Sample records for focusing ethical dilemmas

  1. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian


    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  2. Animal ethics dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Trine; Hansen, Tina; Algers, Anne


    'Animal Ethics Dilemma' is a freely available computer-supported learning tool ( or which has been developed primarily for veterinary undergraduates but is applicable also to students in other fields of animal science. The objectives of the computer...... program are to promote students' understanding of the ethics related to animal use, to illustrate ethical dilemmas that arise in animal use, to broaden students' moral imagination, and to enable students to differentiate between types of ethical argument. The program comprises five case studies: (1......) the blind hens; (2) ANDi the genetically modified monkey; (3) euthanasia of a healthy dog; (4) animal slaughter; and (5) rehabilitation of seals. Special consideration has been given to enhancing the pedagogic value of the program. Students can control their learning by selecting a variety of ways...

  3. [Ethical dilemmas in health]. (United States)

    Boléo-Tomé, J


    It is difficult to speak of ethic dilemmas in a society that has relativism as the oficial philosophical and political doctrine, i.e., stable values and behavior references, are denied, both in health care and in any other area of human knowledge. In the field of medical sciences it is even pretended to pass from the observational methodology to a field of manipulation and manipulability. It is the very Ethic that is presented as a dilemma. In these conditions one needs to know the lines of thought that are defended, to replace and make disappear the stable ethic references: ecletism, historicism, scientificism, pragmatism, and nihilism itself, that lead to the 'new ethic paradigm', that has created by itself a pseudo-spirituality. The truth is we are adrift in the 'Ethic of Convenience' which changes according to the majorities. In this setting the way to go is to rediscover the abandoned ethic values: only with an objective ethic, with sound references and foundations, it is possible to re-establish and perfect the patient-physician relationship, for a better social health. And this begins with the ethic problem of human life.

  4. Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural Counseling. (United States)

    Sadeghi, Maria; Fischer, Jerome M.; House, Sean G.


    In a random survey of counselors working with socioracial minority clients (N=256), multicultural ethical dilemmas were rated according to frequency encountered and significance. Comparisons of counselors' ratings of multicultural ethical dilemmas determined specific dilemmas relevant to counselors in various professional settings. (Contains 33…

  5. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild


    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...... people to lead a healthier life and non-detection could be considered neglectful. It may, however, cause anxiety, interfere with people’s integrity, focus only on individual causes and responsibilities, cause stigmatization and have adverse effects by inducing weight gain. Conclusions: Documentation...

  6. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas Using the "Drifting Goals" Archetype (United States)

    Bardoel, E. Anne; Haslett, Tim


    This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethical dilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethical dilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…

  7. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

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    Steven I. Miller


    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  8. Ethics dilemmas of early detection of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild


    Aim: To discuss the ethics dilemmas of the early detection of overweight and obesity. Methods: Analysis of the ethical aspects of early detection. Results: The early detection of overweight and obesity entails a number of ethical dilemmas because it may both be helpful and harmful. It may help...

  9. Ethical and Value Dilemmas in Urban Management Performance. (United States)

    Thomas, Theodore H.

    This module represents one portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. It focuses on the issue of ethics in urban management performance and is designed to demonstrate that ethical dilemmas are a personal, complex, everyday managerial problem, and to enlarge the range of ethical options…

  10. Whistleblowing: an ethical dilemma

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    Joan K. Pierson


    Full Text Available Because most organizations depend on computer systems that electronically store important data to perform crucial business functions, the integrity of these information systems is paramount. Securing company systems, however, is not always an easy task. More sophisticated systems often provide widespread access to computer resources and increased user knowledge, which may lead to added difficulties in maintaining security. This paper explores whistleblowing employees' exposing illegal or unethical computer practices taking place in the organization as a method of computer security and the support for whistleblowing found in codes of ethical conduct formulated by professional societies.

  11. Nurses' Resolutions of Six Ethical Dilemmas. (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Crisham, Patricia

    Six ethical dilemmas related to nursing practice were developed and presented to registered and trainee nurses for their resolution. A non-nurse group of university students also gave decisions about what a nurse should do in each ethically-loaded situation. A dilemma was classified as recurrent if its core problem was spontaneously mentioned by…

  12. Ethical dilemmas in clerkship rotations. (United States)

    Myers, Michael F; Herb, Alice


    A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethical dilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethical dilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions.

  13. Ethical-Economic Dilemmas in Business Education

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    Anna Remišová


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to support the idea of institutionalizing business ethics education at all business schools. Further, the article stresses the importance of using ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics education. It argues that business students should learn that managerial work is too complex to make do with expertise and experience and help them to acquire the skill of ethical reflection of economic activity. Solving ethical-economic dilemmas in business ethics courses helps to develop cognitive skills in considering economic or managerial problems on the basis of ethical and economic interaction. In order to support the main purpose stated above, we aimed at getting a picture of how respondents assess and solve an ethical-economic dilemma. Hence, this article presents results of an empirical investigation of the ethical decision-making (EDM process on a sample of Slovak students of Management.

  14. An ethical dilemma in school nursing. (United States)

    Levitt, E; Taylor, S


    School nurses must consider the ethical principles that guide everyday practice. Autonomy, beneficence, justice, and nonmaleficence are the ethical principles most often confronted in the school setting. When beneficent care-giving begins to conflict with the family's decision-making autonomy, paternalism, a form of beneficence, affects the family's autonomy. This creates an ethical dilemma for the school nurse who guides his or her practice by ethical principles but who also must decide when it is appropriate to refer a child or family to a medical provider for further evaluation. A case study is presented to illustrate a specific ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma is described using a model that examines external factors, professional responsibilities, and possible courses of action. The discussion includes cultural considerations and barriers pertinent to the case example.

  15. The Genetic Counselor's Role in Managing Ethical Dilemmas Arising in the Laboratory Setting. (United States)

    Balcom, Jessica R; Kotzer, Katrina E; Waltman, Lindsey A; Kemppainen, Jennifer L; Thomas, Brittany C


    Ethical dilemmas are encountered commonly in the setting of the clinical genetic testing laboratory due to the complexity of genetic testing and the number of relevant stakeholders involved in the genetic testing process. Based on their clinical training and role within the laboratory, genetic counselors are uniquely equipped to identify and facilitate management of ethical dilemmas. This paper reviews the historical context of ethical theory and its application to the field of genetic counseling. Theoretical and applied ethics are explored in the context of dilemmas arising in the laboratory setting, with a focus on the role of the laboratory genetic counselor in managing ethical dilemmas. Two illustrative case examples are provided.


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    Silvia PUIU


    Full Text Available The article offers an insight on the ethical dilemmas specific to a public sector and brings some suggestions for coping with these. Ethics management is a complex system that deals also with ethical dilemmas. The instruments and tools of ethics management are helpful in dealing with these issues. There are a lot of cases in which public employees do not know what to do or how to react in a certain situation, so, a debate on this subject is very useful for people working in public institutions.

  17. Examining an ethical dilemma: a case study in clinical practice. (United States)

    Narrigan, Deborah


    When clients and health care providers differ in their understanding of what is right or wrong, an ethical dilemma may arise. Such dilemmas occur in everyday clinical practice. Health care providers have the professional responsibility to analyze these dilemmas. A clinical case study of an ethical dilemma that occurred in a cross-cultural context is examined. The language of the client and provider differed, and no interpreter service was available. Given these conditions, the provider's ethical dilemma was whether, and if so how, to give safe, satisfying care that respected the needs of a client with limited English proficiency. Measuring the morality of the provider's decisions and actions using Rawls' ethical theory of social justice finds deficits. A 10-step Bioethical Decision-Making Model by Thompson is used to demonstrate one method for analyzing the moral dimension of a clinical scenario focusing on the decisions and actions taken by a midwife. Scrutinizing ethically challenging clinical encounters will result in better understanding of the moral dimensions of practice.

  18. Ethical Dilemmas and Dimensions in Penetration Testing


    Faily, Sharmal; McAlaney, John; Iacob, C


    Penetration testers are required to attack systems to evaluate their security, but without engaging in unethical behaviour while doing so. Despite work on hacker values and studies into security practice, there is little literature devoted to the ethical pressures associated with penetration testing. This paper presents several ethical dilemmas and dimensions associated with penetration testing;\\ud these shed light on the ethical positions taken by Penetration testers, and help identify poten...

  19. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus (United States)

    Roberts, Peter


    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  20. Code of ethics and ethical dilemmas' management in health professions

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    Sofia Triadafyllidou


    Full Text Available As the main interest of health professionals is for the well-being of patients/clients, ethical decision making is one of the prominent elements of his/her professionalism. Aim: The present study aims to illustrate the role of ethical judgment and the so-called "moral imagination" in health professions. Method and material: Review of theoretical and research literature, including both classic and recent sources about ethical dilemmas that health professionals may anticipate, as well as the suggested ways to manage these dilemmas. Results: Health professionals often have to act in complicated situations. Review of relevant literature indicates that the professionals' ethical decisions are structured not only through the codes of ethics, but also through other collective practices, such as organizational culture and cultural schemas about the role of health professional. Resorting to schematic thinking may temporarily release the professional from his/her concerns, but in the long run, it may devoid him/her of the sense of satisfaction from work and of the ability to offer clients the optimal care. The development of the so-called "moral imagination" permits the professional to advance from the typical application of the rules to actual ethical judgment. Conclusions: Ethical decision making presupposes not only a thorough knowledge of ethical guidelines, but also the development of the ability to openly reflect upon the ethical dimensions of an issue (moral imagination that allows health professionals to overcome schematic thinking and investigate comprehensive solutions to ethical dilemmas.

  1. Caring ethics and a Somali reproductive dilemma. (United States)

    Narruhn, Robin; Schellenberg, Ingra R


    The use of traditional ethical methodologies is inadequate in addressing a constructed maternal-fetal rights conflict in a multicultural obstetrical setting. The use of caring ethics and a relational approach is better suited to address multicultural conceptualizations of autonomy and moral distress. The way power differentials, authoritative knowledge, and informed consent are intertwined in this dilemma will be illuminated by contrasting traditional bioethics and a caring ethics approach. Cultural safety is suggested as a way to develop a relational ontology. Using caring ethics and a relational approach can alleviate moral distress in health-care providers, while promoting collaboration and trust between providers and their patients and ultimately decreasing reproductive disparities. This article examines how a relational approach can be applied to a cross-cultural reproductive dilemma.

  2. Fetal tissue transplant research: ethical dilemmas. (United States)

    Farnam, C R


    The transplant of cells from fetal tissue shows promise as a therapy for certain diseases. The use and research of fetal tissue, and methods of obtaining the tissue, have raised ethical dilemmas. Consideration must be given concerning the mother, the fetus, and the tissue recipient.

  3. Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions (United States)

    Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa


    Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

  4. The analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas. (United States)

    Macauley, Robert C


    Perhaps no other field of medicine illustrates the ethical dilemmas occasioned by the explosion of technology more than neurology. Many dilemmas which at first appear to be ethical, however, are actually biotechnical, informational, or interpersonal in nature. For those which are, indeed, ethical, a review of existing information and acquisition of additional data can often serve to identify the proper response. When the optimal course of action remains unclear, the comprehensive, structured approach described in this chapter is both philosophically rigorous and clinically relevant. It takes into account a variety of critical considerations - including rights, duties, consequences, virtues, and similar cases - while utilizing both inductive and deductive methods. The end result is the "least bad" of available options, or, at the very least, a practical response which preserves future options and avoids crucial mistakes.

  5. Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching and Nursing: The Israeli Case (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly


    This article explores a cross-occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or…

  6. Action ethical dilemmas in surgery: an interview study of practicing surgeons

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    Nordam Ann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in the kinds of ethical dilemmas identified among male and female surgeons. The main finding was that surgeons experienced ethical dilemmas in deciding the right treatment in different situations. The dilemmas included starting or withholding treatment, continuing or withdrawing treatment, overtreatment, respecting the patients and meeting patients' expectations. The main focus in the narratives was on ethical dilemmas concerning the patients' well-being, treatment and care. The surgeons narrated about whether they should act according to their own convictions or according to the opinions of principal colleagues or colleagues from other departments. Handling incompetent colleagues was also seen as an ethical dilemma. Prioritization of limited resources and following social laws and regulations represented ethical dilemmas when they contradicted what the surgeons considered was in the patients' best interests. Conclusion The surgeons seemed confident in their professional role although the many ethical dilemmas they experienced in trying to meet the expectations of patients, colleagues and society also made them professionally and personally vulnerable.

  7. Hill & Knowlton's Two Ethical Dilemmas. (United States)

    Pratt, Cornelius B.


    Presents arguments for and against the acceptance, in 1990, of two controversial client accounts by the public relations agency Hill & Knowlton. Examines the ethical implications of both accounts and concludes that whatever ethical infractions may have occurred reflect the agency's dominant public relations practices, not necessarily the "greedy…

  8. Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications (United States)

    Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.


    Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

  9. Moral Dilemmas and the Concept of Value in Engineering Ethics (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.

  10. Critical incident. An ethical dilemma. (United States)

    County, B


    The purpose of this critical incident analysis is to demonstrate how knowledge of legal, moral and ethical issues has affected my nursing practice. This is a personal journey--an exploration of my own values and beliefs. The piece demonstrates how reviewing the literature has changed my stance on the issues discussed. Consequently, the piece is written in the first person, but references are used to substantiate my findings.

  11. Ethical Dilemma of Governmental Wiretapping

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    Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M


    USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.

  12. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

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    E Arries


    Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  13. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas. (United States)

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  14. School District Superintendents' Response to Ethical Dilemmas: A Grounded Theory (United States)

    Sprouse, Fay Simpson


    Ethical dilemmas, situations involving a conflict between values or principles, often arise when employees of school districts violate laws or professional codes of behavior. Ethical dilemmas also occur when there are inequities in educational programming, resulting in missed opportunities for students. This qualitative study, conducted with the…

  15. Ethical Dilemmas In Management: An African Perspective

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    Abolaji Joachim Abiodun


    Full Text Available The modern workplace is composed of people with diverse backgrounds in terms of nationality, culture, religion, age, education and socioeconomic status. Each of these people enters the work with different values, goals, and perceptions of acceptable behaviours. The diverse background creates ethical challenges for individuals as well as managers. There are issues and decisions that are to be made by workers in the organization that have implications for their job security and salary, and success of the organization. Pressure may be on the workers to protect their own interests, sometimes at the risk of losing personal and corporate integrity. This paper attempts to evaluate ethical dilemmas and conflicts from an Africa perspective, bearing in mind different value systems between western and African nations.

  16. Ethical Leadership and Moral Literacy: Incorporating Ethical Dilemmas in a Case-­Based Pedagogy (United States)

    Jenlink, Patrick M.; Jenlink, Karen Embry


    In this paper the authors examine an ethical dilemma approach to case-based pedagogy for leadership preparation, which was used in a doctoral studies program. Specifically, the authors argue that preparing educational leaders for the ethical dilemmas and moral decision-making that define schools requires assessing current programs and pedagogical…

  17. Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas. (United States)

    Nordtug, Birgit


    Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use

  18. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan


    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…


    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T


    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas.

  20. Ethical Fairy Tales: Using Fairy Tales as Illustrative Ethical Dilemmas with Counseling Students (United States)

    Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.


    Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…

  1. Researching Transformation at a South African University--Ethical Dilemmas in the Politics of Representation (United States)

    Ismail, Salma


    This article focuses on the complexity of researching institutional culture and the ethical dilemmas posed in representing staff according to race and gender, drawing on three qualitative studies undertaken at a previously white South African university between 2000 and 2007. During the research process, issues of representation became a concern…

  2. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

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    Thomas E. Doyle


    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  3. Parental preference or child well-being: an ethical dilemma. (United States)

    Turner, Helen N


    An ethical dilemma that is not uncommon to encounter when caring for children occurs when parental preference does not appear to be in the child's best interest. Challenges facing the health care team are further amplified when the family's cultural background does not match that of the team. A case study will be used to illustrate the challenges of a pediatric palliative care ethical dilemma further complicated by cultural diversity. Review of the child's medical condition, patient/parent preferences, quality of life, and contextual features will be followed by an analysis and recommendations for resolution of this challenging situation.

  4. What Social Workers Should Know About Ethics: Understanding and Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

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    Elaine P. Congress


    Full Text Available Recognizing ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in professional practice is crucial for social work practitioners, educators, and students. After a discussion about the limited, although growing, literature on social work ethics, the ten main tenets form the most current NASW Code of Ethics are presented. These topics include limits to confidentiality, confidentiality and technology, confidentiality in family and group work, managed care, cultural competence, dual relationships, sexual relationships, impairment and incompetence of colleagues, application to administrators and relevance to social work educators. In addition to understanding the Code of Ethics, social workers can use the ETHIC model of decision making for resolving ethical dilemmas. This easy to use five step process includes examining personal, agency, client, and professional values, thinking about ethical standards and relevant laws, hypothesizing about consequences, identifying the most vulnerable, and consulting with supervisors and colleagues. A case example involving confidentiality, HIV/AIDS and family therapy demonstrates how social workers can use the ETHIC model.

  5. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly


    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  6. Inclusivity and Moral Technology: Ethical Dilemmas in English. (United States)

    O'Neill, Marnie


    Explores inclusive education and moral technology issues in the (Australian) English curriculum. Highlights issues of cultural diversity, culturally critical orientations to text in the postmodern classroom, and English teachers' ethical dilemmas when developing an inclusive curriculum. Discusses adolescents' reactions to short fiction collected…

  7. Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing (United States)

    Haney, Michelle R.


    Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…


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    Mahfooz A. Ansari


    Full Text Available Following a 3 [dilemma: coercion and control (CC; conflict of interest (CI; personal integrity (PI] × 2 (egoism: self; organization × 2 (belief in just world (BJW: strong; weak between-subjects factorial design, we hypothesized the main effects of ethical dilemma, egoism, and BJW, and their interaction on ethical reasoning. The first two factors were manipulated by means of six vignettes and the last factor was a subject variable. Experimental participants were 384 managers representing 14 manufacturing organizations. Overall, utilitarian reasoning appeared to be a frequently used type of reasoning in relation to personal integrity dilemma involving self-interest, whereas principled reasoning appeared to be a frequently used reasoning in relation to personal integrity dilemma involving organizational-interest. BJW interacted strongly with the two manipulated factors in predicting ethical reasoning. Implications of the study are discussed, potential caveats are specified and recommendations for future research are provided.

  9. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen


    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  10. Some ethical dilemmas faced by Jewish doctors during the Holocaust. (United States)

    Chelouche, Tessa


    The discourse on physicians and ethics in the Nazi regime usually refers to the violation of medical ethics by Nazi doctors who as a guild and as individuals applied their professional knowledge, training and status in order to facilitate murder and medical "experimentation". In the introduction to this article I will give a brief outline of this vast subject. In the main article I wish to bear witness to the Jewish physicians in the ghettos and the camps who tried to the best of their ability to apply their professional training according to ethical principles in order to prolong life as best as they could, despite being forced to exist and work under the most appalling conditions. These prisoner doctors were faced with impossible existential, ethical and moral dilemmas that they had not encountered beforehand. This paper addresses some of these ethical quandaries that these prisoner doctors had to deal with in trying to help their patients despite the extreme situations they found themselves in. This is an overview of some of these ethical predicaments and does not delve into each one separately for lack of space, but rather gives the reader food for thought. Each dilemma discussed deserves an analysis of its own in the context of professionalism and medical ethics today.

  11. Nursing students' responses to ethical dilemmas in nursing practice. (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J


    In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions.

  12. Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations (United States)

    Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.


    This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

  13. [Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses]. (United States)

    Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Schneider, Dulcinéia Ghizoni; Schneider, Nadir; dos Santos, Alessandra Ceci; Leal, Sandra Maria Cezar


    A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethical dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

  14. An approach to ethic dilemmas of geriatric medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Francisco Morejón Giraldoni


    Full Text Available The bioethical formulation is based on three (or four principles: beneficence (and no maleficence, after some authors, justice and autonomy. In spite of multiple received criticisms this proposal have been enriched and strengthened. From this point, sanitary activity and the medical practice as well, can be considered as activities with a clear social insertion, thus susceptible of an ethical analysis which goes beyond of the narrow margins of the professional ethics. Population aging as a worldwide phenomenon will bring about a major demand of the assistance and social services. New ethic dilemmas could emerge from the demographic changes, related to the intergenerational, family and health services relationship overall. General practitioners and particularly gerontologist should be prepared to face this medical an ethical challenges.

  15. Ethical dilemmas and PD as important steps towards critical e-government design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Jesper Bull


    -government is enacted inside government is sparse. Technology mediated public services in real world entail ethical dilemmas. By extracting ethical dilemmas from a qualitative e-government participatory design study, this paper shows how ethical dilemmas may inform future e-government design and design processes....... The case, adoption of digital post in a local e-government setting, showed that design flaws, staff's concern for citizens and political fear of citizens' critique had an impact on e-government adoption....

  16. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [MEDIAN, Passeig Pintor Romero 8, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Le Menestrel, Marc [University Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona (Spain); De Bettignies, Henri-Claude [INSEAD, Boulevard de Constance, F-77305 Fontainebleau Cedex (France)


    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors.

  17. Medical and ethical dilemma in brain death. (United States)

    Streba, Irina; Damian, Simona; Ioan, Beatrice


    For centuries, death has been defined, medically speaking, as the irreversible cessation of breathing and of nervous and cardiac activity. What radically changed this definition was the introduction of the concept "brain death" in 1968, by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School". According to it, the irreversible coma was associated with brain death and considered to be a criterion for the diagnosis of the deceased individual. The evergrowing need for transplant organs (provided this respects the dead honor rule, stipulating that organs can't be harvested unless someone is deceased) lead to making arbitrary decisions regarding the establishment of the exact time of death during the process of "losing life". What actually triggers the controversy related to the concept of brain death is the dilemma of associating this concept with that of biologic death or death of the person, the difference between the two being made by whether the mental characteristics are accepted or not in defining and individualizing the death of the human being. Given these circumstances, a dilemma appears--that of defining the death of the individual: we define death, as it has been for centuries, as the moment when the cardio-respiratory function no longer exists, which leads to the loss of tens of thousands of lives that might have been saved through transplant. Yet, this may lead to manipulating the border between life and death, with the risk of trespassing each individual's right to life.

  18. Ethical Dilemmas Involving the Military Awards Process (United States)


    with the regulation and history ofmilitary awards. We must ensure that as Senior Leaders we do not put our subordinate leaders in these ethical...and not in keeping with the regulation and history of military awards. We must ensure that as Senior Leaders we do not put our subordinate leaders

  19. Peeling Onions: Some Tools and a Recipe for Solving Ethical Dilemmas. (United States)

    Gordon, Joan Claire


    Presents a process for solving ethical dilemmas: define the problem; identify facts; determine values; "slice" the problem different ways--duties, virtues, rights, and common good; rank ethical considerations; consult colleagues; and take action. (SK)

  20. Gender Differences In Responses To Hypothetical Business Ethical Dilemmas By Business Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie L. McInerney


    Full Text Available Business leaders are often failing to display ethical behavior in business decisions. This paper examines the gender differences found in undergraduate business students when faced with ethical decision making dilemmas.

  1. Staff Attitudes to Talking Openly About Ethical Dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila


    , research on business ethics communication and behavior indicates a relatively clear, positive link between open workplace dialogue about ethical issues and ethical conduct. In this paper, I therefore address the question: What influences employee attitudes to talking openly about ethical issues? Answers...... are proposed on the basis of focus group interviews with staff at the Denmark and Brazil affiliates of the global healthcare company Novo Nordisk. It was found that interest in discussing ethical issues was influenced by two main factors: employee conceptualizations of business ethics, and the level of inter......To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. In contrast...

  2. The Ethical Dilemma in Globalizing Small Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob C. Nganga


    Full Text Available This paper is largely a theoretical exposition of ethical challenges that stifle the participation of smallbusinesses in the global value chains with particular reference to businesses in developing countries. Smallbusinessclusters in developing economies, remain locked in low-quality products and low-income markets.With little innovation, small business lack capacity to produce goods that can attract foreign demand. Yet,small enterprises must provide productive employment for an increasing number of job-seekers in thesecountries. Innovation growth in small enterprises is normally limited to apprenticeship process and as such,results in a dead-end to progress of indigenous technology. To promote creation and growth of small business,efforts are required to put the small business clusters in a global value chain as this enhances possibilities ofnew market avenues and as well as benching market indigenous innovative efforts to international standards.Exposure of small business to global market also encourages networks formations which are conduits of skillsfor quality improvement and valuation of products from the sector. However, the quest for improving theparticipation and market share of small business is faced with challenges that stem from the way the process ofglobalization has taken place over time. To overcome these globalization challenges, policy makers mustcontend with ethical issues that require to be addressed through consultative efforts at international arena.

  3. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice (United States)

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt


    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  4. Ibsen's Ethical Dilemma: A Case Study of Catiline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Weihong


    Catiline, Ibsen's first play, has often been undervalued.Ibsen's comments on this play that the ideas he expressed in this juvenile attempt are still what he thinks of after he has made great achievements in dramatic creation exactly show its true value.To a large extent, it is Catiline's persistent pursuit of his ideal that may have moved the dramatist who has throughout his own life pursued his own ideal.What's more, Ibsen may also have noticed the similar ethical dilemma that faces him and Catiline: the contraction between his earthly duties and his pursuit of the ideal.

  5. Medical confidentiality versus disclosure: Ethical and legal dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, V I O


    A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built.

  6. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas (United States)

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn


    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  7. Social Decision Making Social Dilemmas, Social Values, and Ethical Judgments

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Roderick M; Bazerman, Max H


    This book, in honor of David Messick, is about social decisions and the role cooperation plays in social life. Noted contributors who worked with Dave over the years will discuss their work in social judgment, decision making and ethics which was so important to Dave.The book offers a unique and valuable contribution to the fields of social psychology and organizational behavior. Ethical decision making, a central focus of this volume, is highly relevant to current scholarship and research in both disciplines. The volume will be suitable for graduate level courses in organizational behavior, s

  8. Comparing Two Training Strategies to Increase Competence in Solving Ethical Dilemmas (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole


    This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…

  9. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study (United States)

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary


    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  10. The Changes of Ethical Dilemmas in Palliative Care. A Lesson Learned from Comparison Between 1998 and 2013 in Taiwan. (United States)

    Chih, An-Hsuan; Su, Peijen; Hu, Wen-Yu; Yao, Chien-An; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Lin, Yen-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Yuan


    The current ethical dilemmas met by healthcare professionals were never compared with those 15 years ago when the palliative care system was newly developing in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to investigate the ethical dilemmas met by palliative care physicians and nurses in 2013 and compare the results with the survey in 1998. This cross-sectional study surveyed 213 physicians and nurses recruited from 9 representative palliative care units across Taiwan in 2013. The compared survey in 1998 studied 102 physicians and nurses from the same palliative care units. All participants took a questionnaire to survey the "frequency" and "difficulty" of 20 frequently encountered ethical dilemmas, which were grouped into 4 domains by factor analysis. The "ethical dilemma" scores were calculated and then compared across 15 years by Student's t tests. A general linear model analysis was used to identify significant factors relating to a high average "ethical dilemma" score in each domain. All of the highest-ranking ethical dilemmas in 2013 were related to insufficient resources. Physicians with less clinical experience had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in clinical management. Physicians with dissatisfaction in providing palliative care were associated a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in communication. Nurses reported higher "ethical dilemma" scores in all items of resource allocation in 2013. Further analysis confirmed that, in 2013, nurses had a higher average "ethical dilemma" score in resource allocation after adjustment for other relating factors. Palliative care nursing staff in Taiwan are more troubled by ethical dilemmas related to insufficient resources than they were 15 years ago. Training of decision making in nurses under the framework of ethical principles and community palliative care programs may improve the problems. To promote the dignity of terminal cancer patients, long-term fundraising plans are recommended for countries in which the

  11. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Chatziioannidis


    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

  12. Commentary: The forensic report--an inevitable nexus for resolving ethics dilemmas. (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert


    Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped.

  13. Ethical Dilemmas in the Biology Undergraduate Classroom: Role-Playing Congressional Testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Wiles


    Full Text Available Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  14. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony. (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M


    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience.

  15. Ethical dilemmas in geosciences. We can ask, but, can we ans? (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo


    Philosophy tries to provide rules and principles enabling us to solve the ethical dilemmas we face in a wide sense, and, also, in particular fields as (geo)sciences. One alleged goal of ethics is to figure out how to solve ethical dilemmas. But, is it possible to solve such dilemmas? And what can we do if we cannot? An ethical dilemma is a problem that offers an alternative between two or more solutions, none of which proves to be fully acceptable in practice. Dilemmas arise because of conflict between the rightness or wrongness of the actions/means and the goodness or badness of the consequences/ends. They involve an apparent conflict between moral imperatives, in which to follow one would result in violating another. Can a geoscientist answer those dilemmas that appear in the exercise of his/her profession? Always? In some cases? Not at all? What if we cannot? Have we? As geoscientists, we hold the knowledge (our scientific principles), not perfect, thus fallible, and always subject to changes and improvements. If we have to do what is right, based on our principles, despite potentially bad consequences, then we have to be sure that the principle is an absolute true. But, are our scientific principles such a true? Deontological theories may deny that consequences are of any concern, provided the intention was a good one. However, if our principles are not perfect (and we know that): can we answer in one or other direction to geoethical dilemmas in good faith? Although, if a geoscientist action does usually go for the best consequences, sometimes bad consequences may be accepted. But, who have to decide to accept the bad consequences? If ethical dilemmas with a conflict between means and ends cannot simply be solved by a geoscientist, where is our duty? If there is no real solution to the conflict of the right with the good, in the sense that a solution usually seems to be expected, what has to be our professional attitude? When we have duties of omission and when

  16. Of mode of reasoning and context: Danish evidence of accounting student’s moral reasoning abilities in resolving ethical dilemmas related to fraud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    reasoning. The purpose of this study is three-fold, using Kohlberg’s theory of cognitive moral development; this study aims to examine the effect of mode of reasoning on ethical decision-making. Secondly, this study presents the respondents with two ethical contexts in auditing viz. fraud and mundane....... The aim is to examine the effect of facing ethical dilemmas arising out of detection of fraud, on the ethical decision-making ability of students. The impetus behind this is to observe the preparedness of accounting students in dealing with issues related to fraud. Finally, this study aims to examine...... were focused on ethical decision making ability of Danish auditors’, this study closes the loop by presenting an accounting students perspective. By providing an understanding of the complex issues involved in ethical decision-making, this study also serves strategically in strengthening ethics...

  17. Comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education targeting US adolescents: review of an ethical dilemma and proposed ethical framework. (United States)

    Brown, E J; Simpson, E M


    Adolescents are increasingly at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prolonged latency period, sometimes in excess of five years, and the incubation period of up to 10 years before the manifestation of symptoms, may foster adolescents' false sense of invincibility and denial as they often do not see the devastating effects of the disease in their peers until they are older. In turn, their practice of safer sex may be hindered and thereby contribute to the escalation of this public health crisis among sexually active adolescents. Prevention-focused recommendations were made in the USA as a result of this crisis. Recommendations were made to: (1) include STD/HIV education in the curricula of grades kindergarten to 12; (2) increase to at least 75% the proportion of primary care and mental health professionals who provide age-appropriate STD/HIV prevention counselling to adolescents; and (3) expand HIV prevention services to include age-appropriate HIV education curricula for students in grades 4-12 in 95% of schools. Yet, in the USA, the provision of school-based comprehensive STD/HIV education has been difficult to achieve owing to certain limitations and, in some instances, legal action. These limitations include: limited student access; restricted content; and the implementation of sporadic and/or brief educational programmes. Given these recommendations and the fact that adolescents are acquiring STDs and HIV infections at increasing rates, and despite the limitations and legal actions, do health care professionals not have an ethical obligation to provide adolescents with comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education? This ethical dilemma will be discussed using the ethical decision-making principles of 'autonomy' and 'beneficence', and a decision-making model proposed by Thompson and Thompson, and by Chally and Loric.

  18. Ethical Tensions and Dilemmas Experienced in a Northern Ugandan Social Work Internship (United States)

    Corbin, Joanne


    This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural…

  19. Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice and Palliative Care Units for Advanced Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Bag


    Full Text Available Ethical dilemmas that face heathcare team members referring patients to hospice programs include the ability of clinicians to predict accurately a patient bad prognosis. They affect day-to-day patient management in palliative care programs including healthcare team members concern over the use of morphine because possible respiratory depression in the patient, the question of providing enteral or parenteral nutritional support to patients who refuse to eat and the question of providing parenteral fluids to patients who are unable to take fluids during the terminal phrases of illness. A final ethical dilemma concerns the methodology for quality of life research in palliative care. Understanding and resolving these ethical dilemmas is an important factor determining the quality of the caring for the patient. The ethical dilemmas that are discussed in the article likely to occur in this period can be prevented through his/her participation in the decisions concerning his or her treatment. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 65-79

  20. Ethical Dilemmas in Applying Second-Wave Information Technology to Social Work Practice. (United States)

    Cwikel, Julie G.; Cnaan, Ram A.


    Describes second wave information technology in social work as characterized by modern databases, decision-support systems, expert systems, electronic networks, and therapeutic applications that have greater impact on direct practice. Assesses ethical dilemmas posed by use of second-wave information technology in social work practice to encourage…

  1. The ethical Dilemma of lifestyle change: designing for sustainable schools and sustainable citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler


    Full Text Available This paper explores how participation and sustainability are being addressed by architects within the Building Schools for the Future (BSF programme in the UK. The intentions promoted by the programme are certainly ambitious, but the ways to fulfil these aims are ill-explored. Simply focusing on providing innovative learning technologies, or indeed teaching young people about physical sustainability features in buildings, will not necessarily teach them the skills they will need to respond to the environmental and social challenges of a rapidly changing world. However, anticipating those skills is one of the most problematic issues of the programme. The involvement of young people in the design of schools is used to suggest empowerment, place-making and to promote social cohesion but this is set against government design literature which advocates for exemplars, standard layouts and best practice, all leading to forms of standardisation. The potentials for tokenistic student involvement and conflict with policy aims are evident. This paper explores two issues: how to foster in young people an ethic towards future generations, and the role of co-design practices in this process. Michael Oakeshott calls teaching the conversation of mankind. In this paper, I look at the philosophy of Hannah Arendt, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Luce Irigaray to argue that investigating the ethical dilemmas of the programme through critical dialogue with students offers an approach to meeting government objectives, building sustainable schools, and fostering sustainable citizenship.

  2. The principle of double effect applied to ethical dilemmas of social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose


    The introduction of social robots into society will require that they follow ethical principles which go beyond consequentialism. In this paper, I show how to apply the principle of double effect to solve an ethical dilemma involving robots studied by Alan Winfield and colleagues. The principle...... of double effect states conditions for ethically acceptable behavior when there are both positive and negative consequences of an action. I propose a formal semantics with actions, causes, intentions, and utilities based upon the work of Judea Pearl, John Horty, and others. With this formal semantics...

  3. The business of ethics. Hospitals need to focus on managerial ethics as much as clinical ethics. (United States)

    Weber, L J


    Business ethics begins with the recognition of the various values and "goods" involved in judgements of what to do. Four key values are individual rights, individual self-interest, the company's best interest, and the public good. Often a company has to choose which of these goals or values should be subordinated to another. Business ethics, then, must clarify priorities among these values and establish priority principles to resolve conflicts. One approach to contemporary business ethics emphasizes personal integrity, focusing on conflicts of interest; another approach stresses social responsibility, focusing on the effect of company policy on groups and individuals in society. In business, most of the attention to conflicts of interest focuses on the conflict between employee self-interest and the firm's interest. Healthcare organizations may need to focus on potential conflicts between the patient's interest and the institution's or physician's interest. Physician referrals and pharmaceutical companies' marketing practices are two areas with potential conflicts. Not-for-profit organizations have been quicker than the business world to acknowledge social responsibility. In many ways, however, the social impact of healthcare policies and decisions has not been as carefully considered as it should be. Institutionalizing deliberation about clinical ethical issues has helped to raise awareness about the ethical dimensions of medical care. It would also be useful to institutionalize attention to business ethics in healthcare.

