WorldWideScience

Sample records for focusing supermirror fabricated

  1. Development of precision elliptic neutron-focusing supermirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosobata, Takuya; Yamada, Norifumi L; Hino, Masahiro; Yamagata, Yutaka; Kawai, Toshihide; Yoshinaga, Hisao; Hori, Koichiro; Takeda, Masahiro; Takeda, Shin; Morita, Shin-Ya

    2017-08-21

    This paper details methods for the precision design and fabrication of neutron-focusing supermirrors, based on electroless nickel plating. We fabricated an elliptic mirror for neutron reflectometry, which is our second mirror improved from the first. The mirror is a 550-millimeter-long segmented mirror assembled using kinematic couplings, with each segment figured by diamond cutting, polished using colloidal silica, and supermirror coated through ion-beam sputtering. The mirror was evaluated with neutron beams, and the reflectivity was found to be 68-90% at a critical angle. The focusing width was 0.17 mm at the full width at half maximum.

  2. Optimization of focusing supermirror neutron guides for low γ-background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szakal, A.; Czifrus, Sz.; Marko, M.; Fuezi, J.; Rosta, L.; Cser, L.

    2011-01-01

    Supermirror coating is a significant source of γ-radiation in neutron guide systems, which can cause serious problems at instruments by increasing the γ-background. This problem is more stringent in case of γ-sensitive signal detection, like PGAA or in-beam Moessbauer spectroscopy. Shielding possibilities close to the sample are limited, but guide shape has significant effect on the number of γ-photons produced in this region. To develop good γ-shielding and guide system we have to understand the source and transport of γ-radiation in neutron guides and surrounding shieldings. We have developed a program which integrate VITESS and MCNPX to calculate the γ-background. We compared the simulated γ-background and guide performance with measurements on real focusing guide configurations.

  3. Prospects for supermirrors in hard x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    reflectivity for x rays. For hard x rays (≥ 15 keV), the absorption, however, is low enough that it is possible to design supermirrors with 10 - 70% reflectivity in a band ≈ 3 times the width of the total reflection regime. Supermirrors of W/Si and Ni/C have been successfully fabricated and characterized....... The measured x-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard x ray applications that could benefit from x-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, collimating and focusing devices for synchrotron......Supermirrors are multilayer structures where the thickness of the layers down through the structure changes so that wide-band reflection occurs. The principles were developed in the mid-70s and have been used extensively for neutron optics. Absorption in the upper layers limits the attainable...

  4. Prospects for supermirrors in hard x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    . The measured x-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard x ray applications that could benefit from x-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, collimating and focusing devices for synchrotron...

  5. Performance of remanent supermirror benders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M.; Rubio, D.; Tixier, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Hahn, W. [ISIS (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Polarising supermirrors composed of magnetic and non-magnetic layers have been deposited on thin glass sheets by means of reactive DC-magnetron sputtering. Benders that are composed of such glass have an excellent transmission and can be used for polarising neutrons in zero field. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  6. Neutron supermirrors and application to neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballot, B.; Samuel, F.; Farnoux, B.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic multilayers are now commonly used in many neutron optics devices like supermirrors. Supermirrors are made of stacks of aperiodic bilayers, and present a reflection coefficient close to one for angles much larger than the critical angle of nickel. We show here the results of investigation of neutron reflectometry of such supermirrors. They have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and are made of 25 layers of NiC and Ti, thicknesses of which were determined using the Hayter's algorithm [1]. This enables us to obtain on large surfaces 5x50 cm 2 , an effective critical angle of 1.9 times the critical angle of natural nickel. These supermirrors have been used in the construction of a new neutron guide on the ORPHEE reactor in the Leon Brillouin Laboratory of Saclay. The use of supermirrors enables us to enhance the transmission of the short wavelength by the guide, and so to increase the transmitted flux. ((orig.))

  7. Experience with supermirror production at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Elsenhans, O.; Friedli, H.P.; Grimmer, H.; Anderson, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    Supermirror coatings for the seven neutron guides of the continuous spallation source SINQ at PSI are being produced on a DC-magnetron sputtering plant at PSI since April 1993 at a rate of up to 2 meters of guide per day. All Supermirrors are characterised after production on the test spectrometer TOPSI at reactor Saphir. The more than 300 production runs allow interesting comparisons between coatings made on various types of glasses. (author) 3 figs

  8. Multilayer supermirrors: broadband reflection coatings for the 15- to 100-keV range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    Supermirrors are multilayer structures where the thickness of the layers down through the structure changes so that wide-band reflection occurs. The principles were developed in the mid-70's and have been used extensively for neutron optics. Absorption in the upper layers limits the attainable...... and characterized. The measured X-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard X-ray applications that could benefit from X-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, and collimating and focusing device...

  9. Characterization of neutron supermirror V-bender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, E. J.; Seong, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Hong, K. P.; Choi, B. H.; Lee, C. H

    2004-05-15

    Neutron supermirror is used not only for neutron guide tubes that their make it possible to transmit neutrons for long distance with low losses in intensity but for neutron benders used as a beam splitter. These devices are of main components of advanced neutron diffractometer or spectrometer with cold neutrons. In this report, the basic principles and applications of neutron guide tube and neutron supermirror as well as the performance test results of neutron V-bender were introduced. These information will be used for the development of advance cold neutron spectrometers in the future.

  10. Characterization of neutron supermirror V-bender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, E. J.; Seong, B. S.; Lee, J. S.; Hong, K. P.; Choi, B. H.; Lee, C. H.

    2004-05-01

    Neutron supermirror is used not only for neutron guide tubes that their make it possible to transmit neutrons for long distance with low losses in intensity but for neutron benders used as a beam splitter. These devices are of main components of advanced neutron diffractometer or spectrometer with cold neutrons. In this report, the basic principles and applications of neutron guide tube and neutron supermirror as well as the performance test results of neutron V-bender were introduced. These information will be used for the development of advance cold neutron spectrometers in the future

  11. Text experiments of disk chopper with supermirror converging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, K.; Soyama, K.; Matsubayashi, M.; Suzuki, J.; Watanabe, N.

    2001-01-01

    We measured transportation property of neutron pulsed by disk chopper with three kinds of setting of supermirror guide at JRR-3M, JAERI. We confirmed a gain of supermirror converging system to narrow straight supermirror system. The gain is approximately same as the ratio of entrance width of converging guide to width of narrow straight guide. On the other hand, we did not get a gain of supermirror converging system to wide straight supermirror system which has a same width to entrance width of converging guide and we will plan more precisely experiment. (author)

  12. Text experiments of disk chopper with supermirror converging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, K.; Soyama, K.; Matsubayashi, M.; Suzuki, J.; Watanabe, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    We measured transportation property of neutron pulsed by disk chopper with three kinds of setting of supermirror guide at JRR-3M, JAERI. We confirmed a gain of supermirror converging system to narrow straight supermirror system. The gain is approximately same as the ratio of entrance width of converging guide to width of narrow straight guide. On the other hand, we did not get a gain of supermirror converging system to wide straight supermirror system which has a same width to entrance width of converging guide and we will plan more precisely experiment. (author)

  13. Rapid prototyping fabrication of focused ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohan; Maxwell, Adam D; Hall, Timothy L; Xu, Zhen; Lin, Kuang-Wei; Cain, Charles A

    2014-09-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) fabrication techniques are currently widely used in diverse industrial and medical fields, providing substantial advantages in development time and costs in comparison to more traditional manufacturing processes. This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of high-intensity focused ultrasound transducers using RP technology. The construction of a large-aperture hemispherical transducer designed by computer software is described to demonstrate the process. The transducer was conceived as a modular design consisting of 32 individually focused 50.8-mm (2-in) PZT-8 element modules distributed in a 300-mm hemispherical scaffold with a geometric focus of 150 mm. The entire structure of the array, including the module housings and the hemispherical scaffold was fabricated through a stereolithography (SLA) system using a proprietary photopolymer. The PZT elements were bonded to the lenses through a quarter-wave tungsten-epoxy matching layer developed in-house specifically for this purpose. Modules constructed in this manner displayed a high degree of electroacoustic consistency, with an electrical impedance mean and standard deviation of 109 ± 10.2 Ω for the 32 elements. Time-of-flight measurements for individually pulsed modules mounted on the hemispherical scaffold showed that all pulses arrived at the focus within a 350 ns range, indicating a good degree of element alignment. Pressure profile measurements of the fully assembled transducer also showed close agreement with simulated results. The measured focal beam FWHM dimensions were 1.9 × 4.0 mm (1.9 × 3.9 mm simulated) in the transversal and axial directions respectively. Total material expenses associated with the construction of the transducer were approximately 5000 USD (as of 2011). The versatility and lower fabrication costs afforded by RP methods may be beneficial in the development of complex transducer geometries suitable for a variety of research and clinical applications.

  14. A remanent Fe/Si supermirror transmission polarizer

    CERN Document Server

    Stahn, J

    2002-01-01

    In order to develop a neutron spin polarizer on the basis of magnetically remanent supermirrors, we produced a first Fe/Si supermirror (m=2, q=0.044 A sup - sup 1) giving polarizations of 96% to 98%. The addition of the reactive gases O sub 2 and N sub 2 to Si reduced the stress in the supermirror and improved the matching of Si and Fe for spin-down neutrons. (orig.)

  15. Focused Ion Beam Fabrication of Microelectronic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Focused Ion Beams and Applications, Portland, OR Dec. 1990. 28. Y.L. Wang, H. Temkin , L.R. Harriott, R.A. Logan, and T. Tanban-Ek. Appi. Phys. Lett. 571864...been used.(2 8 ,3 0) In addition, in-situ measurement of adsorption rates and deposition rates can be readily obtained by using a quartz crystal...not well understood at the present time. Possible rate limiting steps in this process " .. are adsorption of molecules, decomposition of molecules, and

  16. First flux measurement in a SINQ supermirror neutron guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S.; Schlumpf, N.; Bauer, G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    On Dec. 3, 1996, the Swiss spallation neutron source SINQ was taken into operation and produced its first neutrons successfully. The neutron spectrum within one of the supermirror guides was estimated by a chopper Time-of-Flight method. The result shows a 30% higher neutron intensity at the flux maximum than expected from previous Monte-Carlo simulations. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  17. Focused-ion-beam deposition for 3-D nanostructure fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shinji

    2007-04-01

    Three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication has been demonstrated by 30 keV Ga+ focused-ion-beam chemical-vapor-deposition (FIB-CVD) using a phenanthrene (C14H10) source as a precursor. Microstructure plastic arts is advocated as a new field using micro-beam technology, presenting one example of micro-wine-glass with 2.75 μm external diameter and 12 μm height. The deposition film is a diamond like amorphous carbon. A large Young's modulus that exceeds 600 GPa seems to present great possibilities for various applications. Producing of three-dimensional nanostructure is discussed. Micro-coil, nanoelectrostatic actuator and nano-space-wiring with 0.1 μm dimension are demonstrated as parts of nanomechanical system. Furthermore, filtering tool is also fabricated as a novel nano-tool for the manipulation and analysis of subcellular organelles.

  18. Optical fiber sensors fabricated by the focused ion beam technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wang, Fei; Bang, Ole

    2012-01-01

    crystal fiber (PCF). Using this technique we fabricate a highly compact fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot (FP) refractive index sensor near the tip of fiber taper, and a highly sensitive in-line temperature sensor in PCF. We also demonstrate the potential of using FIB to selectively fill functional fluid......Focused ion beam (FIB) is a highly versatile technique which helps to enable next generation of lab-on-fiber sensor technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate the use application of FIB to precisely mill the fiber taper and end facet of both conventional single mode fiber (SMF) and photonic...

  19. Fabrication of circular sawtooth gratings using focused UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Wujun; Karlsson, Staffan; Danielsson, Mats; Nillius, Peter; Holmberg, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel micro-fabrication method using focused ultraviolet (UV) light to manufacture three-dimensional sawtooth structures in ultra-thick negative photoresist to fabricate a novel multi-prism x-ray lens. The method uses a lens to shape the UV beam instead of the photomask conventionally used in UV lithography. Benefits of this method include the ability to manufacture sawtooth structures in free form, for example in circular shapes as well as arrays of these shapes, and in resist that is up to 76 μm thick. To verify the method, initially a simple simulation based on Fourier optics was done to predict the exposure energy distribution in the photoresist. Furthermore, circular sawtooth gratings were manufactured in a 76 μm SU-8 resist. The UV lens was fabricated using electron beam lithography and then used to expose the SU-8 with UV light. This paper details the complete developed process, including pre-exposure with an e-beam and cold development, which creates stable sawtooth structures. The measured profile was compared to the ideal sawtooth and the simulation. The main discrepancy was in the smallest feature size, the sawtooth tips, which were wider than the desired structures, as would be expected by simulation. (paper)

  20. Non-uniform transmission of supermirror devices for neutron polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, X., E-mail: tongx@ornl.gov [Instrument and Source Design Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge 37831, TN (United States); Robertson, J.L. [Instrument and Source Design Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge 37831, TN (United States); Pynn, R. [Instrument and Source Design Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge 37831, TN (United States); Indiana University Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington 47408, IN (United States)

    2014-12-21

    Polarizing supermirrors have been widely used in neutron scattering facilities where they have been employed as neutron spin filters to polarize neutron beams as well as analyze their polarization. In the past, the performance of polarizing supermirrors has been limited by their small acceptance angle, which made them less suitable for use at short wavelengths or with highly divergent beams. Recent advances in supermirror coatings have led to an array of devices designed to, at least partially, overcome this limitation. V-polarizers and multi-channel polarizers have been employed in several different types of neutron scattering instruments. However, our observations in the field where these types of polarizers are in use have raised concerns about their performance. In this paper, we report on detailed Monte-Carlo simulations performed on a multi-channel polarizer used on a prototype Spin-Echo Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) instrument to better understand its performance. Our results show that careful simulations of polarizers based on mirror reflection are needed to determine whether a particular design is suitable for SESANS applications.

  1. Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooji Yamada, Hiroshi Yamaguchi and Sunao Ishihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS are widely used small electromechanical systems made of micrometre-sized components. Presently, we are witnessing a transition from MEMS to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS, which comprise devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale and offer new exciting applications. Similarly to MEMS, NEMS typically include a central transistor-like nanoelectronic unit for data processing, as well as mechanical actuators, pumps, and motors; and they may combine with physical, biological and chemical sensors. In the transition from MEMS to NEMS, component sizes need to be reduced. Therefore, many fabrication methods previously developed for MEMS are unsuitable for the production of high-precision NEMS components. The key challenge in NEMS is therefore the development of new methods for routine and reproducible nanofabrication. Two complementary types of method for NEMS fabrication are available: 'top-down' and 'bottom-up'. The top-down approach uses traditional lithography technologies, whereas bottom-up techniques include molecular self-organization, self-assembly and nanodeposition.The NT2008 conference, held at Ishikawa High-Tech Conference Center, Ishikawa, Japan, between 23–25 October 2008, focused on novel NEMS fabricated from new materials and on process technologies. The topics included compound semiconductors, small mechanical structures, nanostructures for micro-fluid and bio-sensors, bio-hybrid micro-machines, as well as their design and simulation.This focus issue compiles seven articles selected from 13 submitted manuscripts. The articles by Prinz et al and Kehrbusch et al introduce the frontiers of the top-down production of various operational NEMS devices, and Kometani et al present an example of the bottom-up approach, namely ion-beam induced deposition of MEMS and NEMS. The remaining articles report novel technologies for biological sensors. Taira et al have used

  2. Development of high-polarization Fe/Ge neutron polarizing supermirror: Possibility of fine-tuning of scattering length density in ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, R.; Yamazaki, D.; Akutsu, K.; Hanashima, T.; Miyata, N.; Aoki, H.; Takeda, M.; Soyama, K.

    2018-04-01

    The multilayer structure of Fe/Si and Fe/Ge systems fabricated by ion beam sputtering (IBS) was investigated using X-ray and polarized neutron reflectivity measurements and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The obtained result revealed that the incorporation of sputtering gas particles (Ar) in the Ge layer gives rise to a marked reduction in the neutron scattering length density (SLD) and contributes to the SLD contrast between the Fe and Ge layers almost vanishing for spin-down neutrons. Bundesmann et al. (2015) have shown that the implantation of primary Ar ions backscattered at the target is responsible for the incorporation of Ar particles and that the fraction increases with increasing ion incidence angle and increasing polar emission angle. This leads to a possibility of fine-tuning of the SLD for the IBS, which is required to realize a high polarization efficiency of a neutron polarizing supermirror. Fe/Ge polarizing supermirror with m = 5 fabricated under the same condition showed a spin-up reflectivity of 0.70 at the critical momentum transfer. The polarization was higher than 0.985 for the qz range where the correction for the polarization inefficiencies of the beamline works properly. The result of the polarized neutron reflectivity measurement suggests that the "magnetically-dead" layers formed at both sides of the Fe layer, together with the SLD contrast, play a critical role in determining the polarization performance of a polarizing supermirror.

  3. Behavior under irradiation of super-mirror for neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Guy-Marechal, K.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the aging of NiCx/Ti super-mirror multilayers used in neutron guides under thermal neutron irradiation. These multilayers allow an increase of the apparent critical angle of total reflection by creating constructive interferences. Neutrons fluxes are thus increased in neutron guides made with a super-mirror coating. Thin films of one and ten bilayers have been deposited on a silicon and a borosilicate glass substrate. We have then studied the evolution of their optical, structural and mechanical properties after irradiation and annealing. After irradiation, a decrease in neutron reflectivity has been observed, due to the interdiffusion of both materials: this phenomenon was particularly important in the coatings deposited on a glass substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy have shown that the structural evolutions of both nickel and titanium do not depend on the substrate. Nickel layers remain face-centered cubic after treatment, whereas the initially hexagonal closed-packed titanium becomes face-centered cubic with a texture in the [111] direction. This phase transformation has been attributed to the formation of a TiH compound containing as much as 50% hydrogen. Despite these structural changes, stress relaxation has occurred after irradiation in our layers. On the contrary, the mean stress that we have determined in previous samples, elaborated in another laboratory, has increased after irradiation. Comparison of both results shows that stress evolution is linked to the deposition conditions. As stress remains almost unchanged after annealing, we may conclude that only irradiation defects, and not heating, lead to stress evolution. Our samples being very similar to real neutron guides, we can extend the results we have obtained in this work to real super-mirrors. (author)

  4. Layer-by-layer magnetometry of polarizing supermirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Ruecker, U; Toperverg, B; Brueckel, T; Ott, F

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the remagnetization behaviour of remanent polarizing supermirrors by polarized neutron reflectometry. Such a mirror can be remagnetized in a magnetic field of 30 mT. It is shown, that at lower fields, the mirror is not completely remagnetized, but the magnetization of the thinner layers can be flipped more easily than the magnetization of the thicker layers. With polarized neutron reflectometry, we are able to find out exactly how many layers are magnetized parallel and how many are magnetized antiparallel to the external field. Furthermore, information about structural and magnetic imperfections (roughness, domain formation) is available. (orig.)

  5. Analysis and design of multilayer structures for neutron monochromators and supermirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masalovich, S.

    2013-01-01

    A relatively simple and accurate analytical model for studying the reflectivity of neutron multilayer monochromators and supermirrors is proposed. Design conditions that must be fulfilled in order to reach the maximum reflectivity are considered. The question of the narrowest bandwidth of a monochromator is discussed and the number of layers required to build such a monochromator is derived. Finally, we propose a new and efficient algorithm for synthesis of a supermirror with specified parameters and discuss some inherent restrictions on an attainable reflectivity. -- Highlights: • The inequality (not equation) that defines the thicknesses of layers was obtained. • Ready-to-use formula for the width of the spectral line was found. • Non-quarter-wave monochromators were suggested. • We propose a new algorithm for design of a neutron supermirror. • The problem of minimizing the number of layers in a supermirror is raised

  6. New design concept of hard x-ray supermirrors for astronomical x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhu, Jingtao; Tan, Moyan; Jiang, Li; Wang, Zhanshan

    2010-10-01

    A numerical and analysis method for optimizing multilayer supermirrors is developed based on the combination of the power-law method and the local optimization method of simplex algorithm. The parameters in the power-law formula are optimized by genetic algorithm. This allows a global minimization of the merit function and a many-fold decrease of the computing time. Several groups of X-ray supermirrors with the energy extended to 30 keV are successfully designed using this optimization method for a hard X-ray telescope. Tungsten and boron carbide are chosen as the multilayer materials. High reflectivity and high effective area are obtained, indicating that this numerical and analysis method is an effective tool to design hard X-ray supermirrors.

  7. Direct fabrication of nano-gap electrodes by focused ion beam etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Takashi; Gamo, Kenji; Kubota, Tohru; Mashiko, Shinro

    2006-01-01

    A simple approach to increase the reliability of nano-gap electrode fabrication techniques is presented. The method is based on maskless sputter etching of Au electrodes using a focused ion beam (FIB) and in-situ monitoring of the etching steps by measuring a current fed to the Au electrodes. The in-situ monitoring is crucial to form nano-gaps much narrower than a FIB spot size. By using this approach, gaps of ∼3-6 nm are fabricated with the high yield of ∼90%, and most of the fabricated nano-gap electrodes showed high resistances of 10 GΩ-1 TΩ. The controllability of the fabrication steps is significantly improved by using triple-layered films consisting of top Ti, Au, and bottom adhesion Ti layers. The applicability of the fabricated nano-gap electrodes to electron transport studies of nano-sized objects is demonstrated by electrical measurement of Au colloidal nano-particles

  8. Fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingsheng; Chen Hongda; Xiong Zhigang; Jin Aizi; Gu Changzhi; Cheng Bingying; Zhang Daozhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam machine, it shows that the method of focused-ion beam can fabricate two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic crystal device efficiently, and the quality of the fabricated photonic crystal is high. Using the focused-ion beam method, we fabricate photonic crystal wavelength division multiplexer, and its characteristics are analyzed

  9. Multilayered supermirror structures for hard x-ray synchrotron and astrophysics instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Hoeghoej, P.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1993-01-01

    By varying the thickness of the layers in a multilayer down through the structure, it is possible to produce wide-band reflectors. We report measurements and modeling of the reflectivity of Ni/C, Mo/Si and W/Si supermirrors, at energies ranging from 8 to 130 keV, and discuss the performance of tw...

  10. Bulk focused ion beam fabrication with three-dimensional shape control of nanoelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vick, D; Sauer, V; Freeman, M R; Hiebert, W K; Fraser, A E

    2010-01-01

    Although focused ion beam (FIB) milling has previously been used for fabrication of compliant nanostructures and devices, few instances of FIB nanomachining of such devices out of bulk materials have been reported. We use FIB to fabricate nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) devices out of bulk materials. Ion impingement from multiple directions allows sculpting with considerable three-dimensional control of device shape, including tapering and notching. Finite-element modeling of device frequencies agrees with optical interferometric measurements, including for the effect of a localized notch. We envision that bulk FIB fabrication will be useful for NEMS prototyping, milling of tough-to-machine materials and generalized nanostructure fabrication with three-dimensional shape control

  11. FOREWORD: Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties Focus on Novel Nanoelectromechanical 3D Structures: Fabrication and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shooji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Sunao

    2009-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are widely used small electromechanical systems made of micrometre-sized components. Presently, we are witnessing a transition from MEMS to nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), which comprise devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale and offer new exciting applications. Similarly to MEMS, NEMS typically include a central transistor-like nanoelectronic unit for data processing, as well as mechanical actuators, pumps, and motors; and they may combine with physical, biological and chemical sensors. In the transition from MEMS to NEMS, component sizes need to be reduced. Therefore, many fabrication methods previously developed for MEMS are unsuitable for the production of high-precision NEMS components. The key challenge in NEMS is therefore the development of new methods for routine and reproducible nanofabrication. Two complementary types of method for NEMS fabrication are available: 'top-down' and 'bottom-up'. The top-down approach uses traditional lithography technologies, whereas bottom-up techniques include molecular self-organization, self-assembly and nanodeposition. The NT2008 conference, held at Ishikawa High-Tech Conference Center, Ishikawa, Japan, between 23-25 October 2008, focused on novel NEMS fabricated from new materials and on process technologies. The topics included compound semiconductors, small mechanical structures, nanostructures for micro-fluid and bio-sensors, bio-hybrid micro-machines, as well as their design and simulation. This focus issue compiles seven articles selected from 13 submitted manuscripts. The articles by Prinz et al and Kehrbusch et al introduce the frontiers of the top-down production of various operational NEMS devices, and Kometani et al present an example of the bottom-up approach, namely ion-beam induced deposition of MEMS and NEMS. The remaining articles report novel technologies for biological sensors. Taira et al have used manganese nanoparticles

  12. Fabrication of a side aligned optical fibre interferometer by focused ion beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Miller, M K; Ritchie, J M; Luo, X; Li, J; Maier, R R J; Hand, D P; MacPherson, W N

    2013-01-01

    Focused ion beam (FIB) machining is a promising technique for the fabrication of micro-optical components with high quality surface finishes. In this work, a prototype of a side aligned optical fibre interferometer was successfully fabricated by the three-dimensional deterministic FIB machining technique. A highly accurate 45° reflective mirror with surface roughness (Ra) of 10 nm has been successfully fabricated at the centre of the fibre to direct the core guided light to the side of the fibre. A surface topography simulation method was developed to simulate the ion beam polishing process. According to the simulation result, a 0.5° offset on the ion beam polishing direction is necessary to maintain the machining accuracy. In the fabrication process, it was also found that for structures requiring a high aspect ratio the existence of an open edge can mitigate against the material redeposition on the sidewalls and therefore increase the overall material removal rate. The fibre has been tested optically and the interference signals have been successfully observed, demonstrating the alignment accuracy of the fabrication method. (paper)

  13. Fabrication of nested elliptical KB mirrors using profile coating for synchrotron radiation X-ray focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Assoufid, L.; Qian, J.; Shi, B.; Khachatryan, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Zschack, P.; Tischler, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fabrication methods used to demonstrate the advantages of nested or Montel optics for micro/nanofocusing of synchrotron X-ray beams. A standard Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system uses two separated elliptical mirrors at glancing angles to the X-ray beam and sequentially arranged at 90° to each other to focus X-rays successively in the vertical and horizontal directions. A nested KB mirror system has the two mirrors positioned perpendicular and side-by-side to each other. Compared to a standard KB mirror system, Montel optics can focus a larger divergence and the mirrors can have a shorter focal length. As a result, nested mirrors can be fabricated with improved demagnification factor and ultimately smaller focal spot, than with a standard KB arrangement. The nested system is also more compact with an increased working distance, and is more stable, with reduced complexity of mirror stages. However, although Montel optics is commercially available for laboratory X-ray sources, due to technical difficulties they have not been used to microfocus synchrotron radiation X-rays, where ultra-precise mirror surfaces are essential. The main challenge in adapting nested optics for synchrotron microfocusing is to fabricate mirrors with a precise elliptical surface profile at the very edge where the two mirrors meet and where X-rays scatter. For example, in our application to achieve a sub-micron focus with high efficiency, a surface figure root-mean-square (rms) error on the order of 1 nm is required in the useable area along the X-ray footprint with a ∼0.1 mm-diameter cross section. In this paper we describe promising ways to fabricate precise nested KB mirrors using our profile coating technique and inexpensive flat Si substrates.

  14. Nanoelectromechanical device fabrications by 3-D nanotechnology using focused-ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reo Kometani and Sunao Ishihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoelectromechanical devices, which can be used as nanotools in nanofactories, were fabricated by focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD. The devices are made of diamond-like carbon (DLC, deposited on a Si substrate using gasified phenanthrene (C14H10 as a carbon source. The Young modulus and density of the deposited DLC were measured as 190 GPa and 3.8 g cm−3, respectively. The work function was smaller for DLC (2.9 eV than for W (4.7 eV and Fe (5.2 eV deposited by FIB-CVD. A nanomanipulator was manufactured by FIB-CVD and used for actual manipulations. A glass capillary based local field emitter was developed and produced as a tool for spot deposition, and its electron field emission was confirmed. FIB-CVD is proven as an efficient fabrication technology of novel nanoelectromechanical devices.

  15. Photopolymerization of complex emulsions with irregular shapes fabricated by multiplex coaxial flow focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Chaoyu; Yang, Jianxin; Huang, Fangsheng; Liu, Guangli; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X.

    2018-02-01

    We fabricate complex emulsions with irregular shapes in the microscale by a simple but effective multiplex coaxial flow focusing process. A multiphase cone-jet structure is steadily formed, and the compound liquid jet eventually breaks up into Janus microdroplets due to the perturbations propagating along the jet interfaces. The microdroplet shapes can be exclusively controlled by interfacial tensions of adjacent phases. Crescent-moon-shaped microparticles and microcapsules with designated structural characteristics are further produced under ultraviolet light of photopolymerization after removing one hemisphere of the Janus microdroplets. These complex emulsions have potential applications in bioscience, food, functional materials, and controlled drug delivery.

  16. Machining with micro-size single crystalline diamond tools fabricated by a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, X; Butler, D L; Lim, G C; Shaw, K C; Liu, K; Fong, W S; Zheng, H Y; Cheng, C K

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to understand the physics of micro-scale mechanical machining (henceforth referred to as 'micro-machining') with a micro-size tool using a five-axis ultra-precision machine. A micro-size single crystalline diamond (SCD) tool with sharp cutting edges fabricated by a focused ion beam (FIB) was employed to orthogonal-machine four materials (three polycrystalline metals with various grain sizes and one amorphous metal plating material). Since the wealth of knowledge of macro-machining cannot be successfully used in micro-machining, this study contributes to the understanding of the physics of mechanical machining with micro-size tools

  17. An angled nano-tunnel fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) by a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her, Eun Kyu; Chung, Hee-Suk; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Angled nano-scale tunnels with high aspect ratio were fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a focused ion beam (FIB). The fabrication parameters such as ion fluence, incidence angle, and acceleration voltage of the Ga + ion beam were first studied on the PMMA surface to explore the formation of the nano-scale configurations such as nano-holes and cones with diameter in the range of 50-150 nm at an ion beam acceleration voltage of 5-20 kV. It was also found that the PMMA surface exposed to FIB was changed into an amorphous graphitic structure. Angled nano-scale tunnels were fabricated with high aspect ratio of 700-1500 nm in depth and 60 nm in mean diameter at an ion beam acceleration voltage of 5 kV and under a specific ion beam current. The angle of the nano-tunnels was found to follow the incident angle of the ion beam tilted from 0 0 to 85 0 , which has the potential for creating a mold for anisotropic adhesives by mimicking the hairs on a gecko's feet.

  18. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75 0 . The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin

  19. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Ali Ozhan [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Rha, Jong-Joo [Surface Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 66 Sangnam-Dong, Changwon-Shi, Kyungnam-Do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Don [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eung-Sug [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 171 Jang-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70-86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75{sup 0}. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  20. Boron nitride stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprinting lithography fabricated by focused ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhan Altun, Ali; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Rha, Jong-Joo; Kim, Ki-Don; Lee, Eung-Sug

    2007-11-01

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) is one of the hardest known materials (second after diamond). It has a high level of chemical resistance and high UV transmittance. In this study, a stamp for ultra-violet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) was fabricated using a bi-layered BN film deposited on a quartz substrate. Deposition of the BN was done using RF magnetron sputtering. A hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer was deposited for 30 min before c-BN was deposited for 30 min. The thickness of the film was measured as 160 nm. The phase of the c-BN layer was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and it was found that the c-BN layer has a 40% cubic phase. The deposited film was patterned using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography for use as a UV-NIL stamp. Line patterns were fabricated with the line width and line distance set at 150 and 150 nm, respectively. The patterning process was performed by applying different currents to observe the effect of the current value on the pattern profile. The fabricated patterns were investigated using AFM, and it was found that the pattern fabricated by applying a current value of 50 picoamperes (pA) has a better profile with a 65 nm line depth. The UV transmittance of the 160 nm thick film was measured to be 70 86%. The hardness and modulus of the BN was measured to be 12 and 150 GPa, respectively. The water contact angle of the stamp surface was measured at 75°. The stamp was applied to UV-NIL without coating with an anti-adhesion layer. Successful imprinting was proved via scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the imprinted resin.

  1. Design and fabrication of a multi-focusing artificial compound eyes with negative meniscus substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jiasai; Guo, Yongcai; Wang, Xin; Fan, Fenglian

    2017-01-01

    Miniaturized artificial compound eyes with a large field of view (FOV) have potential application in the area of micro-optical-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS). A new non-uniform microlens array (MLA) on a negative meniscus substrate, fabricated by the melting photoresist method, was proposed in this paper. The multi-focusing MLA reduced the defocus effectively, which was caused by the uniform array on a spherical substrate. Moreover, like most ommatidia in compound eyes, each microlens of the multi-focusing MLA was arranged in one of the eleven concentric circles. In order to match with the multi-focusing MLA and avoid the total reflection, the negative meniscus substrate was fabricated by a homebuilt mold with a micro-hole array and polydimethylsiloxane coelomic compartment attached. The coelomic compartment is capable of offering an excellent injection environment without bubbles and impurities. Due to the direct 3D implementation of the MLA, rich available materials can be used by this method without substrate reshaping. As the molding material, the ultraviolet curing adhesive NOA81 can be cured within ten few seconds under ultraviolet which relieve intensive labor and protect the stereolithography apparatus effectively. The experimental results show that this new MLA has a better imaging performance, higher light usage efficiency and larger FOV because of the negative meniscus and multi-focusing MLA. Moreover, due to the homebuilt mold, more accurate geometrical parameters and shorter processing cycle were realized. Accordingly, together with an appropriate hardware, this MLA has diverse potential applications in medical imaging, military and machine vision. (paper)

  2. Design and fabrication of a multi-focusing artificial compound eyes with negative meniscus substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiasai; Guo, Yongcai; Wang, Xin; Fan, Fenglian

    2017-04-01

    Miniaturized artificial compound eyes with a large field of view (FOV) have potential application in the area of micro-optical-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS). A new non-uniform microlens array (MLA) on a negative meniscus substrate, fabricated by the melting photoresist method, was proposed in this paper. The multi-focusing MLA reduced the defocus effectively, which was caused by the uniform array on a spherical substrate. Moreover, like most ommatidia in compound eyes, each microlens of the multi-focusing MLA was arranged in one of the eleven concentric circles. In order to match with the multi-focusing MLA and avoid the total reflection, the negative meniscus substrate was fabricated by a homebuilt mold with a micro-hole array and polydimethylsiloxane coelomic compartment attached. The coelomic compartment is capable of offering an excellent injection environment without bubbles and impurities. Due to the direct 3D implementation of the MLA, rich available materials can be used by this method without substrate reshaping. As the molding material, the ultraviolet curing adhesive NOA81 can be cured within ten few seconds under ultraviolet which relieve intensive labor and protect the stereolithography apparatus effectively. The experimental results show that this new MLA has a better imaging performance, higher light usage efficiency and larger FOV because of the negative meniscus and multi-focusing MLA. Moreover, due to the homebuilt mold, more accurate geometrical parameters and shorter processing cycle were realized. Accordingly, together with an appropriate hardware, this MLA has diverse potential applications in medical imaging, military and machine vision.

