady hydromagnetic-free convection of an incompressible electrical conducting Boussinesq’s radiating fluid past a moving vertical plate in an optically thin environment with the Navier slip, viscous dissipation, and Ohmic and Newtonian heating. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the transient problem are obtained and tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference method coupled with Runge-Kutta Fehlberg integration technique. Numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient and the Nusselt number have been tabulated for various values of parametric conditions. Graphical results for the fluid velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the Nusselt number are presented and discussed. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient decreases while the heat transfer rate at the plate surface increases as the slip parameter and Newtonian heating increase.

  6. Thermoluminescence fast neutron dosimetry by laser heating

    Mathur, V.K.; Brown, M.D.; Braeunlich, P.

    1984-01-01

    Heating rates in excess of 10 4 K.sec -1 have been achieved for thin layers of TL dosemeters by laser heating. The high heating rate improves the signal to noise ratio up to a factor of 10 3 . Thus sensitive thin film fast neutron dosemeters with negligible self-shielding have become a practical reality. Thin samples of CaSO 4 :Dy have been investigated for their response to fast neutrons from a Pu-Be source and a 14.6 MeV neutron generator by using a hydrogenous radiator. A 15 watt CO 2 laser was focussed on the thin TLD layer to a spot size of less than 1 mm to heat it. An exposure of a few tens of milliseconds was sufficient to obtain a TLD curve, which was displayed and processed by a wave form digitiser. The laser spot could be scanned over the TLD sample by a x-y positioner and a large number of observations were obtained on each sample. Preliminary results show that it is possible to obtain a figure of merit of approx. 5% in a mixed n, γ field. A practical design for a fast neutron dosemeter is proposed. (author)

  7. ECRH and electron heat transport in tokamaks

    Zou, X.L.; Giruzzi, G.; Dumont, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    non- local. It can be concluded that the profile resilience mainly results from two effects: the first one is that the lower order Eigenmode are more favored than the higher order; the second one (volume effect) is that the central source (ohmic heating) is favored with respect to the off-axis source (ECRH) in the contribution to the temperature profile shape. We emphasize that the resilience effect on the temperature profile is a basic and natural property of the diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. All additional effects, as the heat pinch, critical gradient, etc, can reinforce this resilience. Finally, this analytical solution has been used with success for the determination of the transport coefficient and the polarization of the EC waves during ECRH experiments in the Tore Supra tokamak. (authors)

  8. Verification of heat removal capability of a concrete cask system for spent fuel storage

    Sakai, Mikio; Fujiwara, Hiroaki; Sakaya, Tadatugu

    2001-01-01

    The reprocessing works comprising of a center of nuclear fuel cycle in Japan is now under construction at Rokkasho-mura in Aomori prefecture, which is to be operated in 2005. However, as reprocessing capacity of the works is under total forming amount of spent nuclear fuels, it has been essential to construct a new facility intermediately to store them at a period before reprocessing them because of prediction to reach limit of pool storage in nuclear power stations. There are some intermediate storage methods, which are water pool method for wet storage, and bolt method, metal cask method, silo method and concrete cask method for dry storage. Among many methods, the dry storage is focussed at a standpoint of its operability and economy, the concrete cask method which has a lot of using results in U.S.A. has been focussed as a method expectable in its cost reduction effect among it. The Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. produced, in trial, a concrete cask with real size to confirm productivity when advancing design work on concrete cask. By using the trial product, a heat removal test mainly focussing temperature of concrete in the cask was carried out to confirm heat conductive performances of the cask. And, analysis of heat conductivity was also carried out to verify validity of its analysis model. (G.K.)

  9. Fast wave ion cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the Alcator C tokamak

    Shepard, T.D.

    1988-09-01

    Minority regime fast wave ICRF heating experiments have been conducted on the Alcator C tokamak at rf power levels sufficient to produce significant changes in plasma properties, and in particular to investigate the scaling to high density of the rf heating efficiency. Up to 450 kW of rf power at frequency f = 180 MHz, was injected into plasmas composed of deuterium majority and hydrogen minority ion species at magnetic field B 0 = 12 T, density 0.8 ≤ /bar n/sub e// ≤ 5 /times/ 10 20 m -3 , ion temperature T/sub D/(0) /approximately/ 1 keV, electron temperature T/sub e/(0) /approximately/ 1.5--2.5 keV, and minority concentration 0.25 /approx lt/ /eta/sub H// ≤ 8%. Deuterium heating ΔT/sub D/(0) = 400 eV was observed at /bar n/sub e// = 1 /times/ 10 20 m -3 , with smaller temperature increases at higher density. However, there was no significant change in electron temperature and the minority temperatures were insufficient to account for the launched rf power. Minority concentration scans indicated most efficient deuterium heating at the lowest possible concentration, in apparent contradiction with theory. Incremental heating /tau/sub inc// /equivalent to/ ΔW/ΔP up to 5 ms was independent of density, in spite of theoretical predictions of favorable density scaling of rf absorption and in stark contrast to Ohmic confinement times /tau/sub E// /equivalent to/ W/P. After accounting for mode conversion and minority losses due to toroidal field ripple, unconfined orbits, asymmetric drag, neoclassical and sawtooth transport, and charge-exchange, it was found that the losses as well as the net power deposition on deuterium do scale very favorably with density. Nevertheless, when the net rf and Ohmic powers deposited on deuterium are compared, they are found to be equally efficient at heating the deuterium. 139 refs

  10. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    E. Azad

    2012-01-01

    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  11. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  12. Unwanted heat

    Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The number of small heating plants using biomass is growing. According to TREND's information, Hrinovska energeticka, is the only one that controls the whole supplier chain in cooperation with its parent company in Bratislava. Starting with the collection and processing of wood chips by burning, heat production and heat distribution to the end user. This gives the company better control over costs and consequently its own prices. Last year, the engineering company, Hrinovske storjarne, decided to focus only on its core business and sold its heating plant, Hrinovske tepelne hospodarstvo, to Intech Slovakia and changed the company name to Hrinovska energeticka. Local companies and inhabitants were concerned that the new owner would increase prices. But the company publicly declared and kept promises that the heat price for households would remain at 500 Slovak crowns/gigajoule (13.33 EUR/gigajoule ), one of the lowest prices in Slovakia. This year the prices increased slightly to 570 Slovak crowns (15.2 EUR). 'We needed - even at the cost of lower profit - to satisfy our customers so that we would not lose them. We used this time for transition to biomass. This will allow us to freeze our prices in the coming years,' explained the statutory representative of the company, Ivan Dudak. (authors)