  4. Staff attitudes to talking openly about ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila


    To ensure ethical employee behavior, companies often utilize several forms of mostly one-way communication such as codes of conduct. The extent to which these efforts, in addition to informing about the company stance on ethics, are able to positively influence behavior is disputed. Research on b...

  5. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy (United States)

    Moon, Bruce L.


    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  6. A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations. (United States)

    Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

    In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

  7. Painful dilemmas: the ethics of animal-based pain research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I. A. S.


    While it has the potential to deliver important human benefits, animal-based pain research raises ethical questions, because it involves inducing pain in sentient beings. Ethical decision-making, connected with this variety of research, requires informed harm-benefit analysis, and the aim of this...

  8. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert


    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  9. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems: An Ethical Leadership Dilemma to Satisfy Patients. (United States)

    Piper, Llewellyn E; Tallman, Erin


    This article examines the parameters and the dynamics of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) that create an ethical leadership dilemma to satisfy patients in the hospital setting while still ensuring appropriate care for quality clinical outcomes. Under the Affordable Care Act, hospitals and health care systems are in a high-stakes struggle of winners and losers based on HCAHPS scores. This high-stakes struggle creates unintended consequences of an ethical dilemma of doing what is right for the patient versus doing whatever it takes to please the patient in order to achieve high scores of satisfaction that are tied to better reimbursements. This article also reports the results of a national survey of 500 chief executive officers by the authors about the attitudes and frustrations of chief executive officers confronting the wild unrest caused by HCAHPS.

  10. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma. (United States)

    Settle, Peggy Doyle


    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance.

  11. Live surgery at conferences - Clinical benefits and ethical dilemmas. (United States)

    Philip-Watson, Joanna; Khan, Shahid A A; Hadjipavlou, Marios; Rane, Abhay; Knoll, Thomas


    Live surgical broadcasts (LSBs) are becoming increasingly popular in urological conferences. These activities can provide excellent training opportunities, as they allow the audience to view an operation conducted by world-renowned surgeons, and have the ability to interact with them in real time. However, several ethical considerations have been raised with this practice, which the participating surgeons and conference organisers must appreciate and address carefully. In this article we highlight the ethical considerations related to LSBs and advise on how these should be addressed. We also present the latest recommendations made by the European Association of Urology Live Surgery Committee and discuss alternatives to LSB.

  12. A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia. (United States)

    Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.


    Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

  13. Dilemmas with Dilemmas...Exploring the Suitability of Dilemma Stories as a Way of Addressing Ethical Issues in Science Education. (United States)

    Settelmaier, Elisabeth

    Traditionally, many science educators have taught science without addressing ethical questions. However, the inclusion of moral discourse in science teaching may help educators to bring to the fore problematic issues in relation to science, and it may offer an opportunity for students to practice their future engagement in the public discourse…

  14. Quality focus shining on corporate ethics. (United States)


    Compliance just scratches the surface of a comprehensive ethics policy. Being true to your mission is a critical component of governance responsibilities. Quality managers play an important role in feedback, implementation.

  15. The principle of double effect applied to ethical dilemmas of social robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose


    The introduction of social robots into society will require that they follow ethical principles which go beyond consequentialism. In this paper, I show how to apply the principle of double effect to solve an ethical dilemma involving robots studied by Alan Winfield and colleagues. The principle...... of double effect states conditions for ethically acceptable behavior when there are both positive and negative consequences of an action. I propose a formal semantics with actions, causes, intentions, and utilities based upon the work of Judea Pearl, John Horty, and others. With this formal semantics......, the question of whether an action is permitted according to the principle of double effect is reduced to deciding whether a certain formula is true or otherwise....

  16. Ethical dilemmas in nursing: the role of the nurse and perceptions of autonomy. (United States)

    Pinch, W J


    This study investigated decision making in ethical dilemmas and attitudes toward professional autonomy. It was based on Murphy's identification of three nurse-patient relationship models. The model identification was the result of Murphy's investigation of the levels of moral reasoning of nurse practitioners, from Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Autonomy is necessary for patient advocacy in Murphy's highest order model of nurse-patient relationship. 109 freshmen, 103 seniors, and 82 graduates (baccalaureate nursing) were examined for model selection, risk-taking, restrictions, and anxiety in the decision-making process in specific situations. Autonomy was measured independently. The most significant results indicated that freshmen were less likely to select the autonomous model of relationship, had lower attitudes toward professional nursing autonomy, and were less willing to take risks. Graduates were lower than either student group in their perceptions of restrictions and anxiety. The responses to each dilemma itself varied by situation in relation to the model preferred.

  17. [How does Hinduism analyze an ethical clinical dilemma]. (United States)

    Samtani B, Suraj; Jadue Z, Mariana; Beca I, Juan Pablo


    It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics.

  18. Use of animals in experimental research: an ethical dilemma? (United States)

    Baumans, V


    Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics and Darwin's publication on the Origin of Species, defending the biological similarities between man and animal, contributed to the increase of animal experimentation. The increasing demand for high standard animal models together with a critical view on the use of animals led to the development of Laboratory Animal Science in the 1950s with Russell and Burch's three R's of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement as guiding principles, a field that can be defined as a multidisciplinary branch of science, contributing to the quality of animal experiments and to the welfare of laboratory animals. The increased interest in and concern about animal welfare issues led to legislative regulations in many countries and the establishment of animal ethics committees.

  19. Pain medicine versus pain management: ethical dilemmas created by contemporary medicine and business. (United States)

    Loeser, John D; Cahana, Alex


    The world of health care and the world of business have fundamentally different ethical standards. In the past decades, business principles have progressively invaded medical territories, leading to often unanticipated consequences for both patients and providers. Multidisciplinary pain management has been shown to be more effective than all other forms of health care for chronic pain patients; yet, fewer and fewer multidisciplinary pain management facilities are available in the United States. The amazing increase in interventional procedures and opioid prescriptions has not led to a lessening of the burden of chronic pain patients. Ethical dilemmas abound in the treatment of chronic pain patients: many are not even thought about by providers, administrators, insurance companies, or patients. We call for increased pain educational experiences for all types of health care providers and the separation of business concepts from pain-related health care.

  20. Dilemmas in mandatory reporting of domestic violence: carative ethics in emergency rooms. (United States)

    Mayer, B


    Laws are clear when it comes to reporting child abuse, elder abuse, or maltreatment of the disabeled; however, the fuzzy area of domestic violence, or injury to women by their husbands or intimates, puzzles the system ethically and legally. Experts are divided on the issue of mandatory reporting of domestic violence by health care professionals. As exemplified by the Florida law, the crux of the problem may be twofold. First, the law requires reporting of certain incidents that are ambiguously defined. Second, reporting may be mandatory without the patient's consent. Many experts in the field of domestic violence suggest that mandated reporting by health care workers is not in the best interests of the victims; it may lead to more violence and increase the victim's reluctance to get needed health care. This victim vulnerability creates ethical dilemmas in the emergency department, often the first outside contact after a violent incident. This paper examines the implications of reporting applied to emergency practice in the context of basic ethical standards. The application of mandatory reporting laws to competent adult victims presents questions related to nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, and a variety of contextual issues that arise from these main ethical domains.

  1. Hotel-type nursing and ethical dilemmas due to business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Zupančič


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the age of neoliberalism, there are differences in the implementation of nursing activities due to business interests being integrated into nurse-patient relationships. An example of this is hotel-type nursing, which involves fulfilling patients’ needs by charging for nursing services (or by charging an additional fee for extra services. Whether this constitutes a contemporary nursing development or a danger is an important question.  This paper explores an approach to resolving ethical dilemmas, which often emerge when the interests of businesses, nurses, and patients are integrated, as contemporary nursing is implemented according to community care principles.Methods: In a case study of nurses’ activities conducted in June 2013 and 2014 in three different institutions, the methods of observation and interviews were used. The collected data were analyzed using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT methodology, and then verified and updated with a power diagram qualitative interpretation and the Decide, Establish, Consider, Identify, Develop, and Implement (DECIDE decision-making model.Results: Based on my study of hotel-type nursing, an approach to resolving ethical dilemmas which arise with the integration of business interests into nurse-patient relationships is explained.Discussion: Hotel-type nursing involves an adaptation by nurses to a change in their relationship with the patient. This adaptation must ensure that the nurse’s professionalism is recognized as being significantly more beneficial to the patient than a reduction of the nurse’s role to one of simply fulfilling a patient’s wishes.Conclusion: Hotel-type nursing can be advantageous in the development of contemporary nursing if nurses adhere to high ethical standards and practice self-control.

  2. Perspectives on Medical Students’ Reflections on Ethical Dilemmas during their Clinical Stay. Oral Presentation, COMET Conference in Aalborg, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormsen, Lise Kirstine; Søndergaard, Sara; Hoffmann, Tine

    Work-in- progress Roundtable: Title: What ethical problems are out there? – a study of medical students’ reflexive writing about ethical dilemmas in the clinic. Authors: Lise Gormsen, MD, MHH, PhD., Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark Jane Ege Møller, MA, PhD., Conference themes: Ethics and Communication Medical Education Research Ethics Values and Responsibilities in Professional Practice Background: As many other countries, Denmark has implemented the seven physician roles as the basis for medical education. Pre-graduate medical education in ethics contribute.......Schön) We have collected reflexive texts (45 texts, 199 pages in total) produced by 4th-year students (n=316). The texts were analyzed and characteristic patterns were characterized. Results: The students observe 3 types of ethical problem 1) everyday problems e.g. confidentiality in a busy ward 2...

  3. `I Don't Even Have Time to be Their Friend!' Ethical Dilemmas in Ph.D. Supervision in the Hard Sciences (United States)

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi


    This study focused on exploring students' and supervisors' perceptions of ethical problems in doctoral supervision in the natural sciences. Fifteen supervisors and doctoral students in one research community in the natural sciences were interviewed about their practices and experiences in the doctoral process and supervision. We explored to what extent doctoral students and supervisors experienced similar or different ethical challenges in the supervisory relationship and analyzed how the experiences of ethical dilemmas in supervision could be understood in light of the structure and practices of natural science research groups. The data were analyzed by theory-driven content analysis. Five ethical principles, namely non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, fidelity and justice, were used as a framework for identifying ethical issues. The results show that one major question that appears to underpin many of the emerging ethical issues is that the supervisors and students have different expectations of the supervisory role. The second important observation is that doctoral students primarily described their own experiences, whereas the supervisors described their activities as embedded in a system and elaborated on the causes and consequences at a system level.

  4. Interviewing with or without the partner present? – An underexposed dilemma between ethics and methodology in nursing research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Haahr, Anita; Hall, Elisabeth


    on data collection. Design Discussion paper that draws on data from three phenomenological studies. Data sources Referring to three cases from our phenomenological studies, we discuss the different types of ethical and methodological dilemmas faced when undertaking joint and separate interviews...... with couples. Furthermore, we discuss how the unexpected presence of the partner potentially influences the data gathered from the patient. Implication for nursing The cases demonstrate the interrelatedness of ethics and methodology in studies based on in-depth interviews with couples. Nurse researchers may...... be caught up in a dilemma between ethical concerns and methodological considerations. We argue that the presence of the partner during an interview session might influence the data and favour expressions of shared rather than individual experiences of the phenomenon studied. Furthermore, we argue...

  5. 'I am in blood Stepp'd in so far...': ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor. (United States)

    Devitt, Brian Meldan; McCarthy, Conor


    There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor-patient-team triad has created a scenario in which the team's priority can conflict with or even replace the doctor's primary obligation to player well-being. As a result, the customary ethical norms that provide guidelines for most forms of clinical practice, such as patient autonomy and confidentiality, are not easily translated in the field of sports medicine. Sports doctors are frequently under intense pressure, whether implicit or explicit, from management, coaches, trainers and agents, to improve performance of the athlete in the short term rather than considering the long-term sequelae of such decisions. A myriad of ethical dilemmas are encountered, and for many of these dilemmas there are no right answers. In this article, a number of ethical principles and how they relate to sports medicine are discussed. To conclude, a list of guidelines has been drawn up to offer some support to doctors facing an ethical quandary, the most important of which is 'do not abdicate your responsibility to the individual player.''I am in blood Stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more, Returning would be as tedious as to go o'er' -Macbeth: Act III, Scene IV, William Shakespeare.

  6. Ethical Issues in Covering Teen Suicide Stories: Deadly Dilemmas and Fatal Flaws. (United States)

    Willey, Susan

    A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…

  7. Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in Norway in 2011. (United States)

    Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond


    News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utøya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments.

  8. Evaluation of Viewpoints of Health Care Professionals on the Role of Ethics Committees and Hospitals in the Resolution of Clinical Ethical Dilemmas Based on Practice Environment. (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind


    We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6 %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location.

  9. [Ethical dilemmas in gastroenterology practice in Latin-American countries: the AIGE survey]. (United States)

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E


    (truth, informed consent), the autonomic decision of biological death versus the sacrament of life, justice in allocation resources, confidentiality and social concern, abortion, and many other controversies linked to tecno-scientific development, impact the practice of Gastroenterology in latinoamerican countries. However medical answers to ethical dilemmas are not uniform. Although our results ought to be verified by other studies they clearly suggest the needs for systematic incorporation of applicated Ethics in pre and postgraduate Gastroenterology curricula, besides the regular activities of our regional institutions.

  10. Critical review of available treatment options for treatment refractory depression and anxiety - clinical and ethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolar Dušan


    Full Text Available Treatment-resistant mood and anxiety disorders require an intensive therapeutic approach, and it should balance benefits and adverse effects or other potential detrimental effects of medications. The goal of treatment is to provide consistent and lasting improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety. Benzodiazepines are effective for anxiety symptoms, but with no sustained treatment effects. Other medication treatment options for anxiety disorders are outlined. Ketamine is usually very effective in treating major depressive disorder but without sustained benefits. Long-term use may pose a significant risk of developing tolerance and dependence. Stimulant medication augmentation for treatment-resistant depression is effective for residual symptoms of depression, but effects are usually short-lasting and it sounds more as an artificial way of improving energy, alertness and cognitive functioning. Synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana are increasingly prescribed for various medical conditions, but more recently also for patients with mood and anxiety disorders. All of these treatments may raise ethical dilemmas about appropri­ateness of prescribing these medications and a number of questions regarding the optimal treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression and treatment refractory anxiety disorders.

  11. Ethical Dilemma and Countermeasures of Hospice Care%临终关怀的伦理困境及对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    First of all, this paper discussed the ethical dilemmas of hospice care from four aspects. Secondly, it deeply analyzed the reasons of the ethical dilemmas in view of life ethics, medical ethics, family ethics and social ethics, etc. Finally, aiming at these ethical dilemmas and reasons, it put forward the concrete countermeasures to the terminally ill persons, medical staffs, family members, the government and the social public that related to hos-pice career, in the hope of promoting the development of hospice career.%首先,从四个方面论述了临终关怀所面临的伦理困境;其次,针对其伦理困境从生命伦理、医学伦理、家庭伦理与社会伦理等方面深层次地分析了原因;最后,针对这些伦理困境及原因,提出了与临终关怀事业相关的临终者、医护人员、家属、政府和社会公众的具体的对策,以期推动临终关怀事业向前发展。

  12. Business Ethics Development: Dilemma and Proposals%企业道德建设的困境及其破解方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Business ethics is a company's soft power. After an analysis of business ethics and its significance, and the dilemma of its development, principles and ways to improve business ethics and tackle the dilemma are proposed from the perspective of business and society, which aims to offer some theoretical guidance for business ethics development.%摘要:企业道德是企业的一种软实力。在对企业道德建设的涵义和意义、企业道德建设的企业与社会困境分析基础上,提出了破解企业道德建设困局的原则和方法,以期对企业道德提升提供理论指导。

  13. Virtue ethics--an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 2. The case for inclusive virtue ethics. (United States)

    Misselbrook, David


    While Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges. This two-part paper proposes a version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. Part 2 examines the role of basic moral theory as the foundation to ethics and suggests how virtue theory can be used as a central framework for ethics while being inclusive of insights from deontology and consequentialism.

  14. Advanced restorative dentistry - a problem for the elderly? An ethical dilemma. (United States)

    Murray, C G


    to cope with the operative demands and financial burden of resolving their deteriorating dental situation and so complex implant-born structures and precision removable prostheses should probably be avoided for those individuals contemplating entering a care situation. Therefore, the timing of the provision of complex dentistry poses an ethical dilemma.

  15. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne


    , the article explores and discusses research ethical dilemmas. Objectives and ethical considerations: First, and especially, the article addresses the challenges for gatekeepers who influence the informant’s decisions to participate in research. Second, the article addresses the challenges in following...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  16. Dealing with Dilemmas in a Morally Polarized Era: The Conflicting Ethical Codes of Educational Leaders. (United States)

    Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.


    Considers qualitative research the authors (both education professors) conducted while teaching an ethics course in different semesters over seven years. Examines and deconstructs personal and professional codes of ethics, including their own and those of doctoral students. The study found that students' professional and personal ethics codes…

  17. Ethics and Tax Education: A Change in Focus Is Needed (United States)

    Waples, Elaine; Darayseh, Musa


    The corporate scandals of recent years have highlighted the failure of ethics, not only in corporate management, but also in the big accounting firms. For tax professionals, there is an inherent conflict of interest that makes studying ethics in the context of tax practice problematic. On the one hand, the tax professional is a client advocate…

  18. An exploratory study of the pressures and ethical dilemmas in the audit conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Espinosa-Pike


    The results of this study are also of particular relevance for the legal and professional Spanish auditing regulators as they face, at this moment, the challenge of developing a set of ethical standards that should improve the ethical judgment and behavior of accounting professionals.