  3. Aging under irradiation of super-mirrors used in neutron guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Guy-Marechal, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the aging of NiC x /Ti super-mirror multilayers used in neutron guides under thermal neutron irradiation. These multilayers allow an increase of the apparent critical angle of total reflection by creating constructive interferences. Neutrons fluxes are thus increased in neutron guides made with a super-mirror coating. Thin films of one and ten bilayers have been deposited on a silicon and a borosilicate glass substrate. We have then studied the evolution of their optical, structural and mechanical properties after irradiation and annealing. After irradiation, a decrease in neutron reflectivity has been observed, due to the interdiffusion of both materials: this phenomenon was particularly important in the coatings deposited on a glass substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy have shown that the structural evolutions of both nickel and titanium do not depend on the substrate. Nickel layers remain face-centered cubic after treatment, whereas the initially hexagonal closed-packed titanium becomes face-centered cubic with a texture in the [111] direction. This phase transformation has been attributed to the formation of a TiH compound containing as much as 50 % hydrogen. Despite these structural changes, stress relaxation has occurred after irradiation in our layers. On the contrary, then mean stress that we have determined in previous samples, elaborated in another laboratory, has increased after irradiation. Comparison of both results shows that stress evolution is linked to the deposition conditions. As stress remains almost unchanged after annealing, we may conclude that only irradiation defects, and not heating, lead to stress evolution. Our samples being very similar to real neutron guides, we can extend the results we have obtained in this work to real super-mirrors. (author)

  4. Fabrication of phonon-based metamaterial structures using focused ion beam patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassim, Nabil D.; Giles, Alexander J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Caldwell, Joshua D.

    2018-02-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) is a powerful tool for rapid prototyping and machining of functional nanodevices. It is employed regularly to fabricate test metamaterial structures but, to date, has been unsuccessful in fabricating metamaterial structures with features at the nanoscale that rely on surface phonons as opposed to surface plasmons because of the crystalline damage that occurs with the collision cascade associated with ion sputtering. In this study, we employ a simple technique of protecting the crystalline substrate in single-crystal 4H-SiC to design surface phonon polariton-based optical resonance structures. By coating the material surface with a thin film of chromium, we have placed a material of high sputter resistance on the surface, which essentially absorbs the energy in the beam tails. When the beam ultimately punches through the Cr film, the hard walls in the film have the effect of channeling the beam to create smooth sidewalls. This demonstration opens the possibility of further rapid-prototyping of metamaterials using FIB.

  5. Three-Dimensional Nanostructure Fabrication by Focused Ion Beam Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shinji

    In this chapter, we describe three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication using 30 keV Ga+ focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) and a phenanthrene (C14H10) source as a precursor. We also consider microstructure plastic art, which is a new field that has been made possible by microbeam technology, and we present examples of such art, including a "micro wine glass" with an external diameter of 2.75 μm and a height of 12 μm. The film deposited during such processes is diamond-like amorphous carbon, which has a Young's modulus exceeding 600 GPa, appearing to make it highly desirable for various applications. The production of three-dimensional nanostructures is also discussed. The fabrication of microcoils, nanoelectrostatic actuators, and 0.1 μm nanowiring - all potential components of nanomechanical systems - is explained. The chapter ends by describing the realization of nanoinjectors and nanomanipulators, novel nanotools for manipulating and analyzing subcellular organelles.

  6. Thermal diffusivity measurement of focused-ion-beam fabricated sample using photothermal reflectance technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng

    2017-05-01

    Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB) can lift-off micrometer-sized samples from bulk materials for structural characterization and property measurement. The ability to determine thermophysical properties of such samples offers unique insight into the local microstructure-property relationship. A photothermal reflectance technique is developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of FIB-fabricated, micrometer-sized samples in this study. An analytic model is established to guide the experimental design and data analysis for the limited sample size and thickness. The thermal diffusivity of the sample can be extracted from a series of spatial-scan measurements at several modulated heating frequencies. To demonstrate the viability of the technique, a FIB-fabricated SiC plate with the size of 42 μm × 31 μm × 8 μm was used to represent high conductivity materials, which pose more challenges for the technique. The result compares favorably with literature values of SiC. The measurement uncertainty is quantified and possible experimental error sources are discussed. This technique is specially promising for thermal property measurements on nuclear fuels and materials.

  7. MgB2 junctions and SQUIDs fabricated by focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnell, G; Kang, D-J; Ansell, D A; Lee, H N; Moon, S H; Oh, B; Tarte, E J; Blamire, M G

    2003-01-01

    We have recently developed a technique for fabricating SNS junctions in MgB 2 thin films using a focused ion beam. These junctions show a strong modulation of the critical current by applied magnetic field and microwaves. They also show large I c R N products in excess of 1 mV at 4.2 K making them attractive candidates for a range of superconducting electronics applications. We have made SQUIDs with directly coupled pick-up loops using this technique which show large voltage modulations (175 μV at 10 K) and noise comparable to HTS SQUIDs. Here we will present an overview of our devices along with our latest results

  8. Flux Gain for Next-Generation Neutron-Scattering Instruments Resulting From Improved Supermirror Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, C.

    2001-01-01

    Next-generation spallation neutron source facilities will offer instruments with unprecedented capabilities through simultaneous enhancement of source power and usage of advanced optical components. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and scheduled to be completed by 2006, will provide greater than an order of magnitude more effective source flux than current state-of-the-art facilities, including the most advanced research reactors. An additional order of magnitude gain is expected through the use of new optical devices and instrumentation concepts. Many instrument designs require supermirror (SM) neutron guides with very high critical angles for total reflection. In this contribution, they discuss how the performance of modern neutron scattering instruments depends on the efficiency of these supermirrors. They outline ideas for enhancing the performance of the SM coatings, particularly for improving the reflectivity at the position of the critical wave vector transfer. A simulation program has been developed which allows different approaches for SM designs to be studied. Possible instrument performance gains are calculated for the example of the SNS reflectometer

  9. Controlled fabrication of nanopores using a direct focused ion beam approach with back face particle detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, N; Adams, D P; Hodges, V C; Vasile, M J; Michael, J R; Kotula, P G

    2008-06-11

    We report a direct, ion drilling technique that enables the reproducible fabrication and placement of nanopores in membranes of different thickness. Using a 30 keV focused Ga ion beam column combined with an in situ, back face, multi-channelplate particle detector, nanopores are sputtered in Si(3)N(4) and W/Si(3)N(4) to have diameters as small as 12 nm. Transmission electron microscopy shows that focused ion beam-drilled holes are near-conical with the diameter decreasing from entry to exit side. By monitoring the detector signal during ion exposure, the drilled hole width can be minimized such that the exit-side diameter is smaller than the full width at half-maximum of the nominally Gaussian-shaped incident beam. Judicious choice of the beam defining aperture combined with back face particle detection allows for reproducible exit-side hole diameters between 18 and 100 nm. The nanopore direct drilling technique does not require potentially damaging broad area exposure to tailor hole sizes. Moreover, this technique successfully achieves breakthrough despite the effects of varying membrane thickness, redeposition, polycrystalline grain structure, and slight ion beam current fluctuations.

  10. Fabrication of oriented crystals as force measurement tips via focused ion beam and microlithography methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang [School of Science, North University of China, Shanxi 030051 China; Chun, Jaehun [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA; Chatterjee, Sayandev [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA; Li, Dongsheng [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, WA USA

    2017-11-09

    Detailed knowledge of the forces between nanocrystals is very crucial for understanding many generic (e.g., random aggregation/assembly and rheology) and specific (e.g., oriented attachment) phenomena at macroscopic length scales, especially considering the additional complexities involved in nanocrystals such as crystal orientation and corresponding orientation-dependent physicochemical properties. Because there are a limited number of methods to directly measure the forces, little is known about the forces that drive the various emergent phenomena. Here we report on two methods of preparing crystals as force measurement tips used in an atomic force microscope (AFM): the focused ion beam method and microlithography method. The desired crystals are fabricated using these two methods and are fixed to the AFM probe using platinum deposition, ultraviolet epoxy, or resin, which allows for the orientation-dependent force measurements. These two methods can be used to attach virtually any solid particles (from the size of a few hundreds of nanometers to millimeters). We demonstrate the force measurements between aqueous media under different conditions such as pH.

  11. Chemical tuning of PtC nanostructures fabricated via focused electron beam induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plank, Harald; Gspan, Christian; Kothleitner, Gerald; Hofer, Ferdinand; Haber, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental dependence between process parameters during focused electron beam induced deposition and the chemistry of functional PtC nanostructures have been studied via a multi-technique approach using SEM, (S)TEM, EELS, AFM, and EFM. The study reveals that the highest Pt contents can only be achieved by an ideal balance between potentially dissociating electrons and available precursor molecules on the surface. For precursor regimes apart from this situation, an unwanted increase of carbon is observed which originates from completely different mechanisms: (1) an excess of electrons leads to polymerization of precursor fragments whereas (2) a lack of electrons leads to incompletely dissociated precursor molecules incorporated into the nanostructures. While the former represents an unwanted class of carbon, the latter condition maximizes the volume growth rates and allows for post-growth curing strategies which can strongly increase the functionality. Furthermore, the study gives an explanation of why growing deposits can dynamically change their chemistry and provides a straightforward guide towards more controlled fabrication conditions. (paper)

  12. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Voutov, P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    1995-01-01

    -X-ray reflector and a hard-X-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs......Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-X-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when...... applied to X-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard...

  13. Gain factors with the new supermirror guide system at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosta, L.; Cser, L.; Revay, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In parallel with the installation of a cold-neutron source (CNS) at the 10-MW Budapest Research Reactor, the neutron-guide system has been redesigned and replaced by state of art neutron optical elements. Monte Carlo calculations have been used to determine the optimal conditions for the guide parameters. For the three cold-neutron beams nearly 100 m of new guides were installed; a great part is made of supermirrors. The new in-pile guide system and the individual shutters enable minimal losses at the starting sections. The out-of-pile part was optimized for the experimental stations. The neutron-flux measurements were compared with the simulated values. The combined effect of the CNS and the guide system yields a gain factor in the flux as high as 30-60. (orig.)

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of multilayers interferential reflectors for neutrons: SUPERMIRRORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaza, M.

    1991-10-01

    The aim of this study was the realization of (Ni-Ti) supermirror neutron guides which have good performances both optically and morphologically. To achieve this, we closed in gradually to evaluate better fundamental and technological problems. In the beginning, the study was oriented towards decoupling the effects of the different defects in the (Ni-Ti) multilayer and to tackle them one by one. In the first part, we present the classical neutrons guides and their limits and compare them with the supermirror guides and their advantages. Next, we describe the neutron optics formalism in analogy with electromagnetic classical optics, in particular X ray radiation. We have essentially employed the Grazing Angle Neutron Reflectometry technique for the investigation of our samples. These experimental results have been complemented by those of other surface investigation techniques: -optical, magnetic, electronic and ionic ones. The results were in almost overall agreement. More precisely, the neutron reflectivity profiles were treated by using the Abeles matrix formalism for an electromagnetic wave in S polarized state. In the third time, we present the whole of the experimental results obtained. The combination of the latter two effects (hydrogenation of titanium and carburation of nickel) which has not yet been achieved constitutes a direct continuation of this work. This could improve even further both the neutron reflectivity and the critical angle by coupling Mezei-Dagleish and Hayter-Mook stacks. A simulation has shown that a stack of this type consists of 15 bilayers (Ni x C-TiH 2 ) has the same reflectivity as a stack of 60 bilayers (Ni-Ti). (author)

  15. Fabrication of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor by using Focused Ion Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencong

    Compared with other transparent semiconductors, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has both good uniformity and high electron mobility, which make it as a good candidate for displays or large-scale transparent circuit. The goal of this research is to fabricate alpha-IGZO thin film transistor (TFT) with channel milled by focused ion beam (FIB). TFTs with different channel geometries can be achieved by applying different milling strategies, which facilitate modifying complex circuit. Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) was also introduced to understand the effect of trapped charges on the device performance. The investigation of the trapped charge at IGZO/SiO2 interface was performed on the IGZO TFT on p-Silicon substrate with thermally grown SiO2 as dielectric. The subgap density-of-state model was used for the simulation, which includes conduction band-tail trap states and donor-like state in the subgap. The result shows that the de-trapping and donor-state ionization determine the interface trapped charge density at various gate biases. Simulation of IGZO TFT with FIB defined channel on the same substrate was also applied. The drain and source were connected intentionally during metal deposition and separated by FIB milling. Based on the simulation, the Ga ions in SiO2 introduced by the ion beam was drifted by gate bias and affects the saturation drain current. Both side channel and direct channel transparent IGZO TFTs were fabricated on the glass substrate with coated ITO. Higher ion energy (30 keV) was used to etch through the substrate between drain and source and form side channels at the corner of milled trench. Lower ion energy (16 keV) was applied to stop the milling inside IGZO thin film and direct channel between drain and source was created. Annealing after FIB milling removed the residual Ga ions and the devices show switch feature. Direct channel shows higher saturation drain current (~10-6 A) compared with side channel (~10-7 A) because

  16. Focused ion beam-assisted technology in sub-picolitre micro-dispenser fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M J; Campo, E M; Perez-Castillejos, R; Esteve, J; Plaza, J A; Caballero, D; Errachid, A

    2008-01-01

    Novel medical and biological applications are driving increased interest in the fabrication of micropipette or micro-dispensers. Reduced volume samples and drug dosages are prime motivators in this effort. We have combined microfabrication technology with ion beam milling techniques to successfully produce cantilever-type polysilicon micro-dispensers with 3D enclosed microchannels. The microfabrication technology described here allows for the designing of nozzles with multiple shapes. The contribution of ion beam milling has had a large impact on the fabrication process and on further customizing shapes of nozzles and inlet ports. Functionalization tests were conducted to prove the viability of ion beam-fabricated micro-dispensers. Self-assembled monolayers were successfully formed when a gold surface was patterned with a thiol solution dispensed by the fabricated micro-dispensers

  17. Efficient focusing of 8 keV X-rays with multilayer Fresnel zone plates fabricated by atomic layer deposition and focused ion beam milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Marcel; Keskinbora, Kahraman; Grévent, Corinne; Szeghalmi, Adriana; Knez, Mato; Weigand, Markus; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Schütz, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication and performance of multilayer Al 2 O 3 /Ta 2 O 5 Fresnel zone plates in the hard X-ray range and a discussion of possible future developments considering available materials are reported. Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) recently showed significant improvement by focusing soft X-rays down to ∼10 nm. In contrast to soft X-rays, generally a very high aspect ratio FZP is needed for efficient focusing of hard X-rays. Therefore, FZPs had limited success in the hard X-ray range owing to difficulties of manufacturing high-aspect-ratio zone plates using conventional techniques. Here, employing a method of fabrication based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) milling, FZPs with very high aspect ratios were prepared. Such multilayer FZPs with outermost zone widths of 10 and 35 nm and aspect ratios of up to 243 were tested for their focusing properties at 8 keV and shown to focus hard X-rays efficiently. This success was enabled by the outstanding layer quality thanks to ALD. Via the use of FIB for slicing the multilayer structures, desired aspect ratios could be obtained by precisely controlling the thickness. Experimental diffraction efficiencies of multilayer FZPs fabricated via this combination reached up to 15.58% at 8 keV. In addition, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy experiments at 1.5 keV were carried out using one of the multilayer FZPs and resolved a 60 nm feature size. Finally, the prospective of different material combinations with various outermost zone widths at 8 and 17 keV is discussed in the light of the coupled wave theory and the thin-grating approximation. Al 2 O 3 /Ir is outlined as a promising future material candidate for extremely high resolution with a theoretical efficiency of more than 20% for as small an outermost zone width as 10 nm at 17 keV

  18. Broad and focused ion beams Ga+ implantation damage in the fabrication of p+-n Si shallow junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckl, A.J.; Lin, C.M.; Patrizio, D.; Rai, A.K.; Pronko, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    The use of focused and broad beam Ga + implantation for the fabrication of p + -n Si shallow junctions is explored. In particular, the issue of ion induced damage and its effect on diode electrical properties is explored. FIB-fabricated junctions exhibit a deeper junction with lower sheet resistance and higher leakage current than the BB-implanted diodes. TEM analysis exhibits similar amorphization and recrystallization behavior for both implantation techniques with the BB case generating a higher dislocation loop density after a 900 degree C anneal. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Dry fabrication of microdevices by the combination of focused ion beam and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekurov, N; Tittonen, I; Grigoras, K; Sainiemi, L; Franssila, S; Peltonen, A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate silicon microdevice fabrication by a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Applying FIB treatment only to a thin surface layer enables very high writing speed compared with FIB milling. The use of DRIE then defines the micro- and nanodevices utilizing the FIB-modified silicon as a mask. We demonstrate the ability to create patterns on highly 3D structures, which is extremely challenging by other nanofabrication methods. The alignment of optically made and FIB-defined patterns is also demonstrated. We also show that complete microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be fabricated by this method by presenting a double-ended tuning fork resonator as an example. Extremely short process time is achieved as the full fabrication cycle from mask design to electrical measurements can be completed during one working day.

  20. Fabrication of nano structures in thin membranes with focused ion beam technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadgil, V.J.; Tong, D.H.; Cesa, Y.; Bennink, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has emerged as an important tool for nanotechnology [V.J. Gadgil, F. Morrissey, Encyclopaedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 1, American Science Publishers, ISBN: 1-58883-057-8, 2004, p101.]. In this paper, applications of focused ion beam

  1. Fabrication of nano-scaled polymer-derived SiAlCN ceramic components using focused ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Shao, Gang; Wang, Xingwei; An, Linan

    2013-09-01

    Fully dense polymer-derived amorphous silicoaluminum carbonitride (SiAlCN) ceramics were synthesized from polysilazane as preceramic precursors followed by a thermal decomposition process. The nanofabrication of amorphous SiAlCN ceramics was implemented with a focused ion beam (FIB). FIB conditions such as the milling rate, the beam current, and the number of passes were considered. It was found that nanopatterns with a feature size of less than 100 nm could be fabricated onto polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) precisely and quickly. Specific nanostructures of thin walls, nozzle, and gear have been fabricated as demonstrations, indicating that the FIB technique was a promising method to realize nanostructures on PDCs, especially for microelectromechanical system and micro/nano-sensor applications.

  2. Fabrication of nano-scaled polymer-derived SiAlCN ceramic components using focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Xingwei; Shao, Gang; An, Linan

    2013-01-01

    Fully dense polymer-derived amorphous silicoaluminum carbonitride (SiAlCN) ceramics were synthesized from polysilazane as preceramic precursors followed by a thermal decomposition process. The nanofabrication of amorphous SiAlCN ceramics was implemented with a focused ion beam (FIB). FIB conditions such as the milling rate, the beam current, and the number of passes were considered. It was found that nanopatterns with a feature size of less than 100 nm could be fabricated onto polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) precisely and quickly. Specific nanostructures of thin walls, nozzle, and gear have been fabricated as demonstrations, indicating that the FIB technique was a promising method to realize nanostructures on PDCs, especially for microelectromechanical system and micro/nano-sensor applications. (paper)

  3. Customizable in situ TEM devices fabricated in freestanding membranes by focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Booth, Tim

    2010-01-01

    , and that current annealing recrystallizes the structure, causing the electrical properties to partly recover to the pristine bulk resistivity. In situ imaging of the annealing process revealed both continuous and abrupt changes in the crystal structure, accompanied by instant changes of the electrical conductivity...... crystalline silicon extending over the edge of a pre-fabricated silicon microchip. Four-terminal resistance measurements of FIB-defined nanowires showed at least two orders of magnitude increase in resistivity compared to bulk. We show that the initial high resistance is due to amorphization of silicon....... The membrane structures provide a simple way to design electron-transparent nanodevices with high local temperature gradients within the field of view of the TEM, allowing detailed studies of surface diffusion processes. We show two examples of heat-induced coarsening of gold on a narrow freestanding bridge...

  4. Focusing and imaging with increased numerical apertures through multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The use of individual multimode optical fibers in endoscopy applications has the potential to provide highly miniaturized and noninvasive probes for microscopy and optical micromanipulation. A few different strategies have been proposed recently, but they all suffer from intrinsically low resolution related to the low numerical aperture of multimode fibers. Here, we show that two-photon polymerization allows for direct fabrication of micro-optics components on the fiber end, resulting in an increase of the numerical aperture to a value that is close to 1. Coupling light into the fiber through a spatial light modulator, we were able to optically scan a submicrometer spot (300 nm FWHM) over an extended region, facing the opposite fiber end. Fluorescence imaging with improved resolution is also demonstrated. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  5. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a 2.3 kJ plasma focus of negative inner electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathuthu, M.; Zengeni, T.G.; Gholap, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of a 2.3 kJ plasma focus device with negative inner electrode are discussed. The purpose of the design was to initiate research in and study of plasma dynamics, nuclear reactions, and neutron emission mechanisms at the university. Also the device will be used to teach and demonstrate plasma phenomena at the postgraduate level and to perform experiments with inverted polarity to examine different operating regimes with nonstandard gases. It is hoped that in the long run the research work will help find a solution to the polarity riddle of plasma focus devices. When the system was operated with spectrographic argon as the filling gas, the best focus was obtained at a pressure range of 0.1 endash 1.25 Torr. With nitrogen as the filling gas, the best focus was obtained at pressures between 0.1 and 1.25 Torr. Air gave the best focus at a pressure range of 0.5 endash 1.5 Torr. The observed good focus action is attributed to the small inner electrode length (this reduces the amount of anode material ablated into the current sheath) and tapering of the inner electrode. Positive z-directed electrons contribute to the temperature and further ionization of the plasma gas during focusing. The performance of the device compares quite well with other known devices. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Behavior under irradiation of super-mirror for neutron guides; Tenue sous irradiation de supermiroirs pour guides de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Guy-Marechal, K

    1997-10-15

    The aim of this work is to study the aging of NiCx/Ti super-mirror multilayers used in neutron guides under thermal neutron irradiation. These multilayers allow an increase of the apparent critical angle of total reflection by creating constructive interferences. Neutrons fluxes are thus increased in neutron guides made with a super-mirror coating. Thin films of one and ten bilayers have been deposited on a silicon and a borosilicate glass substrate. We have then studied the evolution of their optical, structural and mechanical properties after irradiation and annealing. After irradiation, a decrease in neutron reflectivity has been observed, due to the interdiffusion of both materials: this phenomenon was particularly important in the coatings deposited on a glass substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy have shown that the structural evolutions of both nickel and titanium do not depend on the substrate. Nickel layers remain face-centered cubic after treatment, whereas the initially hexagonal closed-packed titanium becomes face-centered cubic with a texture in the [111] direction. This phase transformation has been attributed to the formation of a TiH compound containing as much as 50% hydrogen. Despite these structural changes, stress relaxation has occurred after irradiation in our layers. On the contrary, the mean stress that we have determined in previous samples, elaborated in another laboratory, has increased after irradiation. Comparison of both results shows that stress evolution is linked to the deposition conditions. As stress remains almost unchanged after annealing, we may conclude that only irradiation defects, and not heating, lead to stress evolution. Our samples being very similar to real neutron guides, we can extend the results we have obtained in this work to real super-mirrors. (author)

  7. Aging under irradiation of super-mirrors used in neutron guides; Tenue sous irradiation de supermiroirs pour guides de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N`Guy-Marechal, K

    1997-10-16

    The aim of this work is to study the aging of NiC{sub x}/Ti super-mirror multilayers used in neutron guides under thermal neutron irradiation. These multilayers allow an increase of the apparent critical angle of total reflection by creating constructive interferences. Neutrons fluxes are thus increased in neutron guides made with a super-mirror coating. Thin films of one and ten bilayers have been deposited on a silicon and a borosilicate glass substrate. We have then studied the evolution of their optical, structural and mechanical properties after irradiation and annealing. After irradiation, a decrease in neutron reflectivity has been observed, due to the interdiffusion of both materials: this phenomenon was particularly important in the coatings deposited on a glass substrate. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy have shown that the structural evolutions of both nickel and titanium do not depend on the substrate. Nickel layers remain face-centered cubic after treatment, whereas the initially hexagonal closed-packed titanium becomes face-centered cubic with a texture in the [111] direction. This phase transformation has been attributed to the formation of a TiH compound containing as much as 50 % hydrogen. Despite these structural changes, stress relaxation has occurred after irradiation in our layers. On the contrary, then mean stress that we have determined in previous samples, elaborated in another laboratory, has increased after irradiation. Comparison of both results shows that stress evolution is linked to the deposition conditions. As stress remains almost unchanged after annealing, we may conclude that only irradiation defects, and not heating, lead to stress evolution. Our samples being very similar to real neutron guides, we can extend the results we have obtained in this work to real super-mirrors. (author) 62 refs.

  8. New fabrication method for an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror with a metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Takeda, Shin; Morita, Shin-ya; Hino, Masahiro; Oda, Tatsuro; Kato, Jun-ichi; Yamagata, Yutaka; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2014-10-06

    We propose an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror using a metal substrate made with electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) plated material for the first time. Electroless NiP has great advantages for realizing an ellipsoidal neutron mirror because of its amorphous structure, good machinability and relatively large critical angle of total reflection for neutrons. We manufactured the mirror by combining ultrahigh precision cutting and fine polishing to generate high form accuracy and low surface roughness. The form accuracy of the mirror was estimated to be 5.3 μm P-V and 0.8 μm P-V for the minor-axis and major-axis direction respectively, while the surface roughness was reduced to 0.2 nm rms. The effect of form error on focusing spot size was evaluated by using a laser beam and the focusing performance of the mirror was verified by neutron experiments.

  9. Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, EJ; Bettiol, AA; Yang, P; Breese, MBH; Xiong, BQ; Mashanovich, GZ; Headley, WR; Reed, GT

    2009-01-01

    we have successfully fabricated low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon (SOPS) strip waveguides with high-index contrast using focused proton-beam irradiation and electrochemical etching. Smooth surface quality with rms roughness of 3.1 nm is achieved for a fluence of 1 x 10(15)/cm(2) after postoxidation treatment. Optical characterization at a wavelength of 1550 nm shows a loss of 1.1 +/- 0.4 dB/cm and 1.2 +/- 0.4 dB/cm in TE and TM polarization respectively, which we believe is the lowe...

  10. Charging suppression in focused-ion beam fabrication of visible subwavelength dielectric grating reflector using electron conducting polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Alias, Mohd Sharizal

    2015-08-19

    Nanoscale periodic patterning on insulating materials using focused-ion beam (FIB) is challenging because of charging effect, which causes pattern distortion and resolution degradation. In this paper, the authors used a charging suppression scheme using electron conducting polymer for the implementation of FIB patterned dielectric subwavelength grating (SWG) reflector. Prior to the FIB patterning, the authors numerically designed the optimal structure and the fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters (period, grating thickness, fill-factor, and low refractive index layer thickness) using the rigorous-coupled wave analysis computation. Then, the authors performed the FIB patterning on the dielectric SWG reflector spin-coated with electron conducting polymer for the anticharging purpose. They also performed similar patterning using thin conductive film anticharging scheme (30 nm Cr coating) for comparison. Their results show that the electron conducting polymer anticharging scheme effectively suppressing the charging effect during the FIB patterning of dielectric SWG reflector. The fabricated grating exhibited nanoscale precision, high uniformity and contrast, constant patterning, and complied with fabrication tolerance for all grating parameters across the entire patterned area. Utilization of electron conducting polymer leads to a simpler anticharging scheme with high precision and uniformity for FIB patterning on insulator materials.

  11. Nano-fabrication of diffractive optics for soft X-ray and atom beam focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nano-structuring processes are described for manufacturing diffractive optics for the condenser-monochromator set-up of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) and for the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the BESSY II electron storage ring in Berlin. Furthermore, a process for manufacturing free-standing nickel zone plates for helium atom beam focusing experiments is presented. (author)

  12. Multi-channel Andreev reflection in Co-W nanocontacts fabricated using focused electron/ion beam induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Vugts, P; Daniels, C; Keuning, W; Kohlhepp, J T; Kurnosikov, O; Koopmans, B

    2014-12-12

    We report multi-channel electron transport in nano-contacts fabricated using focused electron beam induced deposited (FEBID) cobalt and focused ion beam induced deposited (FIBID) tungsten. Anomalous Andreev reflection (AR) effect is observed to which the conventional Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) fit cannot be applied. In specific, we have observed multiple number of shoulders near the AR peak, whose origin is unknown in literature. We explain this effect based on a simple model that takes into account the material properties of the FIBID grown W superconductor, as well as the specific interface properties that are an outcome of using FEBID/FIBID as a fabrication technique. We show that numerical calculations using the BTK approximation based on the consideration of multiple channels generate similar shoulders as we observed in the AR experiments. Electrical measurements and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy carried out on FIBID W deposits puts additional evidence towards multi-channel current transport occuring at the interface of the nanocontacts.

  13. Development of Focused Ion Beam technique for high speed steel 3D-SEM artefact fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; MacDonald, A. Nicole; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    The work describes preliminary manufacture by grinding, followed by machining on a Focused Ion Beam (FIB), of a high speed steel step artefact for 3D-SEM calibration. The FIB is coupled with a SEM in the so called dual beam instrument. The milling capabilities of FIB were checked from a qualitative...... point of view, using the dual beam SEM imaging, and quantitatively using a reference stylus instrument, to establish traceability. A triangular section having a depth of about 10 μm was machined, where the 50 μm curvature radius due to grinding was reduced to about 2 μm by FIB milling...

  14. Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A. M.; Fox, O. J. L.; Alianelli, L.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Stevens, R.; Loader, I. M.; Wilson, M. C.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; May, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Diamond is a highly desirable material for use in x-ray optics and instrumentation. However, due to its extreme hardness and resistance to chemical attack, diamond is difficult to form into a structure suitable for x-ray lenses. Refractive lenses are capable of delivering x-ray beams with nanoscale resolution. A moulding technique for the fabrication of diamond lenses is reported. High-quality silicon moulds were made using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. The study of the etch process conducted to achieve silicon moulds with vertical sidewalls and minimal surface roughness is discussed. Issues experienced when attempting to deposit diamond into a high-aspect-ratio mould by chemical vapour deposition are highlighted. Two generations of lenses have been successfully fabricated using this transfer-moulding approach with significant improvement in the quality and performance of the optics observed in the second iteration. Testing of the diamond x-ray optics on the Diamond Light Source Ltd synchrotron B16 beamline has yielded a line focus of sub-micrometre width.

  15. Direct fabrication of a W-C SNS Josephson junction using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jun; Kometani, Reo; Ishihara, Sunao; Warisawa, Shin’ichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A tungsten-carbide (W-C) superconductor/normal metal/superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction has been fabricated using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition (FIB-CVD). Under certain process conditions, the component ratio has been tuned from W: C: Ga = 26%: 66%: 8% in the superconducting wires to W: C: Ga = 14%: 79%: 7% in the metallic junction. The critical current density at 2.5 K in the SNS Josephson junction is 1/3 of that in W-C superconducting nanowire. Also, a Fraunhofer-like oscillation of critical current in the junction with four periods is observed. FIB-CVD opens avenues for novel functional superconducting nanodevices. (paper)

  16. Fabrication of low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguide using focused proton-beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, E J; Bettiol, A A; Yang, P; Breese, M B H; Xiong, B Q; Mashanovich, G Z; Headley, W R; Reed, G T

    2009-03-01

    We have successfully fabricated low-loss silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon (SOPS) strip waveguides with high-index contrast using focused proton-beam irradiation and electrochemical etching. Smooth surface quality with rms roughness of 3.1 nm is achieved for a fluence of 1x10(15)/cm(2) after postoxidation treatment. Optical characterization at a wavelength of 1550 nm shows a loss of 1.1+/-0.4 dB/cm and 1.2+/-0.4 dB/cm in TE and TM polarization respectively, which we believe is the lowest reported loss for SOPS waveguides. This opens up new opportunities for all-silicon-based optoelectronics applications.

  17. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Narayan Banerjee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arghya Narayan BanerjeeSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South KoreaAbstract: Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via

  18. Line focus by the ellipsoidal and hyperbolic mirrors, and the fabrication of the new type`s heated air engine. 1; Daenmenkyo to sokyokumenkyo ni yoru line focus to shingata netsu kuki engine no shisaku. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishido, K.; Kazimierski, Z.; Shoji, T. [Tohoku Gakuin University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sugiura, M. [Tohoku Gakuin Tsutsujigaoka High School, Sendai (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Tokyo Special Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Line focusing by ellipsoidal and hyperbolic mirrors was devised for solar heat collection, and the new prototype heated air engine is under fabrication based on such focusing. Ellipse is a locus of the point at which the distance from the 2nd focus is equal to that from the circle with the 1st focus as a center and the major axis as a radius. Hyperbola can be also figured under similar geometric conditions. The link mechanism possible to machine quadratic surfaces based on the above principle has been developed. High-precision quadratic surface mirrors can be fabricated by the link mechanism for convergent solar heat power generation, achieving line focusing of light. The new prototype heated air engine is also proposed which is composed of the heating part by line focusing, cylinder, piston and cooling column. This engine is featured by simple function, light weight, compact body, high efficiency and safety, and is under fabrication. Although conventional converging mirrors use all the mirror surface, the new line focusing uses only the upper part of the mirror, and the lower part is turned over for protection of the mirror from strong wind. 9 figs.