  13. Heat Pipes

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  14. Radiofrequency Waves, Heating and Current Drive in Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    Porkolab, M; Bonoli, P T; Temkin, R J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pinsker, R I; Prater, R [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Wilson, J R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The need for supplementary heating of magnetically confined plasmas to fusion relevant temperatures ({approx}20 keV) has been recognized from the beginning of modern fusion plasma research. Although in tokamaks the plasmas are formed initially by ohmic heating (P{Omega}{approx}{eta}{sub R}j, where j is the current density and {eta}{sub R} is the resistivity) its effectiveness deteriorates with increasing temperature since the resistivity decreases as T{sub e}{sup -3/2}, and losses due to bremsstrahlung radiation increase as Z{sub eff}{sup 3} T{sub e}{sup 1/2} (where Z{sub eff} is the effective ion charge), and the plasma current cannot be raised to arbitrarily large values because of MHD stability limits. In addition, energy losses due to thermal conduction P{sub loss} are typically anomalously large compared to neoclassical predictions and the dependence on temperature is not well understood. Thus, the simplest form of steady state power balance indicates that losses due to radiation and heat conduction must be balanced by auxiliary heating of some form, P{sub aux}, which may simply be stated as P{sub {Omega}} + P{sub {alpha}} - P{sub loss} P{sub aux} where P{sub {alpha}} is the power input provided by alpha particles, which does not become significant until the temperature exceeds some tens of keV, depending on confinement and density. (author)

  15. Monopole heat

    Turner, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Upper bounds on the flux of monopoles incident on the Earth with velocity -5 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ) and on the flux of monopoles incident on Jupiter with velocity -3 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ), are derived. Monopoles moving this slowly lose sufficient energy to be stopped, and then catalyse nucleon decay, releasing heat. The limits are obtained by requiring the rate of energy release from nucleon decay to be less than the measured amount of heat flowing out from the surface of the planet. (U.K.)

  16. Heat exchanger

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  17. Heat Convection

    Jiji, Latif M.

    Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.

  18. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  19. Heat flow anomalies and their interpretation

    Chapman, David S.; Rybach, Ladislaus

    1985-12-01

    More than 10,000 heat flow determinations exist for the earth and the data set is growing steadily at about 450 observations per year. If heat flow is considered as a surface expression of geothermal processes at depth, the analysis of the data set should reveal properties of those thermal processes. They do, but on a variety of scales. For this review heat flow maps are classified by 4 different horizontal scales of 10 n km (n = 1, 2, 3 and 4) and attention is focussed on the interpretation of anomalies which appear with characteristic dimensions of 10 (n - 1) km in the respective representations. The largest scale of 10 4 km encompasses heat flow on a global scale. Global heat loss is 4 × 10 13 W and the process of sea floor spreading is the principal agent in delivering much of this heat to the surface. Correspondingly, active ocean ridge systems produce the most prominent heat flow anomalies at this scale with characteristic widths of 10 3 km. Shields, with similar dimensions, exhibit negative anomalies. The scale of 10 3 km includes continent wide displays. Heat flow patterns at this scale mimic tectonic units which have dimensions of a few times 10 2 km, although the thermal boundaries between these units are sometimes sharp. Heat flow anomalies at this scale also result from plate tectonic processes, and are associated with arc volcanism, back arc basins, hot spot traces, and continental rifting. There are major controversies about the extent to which these surface thermal provinces reflect upper mantle thermal conditions, and also about the origin and evolution of the thermal state of continental lithosphere. Beginning with map dimensions of 10 2 km thermal anomalies of scale 10 1 km, which have a definite crustal origin, become apparent. The origin may be tectonic, geologic, or hydrologic. Ten kilometers is a common wavelength of topographic relief which drives many groundwater flow systems producing thermal anomalies. The largest recognized continental

  20. Heat exchanger

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  1. Heat exchangers

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  2. Heat exchanger

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  3. Heat exchanger

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  4. Heat pipe heat exchangers in heat recovery systems

    Stulc, P; Vasiliev, L L; Kiseljev, V G; Matvejev, Ju N

    1985-01-01

    The results of combined research and development activities of the National Research Institute for Machine Design, Prague, C.S.S.R. and the Institute for Heat and Mass Transfer, Minsk, U.S.S.R. concerning intensification heat pipes used in heat pipe heat exchangers are presented. This sort of research has been occasioned by increased interest in heat power economy trying to utilise waste heat produced by various technological processes. The developed heat pipes are deployed in construction of air-air, gas-air or gas-gas heat recovery exchangers in the field of air-engineering and air-conditioning. (author).

  5. From Schottky to Ohmic graphene contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures: Role of the AlGaN layer microstructure

    Fisichella, G.; Greco, G.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of graphene (Gr) contacts to Al x Ga 1−x N/GaN heterostructures has been investigated, focusing, in particular, on the impact of the AlGaN microstructure on the current transport at Gr/AlGaN interface. Two Al 0.25 Ga 0.75 N/GaN heterostructures with very different quality in terms of surface roughness and defectivity, as evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy, were compared in this study, i.e., a uniform and defect-free sample and a sample with a high density of typical V-defects, which locally cause a reduction of the AlGaN thickness. Nanoscale resolution current voltage (I-V) measurements by an Au coated conductive AFM tip were carried out at several positions both on the bare and Gr-coated AlGaN surfaces. Rectifying contacts were found onto both bare AlGaN surfaces, but with a more inhomogeneous and lower Schottky barrier height (Φ B  ≈ 0.6 eV) for AlGaN with V-defects, with respect to the case of the uniform AlGaN (Φ B  ≈ 0.9 eV). Instead, very different electrical behaviours were observed in the presence of the Gr interlayer between the Au tip and AlGaN, i.e., a Schottky contact with reduced barrier height (Φ B ≈ 0.4 eV) for the uniform AlGaN and an Ohmic contact for the AlGaN with V-defects. Interestingly, excellent lateral uniformity of the local I-V characteristics was found in both cases and can be ascribed to an averaging effect of the Gr electrode over the AlGaN interfacial inhomogeneities. Due to the locally reduced AlGaN layer thickness, V defect act as preferential current paths from Gr to the 2DEG and can account for the peculiar Ohmic behaviour of Gr contacts on defective AlGaN

  6. Heat exchanger

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  7. Fast-wave ICRF minority-regime heating experiments on the Tore Supra tokamak

    Agarici, G; Beaumont, B; Becoulet, A; Kuus, H; Saoutic, B; Martin, G [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (FR). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shepard, T D; Haste, G R; Baity, F W [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Evans, T E [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (US)

    1992-12-31

    Up to 4 MW of rf power at 57 MHz has been coupled to Ohmic target plasmas during the first ICRF heating experiments on Tore Supra. A total of 12 MW of rf power will ultimately be available from six tetrode amplifiers and will be coupled to the plasmas using three ORNL/CEA-designed resonant double-loop antennas. During these first experiments, two antennas were used, with one or two energized at a time. The antenna loading with plasma was observed to be well over an order of magnitude greater than that without plasma. In addition, one kilo-electron-volt of electron heating, significant minority nonthermal ions, and significant increases in diamagnetic stored energy were observed. A comparison of in-phase and out-of-phase antenna operation showed the same increase in stored energy, less radiated power, and a larger drop in loop voltage for out-of-phase operation. Confinement scaling agrees with the ITER scaling law.