  19. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.


    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  20. Ethics in the Supervisory Relationship: Supervisors' and Doctoral Students' Dilemmas in the Natural and Behavioural Sciences (United States)

    Löfström, Erika; Pyhältö, Kirsi


    This study explored the perceptions of ethical issues in supervision among doctoral students and supervisors. The nature of ethical issues identified by doctoral students (n = 28) and their supervisors (n = 14) is explored and the degree of fit and misfit between their perceptions in two cases representing the natural and behavioural sciences is…

  1. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine. (United States)

    Ramp, Daniel


    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits.





    The aim of this paper is to address entrepreneurship and ethics from the perspective of the Ghanaian entrepreneur in small and medium-size enterprises to extend our understanding of issues influencing entrepreneurial behavior in developing economies such as Ghana. Our study specifically addresses three typical situations in which business ethics are challenged: (1) When applying for business information and permits, (2) When competing for business contracts and financing and (3) When dealing ...

  3. Social Work Values and Ethics: Reflections on the Profession's Odssey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic G. Reamer


    Full Text Available Social workers' understanding of ethical issues has matured significantly. This article traces the evolution of the profession's approach to the values and ethics. During its history, social work has moved through four major periods-- the morality period, the values period, the ethical theories and decision-making period, and the ethical standards and risk-management (the prevention of ethics complaints and ethics related lawsuits is diverting social workers from in-depth exploration of core professional and personal values, ethical dilemmas, and the nature of the profession's moral mission. The author encourages the profession to recalibrate its focus on values and ethics.

  4. Ethical Revision. (United States)

    Jackman, Mary Kathryn


    Discusses the dilemma of how to respond to student papers advancing morally repugnant positions. Advocates conceptualizing writing as an ethical act and connecting ethics and revision. Describes briefly how three such student papers were handled. (SR)

  5. [Focus on the ethics problem in glaucoma management]. (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Ping


    Due to the different goals of current glaucoma treatments, various treatment methods have their pros and cons. Therefore, their applications are affected by factors inside and outside medical category, thus prone to a series of problems.In clinical practice, in addition to following the related clinical guidelines and standards, medical ethics problems must be considered. And besides, based on the principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect and justice in medical ethics, the treatments should be carefully selected to weigh the advantages and disadvantages to the patients.Only in this way, the efficacy and safety of glaucoma treatment can be improved, and the medical and social missions of glaucoma specialists can be more reasonably completed.

  6. Et klinisk etisk dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Henriette


    Through the presentation of a concrete ethical dilemma, this article presents the praxis of a clinical ethics committee in Denmark. The dilemma was analysed in the clinical ethics committee of psychiatry in the region of Southern Denmark. The dilemma is well known in psychiatry; it concerns...... the conflict between respect of autonomy and the risk of neglect. The patient is a young woman with schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms, which have re-emerged because of stress. The woman has no insight in her own illness and she does not want to receive antipsychotic medication to treat her psychotic...

  7. Ethical decision-making in the dilemma of the intersex infant. (United States)

    Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B


    The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child.

  8. Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators (United States)

    Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.


    A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

  9. International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas (United States)

    Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena


    Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas…

  10. Students' Perceptions of Ethical Dilemmas Involving Professors: Examining the Impact of the Professor's Gender (United States)

    Oldenburg, Christopher M.


    Three hundred sixteen undergraduate students from two liberal arts colleges rated the ethical nature of six different fictional scenarios. Each scenario described interactions between a professor and student. The gender of the fictional professor was varied randomly. Thus, for any particular scenario, a participant may be rating the behavior of a…

  11. COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas (United States)

    Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.


    This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

  12. Managerji HRM in njihove etične dileme = Human Resource Managers and Their Ethical Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Primožič


    Full Text Available Douglas Renwick (2003 said that the personnel function plays therole of guardian of employees’ wellbeing, but on the other hand, hesaid that personnel managers also tamper with the wellbeing of employees.Looking at Renwick’s theory through Ulrich’s model of personnelmanagers as guardians of employees’ wellbeing, they play therole of strategic partners, managers of the changes and the role of theemployees representatives. Gantz and Hayes (in Payne and Wayland,1999 explicated a few fields where we can talk of ethical conflict whileperforming these roles: discrimination, psychological tests, anti-unionbehaviour, design of work flow, job insecurity, discipline, confidentiality,privacy, and firing because of technological redundancy. In this paperwe explore the field of potential and real ethical conflicts of humanresource managers.What are the most important values of humanresources managers? In which areas do ethical conflicts occur?And how do they solve these conflicts on an everyday basis? We usedquestionnaires to gather data on these issues. We found out that managerswho are in leading positions suffer the most, next are those whohave had long tenure. In this situation ethical codes don’t help much.

  13. On Tour with the "Accidental" Expert: Ethical Dilemmas of the Development Consultant. (United States)

    Basile, Michael L.

    This paper explores Max Weber's study of the origins of the secularization of the Puritan work ethic and examines the hybridized category of secular science expert. The hybrid construct provides an opening for the critical analysis of the concrete activity of development from two perspectives, the structural and the individual. The individual…

  14. Assessing the Role of Business Faculty Values and Background in the Recognition of an Ethical Dilemma (United States)

    Van Auken, Stuart


    The author sought to determine whether business faculty values and background can discriminate between a yes or no response to the introduction of an ethically challenged product. The results reveal that two competing views of the enterprise (stakeholder vs. stockholder) along with a faculty member's departmental membership do discriminate in the…

  15. Caring for 'Very Important Patients'--Ethical Dilemmas and Suggestions for Practical Management. (United States)

    Alfandre, David; Clever, Sarah; Farber, Neil J; Hughes, Mark T; Redstone, Paul; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani


    The care of Very Important Patients (VIPs) is different from other patients because they may receive greater access, attention, and resources from health care staff. Although the term VIP is used regularly in the medical literature and is implicitly understood, in practice it constitutes a wide and heterogeneous group of patients that have a strong effect on health care providers. We define a VIP as a very influential patient whose individual attributes and characteristics (eg, social status, occupation, position), coupled with their behavior, have the potential to significantly influence a clinician's judgment or behavior. Physicians, celebrities, the politically powerful, and philanthropists, may all become VIPs in the appropriate context. The quality of care may be inferior because health care professionals may deviate from standard practices when caring for them. Understanding the common features among what may otherwise be very different groups of patients can help health care providers manage ethical concerns when they arise. We use a series of vignettes to demonstrate how VIPs behavior and status can influence a clinician's judgment or actions. Appreciating the ethical principles in these varied circumstances provides health care professionals with the tools to manage ethical conflicts that arise in the care of VIPs. We conclude each vignette with guidance for how health care providers and administrators can manage the ethical concern.

  16. 男性不育的伦理学困境%Ethical Dilemmas in Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰峰; 唐化勇


    针对男性不育这一愈来愈突出的社会现象,首先阐述了其定义和患病原因,然后主要从伦理学方面对其进行了分析。包括两部分,即男性患有不育症后的伦理学问题和诊断治疗中的伦理学问题。男性辅助生殖技术可实现患者的正常生育,但在供精上存在着诸多伦理学问题,而且对受孕女方也有一定的风险。最后介绍了精原干细胞移植法的研究现状及治疗男性不育中存在的伦理问题。%Aiming at the social phenomenon of male sterility of the increasing lyprominent,and expatiates the definition and the reason of disease,then mainly from the ethics aspect has carried on the analysis to it. Includes two parts,namely,male with ethical issues of ethics and the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in the normal fertility of assisted reproductive technology can realize the patients,but there are many problems in ethics for precision,but also have a certain risk to pregnant woman. Finally to introduce the ethical problemsstatus and treatment of infertile male spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the law.

  17. The Moral Values and Dilemmas in Romanian University. The Influence of Prosperity on Ethical Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena IORGA


    Full Text Available Upon analysis, it appears that education is the only solution to prevail over this moral crisis; the dilemma of contemporary society, faced with this moral challenge, lies at the crossroads between philosophy and pedagogy. Moral value education cannot be reduced to “civic education” or to “human rights education”, as it lies at the crossroads between the logic of the mind and the logic of the heart, which generate values together. A “new ethics” is necessary, one which must reflect our historical standpoint, because the overthrow of a set of values and the inauguration of a “new moral” cannot be achieved by one “brilliant Zarathustra”.The questions of our papers are: What was and what is it now the University? And what are university professors’ responsibilities? Are the social-economical changes influencing the academic activity?

  18. “Take me Home and Allow me to Die Peacefully.”- An Ethical Dilemma of Grave Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhastagir SS


    Full Text Available To The Editor: Brain death that refers to the irreversible end of all brain activity, including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life, due to total necrosis of the cerebral neurons following loss of blood flow and oxygenation [1,2]. Using brain-death criteria, the medical community can declare a person legally dead even if life support equipment keeps the body's metabolic processes working. However, putting an end to someone’s life createsmany ethical dilemmas. Many patients perceive death as a natural part of life, or relief from pain and they may express a wish to diequickly and painlessly. They often ask the treating physician and their family to be taken home and allowed to die peacefully. However,the next of kin may want the patient to be actively treated and kept alive. The physician hopes that the patient will survive and resortsto technical means to keep the patient alive. Who should decide; the patient, the family or the physician?

  19. Grounded for an ethical dilemma: disequilibrium in a commercial airline pilot. (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Friedlander, Joel A


    This article presents the case of a 41-year-old airline pilot with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who requests that his diagnosis not be disclosed to his commercial airline employer or his aviation medical examiner because it may result in the suspension of medical certification. The legal and ethical requirements for physicians reporting impaired pilots are discussed as well as practical recommendations for handling such situations. The argument is made that a physician's obligation to honor patient confidentiality should not take precedence over his or her duty to protect the safety and well-being of the airplane passengers and the general public. If the patient chooses not to self-report, a physician has an ethical obligation to report the patient's medical condition to the Federal Aviation Administration.

  20. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics


    Ionela Elisabeta Ciobanu; Darian Rusu; Stefan-Ioan Stratul; Andreea Cristina Didilescu; Corina Marilena Cristache


    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presen...

  1. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria. (United States)

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn


    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  2. The organizational context of ethical dilemmas: a role-playing simulation for the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Strosberg, M A


    The allocation of health care resources often requires decision makers to balance conflicting ethical principles. The resource-constrained intensive care unit (ICU) provides an ideal setting to study how decision makers go about their balancing act in a complex and dynamic environment. The author presents a role-playing simulation exercise which models ICU admission and discharge decision making. Designed for the class-room, the simulation engages a variety of ethical, managerial, and public policy issues including end-of-life decision making, triage, and rationing. The simulation is based on a sequence of scenarios or "decision rounds" delineating conditions in the ICU in terms of disposition of ICU patients, number of available ICU beds, prognoses of candidates for admission, and other physiological and organizational information. Students, playing the roles of attending physician, hospital administrator, nurse manager, triage officer, and ethics committee member, are challenged to reach consensus in the context of multiple power centers and conflicting goals. An organization theory perspective, incorporated into the simulation, provides insight on how decisions are actually made and stimulates discussion on how decision making might be improved.

  3. Ethical Dilemmas in Artsybashev’s%论阿尔志跋绥夫《工人舍维廖夫》中的伦理困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    阿尔志跋绥夫的小说无不带有俄罗斯灵魂特有的尖锐、阴郁和深刻,其中呈现的伦理困境至今依然具有砭人肌骨的寒意。深入解读此种伦理困境,对于后来者无疑还是既恼人又具有诱惑力的挑战。在长篇小说《工人舍维廖夫》中,阿尔志跋绥夫展示了暴力革命伦理的虚无主义本质,暴力革命者在自我神化和自我厌弃的悖论中,最终走向了恐怖主义的泥沼。分析其中的人性逻辑和伦理困境,对于超越暴力革命的局限性依然具有重要的启发意义。%There are Russian soul's specific sharpness,gloom and profundity in the fictions of Artsybashev. The ethical dilemmas which have been revealed by his fictions can still make us feel the biting chill. It is a trouble and tempting challenging for the late-comers to interpret the ethical dilemmas. In the fiction , Artsybashev revealed nihilism essence of violent revolution's ethics;violent revolutionaries who were always inclined to deify and reject selves would fall into the swamp of terrorism. Analysing thoroughly the logic of human nature and ethical dilemmas in his fictions is still of importance for us to transcend the limitations of violent revolution.

  4. Political Concepts for the Ethical Debate on Dilemmas on Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Israel Rodríguez Soriano


    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on some of the political elements embedded in the ethical problems of medically assisted suicide and euthanasia. The thesis work is that political theoretical founda­tions of modern nations are aimed to protect the lives of people, a fact that responds to a series of historical processes of the very development of modern political theory. These fundamentals directly affect the cultural and political positions for the refusal to accept the legalization or regulation of the two practices in question, thus denying the right of self-determination in human decision making on the own life and death.

  5. Place as an ethical dilemma in contemporary art. Events of solidarity of multiple voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Guilherme Vergara


    Full Text Available Drawing a parallel with the rich participation of the individual as both body and voice, now active on the streets of Brazil, this paper explores the changes in process in contemporary artistic practice and identifies an urgent ethical clamor for visual art. From the vantage point of emerging ethical-esthetic practices, the street protests can be seen as symptoms of an exhausted social order. Increasingly we are seeing a body of work emerge that is tired of art ruled by the production of objects and favors the development of a visual aesthetic that gives place to the meaning of the local and the relational artistic event tied to the multi-sensorial activation of the body where the meaning of presence and the presence of meanings are interwoven. The paper examines the meaning of presence and the temporality of body and voice as forms of therapeutic and microgeographic poetic resistance that speak to the emergence of new ethicalaesthetic caring practices for the public meaning of art in institutions, museums and biennials.

  6. "Here's my dilemma". Moral case deliberation as a platform for discussing everyday ethics in elderly care. (United States)

    van der Dam, S; Abma, T A; Kardol, M J M; Widdershoven, G A M


    Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD) project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing assistant to physician. The MCD groups were part of a larger MCD project within two care institutions (residential homes and nursing homes). Care providers are confronted with a wide variety of largely everyday ethical issues. We distinguished three main categories: 'resident's behavior', 'divergent perspectives on good care' and 'organizational context'. The overview can be used for agendasetting when institutions wish to stimulate reflection and deliberation. It is important that an agenda is constructed from the bottom-up and open to a variety of issues. In addition, organizing reflection and deliberation requires effort to identify moral questions in practice whilst at the same time maintaining the connection with the organizational context and existing communication structures. Once care providers are used to dealing with divergent perspectives, inviting different perspectives (e.g. family members) to take part in the deliberation, might help to identify and address ethical 'blind spots'.

  7. The Risks of Revolution: Ethical Dilemmas in 3D Printing from a US Perspective. (United States)

    Neely, Erica L


    Additive manufacturing has spread widely over the past decade, especially with the availability of home 3D printers. In the future, many items may be manufactured at home, which raises two ethical issues. First, there are questions of safety. Our current safety regulations depend on centralized manufacturing assumptions; they will be difficult to enforce on this new model of manufacturing. Using current US law as an example, I argue that consumers are not capable of fully assessing all relevant risks and thus continue to require protection; any regulation will likely apply to plans, however, not physical objects. Second, there are intellectual property issues. In combination with a 3D scanner, it is now possible to scan items and print copies; many items are not protected from this by current intellectual property laws. I argue that these laws are ethically sufficient. Patent exists to protect what is innovative; the rest is properly not protected. Intellectual property rests on the notion of creativity, but what counts as creative changes with the rise of new technologies.

  8. The Ethical and Legal Dilemma in Terminating the Physician-Patient Relationship. (United States)

    Senderovitch, Helen


    A physician-patient relationship is essential for the well-being of the patient, for without a strong and trusting relationship between both individuals, the patient may not receive the best care that they deserve. There are many legal policies and ethical principles a physician must follow when caring for a patient. It is both the legal and moral duty of the physician to act in the best interests of their patients, while making sure to respect them regardless of background and personal behaviours. The relationship is secured with both trust and respect, for without trust, the patient may hold back from stating their conditions which will result in the physician not providing them with all the care they require. Sometimes, lack of some of these key characteristics of the physician-patient relationship and other circumstances, may cause either the patient or the physician to terminate the relationship. Termination of a relationship creates a difficult situation for the patient, and therefore there are only specific situations where a physician may have permission to follow through and terminate their relationship. Both the law and ethical principles play a role in the decisions made by the physician in regards to their relationship with the patient, but regardless, the physician has the obligation to make sure their patient is receiving care by one means or another.

  9. An ethics dilemma: when parents and doctors disagree on the best treatment for the child. (United States)

    Oppenheim, Daniel; Brugières, Laurence; Corradini, Nadège; Vivant, Florence; Hartmann, Olivier


    The increasing complexity of present day medicine--with highly effective and yet risky treatments, individual and collective expectations, and evolving ideological and cultural landmarks--often gives rise to difficult ethical problems. Specific meetings are valuable for understanding such problems, acquiring the relevant skills and for gaining and transmitting experience on how to solve them. Parents and doctors may disagree about what is the best treatment. Such a difference of opinion is not rare but usually a solution can easily be found. This is not the case when the child is treated for a severe illness and when there is no clearly defined or satisfactory treatment for him\\her. We present how a dramatic conflict arose between the parents and the doctors faced with such a case (mostly because the staff failed to understand early enough the psychological factors at the root of the father's demands), how clinical, institutional and ethical problems were analysed during a meeting, and how they were solved.