  19. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors to focus hard X-rays in two dimensions as fabricated, tested and installed at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Naresh; Marathe, Shashidhara; Shu, Deming; Shi, Bing; Qian, Jun; Maxey, Evan; Finney, Lydia; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2014-07-01

    The micro-focusing performance for hard X-rays of a fixed-geometry elliptical Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors assembly fabricated, tested and finally implemented at the micro-probe beamline 8-BM of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. Testing of the K-B mirror system was performed at the optics and detector test beamline 1-BM. K-B mirrors of length 80 mm and 60 mm were fabricated by profile coating with Pt metal to produce focal lengths of 250 mm and 155 mm for 3 mrad incident angle. For the critical angle of Pt, a broad bandwidth of energies up to 20 keV applies. The classical K-B sequential mirror geometry was used, and mirrors were mounted on micro-translation stages. The beam intensity profiles were measured by differentiating the curves of intensity data measured using a wire-scanning method. A beam size of 1.3 µm (V) and 1.2 µm (H) was measured with monochromatic X-rays of 18 keV at 1-BM. After installation at 8-BM the measured focus met the design requirements. In this paper the fabrication and metrology of the K-B mirrors are reported, as well as the focusing performances of the full mirrors-plus-mount set-up at both beamlines.

  20. Nondispersive neutron focusing method beyond the critical angle of mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Gene E.

    2008-10-21

    This invention extends the Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror focusing geometry to allow nondispersive focusing of neutrons with a convergence on a sample much larger than is possible with existing KB optical schemes by establishing an array of at least three mirrors and focusing neutrons by appropriate multiple deflections via the array. The method may be utilized with supermirrors, multilayer mirrors, or total external reflection mirrors. Because high-energy x-rays behave like neutrons in their absorption and reflectivity rates, this method may be used with x-rays as well as neutrons.

  1. Fabrication of Molds with 25-nm Dot-Pitch Pattern by Focused Ion Beam and Reactive Ion Etching for Nanoimprint Using Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yasuyuki; Saotome, Yasunori; Nishiyama, Nobuyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Makabe, Eiichi; Inoue, Akihisa

    2012-08-01

    Here we attempted to fabricate molds (dies) of nanodot arrays with a 25-nm pitch and to nanoimprint metallic glass for developing bit-patterned media with an ultrahigh recording density of 1 Tbit/in.2. The mold-fabricating process consisted of mask patterning by focused ion beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (FIB-CVD) and reactive ion etching (RIE). We investigated the feasibility of a Pt-deposited metal etching mask on SiO2 on Si and diamond like carbon (DLC) on Al2O3 substrates, and achieved isolated convex nanodot arrays with a 25-nm pitch and an aspect ratio of 1.8 by RIE with O2 plasma on a DLC/Al2O3 substrate. Subsequently, we nanoimprinted Pt-based metallic glass by using the fabricated molds and successfully replicated fine concave nanohole arrays. The results suggest that the FIB-CVD/RIE process is a promising technique for fabricating ultrafine nanopatterned molds, and metallic glasses are ideal nanoimprintable materials for mass producing nanodevices such as bit-patterned media.

  2. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  3. Design and fabrication of tri-axial capillary needles in flow focusing for microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ting; Feng, Hanxin; Xie, Bin; Xu, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Microencapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents is significant for various biomedical applications. In this work we describe a novel method based on flow focusing geometry using tri-axial metallic capillary needles manufactured by a laser beam welding process. The tri-axial needle can be readily cleaned, assembled, and aligned. With this needle assembly, we develop a tri-axial capillary flow focusing device in which different combinations of liquids are focused in the core of a high-speed gas stream coflowing through a small orifice. Under appropriate working conditions, stable cone-jet configurations with three layers of liquids in an external gas stream can be obtained, resulting in multilayered microparticles with outer shell, middle layer, and inner core. The new design of tri-axial needles enables reliable encapsulation of multiple drugs and imaging agents in biodegradable microcapsules with the enhanced size distribution, increased productivity, and improved drug-loading efficiency. Furthermore, in this method the outer and the middle shell fluids can be released to produce monodisperse microparticles at smaller scales which have potential applications in multi-modal imaging, drug delivery, material processing and biomedicine.

  4. Steady cone-jet mode in compound-fluidic electro-flow focusing for fabricating multicompartment microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ting; Yin, Chuansheng; Gao, Peng; Li, Guangbin; Ding, Hang; He, Xiaoming; Xie, Bin; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-01-01

    A compound-fluidic electro-flow focusing (CEFF) process is proposed to produce multicompartment microcapsules. The central device mainly consists of a needle assembly of two parallel inner needles and one outer needle mounted in a gas chamber with their tips facing a small orifice at the bottom of the chamber. As the outer and the inner fluids flow through the needle assembly, a high-speed gas stream elongates the liquid menisci in the vicinity of the orifice entrance. An electric field is further integrated into capillary flow focusing to promote the formation of steady cone-jet mode in a wide range of operation parameters. The multiphase liquid jet is broken up into droplets due to perturbation propagation along the jet surface. To estimate the diameter of the multiphase liquid jet as a function of process parameters, a modified scaling law is derived and experimentally validated. Microcapsules of around 100 μm with an alginate shell and multiple cores at a production rate of 103-105 per second are produced. Technical feasibility of stimulation triggered coalescence and drug release is demonstrated by benchtop experiments. The proposed CEFF process can be potentially used to encapsulate therapeutic agents and biological cargos for controlled micro-reaction and drug delivery.

  5. The field emission properties of high aspect ratio diamond nanocone arrays fabricated by focused ion beam milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.L. Wang, Q. Wang, H.J. Li, J.J. Li, P. Xu, Q. Luo, A.Z. Jin, H.F. Yang and C.Z. Gu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High aspect ratio diamond nanocone arrays are formed on freestanding diamond film by means of focused ion beam (FIB milling technology and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD method. The structure and phase purity of an individual diamond nanocone are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The result indicates that the diamond cones with high aspect ratio and small tip apex radius can be obtained by optimizing the parameters of FIB milling and diamond growth. The diamond nanocone arrays were also used to study the electron field emission properties and electric field shielding effect, finding high emission current density, low threshold and weak shielding effect, all attributable to the high field enhancement factor and suitable cone density of the diamond nanocone emitter

  6. Fabrication of a free standing resolution standard for focusing MeV ion beams to sub 30 nm dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Shao, P.G.; Molter, P.; Saumer, M.; Bettiol, A.A.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    2005-01-01

    With recent advances in nuclear microscopy, proton beam writing and the recent development of MeV ion nano probe facilities it is becoming increasingly important to have resolution standards with a high degree of side wall verticality. We present here a way of producing a high quality free standing resolution standards which can be used for high beam current applications like Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), particle induced X-ray emissions (PIXE), and low beam current applications such as secondary electron emission, scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion beam induced current (IBIC). These standards allow rapid focusing of MeV ion beams for high resolution nuclear microscopy applications as well as proton beam writing, where knowledge of the exact beam size is vital to guarantee reproducibility in writing nanostructures. This new standard has been used to measure a one-dimensional beam profile with 1 MeV protons and gave a FWHM of 29.2 nm which is the smallest value reported for MeV protons in STIM mode

  7. One-step fabrication of triple-layered microcapsules by a tri-axial flow focusing device for microencapsulation of soluble drugs and imaging agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Wu, Qiang; Lei, Fan; Li, Guangbin; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the microencapsulation of water-soluble drug (doxorubicin, Dox) and imaging agent (perfluorocarbon, PFC) is performed by a novel liquid driven tri-axial flow focusing (LDTFF) device. The formation of stable triple-layered cone-jet mode can be observed in the simple well-assembled LDTFF device, providing an easy approach to fabricate mono-disperse triple-layered microcapsules with high encapsulation efficiency, high throughput and low cost in just one step. The fluorescence images show that the microcapsules have a satisfactory core-shell structure. The SEM micrographs show spherical and smooth surface views of the triple-layered microcapsules after being stirred 72h to remove the organic solvent totally. The results of thermo-responsive release experiments of the produced triple-layered microcapsules show these multifunctional capsules can be well stimulated when the environment temperature is beyond 55 degree centigrade. In a word, this novel approach has a great potential in applications such as drug delivery and image-guided therapy.

  8. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-01-01

    (adjustable supermirror curvature) and the compact size (only 0.5 m long). We have simulated the neutron transport across the entire guide system. We present a detailed computer characterization of the existing device, along with the study of the factors mostly influencing the future improvement. We have......, and the ability of a variable curvature to keep the focal point at the sample position. Our simulations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the experimentally measured beam profile. With respect to the possibility of a further upgrade, we find that supermirror coatings with m-values higher...... than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum....

  9. Fabrication of FeSi and Fe{sub 3}Si compounds by electron beam induced mixing of [Fe/Si]{sub 2} and [Fe{sub 3}/Si]{sub 2} multilayers grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, F.; Sachser, R.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gazzadi, G. C. [S3 Center, Nanoscience Institute-CNR, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Frabboni, S. [S3 Center, Nanoscience Institute-CNR, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); FIM Department, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-06-21

    Fe-Si binary compounds have been fabricated by focused electron beam induced deposition by the alternating use of iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO){sub 5}, and neopentasilane, Si{sub 5}H{sub 12} as precursor gases. The fabrication procedure consisted in preparing multilayer structures which were treated by low-energy electron irradiation and annealing to induce atomic species intermixing. In this way, we are able to fabricate FeSi and Fe{sub 3}Si binary compounds from [Fe/Si]{sub 2} and [Fe{sub 3}/Si]{sub 2} multilayers, as shown by transmission electron microscopy investigations. This fabrication procedure is useful to obtain nanostructured binary alloys from precursors which compete for adsorption sites during growth and, therefore, cannot be used simultaneously.

  10. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) is made by focused ion beam. •Au N Rs d coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10 −12 M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au N Rs d was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au N Rs d and Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au N Rs d was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10 7 in magnitude, which increased ≈10 12 in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au N Rs d . A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10 −3 to 10 −12 M) in water or milk solution upon Au N Rs d or Ag NPs/Au N Rs d were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm −1 for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm −1 was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au N Rs d ) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au N Rs d and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au N Rs d is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for

  11. Hybrid Lyot coronagraph for wide-field infrared survey telescope-astrophysics focused telescope assets: occulter fabrication and high contrast narrowband testbed demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byoung-Joon; Gordon, Brian; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andy; Moody, Dwight; Muller, Richard; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Trauger, John; Wilson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Lyot coronagraph (HLC) is one of the two operating modes of the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument. It produces starlight suppression over the full 360-deg annular region and thus is particularly suitable to improve the discovery space around WFIRST-AFTA targets. Since being selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in December 2013, the coronagraph technology is being matured to technology readiness level 5 by September 2016. We present the progress of HLC key component fabrication and testbed demonstrations with the WFIRST-AFTA pupil. For the first time, a circular HLC occulter mask consisting of metal and dielectric layers is fabricated and characterized. Wavefront control using two deformable mirrors is successfully demonstrated in a vacuum testbed with narrowband light (associated analysis.

  12. Development of Fabrication Methods of Filler/Polymer Nanocomposites: With Focus on Simple Melt-Compounding-Based Approach without Surface Modification of Nanofillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Tanahashi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites. The author and coworkers have proposed a simple melt-compounding method for the fabrication of silica/polymer nanocomposites, wherein silica nanoparticles without surface modification were dispersed through the breakdown of loose agglomerates of colloidal nano-silica spheres in a kneaded polymer melt. This review aims to discuss experimental techniques of the proposed method and its advantages over other developed methods.

  13. Development of Fabrication Methods of Filler/Polymer Nanocomposites: With Focus on Simple Melt-Compounding-Based Approach without Surface Modification of Nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to fabricate various types of inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymers (filler/polymer nanocomposites) by a mechanical or chemical approach. However, these approaches require modification of the nanofiller surfaces and/or complicated polymerization reactions, making them unsuitable for industrial-scale production of the nanocomposites. The author and coworkers have proposed a simple melt-compounding method for the fabrication of silica/polymer nanocomposites, wherein silica nanoparticles without surface modification were dispersed through the breakdown of loose agglomerates of colloidal nano-silica spheres in a kneaded polymer melt. This review aims to discuss experimental techniques of the proposed method and its advantages over other developed methods.

  14. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... testing. Reflectivity measurements at 8 keV on ERAFs with and without multilayer coatings show a 4.4 to 4.8 A root mean square (rms) microroughness for correlation lengths less than or equal to 15 mum. To reduce the dominant contribution of mirror assembly and large-scale distortion in the overall...

  15. Efficient polarization analysis for focusing neutron instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahn, Jochen; Glavic, Artur

    2017-06-01

    Polarized neutrons are a powerful probe to investigate magnetism in condensed matter on length scales from single atomic distances to micrometers. With the ongoing advancement of neutron optics, that allow to transport beams with increased divergence, the demands on neutron polarizes and analyzers have grown as well. The situation becomes especially challenging for new instruments at pulsed sources, where a large wavelength band needs to be polarized to make efficient use of the time structure of the beam. Here we present a polarization analysis concept for highly focused neutron beams that is based on transmission supermirrors that are bend in the shape of equiangular spirals. The method allows polarizations above 95% and good transmission, without negative impact on other beam characteristics. An example of a compact polarizing device already tested on the AMOR reflectometer is presented as well as the concept for the next generation implementation of the technique that will be installed on the Estia instrument being build for the European Spallation Source.

  16. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  17. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    to the establishment of an initial framework for the project it has a focus on how to explore costumers and users emotional experiences with fabrics. The three year research project is based on experimental design research and the textile designer's competences and knowledge. During the research project exploring...... sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  18. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  19. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  20. Thin-foil multilayer-supermirror hard x-ray telescopes for InFOCμS/SUMIT balloon experiments and NeXT satellite program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasaka, Yasushi; Tamura, Keisuke; Miyazawa, Takuya; Fukaya, Yoshihiro; Iwahara, Tomonaga; Sasaki, Naoki; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Kanou, Yasufumi; Ueno, Daisuki; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Koujun; Shibata, Ryo; Okajima, Takashi; Tueller, Jack; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang; Chan, Kai-Wing; Miyata, Emi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio; Namba, Yoshiharu

    2007-09-01

    Hard X-ray telescopes using depth-graded multilayer is a key technology for future satellite programs. Developments are underway by many groups, and balloon experiments have also been carried out. We have developed light-weight hard X-ray telescopes using Pt/C multilayer and high-throughput thin-foil optics. They have been aboard on InFOCμs and SUMIT balloon flights. As a next development efforts, especially for Japan's NeXT satellite program, we focus on improvement of image quality. Among three equally-contributing error factors (figure error, positioning error and off-roundness), figure errors and off-roundness have been reduced significantly, by screening of replication mandrels and active and iterative tuning of support bars. Further studies are in progress, such as suer-polished metal mandrels and better positioning of reflector edges, to meet the baseline requirement of the NeXT mission.

  1. Optimization of multi-channel neutron focusing guides for extreme sample environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Julio, D D; Lelièvre-Berna, E; Andersen, K H; Bentley, P M; Courtois, P

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present and discuss simulation results for the design of multichannel neutron focusing guides for extreme sample environments. A single focusing guide consists of any number of supermirror-coated curved outer channels surrounding a central channel. Furthermore, a guide is separated into two sections in order to allow for extension into a sample environment. The performance of a guide is evaluated through a Monte-Carlo ray tracing simulation which is further coupled to an optimization algorithm in order to find the best possible guide for a given situation. A number of population-based algorithms have been investigated for this purpose. These include particle-swarm optimization, artificial bee colony, and differential evolution. The performance of each algorithm and preliminary results of the design of a multi-channel neutron focusing guide using these methods are described. We found that a three-channel focusing guide offered the best performance, with a gain factor of 2.4 compared to no focusing guide, for the design scenario investigated in this work.

  2. Fabrication of Nanochannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nature has inspired the fabrication of intelligent devices to meet the needs of the advanced community and better understand the imitation of biology. As a biomimetic nanodevice, nanochannels/nanopores aroused increasing interest because of their potential applications in nanofluidic fields. In this review, we have summarized some recent results mainly focused on the design and fabrication of one-dimensional nanochannels, which can be made of many materials, including polymers, inorganics, biotic materials, and composite materials. These nanochannels have some properties similar to biological channels, such as selectivity, voltage-dependent current fluctuations, ionic rectification current and ionic gating, etc. Therefore, they show great potential for the fields of biosensing, filtration, and energy conversions. These advances can not only help people to understand the living processes in nature, but also inspire scientists to develop novel nanodevices with better performance for mankind.

  3. Design and tests of an adaptive focusing neutron guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicu, Roxana Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    the focal position and that the width of the beam is getting smaller. An increase in the supermirror coating of the focusing guide might bring higher gains in intensity. These adaptive focusing guides can find applications in all fields of neutron spectroscopy for obtaining focusing beams.

  4. Design and tests of an adaptive focusing neutron guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicu, Roxana Georgiana

    2012-08-23

    the focal position and that the width of the beam is getting smaller. An increase in the supermirror coating of the focusing guide might bring higher gains in intensity. These adaptive focusing guides can find applications in all fields of neutron spectroscopy for obtaining focusing beams.

  5. Study of neutron focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehring, B.W.; Uenlue, K.

    1995-01-01

    Funds were received for the first year of a three year DOE Nuclear Engineering Research Grant, ''Study of Neutron Focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source'' (FGO2-92ER75711). The purpose of this three year study was to develop a neutron focusing system to be used with the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) to produce an intense beam of neutrons. A prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility was also to be designed, setup, and tested under the three year project. During the first year of the DOE grant, a new procedure was developed and used to design a focusing converging guide consisting of truncated rectangular cone sections. Detailed calculations were performed using a 3-D Monte Carlo code which we wrote to trace neutrons through the curved guide of the TCNS into the proposed converging guide. Using realistic reflectivities for Ni-Ti supermirrors, we obtained gains of 3 to 5 for the neutron flux averaged over an area of 1 x 1 cm

  6. Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A review report on nanoimprinted plasmonic components is given. The fabrication of different metal–dielectric geometries and nanostructured surfaces that support either propagating or localized surface plasmon modes is discussed. The main characteristics and advantages of the nanoimprint technology...... for the fabrication of various plasmonic structures are outlined. The discussion of plasmonic waveguiding structures focuses on planar waveguides based on metal strips embedded into a dielectric and on profiled metal surfaces. Nanoimprint-based fabrication of two-dimensional nanostructured plasmonic surfaces...... for enhanced transmission studies and sensor applications is also discussed. Throughout the report, the main fabrication schemes are described, as well as the challenges facing future manufacturing of plasmonic components for device applications....

  7. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  8. Fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S.E.; Watson, R.H.; Loch, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Commercial nuclear fuel fabrication is focused on providing quality products. Throughout manufacturing attention is placed on the precise control of processes, procedures and tooling to reduce product variability. This paper describes the processes used to manufacture fuel for the advanced gas cooled reactor, light water reactor, fast breeder reactor and Magnox reactor systems at the BNFL, Springfields, and Westinghouse Columbia, USA, facilities. It covers the chemical purification and conversion stages of fuel production before describing the fabrication of both oxide and metallic fuel and gives a general overview of the technology used. Although the principles of fuel fabrication in terms of providing a cladding designed to be the primary envelope to encase the fuel are similar for each system, there are detailed differences in manufacturing route and cladding type which arise from differing reactor requirements. These, together with developments made in response to customer needs, are reviewed and the need to maintain a high purity reliable product with low variability at all stages in manufacture is emphasized throughout. (author)

  9. Without 'Focus'

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Sevi; Nirit Kadmon

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972), must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the ye...

  10. Design Thinking for Digital Fabrication in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Hjorth, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that digital fabrication in education may benefit from design thinking, to foster a more profound understanding of digital fabrication processes among students. Two related studies of digital fabrication in education are presented in the paper. In an observational study we...... found that students (eleven to fifteen) lacked an understanding of the complexity of the digital fabrication process impeding on the potentials of digital fabrication in education. In a second explorative research through design study, we investigated how a focus on design thinking affected the students......’ performance in digital fabrication processes. Our findings indicate that design thinking can provide students with a general understanding of the creative and complex process through which artifacts and futures emerge in processes of digital fabrication....

  11. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  12. The Danish fabricated metal industry:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    . This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms...

  13. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...... technology affects our habits of consumption. Risto Holopainen presents a notion of autonomous instruments and automated composition that, in the end, cannot escape the human while Jøren Rudi reflects on aesthetic elements and artistic approaches to sound in computer games. This focus is edited by Sanne...

  14. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  15. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  16. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  17. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  18. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  19. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  20. Woven Apparel Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Redmore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers the different woven manufacturing\\ud processes used in the production of apparel fabrics. It details the mainapparel fabric types and looks at the key performance requirements of those fabrics, in relation to both the weave structure and the fibre type. The chapter then goes on to briefly describe important considerations in the design process and the various end uses for woven fabric. Application examples detailed towards the end of the chapter include fabrics that are...

  1. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  2. Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings -1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-11

    noded bilinear thermal elements are used as part of the ABAQUS finite element software package. The laser beam focused on the top surface of substrate...with the PDM technology. The advantage of SDM is that refractory metals can be melted with the plasma-welding torch. In 3-D Printing, a green part is...Freeform Growth. I. Introduction Previous efforts in vapor-phase solid freeform fabrication have concentrated on the growth of transition and refractory

  3. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    The concerns on the increase of polluting plastic wastes as well as the U.S. dependence on imported petrochemical products have driven an attention towards alternative biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Zein protein, a co-product from ethanol production from corn, is a good candidate. This research project aims to increase zein value by adopting nanotechnology for fabricating advanced zein packaging films and zein microfluidic devices. Two nanotechnology approaches were focused: the polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique where the nanocomposite structures were created in the zein matrix, and the soft lithography and the microfluidic devices where the micro and nanopatterns were created on the zein film surfaces. The polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique was adopted in the commonly used zein film fabrication processes which were solvent casting and extrusion blowing methods. The two methods resulted in partially exfoliated nanocomposite structures. The impact of nanoclays on the physical properties of zein films strongly depended on the film preparation techniques. The impact of nanoclay concentration was more pronounced in the films made by extrusion blowing technique than by the solvent casting technique. As the processability limitation for the extrusion blowing technique of the zein sample containing hight nanoclay content, the effect of the nanoclay content on the rheological properties of zein hybrid resins at linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions were further investigated. A pristine zein resin exhibited soft solid like behavior. On the other hand, the zein hybrid with nanoclay content greater than 5 wt.% showed more liquid like behavior, suggesting that the nanoclays interrupted the entangled zein network. There was good correspondence between the experimental data and the predictions of the Wagner model for the pristine zein resins. However, the model failed to predict the steady shear properties of the zein nanoclay nanocomposite

  4. Micro-patterns fabrication using focused proton beam lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Havránek, Vladimír; Macková, Anna; Semián, Vladimír; Torrisi, L.; Calcagno, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 371, MAR (2016), s. 344-349 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion-micro-beam * STIM analysis * pattern in PMMA Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  5. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  6. Optimum processing parameters for the fabrication of twill flax fabric-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhudi, Nurul Zuhairah Mahmud; Minhat, Mulia; Shamsuddin, Mohd Hafizi; Isa, Mohd Dali; Nur, Nurhayati Mohd

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, natural fabric thermoplastic composites such as flax have received much attention due to its attractive capabilities for structural applications. It is crucial to study the processing of flax fabric materials in order to achieve good quality and cost-effectiveness in fibre reinforced composites. Though flax fabric has been widely utilized for several years in composite applications due to its high strength and abundance in nature, much work has been concentrated on short flax fibre and very little work focused on using flax fabric. The effectiveness of the flax fabric is expected to give higher strength performance due to its structure but the processing needs to be optimised. Flax fabric composites were fabricated using compression moulding due to its simplicity, gives good surface finish and relatively low cost in terms of labour and production. Further, the impregnation of the polymer into the fabric is easier in this process. As the fabric weave structure contributes to the impregnation quality which leads to the overall performance, the processing parameters of consolidation i.e. pressure, time, and weight fraction of fabric were optimized using the Taguchi method. This optimization enhances the consolidation quality of the composite by improving the composite mechanical properties, three main tests were conducted i.e. tensile, flexural and impact test. It is observed that the processing parameter significantly affected the consolidation and quality of composite.

  7. Carbon nanotube collimator fabrication and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Lee; Chai, Guangyu; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-07-06

    Apparatus, methods, systems and devices for fabricating individual CNT collimators. Micron size fiber coated CNT samples are synthesized with chemical vapor deposition method and then the individual CNT collimators are fabricated with focused ion beam technique. Unfocused electron beams are successfully propagated through the CNT collimators. The CNT nano-collimators are used for applications including single ion implantation and in high-energy physics, and allow rapid, reliable testing of the transmission of CNT arrays for transport of molecules.

  8. Fabrication of off-axis parabolic mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezik, M.J.; Gerth, H.L.; Sladky, R.E.; Washington, C.A.

    1978-08-01

    The report describes the fabrication process, including metal preparation, copper electroplating, single-crystal-diamond turning, optical inspection, and polishing, used to manufacture the focusing mirrors for the 10-kJ laser fusion experiment being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Fabrication of these mirrors by the techniques described resulted in diffraction-limited optics at a 10.6 μm wavelength

  9. Numerical analyses of planer plasmonic focusing lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yen-Yu; Lee, Yeeu-Chang

    2018-03-01

    The use of polystyrene (PS) sphere lithography has been widely applied in the fabrication of micron and nano structures, due to their low cost and ease of fabrication in large scale applications. This study evaluated the feasibility of plasmonic lens base on metal thin films with nanohole structures fabricated by using PS sphere lithography through three-dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We calculated the intensity profile of lens with various wavelength of incident light, lens size, cutting positions, diameters of nanohole, and periods of nanohole to investigate the geometric parameters influence on the focusing properties of the plasmonic lens.

  10. Fabrics for aeronautic construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walen, E D

    1918-01-01

    The Bureau of Standards undertook the investigation of airplane fabrics with the view of finding suitable substitutes for the linen fabrics, and it was decided that the fibers to be considered were cotton, ramie, silk, and hemp. Of these, the cotton fiber was the logical one to be given primary consideration. Report presents the suitability, tensibility and stretching properties of cotton fabric obtained by laboratory tests.

  11. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on....... The development of fabrication techniques in the work presented is considered an inherent part of architectural design and shares the aspiration of developing approaches to manufacturing architecture that are scalable to architectural proportions1 and of practical relevance....

  12. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  13. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  14. Impediments for Digital Fabrication in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Veerasawmy, Rune

    2016-01-01

    of technology and design is largely absent. The paper addresses the experiences and challenges that digital fabrication technology present for teachers in educational environments, and the impediments that are linked to the teachers' roles in design processes of digital fabrication. Based on a research study...... with eight primary and lower secondary teachers, the findings point to four central impediments for integrating digital fabrication and design into school environments. The findings extend current perceptions of digital technology in education towards exploratory processes of investigation in which......Digital fabrication technologies are increasingly integrated across subjects in primary and secondary education. Focus on the potentials of these technologies has mainly been on the support to STEM oriented learning goals, while emphasis on teachers' roles with the new learning processes...

  15. Studies on Wicking Behaviour of Polyester Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arobindo Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate vertical wicking properties of polyester fabric based on change in sample direction and change in tension. Also experimental results are compared with theoretical results. Polyester fabric made out of spun yarn with four types of variation in pick density was used. Theoretical values of vertical wicking were calculated by using Lucas-Washburn equation and experimental results were recorded using strip test method. Maximum height reached experimentally in both warp way and weft way is more than that of the theoretical values. The maximum height attained by fabric experimentally in weft is more as compared to warp way. Vertical wicking increases with increase in tension. This paper is focused on wicking which plays a vital role in determining comfort and moisture transport behavior of fabric.

  16. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  17. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...

  18. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasmonics FOCUS ON PLASMONICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey; García-Vidal, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    Plasmonics is an emerging field in optics dealing with the so-called surface plasmons whose extraordinary properties are being both analyzed from a fundamental point of view and exploited for numerous technological applications. Surface plasmons associated with surface electron density oscillations decorating metal-dielectric interfaces were discovered by Rufus Ritchie in the 1950s. Since the seventies, the subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic fields as well as their enhancement inherent to the surface plasmon excitation has been widely used for spectroscopic purposes. Recent advances in nano-fabrication, characterization and modelling techniques have allowed unique properties of these surface electromagnetic modes to be explored with respect to subwavelength field localization and waveguiding, opening the path to truly nanoscale plasmonic optical devices. This area of investigation also has interesting links with research on photonic band gap materials and the field of optical metamaterials. Nowadays, plasmonics can be seen as a mature interdisciplinary area of research in which scientists coming from different backgrounds (chemistry, physics, optics and engineering) strive to discover and exploit new and exciting phenomena associated with surface plasmons. The already made and forthcoming discoveries will have impacts in many fields of science and technology, including not only photonics and materials science but also computation, biology and medicine, among others. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is intended to cover all the aforementioned capabilities of surface plasmons by presenting a current overview of state-of-the-art advances achieved by the leading groups in this field of research. The below list of articles represents the first contributions to the collection and further additions will appear soon. Focus on Plasmonics Contents Nanoantenna array-induced fluorescence enhancement and reduced lifetimes Reuben M Bakker, Vladimir P Drachev

  19. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  20. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  1. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  2. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  3. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  4. Kinetic Friction of Sport Fabrics on Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nachbauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After falls, skiers or snowboarders often slide on the slope and may collide with obstacles. Thus, the skier’s friction on snow is an important factor to reduce incidence and severity of impact injuries. The purpose of this study was to measure snow friction of different fabrics of ski garments with respect to roughness, speed, and contact pressure. Three types of fabrics were investigated: a commercially available ski overall, a smooth downhill racing suit, and a dimpled downhill racing suit. Friction was measured for fabrics taped on a short ski using a linear tribometer. The fabrics’ roughness was determined by focus variation microscopy. Friction coefficients were between 0.19 and 0.48. Roughness, friction coefficient, and friction force were highest for the dimpled race suit. The friction force of the fabrics was higher for the higher contact pressure than for the lower one at all speeds. It was concluded that the main friction mechanism for the fabrics was dry friction. Only the fabric with the roughest surface showed friction coefficients, which were high enough to sufficiently decelerate a sliding skier on beginner and intermediate slopes.

  5. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  6. Coliform bacteria, fabrics, and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclasure, Victoria J; Soderquist, Thomas J; Lynch, Thomas; Schubert, Nina; McCormick, Deirdre S; Urrutia, Erika; Knickerbocker, Corey; McCord, Devon; Kavouras, Jerry H

    2015-02-01

    People come into contact with coliform bacteria at recreational sites. Previous research on bacteria adhering to fabrics and surfaces focused on the viability of clinically significant microbes, but did not examine the quantity of bacteria. This study examined the viability and quantity of coliform bacteria adhered to common fabrics. The fabrics of 100% cotton, blended cotton, and silk were exposed to a mixture of environmental coliform isolates. Fabrics were incubated in the dark at 25°C or 37°C or in direct sunlight at room temperature for 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. The quantity and viability of the bacteria were determined by the Most Probable Number technique using Colilert reagent (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME) and eosin methylene blue agar, respectively. The highest numbers of bacteria were detected for each type of fabric when stored in the dark at 25°C, whereas the lowest numbers of bacteria were detected when fabrics were stored in the dark at 37°C. Low numbers of bacteria were detected on silk and blended cotton exposed to sunlight at room temperature, but not 100% cotton. It appears that coliform bacteria can survive on fabrics longer than previous studies have reported. Coliform bacteria survive better in the dark, at lower temperatures, and on fabrics that can retain moisture. These findings can be applied directly to the viability of bacteria on clothing and potential human exposure to fecal pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements with MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Shanti (Professor in Optics); Vijayakumar, Anand

    2017-01-01

    ... their diffraction patterns using MATLAB. The fundamentals of fabrication techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography with basic instructions for the beginner are presented...

  8. Design, analysis and fabrication of a linear permanent magnet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tuning and analysis using standard FEM packages. Fabrication of the machine has beenalso done at the works of a local small machine manufacturer after procurement of imported permanent magnets (PMs). The work presented here focuses on ...

  9. Steel bridge fabrication technologies in Europe and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this scanning tour was to conduct a broad overview of newly developed manufacturing techniques that are in use abroad for steel bridge fabrication and erection. The trip focused on the role of steel production, design, innovation, an...

  10. Adaptive Robotic Fabrication for Conditions of Material Inconsistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2017-01-01

    and the fabrication process? Here, two adaptive methods are presented that aim to increase forming accuracy with only a minimum increase in fabrication time, and that maintain ongoing input from the results of the fabrication process. The first method is an online sensor-based strategy and the second method...... metal sheet. The paper focuses on the issue of geometric inaccuracies associated with material springback that are experienced in the making of a research demonstrator. It asks how to fabricate in conditions of material inconsistency, and how might adaptive models negotiate between the design model...... is an offline predictive strategy based on machine learning. Rigidisation of thin metal skins...

  11. Antenna Fabrication using 3D printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elibiary, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses to explore the use of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques to fabricate various radio frequency (RF) devices. 3D printing, a term used for AM has evolved to the point where it is being introduced into various industries, one of these, discussed in this thesis is the fabrication of antennas for the aim to reduce manufacturing costs and time.\\ud The aim is to investigate the performance and reliability of a modified low-cost 3D printer to print plastic and metal simultaneo...

  12. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  13. Gentrification and community fabric in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, John

    2011-01-01

    Critical authors of gentrification point to its deleterious impacts on displaced residents. Research on the nature or actual forms of impacts has not advanced much, however. This paper attempts to specify impacts on low-income racial/ethnic groups (Latinos in particular) in five Chicago neighbourhoods, with a particular focus on neighbourhood-based fabrics of support and advancement. Limited in their mobility and exchange value resources, lower-income groups depend on such fabrics far more than do the higher income. In fact, they have fewer choices and are most vulnerable to place-based shifts. The case seems especially challenging for minorities who, like European immigrants before them, depend largely on place-based platforms/social fabrics but, unlike them, confront the added factors of race and urban restructuring.