  8. Ion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Wisconsin Tokapole II

    Biddle, A.P.

    1980-06-01

    Ion temperatures of 75 eV, a doubling of the ohmic heating temperature in a normal discharge, have been achieved using the fast magnetosonic wave heating at the second, third, and fourth harmonics of the cyclotron frequency in a single component hydrogen plasma. The wave launching structure is a single turn, shielded, insulated loop which constitutes the inductor of the rf source tank circuit. Power levels of 800 kW have been applied to the plasma for periods of up to 1.1 milliseconds. Good agreement has been found between theory and experiment for loading and wave propagation in the plasma for m = 0 and m = +1 modes. Eigenmodes have been observed by peaking of both the rf wave amplitude and the loading of the oscillator, as well as by oscillator frequency shifts imposed by their passage

  9. Effect of heating on the suppression of tearing modes in tokamaks.

    Classen, I G J; Westerhof, E; Domier, C W; Donné, A J H; Jaspers, R J E; Luhmann, N C; Park, H K; van de Pol, M J; Spakman, G W; Jakubowski, M W

    2007-01-19

    The suppression of (neoclassical) tearing modes is of great importance for the success of future fusion reactors like ITER. Electron cyclotron waves can suppress islands, both by driving noninductive current in the island region and by heating the island, causing a perturbation to the Ohmic plasma current. This Letter reports on experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak, investigating the effect of heating, which is usually neglected. The unique set of tools available on TEXTOR, notably the dynamic ergodic divertor to create islands with a fully known driving term, and the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic to provide detailed 2D electron temperature information, enables a detailed study of the suppression process and a comparison with theory.

  10. A study of the ion species dependence of [chi][sub e] by heat pulse propagation

    Giannone, L.; Mertens, V; Wagner, F [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kraemer-Flecken, A; Waidmann, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Riedel, K [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the isotope dependence of [chi][sub e] on Asdex revealed that the values of [chi][sub e] in hydrogen and deuterium were the same within the limits of experimental accuracy. This study in hydrogen, deuterium and helium has been continued on Textor. The 11 channel ECE diagnostic measures the temperature perturbations generated by sawtooth crashes in an ohmically heated plasma. Averaging over the one second flat top phase improves the signal to noise ratio to the extent that differences in the radial profile of [chi][sub e] are able to be inferred. Even though the values of [chi][sub e] found in each of the three gases are greater than the values calculated from power balance, the basic relationship between the energy confinement time and the value of [chi][sub e] deduced by heat pulse propagation can still be explored. (author) 7 refs. 4 figs.

  11. A study of the ion species dependence of χe by heat pulse propagation

    Giannone, L.; Mertens, V.; Wagner, F.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Waidmann, G.; Riedel, K.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the isotope dependence of χ ε on ASDEX revealed that the values of χ ε in hydrogen and deuterium were the same within the limits of experimental accuracy. This study in hydrogen, deuterium and helium has been continued on TEXTOR. The 11 channel ECE diagnostic measures the temperature perturbations generated by sawtooth crashes in an ohmically heated plasma. Averaging over the one second flat top phase improves the signal to noise ratio to the extent that differences in the radial profile of χ ε are able to be inferred. Even though the values of χ ε found in each of the three gases are greater than the values calculated from power balance, the basic relationship between the energy confinement time and the value of χ ε deduced by heat pulse propagation can still be explored. (orig.)

  12. A study of the ion species dependence of χe by heat pulse propagation

    Giannone, L.; Mertens, V.; Wagner, F.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Waidmann, G.; Riedel, K.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the isotope dependence of χ e on Asdex revealed that the values of χ e in hydrogen and deuterium were the same within the limits of experimental accuracy. This study in hydrogen, deuterium and helium has been continued on Textor. The 11 channel ECE diagnostic measures the temperature perturbations generated by sawtooth crashes in an ohmically heated plasma. Averaging over the one second flat top phase improves the signal to noise ratio to the extent that differences in the radial profile of χ e are able to be inferred. Even though the values of χ e found in each of the three gases are greater than the values calculated from power balance, the basic relationship between the energy confinement time and the value of χ e deduced by heat pulse propagation can still be explored. (author) 7 refs. 4 figs

  13. Biased divertor performance under auxiliary heating conditions on the TdeV tokamak

    Decoste, R.; Lachambre, J.L.; Demers, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma biasing has been shown on TdeV in the ohmic regime to be very promising for divertor applications. Negative biasing, with shortened SOL density gradients, improves the divertor performance, whereas positive biasing, with longer gradients, does not do much for the divertor. The next objectives were to extrapolate those results to auxiliary heated plasmas and optimize/simplify the biasing geometry for future upgrades. New results are now available with an improved divertor geometry and auxiliary heating/current drive provided by a new lower hybrid (LH) system. The new geometry, optimized for positive biasing with predictably acceptable negative biasing performances, allows for a fair comparison between the two polarities. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  14. Demand modelling for central heating systems

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    Most researchers in the field of heat demand estimation have focussed on explaning the load for a given plant based on rather few measurements. This approach is simply the only one adaptable with the very limited data material and limited computer power. This way of dealing with the subject is here called the top-down approach, due to the fact that one tries to explain the load from the overall data. The results of such efforts are discussed in the report, leading to inspiration for own work. Also the significance of the findings to the causes for given heat loads are discussed and summarised. Contrary to the top-down approach applied in literature, a here-called bottom-up approach is applied in this work, describing the causes of a given partial load in detail and combining them to explain the total load for the system. Three partial load 'components' are discussed: 1) Space heating. 2) Hot-Water Consumption. 3) Heat losses in pipe networks. The report is aimed at giving an introduction to these subjects, but at the same time at collecting the previous work done by the author. Space heating is shortly discussed and loads are generated by an advanced simulation model. A hot water consumption model is presented and heat loads, generated by this model, utilised in the overall work. Heat loads due to heat losses in district heating a given a high priority in the current work. Hence a detailed presentation and overview of the subject is given to solar heating experts normally not dealing with district heating. Based on the 'partial' loads generated by the above-mentioned method, an overall load model is built in the computer simulation environment TRNSYS. The final tool is then employed for the generation of time series for heat demand, representing a district heating area. The results are compared to alternative methods for the generation of heat demand profiles. Results form this comparison will be presented. Computerised modelling of systems

  15. Operation of ohmic Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer contacts to GaN at 600 °C in air

    Hou, Minmin; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2014-08-01

    The high-temperature characteristics (at 600 °C) of Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer contacts to gallium nitride (GaN) in air are reported. Microfabricated circular-transfer-line-method test structures were subject to 10 h of thermal storage at 600 °C. Intermittent electrical characterization during thermal storage showed minimal variation in the contact resistance after 2 h and that the specific contact resistivity remained on the order of 10-5 Ω-cm2. In addition, the thermally stored multilayer contacts to GaN showed ohmic I-V characteristics when electrically probed at 600 °C. The microstructural analysis with atomic force microscopy showed minimal changes in surface roughness after thermal storage. Observations of the thermochemical reactions after thermal storage using Auger electron spectroscopy chemical depth profiling showed diffusion of Pt and minimal additional Al oxidation. The results support the use of Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer metallization for GaN-based sensors and electronic devices that will operate within a high-temperature and oxidizing ambient.