  10. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics (United States)

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina


    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur. PMID:27672458

  11. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Elisabeta Ciobanu


    Full Text Available Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  12. Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section in Low Resource Settings: The Clinical and Ethical Dilemma. (United States)

    Wanyonyi, Sikolia; Muriithi, Francis G


    Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) has long been practised in low resource settings using unconventional methods. This not only poses danger to the woman and her baby, but could also have serious legal and ethical implications. The adoption of this practice has been informed by observational studies with many deficiencies; this is so despite other studies from settings in which the standard of care is much better that show that elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) may actually be safer than VBAC. This raises questions about whether we should insist on a dangerous practice when there are safer alternatives. We highlight some of the challenges faced in making this decision, and discuss why the fear of ERCS may not be justified after all in low resource settings. Since a reduction in rates of Caesarean section may not be applicable in these regions, because their rates are already low, the emphasis should instead be on adequate birth spacing and safer primary operative delivery.

  13. The dilemma and reality of transplant tourism: an ethical perspective for liver transplant programs. (United States)

    Schiano, Thomas D; Rhodes, Rosamond


    Transplant programs are likely to encounter increasing numbers of patients who return after receiving an organ transplant abroad. These patients will require ongoing medical care to monitor their immunosuppression and to provide treatment when the need arises. Transplant societies have condemned transplantation with organs purchased abroad and with organs procured from executed prisoners in China. Nevertheless, transplant programs require guidance on how to respond to the needs of returning transplant tourists and to the needs of patients who may choose to become transplant tourists. This discussion presents a case that raised such issues in our program. It goes on to offer reasons for considering a program's responses in terms of the most relevant principles of medical ethics, namely beneficence and nonjudgmental regard.

  14. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster. (United States)

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W


    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged.

  15. Hospital costs and clinical characteristics of continuous renal replacement therapy patients: a continuous ethical dilemma. (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto


    This study describes the clinical characteristics and examines hospital costs involved in the care of 117 patients undergoing Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) between January 1999 and August 2002. The majority (70.9%) of the patients undergoing CRRT expired in the hospital. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to the length of stay for discharge status and gender; and with respect to costs for surgery versus no surgery and gender. Significant differences were also found between discharge status and gender, age, and cardiovascular surgery. The results of this study raise economic and ethical questions related to the cost/benefit of CRRT and the futility of the treatment. Hospitals should ensure that they have utilization protocols in place for CRRT, promote cooperation between intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nephrologists, and create multi-disciplinary CRRT teams in an effort to maximize the effectiveness of therapy and minimize costs.

  16. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics. (United States)

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena


    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  17. Ethical Dilemma of Placebo in Clinical Trials%安慰剂在临床试验中的伦理学困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田侃; 刘义胜


    Objective:To focus on the ethical dilemma of placebo and its legal dispute.Methods: Both of the positive and negative views on the use of placebo were brielfy sorted out with the application of Kant's philosophy for further analysis. Results and Conclusion:The use of placebo in clinical trials violated Kant’s philosophicla principle “People end in itself” and the principles of medicine, and was subject to an unreasonable risk. In order to reduce the unreasonable risks in clinical trials and protect life and health of every subject, the clinical trials should be designed more scientiifcally.%目的:探讨安慰剂使用的伦理困境与法理争议。方法:对使用安慰剂正反两方面的观点进行简要梳理,运用康德哲学思想进一步剖析安慰剂的伦理缺陷与公正缺失。结果与结论:在临床试验中使用安慰剂,违背了康德“人本身就是目的”的哲学思想,给受试者带来不合理的风险,亦违背了医学原则。为了降低安慰剂的不合理风险,应对临床试验进行更为科学的设计,保护每一位受试者的生命健康权。

  18. Does the Golem Feel Pain? Moral Instincts and Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Suffering and the Brain. (United States)

    Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry


    Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention.

  19. Dilemmas in Medicine, 2nd Edition 1977. CEM Probe. (United States)

    Undy, Harry, Ed.

    Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…

  20. 高校成人教师伦理困境的现实思考%Realistic Thinking of Ethical Dilemma of Colleges and Universities' Adult Education Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑宁霞; 牛丽珍


    Adult education teachers in colleges and universities are working in the front line of adult education .Due to the multiplicity of the role and the particularity of the nature of their work , they often find it easy to trap in the ethical dilemma caused by value orientation of the binary oppo‐sition ,conflict of role definition ,and evaluation anomie .Therefore ,it's of great theoretical and realistic significance to explore the ethical dilemma of adult university teachers and to help them a‐chieve the unity of individual and social value .%高校成人教师工作在成人教育的第一线,由于其角色的多重性和工作性质的特殊性,常常陷入二元对立的价值取向、角色冲突的价值定位及评价失范的价值考量等造成的伦理困境当中。因此,探讨高校成人教师的伦理困境,帮助其获得个体价值和社会价值的统一,具有重要的理论价值和实践意义。

  1. 76 FR 72955 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: “Ethical Dilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital... (United States)


    ... will provide understanding of factors that determine the current utilization of hospital consultation... with these dilemmas. Frequency of Response: One occasion. Affected Public: Individuals. Type of..., including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  2. An Introduction to Ethical Dilemmas of British and American Medical Students and Their Medical Ethics Education%英美医学生伦理困境及教育问题研究简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜刚; 罗肖泉


    英美学者研究认为,医学生在医学院校学习和临床培训期间,由于其身份地位、文化冲突以及医疗管理等方面的原因而经历的种种伦理困境,易于使他们陷入情感和心理的困扰、信仰和行为的冲突、理想和现实的矛盾之中,并最终导致其价值观和伦理原则的损害。他们呼吁教育工作者应当承担起帮助学生应对复杂的矛盾问题以及学习职业伦理困境的处理经验的责任。这些成果对深入研究和积极探索我国医学伦理教育的有效路径具有重要的借鉴意义。%British and American researchers hold the fact that medical students incline to be haunted with emotional and mental problems ,religion and behavior conflicts ,as well as the ideal and realistic contradictions .All these problems are resulted from all kinds of ethical dilemmas they experienced during their studies and clinical trainings in medical schools , due to their different identities ,status ,cultural backgrounds and medical managements .These problems can destroy the values and ethical principles of these medical students . To solve the problems , the researchers appeal to educators to shoulder on the responsibility to help the students to deal with the complicated problems and learn how to compromise in ethical dilemmas .The author believed these conclusions could be taken as an important reference to further study medical ethical education in China .

  3. 职业院校教师专业化发展的现代伦理困境%Modern ethical dilemma of vocational school teachers′ specialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At present the state vigorously is promoting the development of vocational colleges and meanwhile strengthening the construction of vocational teachers.But on one hand because of the special nature of vocational college teachers that is the professional development of teachers is usually defined as professional knowledge and technical maturity and on the other hand the teacher′s moral development is limited in the standard ethics and personalities neglected all of which together with many modern social ethics make the development of teachers′professional ethics has been extremely important ethical point of virtue ethics has been free in the field.However lots of main value thoughts in the modern society such as modernity instrumetal ra⁃tionality and normative ethics at a large extent have been pushing the development of the ethics of vocational teachers′ profes⁃sion to a incomplete way.Therefore it is undoubted to face the dilemma of ethical development at this kind of phenomena during the teachers′professional development in vocational colleges.%当前,国家大力推进职业院校的发展,并加大职业院校的师资建设。但由于职业院校教师本身的特殊性,通常把教师的专业发展定义在专业领域的学科知识以及技术的成熟度上,把教师的道德性发展限定在规范伦理之内,而忽视了教师本身的独特个性。同时现代社会多种价值理念交织,使对教师专业化发展有着极其重要伦理指向的德性伦理一直游离在“场外”。然而,现代社会的多种主流价值理念,诸如现代性、工具理性以及规范伦理都在很大程度上使职业院校教师专业化的伦理朝着不完整的方向发展。因此,在这种境遇中推进职业院校教师专业化发展,无疑会面临着伦理发展的困境。

  4. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity. (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry


    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities.

  5. The Ethical Dilemmas Raised by Artificial Intelligence%人工智能体的道德确立与伦理困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The emergence of artificial intelligence unlocked people's thoughts on traditional ethical ideas. With technology innovation,artificial intelligence has enriched its connotation;it's freer and more inde-pendent,which has protruded the problem of safety.While in the process of design and application,the traditional developing approaches have fell behind.People are beginning to question the morals and the whereabouts of the related ethical issues.Human-computer integration may be helpful in establishing arti-ficial intelligence ethics and human-computer interaction and exchange may have a positive role in solving the ethical dilemmas raised by artificial intelligence.Harmonious coexistence between man and machine may be a path taking artificial intelligence out of moral dilemma in the future.%人工智能体道德的出现引发了人们对传统伦理体制的思考。随着技术不断革新,人工智能体的内涵也不断丰富,它的自由性和独立性日趋进步。人工智能体的安全性凸显,在设计和应用人工智能体的过程中,传统的研发进路已然落后。人们对人工智能体有无道德以及道德去向提出了质疑。人工智能体走向人机一体化可能更有助于人工智能体道德的确立,人机之间的互动与交流对于人工智能体道德所引发的伦理困境而言具有进步意义。人机之间的和谐相处可能是未来人工智能体道德迈出困境的一条路径。

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba (United States)

    Lehr, Sabine


    One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

  7. Ethical calculus: the cross-cultural dilemmas and moral burdens of Fatih Akin's 'The Edge of Heaven' [Review of: F. Akin Auf der anderen Seite = The edge of heaven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.


    Fatih Akin's 2007 film "Auf der anderen Seite" ("The Edge of Heaven" is discussed, focusing on the plot, the themes, the cross-cultural and moral dilemmas within it, and its context within Akin's other movies.

  8. Incorporating cultural issues in education for ethical practice. (United States)

    Yarbrough, Susan; Klotz, Linda


    The population of most non-dominant ethnic groups in the USA is growing dramatically. Faculty members are challenged to develop curricula that adequately prepare our future nurses. An increased focus on clinical ethics has resulted from the use of sophisticated technology, changes in health care financing, an increasing elderly population and the shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. Nurses frequently face situations demanding resolution of ethical dilemmas involving cultural differences. Nursing curricula must include content on both ethics and cultural sensitivity. Active student participation is an important element providing a foundation for ethical practice. A proposed educational format was introduced with graduating baccalaureate students. In a pilot study, curricular content on cultural sensitivity and ethical practice was taught in separate modules. Students were then asked to identify and problem solve an ethical dilemma involving patients and professional caregivers from vastly different cultures. Course faculty members provided discussion questions to guide the students' thinking.

  9. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly. (United States)

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F


    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature.

  10. Ethical Dilemmas when Diagnosing Hypertension Dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Montero Díaz


    Full Text Available A review on the ethical dilemmas in the diagnosis of hypertension and some elements in the emergence of the bioethics concept was performed. Ethical conflicts that appear at each stage of diagnosis of hypertension: at the time of providing the information, at the point of indication and performance of diagnostic tests, when communicating the diagnosis and during subsequent decision making were identified. We conclude that technological development will introduce new ethical decisions in the diagnosis of hypertension that will increasingly involve the interests of society and create, in one way or another, ethical and moral conflict in the decision making process.Se realizó una revisión sobre los dilemas éticos en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial, así como de algunos elementos en el surgimiento del concepto de bioética. Se identificaron los conflictos éticos que aparecen en cada etapa del diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial: en el momento de suministrar la información, en el instante de la indicación y realización de las pruebas diagnósticas, en la comunicación del diagnóstico y en la toma de decisiones posteriores. Se concluye que el desarrollo tecnológico va a introducir nuevas decisiones éticas en el diagnóstico de la hipertensión arterial que van a involucrar cada vez más los intereses de la sociedad y crear de una manera u otra conflictos éticos y morales en la toma de decisiones.

  11. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring. (United States)

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.


    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  12. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education (United States)

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor


    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  13. Ethical issues occurring within nursing education. (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D; Davis, Anne J


    The large body of literature labeled "ethics in nursing education" is entirely devoted to curricular matters of ethics education in nursing schools, that is, to what ought to be the ethics content that is taught and what theory or issues ought to be included in all nursing curricula. Where the nursing literature actually focuses on particular ethical issues, it addresses only single topics. Absent from the literature, however, is any systematic analysis and explication of ethical issues or dilemmas that occur within the context of nursing education. The objective of this article is to identify the spectrum of ethical issues in nursing education to the end of prompting a systematic and thorough study of such issues, and to lay the groundwork for research by identifying and provisionally typologizing the ethical issues that occur within the context of academic nursing.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Operating with business ethic we meet, some ethical systems, some of them developed in Antiquity, that still have a great influence upon economics development. One of these is the ethics of virtue. The aim of this paper work is to focus upon the one ethical system virtue ethics and to illustrate his influence in economical field, offering a new coordination in this direction. We understand the importance of the human character for a successful leadership and management. Recent ethical dilemmas illustrate us how a vicious character has an influence not only to the possessor of that type of character but also to the entire community where he develop his activities. For a comprehensive understanding I expose a briefly review on virtue ethics as it was developed by Plato and Aristotle, ant its new coordination and influence upon our contemporaneous economy, illustrated by some examples.

  15. Perspectives on Applied Ethics



    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  16. 信访治理伦理困境的政治社会学诠解%An Explanation of Political Sociology for Ethical Dilemma of Petition Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The generation and spread of all kinds of unreasonable petition have gradually dominated the logic alignment of petition governance. The mainstream trend of marginal petition behavior is the characteriza- tion of dilemma of state transformation. In the process of disintegration of all - around enlightenment govern- ment, the secularization of ideology and dispersion of rights discourse make the statute ability of ideology of- fered by the state decline. The right to speak of the state washes out quickly. The ethical dilemma of petition governance precisely displays that the state falls into winding of ideology, cant dominate the direction of it and cant offer forceful right to speak. In order to reverse the fracture situation of ideological transformation and to jump out of the dilemma of petition governance, it is necessary to make overall arrangements from both politi- cal level and governance level.%各种不合理上访行为的产生和蔓延,逐渐主导了信访治理的逻辑走向。边缘式上访行为的主流化趋势,是国家转型困局的表征。在全能教化政体走向解体的过程中,意识形态的世俗化和权利话语的弥散,使国家所提供的意识形态对民众的规约能力下降,国家的话语权快速流失。信访治理遭遇的伦理困境,正是国家陷入意识形态缠绕、无力主导意识形态方向和提供强有力的话语权的表现。为扭转国家意识形态转型断裂的局面,走出信访治理困境,需要从政治与治理两个层面统筹安排。

  17. Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives. (United States)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc


    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

  18. The Impact of the Nurse-Physician Professional Relationship on Nurses' Experience of Ethical Dilemmas in Effective Pain Management. (United States)

    Van Niekerk, Leesa Micole; Martin, Frances


    A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…

  19. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.


    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  20. Discuss on Ethical Dilemma in School Social Work%试论学校社会工作中的伦理困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣飞霞; 陈琼


    As a kind of professional work to help people, social work has developed vigorously in recent years with the strong support of the government, society and enterprises. In some developed cities which lie in coastal areas, school social work has come into being as well. Many schools have had professional team of social work. Nevertheless, school social workers still face various ethical dilemmas in the process of services.%近年来,社会工作作为一项专业的助人工作,在政府、社会、企业等各方面的大力支持下蓬勃发展。沿海地区一些发达城市里,学校社会工作也开始起动,很多学校都拥有了专业的社会工作队伍,然而学校社会工作者在提供服务的过程中,却常常陷入种种伦理困境。

  1. The medical-legal quandary of healthcare in capital punishment: an ethical dilemma for the anesthesia provider. (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin W


    The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"?

  2. Organizational ethics: a literature review. (United States)

    Suhonen, Riitta; Stolt, Minna; Virtanen, Heli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena


    The aim of the study was to report the results of a systematically conducted literature review of empirical studies about healthcare organizations' ethics and management or leadership issues. Electronic databases MEDLINE and CINAHL yielded 909 citations. After a two stage application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria 56 full-text articles were included in the review. No large research programs were identified. Most of the studies were in acute hospital settings from the 1990s onwards. The studies focused on ethical challenges, dilemmas in practice, employee moral distress and ethical climates or environments. Study samples typically consisted of healthcare practitioners, operational, executive and strategic managers. Data collection was mainly by questionnaires or interviews and most of the studies were descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional. There is need to develop conceptual clarity and a theoretical framework around the subject of organizational ethics and the breadth of the contexts and scope of the research needs to be increased.

  3. 'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain. (United States)

    Shaw, Alison


    This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children.

  4. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz


    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  5. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: a comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine. (United States)

    Campbell, Madeleine L H


    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven.

  6. Designing an Ethics Class. (United States)

    Prager, Richard


    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  7. 高等教育的创新发展研究——高等教育伦理困境的原因探析%Research on Higher Education Innovation Development:Higher Education Ethical Dilemma Reason Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    高等教育所面临的伦理困境,不断引起人们的反思.面对高等教育的伦理困境,我们经常思考是什么原因导致高等教育不能朝良性方向发展,反而面临着越来越多的困境,这一直是高等教育研究者不断探讨并研究的问题.针对当前高等教育的所面临的学校管理、教师育人以及学生学习等方面的困境,笔者认为应从多角度去分析高等教育所面临的困境,并分析这些困境所产生的真正原因,因为只有分析清楚了原因,我们才能针对问题原因,提出有效的解决措施.%Higher education faces ethical dilemma, and constantly arouses people's reflection. Facing the ethical predicaments of higher education, we often think what causes higher education can't develop towards the benign direction, but faces more and more troubles. It has been the topic that higher education researchers continuously explore and research. In view of dilemma in the school management, education for people and students' learning that the current higher education faces. The author thinks that we should analyze the dilemma that higher education faces from the multiple perspectives, and analyzes the causes of the dilemma, because only analyzing reason, we can put forward effective measures according to the reasons of problems.