  14. CMOS MEMS Fabrication Technologies and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems fabrication technologies and enabled micro devices of various sensors and actuators. The technologies are classified based on the sequence of the fabrication of CMOS circuitry and MEMS elements, while SOI (silicon-on-insulator CMOS MEMS are introduced separately. Introduction of associated devices follows the description of the respective CMOS MEMS technologies. Due to the vast array of CMOS MEMS devices, this review focuses only on the most typical MEMS sensors and actuators including pressure sensors, inertial sensors, frequency reference devices and actuators utilizing different physics effects and the fabrication processes introduced. Moreover, the incorporation of MEMS and CMOS is limited to monolithic integration, meaning wafer-bonding-based stacking and other integration approaches, despite their advantages, are excluded from the discussion. Both competitive industrial products and state-of-the-art research results on CMOS MEMS are covered.

  15. Effect of fabrication technique on direct methanol fuel cells designed to operate at low airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of catalyst ink constituents and MEA fabrication techniques on improving cell performance. Particular attention was focused on increasing the overall cell efficiency.

  16. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  17. Focusing bent perfect-crystal neutron monochromator a key to high-resolution stress/strain measurement studies of polycrystalline materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, M; Harjo, S; Saroun, J; Yoneda, K; Sawano, J; Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2000-01-01

    A new neutron focusing device with bent Si-single crystal has been installed at high-resolution neutron diffractometer dedicated to strain/stress investigations in polycrystalline materials and introduced into routine operation as a neutron strain scanner using reactor neutrons from supermirror guider at Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). Properties of the diffractometer are described on the basis of experimental results when one slab or two slabs of curved Si single crystals are employed as monochromator:i.e. 1) the luminosity 2) the absolute value of monochromatic neutrons with the Au-foil activation method, 3) beam profiles with the imaging plate method, 4) characterization of the diffractometer with alpha Fe (211) peak and its comparison with the Bragg optical prediction. It is confirmed that the FWHM of the instrumental delta d/d-profile of the peak can be less than 3*10/sup -3/ at d=1.17 A and the resolution permits us to investigate both the macro- and microstrains with good luminosity. The lumin...

  18. LEU fuel fabrication in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorsetti, D.R.; Gomez, J.O.; Marajofsky, A.; Kohut, C.

    1985-01-01

    As an Institution, aiming to meet with its own needs, CNEA has been intensively developing reduced enriched fuel to use in its own research and test reactors. Development of the fabrication technology as well as the design, installation and operation of the manufacturing plant, have been carried out with its own funds. Irradiation and post-irradiation of test miniplates have been taking place within the framework of the RERTR program. During the last years, CNEA has developed three LEU fuel types. In the previous RERTR meetings, we presented the technological results obtained with these fuel types. This paper focuses on CNEA LEU fuel element manufacturing status and the trained personnel we can offer in design and manufacture fuel capability. CNEA has its own fuel manufacturing technology; the necessary facilities to start the fuel fabrication; qualified technicians and professionals for: fuel design and behaviour analysis; fuel manufacturing and QA; international recognition of its fuel development and manufacturing capability through its ORR miniplate irradiation; its own natural uranium and the future possibility to enrich up to 20% U 235 ; the probability to offer a competitive fuel manufacturing cost in the international market; the disposition to cooperate with all countries that wish to take part and aim to reach an self-sufficiency in their own fuel supply needs

  19. Fabrication of Games and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars; Kofoed, Lise

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Game based learning has proven to have many possibilities for supporting better learning outcomes, when using educational or commercial games in the classroom. However, there is also a great potential in using game development as a motivator in several other kinds of learning...... scenarios. Using game development as an approach for including game based learning in various educations has become more accessible due to more user friendly game development tools and systems. This study will thus focus on an exploration on how game development motivates students and what they learn when...... creating games. We exemplify the potential of using game fabrication as a learning environment with the investigation of a game production, which involved over 25 students across semesters. In order to investigate students’ experiences during this purposive game production, we set up an experiment where...

  20. Pigmi mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. A discussion is given dealing with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development

  1. PIGMI mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. The following discussion deals with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development. (author)

  2. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  3. Focused Ion Beam Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-17

    vernier structures in PMMA aligned to vernier structures previously fabricated on the sample in both the x and y axis. Some of this work is described in...length of the order of micrometers . Electrons at an energy of 50 keV were used, and a minimum As a variation from the ordinary single-gate MODFET, we

  4. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  5. Fabrication of diffraction X-ray elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babin, S.V.; Erko, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    The use of focusing elements in the X-ray range shows promise for nondestructive chemical analysis of samples with spatial resolution up to fractions of a μm. This paper considers the problems of fabricating Fresnel zone plates of different types: Amplitude- and phase-transparent zone plates and reflective zone plates formed on a multilayer mirror, as well as microstructures with a specified zone profile. (orig.)

  6. Fabricate-On-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCamy, James W. [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-09-19

    PPG proposed to design a fabricate-on-demand manufacturing process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulated glazing (VIG) units. To do so, we focused on improving three areas of VIG manufacturing that drive high costs and limit the ability for smaller manufacturers to enter the market: edge sealing, pillar design/placement, and evacuating the VIG.

  7. True and intentionally fabricated memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, L.V.; Morrison, C.M.; Conway, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the experiment reported here was to investigate the processes underlying the construction of truthful and deliberately fabricated memories. Properties of memories created to be intentionally false - fabricated memories - were compared to properties of memories believed to be true - true memories. Participants recalled and then wrote or spoke true memories and fabricated memories of everyday events. It was found that true memories were reliably more vivid than fabricated memories an...

  8. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  9. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  10. Advanced fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the fabrication of advanced fuels, such as mixed oxides for Pressurized Water Reactors or mixed nitrides for Fast Breeder Reactors. Although an extensive production experience exists for the mixed oxides used in the FBR, important work is still needed to improve the theoretical and technical knowledge of the production route which will be introduced in the future European facility, named Melox, at Marcoule. Recently, the feasibility of nitride fuel fabrication in existing commercial oxide facilities was demonstrated in France. The process, based on carbothermic reduction of oxides with subsequent comminution of the reaction product, cold pressing and sintering provides (U, Pu)N pellets with characteristics suitable for irradiation testing. Two experiments named NIMPHE 1 and 2 fabricated in collaboration with ITU, Karlsruhe, involve 16 nitride and 2 carbide pins, operating at a linear power of 45 and 73 kW/m with a smear density of 75-80% TD and a high burn-up target of 15 at%. These experiments are currently being irradiated in Phenix, at Marcoule. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic focusing in triangular electron billiards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Kristensen, A.; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    1999-01-01

    focusing spectrum compared to the case of a perpendicular injection angle. From numerical and analytical analysis, we confirm that the quenching is a fundamental geometrical effect, and identify two mechanisms responsible for the anomaly. The focusing spectrum of the considered skewed geometry......The classical ballistic magnetotransport in triangular electron billiards fabricated in a high mobility GaAs heterostructure has been studied at 4.2 K. The sample geometry may be viewed as a double-slit structure with a skewed injection angle. We observe a striking cancellation of the magnetic...

  12. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  13. Experiences in transferring of AFA 3G fuel assembly fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaodong; Wu Zhiming; Luo Jiankang

    2002-01-01

    Implementation program is developed for the transferring of AFA 3G technology, together with the project management experts designated by Framatome Company, to facilitate the technology import under the guidance of strict program. Technical documents and quality insurance management documents are developed based on the full understanding of the information provided by Framatome to guide the fabrication of AFA 3G fuel elements. Technical requirement suggested by Framatome is adopted as much as possible, considering the practical process capability of YFP. The focus is the technology about fabrication difficulties in the AFA 3G technology, to insure the successful transfer of the AFA 3G fabrication technology

  14. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  15. Perspective plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakicevic, I. S.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental results of the plasma focus have been analyzed and compared with theoretical regularities of the plasma force-free state. It has been shown that the plasma focus vortex filaments structures, which are closing in itself forming hot spots, have to be unstable, and so they are quickly destroying. That is the reason why in the plasma focus the controlled thermonuclear fusion can not be realized. (author)

  16. Fabrication of gravity-driven microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H.; Yoshida, Y.; Terada, N.; Hagihara, S.; Komatsu, T.; Terasawa, A.

    2008-12-01

    We have studied the micro total analysis system as a blood test. A microfluidic device with a three-pronged microchannel and artificial capillary vessels was fabricated. The microchannel is to transport blood, focus blood cells, and line them up. The vessels are to observe red blood cell deformation. An excimer laser was used to form grooves and so on. Numbers of thermosetting resin film and fluororesin were piled up on a cover glass. A laser fabricated part of the channel at the each film every lamination, and then a three-dimensional structure microchannel was fabricated. The channel sizes have widths of 50-150 μm and depths of 45 μm. Through holes used as artificial capillary vessels are made in the fluororesin having a minimum diameter of 5 μm and a length of 100 μm. As blood and a physiological saline are injected into the microchannel, the device stands upward facing the channel, and blood cells go into the vessels by the force of gravity and sheath flow of the saline. By gravity various groove patterns were made changing the width and length for measurement of blood focusing. Moreover, the red blood cell deformation was observed in the vessels with a microscope.

  17. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Zheng; Qi, Jian-cheng; Wu, Jin-hui; Tian, Tao; Hou, Li-li; Hao, Li-mei; Yang, Jing-quan

    2011-08-01

    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. ε-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  18. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Song; Wang Zheng; Qi Jiancheng; Wu Jinhui; Tian Tao; Hao Limei; Yang Jingquan; Hou Lili

    2011-01-01

    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. ε-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging.

  19. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  20. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  1. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  2. Focus and VP Ellipsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Carlson, Katy

    2007-01-01

    In spoken English, pitch accents can convey the focus associated with new or contrasted constituents. Two listening experiments were conducted to determine whether accenting a subject makes its predicate a more tempting antecedent for an elided verb phrase, presumably because the accent helps focus the subject of the antecedent clause, increasing…

  3. Reforming Shapes for Material-aware Fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2015-08-10

    © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. As humans, we regularly associate shape of an object with its built material. In the context of geometric modeling, however, this inter-relation between form and material is rarely explored. In this work, we propose a novel data-driven reforming (i.e.; reshaping) algorithm that adapts an input multi-component model for a target fabrication material. The algorithm adapts both the part geometry and the inter-part topology of the input shape to better align with material-aware fabrication requirements. As output, we produce the reshaped model along with respective part dimensions and inter-part junction specifications. We evaluate our algorithm on a range of man-made models and demonstrate a variety of model reshaping examples focusing only on metal and wooden materials.

  4. Neural engineering from advanced biomaterials to 3D fabrication techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the principles of advanced 3D fabrication techniques, stem cells and biomaterials for neural engineering. Renowned contributors cover topics such as neural tissue regeneration, peripheral and central nervous system repair, brain-machine interfaces and in vitro nervous system modeling. Within these areas, focus remains on exciting and emerging technologies such as highly developed neuroprostheses and the communication channels between the brain and prostheses, enabling technologies that are beneficial for development of therapeutic interventions, advanced fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting, photolithography, microfluidics, and subtractive fabrication, and the engineering of implantable neural grafts. There is a strong focus on stem cells and 3D bioprinting technologies throughout the book, including working with embryonic, fetal, neonatal, and adult stem cells and a variety of sophisticated 3D bioprinting methods for neural engineering applications. There is also a strong focus on b...

  5. AFIP-6 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Moore; M. Craig Marshall

    2011-09-01

    The AFIP-6 (ATR Full-size plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-6 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  6. Filter Fabrics for Airport Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    pneumatically filling a woven polypropylene stocking with sand and vibrating it into a prebored hole, while another method uses a polyester nonwoven fabric...Selected Nonwoven Filter Fabrics," Letter Report, June 1977, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, CE, Vicksburg, Miss. 18. BalL, J. E...woven and nonwoven plastic filter fabric. It has been developed based on limited field performance observations and the laboratory test evaluation of

  7. Novel Fabrication Strategies for Multifunctional Hydrogel Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Chrisitna L.

    2011-12-01

    Three fabrication strategies for poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) -based microparticles and their utility for exploiting the advantages of viral nanotemplates and DNA oligonucleotides are presented in this dissertation: 1. Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assembly of Viral Nanotemplates on Microparticles A flow lithography technique known as stop-flow lithography (SFL) was used to fabricate microparticles with discrete regions for sample identification and patterned assembly of functionalized tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanotemplates. TMV nanotemplates were programmed with linker DNA, complementary to the probe DNA in the assembly region of the microparticles. The hybridization-based assembly yielded specific, programmable, and spatially selective assembly of TMV nanotemplates on encoded hydrogel microparticles and demonstrates a novel high throughput route to create multiplexed and multifunctional viral-synthetic hybrid microentities. 2. Microparticles Containing Functionalized Viral Nanotemplates Functionalized viral assemblies were uniformly distributed throughout hydrogel microparticles by direct embedding with a microfluidic flow-focusing device and UV photopolymerization. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy images showed uniform distribution of the TMV nanotemplates. Microparticles containing TMV-templated palladium (Pd) nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity for the dichromate reduction reaction. The results reveal that microparticles provide a stable and simple-to-handle carrier for TMV nanotemplates and address a critical challenge of 3D assembly of functionalized viral hybrid nanomaterials. 3. DNA-Conjugated Microparticles via Replica Molding (RM) DNA-conjugated microparticles were fabricated using a soft-lithographic batch processing-based technique, known as RM. A humidity controlled environment was found to minimize the negative effects of rapid evaporation and ensure uniformity across batch fabricated microparticles. It was also found that PEG

  8. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR. Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF. Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics.

  9. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge......, not as something that pre-exists or goes beyond the situated interaction. This article, however, challenges not only the first, but also the second position and suggests that it is, after all, possible to do committedly ethnomethodological studies of focus group data that demonstrate how members of a focus group...

  10. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  11. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  12. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  13. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  14. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  15. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... announcement by Bill Gates of his $50 million investment in the Dementia Discovery Fund. A charitable act ... under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of the United States.Copyright 2017 BrightFocus ...

  16. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  17. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  18. Focused ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamo, K.

    1993-01-01

    Focussed ion beam (FIB) technology has the advantage of being a maskless process compatible with UHV processing. This makes it attractive for use in in situ processing and has been applied to the fabrication of various mesoscopic structures. The present paper reviews these results whilst putting emphasis on in situ processing by a combined FIB and molecular beam epitaxy system. The typical performance of present FIB systems is also presented. In order to utilize the potential advantages of FIB processing, reduction of damage and improvement of throughput are important, and much effort has been devoted to developing processing techniques which require a reduced dose. The importance of low-energy FIB is discussed. (author)

  19. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  20. Plutonium focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  1. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  2. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  3. STRETCH FABRICS IN LEATHER MANUFACTURING: PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF STRECH LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORK Nilay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Product variability of manufactured leather goods such as garment leathers could be closely related to the wear comfort because each material forming the garments are affected the comfort properties of the products. Considering the significant demand to elastic woven stretch fabrics and the advantages provided to leather goods like allowing easy body movements, well-fitting and keeping the shape make the use of stretch fabrics focus in interest. In this study, the performance properties of stretch leathers, leathers and spandex fabrics were presented and the differences between the characteristic properties of the leathers were described. For this purpose, physical characteristics of leathers were investigated in terms of thickness, weight, drape ability, stiffness, bending stiffness, air and water vapor permeability. The drape ability, stiffness and bending stiffness properties were significantly affected by the stretch fabrics laminated on the suede side of the leathers. The drape ability, stiffness and bending values were increased due to the implementation of stretch fabrics. There was no significant difference between the air permeability values of the leathers prior and after the implementation of stretch fabrics in contrast to water vapor permeability. The results of this study showed that the aesthetic behavior of clothing materials such as drape and stiffness properties as well as water vapor permeability was mainly affected from the implementation of the stretch fabrics.

  4. Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics.

  5. Development of a Fluid Structures Interaction Test Technique for Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilliac, Gregory G.; Heineck, James T.; Schairer, Edward T.; Mosher, Robert N.; Garbeff, Theodore Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Application of fluid structures interaction (FSI) computational techniques to configurations of interest to the entry, descent and landing (EDL) community is limited by two factors - limited characterization of the material properties for fabrics of interest and insufficient experimental data to validate the FSI codes. Recently ILC Dover Inc. performed standard tests to characterize the static stress-strain response of four candidate fabrics for use in EDL applications. The objective of the tests described here is to address the need for a FSI dataset for CFD validation purposes. To reach this objective, the structural response of fabrics was measured in a very simple aerodynamic environment with well controlled boundary conditions. Two test series were undertaken. The first series covered a range of tunnel conditions and the second focused on conditions that resulted in fabric panel buckling.

  6. Double-shell target fabrication workshop-2016 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. Morris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Oertel, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Farrell, Michael [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Baumann, Ted [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Huang, Haibo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nikroo, Abbas [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-10

    On June 30, 2016, over 40 representatives from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), General Atomics (GA), Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Schafer Corporation, and NNSA headquarter attended a double-shell (DS) target fabrication workshop at Livermore, California. Pushered-single-shell (PSS) and DS metalgas platforms potentially have a large impact on programmatic applications. The goal of this focused workshop is to bring together target fabrication scientists, physicists, and designers to brainstorm future PSS and DS target fabrication needs and strategies. This one-day workshop intends to give an overall view of historical information, recent approaches, and future research activities at each participating organization. Five topical areas have been discussed that are vital to the success of future DS target fabrications, including inner metal shells, foam spheres, outer ablators, fill tube assembly, and metrology.

  7. DRAPING SIMULATION OF WOVEN FABRICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, William [General Motors LLC; Jin, Xiaoshi [ESI Group NA; Zhu, Jiang [Optimal CAE; Wathen, Terrence [General Motors LLC; Doroudian2, Mark [ESI Group NA; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors LLC

    2016-09-07

    Woven fabric composites are extensively used in molding complex geometrical shapes due to their high conformability compared to other fabrics. Preforming is an important step in the overall process, where the two-dimensional fabric is draped to become the three-dimensional shape of the part prior to resin injection. During preforming, the orientation of the yarns may change significantly compared to the initial orientations. Accurate prediction of the yarn orientations after molding is important for evaluating the structural performance of the final part. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the angle changes during the preform operation for carbon fiber twill and satin weave fabrics. Preforming experiments were conducted using a truncated pyramid mold geometry designed and fabricated at the General Motors Research Laboratories. Predicted results for the yarn orientations were compared with experimental results and good agreement was observed

  8. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  9. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  10. Radiological focusing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husmann, K.; Mehrkens, A.; Hancken, G.

    1995-01-01

    The textbook explains the most common and essential radiological focusing techniques and gives the relevant theory and technical fundamentals. The theory does not consume much space in this book, the theoretical part briefly addressing such aspects as film-screen combinations, doses administered by X-ray radiography, quality assurance, radiological protection, and potential patient reactions to contrast media applied. The textbook primarily is a practical guide giving general advice and guidance on focusing techniques, accompanied by an illustrative compilation of frequent mistakes. Arranged by body regions, the well over 80 examples of focusing techniques are presented by systematic texts and illustrations. There is an annex giving a glossary of terms, a bibliography, and a list of useful addresses. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Fabricating multifunctional silver nanoparticles-coated cotton fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shateri-Khalilabad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles with high density coating were formed on the surface of cotton fabric through pre-activation by potassium hydroxide and in situ reduction of silver nitrate. The silver nanoparticles-coated fabric was then reacted with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane, which resulted in the formation of low surface energy layer around the fabric. The fabrics were characterized by reflectance spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns. Wettability properties were measured by contact angle goniometry and shedding angle technique. Antibacterial activity was determined against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Ultraviolet-blocking was measured via transmittance data in the range of 280–400 nm. Microscopy images showed the formation of uniform and high density coating of silver on the surface of cotton fibers. The fabric showed hydrophobicity with CA of 158 ± 4.3° and SHA of 7°. Also, it demonstrated a high antibacterial activity against two bacterial challenges, as shown via formation of inhibition zone. Excellent ultraviolet protection of the fabric was demonstrated by ultraviolet protection factor value of 296. The fabric also showed good durability against repeated laundering.

  12. Superconducting circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, B.F.; Young, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of anodization of thin films for the fabrication of superconducting devices. An electrically conducting contact layer is formed over a substrate between an electrically conducting object layer and the substrate. Also, an electrically insulating layer is formed between the object layer and the contact layer. The contact layer is connected to a power supply and at least a preselected portion of the object layer is anodized to a predetermined thickness. This may include anodizing all of some preselected portions through the complete thickness of the object layer. A pattern of hardened photoresist on the object layer provides portions not protected by the pattern. When anodization of the electrically conducting object layer takes place, the resulting anodized portion is thicker than the thickness of the portion of the object layer that it replaces. The present invention further includes reducing the preselected portion of the object layer to be anodized by a predetermined amount before anodizing so that when anodization is complete, the resulting partially anodized partially conducting object layer is substantially planar. Alternatively, the thickness of the anodized preselected portions can be reduced after anodizing by a predetermined amount to cause the layer to be substantially planar. The same pattern of hardened photoresist can be used when reducing the thickness of portions of the object layer or anodized preselected portions

  13. Homework. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Michelle Layer

    2010-01-01

    Homework has been an integral part of the educational system for over 100 years. What likely began as simple memorization tasks has evolved into complex projects and sparked an increasingly heated debate over the purpose and value of homework assignments. This "Focus On" examines the purpose of homework, how to create homework that has value,…

  14. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  15. EVALUATION OF MICROMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBER FABRIC USING NANOINDETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Klapálek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused mainly on nanoindentation of carbon fibers. Fibers are in form of carbon fiber fabric that is used in larger research that is focused on reinforcing beams made of glued laminated timber. Knowledge of this material on macro and micro level will help to understand its behavior in this specific type of use. Nanoindentation is method used in this paper to obtain material characteristics on micro level such as hardness and modulus of elasticity. Samples of the carbon fiber fabric had to be prepared for this specific testing method by polishing samples of carbon fabric attached in epoxy resin. In particular, it was found that the indentation hardness of the fibers ranges around 3.65 GPa and modulus of elasticity ranges around 26 GPa.

  16. The fabrication of andean particularism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    original culture through resistance, it focuses on the fabrication of tradition within the disciplinary strategies of the colonial order and on the local re-employment of those productions in political mobilizations. The discussion of this major issue within the field of Andean history is undertaken against the horizon of a case of resistance focusing on the Inca from the Audiencia of Quito in the seventeenth century. Such an incident affords a privileged field for the investigation of the connections between colonial authority and origins, since it stages the recall, simulation and reinstatement of the past.

  17. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen

    functionally graded materials. The volume and composition of the suspensions printed in droplets at a small area are controlled by the inkjet Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black color printing principle. The potential of this newly-developed method for fabricating FGMs with arbitrarily designed three-dimensional composition profiles is demonstrated. Sintering investigation focuses on dental porcelain and hydroxyapatite (HA) bodies. Proper sintering conditions have been established for dental porcelain bodies to maintain dimensional accuracy and to prevent slumping. For sintering of HA bodies, a novel approach for sintering of HA bodies at temperatures as low as 900°C has been developed. Low temperature sintering of HA bodies is critical for the success of fabricating functionally graded HA/Ti-6Al-4V materials for orthopedic implant applications because co-sintering of HA and Ti-4Al-4V at temperatures above 950°C can result in the formation of soluble tricalcium phosphate and severe oxidation of Ti-6Al4V. The low temperature sintering of nanocrystalline HA developed in this study, based on the morphology driven anisotropic crystal coarsening mechanism, opens up the opportunity to fabricate functionally graded HA/Ti-6Al-4V materials with no decomposition of HA and oxidation of Ti-6Al-4V and to improve the quality of HA coatings on Ti alloys.

  18. MOX fuel fabrication at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimayuga, F.C.; Jeffs, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication activities are conducted in the Recycle Fuel Fabrication Laboratories (RFFL) at the Chalk River Laboratories. The RFFL facility is designed to produce experimental quantities of CANDU MOX fuel for reactor physics tests or demonstration irradiations. From 1979 to 1987, several MOX fuel fabrication campaigns were run in the RFFL, producing various quantities of fuel with different compositions. About 150 bundles, containing over three tonnes of MOX, were fabricated in the RFFL before operations in the facility were suspended. In late 1987, the RFFL was placed in a state of active standby, a condition where no fuel fabrication activities are conducted, but the monitoring and ventilation systems in the facility are maintained. Currently, a project to rehabilitate the RFFL and resume MOX fuel fabrication is nearing completion. This project is funded by the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The initial fabrication campaign will consist of the production of thirty-eight 37-element (U,Pu)O 2 bundles containing 0.2 wt% Pu in Heavy Element (H.E.) destined for physics tests in the zero-power ZED-2 reactor. An overview of the Rehabilitation Project will be given. (author)

  19. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  20. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  2. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...

  3. Automated fabrication of reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; McLemore, D.R.; Bennett, D.W.; Yatabe, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The development of Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) methods is the goal of the United States breeder reactor program and will form the technological basis for the future breeder reactor fuel supply. A major factor in achieving this goal is the development of remotely operated fuel fabrication equipment. The unit operations are being designed for microprocessor control connected to a central control center. The program schedule is to demonstrate the feasibility of automated pellet fuel fabrication and remote maintenance techniques by the mid-1980's. Development of major ceramic unit operations and the required computer control system is currently in the engineering testing stage

  4. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  5. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  6. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  7. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  8. Design and Fabrication of a Juice Extractor OMOREGIE, MJ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This paper focused on addressing the problem of inadequate preservation of farm produce in. Nigeria by designing and fabricating a ... has become necessary to evolve a means of preserving as well as satisfying the need ..... Structures,” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of. Mechanical Engineering, MIT, Cambridge.

  9. Facility safeguards at an LEU fuel fabrication facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroi, H.; Osabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    A facility description of a Japanese LEU BWR-type fuel fabrication plant focusing on safeguards viewpoints is presented. Procedures and practices of MC and A plan, measurement program, inventory taking, and the report and record system are described. Procedures and practices of safeguards inspection are discussed and lessons learned from past experiences are reviewed

  10. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , in therapy, education, health intervention, communication, and coordination at all levels. A dialogical approach starts by acknowledging that the social world is perspectival, that people and groups inhabit different social realities. This book stands apart from the proliferation of recent books on dialogism......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  11. Perfect focusing fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, G.; Takeda, T.; Iwata, G.; Mori, S.; Inoue, K.; Tanaka, M.

    1994-01-01

    We propose new perfect focusing (perfo) fusion systems in which ion- or atom-beam is used as a target for the fusion reaction, and ions (perfo particles) of different species moving in the perfo field collide with them. The 'efficiency' defined as the ratio of the fusion energy output to the radiation loss is ∼300, ∼20, and ∼4 for the T+D, 3 He+D, and 11 B+H reactions, respectively. (author)

  12. Fast focus field calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Leutenegger, M.; Rao, R.; Leitgeb, R. A.; Lasser, T.

    2006-01-01

    We present a fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under ...

  13. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  14. Divergent flow isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlais, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 12 (2008), s. 2451-2457 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701; GA ČR GA203/06/1179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : isoelectric focusing * divergent flow * pI markers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.509, year: 2008

  15. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators are characteri......A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  16. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  17. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  18. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  19. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  20. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator is d...... on either simple citation analysis or bibliographic coupling are found to be close relatives. Measures based on journal self-citation are found to be only weakly correlated with the focus factor. Measures based on co-citation analysis remain to be studied and compared.......Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator...... is demonstrated on a selection of general science journals and on a selection of medical journals. The reference lists of each journal are compared year by year, and the percentage of re-citations is calculated by dividing the number of re-citations with the total number of citations each year. Analysis...

  1. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  2. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Fabrics and Textiles Merchandising. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth

    This module, one of ten competency based modules developed for vocational home economics teachers, is based on a job cluster in fabric and textiles merchandising. It is designed for use with a variety of groups including grades 9-14 and adults. Focusing on the specific job title fabric and textiles salesperson, ten competencies and the student…

  3. Pilling Resistance of Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics with different quantity of elastane, conspicuous by high viscosity and elasticity, having one of the most important performance properties - resistance to pilling are often used in the production of high quality sportswear. During technological process imitating operating conditions, the behaviour of knitted fabrics may be changed by different industrial softeners from 12 % to 20 % of active substance, for example fatty acid condensate (Tubingal 5051 or silicone micro emulsion (Tubingal SMF. The aim of this investigation is to define the influence of fibrous composition and chemical softeners to the propensity of fuzzing and pilling of plain and plated jersey pattern knitted fabrics. The results of investigations showed that fibrous composition and thickness of materials (up to 6 % and washing as well as softening (from 33 % to 67 % change the resistance of knitted fabrics to pilling.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.597

  4. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  5. A Review on the Fabrication of Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akmal Kamarudin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity, by converting heat energy directly into useable electricity, offers a promising technology to convert heat from solar energy and to recover waste heat from industrial sectors and automobile exhausts. In recent years, most of the efforts have been done on improving the thermoelectric efficiency using different approaches, that is, nanostructuring, doping, molecular rattling, and nanocomposite formation. The applications of thermoelectric polymers at low temperatures, especially conducting polymers, have shown various advantages such as easy and low cost of fabrication, light weight, and flexibility. In this review, we will focus on exploring new types of polymers and the effects of different structures, concentrations, and molecular weight on thermoelectric properties. Various strategies to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials will be discussed. In addition, a discussion on the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, especially suited to polymers, will also be given. Finally, we provide the challenge and the future of thermoelectric polymers, especially thermoelectric hybrid model.

  6. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  7. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed.......We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  8. Fabrication of mercury target vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Ryoichi; Uchiyama, Naoyoshi; Okamoto, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Koji

    2010-03-01

    The construction of materials and life science experimental facility in J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex) project had been completed and accepted pulsed proton beams with low power. Since 2003, the detailed design, fabrication and examination for the mercury target vessel as a pulsed neutron source were carried out by the vender. The mercury target vessel consists of triple-walled structure in order to prevent the leak of mercury to outside at the failure of the mercury vessel and to remove the heat of the safety hull, which covers the mercury vessel, due to the injection of the pulsed proton beams. The high fabrication accuracy is required for the mercury target vessel assembled by the welding, because there are the relationships between the mercury target vessel and other components (target trolley, target storage container, flange of helium vessel, reflector and water-cooled shield). At each fabrication step, the examinations for the mercury target vessel with multi-walled structure were required. In this report, the required specification and basic structure of parts in the mercury target vessel are described and the fabrication procedure of the mercury target vessel by the vender is reported. In the fabrication of the mercury target vessel, there were many troubles such as large deformation due to the welding and then the vender repaired and brought the mercury target vessel to completion. Furthermore, improvements for the design and fabrication of the mercury target are reported. (author)

  9. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  10. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  11. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  12. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  13. Extremely Lightweight Segmented Membrane Optical Shell Fabrication Technology for Future IR to Optical Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) substrate fabrication approach be extended with a specific focus on advanced off-axis very light weight,...

  14. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...... and finally data analysis based on the ISO approach. The device was calibrated and tested on commercially available laser systems. It showed good reproducibility. It was the target to be able to measure CW lasers with a power up to 200 W, focused down to spot diameters in the range of 10µm. In order...

  15. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  16. Biofabrication micro- and nano-fabrication, printing, patterning and assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Forgacs, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Biofabrication is a practical guide to the novel, inherently cross-disciplinary scientific field that focuses on biomanufacturing processes and a related range of emerging technologies. These processes and technologies ultimately further the development of products that may involve living (cells and/or tissues) and nonliving (bio-supportive proteins, scaffolds) components. The book introduces readers to cell printing, patterning, assembling, 3D scaffold fabrication, cell/tissue-on-chips as a coherent micro-/nano-fabrication toolkit. Real-world examples illustrate how to apply biofabric

  17. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  18. A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  19. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  20. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  1. Tragacanth gum/nano silver hydrogel on cotton fabric: In-situ synthesis and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, M; Keshvari, A; Kahali, P

    2016-12-10

    This paper is mainly focused on introducing cotton fabric with hydrogel and antimicrobial properties using Tragacanth gum as a natural polymer with hydrogel properties, silver nitrate as silver precursor, citric acid as a cross-linking agent and sodium hypophosphite as catalyst. The water absorption behavior of the treated fabrics was investigated with moisture regain, water retention, drying time of wetted fabric at room condition and vertical wicking tests. Antibacterial properties of the samples were evaluated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcous aureus. The SEM pictures confirmed formation of nano silver and hydrogel layer on the fabric surface and XRD performed the crystal and particle size of the nano silver. The chemical structure of the fabric samples was identified with FTIR spectra. The central composite design (CCD) was used for statistical modelling, evaluated effective parameters and created optimum conditions. The treated cotton fabrics showed good water absorption properties along with reasonable antibacterial effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Durable Superomniphobic Surface on Cotton Fabrics via Coating of Silicone Rubber and Fluoropolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsheen Moiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance textiles that protect human from different threats and dangers from environment are in high demand, and the advancement in functionalization technology together with employing advanced materials have made this an area of research focus. In this work, silicone rubber and environmentally friendly fluoropolymers have been employed to explore superomniphobic surface on cotton fabrics without compromising comfort much. It has been found that a cross-linked network between the rubber membrane and the fluoropolymers has been formed. The surface appearance, morphology, handle, thickness and chemical components of the surface of cotton fabrics have been changed. The coated fabrics showed resistance to water, aqueous liquid, oil, chemicals and soil. The comfort of the coated fabrics is different to uncoated cotton fabrics due to the existence of coated layers on the surface of cotton fabrics. This work would benefit the development and design of the next generation of performance textiles with balanced performance and comfort.

  3. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, W

    2014-07-17

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate...

  4. Tipping solutions: emerging 3D nano-fabrication/ -imaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniutinas Gediminas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of optical microscopy from an imaging technique into a tool for materials modification and fabrication is now being repeated with other characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, focused ion beam (FIB milling/imaging, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Fabrication and in situ imaging of materials undergoing a three-dimensional (3D nano-structuring within a 1−100 nm resolution window is required for future manufacturing of devices. This level of precision is critically in enabling the cross-over between different device platforms (e.g. from electronics to micro-/nano-fluidics and/or photonics within future devices that will be interfacing with biological and molecular systems in a 3D fashion. Prospective trends in electron, ion, and nano-tip based fabrication techniques are presented.

  5. Fabrication and electric measurements of nanostructures inside transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qing; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2011-01-01

    Using manipulation holders specially designed for transmission electron microscope (TEM), nanostructures can be characterized, measured, modified and even fabricated in-situ. In-situ TEM techniques not only enable real-time study of structure-property relationships of materials at atomic scale, but also provide the ability to control and manipulate materials and structures at nanoscale. This review highlights in-situ electric measurements and in-situ fabrication and structure modification using manipulation holder inside TEM. -- Research highlights: → We review in-situ works using manipulation holder in TEM. → In-situ electric measurements, fabrication and structure modification are focused. → We discuss important issues that should be considered for reliable results. → In-situ TEM is becoming a very powerful tool for many research fields.