  16. Lifetime limitations of ohmic, contacting RF MEMS switches with Au, Pt and Ir contact materials due to accumulation of ‘friction polymer’ on the contacts

    Czaplewski, David A; Nordquist, Christopher D; Dyck, Christopher W; Patrizi, Gary A; Kraus, Garth M; Cowan, William D

    2012-01-01

    We present lifetime limitations and failure analysis of many packaged RF MEMS ohmic contacting switches with Au–Au, Au–Ir, and Au–Pt contact materials operating with 100 µN of contact force per contact in hermetically sealed glass wall packages. All metals were tested using the same switch design in a controlled environment to provide a comparison between the performance of the different materials and their corresponding failure mechanisms. The switch lifetimes of the different contact materials varied from several hundred cycles to 200 million cycles with different mechanisms causing failures for different contact materials. Switches with Au–Au contacts failed due to adhesion when thoroughly cleaned while switches with dissimilar metal contacts (Au–Ir and Au–Pt) operated without adhesion failures but failed due to carbon accumulation on the contacts even in a clean, packaged environment as a result of the catalytic behavior of the contact materials. Switch lifetimes correlated inversely with catalytic behavior of the contact metals. The data suggests the path to increase switch lifetime is to use favorable catalytic materials as contacts, design switches with higher contact forces to break through any residual contamination, and use cleaner, probably smaller, packages. (paper)

  17. The role of high work-function metallic nanodots on the performance of a-Si:H solar cells: offering ohmic contact to light trapping.

    Kim, Jeehwan; Abou-Kandil, Ahmed; Fogel, Keith; Hovel, Harold; Sadana, Devendra K

    2010-12-28

    Addition of carbon into p-type "window" layers in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells enhances short circuit currents and open circuit voltages by a great deal. However, a-Si:H solar cells with high carbon-doped "window" layers exhibit poor fill factors due to a Schottky barrier-like impedance at the interface between a-SiC:H windows and transparent conducting oxides (TCO), although they show maximized short circuit currents and open circuit voltages. The impedance is caused by an increasing mismatch between the work function of TCO and that of p-type a-SiC:H. Applying ultrathin high-work-function metals at the interface between the two materials results in an effective lowering of the work function mismatch and a consequent ohmic behavior. If the metal layer is sufficiently thin, then it forms nanodots rather than a continuous layer which provides light-scattering effect. We demonstrate 31% efficiency enhancement by using high-work-function materials for engineering the work function at the key interfaces to raise fill factors as well as photocurrents. The use of metallic interface layers in this work is a clear contrast to previous work where attempts were made to enhance the photocurrent using plasmonic metal nanodots on the solar cell surface.

  18. Improvement of Ohmic contacts on Ga2O3 through use of ITO-interlayers

    Carey, Patrick H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Yang, Jiancheng [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Ren, Fan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Hays, David C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Pearton, Stephen J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering; Kuramata, Akito [Tamura Corporation, Sayama (Japan). Japan and Novel Crystal Technology, Inc.; Kravchenko, Ivan I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS)

    2017-10-03

    In this work, the use of ITO interlayers between Ga2O3 and Ti/Au metallization is shown to produce Ohmic contacts after annealing in the range of 500–600 °C. Without the ITO, similar anneals do not lead to linear current–voltage characteristics. Transmission line measurements were used to extract the specific contact resistance of the Au/Ti/ITO/Ga2O3 stacks as a function of annealing temperature. Sheet, specific contact, and transfer resistances all decreased sharply from as-deposited values with annealing. The minimum transfer resistance and specific contact resistance of 0.60 Ω mm and 6.3 × 10-5 Ω cm2 were achieved after 600 °C annealing, respectively. Lastly, the conduction band offset between ITO and Ga2O3 is 0.32 eV and is consistent with the improved electron transport across the heterointerface.

  19. Thermal degradation of ohmic contacts on semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane (1-100) sapphire substrates

    Kim, Doo Soo; Kim, Deuk Young; Seo, Yong Gon; Kim, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Sung Min; Baik, Kwang Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    Semipolar (11-22) GaN films were grown on m-plane (1-100) sapphire substrates by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The line widths of the omega rocking curves of the semipolar GaN films were 498 arcsec along the [11-23] GaN direction and 908 arcsec along the [10-10] GaN direction. The properties of the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metal contact were investigated using transmission-line-method patterns oriented in both the [11-23] GaN and the [10-10] GaN directions of semipolar (11-22) GaN. The minimum specific contact resistance of ∼3.6 x 10 -4 Ω·cm -2 was obtained on as-deposited metal contacts. The Ohmic contact properties of semipolar (11-22) GaN became degraded with increasing annealing temperature above 400 .deg. C. The thermal degradation of the metal contacts may be attributed to the surface property of N-polarity on the semipolar (11-22) GaN films. Also, the semipolar (11-22) GaN films did not show clear anisotropic behavior of the electrical properties for different azimuthal angles.

  20. The effect of correlations on the non-ohmic behavior of the small-polaron hopping conductivity in 1D and 3D disordered systems

    Dimakogianni, M; Triberis, G P

    2010-01-01

    According to percolation theory the investigation of charge transport in disordered systems is equivalent to the study of the possibility of the passage of the carriers through a random network of impedances which interconnect the different lattice sites. When the site energies are not the same, the energy of a site affects the incoming as well as the outgoing impedances connected to the given site and this gives rise to correlations between neighboring impedances. This new condition characterizes the transport process and imposes the evaluation of the average number of sites accessible by a bond from a given site for all possible configurations of sites that satisfy the percolation condition. The generalized molecular crystal model, appropriate for the study of small-polaron hopping transport in disordered systems, and the Kubo formula permit the evaluation of these impedances. Taking correlations into account, theoretical percolation considerations applicable to one-dimensional and three-dimensional disordered systems, lead to analytical expressions for the temperature and electric field dependence of the DC conductivity at high (multi-phonon-assisted hopping) and low (few-phonon-assisted hopping) temperatures. The theoretical analysis reveals the effect of correlations on the non-ohmic behavior of the small-polaron hopping conductivity and permits the evaluation of the maximum hopping distance. Quantitative estimates of this effect are presented comparing the theoretical results, including correlations with those ignoring them, previously reported, applying them to recent experimental data for a wide temperature range and from low up to moderate electric fields.