  8. Sexuality Research in Iran: A Focus on Methodological and Ethical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam RAHMANI


    Full Text Available Background: Research on sensitive topics, such as sexuality, could raise technical, methodological, ethical, political, and legal challenges. The aim of this paper was to draw the methodological challenges which the authors confronted during sexuality research with young population in the Iranian culture.Methods: This study was an exploratory mixed method one conducted in 2013-14. We interviewed 63 young women aged 18-34 yr in qualitative phase and 265 young women in quantitative phase in (university and non-university dor-mitories and in an Adolescent Friendly Center. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual inter-views in the qualitative phase. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. To enhance the rigor of the data, multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied.Results: Five main themes emerged from the data: interaction with opposite sex, sexual risk, sexual protective, sex education, and sexual vulnerability. Challenges while conducting sex research have been discussed. These challenges included assumption of promiscuity, language of silence and privacy concerns, and sex segregation policy.Conclusion: We described the strategies applied in our study and the rationales for each strategy. Strategies applied in the present study can be employed in contexts with the similar methodological and moral concerns.

  9. Sexuality Research in Iran: A Focus on Methodological and Ethical Considerations (United States)



    Background: Research on sensitive topics, such as sexuality, could raise technical, methodological, ethical, political, and legal challenges. The aim of this paper was to draw the methodological challenges which the authors confronted during sexuality research with young population in the Iranian culture. Methods: This study was an exploratory mixed method one conducted in 2013–14. We interviewed 63 young women aged 18–34 yr in qualitative phase and 265 young women in quantitative phase in (university and non-university) dormitories and in an Adolescent Friendly Center. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews in the qualitative phase. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. To enhance the rigor of the data, multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied. Results: Five main themes emerged from the data: interaction with opposite sex, sexual risk, sexual protective, sex education, and sexual vulnerability. Challenges while conducting sex research have been discussed. These challenges included assumption of promiscuity, language of silence and privacy concerns, and sex segregation policy. Conclusion: We described the strategies applied in our study and the rationales for each strategy. Strategies applied in the present study can be employed in contexts with the similar methodological and moral concerns. PMID:26576376

  10. Focus on the Activity of a Local Ethics Committee in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barbadoro


    Full Text Available

    Background: The continuing evolution of medical treatments and the loss of neutrality of medicine with respect to morality of human values have represented the major tracking elements towards settings of sharing of choices between society and medicine. Several concerns have been raised upon links between pharmaceutical corporations and researchers. Moreover, being in a learning environment, we must pay even more attention to these items because students appear to be at risk for unrecognized influence by marketing efforts. The aim of this study is to focus on the activities of a local ethics committee (LEC and the characteristics of the protocols discussed in an Italian LEC during a three year period (2001-2003.

    Methods: Three years of activity of a LEC were analysed by a questionnaire registering: main sponsorship, setting, technical characteristics of trials, outcome of the submission to the LEC, state of progress. Approved trials were followed-up until April 30th, 2005.

    Results: A total of 345 protocols were discussed. 67.8% (n = 198 of approved protocols were submitted by a pharmaceutical corporation. 72.6% (n = 212 of studies approved in 2001 were still in progress in 2005. 91.3% (n = 73 of closed trials had a pharmaceutical corporation as their main sponsor. None of the submitted studies focused on prevention strategies.

    Conclusions: These results show how important grants offered by pharmaceutical industries are, the efforts spent on therapy and the lack of investors in prevention.

  11. Physician-assisted suicide of patients with dementia. A medical ethical analysis with a special focus on patient autonomy. (United States)

    Gather, Jakov; Vollmann, Jochen


    For many years there has been a controversial international debate on physician-assisted suicide (PAS). While proponents of PAS regularly refer to the unbearable suffering and the right of self-determination of incurably ill patients, critics often warn about the diverse risks of abuse. In our article, we aim to present ethical arguments for and against PAS for patients in an early stage of dementia. Our focus shall be on ethical questions of autonomy, conceptual and empirical findings on competence and the assessment of mental capacity to make health care decisions. While the capacity to make health care decisions represents an ethically significant precondition for PAS, it becomes more and more impaired in the course of the dementia process. We present conditions that should be met in order to ethically justify PAS for patients with dementia. From both a psychiatric and an ethical perspective, a thorough differential diagnosis and an adequate medical and psychosocial support for patients with dementia considering PAS and their relatives should be guaranteed. If, after due deliberation, the patient still wishes assistance with suicide, a transparent and documented assessment of competence should be conducted by a professional psychiatrist.

  12. Resolving Ethical Issues at School (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.


    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  13. Ethical Concerns in School Counseling. (United States)

    Huey, Wayne C.


    Discusses ethical dilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethical dilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)

  14. Why should nanoscience students be taught to be ethically competent? (United States)

    Rasmussen, Anna Julie; Ebbesen, Mette


    During the education of scientists at the university level the students become more and more specialized. The specialization of the students is a consequence of the scientific research becoming specialized as well. In the interdisciplinary field of nanoscience the importance of specialization is also emphasized throughout the education. Being an interdisciplinary field of study the specialization in this area is not focused on scientific disciplines, but on the different branches of the research. Historically ethics has not been a priority in science education, however, in recent years the importance of such teachings has been highly recognize especially in medicine, biotechnology and engineering. The rapid development, the many new and unknown areas and the highly specialized focus of nanotechnology suggest the importance of having ethically competent researchers. In this article the importance of ethical competence in nanoscience research is argued for by an example of a dilemma that could occur in a research project. The dilemma is analyzed using two different ethical views, generating two different choices for action. It is seen that the dilemma can have more than one solution and that ethical competence can help in justifying the choice of solution in a specific situation. Furthermore it is suggested that a way to reach this competence is through education in ethics incorporated into the nanoscience education curriculum.

  15. The Dilemma of Practical Ethics Education for Contemporary College Students and the Research for a Solution%当代大学生道德实践教育的困境及对策探寻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    当前大学生道德实践教育遭遇严峻挑战,这与社会层面的功利主义、实用主义等思想的侵蚀和个人境界的层次、自律性不强等主客观方面原因都有内在关联。可通过道德教育目标的崇高定位、道德教育内容的德性培育和道德教育方式的体验养成等途径来加以完善。%The practical ethics education for college students is facing a severe challenge which shares a connection with objective and subjective factors such as,social utilitarianism,the influence of pragmatism,personal ideological level, lacking of self-discipline, etc. The dilemma can be enhanced by aiming at a higher target in ethical education, fostering the ethical characters of ethical education,and the acquirement of experiencing ethical teaching methods.

  16. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent (United States)

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton


    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  17. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  18. A Framework for Ethical Analysis. (United States)

    Gunby, Susan Sweat

    This paper on ethical issues in the gerontological nursing curriculum explores meanings of the concept of ethics and differences between ethical decision making and other decision-making processes. Four mind-sets about health care that influence the analysis of ethical dilemmas, identified by M. Aroskar, are described. The contributions of…

  19. The ethics of neuromodulation for anorexia nervosa: a focus on rTMS (United States)


    Objective Recently there has been emerging clinical and research interest in the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To our knowledge, few studies have discussed ethical aspects associated with the increased use of neuromodulation in AN, some of which are quite specific to AN, despite the rapid development and dissemination of these new technologies. Method We provide a brief overview of three published rTMS studies for AN and discuss ethical issues involved in the use of neuromodulation for AN. Results In contrast to neurosurgery or DBS, rTMS is a less invasive technique, with less associated risk, and thus has greater potential to become a more widespread augmentation or add-on therapy for AN. New therapeutic procedures are promising, yet they raise ethical questions regarding informed consent and patient selection. Illness-specific issues surrounding authenticity and autonomy are important to consider, ensuring an ethical approach to treatment for patients with AN. Discussion We argue that ethical investigations for neuromodulation techniques are timely and important, and discussions should go beyond the immediate goals of patient safety, consent, and risk and benefit, to consider broader ethical concepts such as authenticity and autonomy. PMID:24690315

  20. Reexamining the Ethics of Nuclear Technology. (United States)

    Andrianov, Andrei; Kanke, Victor; Kuptsov, Ilya; Murogov, Viktor


    This article analyzes the present status, development trends, and problems in the ethics of nuclear technology in light of a possible revision of its conceptual foundations. First, to better recognize the current state of nuclear technology ethics and related problems, this article focuses on presenting a picture of the evolution of the concepts and recent achievements related to technoethics, based on the ethics of responsibility. The term 'ethics of nuclear technology' describes a multidisciplinary endeavor to examine the problems associated with nuclear technology through ethical frameworks and paradigms. Second, to identify the reasons for the intensification of efforts to develop ethics in relation to nuclear technology, this article presents an analysis of the recent situation and future prospects of nuclear technology deployment. This includes contradictions that have aggravated nuclear dilemmas and debates stimulated by the shortcomings of nuclear technology, as well as the need for the further development of a nuclear culture paradigm that is able to provide a conceptual framework to overcome nuclear challenges. Third, efforts in the field of nuclear technology ethics are presented as a short overview of particular examples, and the major findings regarding obstacles to the development of nuclear technology ethics are also summarized. Finally, a potential methodological course is proposed to overcome inaction in this field; the proposed course provides for the further development of nuclear technology ethics, assuming the axiological multidisciplinary problematization of the main concepts in nuclear engineering through the basic ethical paradigms: analytical, hermeneutical, and poststructuralist.

  1. Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985). (United States)

    Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

    A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4)…

  2. Test Your Ethics. (United States)

    Currents, 1987


    To illustrate the sorts of ethical quandaries institutional advancement professionals face, five fictitious case studies were compiled, including the matching gift muddle, deception dilemma, public relations predicament, vexing vendor, and the plagiarism puzzle. (MLW)

  3. Ethical Dilemma and Countermeasure in Clinical Setting for Nurses in Department of Organ Transplantation%器官移植科护士在临床工作中的伦理困惑及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆秋江; 叶海丹; 林清华; 陈公云; 陈璐


    针对器官移植科护士在临床工作中遭遇的伦理困惑,即对“移植术前家属要求不告知患者病情”、“照顾临终患者”及“实习护士带教”的困惑.提出以下解决对策:确定患者的根本利益所在,思考并灵活运用适当的伦理原则,采取有效的沟通方式及负责任的伦理行为,关怀照顾患者的身体和情绪反应,维护患者的根本利益,尊重及保障患者的权益.通过长期、循序渐进的临床护理伦理决策训练,提高伦理决策能力,在解决临床伦理问题的同时,又兼顾患者的最大利益,为其提供高品质的护理服务.%Based on the ethical dilemma usually encountered by nurses in the department of organ transplantation , such as not telling patients their diseases before transplantation according to their family members, taking care of the dying patients, and teaching the internship nurses, this paper proposed the following countermeasures: considering the fundamental benefits of patients, correctly applying the etkical principles, adopting effective communications and responsible ethical actions, taking care of patients'physical and emotional responses, respecting and ensuring the legal rights of patients. The ability of ethical decision making should be promoted via a long - term, gradual and orderly training, which can not only facilitate to resolve the ethical dilemmas but also give consideration to the patients right and provide high quality nursing service.

  4. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care. (United States)

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C


    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  5. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system. (United States)

    Millstone, Michael


    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine.

  6. From subject to participant: ethics and the evolving role of community in health research. (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Mikesell, Lisa; Jones, Felica; Khodyakov, Dmitry


    Belmont Report principles focus on the well-being of the research subject, yet community-engaged investigators often eschew the role of subject for that of participant. We conducted semistructured interviews with 29 community and academic investigators working on 10 community-engaged studies. Interviews elicited perspectives on ethical priorities and ethical challenges. Interviewees drew on the Belmont Report to describe 4 key principles of ethical community-engaged research (embodying ethical action, respecting participants, generalizing beneficence, and negotiating justice). However, novel aspects of the participant role were the source of most ethical challenges. We theorize that the shift in ethical focus from subject to participant will pose new ethical dilemmas for community-engaged investigators and for other constituents interested in increasing community involvement in health research.

  7. Information technology and ethics: An exploratory factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Loch, K.D. [Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Helft, B.L. [Baruch College, New York, NY (United States)


    Ethical dilemmas are situations in which a decision results in unpleasant consequences. The unpleasant consequences are treated as a zero-sum game in which someone always loses. Introducing information technology (IT) to a situation makes the recognition of a potential loser more abstract and difficult to identify, thus an ethical dilemma may go unrecognized. The computer mediates the human relationship which causes a lost sense of contact with a person at the other end of the computer connection. In 1986, Richard O. Mason published an essay identifying privacy, accuracy, property, and Access (PAPA) as the four main ethical issues of the information age. Anecdotes for each issue describe the injured party`s perspective to identify consequences resulting from unethical use of information and information technology. This research sought to validate Mason`s social issues empirically, but with distinct differences. Mason defined issues to raise awareness and initiate debate on the need for a social agenda; our focus is on individual computer users and the attitudes they hold about ethical behavior in computer use. This study examined the attitudes of the computer user who experiences the ethical dilemma to determine the extent to which ethical components are recognized, and whether Mason`s issues form recognizable constructs.

  8. [Ethical issues in nursing leadership]. (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Hung, Chich-Hsiu


    Social transition causes shifts and changes in the relationship between health professionals and their patients. In their professional capacity, it is important today for nurses to handle ethical dilemmas properly, in a manner that fosters an ethical environment. This article investigates the ethical concerns and decision processes of nurses from a knowledge construction perspective, and examines such issues as patient needs, staff perceptions, organizational benefits, and professional image. The decision making methods commonly used when facing ethical dilemma explored in this study include the traditional problem solving, nursing process, MORAL model, and Murphy's methods. Although decision making for ethical dilemmas is governed by no universal rule, nurses are responsible to try to foster a trusting relationship between employee and employer, health care providers and patients, and the organization and colleagues. When decision making on ethical dilemmas is properly executed quality care will be delivered and malpractice can be reduced.

  9. 大数据预测的伦理困境与出路%Ethical Dilemmas and Solutions of Big Data Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋洁; 陈芳; 何亮亮


    立足海量信息资源与尖端分析技术的大数据预测模型在有效指导商业决策、优化资源分配、降低管理成本并提升教育科研水平的同时,存在结果预判挑战自由、隐私披露挑战尊严、信息垄断挑战公平、固化标签挑战正义等伦理背反问题。亟待通过健全以尊重原则、橡皮原则、无害原则、可持续发展原则等为核心的后现代数据伦理体系,有效表达各方自由意志并平衡利益冲突、顺利传承良善伦理观念、实现大数据生态系统的良性循环、推动人类生存价值与自然永续发展的和谐共进。%Based on mass data and sophisticated technique, big data prediction can effectively guide business decision-making, optimize resource allocation, reduce administrative costs, and enhance education and scientific research levels. We focus on issues of violating ethical standards, such as results prediction infringing freedom, privacy disclosure infringing dignity, information monopoly infringing fairness, and stereotypes infringing justice, etc. The article proposes specific initiatives of constructing the system of ethical principles, such as respect, rubber, harmlessness, and sustainable development, which will express each free will, balance conflict of interest, inherit kind ethical opinions, realize the virtuous cycle of big data ecosystem, and promote harmonious development of human survival value and natural age-long development.

  10. Ethical dilemma and countermeasures of organ transplantation in China%我国器官移植中的伦理困境及解决思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊民胜; 李久辉


    In the last ten years organ transplantations in China have made substantial progress in the field of transplantation techniques, transplantation quantity and quality, clinical management and regulation establishment. Meanwhile, the organ transplantation in China has some inherent disadvantages: the technical teams coming mainly from experts after overseas studies; clinical technologies introduced from the west, weakness in the fundamental research and innovation; retarded law and regulation establishment, lacking of institutional guarantee for a sound transplantation development. All these have created a number of shortcomings concerning the sources of organ donation and organ distribution: non regulated usage of death penalty prisoners' organ, homicide for organ selling, organ selling from the living, and patient recruitment by internet, which arose worldwide attention and criticism. It is thus of importance to review and synthesize the history of organ transplantation in China, to analyze the misunderstanding and ethical dilemma in its practices, and to find correct ways to develop it so as to promote a better and healthier development of organ transplantation in China.%我国的器官移植近10年来有了发展,无论从技术层面、移植数量和质量、临床管理以及法规建设上都有了长足的进步.然而,由于我们在开展器官移植方面的先天不足,例如从事器官移植的技术队伍主要是来自海外学成归来的专家;技术主要靠引进西方的临床技术,在基础研究和创新方面相对薄弱;在法律和管理制度的建设方面相对滞后,没有建立一个从制度上保证器官移植健康开展的系统,使得在器官供体来源和器官的公正分配上存在许多欠缺.因此有必要对我国的器官移植历史进行回顾和总结,对我国在器官移植中存在的错误观念和伦理困境进行剖析,寻找适合我国开展器官移植的正确途径,促进我国的器官移植事业健康发展.

  11. Denis Goulet and the project of development ethics : Choices in methodology, focus and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractDenis Goulet (1931-2006) was a pioneer of human development theory and the main founder of work on “development ethics” as a self-conscious field that, by his definition, treats the ethical and value questions posed by development theory, planning, and practice. The paper looks at aspect

  12. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research. (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C


    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  13. Whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases: ethical dilemmas arising from commercialization--the case of genetic testing for autism. (United States)

    Jordan, Bertrand R; Tsai, Daniel Fu Chang


    This paper examines some ethical issues arising from whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases, focusing on the case of autism. Events occurring following the announcement of a genetic test for autism in France (2005-2009) are described to exemplify the ethical controversies that can arise when genetic testing for autism is applied prematurely and inappropriately promoted by biotech companies. The authors argue that genetic tests assessing one or a few genes involved in highly multigenic disorders can only be useful if: (1) the genetic linkage found in the scientific study must be statistically convincing, reproducible and also applicable to the population to which the individual considered belongs (scientific validity); (2) the relative risk conferred by the 'high-risk' allele should be high enough to be significant to the patient (significant impact); (3) use of the test should lead to some improvement of outcome for the patient, resulting from adapted treatment if available, or at least from adjustment of lifestyle (or life goals) prompted by the new knowledge generated (clinical utility). Decisions concerning genetic testing for autism involve scientific judgement, value judgement and good knowledge of a constantly evolving therapeutic environment. The implementation of genetic tests for highly multigenic diseases thus requires strong mechanisms to ensure that they are used in a fashion that can benefit patients, and these mechanisms must be able to cope with rapid progress in scientific knowledge and therapeutic intervention.