  6. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  7. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Anerella, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bossert, R. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cavanna, E. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Cheng, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chlachidize, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Cooley, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dietderich, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Felice, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ferracin, P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Ghosh, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hafalia, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holik, E. F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bermudez, S. Izquierdo [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Juchno, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Krave, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchevsky, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muratore, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nobrega, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perez, J. C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pong, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Prestemon, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ravaioli, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sabbi, G. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Santini, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schmalzle, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stoynev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Strauss, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vallone, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Wanderer, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yu, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-07-16

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  8. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bossert, R.; Cavanna, E.; Cheng, D.; Chlachidize, G.; Cooley, L.; Dietderich, D.; Felice, H.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A.; Hafalia, R.; Holik, E. F.; Bermudez, S. Izquierdo; Juchno, M.; Krave, S.; Marchevsky, M.; Muratore, J.; Nobrega, F.; Pan, H.; Perez, J. C.; Pong, I.; Prestemon, S.; Ravaioli, E.; Sabbi, G. L.; Santini, C.; Schmalzle, J.; Stoynev, S.; Strauss, T.; Vallone, G.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, X.; Yu, M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  9. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  10. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our...... advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which...

  11. Fabrication of gap-optimized CMUT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Oliver; Buhrdorf, Andreas; Hohlfeld, Dennis; Tebje, Lars; Binder, Josef

    2002-09-01

    A recently introduced set up of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (cMUT) combines a conductive membrane above a structured sacrificial layer. All previous approaches either require an additional metallic electrode or do not possess a structured sacrificial layer and, consequently, may make exact adjustment of the membrane dimensions difficult. The present set ups are especially suited for the fabrication of cMUT with gap heights ranging between 50 nm and 2 microm between the electrodes. Large gaps are a prerequisite to enabling sufficient deflections of the membrane and, therewith, to generating high pressure gradients. On the other hand, small gap sizes are desirable for detecting weak ultrasonic sources. This paper focuses on the fabrication process of cMUT to realize electrode separation above 500 nm and, in addition, on the manufacturing of cMUT with gaps below 500 nm. The successful realization has been proven by some basic experimental investigations. Finally, the fundamental equations of a frequently chosen simulation model are documented, as a number of ambiguities exist in the common literature.

  12. Fabricator opens next chapter in style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Terry.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of two offshore fabrication yards over twenty five years at Nigg and Ardersier on the Cromarty and Moray Firths in Scotland is traced. For most of the period since opening in 1972, the two yards operated as separate competing entities under the ownership of the construction companies Brown and Root and McDermott. In the early 1990s, market demand was shifting from the yard's traditional base of fixed platforms to floating and subsea technology while competition in the fabrication industry was growing in Europe. In response to this market challenge, in 1995 the two companies entered into a joint venture to operate the two yards as one entity, Barmac. Within three months of the formation of Barmac, the decision was taken to focus participation in the traditional offshore market at Ardersier and redevelop Nigg to take advantage of the rapidly expanding marine business. The key to this has been the transformation of Nigg's dormant graving dock into a dry dock capable of handling new market applications such as floating production systems, production jackups and semi-submersibles as newbuild, conversions or refurbishment. Two major construction contracts using the dock have already been secured by Barmac and other opportunities are opening up. Meanwhile, performance improvements have also been made in the traditional business at Ardersier. (UK)

  13. Template-assisted fabrication of protein nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Shelley A.; Liang, Jianyu; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2009-02-01

    Bionanomaterials have recently begun to spark a great amount of interest and could potentially revolutionize biomedical research. Nanoparticles, nanocapsules, and nanotubular structures are becoming attractive options in drug and gene delivery. The size of the delivery vehicles greatly impacts cellular uptake and makes it highly desirable to precisely control the diameter and length of nanocarriers to make uniform nanoparticles at low cost. Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential within the field of drug and gene delivery. However, their insolubility and cytotoxicity could severely delay FDA approval. A desirable alternative would be to fabricate nanostructures from biomaterials such as proteins, peptides, or liposomes, which are already FDA approved. In this article we demonstrate the preparation of protein nanocapsules with both ends sealed using a template-assisted alternate immersion method combined with controlled cleaving. Glucose oxidase nanocapsules with controllable diameter, wall thickness, and length were fabricated and characterized with SEM and TEM. The biochemical activity of glucose oxidase in the form of nanocapsules after processing was confirmed using UV spectrometry. Our future work will explore proteins suitable for drug encapsulation and cellular uptake and will focus on optimizing the cleaving process to gain precise control over the length of the nanocapsules.

  14. Metal plasmas for the fabrication of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2006-09-21

    A review is provided covering metal plasma production, theenergetic condensation of metal plasmas, and the formation ofnanostructures using such plasmas. Plasma production techniques includepulsed laser ablation, filtered cathodic arcs, and various forms ofionized physical vapor deposition, namely magnetron sputtering withionization of sputtered atoms in radio frequency discharges,self-sputtering, and high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Thediscussion of energetic condensation focuses on the control of kineticenergy by biasing and also includes considerations of the potentialenergy and the processes occurring at subplantation and implantation. Inthe final section on nanostructures, two different approaches arediscussed. In the top-down approach, the primary nanostructures arelithographically produced and metal plasma is used to coat or filltrenches and vias. Additionally, multilayers with nanosize periods(nanolaminates) can be produced. In the bottom-up approach, thermodynamicforces are used to fabricate nanocomposites and nanoporous materials bydecomposition and dealloying.

  15. Utilizing metalized fabrics for liquid and rip detection and localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen A.; Mahan, Cody A.; Kuhn, Michael J.; Rowe, Nathan C.

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique for utilizing electrically conductive textiles as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing liquids (e.g., blood), damage (e.g., rips, cuts, bullet holes) and, potentially, biosignals. The proposed technique is verified through both simulation and experimental measurements. Circuit theory is employed to depict conductive fabric as a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. Solutions to the well-known infinite resistance grid problem are used to confirm the accuracy and validity of this modeling approach. Simulations allow for discontinuities to be placed within the resistor matrix to illustrate the effects of bullet holes within the fabric. A real-time experimental system was developed that uses a multiplexed, Wheatstone bridge measurement approach to determine the resistances of a coarse electrode grid across the conductive fabric. Non-uniform resistance values of the grid infer the presence of liquids and rips in the fabric. The resistor-grid model is validated through a comparison of simulated and experimental results. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of disturbances in conductive fabric samples. Future work is focused on refining the experimental system to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events (although just the knowledge of a penetration may be adequate for some intended applications) as well as developing a complete prototype that can be deployed for field testing. Potential applications include intelligent clothing, flexible, lightweight sensing systems, and combat wound detection.

  16. Design, fabrication, and testing of stellar coronagraphs for exoplanet imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Justin M.; Brewer, John; Hamilton, Ryan; Ward, Karen; Milster, Tom D.; Guyon, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    Complex-mask coronagraphs destructively interfere unwanted starlight with itself to enable direct imaging of exoplanets. This is accomplished using a focal plane mask (FPM); a FPM can be a simple occulter mask, or in the case of a complex-mask, is a multi-zoned device designed to phase-shift starlight over multiple wavelengths to create a deep achromatic null in the stellar point spread function. Creating these masks requires microfabrication techniques, yet many such methods remain largely unexplored in this context. We explore methods of fabrication of complex FPMs for a Phased-Induced Amplitude Apodization Complex-Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC). Previous FPM fabrication efforts for PIAACMC have concentrated on mask manufacturability while modeling science yield, as well as assessing broadband wavelength operation. Moreover current fabrication efforts are concentrated on assessing coronagraph performance given a single approach. We present FPMs fabricated using several process paths, including deep reactive ion etching and focused ion beam etching using a silicon substrate. The characteristic size of the mask features is 5μm with depths ranging over 1μm. The masks are characterized for manufacturing quality using an optical interferometer and a scanning electron microscope. Initial testing is performed at the Subaru Extreme Adaptive Optics testbed, providing a baseline for future experiments to determine and improve coronagraph performance within fabrication tolerances.

  17. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  18. Fabrication of green polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-06-16

    Provided herein are methods of fabricating membranes using polymers with functionalized groups such as sulfone (e.g., PSf and PES), ether (e.g., PES), acrylonitrile (e.g., PAN), fluoride(e.g., pvdf and other fluoropolymers), and imide (e.g., extem) and ionic liquids. Also provided are membranes made by the provided methods.

  19. Transverse permeability of woven fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko; Loendersloot, Richard; van den Berg, S.

    2008-01-01

    The transverse permeability is an essential input in describing the consolidation process of CETEX® laminates. A two-dimensional, finite difference based, Stokes flow solver has been developed to determine the mesoscopic permeability of arbitrary fabric structures. The use of a multigrid solver

  20. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Jin, Mingliang; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots‿ with a deposited metal film, on which the localized

  1. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically uniqu...

  2. Fabrication of CANDU dupic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Ryz, M.A.; Lee, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    An important new fuel cycle that exploits the synergism between CANDU and pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) is the Direct Use of spent PWR Fuel in CANDU (DUPIC). In this fuel cycle, spent PWR fuel is reconfigured, using only dry processing techniques, to make it compatible with a CANDU reactor. The dry processing technique is inherently simpler than wet chemical processing techniques used for recycling spent fuel. Actinides and fission products are retained in the fuel, so that DUPIC fuel is highly radioactive, affording the fuel cycle a high degree of proliferation resistance. AECL's project to develop the fuel cycle has now progressed to the stage of fabricating DUPIC fuel elements for irradiation testing in a research reactor. The goal of this phase of the project is to demonstrate that the DUPIC fuel cycle is technically feasible. A major part of the technical feasibility study is demonstration of the irradiation performance of DUPIC fuel under CANDU conditions. Spent PWR fuel has been subjected to the oxidation and reduction of oxide fuels (OREOX) process, and the resulting powder has been fabricated into CANDU-quality pellets. The DUPIC pellets have been loaded into fuel elements for irradiation testing in the NRU research reactor at the Chalk River Laboratories. The fabrication stages included spent fuel decladding, powder production using the OREOX process, powder milling (to improve sinterability), pellet pressing, sintering, centreless grinding, element loading and element welding. This paper details the fabrication of the DUPIC pellets and elements and initial results of their characterization. The equipment used for fabrication of the DUPIC fuel elements is described, and the irradiation plan for these elements is also outlined. (author)

  3. Laser target fabrication, structure and method for its fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a laser target structure and its method of fabrication. The target structure comprises a target plate containing an orifice across which a pair of crosshairs are affixed. A microsphere is affixed to the crosshairs and enclosed by at least one hollow shell comprising two hemispheres attached together and to the crosshairs so that the microsphere is juxtapositioned at the center of the shell.

  4. Preparation of activated carbon fabrics from cotton fabric precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R.; Dadashian, F.; Abedi, M.

    2017-10-01

    The preparation of activated carbon fabrics (ACFs) from cotton fabric was performed by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The operation conditions for obtaining the ACFs with the highest the adsorption capacity and process yield, proposed. Optimized conditions were: impregnation ratio of 2, the rate of temperature rising of 7.5 °C min-1, the activation temperature of 500 °C and the activation time of 30 min. The ACFs produced under optimized conditions was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The surface area and pore volume of carbon nanostructures was characterized by BET nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 °K. The pore size distribution calculated from the desorption branch according to BJH method. The iodine number of the prepared ACFs was determined by titration at 30 °C based on the ASTM D4607-94. The results showed the improvement of porous structure, fabric shape, surface area (690 m2/g), total pore volume (0.3216 cm3/g), and well-preserved fibers integrity.

  5. Qualitative Investigation of Some Locally Produced Printed Fabrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained showed that the locally produced fabrics exhibited comparably better end – use performance characteristics in terms of fabric weight per square meter, fabric flammability, and linear density. While the foreign fabrics are better in terms of Crease recovery, fabric handle, fabric sett, fabric shrinkage, and ...

  6. Investigation into the UV-Protection of Woven Fabrics Composed of Metallic Weft Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghane Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The destructive effects of sun UV radiation on human skins are now very clear to everyone. Most of the present studies were focused on the fabrics’ structural parameters such as density, warp and weft yarns finenesses, fabric pattern and printing or finishing treatments applied to the fabrics. The aim of this work is achieving a technique through which the produced fabrics possess a higher UV-protection ability. For this purpose, two different metals including aluminium and copper yarns were employed in fabrics production process and their effects on UV-protection ability of the produced fabrics were investigated. Six different fabric samples comprised of either cotton/polyester, nylon yarns as the warp yarns as well as either aluminium or copper yarns as the weft yarns were produced. Using the spectrophotometer technique, which is known as one of the UPF measuring method, the absorbency and reflectivity of fabrics within the specified range of electromagnetic waves (specially the UV radiation were determined. The results illustrated that the higher UV absorbency was related to the fabric possessing the copper yarns in their structures. It was concluded that the absorption ability of nylon fabrics is higher than that of the cotton/polyester samples.

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Plasmonic Nanophotonic Absorbers and Waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yiting

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics is a promising field of nanophotonics dealing with light interaction with metallic nanostructures. In such material systems, hybridizationof photons and collective free-electron oscillation can result in sub-wavelength light confinement. The strong light-matter interaction can be harnessed for,among many applications, high-density photonic integration, metamaterial design, enhanced nonlinear optics, sensing etc. In the current thesis work, we focus on experimental fabrication and c...

  8. AIEgen-Based Fluorescent Nanomaterials: Fabrication and Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, luminogens with the feature of aggregation-induced emission (AIEgen have emerged as advanced luminescent materials for fluorescent nanomaterial preparation. AIEgen-based nanomaterials show enhanced fluorescence efficiency and superior photostability, which thusly offer unique advantages in biological applications. In this review, we will summarize the fabrication methods of AIEgen-based nanomaterials and their applications in in vitro/in vivo imaging, cell tracing, photodynamic therapy and drug delivery, focusing on the recent progress.

  9. Nylon fabric reinforced natural rubber compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Mazlina Mustafa; Ismail, Ismaliza

    2017-12-01

    Rubber fabric coated is a unique rubber-textile composite, in which technical textile acts as reinforcing material and strength providing material. In rubber textile composite, rubber to fabric adhesion plays the most critical role for determining assembly process and ultimate strength of product. A vulcanisable adhesive for rubber to fabric fabrication of composite material was developed which compatible with rubber as well as fabric. Evaluation of bonding system with respect to peel strength, shear adhesion strength and weave pattern of fabrics were the major determining criteria for selection and optimization of fabric for rubber hose application. Thus adhesive Cohedure with characteristics of high adhesive strength in Natural Rubber Polyester Fabric compound has been developed.

  10. Nanosensor Fabrication with 3D Manufacturing Techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We use 3D manufacturing techniques to fabricate sensors based on nanomaterials. We use 3D manufacturing techniques to fabricate sensors based on nanomaterials. This...

  11. Paving fabrics for reducing reflective cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This research effort was part of ADOT's New Product Evaluation Program. The objective was to evaluate the construction and field performances of three commercially available paving fabrics; Paveprep, Glassgrid, and Tapecoat. The fabrics were designed...

  12. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators

  13. Focused ion beam patterned Hall nano-sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candini, A.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Di Bona, A.; Affronte, M.; Ercolani, D.; Biasiol, G.; Sorba, L.

    2007-01-01

    By means of focused ion beam milling, we fabricate Hall magnetometers with active areas as small as 100x100nm 2 . The constituent material can either be metallic (Au), semimetallic (Bi) or doped bulk semiconducting (Si doped GaAs). We experimentally show that Au nano-probes can work from room temperature down to liquid helium with magnetic flux sensitivity -1 Φ 0

  14. The fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amore, Mead

    1987-01-01

    The chronology of fuel product and core management development over the past 25 years in the USA is explained. Nuclear fuel for Westinghouse reactors is made by converting enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder. The powder is pressed into pellets which are loaded into zircalloy fuel tubes (typically over 14 million pellets in 50,952 rods). The fuel rods are arranged in fuel assemblies which are shipped to the reactor site (typically 193 fuel assemblies are needed for one 1000MWe reactor). Each stage of the fuel fabrication cycle (cladding manufacture, chemical conversion UF 6 - UO 2 , pellet production, fuel rod fabrication, grid assembly, skeleton assembly, fuel assembly) is described, with particular reference to the Westinghouse process and plant. (UK)

  15. Quality in the fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, A.; Aguirre, F.

    2010-01-01

    Enusa commitment to quality in the manufacture process materializes in the application of the most advanced product quality control technologies such as not-destructive inspection techniques, like artificial vision, X-ray or UT inspection, or process parameter statistical control systems. Quality inspectors are trained and certified by the main National Quality Organizations and receive periodic training under a formal company training program that constantly updates their qualification. Fabrication quality control reliability is based on a strategy that prioritizes redundancy of critical inspection equipment's and inspection personnel knowledge polyvalence. Furthermore, improvement in fabrication quality is obtained by a systematic application of the six sigma methodology where added value is created in projects integrating crosscutting company knowledge, reinforcing the global company vision that the fuel business is based on quality. (Author)

  16. Nanocarbon materials fabricated using plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of fullerenes more than three decades ago, new kinds of nanoscale materials of carbon allotropes called "nanocarbons" have so far been discovered or synthesized at successive intervals as cases such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanohorns, graphene, carbon nanowalls, and a carbon nanobelt, while nanodiamonds were actually discovered before then. Their attractively excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical properties have driven researchers to continuously create one of the hottest frontiers in materials science and technology. While plasma states have often been involved in their discovery, on the other hand, plasma-based approaches to this exciting field originally hold promising and enormous potentials for advancing and expanding industrial/biomedical applications of nanocarbons of great diversity. This article provides an extensive overview on plasma-fabricated nanocarbon materials, where the term "fabrication" is defined as synthesis, functionalization, and assembly of devices to cover a wide range of issues associated with the step-by-step plasma processes. Specific attention has been paid to the comparative examination between plasma-based and non-plasma methods for fabricating the nanocarobons with an emphasis on the advantages of plasma processing, such as low-temperature/large-scale fabrication and diversity-carrying structure controllability. The review ends with current challenges and prospects including a ripple effect of the nanocarbon studies on the development of related novel nanomaterials such as transition metal dichalcogenides. It contains not only the latest progress in the field for cutting-edge scientists and engineers, but also the introductory guidance to non-specialists such as lower-class graduate students.

  17. Zircaloy 4 ingots' industrial fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyt, A.

    1987-01-01

    The technology developed for the industrial fabrication of Zircaloy-4 ingots is presented. According to the results obtained: a) the homogeneity of the ingots is analyzed, regarding the distribution of components (tin, iron, chromium, oxygen) and Brinell hardness as a function of different types of charge: zirconium sponge-recycling alloy material, sponge of zirconium-alloy; b) the distribution of the same parameters as a function of production is also analyzed. (Author)

  18. Public Participation Guide: Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    A focus group is a small group discussion with professional leadership. Focus groups are used to find out what issues are of most concern for a community or group when little or no information is available.

  19. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  20. Fabrication technology for ODS Alloy MA957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; MM Paxton; WF Brown

    2000-01-01

    A successful fabrication schedule has been developed at Carpenter Technology Corporation for the production of MA957 fuel and blanket cladding. Difficulties with gun drilling, plug drawing and recrystallization were overcome to produce a pilot lot of tubing. This report documents the fabrication efforts of two qualified vendors and the support studies performed at WHC to develop the fabrication-schedule

  1. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 1 ... Natural fabrics; jute; linen; sandwich laminate; mechanical properties; fractographic analysis. ... In this work, eco-friendly natural fabric sandwich laminate (NFSL) composites are formulated using jute and linen-fabric-reinforced epoxy with different layer ...

  2. Method for fabricating semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor); Hecht, Michael H. (Inventor); Bell, Lloyd D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating gold/gallium arsenide structures, in situ, on molecular beam epitaxially grown gallium arsenide. The resulting interface proves to be Ohmic, an unexpected result which is interpreted in terms of increased electrode interdiffusion. More importantly, the present invention surprisingly permits the fabrication of Ohmic contacts in a III-V semiconductor material at room temperature. Although it may be desireable to heat the Ohmic contact to a temperature of, for example, 200 degrees Centigrade if one wishes to further decrease the resistance of the contact, such low temperature annealing is much less likely to have any deleterious affect on the underlying substrate. The use of the term in situ herein, contemplates continuously maintaining an ultra-high vacuum, that is a vacuum which is at least 10.sup.-8 Torr, until after the metallization has been completed. An alternative embodiment of the present invention comprising an additional step, namely the termination of the gallium arsenide by a two monolayer thickness of epitaxial aluminum arsenide as a diffusion barrier, enables the recovery of Schottky barrier behavior, namely a rectified I-V characteristic. The present invention provides a significant breakthrough in the fabrication of III-V semiconductor devices wherein excellent Ohmic contact and Schottky barrier interfaces to such devices can be achieved simply and inexpensively and without requiring the high temperature processing of the prior art and also without requiring the use of exotic high temperature refractory materials as substitutes for those preferred contact metals such as gold, aluminum and the like.

  3. Phosphorene: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Chen, Changfeng; Smith, Sean C

    2015-07-16

    Phosphorene, the single- or few-layer form of black phosphorus, was recently rediscovered as a two-dimensional layered material holding great promise for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Research into its fundamental properties and device applications has since seen exponential growth. In this Perspective, we review recent progress in phosphorene research, touching upon topics on fabrication, properties, and applications; we also discuss challenges and future research directions. We highlight the intrinsically anisotropic electronic, transport, optoelectronic, thermoelectric, and mechanical properties of phosphorene resulting from its puckered structure in contrast to those of graphene and transition-metal dichalcogenides. The facile fabrication and novel properties of phosphorene have inspired design and demonstration of new nanodevices; however, further progress hinges on resolutions to technical obstructions like surface degradation effects and nonscalable fabrication techniques. We also briefly describe the latest developments of more sophisticated design concepts and implementation schemes that address some of the challenges in phosphorene research. It is expected that this fascinating material will continue to offer tremendous opportunities for research and development for the foreseeable future.

  4. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  5. Fabrication of plastic microfluidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hammerstrom, D. J.

    1998-09-01

    Plastic components have many advantages, including ease of fabrication, low cost, chemical inertness, lightweight, and disposability. We report on the fabrication of three plastics-based microfluidic components: a motherboard, a dialysis unit, and a metal sensor. Microchannels, headers, and interconnects were produced in thin sheets (>=50 microns) of polyimide, PMMA, polyethylene, and polycarbonate using a direct-write excimer laser micromachining system. Machined sheets were laminated by thermal and adhesive bonding to form leak-tight microfluidic components. The microfluidic motherboard borrowed the `functionality on a chip' concept from the electronics industry and was the heart of a complex microfluidic analytical device. The motherboard platform was designed to be tightly integrated and self-contained (i.e., liquid flows are all confined within machined microchannels), reducing the need for tubing with fluid distribution and connectivity. This concept greatly facilitated system integration and miniaturization. As fabricated, the motherboard consisted of three fluid reservoirs connected to micropumps by microchannels. The fluids could either be pumped independently or mixed in microchannels prior to being directed to exterior analytical components via outlet ports. The microdialysis device was intended to separate electrolytic solutes from low volume samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The device consisted of a dialysis membrane laminated between opposed serpentine microchannels containing the sample fluid and a buffer solution. The laminated metal sensor consisted of fluid reservoirs, micro-flow channels, micropumps, mixing channels, reaction channels, and detector circuitry.

  6. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND TESTING OF AN ADVANCED, NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this report period were to complete the development of the Gas Generator design, which was done; fabricate and test of the non-polluting unique power turbine drive gas Gas Generator, which has been postponed. Focus during this report period has been to complete the brazing and bonding necessary to fabricate the Gas Generator hardware, continue making preparations for fabricating and testing the Gas Generator, and continuing the fabrication of the Gas Generator hardware and ancillary hardware in preparation for the test program. Fabrication is more than 95% complete and is expected to conclude in early May 2002. the test schedule was affected by relocation of the testing to another test supplier. The target test date for hot fire testing is now not earlier than June 15, 2002

  7. Textile-Based Weft Knitted Strain Sensors: Effect of Fabric Parameters on Sensor Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Richard Kennon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of textile-based strain sensors has been a focus of research and many investigators have studied this subject. This paper presents a new textile-based strain sensor design and shows the effect of base fabric parameters on its sensing properties. Sensing fabric could be used to measure articulations of the human body in the real environment. The strain sensing fabric was produced by using electronic flat-bed knitting technology; the base fabric was produced with elastomeric yarns in an interlock arrangement and a conductive yarn was embedded in this substrate to create a series of single loop structures. Experimental results show that there is a strong relationship between base fabric parameters and sensor properties.

  8. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  9. From X-Ray Telescopes to Neutron Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M. V.; Khaykovich, B.; Ramsey, B.; Moncton, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the case of neutrons the refractive index is slightly less than unity for most elements and their isotopes. Consequently, thermal and cold neutrons can be reflected from smooth surfaces at grazing-incidence angles. Hence, the optical technologies developed for x-ray astronomy can be applied for neutron focusing. The focusing capabilities of grazing incidence neutron imaging optics have been successfully demonstrated using nickel mirrors. The mirrors were fabricated using an electroformed nickel replication process at Marshall Space Flight Center. Results of the neutron optics experiments will be presented. Challenges of the neutron imaging optics as well as possible applications of the optics will be discussed.

  10. Facile fabrication of a superhydrophobic fabric with mechanical stability and easy-repairability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Yang, Jin; Xu, Xianghui; Men, Xuehu; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2012-08-15

    The poor mechanical stability of superhydrophobic fabrics severely hindered their use in practical applications. Herein, to address this problem, we fabricated a superhydrophobic fabric with both mechanical stability and easy-repairability by a simple method. The mechanical durability of the obtained superhydrophobic fabric was evaluated by finger touching and abrasion with sandpaper. The results show that rough surface textures of the fabric were retained, and the fabric surface still exhibited superhydrophobicity after tests. More importantly, when the fabric lost its superhydrophobicity after a long-time abrasion, it can be easily rendered with superhydrophobicity once more by a regeneration process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuo; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2006-02-01

    We developed techniques for fabricating three-dimensional metallic microstructures using two-photon-induced metal-ion reduction. In this process, ions in a metal-ion aqueous solution were directly reduced by a tightly focused femtosecond pulsed laser to fabricate arbitrary three-dimensional structures. A self-standing metallic microstructure with high electrical conductivity was demonstrated.

  12. Innovative forming and fabrication technologies : new opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.; Hryn, J.; Energy Systems; Kingston Process Metallurgy, Inc.

    2008-01-31

    The advent of light metal alloys and advanced materials (polymer, composites, etc.) have brought the possibility of achieving important energy reductions into the full life cycle of these materials, especially in transportation applications. 1 These materials have gained acceptance in the aerospace industry but use of light metal alloys needs to gain wider acceptance in other commercial transportation areas. Among the main reasons for the relatively low use of these materials are the lack of manufacturability, insufficient mechanical properties, and increased material costs due to processing inefficiencies. Considering the enormous potential energy savings associated with the use of light metal alloys and advanced materials in transportation, there is a need to identify R&D opportunities in the fields of materials fabrication and forming aimed at developing materials with high specific mechanical properties combined with energy efficient processes and good manufacturability. This report presents a literature review of the most recent developments in the areas of fabrication and metal forming focusing principally on aluminum alloys. In the first section of the document, the different sheet manufacturing technologies including direct chill (DC) casting and rolling, spray forming, spray rolling, thin slab, and strip casting are reviewed. The second section of the document presents recent research on advanced forming processes. The various forming processes reviewed are: superplastic forming, electromagnetic forming, age forming, warm forming, hydroforming, and incremental forming. Optimization of conventional forming processes is also discussed. Potentially interesting light metal alloys for high structural efficiency including aluminum-scandium, aluminum-lithium, magnesium, titanium, and amorphous metal alloys are also reviewed. This section concludes with a discussion on alloy development for manufacturability. The third section of the document reviews the latest

  13. Innovative Application of Fabric Recycling in Fashion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of the socialist market economy, human aesthetic standards are constantly changing, the occurrence of this situation to the development of the garment industry challenges, that is a single fabric has long been unable to meet people's aesthetic needs, And then the art of fabric reengineering will be born. This paper elaborates the meaning of fabric reworking art. This paper systematically describes the meaning of fabric reengineering to garment designer and garment itself, and comprehensively summarizes the fabric recycling technique and its characteristics.

  14. Micro-fabricated all optical pressure sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Petersen, Søren Dahl; Østergaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Optical pressure sensors can operate in certain harsh application areas where the electrical pressure sensors cannot. However, the sensitivity is often not as good for the optical sensors. This work presents an all optical pressure sensor, which is fabricated by micro fabrication techniques, where...... the sensitivity can be tuned in the fabrication process. The developed sensor design, simplifies the fabrication process leading to a lower fabrication cost, which can make the all optical pressure sensors more competitive towards their electrical counterpart. The sensor has shown promising results and a linear...

  15. Remote fabrication of nuclear fuel: a secure automated fabrication overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Benson, E.M.; Yatabe, J.M.; Nagamoto, T.T.

    1981-01-01

    An automated line for the fabrication of breeder reactor fuel pins is being developed. The line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) presently under construction at the Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The application of automation and remote operations to fuel processing technology is needed to meet program requirements of reduced personnel exposure, enhanced safeguards, improved product quality, and increased productivity. Commercially available robots are being integrated into operations such as handling of radioactive material within a process operation. These and other automated equipment and chemistry analyses systems under development are described

  16. Fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds using precision extrusion deposition with an assisted cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Q; Snyder, J; Wang, C; Guceri, S; Sun, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Timmer, M; Hammer, J, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu [Advanced Technologies and Regenerative Medicine, Somerville, NJ (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In the field of biofabrication, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, there are many methodologies to fabricate a building block (scaffold) which is unique to the target tissue or organ that facilitates cell growth, attachment, proliferation and/or differentiation. Currently, there are many techniques that fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds; however, there are advantages, limitations and specific tissue focuses of each fabrication technique. The focus of this initiative is to utilize an existing technique and expand the library of biomaterials which can be utilized to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds rather than focusing on a new fabrication technique. An expanded library of biomaterials will enable the precision extrusion deposition (PED) device to construct three-dimensional scaffolds with enhanced biological, chemical and mechanical cues that will benefit tissue generation. Computer-aided motion and extrusion drive the PED to precisely fabricate micro-scaled scaffolds with biologically inspired, porosity, interconnectivity and internal and external architectures. The high printing resolution, precision and controllability of the PED allow for closer mimicry of tissues and organs. The PED expands its library of biopolymers by introducing an assisting cooling (AC) device which increases the working extrusion temperature from 120 to 250 deg. C. This paper investigates the PED with the integrated AC's capabilities to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds that support cell growth, attachment and proliferation. Studies carried out in this paper utilized a biopolymer whose melting point is established to be 200 deg. C. This polymer was selected to illustrate the newly developed device's ability to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds from a new library of biopolymers. Three-dimensional scaffolds fabricated with the integrated AC device should illustrate structural integrity and ability to support cell attachment and proliferation.

  17. Properties of honeycomb polyester knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics were studied to understand their advantages. Seven honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics and one common polyester weft-knitted fabric were selected for testing. Their bursting strengths, fuzzing and pilling, air permeability, abrasion resistance and moisture absorption and perspiration were studied. The results show that the honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics have excellent moisture absorption and liberation. The smaller their thicknesses and area densities are, the better their moisture absorption and liberation will be. Their anti-fuzzing and anti-pilling is good, whereas their bursting strengths and abrasion resistance are poorer compared with common polyester fabric's. In order to improve the hygroscopic properties of the fabrics, the proportion of the honeycomb microporous structure modified polyester in the fabrics should not be less than 40%.

  18. Foil fabrication for the ROMANO event. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo, J.G. Jr.; Weed, J.W.; Griggs, G.E.; Brown, T.G.; Tassano, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    The Vacuum Processes Lab (VPL), of LLNL's M.E. Dept. - Material Fabrication Division (MFD), conducted various vacuum related support activities for the ROMANO nuclear physics experiment. This report focuses on the foil fabrication activities carried out between July and November 1983 for the ROMANO event. Other vacuum related activities for ROMANO, such as outgassing tests of materials, are covered in separate documentation. VPL was asked to provide 270 coated Parylene foils for the ROMANO event. However, due to the developmental nature of some of the procedures, approximately 400 coated foils were processed. In addition, VPL interacted with MFD's Plastics Shop to help supply Parylene substrates to other organizations (i.e., LBL and commercial vendors) which had also been asked to provide coated foils for ROMANO. The purposes of this report are (A) to document the processes developed and the techniques used to produce the foils, and (B) to suggest future directions. The report is divided into four sections describing: (1) nuclear target foil fabrication, (2) Parylene substrate preparation and production, (3) calibration foil fabrication, and (4) foil and substrate inspections

  19. Fabrication of Periodic Gold Nanocup Arrays Using Colloidal Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-01-01

    Within recent years, the field of plasmonics has exploded as researchers have demonstrated exciting applications related to chemical and optical sensing in combination with new nanofabrication techniques. A plasmon is a quantum of charge density oscillation that lends nanoscale metals such as gold and silver unique optical properties. In particular, gold and silver nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances—collective charge density oscillations on the surface of the nanoparticle—in the visible spectrum. Here, we focus on the fabrication of periodic arrays of anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures. These half-shell (or nanocup) structures can exhibit additional unique light-bending and polarization dependent optical properties that simple isotropic nanostructures cannot. Researchers are interested in the fabrication of periodic arrays of nanocups for a wide variety of applications such as low-cost optical devices, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and tamper indication. We present a scalable technique based on colloidal lithography in which it is possible to easily fabricate large periodic arrays of nanocups using spin-coating and self-assembled commercially available polymeric nanospheres. Electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy from the visible to near-IR was performed to confirm successful nanocup fabrication. We conclude with a demonstration of the transfer of nanocups to a flexible, conformal adhesive film.