  1. Effect of the non-annealed ohmic-recess approach on temperature-dependent properties of a metamorphic high electron mobility transistor

    Chen, Li-Yang; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chen, Tzu-Pin; Liu, Yi-Chun; Liu, Wen-Chau; Cheng, Shiou-Ying; Lour, Wen-Shiung; Tsai, Jung-Hui; Guo, Der-Feng

    2008-01-01

    The reliability-related properties of an InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT), using the non-annealed ohmic-recess (NAOR) approach, are studied and demonstrated. The NAOR device shows significantly improved dc and radio frequency (RF) performance over a wide temperature range (300–500 K). With a 1 × 100 µm 2 gate-dimension MHEMT by the NAOR approach, the considerably improved thermal stability and dc performances, including lower temperature variation coefficients on turn-on voltage (−1.38 mV K −1 ) and gate-drain breakdown voltage (−30.4 mV K −1 ), and on-resistance (2.41 × 10 −3 Ω mm K −1 ), are obtained as the temperature is increased from 300 to 500 K. For RF characteristics, the NAOR device also shows a low degradation rate on drain saturation current operating regimes (−5.52 × 10 −4 K −1 ) as the temperature is increased from 300 to 400 K. In addition, based on the lifetime tests, an activation energy of 1.33 eV and a projected median lifetime of 1.2 × 10 7 h at T ch = 125 °C are obtained for the NAOR MHEMT

  2. Variational dynamics of the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model on the basis of multiple Davydov D{sub 1} states

    Wang, Lu [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang, E-mail: YZhao@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhou, Nengji [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310046 (China)

    2016-01-14

    Dynamics of the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model is investigated by employing a multitude of the Davydov D{sub 1} trial states, also known as the multi-D{sub 1} Ansatz. Accuracy in dynamics simulations is improved significantly over the single D{sub 1} Ansatz, especially in the weak system-bath coupling regime. The reliability of the multi-D{sub 1} Ansatz for various coupling strengths and initial conditions is also systematically examined, with results compared closely with those of the hierarchy equations of motion and the path integral Monte Carlo approaches. In addition, a coherent-incoherent phase crossover in the nonequilibrium dynamics is studied through the multi-D{sub 1} Ansatz. The phase diagram is obtained with a critical point s{sub c} = 0.4. For s{sub c} < s < 1, the coherent-to-incoherent crossover occurs at a certain coupling strength, while the coherent state recurs at a much larger coupling strength. For s < s{sub c}, only the coherent phase exists.

  3. Confinement studies of neutral beam heated discharges in TFTR

    Murakami, M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.; Stauffer, F.; Bell, M.G.; Bitte, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Boody, F.; Britz, N.

    1985-11-01

    The TFTR tokamak has reached its original machine design specifications (I/sub p/ = 2.5 MA and B/sub T/ = 5.2T). Recently, the D/sup 0/ neutral beam heating power has been increased to 6.3 MW. By operating at low plasma current (I/sub p/ approx. = 0.8 MA) and low density anti n/sub e/ approx. = 1 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/), high ion temperatures (9 +- keV) and rotation speeds (7 x 10/sup 5/ m/s) have been achieved during injection. At the opposite extreme, pellet injection into high current plasmas has been used to increase the line-average density to 8 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/ and the central density to 1.6 x 10/sup 20/m/sup -3// This wide range of operating conditions has enabled us to conduct scaling studies of the global energy confinement time in both ohmically and beam heated discharges as well as more detailed transport studies of the profile dependence. In ohmic discharges, the energy confinement time is observed to scale linearly with density only up to anti n/sub e/ approx. 4.5 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/ and then to increase more gradually, achieving a maximum value of approx. 0.45 s. In beam heated discharges, the energy confinement time is observed to decrease with beam power and to increase with plasma current. With P/sub b/ = 5.6 MW, anti n/sub e/ = 4.7 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/, I/sub p/ = 2.2 MA and B/sub T = 4.7T, the gross energy confinement time is 0.22 s and T/sub i/(0) = 4.8 keV. Despite shallow penetration of D/sup 0/ beams (at the beam energy less than or equal to 80 keV with low species yield), tau/sub E/(a) values are as large as those for H/sup 0/ injection, but central confinement times are substantially greater. This is a consequence of the insensitivity of the temperature and safety factor profile shapes to the heating profile. The radial variation of tau/sub E/ is even more pronounced with D/sup 0/ injection into high density pellet-injected plasmas. 25 refs.

  4. ICRF hydrogen minority heating in the boronized ASDEX tokamak

    Ryter, F.; Braun, F.; Hofmeister, F.; Noterdaeme, J.M.; Steuer, K.H.; Wesner, F.

    1990-01-01

    Since the divertor of ASDEX has been modified (1986-87) the hydrogen concentration in deuterium plasmas could not be reduced below 10%, although the machine was operated for long periods of time with deuterium injection. This is probably due to desorption in the divertor as indicated by the increasing H-concentration during a deuterium injection pulse. As a consequence for H-minority heating in deuterium, the maximum power into ohmic plasmas without causing a disruption was limited to few hundred kW. A partial solution was ICRH in combination with deuterium injection which allowed us to apply up to 1.5 MW ICRH to the plasma. The beneficial role of the injection is attributed to an improved ICRH absorption and to the higher energy flux and temperature in the divertor. During the last ICRH campaign we operated mainly in helium plasmas for a lower hydrogen concentration and the vessel was boronised. The H-concentration is measured routinely by a mass spectrometer in the divertor chamber. This measurement does not give a fast response to eventual changes and also no absolute concentrations in the main plasma, but it gives a reliable estimate of the time evolution during one discharge or from shot to shot. The data from the mass spectrometer were often cross-checked with charge exchange measurements from the main plasma. In helium discharges the hydrogen concentration is around 2% in the ohmic phase but it increases up to 8% as ICRH is applied. Under these conditions the maximum available power (2.7 MW) could be applied to the plasma without causing a disruption. This is partly due to the low H-concentration in helium at the beginning of the ICRH pulse but also to the boronisation, as discussed in a later. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs

  5. Heating networks and domestic central heating systems

    Kamler, W; Wasilewski, W

    1976-08-01

    This is a comprehensive survey of the 26 contributions from 8 European countries submitted to the 3rd International District Heating Conference in Warsaw held on the subject 'Heating Networks and Domestic Central Heating Systems'. The contributions are grouped according to 8 groups of subjects: (1) heat carriers and their parameters; (2) system of heating networks; (3) calculation and optimization of heating networks; (4) construction of heating networks; (5) operation control and automation; (6) operational problems; (7) corrosion problems; and (8) methods of heat accounting.