  14. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework. (United States)

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris


    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  15. Offerpositionens dilemmaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    Denne artikel handler om nogle af de dilemmaer, som offerpositionering kan indebære. Der er tale om dilemmaer, som ofte overses af de autoriteter, der har med mennesker udsat for relationel aggression at gøre. At indtage en eksplicit offerposition kan nogle gange betyde endelig eksklusion fra de ...

  16. Ethics of research on survivors of trauma. (United States)

    Seedat, Soraya; Pienaar, Willem P; Williams, David; Stein, Daniel J


    Essential elements of all research include balance of risks and benefits, unbiased selection of research samples, and assurance of the rights of individual participants. This paper highlights some key ethical issues and summarizes recent evidence relating to participation in, and conduct of, trauma-focused studies with special reference to vulnerable populations (eg, women and children, refugees, survivors of human rights violations, and survivors of trauma in the developing world). A concise ethical framework, rather than rigid guidelines (that may not be applicable to all trauma studies), may be a more useful point of reference for investigators and ethics committees or institutional review boards. Despite the increased empiric data available to inform ethical dilemmas regarding trauma research, more cost-burden analysis research in varying trauma populations and careful investigation of factors that contribute to risk and benefit is required.

  17. Ethics in the bank internet encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan


    /implications – The important implication for managerial research of this study would be for banks to focus on customer competency with an ethical concern instead of only being concerned with technical solutions for effective internet operations. Practical implications – Since more and more businesses are digitally based......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss...... the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected...

  18. Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth (United States)

    Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin


    There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

  19. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories. (United States)

    Bowman, Ann


    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  20. [Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center]. (United States)

    Richter, G


    Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service

  1. 从“善有恶报”看当今社会的伦理困境%A Critical Look at Ethical Dilemma in Contemporary Society from "One Good Turn Never Deserves Another"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁; 吴杨婷


    Based on the analysis of the various immoral phenomena caused by some people′s ill-treatment towards good deeds,starting from the moral options of utilitarianism as well as the ineffectiveness of the moral law,the paper critically analyzed the ethical dilemma in contemporary society,and proposed relevant measures to solve current moral problems.%分析各种"善有恶报"的不道德现象,从功利主义的道德选择和道德律令的失效着手,深入剖析当今社会的伦理困境,在此基础上提出解决现存道德问题的相应对策。

  2. Managers’ Views on Ethics Education in Business Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Arnardottir, Audur Arna; Vaiman, Vlad


    More and more scholars are expressing their apprehensions regarding the current state of management education. The increased number of corporate scandals has fueled their concerns that training students to have sound business ethics upon graduation has failed. Consequently, research is emerging...... that focuses on the lack of impact that business ethics teaching has had on students in recent years. Remarkably, the voice of managers has barely been heard in this area, even though they are the ones who are among those best suited to evaluate graduates’ capabilities to solve ethical dilemmas. This research...... presents the managers’ view on the role of business schools in training students in business ethics, and the managers’ evaluation of business schools’ success in that area. The findings reveal that managers are quite disappointed with the lack of improvement in the ethics of graduating students. Managers...

  3. Ethical issues in the management of thyroid disease. (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Sara


    The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context. Clinical ethics is a subspecialty of bioethics that deals with bedside ethical dilemmas that specifically involve the provider-patient relationship. Such issues include consent and capacity; weighing therapeutic benefits against risks and side-effects; innovative therapies; end of life care; unintended versus intentional harms to patients or patient populations; and healthcare access. This article will review core ethical principles for practice, as well as the moral and legal requirements of informed consent. It will then discuss the range of unique and universal ethical issues and considerations that present in the management of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer.

  4. Ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses presented in nursing publications Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros y presentados en publicaciones de enfermería Dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros apresentados em publicações de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelane Alves Monteiro


    Full Text Available This systematic literature review used nursing studies about "ethics" published in the SCIELO database. The objective was to identify the ethical dilemmas of nursing, based on a literature review of nursing publications between 2002 and 2006. Forty publications were found, of which seventeen were selected. The analysis of the articles permitted the organization of the following categories: ethics, the health system and nursing practice; ethics and nursing teaching-learning; ethics and nursing care. We noticed that the authors attributed a multidimensional approach to ethical issues. However, we considered it necessary to pay closer attention to the ethical aspects involved in nursing practice. There is a clear need for further studies, showing new ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses, so that they can contribute to a change in attitude, with outcomes for professional practice.Se trata de una revisión sistemática de la literatura, realizada en artículos del área de la enfermería, contenidos en el banco de datos SCIELO, y que abordaron el tema "ética". El estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los dilemas éticos de la enfermería a partir de una revisión de la literatura en publicaciones sobre esa área, en el período de 2002 a 2006. Se localizaron cuarenta publicaciones, de las cuales fueron seleccionadas diecisiete. El análisis de los artículos permitió la organización de las categorías en: ética, el sistema de salud y la práctica de enfermería, ética y la enseñanza-aprendizaje en la enfermería y, ética y el cuidado de enfermería. Se percibió que los autores realizaron, sobre las cuestiones éticas, un abordaje multidimensional, entretanto, se consideró necesario, en este estudio, dar mayor atención a los aspectos éticos que se encuentran frecuentemente en la práctica de enfermería. Quedó clara la necesidad de realizar otros estudios que pongan en evidencia nuevos dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeros, en el

  5. Ethical dilemmas in college psychological consultant of psychological crisis intervention and coping research%高校心理咨询师心理危机干预中伦理困境与应对研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The psychological crisis is common to the psychological state of college students is a kind of special status, by psychological crisis caused by a series of events received extensive attention of the outside world public opinion. Therefore, to carry out effective psychological intervention measures is a major problem of colleges and universities is urgently needed. College counselors are dedicated to the important part of psychological crisis, have more professional knowledge of psychology. Through the present situation of psychological crisis intervention in colleges and universities, the author in this paper, the ethical dilemma of psychological crisis intervention, put forward a series of measures to solve the ethical dilemma.%心理危机是大学生心理状态中常见的一种特殊状态,由心理危机引发的一系列事件受到外界舆论的广泛关注。因此,开展有效的心理干预措施是各大高校刻不容缓的重大问题。高校心理咨询师是专门处理心理危机事件的重要构成部分,具备较为专业的心理学知识。笔者通过我国高校心理危机干预现状,阐述心理危机干预中的伦理困境,提出一系列解决伦理困境的措施。

  6. Using print focused collection development policies in digitally born libraries: dilemmas. Which dies first: the print or the print CDP?

    KAUST Repository

    Buck, Stephen


    Objectives: The King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST) library is a ‘born digital’ library. The core, and vast majority, of library resources was acquired in electronic form and a smaller print collection, which complemented the wider collection, was acquired contemporaneously. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether, in conjunction with our specific print collections development policy, we need a complementary E-Resources policy. The writing of such a policy utilizes valuable resources (both staff and time) and involves itself with the sometimes vaguely defined and complex concept of collection evaluation. Issues in e-resources are constantly changing and updates will be necessary to reflect this. How, and how often, do we update our E-Resources CDP? While Biblarz (2001) maintains that the main argument for the existence of a print CDP is to prevent the library from being driven by events or by individual enthusiasms and from purchasing a random set of resources, which may not support the mission of the library this paper explores issues in maintaining a joint print and ‘E’ CDP. Methodology: This case study of KAUST University Library discusses our print and E-collections in the context of the vision and mission of the university. While the research on crossover, between print and E-Resource CDPs is scarce, on studying a cross section of other university library CDPs it can be seen that the print CDP, which was formerly a main driver of library policy, is now overwhelmingly no more than a minor subsection of the overall CDPs of many libraries. Two IFLA documents were also compared in their approaches to dealing with print and ‘E’ CDPs. Key Issues for E-Resource Collection Development (Johnson, 2012) focuses on key aspects of the e-resource process in libraries. Crucially it is stated that the current document is simply a snapshot of best practices at this point in time. The 2001 IFLA Guidelines for a Collection Development

  7. 法理与伦理的互动与困境——中国法伦理学研究30年%Interaction between and Dilemma of Legal Theory and Ethics --Review on Studies on Legal Ethics in China for 30 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培超; 张启江


    道德与法律始终是法理学与伦理学学科研究的基本范畴,然而,两大学科之间的互动阙如,造成理论研究成果互不通约的困境。作为两大学科交叉形成的法伦理学研究范式试图消除该困境,形成互动,此等努力与愿望在该学科近30年的发展进程中得到了见证。%Morals and law are the basic category of the research of legal ethics and ethics. However, the lack of interaction between these two subjects causes the dilemma of uncommensurability of theoretical research achievements. The research paradigm of legal eth- ics as interdisciplinary subject aims to eliminate this dilemma and form interaction, which is evidenced by the subject development of 30 years.

  8. Fund my treatment!: A call for ethics-focused social science research into the use of crowdfunding for medical care. (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Mathers, Annalise; Crooks, Valorie A


    Crowdfunding involves raising money from large groups of individuals, often through the use of websites dedicated to this purpose. Crowdfunding campaigns aimed at raising money to pay for expenses related to receiving medical treatment are receiving increased media attention and there is evidence that medical crowdfunding websites are heavily used. Nonetheless, virtually no scholarly attention has been paid to these medical crowdfunding campaigns and there is no systematic evidence about how widely they are used and for what reasons, and what effects they have on the provision of medical care and individuals' relationships to their health systems. Ethical concerns have been raised in relation to these campaigns, focusing on issues for campaigners and donors such as exposure to fraudulent campaigns, loss of privacy, and fairness in how medical crowdfunding funds are distributed. Medical crowdfunding websites themselves have not been systematically studied, despite their significant influence on how these campaigns are developed and promoted. In this paper, we identify three very broad and pressing ethical questions regarding medical crowdfunding for social scientists to address and offer some preliminary insights into key issues informing future answers to each: Who benefits the most from medical crowdfunding and how does medical crowdfunding affect access to medical care; How does medical crowdfunding affect our understanding of the causes of inadequate access to medical care; and How are campaigner and donor privacy affected by website design? Our observations indicate the need for increased scholarly attention to the ethical and practical effects of medical crowdfunding for campaigners, recipients, donors, and the health system as a whole.

  9. Teaching Ethics by Case Analysis. (United States)

    Fromer, Margot Joan


    Starting with basic philosophic positions and principles, nursing students can be helped to analyze ethical dilemmas of increasing complexity. A hypothetical situation is presented and discussed as an example of a case study used to teach these principles. (CT)

  10. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern (United States)

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie


    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  11. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making. (United States)

    Coleman, Renita


    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  12. Empirical ethics in action: lessons from two empirical studies in nursing ethics. (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Grypdonck, Mieke; Cannaerts, Nancy; Steeman, Els


    Despite the burgeoning of publications in nursing ethics, only more recently has empirical evidence on nursing ethics been published. How nursing ethics can be empirically studied as well as enriched by empirical data will be the focus of this paper. Two empirical studies will be briefly presented and their contribution to ethics discussed. The first one is a quantitative research project about nurses' ethical behavior in daily practice. Using an adapted version of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, this study tried to describe and explore nurses' responses to ethical dilemmas in daily nursing practice. The second study attempted to describe the specificity of residential palliative care. A qualitative approach was used to explore and describe the processes that take place on an inpatient palliative care unit, and the experiences of patients, relatives and palliative care team members. The analysis of the value of both research projects for ethics underlines the power of empirical understanding in the relationship between research and ethics. The need for integration of both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies is argued.

  13. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good. (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian


    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics.

  14. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen


    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  15. Modeling Psychologists' Ethical Intention: Application of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior. (United States)

    Ferencz-Kaddari, Michall; Shifman, Annie; Koslowsky, Meni


    At the core of all therapeutic and medical practice lies ethics. By applying an expanded Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior formulation, the present investigation tested a model for explaining psychologists' intention to behave ethically. In the pretest, dual relationships and money conflicts were seen as the most prevalent dilemmas. A total of 395 clinical psychologists filled out questionnaires containing either a dual relationship dilemma describing a scenario where a psychologist was asked to treat a son of a colleague or a money-focused dilemma where he or she was asked to treat a patient unable to pay for the service. Results obtained from applying the expanded Ajzen's model to each dilemma, generally, supported the study hypotheses. In particular, attitudes were seen as the most important predictor in both dilemmas followed by a morality component, defined here as the commitment of the psychologist to the patient included here as an additional predictor in the model. The expanded model provided a better understanding of ethical intention. Practical implications were also discussed.

  16. Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement (United States)

    Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet


    This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

  17. 'Wicked' ethics: Compliance work and the practice of ethics in HIV research. (United States)

    Heimer, Carol A


    Using ethnographic material collected between 2003 and 2007 in five HIV clinics in the US, South Africa, Uganda, and Thailand, this article examines "official ethics" and "ethics on the ground." It compares the ethical conundrums clinic staff and researchers confront in their daily work as HIV researchers with the dilemmas officially identified as ethical issues by bioethicists and people responsible for ethics reviews and compliance with ethics regulations. The tangled relation between ethical problems and solutions invites a comparison to Rittel and Webber's "wicked problems." Official ethics' attempts to produce universal solutions often make ethics problems even more wickedly intractable. Ethics on the ground is in part a reaction to this intractability.

  18. [Toward a practical ethic]. (United States)

    Vanbelle, Guido


    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  19. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric


    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  20. The role of ethics and deontology is essential must be reinforced in geosciences. Focus natural hazards and catastrophic risk. (United States)

    Zango-Pascual, Marga


    universities is fundamental but normally the study about ethics and professional deontology is not included in curricula of students. It this approach is not reinforced, it as least should not be diminished during disasters human rights problem and an obstacle to development, and for them to become an opportunity for meeting Sustainable Development Goals and Human Rights. The article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the right to live, and these disasters even affect people in terms of their right under article 3 to physical and moral integrity. This paper aims to focus on these aspects that sometimes overlooked. Examples from several countries were used and in the Spanish case the situation of studies of Professional Ethics will be analyzed in universities where they study geology and earth sciences related.

  1. School Psychologists' Ethical Strain and Rumination: Individual Profiles and Their Associations with Weekly Well-Being (United States)

    Huhtala, Mari; Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru


    We investigated school psychologists' experiences of ethical strain (the frequency of ethical dilemmas at work and the stress caused by these dilemmas) and dilemma-related rumination outside working hours. Individual latent profiles were estimated at the study baseline based on these three dimensions. The psychologists' weekly well-being (vigor,…

  2. Social Media Ethics


    Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Boukaouit, Dounia; Weeke Hervit, Benjamin Helmer; Winther Brødreskift, Ditte; Makilä, Riia Marette; Pingel Vogel, Klara Elisa; Wolter Strate, Simon


    With the opportunities for anonymity and free expression on the Internet it is it is not inconceivable that moral and ethical dilemmas occur. To give examples of this, we have chosen to analyse two case studies that are concerned with ethical dilemmas. The first case concerns the hacker group “Anonymous” which revealed personal information and accused two men of being paedophiles. The second case deals with the violation of privacy based on the famous meme “Scumbag Steve”. The two dimensions ...

  3. Vulnerable participants in health research: methodological and ethical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna


    , leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  4. Vulnerable participants in health research: methodological and ethical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Kappel, Nanna


    . The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over-simplistic representations of the often ‘messy’ realities surrounding the research process that is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics......, leaving both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In this article, we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD research. The question is how to illuminate the needs and problems......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki Declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and healthcare research, in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research...

  5. An Analysis of Ethics Laws, Compliance with Ethical Standards, and Ethical Core Competency within the Department of the Army (United States)


    requirements failed to create, motivate, and sustain a command climate that encourages ethical decision-making. An ethical culture is a reflection of...creeds, oaths, ethos, and shared beliefs embedded within Army culture ” (Center for the Army Profession and Ethic [CAPE], 2014, p. 11). The following are...application of the material taught. The project also examines ethical dilemmas that occur when ethical regulations are ambiguous or absent. The

  6. New Innovative Ethical Principles in Increasing Road Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Miletić


    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Future managers are faced daily with a variety of ethical dilemmas in traffic that need to be balanced by the interests of all participants. The question is whether a new innovative model of ethical principles could be developed that would increase road safety.Purpose: The a im is to raise the level of social responsibility and relationship of participants in traffic as well as warn all participants on the importance of safety. In addition, the purpose is to share suggestions to other researchers for further research studies in the area of increasing traffic safety.Method: We carried out a quantitative study (survey among first year post-graduate students studying at a higher education school focused on quality management in south-eastern Slovenia. The article presents five different ethical scenarios.Results: The participants have very similar views on judging individual ethical dilemmas. The desire to increase road safety, have led to new useful suggestions for further study of innovative new ethical principles in the field of safety, such as: no death victims annually, adequate road infrastructure, improved vehicle technology, video surveillance systems, and so on.Organization: Relevant authorities should promote models of ethical thinking and the introduction of codes of conduct at an early age. As such, the state, police, rescuers, fire departments, hospitals, and so on, would have fewer deaths due to serious traffic accidents.Society: By taking these results and further research suggestions into account, society would gain a new model that would be based on zero accidents annually.Originality: Research in the field of ethics and innovative ethical principles of traffic safety is limited. The article presents practical examples of ethical and moral decision-making that we encounter in daily traffic. But nothing much is done to make it better ("every day the same story".Limitations/Future Research: The research study

  7. 高血压脑出血患者护理的伦理困境和对策%Ethical Dilemmas and Countermeasures in Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage Patient Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞素卿; 娄志玲; 季林玲; 邵吉红; 周莉丽


    高血压脑出血因其致死率和致残率高,导致预期治疗效果与患者实际状况之间、医院诊疗结果与传统死亡观之间、患者亲属之间产生一系列伦理冲突,也使密切和他们接触的护理人员不得不面对伦理困境.建议护理人员尊重生命,尊重患者和家属的价值观和信仰,加强护理管理,合理安排护理人员编制,加强伦理知识的学习和应用,促进护患和谐,提高患者和家属的生活质量.%Hypertension cerebral hemorrhage patients have high fatality rate and disability rate, which resulted in the ethical conflicts between treatment expection and the patients actual condition, hospital diagnosis results and the traditional view of life and death, and between the patients and their families, also bring some dilemmas for nursing staff who have close contact with them. This paper proposed that nursing staff should show respect for the values and believes of patients and their families'concept, enhancing care management, rationalizing the arrangements of nursing management and strengthening the learning and application of ethics knowledge so as to establish a harmonious relationship between the nursing staff and patients and thus improve the life quality of patients their families.