  20. Fabrication of strain gauge based sensors for tactile skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Joshua R.; Zhang, Ruoshi; Wei, Danming; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    Fabricating cost effective, reliable and functional sensors for electronic skins has been a challenging undertaking for the last several decades. Application of such skins include haptic interfaces, robotic manipulation, and physical human-robot interaction. Much of our recent work has focused on producing compliant sensors that can be easily formed around objects to sense normal, tension, or shear forces. Our past designs have involved the use of flexible sensors and interconnects fabricated on Kapton substrates, and piezoresistive inks that are 3D printed using Electro Hydro Dynamic (EHD) jetting onto interdigitated electrode (IDE) structures. However, EHD print heads require a specialized nozzle and the application of a high-voltage electric field; for which, tuning process parameters can be difficult based on the choice of inks and substrates. Therefore, in this paper we explore sensor fabrication techniques using a novel wet lift-off photolithographic technique for patterning the base polymer piezoresistive material, specifically Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) or PEDOT:PSS. Fabricated sensors are electrically and thermally characterized, and temperaturecompensated designs are proposed and validated. Packaging techniques for sensors in polymer encapsulants are proposed and demonstrated to produce a tactile interface device for a robot.

  1. Utilizing Metalized Fabrics for Liquid and Rip Detection and Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mahan, Cody [Western Kentucky University; Kuhn, Michael J [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique for utilizing conductive textiles as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing liquids (e.g., blood), rips (e.g., bullet holes), and potentially biosignals. The proposed technique is verified through both simulation and experimental measurements. Circuit theory is utilized to depict conductive fabric as a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. Solutions to the well-known infinite resistance grid problem are used to confirm the accuracy and validity of this modeling approach. Simulations allow for discontinuities to be placed within the resistor matrix to illustrate the effects of bullet holes within the fabric. A real-time experimental system was developed that uses a multiplexed Wheatstone bridge approach to reconstruct the resistor grid across the conductive fabric and detect liquids and rips. The resistor grid model is validated through a comparison of simulated and experimental results. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of discontinuities in conductive fabric samples. Future work is focused on refining the experimental system to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events as well as developing a complete prototype that can be deployed for field testing. Potential applications include intelligent clothing, flexible, lightweight sensing systems, and combat wound detection.

  2. Concentric circular focusing reflector realized using high index contrast gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenjing; Huang, Yongqing; Fei, Jiarui; Duan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kai; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-11-01

    A non-periodic concentric circular high index contrast grating (CC-HCG) focusing reflector on 500 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is fabricated and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed mirror is realized with phase modulation of wave front in a high reflectivity region. The circular structure based HCG focusing reflector has a spot of high concentration at the 10.87 mm with normal incidence for radially polarization, along with the center wavelength set at 1550 nm. The FWHM spot size of the focusing beam decreases to 260 μm, and the intensity increases to 1.26 compared with the incident beam. The focusing efficiency of about 80% is observed at 1550 nm in the experimental measurement.

  3. Plant overview of JNFL MOX fuel fabrication plant (J-MOX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruta, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masataka; Shimizu, Junji; Suzuki, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Deguchi, Morimoto; Fujimaki, Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    In April 2005, JNFL submitted METI an application for the permission of MOX fuel fabrication business for JNFL MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant (J-MOX). Accordingly, safeguards formalities and discussion with the Agency have been also started for J-MOX as an official project. This report describes J-MOX plant overview and also presents outline of J-MOX by focusing on safeguards features and planned material accountancy method. (author)

  4. Fabrication of microlens and microlens array on polystyrene using CO 2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2011-11-01

    This study presents a new process for fabricating microlens and microlens arrays directly on a surface of polystyrene using a CO2 laser. The working spot of the polystyrene is heated locally by a focused CO2 laser beam, which tends to have a hyperboloid profile due to the surface tension and can be used as a microlens. The microlenses with different dimensions were fabricated by changing the power of the laser beam. Microlens array was also fabricated with multiple scans of the laser beam on the polystyrene surface. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  5. Single-Step Antimicrobial And Moisture Management Finishing Of Pc Fabric Using Zno Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Munir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Functionalization of textile fabrics with metal oxide nanoparticles can be used to add antibacterial and moisture management properties to them. Current work focuses on the development of these properties on polyester/cotton woven fabrics by treating them with zinc oxide nanoparticles for workwear and sportswear applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, prepared by sol-gel method, were applied on fabric samples, which were then tested for antibacterial and moisture management properties using standard test methods AATCC 147 with Staphylococcus aureus and AATCC 195, respectively. It was found that application of ZnO nanoparticles improved both these properties with smaller particle imparting larger effects on both of them.

  6. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MICRONOZZLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean How Cheah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US ZH-CN X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:SimSun; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Micronozzle, a key component in micropropulsion system, has been designed and fabricated. Quasi 1D inviscid theory was used in designing a series of conical micronozzles of different expander half-angles (10°-50°. Aerospike micronozzle, a promising candidate to achieve high performance propulsion system, was designed with Angelino method (or Approximate method. Both micronozzles were fabricated using soft lithography, an inexpensive and relatively simple technique comparing to well-established deep reactive ion etching (DRIE technique, with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as structural material. Micronozzles with two different nozzle throat width, 53.5µm and 107µm, were fabricated for comparison. Microscopic inspections reveal 107µm is the more producible nozzle throat width with current equipments. The PDMS-based micronozzle can be used as cold gas microthruster system for micro- and nanosatellites.

  7. FFTF metal fuel pin fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, J.O.; Benecke, M.W.; Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    A major new initiative to develop, irradiate, and qualify a binary uranium/zirconium metal-fuel system in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been implemented by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Metal-fuel test assemblies have been designed and fabricated, and are now being irradiated in FFTF to provide the data needed to support the potential use of binary metal fuels in FFTF and other liquid-metal reactors. These development efforts support licensing activities for metal-fuel use in near-term advanced liquid-metal reactors

  8. The Fabrication of Qualified Citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Within the practices of school mathematics there exists many naturalized truths that have been (re)produced in different times and in different places. The belief of mathematics education becoming the key to economical progress assuring the future growth of nations is problematized. By following...... a rhizomatic analytical move, a historization of the present is deployed to map the fabrication of the desired qualified citizen in Chile. The analysis evidences the (re)production of dominant narratives about the “qualified citizen” are and have been entangled with the functioning of school geometry...

  9. Corning lightweight core fabrication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBrocklin, Randy R.; Edwards, Mary J.; Hobbs, Thomas W.

    2003-12-01

    Fabrication of lightweight mirrors from low expansion glasses can be achieved using various core and faceplate lightweighting techniques. Lightweighting can be achieved using abrasive waterjet cutting, CNC milling and a new approach that Corning is developing to produce lightweight cores based on Corning's patented ceramic extrusion process. The selection of which lightweighting technology to use is dependent on customer design considerations of the lightweight mirror. These lightweighting techniques are reviewed and discussed, along with advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Corning will also introduce and discuss their new core lightweighting process.

  10. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  11. Versatile superamphiphobic cotton fabrics fabricated by coating with SiO2/FOTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deke; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-12-01

    A multifunctional superamphiphobic cotton fabric was fabricated by coating silica nanoparticles on the cotton fabric surface and further modification by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltrichlorosilane (FOTS). The fluctuant woven fabric and the fluffy spherical SiO2 nanoparticles constructed a dual micro/nano-structures. The surface free energy of the fabric composite was reduced by FOTS modifier. The interplay of the structured and perfluorinated SiO2 nanoparticles could not only endow the fabric highly liquid repellent ability, but could also to enhance the coating stability. The prepared cotton fabrics exhibited high liquid repellency to water, colza oil and n-hexadecane with lower surface tension, showing a contact angle of 158°, 152°, and 153°, respectively. The results demonstrated that superamphiphobic cotton fabric possessed desirable chemical and mechanical durability, self-cleaning and self-healing property, the robust and multifunctional fabric would find innovative opportunities for practical applications.

  12. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  13. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Abraham P. (1428 Whitecliff Way, Walnut Creek, CA 94596); Northrup, M. Allen (923 Creston Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Ahre, Paul E. (1299 Gonzaga Ct., Livermore, CA 94550); Dupuy, Peter C. (1736 Waldo Ct., Modesto, CA 95358)

    1997-01-01

    A mold assembly with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10's of micros (.mu.m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 .mu.m in length up to 150 .mu.m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly.

  14. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ahre, P.E.; Dupuy, P.C.

    1997-08-19

    A mold assembly is disclosed with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10`s of micros ({micro}m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 {micro}m in length up to 150 {micro}m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly. 6 figs.

  15. QUIJOTE telescope design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alberto; Murga, Gaizka; Etxeita, Borja; Sanquirce, Rubén; Rebolo, Rafael; Rubiño-Martin, Jose Alberto; Herreros, José-Miguel; Hoyland, Roger; Gomez, Francisca; Génova-Santos, Ricardo T.; Piccirillo, Lucio; Maffei, Bruno; Watson, Robert

    2010-07-01

    The QUIJOTE CMB experiment aims to characterize the polarization of the CMB in the frequency range 10-30 GHz and large angular scales. It will be installed in the Teide Observatory, following the projects that the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background group has developed in the past (Tenerife experiment, IAC-Bartol experiment...) and is running at the present time (VSA, Cosmosomas). The QUIJOTE CMB experiment will consist of two telescopes which will be installed inside a unique enclosure, which is already constructed. The layout of both telescopes is based on an altazimuth mount supporting a primary and a secondary mirror disposed in a offset Gregorian Dragon scheme. The use of industrial-like fabrication techniques, such as sand-mould casting, CNC machining, and laser tracker measuring for alignment, provided the required performances for microwave observation. A fast-track construction scheme, altogether with the use of these fabrication techniques allowed designing and manufacturing the opto-mechanics of the telescope in 14 months prior to delivery for final start-up in December 2008.

  16. Some Remarks on Focus Adverbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Jacob; Zwarts, Frans

    1991-01-01

    Much of what we have to say in the present paper should be thought of as an attempt to get a better understanding of the intricate complexities surrounding focus adverbs. To this end, we discuss a number of restrictions which govern the occurrence of different classes of focus adverbs in Dutch.

  17. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  18. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  19. Focusing on life beyond numers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, Anne; Christiansen, Anette Wendelboe; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    at home to clarify their difficulties. Shifting the focus from ‘numbers’ to the patients’ life with diabetes can increase attendance and release the potential for change. Conclusion Susan benefitted from this flexible intervention, breaking out of her isolation by focusing on what was personally important...

  20. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  1. Focus groups as anticipatory methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Phil

    2017-01-01

    Focus group practitioners have tended to emphasize the capacity of the methodology for exploring how people think about topics that are familiar and that have some grounding in everyday experience. Less articulated in the literature is the role of focus groups as an anticipatory methodology, as a

  2. Synchrotron radiation focusing by a Bragg--Fresnel lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristov, V.V.; Basov, Y.A.; Snigirev, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Since the discovery of x rays and until the present time the possibilities of their controlling and focusing have been widely discussed. In the hard spectrum region (λ∼1 A) the main focusing schemes are the following: geometrical focusing based on incoherent interaction of wave packets reflected by different regions of bending crystals and coherent (dynamic) focusing performed at the cost of the effect of refraction index angular dispersion near the exact Bragg angle value -θ B . A main disadvantage of geometrical focusing is low spatial resolution (∼0.1 mm) and temperature stability. In the case of coherent focusing a main disadvantage is a narrow angular aperture (∼10 sec. of arc) at spatial resolution (∼1--10 μm). Recently, advances in the development of diffraction physics and microstructuring technology open up possibilities for fabricating effective focusing x-ray optical elements---Bragg--Fresnel lenses (BFL)---with high spatial resolution (∼0.1 μm) at a wide angular aperture and high temperature stability. The present paper describes the main principles of Bragg--Fresnel optics (BFO). It presents the results on the synchrotron experiment and on observation of focusing. In this work the peculiarities of BFL diffraction contrast formation are investigated and image transmission using a BFL is performed. Possibilities of developing x-ray optical schemes of ultrahigh resolution on the basis of BFL elements are also discussed

  3. Target focusing configuration for X-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppala, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray laser experiments imposed a new demand on the Novette focusing optics. These optics had to provide highly uniform, double-sided illumination on a target region 1.0 cm long by 100 to 200 μm wide. This line focus requirement had to be achieved without degrading the diagnostic reflection from the last surface of the focus lens and without potential ghost focus problems. The only optical configuration that preserves the diagnostic reflection is shown. A negative focal length cylinder lens is placed between the focus lens and the debris shield, with the concave surface facing toward the focus lens. Any ghost reflections from the cylinder lens or debris shield are degraded by astigmatism, making them less hazardous. In practice, the uniformity of illumination is probably about the same for a positive or a negative cylinder lens. The minimum Novette focused spot was approximately 50 to 75 μm in diameter, and the fabrication errors in the 80-cm-diam precision cylinder lens produced a line focus 25 μm wide. a negative cylinder lens design was chosen, however, to optimize the illumination uniformity in the case of line widths of several hundred microns

  4. Fabrication of Flexible Piezoelectric PZT/Fabric Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caifeng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible piezoelectric PZT/fabric composite material is pliable and tough in nature which is in a lack of traditional PZT patches. It has great application prospect in improving the sensitivity of sensor/actuator made by piezoelectric materials especially when they are used for curved surfaces or complicated conditions. In this paper, glass fiber cloth was adopted as carrier to grow PZT piezoelectric crystal particles by hydrothermal method, and the optimum conditions were studied. The results showed that the soft glass fiber cloth was an ideal kind of carrier. A large number of cubic-shaped PZT nanocrystallines grew firmly in the carrier with a dense and uniform distribution. The best hydrothermal condition was found to be pH 13, reaction time 24 h, and reaction temperature 200°C.

  5. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics by silica hydrosol and hydrophobization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihui; Zhuang, Wei; Xu, Bi; Cai, Zaisheng

    2011-04-01

    Superhydrophobic cotton fabrics were prepared by the incorporation of silica nanoparticles and subsequent hydrophobization with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS). The silica nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel reaction with methyl trimethoxy silane (MTMS) as the precursor in the presence of the base catalyst and surfactant in aqueous solution. As for the resulting products, characterization by particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed respectively. The size of SiO2 nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the catalyst and surfactant concentrations. The wettability of cotton textiles was evaluated by the water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The results showed that the treated cotton sample displayed remarkable water repellency with a WCA of 151.9° for a 5 μL water droplet and a WSA of 13° for a 15 μL water droplet.

  6. Design, fabrication and performance of the 10-in TOM HPD

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, P; Giunta, M; Malakhov, N; Menzione, A; Pegna, R; Piccioli, A; Raffaelli, F; Sartori, G

    2004-01-01

    The first sealed TOM Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD) with 10-in. diameter has been fabricated and successfully tested at CERN. This HPD has a spherical entrance window and a bialkali photocathode. The fountain focusing optics produces a demagnified image (D = 4) on the round segmented silicon sensor. The signals of the 2048 cells are read out through analog front-end electronics encapsulated in the vacuum envelope. We report on the design, fabrication technique and the experimental results obtained with laboratory test benches. The large TOM HPD is a prototype tube developed for the CLUE cosmic ray experiment. The final tubes, now under development, will be equipped with a solar-blind Rb//2Te photocathode and self triggering front-end electronics.

  7. Toner and paper-based fabrication techniques for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; de Jesus, Dosil Pereira; da Silva, José Alberto Fracassi; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2010-08-01

    The interest in low-cost microfluidic platforms as well as emerging microfabrication techniques has increased considerably over the last years. Toner- and paper-based techniques have appeared as two of the most promising platforms for the production of disposable devices for on-chip applications. This review focuses on recent advances in the fabrication techniques and in the analytical/bioanalytical applications of toner and paper-based devices. The discussion is divided in two parts dealing with (i) toner and (ii) paper devices. Examples of miniaturized devices fabricated by using direct-printing or toner transfer masking in polyester-toner, glass, PDMS as well as conductive platforms as recordable compact disks and printed circuit board are presented. The construction and the use of paper-based devices for off-site diagnosis and bioassays are also described to cover this emerging platform for low-cost diagnostics.

  8. Nanophotonic Fabrication Self-Assembly and Deposition Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Nanophotonics, a novel optical technology, utilizes the local interaction between nanometric particles via optical near fields. The optical near fields are the elementary surface excitations on nanometric particles, i.e. dressed photons that carry material energy. Of the variety of qualitative innovations in optical technology realized by nanophotonics, this books focuses on fabrication. To fabricate nano-scale photonic devices with nanometer-scale controllability in size and position, we developed a self-assembly method for size- and position-controlled ultra-long nanodot chains using a novel effect of near-field optical desorption. A novel deposition and etching scheme under nonresonant conditions is also demonstrated and its origin is reviewed.

  9. Nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials fabrications, applications and future trends

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology-Enhanced Orthopedic Materials provides the latest information on the emergence and rapid development of nanotechnology and the ways it has impacted almost every aspect of biomedical engineering. This book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the field, focusing on the fabrication and applications of these materials, presenting updated, practical, and systematic knowledge on the synthesis, processing, and modification of nanomaterials, along with the rationale and methodology of applying such materials for orthopedic purposes. Topics covered include a wide range of orthopedic material formulations, such as ceramics, metals, polymers, biomolecules, and self-assemblies. Final sections explore applications and future trends in nanotechnology-enhanced orthopedic materials. Details practical information on the fabrication and modification of new and traditional orthopedic materials Analyzes a wide range of materials, designs, and applications of nanotechnology for orthopedics Investigate...

  10. Modeling fabrication of nuclear components: An integrative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hench, K.W.

    1996-08-01

    Reduction of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the general downsizing of the nuclear weapons complex has presented challenges for Los Alamos. One is to design an optimized fabrication facility to manufacture nuclear weapon primary components in an environment of intense regulation and shrinking budgets. This dissertation presents an integrative two-stage approach to modeling the casting operation for fabrication of nuclear weapon primary components. The first stage optimizes personnel radiation exposure for the casting operation layout by modeling the operation as a facility layout problem formulated as a quadratic assignment problem. The solution procedure uses an evolutionary heuristic technique. The best solutions to the layout problem are used as input to the second stage - a simulation model that assesses the impact of competing layouts on operational performance. The focus of the simulation model is to determine the layout that minimizes personnel radiation exposures and nuclear material movement, and maximizes the utilization of capacity for finished units.

  11. Update On Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R Clark; J. M. Wight; G. C. Knighton; G. A. Moore; J. F. Jue

    2005-11-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Advancements have been made in the production of U-Mo foil including full sized foils. Progress has also been made in the friction stir welding and transient liquid phase bonding fabrication processes resulting in better bonding, more stable processes and the ability to fabricate larger fuel plates.

  12. Plasmonic nanoparticles: Towards the fabrication of biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Au and Ag nanoparticles are mainly employed in the fabrication of biosensors owing to their unique optical properties compared to other noble metal nanoparticles. Many biosensors are fabricated for the rapid detection of different analytes such as organic and inorganic molecules, biomolecules like DNA, proteins, biotoxins and pathogens. In this mini review we mainly discuss on the usage of Au and Ag nanoparticles for the fabrication of colorimetric, SERS and two photon based photoluminescence biosensors.

  13. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  14. Plutonium fuel fabrication residues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Cousinou, G.; Desille, H.

    1982-04-01

    This paper discusses the current situation in the fabrication plant at Cadarache with an annual plutonium throughput of several tons. Three major fabrication byproduct categories are defined in this plant: 1) scraps, directly recycled at the fabrication input station; 2) residues, byproducts recycled by chemical processes, or processed in washing and incineration stations; 3) wastes, placed in drums and evacuated directly to a waste conditioning station. The borderline between residues and wastes has yet to be precisely determined

  15. FABRIC TENSOR FOR DISCONTINUOUS GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    小田, 匡寛

    1982-01-01

    Geometrical property (fabric) of discontinuity in geological materials is discussed in terms of (1) position and density, (2) shape and dimension and (3) orientation of related discontinuities such as joint, fault and discrete particle. By taking into account these geometrical elements, a unique measure called fabric tensor F_ is definitely introduced to embody the fabric concept without loss of generality.The first invariant of F_ is important as an index measure to evaluate the crack intens...

  16. Hemp nanocellulose: fabrication, characterisation and application

    OpenAIRE

    Dasong, Dai

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Nanocellulose has gained lots of attentions in recent years due to the development of nanotechnology. Thousands of publications have been reported about the fabrication, characterization and application of nanocellulose, among which most of the nanocelluloses were fabricated from the microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or pulp, and only two methods about the nanocellulose fabrication ha...

  17. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50`s structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG`s charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure.

  18. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  19. Robotic fabrication in architecture, art, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Braumann, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Architects, artists, and designers have been fascinated by robots for many decades, from Villemard’s utopian vision of an architect building a house with robotic labor in 1910, to the design of buildings that are robots themselves, such as Archigram’s Walking City. Today, they are again approaching the topic of robotic fabrication but this time employing a different strategy: instead of utopian proposals like Archigram’s or the highly specialized robots that were used by Japan’s construction industry in the 1990s, the current focus of architectural robotics is on industrial robots. These robotic arms have six degrees of freedom and are widely used in industry, especially for automotive production lines. What makes robotic arms so interesting for the creative industry is their multi-functionality: instead of having to develop specialized machines, a multifunctional robot arm can be equipped with a wide range of end-effectors, similar to a human hand using various tools. Therefore, architectural researc...

  20. Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nandana; Kundu, Subhas C

    2010-01-01

    With the emergence of nanotechnology, researchers become more interested in studying the unique properties of nanoscale materials. Electrospinning, an electrostatic fiber fabrication technique has evinced more interest and attention in recent years due to its versatility and potential for applications in diverse fields. The notable applications include in tissue engineering, biosensors, filtration, wound dressings, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. The nanoscale fibers are generated by the application of strong electric field on polymer solution or melt. The non-wovens nanofibrous mats produced by this technique mimics extracellular matrix components much closely as compared to the conventional techniques. The sub-micron range spun fibers produced by this process, offer various advantages like high surface area to volume ratio, tunable porosity and the ability to manipulate nanofiber composition in order to get desired properties and function. Over the years, more than 200 polymers have been electrospun for various applications and the number is still increasing gradually with time. With these in perspectives, we aim to present in this review, an overview of the electrospinning technique with its promising advantages and potential applications. We have discussed the electrospinning theory, spinnable polymers, parameters (solution and processing), which significantly affect the fiber morphology, solvent properties and melt electrospinning (alternative to solution electrospinning). Finally, we have focused on varied applications of electrospun fibers in different fields and concluded with the future prospects of this efficient technology. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Self-Cleaning Denim Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğur, Ş. S.; Sarıışık, A. M.; Çavuşlar, E.; Ertek, M.

    2017-10-01

    Denim fabrics coated with TiO2 nanolayers for self-cleaning properties by using a continuous layer-by-layer method. Nanolayer coated denim fabrics washed with an enzyme process for aging affect. Fabrics were analyzed with SEM-EDX and XPS measurements. Self-cleaning properties of the nanolayer deposited denim fabrics were tested according to red wine stain against to Suntest visible light irradiation after 72 h. And also, some physical (air permeability, tensile strength) and color (color difference and rubbing fastness) properties were evaluated.

  2. Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/ Packaging Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Photolithography and Micro-Fabrication/Packaging laboratories provide research level semiconductor processing equipment and facilities that do not require a full...

  3. Advances in superconducting quantum electronic microcircuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschman, R.K.; Notarys, H.A.; Mercereau, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Standard microelectronic fabrication techniques were utilized to produce batch quantities of superconducting quantum electronic devices and circuits. The over-all goal is a fabrication technology yielding circuits that are rugged, stable, and capable of being fabricated controllably and reproducibly in sizeable quantities. Progress toward this goal is presented, with primary emphasis on the most recent work, which includes the use of electron-beam lithography and techniques of hybrid microelectronics. Several prototype microcircuits were successfully fabricated. These microcircuits are formed in a thin-film parent material consisting of layers of superconducting and normal metals, and use proximity effect structures as the active circuit elements

  4. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, K.; Sato, S.; Kawaguchi, I.; Sato, K.; Kuroda, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Sato, S.; Takatsu, H.

    1995-01-01

    Fabrication studies have been performed for the first wall and blanket box structure in the fusion experimental reactor designed in Japan. The hot isostatic pressing technique has been proposed as one of the most promising candidate methods for fabricating the first wall. This paper describes the trial fabrication of a half-scale mock-up for part of an outboard module near the midplane, without the internal structure of a breeding region, to investigate its feasibility and to clarify technological issues associated with the proposed fabrication technologies. (orig.)

  5. Propulsion Design with Freeform Fabrication, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion Design with Freeform Fabrication (PDFF) will develop and implement a novel design methodology that leverages the rapidly evolving Solid Freeform...

  6. Woven Fabrics Made of Auxetic Plied Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Sum Ng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxetic plied yarns are specially constructed with two types of single yarns of different sizes and moduli. This paper investigates how to use these types of yarns to produce woven fabrics with auxetic effects. Four-ply auxetic yarns were first incorporated into a series of woven fabrics with different design parameters to study their auxetic behavior and percent open area during extension. Effects of auxetic plied yarn arrangement, single component yarn properties, weft yarn type, and weave structure were then evaluated. Additional double helical yarn (DHY and 6-ply auxetic yarn woven fabrics were also made for comparison. The results show that the alternative arrangement of S- and Z-twisted 4-ply auxetic yarns in a woven fabric can generate a higher negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR of the fabric. While the higher single stiff yarn modulus of auxetic yarn can result in greater NPR behavior, finer soft auxetic yarn does not necessarily generate such an effect. Weft yarns with low modulus and short float over the 4-ply auxetic yarns in fabric structure are favorable for producing high NPR behavior. The weft cover factor greatly affects the variation of the percent open area of the 4-ply auxetic yarn fabrics during extension. When different kinds of helical auxetic yarns (HAYs are made into fabrics, the fabric made of DHY does not have the highest NPR effect but it has the highest percent open area, which increases with increasing tensile strain.

  7. Sensors for process control Focus Team report

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the Semiconductor Technology Workshop, held in November 1992, the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) convened 179 semiconductor technology experts to assess the 15-year outlook for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. The output of the Workshop, a document entitled 'Semiconductor Technology: Workshop Working Group Reports,' contained an overall roadmap for the technology characteristics envisioned in integrated circuits (IC's) for the period 1992-2007. In addition, the document contained individual roadmaps for numerous key areas in IC manufacturing, such as film deposition, thermal processing, manufacturing systems, exposure technology, etc. The SIA Report did not contain a separate roadmap for contamination free manufacturing (CFM). A key component of CFM for the next 15 years is the use of sensors for (1) defect reduction, (2) improved product quality, (3) improved yield, (4) improved tool utilization through contamination reduction, and (5) real time process control in semiconductor fabrication. The objective of this Focus Team is to generate a Sensors for Process Control Roadmap. Implicit in this objective is the identification of gaps in current sensor technology so that research and development activity in the sensor industry can be stimulated to develop sensor systems capable of meeting the projected roadmap needs. Sensor performance features of interest include detection limit, specificity, sensitivity, ease of installation and maintenance, range, response time, accuracy, precision, ease and frequency of calibration, degree of automation, and adaptability to in-line process control applications.

  8. Remote Microelectronics Fabrication Laboratory MEFLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a move towards using remote laboratories in engineering education. The majority of these laboratories are static, involving limited user-controlled mechanical movements. The University of South Australia has developed such a laboratory, called NetLab that has been successfully utilized for teaching both on-campus and transnational programs in electrical and electronics engineering. Following this success, we are now developing a remote laboratory for microelectronic fabrication, MEFLab. The first stage of the development is a remote laboratory for visual inspection and testing of electronic circuits directly on the silicon wafer under a microscope which is normally conducted in a cleanroom. The major challenge of this project is the accurate positioning of micro-probes remotely over the internet. This paper presents the details of the setup of this new remote laboratory, with a particular emphasis on the development of the hardware, software and graphical user interface.

  9. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  10. ATLAS facility fabrication and assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ballard, E O; Davis, H A; Nielsen, K E; Parker, G V; Parsons, W M

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given. Atlas is a pulsed-power facility recently completed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive hydrodynamic experiments. This new generation pulsed-power machine consists of a radial array of 24, 240-kV Marx modules and transmission lines supplying current to the load region at the machine center. The transmission lines, powered by the Marx modules, consist of cable headers, load protection switches and tri-plates interfacing to the center transition section through detachable current joints. A conical power-flow-channel attaches to the transition section providing an elevated interface to attach the experimental loads for diagnostic access. Fabrication and assembly of all components for the Atlas machine was completed in August 2000. The machine has also progressed through a test phase where the Marx module/transmission line units were fired, individually, into a test load. Progression continued with eight and sixteen lines being fired. Subsequently, an overall machine test was condu...

  11. Comprehensive study of beam focusing by crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Arduini, G.; Cerutti, F.; Garattini, M.; Gilardoni, S.; Masi, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Petrucci, S.; Redaelli, S.; Rossi, R.; Breton, D.; Burmistrov, L.; Dubos, S.; Maalmi, J.; Natochii, A.; Puill, V.; Stocchi, A.; Sukhonos, D.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Romagnoni, M.; Murtas, F.; Addesa, F.; Cavoto, G.; Iacoangeli, F.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A. G.; Bulgakov, M. K.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Durum, A. A.; Maisheev, V. A.; Sandomirskiy, Yu. E.; Yanovich, A. A.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.; Smirnov, G. I.; Denisov, A. S.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Lapina, L. P.; Malyarenko, L. G.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; Auzinger, G.; James, T.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is devoted to an experimental study of focusing and defocusing positively charged particle beams with the help of specially bent single crystals. Four crystals have been fabricated for this purpose. The studies have been performed at the CERN SPS in 400 GeV /c proton and 180 GeV /c pion beams. The results of measurements of beam envelopes are presented. The rms size of the horizontal profile at the focus was 5-8 times smaller than at the exit of the crystals. The measured focal lengths were 4-21 m. The results of measurements are in good agreement with calculations. Possible applications of focusing crystals in present and future high energy accelerators are discussed.

  12. Design of titania nanotube structures by focused laser beam direct writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enachi, Mihai; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Sarua, Andrei; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Tiginyanu, Ion

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report on electrochemical fabrication of titania films consisting of nanotubes (NTs) and their treatment by focused laser beam. The results of sample characterization by optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, and Raman scattering scanning spectroscopy are compared to those inherent to specimens subjected to thermal treatment in a furnace. The obtained data demonstrate possibilities for controlling crystallographic structure of TiO 2 NTs by focused laser beam direct writing. These findings open new prospects for the design and fabrication of spatial architectures based on titania nanotubes

  13. Geomechanical Anisotropy and Rock Fabric in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, K. A.; Connolly, P.; Thornton, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Digital rock physics (DRP) is an emerging area of qualitative and quantitative scientific analysis that has been employed on a variety of rock types at various scales to characterize petrophysical, mechanical, and hydraulic rock properties. This contribution presents a generic geomechanically focused DRP workflow involving image segmentation by geomechanical constituents, generation of finite element (FE) meshes, and application of various boundary conditions (i.e. at the edge of the domain and at boundaries of various components such as edges of individual grains). The generic workflow enables use of constituent geological objects and relationships in a computational based approach to address specific questions in a variety of rock types at various scales. Two examples are 1) modeling stress dependent permeability, where it occurs and why it occurs at the grain scale; 2) simulating the path and complexity of primary fractures and matrix damage in materials with minerals or intervals of different mechanical behavior. Geomechanical properties and fabric characterization obtained from 100 micron shale SEM images using the generic DRP workflow are presented. Image segmentation and development of FE simulation composed of relatively simple components (elastic materials, frictional contacts) and boundary conditions enable the determination of bulk static elastic properties. The procedure is repeated for co-located images at pertinent orientations to determine mechanical anisotropy. The static moduli obtained are benchmarked against lab derived measurements since material properties (esp. frictional ones) are poorly constrained at the scale of investigation. Once confidence in the input material parameters is gained, the procedure can be used to characterize more samples (i.e. images) than is possible from rock samples alone. Integration of static elastic properties with grain statistics and geologic (facies) conceptual models derived from core and geophysical logs

  14. Heater Development, Fabrication, and Testing: Analysis of Fabricated Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Dickens, R. E.; Farmer, J. T.; Davis, J. D.; Adams, M. R.; Martin, J. J.; Webster, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal simulators (highly designed heater elements) developed at the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fission in a variety of reactor concepts. When inserted into the reactor geometry, the purpose of the thermal simulators is to deliver thermal power to the test article in the same fashion as if nuclear fuel were present. Considerable effort has been expended to mimic heat from fission as closely as possible. To accurately represent the fuel, the simulators should be capable of matching the overall properties of the nuclear fuel rather than simply matching the fuel temperatures. This includes matching thermal stresses in the pin, pin conductivities, total core power, and core power profile (axial and radial). This Technical Memorandum discusses the historical development of the thermal simulators used in nonnuclear testing at the EFF-TF and provides a basis for the development of the current series of thermal simulators. The status of current heater fabrication and testing is assessed, providing data and analyses for both successes and failures experienced in the heater development and testing program.

  15. New Fabrication Strategies for Polymer Electrolyte Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriver, D

    1997-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to fabricate lithium-polymer batteries by techniques that may produce a thin electrolyte and cathode films and with minimal contamination during fabrication. One such technique, ultrasonic spray was used. Another objective of this research was to test lithium cells that incorporate the new polymer electrolytes and polyelectrolytes.

  16. Fuel pellets of various shapes- fabrication experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Nair, M.R.; Majumdar, S.; Purushotham, D.S.C.

    1996-10-01

    Sintered uranium oxide and mixed oxide pellets are extensively used as nuclear reactor fuel. The shape of the fuel-pellets influence greatly their in-reactor performance. Fuel pellets of various shapes were prepared in Radiometallurgy Division to study their fabricability and in-reactor performance. This paper presents the experience in fabricating these fuel pellets. (author)

  17. Investigations of fabric stratifiers for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    water. In this paper investigations of a number of different fabric stratification pipes are presented and compared to a non flexible inlet stratifier. Additional, detailed investigations of the flow structure close to two fabric stratification pipes are presented for one set of operating conditions...

  18. Fabrication of Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Zhang, Qijin; Peng, Gang-Ding; Wen, Jianxiang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2017-03-04

    Gratings inscribed in polymer optical fibre (POF) have attracted remarkable interest for many potential applications due to their distinctive properties. This paper overviews the current state of fabrication of POF gratings since their first demonstration in 1999. In particular we summarize and discuss POF materials, POF photosensitivity, techniques and issues of fabricating POF gratings, as well as various types of POF gratings.