  6. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  7. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh [Houston, TX; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  8. Confinement and βsub(p)-studies in neutral injection heated ASDEX plasmas

    Wagner, F.; Becker, G.; Behringer, K.; Campbell, D.; Eberhagen, A.; Engelhardt, W.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. von; Haas, G.; Huang, M.; Karger, F.; Keilhacker, M.; Klueber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lisitano, G.; Lister, G.G.; Mayer, H.M.; Meisel, D.; Mueller, E.R.; Murmann, H.; Niedermeyer, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Rapp, H.; Roehr, H; Schneider, F.; Siller, G.; Speth, E.; Staebler, A.; Steuer, K.H.; Succi, S.; Venus, G.; Vollmer, O.

    1983-03-01

    Neutral injection experiments into limiter and divertor discharges in ASDEX are described with hydrogen and deuterium as working gas. Two operational regimes have been observed in neutral injection heated divertor discharges. One regime is characterized by deteriorated energy and particle confinement. The global energy confinement times are comparable to those of neutral injection heated limited discharges. Tthe other regime has particle and energy confinement times comparable to those of ohmic discharges with tausub(E) = 40 - 60 msec at beam powers up to 3.1 MW. This regime is further characterized by high βsub(p)-values comparable to the aspect ratio A (βsub(p) proportional 0.65 A), by good electron heating (etasub(e) proportional 2.5 x 10 13 eV cm -3 kW -1 ) and ion heating (etasub(i) proportional 4.2 x 10 13 eV cm -3 kW -1 ). In both regimes, tausub(E) increases with plasma current but there is hardly any variation with density. The differences in confinement and scaling to ohmic discharges seem to be caused by modifications of the electron loss channel. The high βsub(p)-regime develops at an injection power >=1.8 MW, anti nsub(e) >= 3 x 10 13 cm -3 and q >= 2.45, and is so far only observed in divertor discharges. There are indications that this may be due to the broad profiles with high edge temperatures which can develop in divertor discharges. An indication of broad current density profiles is given by the lack of sawtooth activity in these discharges. (orig.)

  9. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  10. Heat exchanger

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  11. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  12. Low temperature nuclear heat

    Kotakorpi, J.; Tarjanne, R. [comps.

    1977-08-01

    The meeting was concerned with the use of low grade nuclear heat for district heating, desalination, process heat, and agriculture and aquaculture. The sessions covered applications and demand, heat sources, and economics.

  13. Radiofrequency plasma heating: proceedings

    Swenson, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The conference proceedings include sessions on Alfven Wave Heating, ICRF Heating and Current Drive, Lower Hybrid Heating and Current Drive, and ECRF Heating. Questions of confinement, diagnostics, instabilities and technology are considered. Individual papers are cataloged separately

  14. Split heat pipe heat recovery system

    E. Azad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of a split heat pipe heat recovery system. The analysis is based on an Effectiveness-NTU approach to deduce its heat transfer characteristics. In this study the variation of overall effectiveness of heat recovery with the number of transfer units are presented. Copyright , Manchester University Press.

  15. Segmented heat exchanger

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  16. Dual source heat pump

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  17. Review of preliminary additional heating experiments in JT-60 (Aug. - Nov., 1986)

    1987-03-01

    This is a prompt report on preliminary additional heating experiments in JT-60 from August to November in 1986. Neutral beam heating power was raised up to 20 MW in about a month. Plasma stored energy is about 2 MJ and energy confinement time is 0.1 ∼ 0.12 sec with the maximum heating power. The energy confinement time shows L-mode like deterioration with power, while it has little dependence on electron density. The maximum ion temperature of ∼ 7 keV and electron temperature of 4.5 keV were obtained at relatively low electron density (n-bar e = 2 - 3 x 10 19 m -3 ). Lower hybrid wave could efficiently drive plasma current up to 1.7 MA with 1.2 MW LH power. The current drive efficiency is 1 ∼ 1.7 in ohmically heated plasmas and 2 ∼ 2.8 in NB heated plasmas. Futhermore the energy confinement was improved when neutral beam was injected into entirely current driven discharges of 1 MA by LH in contrast to inductively driven target plasmas. Similar improvement in energy confinement was observed during combined heating with NB and ion cyclotron wave. (author)

  18. Small-scale automated biomass energy heating systems: a viable option for remote Canadian communities?

    McCallum, B. [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Industry, Economics and Programs Branch

    1997-12-31

    The potential benefits of wood energy (forest biomass) for space heating in Canada`s remote communities was discussed. Diesel fuel and heating oil must be transported into these communities to produce electricity and to heat large public buildings. Below the treeline, roundwood is often used to heat private homes. The move toward environmentally sustainable development has focussed much attention on renewable energy technologies such as biomass energy, (i.e. any form of energy derived from plant or animal materials). Wood is the most readily available biomass fuel in remote communities. Woodchips and sawmill waste can be burned in automated biomass heating systems which provide a convenient way to use low-grade wood to heat large buildings or groups of buildings which would not be feasible to heat with roundwood. It was shown that one cord of spruce can produce 1.5 tonnes of woodchips to ultimately displace 300 litres of heating oil. A description of a small-commercial and small-industrial biomass system was presented. The benefits of biomass were described as: (1) direct savings compared to high-cost oil heat, (2) increased circulation of energy dollars inside the community, and (3) employment opportunities in harvesting, processing and operating biomass systems. A steady supply of good quality woodchips to the heating plant must be ensured. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  19. Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 10 3 -10 5 W/m 2 K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included

  20. Radial transport effects on ECCD in the TCV and DIII-D tokamaks and on Ohmic discharges in the MST RFP

    Harvey, R.W.; Sauter, O.; Nikkola, P.; Prater, R.; O'Connell, R.; Forest, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    The comprehensive CQL3D Fokker-Planck/Quasilinear simulation code has been benchmarked against experiment over a wide range of electron cyclotron conditions in the DIII-D tokamak (C.C. Petty et al., 14. Topical Conf. on RF Power in Plasmas, 2002). The same code, in disagreement with experiment, gives 560 kA of ECCD for a well documented, completely ECCD-driven, 100 kA TCV shot [O. Sauter et al, PRL, 2000]. Recent work (R.W. Harvey et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002) has resolved the differences as due to radial transport at a level closely consistent with ITER scaling. Transport does not substantially affect DIII-D ECCD, but at similar ECH power has an overwhelming effect on the much smaller TCV. The transport is consistent with electrostatic-type diffusion (D ρρ constant in velocity space) and not with a magnetic-type diffusion (D ρρ ∝ |v || |). Fokker-Planck simulation of Ohmic reversed field pinch (RFP) discharges in the MST device reveals transport velocity dependence stronger than |v || |) will give agreement with current and soft X-ray spectra in standard discharges, but in the higher confinement, current profile controlled PPCD discharges, transport is again electrostatic-like. This is consistent with the object of PPCD, which is to replace magnetic turbulence driven current with auxiliary CD to improve transport. The tokamak and high-confinement RFP results mutually reinforce the constant-in-velocity-space 'electrostatic-type turbulence' conclusion. The steady-state energy and toroidal current are governed by the same radial transport equation. (authors)