  19. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  20. Fabrication of photonic crystals and Nanocavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldering, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional inverse woodpile photonic crystals is highly desirable because of their predicted large photonic band gap, their conceptual ease of fabrication, and their robustness to withstand deviations from the ideal geometry that are intrinsic to nanofabrication. In this

  1. Fabrication, Morphological and Optoelectronic Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetector. We investigated the surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. The metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector were fabricated by using Sb as ...

  2. Properties of natural fabric Polyalthia cerasoides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available . The tensile properties were also studied. The effect of alkali treatment on the properties of the fabric was studied. The FTIR and chemical analyses indicated lowering of hemi-cellulose and lignin content on alkali treatment of the fabric. The tensile...

  3. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  4. Rapid Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Woodpile Photonic Crystals by Means of Two-Photon Photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Kong, Jun-Jie; Yang, Hai-Feng; Yan, Feng; Cai, Lan

    2007-11-01

    Two-photon photopolymerization (TPP) of femtosecond laser is a promising method to fabricate three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals (PCs). We build micro-fabrication system based on the principle of TPP. Three-dimensional woodpile PCs consisting of in-plane rod distances ranging from 1000 nm to 2000 nm are fabricated by focusing femtosecond laser in photosensitive liquid resin ORMOCER. The properties of the PCs are also discussed, and fundamental photonic band gaps in middle-infrared range are measured, whose in-plane rod distances are 1500 nm and 2000 nm. Three-dimensional woodpile PC devices with desired defects, such as cross-waveguide and micro-laser structures, are introduced easily by TPP. We fabricate the three-dimensional woodpile PCs in the liquid resin at the fast scanning speed of 120 μm/s.

  5. Waste minimization activities in the Materials Fabrication Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    The mission of the Materials Fabrication Division (MFD) is to provide fabrication services and technology in support of all programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MFD involvement is called for when fabrication activity requires levels of expertise, technology, equipment, process development, hazardous processes, security, or scheduling that is typically not commercially available. Customers are encouraged to utilize private industry for fabrication activity requiring routine processing or for production applications. Our waste minimization (WM) program has been directed at source reduction and recycling in concert with the working definition of waste minimization used by EPA. The principal focus of WM activities has been on hazardous wastes as defined by RCRA, however, all pollutant emissions into air, water and land are being considered as part of the program. The incentives include: (1) economics, (2) regulatory conformance, (3) public image and (4) environmental concern. This report discusses the waste minimization program at LLNL

  6. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Hemp/E-Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R SANJAY

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work has been focusing on Hemp fibers has an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites due to its eco-friendly and biodegradable characteristics. This work has been carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of hemp/E-glass fabrics reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Vacuum bagging method was used for the preparation of six different kinds of hemp/glass fabrics reinforced polyester composite laminates as per layering sequences. The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests of these hybrid composites were carried out experimentally according to ASTM standards. It reveals that an addition of E-glass fabrics with hemp fabrics can increase the mechanical properties of composites and decrease the water absorption of the hybrid composites.

  7. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics. PMID:25804132

  8. Fabricating 3D figurines with personalized faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, J Rafael; Mahler, Moshe; Beeler, Thabo; Grosse, Max; Hengchin Yeh; Matthews, Iain

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-automated system for fabricating figurines with faces that are personalised to the individual likeness of the customer. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated by commercial deployments at Walt Disney World Resort and Star Wars Celebration VI in Orlando Florida. Although the system is semi automated, human intervention is limited to a few simple tasks to maintain the high throughput and consistent quality required for commercial application. In contrast to existing systems that fabricate custom heads that are assembled to pre-fabricated plastic bodies, our system seamlessly integrates 3D facial data with a predefined figurine body into a unique and continuous object that is fabricated as a single piece. The combination of state-of-the-art 3D capture, modelling, and printing that are the core of our system provide the flexibility to fabricate figurines whose complexity is only limited by the creativity of the designer.

  9. Moisture management properties of Cupro knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durur, G.; Oner, E.; Gunduz, G.

    2017-10-01

    On the purpose of analysing the moisture management behaviour of Cupro blend knitted fabrics made of Ne 40/1 and Ne 56/1 cotton/Cupro blend yarns, which have single jersey, 1x1 rib and interlock knitting types were systematically produced. Multi-dimensional liquid transport properties of the produced fabric were measured on the Moisture Management Tester (MMT). The air permeability and some structural properties of the fabrics were also measured, and the results were evaluated taking into account moisture management properties. According to results, it is observed that moisture management capacity and permeability of Cupro blends produced from finer yarns were higher than those of fabrics from coarse count yarns. Generally, Cupro blend knitted fabrics showed good moisture management properties.

  10. Feasibility of the fabrication of americium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Somers, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper compares the processes used at ITU for the fabrication of americium targets for transmutation: powder mixing process, sol-gel method and the infiltration by an active solution of inactive pellets. The advantages of the latter process, related mainly to the lower level of dust formation, are stressed. Moreover, the radiological constraints on the fabrication as a function of Am content and of selected fabrication process are evaluated. As conclusion, the feasibility of Am target fabrication has been demonstrated on a laboratory scale, based on experimental results evaluation. The penalties due to radiological constraints in a semi-industrial process are acceptable. The future developments consist in the construction of a laboratory fully dedicated to minor actinides fuel pins or targets fabrication. (author)

  11. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  12. Patterned Woven Fabrics in Lithuanian Folk Skirts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article 258 Lithuanian folk skirts from National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art and 85 skirts from Lithuanian Open Air Museum are investigated. The weaves and plans of weave of skirts fabrics are made. Also the composing of plans of weave is analysed in aspect of segment, ornament and symmetry group of patterned fabric weave. Also the symmetry groups of Lithuanian folk skirts fabrics and their distribution according to the fabric weave are analysed. The tendencies of symmetry groups and peculiarities of composing of plans of weave can help to recreate the reconstructions of authentic folk fabrics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.1950

  13. Fabrication of Sparse Readout Detectors for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, David

    We propose to continue our detector development program in X-ray astronomy. Under our current APRA grant we have fabricated a new read out integrated circuit that is one half of a hybrid CMOS detector. Here we propose to build and test these innovative detectors, which could potentially be flown on future X-ray missions with focused optics and/or large effective area. This proposal supports NASA's goals of technical advancement of technologies suitable for future missions and training of graduate students.

  14. Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.

  15. Solid freeform fabrication of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    1999-12-01

    The biological performance of porous Hydroxyapatite (HA) is closely related to the pore architecture in the implants. The study on the effect of architecture to the biological performance of porous HA requires new manufacturing methods that can fabricate implants with controlled pores channels. In this thesis, four highly loaded HA and alumina suspensions were formulated and three different processes involving Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) were developed. An aqueous HA suspension in acrylamides was first formulated and the UV-curing properties were evaluated. With a medical grade HA powder, two non-aqueous HA suspensions were formulated: a 40 vol.% HA suspension in Hexanediol Diacrylate (HDDA) and a 40 vol.% HA suspension in 1:1 mix of Propoxylated Neopentyl Glycol Diacrylate (PNPGDA) and Isobomyl Acrylate (EBA). A 50 vol.% Alumina suspension in PNPGDA/IBA was also formulated. The effect of dispersant to the viscosity of the suspensions was characterized. In the Stereolithography (SL) method, the curing parameters of HA/HDDA and HA/PNPGDA/IBA were determined. Prototype HA implants with 1,700 mum internal channels were built directly on an SL Apparatus (SLA). The designed internal channel patterns were preserved after sintering. In the Ink-jet printing method, the high temperature flow behaviors of the suspensions were characterized. The effects of solids loading to the viscosity of the suspensions were modeled with Krieger-Dougherty equation. Leveling theory developed in paint industry was employed to analyze the self-leveling capability of the suspensions. In the indirect SL method, the thermal curing behavior of HA and alumina suspensions were characterized. The total cure time was measured and the curing kinetics was modeled. Negative molds for the implants were designed and built on SLA with epoxy resin. HA/PNPGDA/IBA was cast into the mold and cured in an oven. The binders and the epoxy mold were pyrolyzed and the green bodies sintered. Internal channels

  16. A continuous plasma final focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1989-11-01

    Scaling laws are set down for a plasma cell used for transport, focusing and current neutralization of fine, intense, relativistic electron beams. It is found that there exists a minimum beam spot size, σ min ∼ var-epsilon n (I A /γI) 1/2 , in such a focusing system. Propagation issues, including channel formation, synchrotron radiation, beam ionization and instabilities, are discussed. Numerical examples are given for a proof-of-principle experiment at KEK, an application for luminosity enhancement at the SLC, and a hypothetical TeV electron-positron collider. For a TeV collider, it is found that the effect of ion-motion on focusing, and the effect of Buneman instability on current neutralization must be considered. 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Focused two-dimensional antiscatter grid for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, O.V.; Moldovan, N.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D.C.; Divan, R.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Ryding, D.C.; Yaeger, J.; Liu, C.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing freestanding high-aspect-ratio, focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grids for mammography using deep x-ray lithography and copper electroforming. The exposure is performed using x-rays from bending magnet beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. A 2.8-mm-thick prototype freestanding copper antiscatter grid with 25 (micro)m-wide parallel cell walls and 550 (micro)m periodicity has been fabricated. The progress in developing a dynamic double-exposure technique to create the grid with the cell walls aligned to a point x-ray source of the mammography system is discussed

  18. Evaluation of Nozzle Arrangement Focused on RPV Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Lee, Gyu Mahn; Jeoung, Kyeong Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Keun Bae; Kim, Keung Koo

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the fabrication capacity of the reactor pressure vessel. For that reason, this study focuses on survey of the domestic equipment capacity and the feasible size for reactor pressure vessel. Also, the forecasting issues of adoption of new material for reactor pressure vessel are reviewed through typically examples. Additionally, an evaluation procedure for the design of nozzle is developed to meet ASME code requirements. The developed design procedure could provide typical references for the development of advanced reactor design in the future

  19. Analysis of Depth of Shade on Mercerized and Unmercerized Fabric among Different Woven Fabric Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Md Shamim

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze and compare the color strengths of mercerized and unmercerized fabric among different fabric structures. In this research work Remazol reactive dye and three types of woven fabrics were used such as 20⁎20 sheeting, 30⁎30 sheeting, and herringbone. Spectrophotometer was used to find out the amount of dye which is fixed in the fabrics after soap wash. Three different woven fabrics were dyed with reactive dye (Remazol Red, Remazol Yellow, and Remazo...

  20. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...

  1. Superhydrophobic nanocoatings: from materials to fabrications and to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic nanocoatings, a combination of nanotechnology and superhydrophobic surfaces, have received extraordinary attention recently, focusing both on novel preparation strategies and on investigations of their unique properties. In the past few decades, inspired by the lotus leaf, the discovery of nano- and micro-hierarchical structures has brought about great change in the superhydrophobic nanocoatings field. In this paper we review the contributions to this field reported in recent literature, mainly including materials, fabrication and applications. In order to facilitate comparison, materials are divided into 3 categories as follows: inorganic materials, organic materials, and inorganic-organic materials. Each kind of materials has itself merits and demerits, as well as fabrication techniques. The process of each technique is illustrated simply through a few classical examples. There is, to some extent, an association between various fabrication techniques, but many are different. So, it is important to choose appropriate preparation strategies, according to conditions and purposes. The peculiar properties of superhydrophobic nanocoatings, such as self-cleaning, anti-bacteria, anti-icing, corrosion resistance and so on, are the most dramatic. Not only do we introduce application examples, but also try to briefly discuss the principle behind the phenomenon. Finally, some challenges and potential promising breakthroughs in this field are also succinctly highlighted.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanoparticle composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Akeem Armand

    To effectively and accurately deliver drugs within the human body, both new designs and components for implantable micropumps are being studied. Designs must ensure high biocompatibility, drug compatibility, accuracy and small power consumption. The focus of this thesis was to fabricate a prototype magnetic nanoparticle membrane for eventual incorporation into a biomedical pump and then determine the relationship between this membrane deflection and applied pneumatic or magnetic force. The magnetic nanoparticle polymer composite (MNPC) membranes in this study were composed of crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). An optimal iron oxide fabrication route was identified and particle size in each batch was approximately 24.6 nm. Once these nanoparticles were incorporated into a membrane (5 wt. %), the nanoparticle formed agglomerates with an average diameter of 2.26 +/-1.23 microm. Comparisons between the 0 and 5 wt. % loading of particles into the membranes indicated that the elastic modulus of the composite decreased with increasing particle concentration. The pressure- central deflection of the membranes could not be predicated by prior models and variation between magnetic and pneumatic pressure-deflection curves was quantified. Attempts to fabricate membranes with above 5 wt. % nanoparticles were not successful (no gelation). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results suggest that excess oleic acid on the nanoparticles prior to mixing might have prevented crosslinking.

  3. Superhydrophobic nanocoatings: from materials to fabrications and to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2015-04-14

    Superhydrophobic nanocoatings, a combination of nanotechnology and superhydrophobic surfaces, have received extraordinary attention recently, focusing both on novel preparation strategies and on investigations of their unique properties. In the past few decades, inspired by the lotus leaf, the discovery of nano- and micro-hierarchical structures has brought about great change in the superhydrophobic nanocoatings field. In this paper we review the contributions to this field reported in recent literature, mainly including materials, fabrication and applications. In order to facilitate comparison, materials are divided into 3 categories as follows: inorganic materials, organic materials, and inorganic-organic materials. Each kind of materials has itself merits and demerits, as well as fabrication techniques. The process of each technique is illustrated simply through a few classical examples. There is, to some extent, an association between various fabrication techniques, but many are different. So, it is important to choose appropriate preparation strategies, according to conditions and purposes. The peculiar properties of superhydrophobic nanocoatings, such as self-cleaning, anti-bacteria, anti-icing, corrosion resistance and so on, are the most dramatic. Not only do we introduce application examples, but also try to briefly discuss the principle behind the phenomenon. Finally, some challenges and potential promising breakthroughs in this field are also succinctly highlighted.

  4. Wide band gap gallium arsenide nanoparticles fabricated using plasma method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, D., E-mail: dvjainnov@gmail.com [Physics Department, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Mangla, O. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Physics Department, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Roy, S. [Physics Department, Daulat Ram College, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we have reported the fabrication of gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanoparticles on quartz placed at distance of 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively from top of anode. The fabrication has been carried out by highly energetic and high fluence ions of GaAs produced by hot, dense and extremely non-equilibrium plasma in a modified dense plasma focus device. GaAs nanoparticles have mean size of about 23 nm, 16 nm and 14 nm for deposition at a distance of 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively. The nanoparticles are crystalline in nature as evident from X-ray diffraction patterns. The band gap of nanoparticles is found to increase from 1.425 eV to 5.37 eV at 4.0 cm distance, which further increases as distance increases. The wide band gap observed for fabricated GaAs nanoparticles suggest the possible applications of nanoparticles in laser systems.

  5. A STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR OBTAINING THE CONTROLLED WOVEN FABRIC WIDTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing

  6. Fabrication and Design of Optical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark D.

    Over the past several decades, advances in nanometer scale fabrication has sparked interes in applications that take advantage of materials that are structured at these small length scales. Specifically, metallic optical nanomaterials have emerged as a new way to control light at length scales that are smaller than the wavelength of light and have optical properties that are distinctly different from their macroscale counterparts. Although there have been may advances in nanofabrication, the performance and widespread use of optical nanomaterials is still limited by fabrication and design challenges. This dissertation describes advances in the fabrication, characterization, and design of optical nanomaterials. First we demonstrate how a portable and compact photolithography system can be made using a light source composed of UV LEDs. Our solid-state photolithography (SSP) system brings the capabilities of one of the most important yet workhorse tools of micro- and nanotechnology--the mask aligner--to the benchtop. The two main highlights of chapter 2 include: (i) portable, low-cost photolithography and (ii) high quality patterning. We replace the mask aligner with a system composed of UV LEDs and a diffuser that can be built for as little as $30. The design of the SSP system alleviates the need for dedicated power supplies, vacuum lines and cooling systems, which makes it a true benchtop photolithography system. We further show that sub-wavelength features can be fabricated across 4-in wafers and that these patterns are of high quality such that they can be easily transferred into functional materials. Chapter 3 describes a parallel method to create nanometer scale textures over large areas with unprecedented control over wrinkle wavelength. The main points of this chapter include: (i) a new material system for nanowrinkles, (ii) wrinkles with tunable wavelengths, and (iii) a method for measuring the skin thickness. First, we show that RIE treatment of PS with

  7. Fabrication of microfluidic integrated biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Dhahi, Th S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.

    2017-09-01

    An event of miniaturizing for sensor systems to carry out biological diagnostics are gaining wade spread acceptance. The system may contain several different sensor units for the detection of specific analyte, the analyte to be detected might be any kind of biological molecules (DNA, mRNA or proteins) or chemical substances. In most cases, the detection is based on receptor-ligand binding like DNA hybridization or antibody-antigen interaction, achieving this on a nanostructure. DNA or protein must be attached to certain locations within the structure. Critical for this is to have a robust binding chemistry to the surface in the microstructure. Here we successfully designed and fabricated microfluidics element for passive fluid delivery into polysilicon Nanowire sensing domain, we further demonstrated a very simple and effective way of integrating the two devices to give full functionalities of laboratory on a single chip. The sensing element was successfully surface modified and tested on real biomedical clinical sample for evaluation and validation.

  8. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Atherton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer membranes is investigated, and how the surface of the materials mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration is demonstrated allowing direct extraction of oxygen from oxygenated water. The coverage of the surface with the plastron air layer was measured using confocal microscopy. A zinc/oxygen cell is used to consume oxygen within containers constructed from the different membranes, and the oxygen consumed by the cell is compared to the change in oxygen concentration as measured by an oxygen probe. By comparing the membranes to an air-tight reference sample, it was found that the membranes facilitated oxygen transfer from the water into the container, with the most successful membrane showing a 1.90:1 ratio between the cell oxygen consumption and the change in concentration within the container.

  9. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  10. A focusing reflectarray and its application in microwave virus sanitizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wan-Ting; Tung, Jen-Jung; Chen, Shih-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a focusing reflectarray based on the conductor-backed strip dipole unit cell is proposed and designed for use in the microwave virus sanitizer. Unlike traditional far-field antennas that form a planar phase front in a specified far-field direction, the focusing reflectarray is designed to coherently add the fields radiated from the feeding antenna at a predetermined focal point, typically within its radiating near-field region and to ensure adequate power density to inactivate the H3N2 virus sample. Furthermore, the focusing reflectarray has a simple and planar structure compared with conventional focusing antennas. Since the microwave resonant absorption frequency of the H3N2 virus is at about 8 GHz, an 8 × 8 focusing reflectarray is designed for operation at 8 GHz. A prototype antenna is then fabricated and used for H3N2 virus sanitization. It is demonstrated experimentally that the death rate of the H3N2 virus sample is up to 93%, verifying the feasibility of the microwave virus sanitizer as well as the proposed focusing reflectarray.

  11. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  12. Isopycnic focusing: myth or reality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, J.; Špírková, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2003), s. 95-104 ISSN 0036-0244 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : density * density gradient * isopycnic focusing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.397, year: 2003

  13. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  14. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  15. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  16. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  17. Focusing on key development challenges

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    addresses today's pressing environmental, social, economic, and political challenges. It reflects continuity and change, balancing research in hard science with public policy concerns. We will implement changes to our program architecture on a rolling basis to reflect our focus on four broad themes. OUR PROGRAMS.

  18. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...

  19. Release characteristics of cesium from green pellet fabricated with spent fuel under different sintering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, Dou Youn; Lee, Young Soon; Kim, Woong Ki; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Jung Won; Yang, Myung Seung

    2005-01-01

    The dry process, known as DUPIC(Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactor), for fabricating fuel pellets from spent fuel as recycling technology has been well demonstrated by establishing an optimization process for fuel fabrication through a number of batch processes using typical PWR spent fuel. As considering a strategy for extending the burn-up in LWR fuel, experimental verification for analyzing the effect of spent fuel burn-up on fuel fabrication is necessary in some respects that one of key parameters influencing the fuel fabrication characteristic would amount of fission products contained as impurity elements in spent fuel. A high burn-up spent fuel has a higher amount of fission products compared with typical spent fuel irradiated in about 27,000 MWd/tU. A preliminary study showed that the sintered pellet density fabricated with a high burn-up fuel has a lower value than that of common fuel burn-ups of about 30,000 MWd/tU. To provide better understanding a remote fuel fabrication characteristic in an aspect of wide ranges of spent fuel generated from PWR reactor, the influence of fission products release on fabrication characteristics of the dry processed fuel with a high burn-up fuel of 65,000 MWd/tU were experimentally evaluated. It is expected that key fission product affecting fabrication characteristics in dry process is cesium isotope due to the boiling point of 670 .deg. C and the low dissociation temperature of its oxides(<700 .deg. C). This study focus to analyze the release characteristics of cesium from green pellets fabricated with a variation of compaction pressure under different sintering conditions using tubular furnace in IMEF M6 hot cell

  20. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  1. Heat Transfer in Directional Water Transport Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Directional water transport fabrics can proactively transfer moisture from the body. They show great potential in making sportswear and summer clothing. While moisture transfer has been previously reported, heat transfer in directional water transport fabrics has been little reported in research literature. In this study, a directional water transport fabric was prepared using an electrospraying technique and its heat transfer properties under dry and wet states were evaluated, and compared with untreated control fabric and the one pre-treated with NaOH. All the fabric samples showed similar heat transfer features in the dry state, and the equilibrium temperature in the dry state was higher than for the wet state. Wetting considerably enhanced the thermal conductivity of the fabrics. Our studies indicate that directional water transport treatment assists in moving water toward one side of the fabric, but has little effect on thermal transfer performance. This study may be useful for development of “smart” textiles for various applications.

  2. Toward an Active Fabric-Based Air Decontamination System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaddy, G. A; Bratcher, Matthew S; Mills, G; Huang, S; Slaten, B. L; Debortoli, J

    2004-01-01

    ...) particles that were grafted on cotton fabric and on TiO2 particles that were embedded in glass fabric Modified TiO2 particles were grafted onto cotton fabric and irradiated in the presence of CHCl3...

  3. Progress on KMRR fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I.H.; Lee, J.B.; Rhee, C.K.; Kim, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to increase the practical applicability of powder heat-treatment in KMRR fuel fabrication, efforts were made to reduce the critical size. Primary U 3 Si 2 particle size was reviewed in terms of cooling rate. Temperature dependence of peritectoid reaction was reviewed as well. (1) Cooling rate of U 3 Si molten alloy was calculated by ADINA program. In practice, particle size of the primary U 3 Si 2 varies radially. U 3 Si 2 size increases as it goes deeper from the surface. As cooling rate increases, primary U 3 Si 2 size decreases. (2) Peritectoid reaction occurs in two unique groups of temperature; one is below 790 C where β-U and U 3 Si 2 reaction occurs, and the other above 790 C where γ-U and U 3 Si 2 reaction occurs. 780 C is most completely reacting temperature in β-U region, and 810 C is so in γ-U region. Reaction is completed more perfectly in γ-U region than in β-U region. 810 C is found to be the optimized heat-treatment temperature, but it is desirable not to approach to 790 C in heat-treatment. (3) The critical powder size in powder heat-treatment is dependent on the primary U 3 Si 2 particle size. The smaller the primary U 3 Si 2 particle size, the smaller the critical particle size of the powder. At present, the primary U 3 Si 2 particle size can be reduced to 3∝5 μm at 4∝5 mm deep from surface in Cu mold. This may be reduced further by rapid solidification process. (orig.)

  4. Silicon fabric for multi-functional applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a generic process flow to fabricate mechanically flexible and optically semi-transparent thermoelectric generators (TEGs), micro lithium-ion batteries (μLIB) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on mono-crystalline silicon fabric platforms from standard bulk silicon (100) wafers. All the fabricated devices show outstanding mechanical flexibility and performance, making an important step towards monolithic integration of Energy Chip (self-powered devices) including energy harvesters and electronic devices on flexible platforms. We also report a recyclability process for the remaining bulk substrate after release, allowing us to achieve a low cost flexible platform for high performance applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. UPDATE ON MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue; G. A. Moore; N. P. Hallinan; B. H. Park; D. E. Burkes

    2006-10-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Progress at INL has led to fabrication of hot isostatic pressed uranium-molybdenum bearing monolithic fuel plates. These miniplates are part of the RERTR-8 miniplate irradiation test. Further progress has also been made on friction stir weld processing which has been used to fabricate full size fuel plates which will be irradiated in the ATR and OSIRIS reactors.

  6. Design, fabrication and installation of irradiation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Kim, Y. S.; Lee, C. Y. and others

    1999-03-01

    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop in HANARO for nuclear technology development. Procurement and fabrication of main equipment, licensing and technical review for fuel test loop have been performed during 2 years(1997, 1998) for this project. Following contents are described in the report. - Procurement and fabrication of the equipment, piping for OPS - IPS manufacture - License - Technical review and evaluation of the FTL facility. As besides, as these irradiation facilities will be installed in HANARO, review of safety concern, discussion with KINS for licensing and review ofHANARO interface have been performed respectively. (author)

  7. Confidence regions for fabric shape diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Trevor J.; Benn, Douglas I.

    1997-12-01

    Fabric shape is often quantified using the three eigenvalues from the 'orientation tensor' method applied to a sample of directions. Several studies have used eigenvalues plotted on fabric shape diagrams to distinguish sedimentary facies or strain histories. However, such studies seldom consider how well the sample eigenvalues represent the true fabric shape. In this paper, we use 'bootstrapping' techniques to define confidence regions for sample eigenvalues, and show that sample and population eigenvalues may differ substantially. Confidence regions are often very large for small sample sizes, and we recommend that sample sizes should be at least 50.

  8. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeppner, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Thermoplastic microcantilevers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders; Keller, Stephan Urs; Vig, Asger Laurberg

    2010-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography has been exploited to fabricate micrometre-sized cantilevers in thermoplastic. This technique allows for very well defined microcantilevers and gives the possibility of embedding structures into the cantilever surface. The microcantilevers are fabricated in TOPAS and are up...... to 500 μm long, 100 μm wide, and 4.5 μm thick. Some of the cantilevers have built-in ripple surface structures with heights of 800 nm and pitches of 4 μm. The yield for the cantilever fabrication is 95% and the initial out-of-plane bending is below 10 μm. The stiffness of the cantilevers is measured...

  10. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  11. Fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Fisker-Bødker, Nis

    2011-01-01

    The biodegradable polymer poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) was introduced for the fabrication of micromechanical devices. For this purpose, thin biopolymer films with thickness around 10 μm were spin-coated on silicon substrates. Patterning of microcantilevers is achieved by nanoimprint lithography. A major...... challenge was the high adhesion between PLLA and silicon stamp. Optimized stamp fabrication and the deposition of a 125 nm thick fluorocarbon anti-stiction coating on the PLLA allowed the fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers. Resonance frequency measurements were used to estimate the Young’s modulus...

  12. Fabrication and Multiprobe Electrical Characterization of Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Mikkel Buster

    2013-01-01

    Engineering of graphene for modifying electrical properties, such as opening an electronic band gap, has been shown both theoretically and experimentally by creating periodic holes in the graphene sheet, however at the price of lower carrier mobility. Such holes can be made with special fabrication...... techniques, such as colloidal lithography or block copolymers lithography, which covers the entire sample. This project presents graphene devices with periodic holes fabricated by electron beam lithography. Only partial coverage of holes are fabricated by making from one to many rows of holes perpendicular...

  13. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  14. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  15. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  16. Fresnel Lenses fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining on Polymer 1D Photonic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guduru Surya S.K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of micro Fresnel lenses by femtosecond laser surface ablation on polymer 1D photonic crystals. This device is designed to focus the transmitted wavelength of the photonic crystal and filter the wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap region. Integration of such devices in a wavelength selective light harvesting and filtering microchip can be achieved.

  17. Fabrication and experimental demonstration of photonic crystal laser with buried heterostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakanas, Aurimas; Yu, Yi; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2017-01-01

    of separating active light amplification regions from passive regions for light propagation without induced absorption losses and surface recombination. The main focus of this work is the fabrication and experimental demonstration of a buried heterostructure (BH) photonic crystal laser bonded to a silicon wafer...

  18. Fabric Reconstruction Based on Sustainable Development: Take the Type of Fabric Recycling as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangting Guan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a very important concept of our time, it wants to do is to live in harmony with people, to protect the environment where our human survival. Fabric recycling refers to the use of a variety of traditional and high-tech means of the existing fabric fabric design and processing. So that the surface of a rich visual texture and tactile texture "through the fabric recycling approach. However, the fabric form and clothing design coordination between the clothing design is essential to the link! Garment fabric is not only the material basis of clothing modeling But also an important form of plastic arts. Fabric recycling art has gradually become a new breakthrough point of fashion design! And become an important means to increase the added value of clothing products. But at the same time fabric recycling also follow the concept of sustainable development. This paper analyzes the relationship between fabric reengineering and sustainable development. Combined with practice to explore the fabric processing technology and its creative ideas and some of its environmental performance.

  19. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David

    2011-01-01

    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  20. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  1. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  2. Focus group report - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making

  3. Fabrication of Large Area Periodic Nanostructures Using Nanosphere Photolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large area periodic nanostructures exhibit unique optical and electronic properties and have found many applications, such as photonic band-gap materials, high dense data storage, and photonic devices. We have developed a maskless photolithography method—Nanosphere Photolithography (NSP—to produce a large area of uniform nanopatterns in the photoresist utilizing the silica micro-spheres to focus UV light. Here, we will extend the idea to fabricate metallic nanostructures using the NSP method. We produced large areas of periodic uniform nanohole array perforated in different metallic films, such as gold and aluminum. The diameters of these nanoholes are much smaller than the wavelength of UV light used and they are very uniformly distributed. The method introduced here inherently has both the advantages of photolithography and self-assembled methods. Besides, it also generates very uniform repetitive nanopatterns because the focused beam waist is almost unchanged with different sphere sizes.

  4. Design and fabrication of a pulsed diode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Gandhi, M.L.; Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    A pulsed diode electron gun has been designed, fabricated and tested and this will be used for the initial hot testing of the Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) linac. The gun is required to deliver 1 A at 70 kV which works out to a current of 500 mA at 40 kV. The gun geometry is optimized using the Electron Trajectory Program EGUN at a mesh size of 0.2 mm. The beam divergence close to cathode caused by an annular gap of 2 mm between cathode and focusing electrode (FE) is compensated by using a suitable focusing electrode. Important features of the pulsed power supply (40 kV, 500 mA, 2 μsec) developed for testing this gun are presented. The current measured at the Faraday cup is in agreement with the designed perveance. Suitable positioning of cathode with respect to the FE helps in further improving the beam quality

  5. Development of high-order harmonic focusing system based on ellipsoidal mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyama, H.; Takei, Y.; Kume, T.; Egawa, S.; Mimura, H., E-mail: mimura@edm.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Precision Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkuyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Sato, T.; Iwasaki, A.; Yamanouchi, K. [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hiraguri, K.; Hashizume, H. [Natsume Optical Corp., 3461 Kamichaya, Kanae, Iida, Nagano 395-0808 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We have developed a focusing system for extreme ultraviolet light produced by high-order harmonic generation. An ellipsoidal mirror with a precise surface shape was fabricated and installed into the focusing system. A rigid mirror manipulator and a beam profiler were employed to perform precise and stable mirror alignment. As a demonstration of the focusing performance, high-order harmonics in the wavelength range of 13.5–19.5 nm were successfully focused into a 2.4 × 2.3 μm{sup 2} spot.

  6. In Situ Tuning of Focused-Ion-Beam Defined Nanomechanical Resonators Using Joule Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homann, Lasse Vinther; Booth, Tim; Lei, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have a huge potential for a variety of applications, including high-resolution mass sensing. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel rapid prototyping method for fabricating nanoelectromechanical systems using focused-ion-beam milling as well as in situ electromechanical c...

  7. Head phantoms for transcranial focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, Matthew D C; Farnum, Mercy; Khaled, Mohamad; Elias, W Jeff; Hananel, Arik; Snell, John W; Kassell, Neal F; Aubry, Jean-Francois

    2015-04-01

    In the ongoing endeavor of fine-tuning, the clinical application of transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS), ex-vivo studies wlkiith whole human skulls are of great use in improving the underlying technology guiding the accurate and precise thermal ablation of clinically relevant targets in the human skull. Described here are the designs, methods for fabrication, and notes on utility of three different ultrasound phantoms to be used for brain focused ultrasound research. Three different models of phantoms are developed and tested to be accurate, repeatable experimental options to provide means to further this research. The three models are a cadaver, a gel-filled skull, and a head mold containing a skull and filled with gel that mimics the brain and the skin. Each was positioned in a clinical tcMRgFUS system and sonicated at 1100 W (acoustic) for 12 s at different locations. Maximum temperature rise as measured by MR thermometry was recorded and compared against clinical data for a similar neurosurgical target. Results are presented as heating efficiency in units (°C/kW/s) for direct comparison to available clinical data. The procedure for casting thermal phantom material is presented. The utility of each phantom model is discussed in the context of various tcMRgFUS research areas. The cadaveric phantom model, gel-filled skull model, and full head phantom model had heating efficiencies of 5.3, 4.0, and 3.9 °C/(kW/s), respectively, compared to a sample clinical heating efficiency of 2.6 °C/(kW/s). In the seven research categories considered, the cadaveric phantom model was the most versatile, though less practical compared to the ex-vivo skull-based phantoms. Casting thermal phantom material was shown to be an effective way to prepare tissue-mimicking material for the phantoms presented. The phantom models presented are all useful in tcMRgFUS research, though some are better suited to a limited subset of applications depending on the researchers

  8. In vitro assessment of ultraviolet protection of coloured cotton knitted fabrics with different structures under stretched and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, W Y; Lam, J K C; Kan, C W; Postle, R

    2015-04-01

    Clothing provides intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) protection that can be improved by colouration. However, the daily wearing condition can undermine the UV protection of coloured clothing wherein garments are stretched by body movement and/or wetted by perspiration of wearers. Knitwear is an indispensable clothing in summer, but its UV protection against wearing conditions lacks extensive study especially in a fabric structural approach. This article aimed at narrowing the research gap by focusing on the UV protection against stretch and wetness provided by various knitted fabric constructions incorporating the knit, tuck and miss stitches. The results show that the black knitted fabrics exhibit a significant reduction in the UV protection factor by 53% on average at a 10% stretch level. Knitted fabrics with miss stitches retained good UV protection even when the fabrics were stretched by 20% of its original dimensions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. First Model of the Edge-Focusing Wiggler for SASE

    CERN Document Server

    Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kato, Ryukou; Kobayashi, Kenji; Noda, Takanori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a new type of wiggler named the edge-focusing (EF) wiggler, which produces the strong transverse focusing field incorporated with the normal wiggler field. The idea of the EF wiggler* and development of permanent magnet blocks with small magnetization errors for the wiggler** were reported at the two preceding FEL conferences. We have fabricated the first model of the EF wiggler to evaluate its performance. It is a five-period planar wiggler with an edge angle of 2 degrees and a period length of 60 mm. The magnetic field in the wiggler is measured with a Hole probe at a magnet gap of 30 mm. It is experimentally confirmed that a high field gradient of 1.0 T /m is realized along the beam axis in the EF wiggler. In this paper, we will report results of the magnetic field measurement and its analysis for the first mode of the EF wiggler.