  1. RADIAL TRANSPORT EFFECTS ON ECCD IN THE TCV AND DIII-D TOKAMAKS AND ON OHMIC DISCHARGES IN THE MST RFP

    HARVEY, R.W.; SAUTER, O.; PRATER, R.; NIKKOLA, P.; O'CONNELL, R.; FOREST, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    The comprehensive CQL3D Fokker-Planck/Quasilinear simulation code has been benchmarked against experiment over a wide range of electron cyclotron conditions in the DIII-D tokamak (C.C. Petty et al., 14th Topical Conf. on RF Power in Plasmas, 2002). The same code, in disagreement with experiment, gives 560 kA of ECCD for a well documented, completely ECCD-driven, 100 kA TCV shot [O. Sauter et al, PRL, 2000]. Recent work (R.W. Harvey et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002) has resolved the differences as due to radial transport at a level closely consistent with ITER scaling. Transport does not substantially affect DIII-D ECCD, but at similar ECH power has an overwhelming effect on the much smaller TCV. The transport is consistent with electrostatic-type diffusion (D ρρ constant in velocity-space) and not with a magnetic-type diffusion (D ρρ ∝ |v(parallel)|). Fokker-Planck simulation of Ohmic reversed field pinch (RFP) discharges in the MST device reveals transport velocity dependence stronger than |v(parallel)| will give agreement with current and soft X-ray spectra in standard discharges, but in the higher confinement, current profile controlled PPCD discharges, transport is again electrostatic-like. This is consistent with the object of PPCD, which is to replace magnetic turbulence driven current with auxiliary CD to improve transport. The tokamak and high-confinement RFP results mutually reinforce the constant-in-velocity-space ''electrostatic-type turbulence'' conclusion. The steady-state energy and toroidal current are governed by the same radial transport equation

  2. Heat pipe heat exchanger for heat recovery in air conditioning

    Abd El-Baky, Mostafa A.; Mohamed, Mousa M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minufiya University, Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2007-03-15

    The heat pipe heat exchangers are used in heat recovery applications to cool the incoming fresh air in air conditioning applications. Two streams of fresh and return air have been connected with heat pipe heat exchanger to investigate the thermal performance and effectiveness of heat recovery system. Ratios of mass flow rate between return and fresh air of 1, 1.5 and 2.3 have been adapted to validate the heat transfer and the temperature change of fresh air. Fresh air inlet temperature of 32-40{sup o}C has been controlled, while the inlet return air temperature is kept constant at about 26{sup o}C. The results showed that the temperature changes of fresh and return air are increased with the increase of inlet temperature of fresh air. The effectiveness and heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser sections are also increased to about 48%, when the inlet fresh air temperature is increased to 40{sup o}C. The effect of mass flow rate ratio on effectiveness is positive for evaporator side and negative for condenser side. The enthalpy ratio between the heat recovery and conventional air mixing is increased to about 85% with increasing fresh air inlet temperature. The optimum effectiveness of heat pipe heat exchanger is estimated and compared with the present experimental data. The results showed that the effectiveness is close to the optimum effectiveness at fresh air inlet temperature near the fluid operating temperature of heat pipes. (author)

  3. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  4. Heat transfer: Pittsburgh 1987

    Lyczkowski, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Process Heat Transfer; Thermal Hydraulics and Phase Change Phenomena; Analysis of Multicomponent Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer in Advanced Reactors; General Heat Transfer in Solar Energy; Numerical Simulation of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; High Temperature Heat Transfer; Heat Transfer Aspects of Severe Reactor Accidents; Hazardous Waste On-Site Disposal; and General Papers

  5. Industrial waste heat for district heating

    Heitner, K.L.; Brooks, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    Presents 2 bounding evaluations of industrial waste heat availability. Surveys waste heat from 29 major industry groups at the 2-digit level in Standard Industrial Codes (SIC). Explains that waste heat availability in each industry was related to regional product sales, in order to estimate regional waste heat availability. Evaluates 4 selected industries at the 4-digit SIC level. Finds that industrial waste heat represents a significant energy resource in several urban areas, including Chicago and Los Angeles, where it could supply all of these areas residential heating and cooling load. Points out that there is a strong need to evaluate the available waste heat for more industries at the 4-digit level. Urges further studies to identify other useful industrial waste heat sources as well as potential waste heat users

  6. Automation of heating system with heat pump

    Ferdin, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Because of high prices of energy, we are upgrading our heating systems with newer, more fuel efficient heating devices. Each new device has its own control system, which operates independently from other devices in a heating system. With a relatively low investment costs in automation, we can group devices in one central control system and increase the energy efficiency of a heating system. In this project, we show how to connect an oil furnace, a sanitary heat pump, solar panels and a heat p...

  7. Intermittent heating of buildings

    Kohonen, K

    1983-02-01

    Conditions for intermittent heating of buildings are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Thermal behaviour of buildings adn rooms in intermittent heating is simulated by a program based on the convective heat balance equation and by simplified RC-models. The preheat times and the heating energy savings compared with continuous heating are presented for typical lightweight, mediumweight and heavyweight classroom and office modules. Formulaes for estimating the oversizing of the radiator network, the maximum heat output of heat exchangers in district heating and the efficiency of heating boilers in intermittent heating are presented. The preheat times and heating energy savings with different heating control systems are determined also experimentally in eight existing buildings. In addition some principles for the planning and application of intermittent heating systems are suggested.

  8. Heat pump technology

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  9. Cryogenic heat transfer

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  10. Future heat supply of our cities. Heating by waste heat

    Brachetti, H E [Stadtwerke Hannover A.G. (Germany, F.R.); Technische Univ. Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1976-08-01

    The energy-price crisis resulted in structural changes of the complete energy supply and reactivated the question of energy management with respect to the optimum solution of meeting the energy requirements for space heating. Condensation power plants are increasingly replaced by thermal stations, the waste heat of which is used as so-called district heat. Thermal power stations must be situated close to urban areas. The problem of emission of harmful materials can partly be overcome by high-level emission. The main subject of the article, however, is the problem of conducting and distributing the heat. The building costs of heat pipeline systems and the requirements to be met by heat pipelines such as strength, heat insulation and protection against humidity and ground water are investigated.

  11. Heat-Related Illnesses

    ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  12. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Full Text Available ... Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Heat-Related Illnesses Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  13. Electron heating of voltage-driven and matched dual frequency discharges

    Lieberman, M A; Lichtenberg, A J

    2010-01-01

    In a dual frequency capacitive sheath, a high frequency uniform sheath motion is coupled with a low frequency Child law sheath motion. For current-driven high and low frequency sheaths, the high frequency sheath motion generates most of the ohmic and stochastic heating of the discharge electrons. The low frequency motion, in addition to its primary purpose of establishing the ion bombarding energy, also increases the heating by widening the sheath width and transporting the oscillating electrons to regions of lower plasma density, and hence higher sheath velocity. In this work, we show that for voltage-driven high and low frequency sheaths, increasing the low frequency voltage reduces the heating, due to the reduced high frequency current that flows through the sheath under voltage-driven conditions. We determine the dependence of the heating on various parameters and compare the results with the current-driven case. Particle-in-cell simulations are used to confirm this result. Discharges generally employ a matching network to maximize the power transmitted to the plasma. We obtain analytic expressions for the effect of the low frequency source under matched conditions and, again, find that the low frequency source reduces the heating.

  14. High-power ICRF and ICRF plus neutral-beam heating on PLT

    Hwang, D.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.

    1983-01-01

    PLT ICRF experiments with RF powers up to approx.=3 MW have demonstrated efficient plasma heating in both the minority fundamental and the second harmonic ion-cyclotron regimes. In the minority 3 He regime, ion temperatures of approx.=3 keV have been produced along with approx.=1 kW of D- 3 He fusion power and substantial electron heating. In the second harmonic H regime, an equivalent averaged ion energy of approx.=4 keV has been achieved. Combined ICRF plus neutral-beam heating experiments with auxiliary powers totalling up to 4.5 MW have provided insight into auxiliary heating performance at stored plasma energy levels up to approx.=100 kJ. Values of #betta#sub(phi) in the range of 1.5-2% have been attained for Bsub(phi) approx.=17 kG. Energetic discharges with n-barsub(e) up to approx.6x10 13 cm - 3 at Bsub(phi) approx.=28 kG have also been investigated. Preliminary confinement studies suggest that energetic ion losses may contribute to a direct loss of the input RF power in the H minority heating regime but are insignificant in the 3 He minority case. The energy confinement time for the H minority regime is reduced somewhat from the Ohmic value. (author)

  15. Experimental characteristics of ion Bernstein wave heating on JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    Ogawa, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Ando, R.

    1986-03-01

    The directly launched Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating experiments have been carried out on JIPP T-IIU tokamak for two experimental conditions; (a) the ''3rd-branch'' of the IBW between 3rd- and 4th-cyclotron harmonics of the deuterium, and (b) the ''2nd-branch'' of the IBW between 2nd- and 3rd-cyclotron harmonics. In the case (a), the direct hydrogen heating at ω = 1.5 Ω H has been found in previous experiments. Here we present additional data to support this subharmonics heating, i.e., the spectroscopic measurement of Fe XVIII lines and mass separated analysis of charge-exchange neutrals. While, in the case (b), the remarkable increase of the electron temperature has been observed, especially at the central region of the plasma, and it has been estimated from the global energy balance that almost all of IBW power is delivered to the electron. To investigate this difference of the heating mode, the power absorption has been calculated with the ray tracing code, taking into account of the effect of the plasma/antenna coupling. It is concluded from the consideration of the electron Landau damping that the transition from the ion heating mode to the electron one would be explained by the difference of the electron temperature at the ohmic phase; i.e., T e (0) = 0.7 keV for the case (a) and T e (0) = 1.3 keV for the case (b). (author)

  16. Investigation of impurity confinement in lower hybrid wave heated plasma on EAST tokamak

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z. W.; Zhang, L.; Gao, W.; Ye, Y.; Chen, K. Y.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, P. F.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Zhang, J. Z.; Duan, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Ding, S. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Chen, J. L.; Hu, L. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; the EAST Team

    2018-01-01

    The transient perturbation method with metallic impurities such as iron (Fe, Z  =  26) and copper (Cu, Z  =  29) induced in plasma-material interaction (PMI) procedure is used to investigate the impurity confinement characters in lower hybrid wave (LHW) heated EAST sawtooth-free plasma. The dependence of metallic impurities confinement time on plasma parameters (e.g. plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, electron density and heating power) are investigated in ohmic and LHW heated plasma. It is shown that LHW heating plays an important role in the reduction of the impurity confinement time in L-mode discharges on EAST. The impurity confinement time scaling is given as 42IP0.32Bt0.2\\overline{n}e0.43Ptotal-0.4~ on EAST, which is close to the observed scaling on Tore Supra and JET. Furthermore, the LHW heated high-enhanced-recycling (HER) H-mode discharges with ~25 kHz edge coherent modes (ECM), which have lower impurity confinement time and higher energy confinement time, provide promising candidates for high performance and steady state operation on EAST.

  17. Major results of the electron cyclotron heating experiment in the PDX tokamak

    Hsuan, H.; Bol, K.; Bowen, N.

    1984-07-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) experiments on PDX have been carried out with two 60 GHz pulsed gyrotrons each yielding up to approximately 100 kW. The ECH system used two waveguide runs each about 30 meters long. One run included 5 bends and the other, 7 bends. Predetermined waveguide modes were transmitted. The electron cyclotron waves were launched in narrow beams from both the high field and the low field sides of the plasma torus. The major new physics results are: (1) efficient central electron heating for both ohmic and neutral beam heated target plasmas; (2) alteration of MHD behavior using ECH; (3) identification of the trapped electron population with ECH; and (4) signature of velocity-space time evolution during ECH. In the best heating results obtained, Thomson scattering data indicated a central temperature increase from less than or equal to 1.5 keV to greater than or equal to 2.5 keV. This occurred with an average density of about 10 13 cm -3 and approximately 80 kW outside-launch ordinary-mode heating

  18. Absorption heat pump system

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  19. Heat Related Illnesses

    Carter, R; Cheuvront, S. N; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... The risk of serious heat illness can be markedly reduced by implementing a variety of countermeasures, including becoming acclimated to the heat, managing heat stress exposure, and maintaining hydration...

  20. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Heat Roadmap Europe (Pre-study 1) investigates the role of district heating in the EU27 energy system by mapping local conditions across Europe, identifying the potential for district heating expansion, and subsequently simulating the potential resource in an hourly model of the EU27 energy system....... In 2010, approximately 12% of the space heating demand in Europe is met by district heating, but in this study four alternative scenarios are considered for the EU27 energy system: 1. 2010 with 30% district heating 2. 2010 with 50% district heating 3. 2030 with 30% district heating 4. 2050 with 50......% district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step...