  10. Broadband focusing of underwater sound using a transparent pentamode lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoshi; Norris, Andrew N; Cushing, Colby W; Haberman, Michael R; Wilson, Preston S

    2017-06-01

    An inhomogeneous acoustic metamaterial lens based on spatial variation of refractive index for broadband focusing of underwater sound is reported. The index gradient follows a modified hyperbolic secant profile designed to reduce aberration and suppress side lobes. The gradient index (GRIN) lens is comprised of transversely isotropic hexagonal microstructures with tunable quasi-static bulk modulus and mass density. In addition, the unit cells are impedance-matched to water and have in-plane shear modulus negligible compared to the effective bulk modulus. The flat GRIN lens is fabricated by cutting hexagonal centimeter scale hollow microstructures in aluminum plates, which are then stacked and sealed from the exterior water. Broadband focusing effects are observed within the homogenization regime of the lattice in both finite element simulations and underwater measurements (20-40 kHz). This design approach has potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging and underwater acoustic communications.

  11. Sandia programs relevant to microelectronics fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, S.T.; Vook, F.L.; Gregory, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report was prepared for the Semiconductor Industry and the National Laboratories Workshop held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, February 24, 1987. It details the current Sandia program activities relevant to microelectronics fabrication.

  12. Laminate mechanics for balanced woven fabrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko

    2006-01-01

    Laminate mechanics equations are presented for composites with balanced woven fabric reinforcements. It is shown that mimicking these textile composites with equivalent transversely isotropic (‘unidirectional’) layers requires disputable manipulations. Various micromechanics predictions of textile

  13. Fabrication Process Development for Light Deformable Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project objective is to develop robust, reproductibble fabrication processes to realize functional deformable membrane mirrors (DM) for a space mission in which...

  14. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  15. Flame retardant treatments of PBI fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temin, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Fabrics knitted or woven from polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers were treated to reduce flammability in oxygen atmospheres, particularly that of 5 psia oxygen. Bromination to approximately 15% weight gain of such fabrics led to markedly lower burning rates; samples brominated to over 80% weight gain were self-extinguishing in 5 psia oxygen. The loss in tensile strength of fabrics due to bromination was negligible although shrinkage was observed. Free fibers showed negligible losses on bromination. Treatment of PBI fabric with organophosphorus compounds also achieved self-extinguishing character in 5 psia oxygen but the enhanced flameproofing was largely lost on leaching. Reaction with POCl3 in pyridine led to a permanent reduction in flammability.

  16. Wireless fabric patch sensors for wearable healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun; Yoo, Jerald; Yan, Long

    2010-01-01

    Two novel wireless fabric patch sensors are introduced for low energy wearable healthcare. The first is a wirelessly powered patch sensor that can be attached to a patient to capture electrocardiogram (ECG) while consuming only 12 microW. By using fabric circuit board technology, the band-aid like sensor is implemented. The second wearable cardiac heathcare sensor, fabricated in the form of 4-layer compact smart poultice type including flexible battery, can extend to monitor bio-impedance together with ECG signals at 16 different sites of the heart with 25 reconfigurable electrodes. It also provides cm-range inductive coupled remote system start-up and duty-cycled data transmission using body as communication channel for a low energy wireless interconnectivity. Both sensors exploit dry fabric electrodes to minimize skin irritation during clinical long term operation.

  17. Semiconductors detectors: basics principals, fabrication and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Coelho, L.F. de.

    1982-05-01

    The fabrication and repairing techniques of semiconductor detectors, are described. These methods are shown in the way they are applied by the semiconductor detector laboratory of the KFA-Julich, where they have been developed during the last 15 years. The history of the semiconductor detectors is presented here, being also described the detector fabrication experiences inside Brazil. The key problems of manufacturing are raised. In order to understand the fabrication and repairing techniques the working principles of these detectors, are described. The cases in which worked during the stay in the KFA-Julich, particularly the fabrication of a plane Ge (Li) detector, with side entry, and the repair of a coaxial Ge (Li) is described. The vanguard problems being researched in Julich are also described. Finally it is discussed a timetable for the semiconductor detector laboratory of the UFRJ, which laboratory is in the mounting stage now. (Author) [pt

  18. Diffractive optics: design, fabrication, and test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shea, Donald C

    2004-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs...

  19. Computational modelling of buckling of woven fabrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anandjiwala, RD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for reducing unit production cost is critically important if garment industries in developed countries are keen to improve their competitiveness vis-à-vis low labour cost countries. The mechanics of the buckling behaviour of woven fabric started... is limp, resulting in large-scale deformation even under small applied forces. The buckling properties of a woven fabric also influence the sewing of garments and their resultant quality. Moreover, the development of robotised sewing operations...

  20. New knitted fabric concepts for denim products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaralı, A.; Ertekin, G.; Oğlakcıoğlu, N.; Kertmen, M.; Seçil Aydın, İ.

    2017-10-01

    “Denim” like knitted fabric is a new trend combining the appearance of woven denim with the knitted structures’ characteristics such as flexibility, softness, wrinkle resistance, user-friendliness, and comfortable. According to the requirements of markets, it can be obviously seen that, this fabric will be a new era for denim industry which can be competitive with woven denim garments. This study presents general information and literature survey about denim production, knitted denim structures and their characteristics.

  1. Application of spacer fabrics in composite production

    OpenAIRE

    Mecit, Diren; , Arzu Marmaralı

    2012-01-01

    Developments in the field of textile reinforced composites have been increasing in the last several years. In the first developed composite materials, fibers were used as reinforcement element. Textile materials such as staple fibers, bands, filament yarns, cables and two dimensional textiles are widely used as reinforcement elements in composite materials. Spacer fabrics consist of two outer surfaces and a connection layer between those outer surfaces. Spacer fabrics can be classified in the...

  2. Application of spacer fabrics in composite production

    OpenAIRE

    Mecit, Diren; -, Arzu Marmaralı

    2014-01-01

    Developments in the field of textile reinforced composites have been increasing in the last several years. In the first developed composite materials, fibers were used as reinforcement element. Textile materials such as staple fibers, bands, filament yarns, cables and two dimensional textiles are widely used as reinforcement elements in composite materials. Spacer fabrics consist of two outer surfaces and a connection layer between those outer surfaces. Spacer fabrics can be classified in the...

  3. Fabrication of Polymer Optical Fibre (POF Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gratings inscribed in polymer optical fibre (POF have attracted remarkable interest for many potential applications due to their distinctive properties. This paper overviews the current state of fabrication of POF gratings since their first demonstration in 1999. In particular we summarize and discuss POF materials, POF photosensitivity, techniques and issues of fabricating POF gratings, as well as various types of POF gratings.

  4. Persistence of Nosocomial Pathogens on Various Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Ozlem; Altoparlak, Ulku; Ayyildiz, Ahmet; Kaynar, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Fabrics can become contaminated with high numbers of microorganisms that may be pathogenic to patients in a hospital setting and can play an important role in the chain of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of several clinical bacterial and fungal isolates on several fabrics commonly used in hospitals. Materials and Methods: Bacterial and fungal survival was tested on the following materials, each of which are commonly used in our hospital: 100% smooth cotton, 60% cotton-40% polyester, 100% wool and 100% silk. One isolate each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Geotrichum candidum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive Escherichia coli, inducible beta-lactamase (IBL) positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa, IBL-positive Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were used to contaminate fabrics. The survival of these microorganisms was studied by testing the fabric swatches for microbial growth. Results: The median survival times for all the tested bacteria and fungi were as follows: 26 days on cotton, 26.5 days on cotton-polyester, 28 days on silk, and 30 days on wool. Among the bacterial species tested, E. faecium had the longest survival time on cotton-polyester fabrics. For the fungal isolates, it was observed that C. tropicalis and C. krusei survived for the shortest amount of time on cotton fabrics in the present study. Conclusion: This survival data indicate that pathogenic microorganisms can survive from days to months on commonly used hospital fabrics. These findings indicate that current recommendations for the proper disinfection or sterilization of fabrics used in hospitals should be followed to minimize cross-contamination and prevent nosocomial infections. PMID:25610201

  5. The quality challenge for fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannegrace, J.-P.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel fabrication is a key segment of the nuclear fuel cycle, since safe and economic operation of reactors is highly dependent on the quality of the fuel. Achieving and controlling quality is, therefore, of paramount importance to fuel fabricators dominating nearly every aspect of the business. The quality policy, concepts and assurance system at three French plants are outlined. The need for integrated inspection, process optimization and good employee motivation is stressed. (author)

  6. Interfacing robotics with plutonium fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Interfacing robotic systems with nuclear fuel fabrication processes resulted in a number of interfacing challenges. The system not only interfaces with the fuel process, but must also interface with nuclear containment, radiation control boundaries, criticality control restrictions, and numerous other safety systems required in a fuel fabrication plant. The robotic system must be designed to allow operator interface during maintenance and recovery from an upset as well as normal operations

  7. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    of samples. Currently available fabrication technology will allow the integration of electronic readout and sample introduction into a single unit, decreasing the device size, detection time, and cost. Biosensing technologies based on microfabricated cantilever arrays involving multiple cantilevers......, electronic processing, and even local telemetry on a single chip have the potential of satisfying the need for highly sensitive and selective multiple-target detection in very small samples. Here we will review the design and fabrication process of cantilever-based biosensors....

  8. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanocell lattices by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Osamu; Nitta, Noriko; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocell lattice with a high aspect ratio on InSb semiconductor surface was fabricated by ion beam irradiation. • The fabrication technique consisting of top-down and bottom-up processes was performed in FIB. • High aspect ratio of 2 was achieved in nanocell lattice with a 100 nm interval. • The intermediate-flux irradiation is favorable for fabrication of nanocell with a high aspect ratio. - Abstract: A high aspect ratio nanocell lattice was fabricated on the InSb semiconductor surface using the migration of point defects induced by ion beam irradiation. The fabrication technique consisting of the top-down (formation of voids and holes) and bottom-up (growth of voids and holes into nanocells) processes was performed using a focused ion beam (FIB) system. A cell aspect ratio of 2 (cell height/cell diameter) was achieved for the nanocell lattice with a 100 nm dot interval The intermediate-flux ion irradiation during the bottom-up process was found to be optimal for the fabrication of a high aspect ratio nanocell.

  9. Fabrication of high aspect ratio nanocell lattices by ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Osamu [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Nitta, Noriko, E-mail: nitta.noriko@kochi-tech.ac.jp [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Center for Nanotechnology, Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Taniwaki, Masafumi [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada, Kami, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nanocell lattice with a high aspect ratio on InSb semiconductor surface was fabricated by ion beam irradiation. • The fabrication technique consisting of top-down and bottom-up processes was performed in FIB. • High aspect ratio of 2 was achieved in nanocell lattice with a 100 nm interval. • The intermediate-flux irradiation is favorable for fabrication of nanocell with a high aspect ratio. - Abstract: A high aspect ratio nanocell lattice was fabricated on the InSb semiconductor surface using the migration of point defects induced by ion beam irradiation. The fabrication technique consisting of the top-down (formation of voids and holes) and bottom-up (growth of voids and holes into nanocells) processes was performed using a focused ion beam (FIB) system. A cell aspect ratio of 2 (cell height/cell diameter) was achieved for the nanocell lattice with a 100 nm dot interval The intermediate-flux ion irradiation during the bottom-up process was found to be optimal for the fabrication of a high aspect ratio nanocell.

  10. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  11. Automated laser fabrication of cemented carbide components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. P.; Khajepour, A.

    2008-07-01

    Automated Laser Fabrication (ALFa) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid-manufacturing technologies. It is similar to laser cladding at process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit materials on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn-out parts, while ALFa is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. This manufacturing method is very attractive for low volume manufacturing of hard materials, as near net shaping minimizes machining of hard material and subsequently brings significant savings in time and costly material. To date, many researchers have used this technology to fabricate components using various alloy steels, nickel-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys. In the present study, the work is extended to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) composites. A set of comprehensive experiments was carried out to study the effect of processing parameters during multi-layer fabrication. The process parameters were optimized for the component-level fabrication. Fabricated components were subjected to dye-penetrant testing, three-point flexural testing, hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The test results revealed that the laser-fabricated material was defect free and more ductile in nature. Thus, ALFa technology, not only produced the quality components, but also minimized machining of hard material and brought significant saving of time and costly WC-Co material.

  12. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Catastrophe in plasma focus evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1984-07-01

    A theory of generating strong electric field in a dense plasma column in plasma focus is established by applying the formula for the electron thermal conductivity in destroyed magnetic surfaces like those in tokamaks. The origin of the electric field may be from abrupt rise of plasma resistivity when the irregularity of magnetic field is weak. However, the electric field can be from the inductive origin in case the irregularity attains a certain level. Both origin should be mixed up depending on the magnitude of the irregularity. (author)

  14. Line-focus sun trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, R.

    1980-05-01

    Sun trackers have been a troublesome component for line-focus concentrating collector systems. The problems have included poor accuracy, component failures, false locks on clouds, and restricted tracker operating ranges. In response to these tracking difficulties, a variety of improved sun trackers have been developed. A testing program is underway at SERI to determine the tracking accuracy of this new generation of sun trackers. The three major types of trackers are defined, some recent sun tracker developments are described, and the testing that is underway is outlined.

  15. Direct Integration of Dynamic Emissive Displays into Knitted Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Alyssa

    Smart textiles are revolutionizing the textile industry by combining technology into fabric to give clothing new abilities including communication, transformation, and energy conduction. The advent of electroluminescent fibers, which emit light in response to an applied electric field, has opened the door for fabric-integrated emissive displays in textiles. This thesis focuses on the development of a flexible and scalable emissive fabric display with individually addressable pixels disposed within a fabric matrix. The pixels are formed in areas where a fiber supporting the dielectric and phosphor layers of an electroluminescent structure contacts a conductive surface. This conductive surface can be an external conductive fiber, yarn or wire, or a translucent conductive material layer deposited at set points along the electroluminescent fibers. Different contacting methods are introduced and the different ways the EL yarns can be incorporated into the knitted fabric are discussed. EL fibers were fabricated using a single yarn coating system with a custom, adjustable 3D printed slot die coater for even distribution of material onto the supporting fiber substrates. These fibers are mechanically characterized inside of and outside of a knitted fabric matrix to determine their potential for various applications, including wearables. A 4-pixel dynamic emissive display prototype is fabricated and characterized. This is the first demonstration of an all-knit emissive display with individually controllable pixels. The prototype is composed of a grid of fibers supporting the dielectric and phosphor layers of an electroluminescent (EL) device structure, called EL fibers, and conductive fibers acting as the top electrode. This grid is integrated into a biaxial weft knit structure where the EL fibers make up the rows and conductive fibers make up the columns of the reinforcement yarns inside the supporting weft knit. The pixels exist as individual segments of

  16. Improved Sound Absorption Performance of Nonwoven Fabric using Fabric Facing and Air Back Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmad Yusuf; Omar Muhamad Rafi; Anuar Hashim Muhamad Arif; Md Radzi Muhamad Ridzuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement methods to increase sound absorption performance of polyethylene based nonwoven fabric (PNF). The methods are placing a woven fabric in front of the sample as well as providing air cavity behind the sample. The samples were experimentally tested in an impedance tube based on ISO 10354-2:2001 whereby two microphones are used and the transfer matrix methods are employed. From the results, it can be seen that placing front woven fabric effectively increases so...

  17. TUTORIAL: Focused-ion-beam-based rapid prototyping of nanoscale magnetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizroev, S.; Litvinov, D.

    2004-03-01

    In this tutorial, focused-ion-beam (FIB)-based fabrication is considered from a very unconventional angle. FIB is considered not as a fabrication tool that can be used for mass production of electronic devices, similar to optical and E-beam—based lithography, but rather as a powerful tool to rapidly fabricate individual nanoscale magnetic devices for prototyping future electronic applications. Among the effects of FIB-based fabrication of magnetic devices, the influence of Ga+-ion implantation on magnetic properties is presented. With help of magnetic force microscopy (MFM), it is shown that there is a critical doze of ions that a magnetic material can be exposed to without experiencing a change in the magnetic properties. Exploiting FIB from such an unconventional perspective is especially favourable today when the future of so many novel technologies depends on the ability to rapidly fabricate prototype nanoscale magnetic devices. As one of the most illustrative examples, the multi-billion-dollar data storage industry is analysed as the technology field that strongly benefited from implementing FIB in the above-described role. The essential role of FIB in the most recent trend of the industry towards perpendicular magnetic recording is presented. Moreover, other emerging and fast-growing technologies are considered as examples of nanoscale technologies whose future could strongly depend on the implementation of FIB in the role of a nanoscale fabrication tool for rapid prototyping. Among the other described technologies are 'ballistic' magnetoresistance, patterned magnetic media, magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM), and magnetic force microscopy.

  18. Fabrication of fuel elements interplay between typical SNR Mark Ia specifications and the fuel element fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, W.K.; Heuvel, H.J.; Pilate, S.; Vanderborck, Y.; Pelckmans, E.; Vanhellemont, G.; Roepenack, H.; Stoll, W.

    1987-01-01

    The core and fuel were designed for the SNR-300 first core by Interatom GmbH and Belgonucleaire. The fuel was fabricated by Alkem/RBU and Belgonucleaire. Based on the preparation of drawings and specifications and on the results of the prerun fabrication, an extensive interplay took place between design requirements, specifications, and fabrication processes at both fuel plants. During start-up of pellet and pin fabrication, this solved such technical questions as /sup 239/Pu equivalent linear weight, pellet density, stoichiometry of the pellets, and impurity content. Close cooperation of designers and manufacturers has allowed manufacture of 205 fuel assemblies without major problems

  19. On-substrate fabrication of porous Al2O3 templates with tunable pore diameters and interpore distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Nele; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; habouti, salah

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the on-substrate fabrication of porous aluminum oxide templates by anodization of a thin aluminum film deposited directly on the substrate using different concentrations of oxalic acid. These on-substrate templates are used for fabricating supported, free-standing nanorod......) and wall thickness are influenced by modifying the pore opening time during immersion the sample in H3PO4....

  20. Selective fluorescence functionalization of dye-doped polymerized structures fabricated by direct laser writing (DLW) lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Gustavo; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Duocastella, Martí; Diaspro, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The continuous development of the vast arsenal of fabrication techniques is a pivotal factor in the breakthrough of nanotechnology. Although the broad interest is generally focused on the reduction of the dimensions of the fabricated structures, localized functionalization of the nanomaterials emerges as a key factor closely linked to their potential applications. In particular, fabrication of spatially selective fluorescence nanostructures is highly demanded in nanophotonics, as for example in three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage (ODS), where massive storage capacity and fast writing-reading processes are promised. We have developed an innovative method to control the location and intensity of the fluorescence signal in dye-doped photopolymerized structures fabricated with Direct Laser Writing (DLW) lithography. Well-defined fluorescent pixels (area = 0.24 μm2) were written inside a polymer matrix with the help of a femtosecond pulsed laser (multiphoton absorption) via a thermally-induced di-aggregation of a fluorescent dye. Moreover, we have accomplished a fine control of the fluorescence intensity which can increase the storage capacity of ODS systems fabricated with this approach.The continuous development of the vast arsenal of fabrication techniques is a pivotal factor in the breakthrough of nanotechnology. Although the broad interest is generally focused on the reduction of the dimensions of the fabricated structures, localized functionalization of the nanomaterials emerges as a key factor closely linked to their potential applications. In particular, fabrication of spatially selective fluorescence nanostructures is highly demanded in nanophotonics, as for example in three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage (ODS), where massive storage capacity and fast writing-reading processes are promised. We have developed an innovative method to control the location and intensity of the fluorescence signal in dye-doped photopolymerized structures fabricated

  1. Fabrication of liquid and vapor protective cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovingood, Derek D; Salter, W Bruce; Griffith, Kara R; Simpson, Katherine M; Hearn, John D; Owens, Jeffery R

    2013-12-03

    Through microwave-assisted techniques, cotton textiles treated with heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyltrimethoxysilane in the presence of high surface area silica nanoparticles create a material capable of repelling bulk liquid challenges while simultaneously adsorbing organic vapors from bulk liquid droplets. Characterizing the contradictory behavior of adsorption of vapors and repellency of liquids is the primary focus of this article. These procedures reveal a quick and simple method for a one-step deposition of a vapor-sorptive, liquid-repellent, Cassie-Baxter surface onto textiles. Packed column breakthrough and single swatch permeation experiments showed that treated materials possess a high affinity for 3-hepten-2-one vapor, while goniometry revealed contact angles in excess of 120° for surface-deposited, 5 μL droplets of several test liquids. Scanning electron micrograph images confirm a lotus-like, nanorough surface, while ATR-FTIR spectra confirm surface fluorocarbon moieties. The performance of so-treated materials lends itself to the application of chemical protective apparel, while the simplicity of the treatment bodes well for potential commercialization.

  2. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  3. TwinFocus CPV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardello, Marco; Centro, Sandro

    2017-09-01

    TwinFocus® is a CPV solution that adopts quasi-parabolic, off axis mirrors, to obtain a concentration of 760× on 3J solar cells (Azur space technology) with 44% efficiency. The adoption of this optical solution allows for a cheap, lightweight and space efficient system. In particular, the addition of a secondary optics to the mirror, grants an efficient use of space, with very low thicknesses and a compact modular design. Materials are recyclable and allow for reduction of weights to a minimum level. The product is realized through the cooperation of leading edge industries active in automotive lighting and plastic materials molding. The produced prototypes provide up to 27.6% efficiency according to tests operated on the field with non-optimal spectral conditions.

  4. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  5. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venura Samarasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs, which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC.

  6. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  7. Fabrication of HTTR first loading fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Yoshimuta, S.; Hasumi, T.; Sato, K.; Sawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Mogi, H.; Shiozawa, S.; Tanaka, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the fabrication of the first loading fuel for HTTR, High Temperature engineering Test Reactor constructed by JAERI, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The fuel fabrication started at the HTR fuel facility of NFI, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., June 1995. 4,770 fuel rods were fabricated through the fuel kernel, coated fuel particle and fuel compaction process, then 150 fuel elements were assembled in the reactor building December 1997. Fabrication technology for the fuel was established through a lot of R and D activities and fabrication experience of irradiation examination samples spread over about 30 years. Most of all, very high quality and production efficiency of fuel were achieved by the development of the fuel kernel process using the vibration dropping technology, the continuous 4-layer coating process and the automatic compaction process. As for the inspection technology, the development of the automatic measurement equipment for coated layer thickness of a coated fuel particle and uranium content of a fuel compact contributed to the higher reliability and rationalization of the inspection process. The data processing system for the fabrication and quality control, which was originally developed by NFI, made possible not only quick feedback of statistical quality data to the fabrication processes, but also automatic document preparation, such as inspection certificates and accountability control reports. The quality of the first loading fuel fully satisfied the design specifications for the fuel. In particular, average bare uranium fraction and SiC defective fraction of fuel compacts were 2x10 -6 and 8x10 -5 , respectively. According to the preceding irradiation examinations being performed at JMTR, Japan Materials Testing Reactor of JAERI, the specimen sampled from the first loading fuel shows good irradiation performance. (author)

  8. Fabrication of miniaturized electrostatic deflectors using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.H.; Khan-Malek, C.; Muray, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Miniaturized electron beam columns (open-quotes microcolumnsclose quotes) have been demonstrated to be suitable candidates for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), e-beam lithography and other high resolution, low voltage applications. In the present technology, microcolumns consist of open-quotes selectively scaledclose quotes micro-sized lenses and apertures, fabricated from silicon membranes with e-beam lithography, reactive ion beam etching and other semiconductor thin-film techniques. These miniaturized electron-optical elements provide significant advantages over conventional optics in performance and ease of fabrication. Since lens aberrations scale roughly with size, it is possible to fabricate simple microcolumns with extremely high brightness sources and electrostatic objective lenses, with resolution and beam current comparable to conventional e-beam columns. Moreover since microcolumns typically operate at low voltages (1 KeV), the proximity effects encountered in e-beam lithography become negligible. For high throughput applications, batch fabrication methods may be used to build large parallel arrays of microcolumns. To date, the best reported performance with a 1 keV cold field emission cathode, is 30 nm resolution at a working distance of 2mm in a 3.5mm column. Fabrication of the microcolumn deflector and stigmator, however, have remained beyond the capabilities of conventional machining operations and semiconductor processing technology. This work examines the LIGA process as a superior alternative to fabrication of the deflectors, especially in terms of degree of miniaturization, dimensional control, placement accuracy, run-out, facet smoothness and choice of suitable materials. LIGA is a combination of deep X-ray lithography, electroplating, and injection molding processes which allow the fabrication of microstructures

  9. Fabricating High Resolution Mirrors for Hand X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speegle, Chet O.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Engelhaupt, Darell; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We describe the fabrication process for producing high-resolution conical mirrors for hard x-ray astronomy. When flown aboard stratospheric balloons, these high-resolution reflective mirrors focus hard x-rays (10-70 keV) emitted from cosmic sources such as supernovae, neutron stars, and quasars onto imaging focal plane detectors. Focused hard x-ray images allow scientists to determine the elemental compositions, temperatures, magnetic fields, velocities, and gravitational fields of these celestial bodies. The fabrication process involves generating super-polished mandrels, mandrel metrology, mirror shell nickel electroforming, and mirror testing. Each mandrel is a cylinder consisting of two conical segments; each segment is approximately 305-mm long. Through precision grinding these mandrels before super polishing, we have achieved 30 arc seconds, half power diameter replicated mirrors. During a May 2001 high atmosphere balloon flight, these mirrors focused high energy x-rays from three different celestial sources. However, we seek to improve the angular resolutions of future mirror shells by a factor of two. To achieve this goal, we have begun single point diamond turning the mandrels before super polishing. This has allowed greater precision tolerances on mandrel surface roughness and axial figure errors before super polishing. Surface roughnesses before polishing have been reduced from approximately 60 nm to approximately 15 nm. The peak to valley axial figure profile errors have been reduced from approximately 1.0 micrometers to approximately 0.4 micrometers. We are currently in Phase 2 of the HERO (high energy replicated optics) program which entails the production of sixteen 6-m-focal-length mirror modules, each containing a nested array of 15 mirror shells of diameters ranging from 50-mm to 94-mm. This flight is slated for the fall of 2003.

  10. Design, fabrication, testing and packaging of a silicon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, wafer level test- ing and packaging of a silicon on glass based RF MEMS switch fabricated using DRIE. The device is a SPST direct contact series switch. The silicon on glass fabrication process has been suc- cessfully adapted by a number of groups to fabricate MEMS devices such ...

  11. 25 CFR 307.4 - Standards for fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for fabrics. 307.4 Section 307.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO ALL-WOOL WOVEN FABRICS; USE OF GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATE OF GENUINENESS § 307.4 Standards for fabrics. No fabric may carry the Government certificate of...

  12. Plasma treatment of polyester fabric to impart the water repellency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyester fabric is treated with DCDMS solution by two methods: dipping the fabric directly in DCDMS solution for different intervals and dipping the fabric in DCDMS solution after its exposure into RF plasma chamber for different durations at optimized exposure power conditions. The physical properties of polyester fabric ...

  13. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  14. Development of technology for fabrication of lithium CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Baklanov, Viktor; Ponkratov, Yuriy [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Abdullin, Khabibulla [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Zaurbekova, Zhanna [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU «MEPhI», Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); Skakov, Mazhyn [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Preliminary study of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium is presented. • Preliminary studies of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium consist in carrying out of experiments at temperatures 673,773 and 873 К in vacuum during long time. • A scheme of experimental device for manufacturing of lithium CPS and matrix filling procedure with liquid lithium are presented. • The concept of lithium limiter with CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric is proposed. - Abstract: The paper describes the analysis of liquid lithium interaction with materials based on carbon, the manufacture technology of capillary-porous system (CPS) matrix on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric. Preliminary study of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium is presented. The development of technology includes: microstructural studies of carboxylic fabric before its CNT-reinforcing; validation of CNT-reinforcing technology; mode validation of CVD-method for CNT synthesize; study of synthesized carbon structures. Preliminary studies of carboxylic fabric wettability with liquid lithium consist in carrying out of experiments at temperatures 673, 773 and 873 К in vacuum during long time. The scheme of experimental device for manufacturing of lithium CPS and matrix filling procedure with liquid lithium are presented. The concept of lithium limiter with CPS on basis of CNT-reinforced carboxylic fabric is proposed.

  15. Microencapsulation of tamoxifen: application to cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zong-Hui; Yu, Deng-Guang; Branford-White, Christopher J; Nie, Hua-Li; Fan, Zai-Xia; Zhu, Li-Min

    2009-02-15

    Tamoxifen microcapsules and drug loaded medicated fabrics were investigated. The microcapsules were prepared using a complex coacervation procedure involving gelatin B and acacia gum. The morphology, particle size, drug loading capacity and in vitro release characteristics of the drug microcapsules were optimized for coating tamoxifen microcapsules onto the cotton fabrics. Infrared (IR) spectra and SEM were used to characterize the medicated fabrics and air permeability and laundering testing were undertaken to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the system. Results showed that optimum condition for the microcapsules was at drug/polymer ratio 1:4, polymer concentration 3%, and rate of stirring 1000 rpm. In vitro release assays demonstrated that the tamoxifen was liberated over 10h after an initial bust rate period. SEM images illustrated that the tamoxifen microcapsules were spherical in shape and were also tightly fixed on to the cotton fabrics fast. These observations demonstrate that we have designed and fabricated a medicated system that potentially could be applied within a transdermal drug delivery system and so act in a system for the treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Tube entrance lens focus control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisser, D. C.; Fifield, L. K.; Kitchen, T. F. G.; Tunningley, T. B.; Lobanov, N. R.; Muirhead, A. G.

    2013-02-01

    The entrance of the accelerator tube in a large electrostatic accelerator imposes a strong lens that dominates the beam optics. The magnification of the lens is large because of the low injection energy, the high voltage gradient of the acceleration tube and the long distance to the terminal. In the absence of the acceleration, the magnification would produce an unacceptably large beam spot at the terminal. The tyranny of the lens is especially irksome when the accelerator is required to operate at a lower terminal voltage than the one corresponding to the nominal gradient at high voltage. One way around the difficulty, used in NEC Pelletron accelerators, is to insert a series of nylon and steel rods that short together units of the acceleration structure at the terminal leaving the ones near the entrance close to the nominal gradient for optimum transmission. This operation takes time and risks the loss of insulating gas. Another alternative used in the 25URC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is to focus the beam at the tube entrance, substantially diluting the effect of the entrance lens. The beam then diverges and so requires an additional lens part way to the terminal. This solution is only partially effective and still necessitates use of shorting rods for low voltage operation. The fact that these elaborate strategies are used is evidence that the alternative of lowering the injection energy as the terminal voltage is lowered imposes enough problems that it is not used in practice. We have modeled a solution that controls the voltage gradient at the tube entrance using an external power supply. This not only maintains the focusing effect of the lens but provides the opportunity to tune the beam by adjusting the entrance lens. A 150 kV power supply outside the pressure vessel feeds a controllable voltage through a high voltage feed-through to the fifth electrode of the accelerator tube. Thus 150 kV on this electrode creates the nominal gradient of 30 kV per

  17. Digital fabrication of textiles: an analysis of electrical networks in 3D knitted functional fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallett, Richard; Knittel, Chelsea; Christe, Daniel; Castaneda, Nestor; Kara, Christina D.; Mazur, Krzysztof; Liu, Dani; Kontsos, Antonios; Kim, Youngmoo; Dion, Genevieve

    2017-05-01

    Digital fabrication methods are reshaping design and manufacturing processes through the adoption of pre-production visualization and analysis tools, which help minimize waste of materials and time. Despite the increasingly widespread use of digital fabrication techniques, comparatively few of these advances have benefited the design and fabrication of textiles. The development of functional fabrics such as knitted touch sensors, antennas, capacitors, and other electronic textiles could benefit from the same advances in electrical network modeling that revolutionized the design of integrated circuits. In this paper, the efficacy of using current state-of-the-art digital fabrication tools over the more common trialand- error methods currently used in textile design is demonstrated. Gaps are then identified in the current state-of-the-art tools that must be resolved to further develop and streamline the rapidly growing field of smart textiles and devices, bringing textile production into the realm of 21st century manufacturing.

  18. Focus+context metro maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chi, Ming-Te

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a focus+context method to visualize a complicated metro map of a modern city on a small displaying area. The context of our work is with regard the popularity of mobile devices. The best route to the destination, which can be obtained from the arrival time of trains, is highlighted. The stations on the route enjoy larger spaces, whereas the other stations are rendered smaller and closer to fit the whole map into a screen. To simplify the navigation and route planning for visitors, we formulate various map characteristics such as octilinear transportation lines and regular station distances into energy terms. We then solve for the optimal layout in a least squares sense. In addition, we label the names of stations that are on the route of a passenger according to human preferences, occlusions, and consistencies of label positions using the graph cuts method. Our system achieves real-time performance by being able to report instant information because of the carefully designed energy terms. We apply our method to layout a number of metro maps and show the results and timing statistics to demonstrate the feasibility of our technique. © 2011 IEEE

  19. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  20. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.