  8. 基于文献计量的护理伦理困境与决策研究状况及热点分析%Bibliometric Analysis on Research Status and Hotspots of Nursing Ethical Dilemmas and Decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 李维; 周志超


    Nursing ethical dilemmas and decision-making is a hot area of nursing ethics research in recent years in China. Totally 1491 papers on nursing ethical dilemmas and decision-making covered in Web of Science database were analyzed by application of HistCite and CiteSpace analysis tools, and the distribution of publication years, countries, key papers, the way of evolution and research hotspot were revealed in this article, in order to provide reference for nursing ethics decision-making research.%护理伦理困境与决策是近年来国内护理伦理学研究的热点。本文基于科学引文数据库Web of Science,应用HistCite和CiteSpace分析工具,对1491篇国际有关护理伦理困境与决策的研究论文进行文献计量研究,分析其时间分布、国家分布、关键文献、演进路径和研究热点,为国内护理伦理决策研究提供参考。

  9. Assisted or Hastened Death: The Healthcare Practitioner’s Dilemma (United States)

    MacLeod, Rod D; Wilson, Donna M; Malpas, Phillipa


    Assisting or hastening death is a dilemma with many ethical as well as practical issues facing healthcare practitioners in most countries worldwide now. Various arguments for and against assisted dying have been made over time but the call from the public for the legalisation of euthanasia and assisted suicide has never been stronger. While some studies have documented the reluctance of medical and other healthcare professionals to be involved in the practice of assisted dying or euthanasia, there is still much open debate in the public domain. Those who have the most experience of palliative care are strongest in their opposition to hastening death. This paper explores salient practical and ethical considerations for healthcare practitioners associated with assisting death, including a focus on examining the concepts of autonomy for patients and healthcare practitioners. The role of the healthcare practitioner has clearly and undoubtedly changed over time with advances in healthcare practices but the duty of care has not changed. The dilemmas for healthcare practitioners thus who have competent patients requesting hastened death extends far beyond acting within a country’s laws as they go to the very heart of the relationship between the practitioner and patient. PMID:23121745

  10. Encyclopedia of Information Ethics and Security


    Akbulut, Reviewed By Yavuz


    233Rapid developments in information andcommunication technologies have created newsecurity threats along with ethical dilemmas. Thesedevelopments have been so fast that appropriatesecurity precautions and ethical codes fail to keeppace with the technological developments. In thisrespect, education of both professionals andordinary citizens regarding information technologyethics carries utmost importance. Encyclopedia ofInformation Ethics and Security serves as anauthentic and comprehensive r...

  11. Ethical Dilemmas and the Thinking Path to be Dissolved in Social Work%社会工作中的伦理困境及化解路径思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张啸; 高杰


    Altruism is social workers must have the psychological quality , Self pay reward and external reward are endogenous and exogenous motives. The altruistic motivation model is constructed to analyze the psychological mechanism of social workers behavior and ethical dilemmas, to correctly understand of the contradictions and conflicts existing in the social work decisions, and know the effect and influence of reward in decision-making.%利他主义是社会工作者所必须具备的心理品质,自我酬赏和外来酬赏是利他行为的内源性与外源性动机。通过构建利他动机模型来分析社会工作者行为的心理机制和伦理困境,能正确认识社会工作决策中存在的矛盾和冲突,理解酬赏在困境决策中的作用和影响。

  12. A meaty matter. Pet diet and the vegetarian's dilemma. (United States)

    Rothgerber, Hank


    The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment.

  13. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen B.


    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  14. Complexity of the Current High and New Technology of Life Science Facing Ethical Dilemma during Its Development%论高新生命科学技术发展的伦理困境复杂性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The current high and new technology of life science facing ethical dilemma during its development ,which is beyond general medical ethical issues on its complexity . The ethical complexity derives from three factors : the diversification of bioethical issues initiated by the complexity of the post‐modern moral diversification ;the high and new technology of life science not only intervenes in the body function ,but also causes the other interventions which are beyond physical body ;the complexity of the response of the current Chinese bioethics . This paper considered that bioethics exploration under the Chinese discourse system was a worthy development path .However ,how to integrate the traditional culture ,western incoming culture and the modern Chinese culture to solve the Chinese bioethical problems is a long and difficult way .%当下高新生命科学技术在发展过程中面临着诸多伦理困境,而其复杂性超过了一般性的医学道德问题。高新生命科学技术伦理困境的复杂性源于三个因素:当下后现代道德多元化的复杂性所引发的生命伦理问题多元化;高新生命科学技术不仅干预身体机能,还引发超身体干预;中国当下生命伦理学应对的复杂性。中国话语体系下的生命伦理学探索是值得发展的路径,但如何整合传统文化、西方传入文化和当下中国现代文化,以解决中国本土的生命伦理问题,任重而道远。

  15. 运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与困境——基于生命伦理学视阈的研究%Ethics and Moral Dilemma in the Study on Physiology of Sport and Exercise --On the Perspective of Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金岭; 张淑香


    Exercise physiology has some distinct features such as intercross and so on, research methods of medical and other related disciplines are introduced by many researchers of contemporary exercise physiology, which lead to the research field of exercise physiology is broadened as well as the content of it is enriched contin- uously. It is just the application of new science and technology, combined with intervention and application of ways and means in medical, triggering a series of new ethical issues. Ensuing moral and ethical issues have caught our exercise physiology researchers in a dilemma. Based on the issues talked above, study ron the ethics and dilemma produced in the research of exercise physiology from the Perspective of bioethics is one of the social responsibilities which a sport scientist must take of. In this paper, by means of literature review, field survey, interview, etc. , the evolution of bioethics and research status in China are described. After that, the study on many problems of moral and ethical dilemma exercise physiology researcher faced has been conducted. And final- ly, some constructive suggestions were put forward in the paper.%运用文献资料、专家访谈法等研究方法,对生命伦理学的演进及其在我国的研究状况进行了阐述。在此基础上,对我国运动生理学研究中的道德伦理与面临的困境进行了深入剖析,最后,针对存在的问题提出了一些富有建设性的对策与意见。

  16. Puzzler's dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Niederman, Derrick


    The Puzzler's Dilemma explores the world of classic logic puzzles, and tells the amazing stories behind them, from the Lighthouse of Alexandria to code-breaking with the Enigma machine. Here are brain teasers that even maths whizzes have never seen explained by a mind as nimble and playful as Derrick Niederman's, the author of Number Freak and the New York Times's near-genius crossword setter. A man is found dead in a room, hanging from a rope with only a puddle of water beneath him: What happened? Just the thing to get your brain working at full speed!

  17. The Role of Communication in Organizations: Ethical Considerations. (United States)

    Pettit, John D., Jr.; And Others


    Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)

  18. Reflective Ethical Inquiry: Preparing Students for Life. IDEA Paper #54 (United States)

    Qualters, Donna M.; McDaniels, Melissa; Cohen, Perrin


    Although universities often teach ethics courses, they do not always teach students how to apply ethical course content to ethical dilemmas they encounter on a day-to-day basis. The Awareness-Investigation-Responding (AIR) model of ethical inquiry bridges this gap by scaffolding the reflective process and empowering students to make more caring,…

  19. Toward an horizon in design ethics. (United States)

    d'Anjou, Philippe


    This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma.

  20. Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihlgren Mona


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to

  1. The catatonic dilemma expanded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weder Natalie


    Full Text Available Abstract Catatonia is a common syndrome that was first described in the literature by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. The literature is still developing and remains unclear on many issues, especially classification, diagnosis, and pathophysiology. Clinicians caring for psychiatric patients with catatonic syndromes continue to face many dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss many of the common problems encountered in the care of a catatonic patient, and discuss each problem with a review of the literature. Focus is on practical aspects of classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, treatment, medical comorbidity, cognition, emotion, prognosis, and areas for future research in catatonic syndromes.

  2. Internação por ordem judicial: dilemas éticos vivenciados por enfermeiros Internación por orden judicial: dilemas éticos vividos por enfermeros Hospitalization by court order: ethical dilemmas experienced by nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira Vargas


    dilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethical dilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation.

  3. Integrating anticipated nutrigenomics bioscience applications with ethical aspects. (United States)

    Lévesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Gremmen, Bart; Godard, Béatrice


    Nutrigenomics is a subspecialty of nutrition science which aims to understand how gene-diet interactions influence individuals' response to food, disease susceptibility, and population health. Yet ethical enquiry into this field is being outpaced by nutrigenomics bioscience. The ethical issues surrounding nutrigenomics face the challenges of a rapidly evolving field which bring forward the additional dimension of crossdisciplinary integrative research between social and biomedical sciences. This article outlines the emerging nutrigenomics definitions and concepts and analyzes the existing ethics literature concerning personalized nutrition and presents "points to consider" over ethical issues regarding future nutrigenomics applications. The interest in nutrigenomics coincides with a shift in emphasis in medicine and biosciences toward prevention of future disease susceptibilities rather than treatment of already established disease. Hence, unique ethical issues emerge concerning the extent to which nutrigenomics can alter our relation to food, boundaries between health and disease, and the folklore of medical practice. Nutrigenomics can result in new social values, norms, and responsibilities for both individuals and societies. Nutrigenomics is not only another new application of "-omics" technologies in the context of gene-diet interactions. Nutrigenomics may fundamentally change the way we perceive human illness while shifting the focus and broadening the scope of health interventions from patients to healthy individuals. In resource- and time-limited healthcare settings, this creates unique ethical dilemmas and distributive justice issues. Ethical aspects of nutrigenomics applications should be addressed proactively, as this new science develops and increasingly coalesces with other applications of genomics in medicine and public health.

  4. Rating Ethical Content-Short Form (RECS) (United States)

    Gomberg, Anna; Orlova, Darya; Matthews, Amanda; Narvaez, Darcia


    The "Rating Ethical Content Scale" ("RECS") judges the content of stories for positive content, based on the Four Process model of ethical behavior: ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment, ethical focus and ethical action (Rest, 1983; Narvaez, & Rest, 1995). For example, a story with Ethical Sensitivity has evidence of…

  5. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié


    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. 

  6. 艾滋病危险性性行为干预面临的伦理难题%Ethical Dilemma Facing AIDS-Risky Sexual Behavior Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Owing to the fact that sexual intercourse has become a major path of sexual transmitted diseases in our country,the AIDS-risky sexual behavior intervention naturally turns out to be the main means taken to prevent and control AIDS.Presently,the intervention of high risky sexual behaviors of AIDS patients still faces a series of ethic problems.For example,there exists an obvious conflict between sex moral education and sexual health education;commercial sexual behavior intervention is still faced with an ethical,legal and political plight;homosexuals generally living in the “underground”condition face the social environment of“Moral Ma-jority”;multi-sexual partners have very complicated behavior motives;condom promotion still facing ethical and legal disputes is hard to put into practice;and a significant number of HIV infected people and patients have not been identified or detected.In face of all these challenges and many other,China should adjust the AIDS prevention and control work pattern,implement the“Prevention First”policy,put the sexual behavior in-tervention as a major means of the current HIV/AIDS prevention and control,and adopt intervention strategies targeting the specific AIDS-risky sexual behaviors.%在性传播成为我国艾滋病传播主要途径的情况下,客观上要求把危险性性行为干预作为我国艾滋病防控的重点。目前我国艾滋病危险性性行为干预仍然面临一系列伦理难题,如性道德教育与性健康教育存在明显冲突,商业性性行为干预面临伦理、法律或政策困境,同性恋者面临“道德多数”的社会环境且基本处于“地下状态”,多性伴行为动机复杂,安全套推广仍然面临伦理、法律争议和实际困难,相当数量的艾滋病病毒感染者和病人未被发现等。面对这些难题,国家应在调整艾滋病防治工作格局、落实“预防为主”方针的基础上,明确把危险

  7. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering : a European focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.P.; van Leeuwen, E.; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Oerlemans, A.J.


    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  8. Ethical issues regarding the donation and source of cells for tissue engineering: a European focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, A.J.M.; Berg, P.P. van den; Leeuwen, E. van; Dekkers, W.J.M.


    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women a

  9. The dilemma of reporting suspicions of child maltreatment in pediatric dentistry. (United States)

    Kvist, Therese; Wickström, Anette; Miglis, Isabelle; Dahllöf, Göran


    This study examined the factors that lead specialists in pediatric dentistry to suspect child abuse or neglect and the considerations that influence the decision to report these suspicions to social services. Focus group discussions were used to identify new aspects of child maltreatment suspicion and reporting. Such discussions illuminate the diversity of informants' experiences, opinions, and reflections. Focus groups included 19 specialists and postgraduate students in pediatric dentistry. We conducted video-recorded focus group discussions at the informants' dental clinics. All sessions lasted approximately 1.5 h. We transcribed the discussions verbatim and studied the transcripts using thematic analysis, a method well-suited to evaluating the experiences discussed and how the informants understand them. The analysis process elicited key concepts and identified one main theme, which we labeled 'the dilemma of reporting child maltreatment'. We found this dilemma to pervade a variety of situations and divided it into three sub-themes: to support or report; differentiating concern for well-being from maltreatment; and the supportive or unhelpful consultation. Reporting a suspicion about child maltreatment seems to be a clinical and ethical dilemma arising from concerns of having contradicting professional roles, difficulties confirming suspicions of maltreatment, and perceived shortcomings in the child-protection system.




    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  11. A distanásia como geradora de dilemas éticos nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva: considerações sobre a participação dos enfermeiros La distanasia como generadora de dilemas éticos en las Unidades deTerapia Intensiva: algunos aspectos a cerca de lo envolvimiento de los enfermeros Disthanasia as an ethical dilemma at the Intensive Care Units: considerations about nurses involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Toffoletto


    Full Text Available A distanásia apresenta-se como uma das fontes geradoras de dilemas éticos nas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI. Discute-se o contexto que favorece a prática da distanásia nesse ambiente, com ênfase na utilização excessiva do suporte tecnológico. Tecemos comentários sobre a participação dos familiares e profissionais envolvidos, principalmente médicos e enfermeiros, considerando-se o papel sócio-profissional atribuído a cada um. Pretende-se com as considerações apresentadas, fornecer subsídios para a reflexão do tema, com vistas a uma participação mais ativa dos enfermeiros de UTI nos dilemas éticos relacionados à distanásia.La distanasia se presenta como una de las fuentes generadoras de los dilemas éticos en las Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI Discute el contexto que favorece la práctica de la distanasia en este ambiente, con énfasis en la utilización excesiva del arsenal tecnologico. Además de los comentarios sobre la posición de los familiares y de los profesionales involucrados, principalmente los médicos y enfermeros, se consideró el papel socio-profesional que se atribuye a cada uno. Para finalizar, los profesionales del area son estimulados a refletir sobre el tema y los enfermeros a participar de manera más activa en las discusiones de los dilemas éticos relacionados a la distanasia.Disthanasia is conceptualized and presented as an ethical dilemma in Intensive Care Units (ICU. The context favoring the disthanasia practice on this environment focusing the excessive use of technological devices will be discussed. The study will approach the family, physician and nurse’s participation in the situations, considering the social and professional role of each one. This study aims to provide support for healthcare professionals to reflect on this subject, aiming the nurse’s more effective participation on ethical dilemmas related to disthanasia.

  12. Development, reliability, and validity testing of the Ethical Behavior Test: a measure for nurses' ethical behavior. (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M


    The need for reliable and valid measures for ethical behavior of nurses has encouraged the authors to develop a new instrument to measure students' ethical behavior in daily nursing dilemmas. Characteristic of the instrument presented is the inclusion of two fundamental components of ethical behavior: (1) ethical reasoning (and the resulting decision), and (2) the actual implementation of the ethical decision. As for many instruments, Kohlberg's theory of moral development has been used as the conceptual framework. However, Kohlberg's abstract justice orientation was refined by a care perspective and representative nursing dilemmas were used to make the instrument conceptually more appropriate for measuring nurses' ethical behavior. The analysis of the psychometric properties of the instrument has provided several relevant indications for the reliability and validity of the ethical reasoning and implementation scores. The revealed inconsistencies in the Ethical Behavior Test could be satisfactorily interpreted in terms of Kohlberg's theory and related empirical research findings, supporting the reliability of the ethical behavior scores. The content validity rests upon the careful development of the instrument resulting in an optimal mix of dilemmas, arguments and care situations to reveal nurses' ethical behavior and in a substantial degree of correspondence between the concept and operationalization. The congruency between the patterns of ethical behavior and Kohlberg's theoretical insights about ethical reasoning and practice support the construct validity of the instrument.

  13. Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains (United States)

    Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd


    It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

  14. Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation (United States)

    Castleberry, Stephen


    A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

  15. An Ethics Challenge for School Counselors (United States)

    Froeschle, Janet G.; Crews, Charles


    Ethical issues arise more often for school counselors than for those who work in other settings (Remley, 2002). The challenge of working not only with minors but also with other stakeholders including parents, teachers, school administrators, and community members sets the stage for potential legal and ethical dilemmas. Awareness and adherence to…

  16. Ethical difficulties in nursing, educational needs and attitudes about using ethics resources. (United States)

    Leuter, Cinzia; Petrucci, Cristina; Mattei, Antonella; Tabassi, Gianpietro; Lancia, Loreto


    Ethical difficulties arise in healthcare practices. However, despite extensive research findings that demonstrate that most nurses are involved in recurrent ethical problems, institutions are not always able to effectively support nursing care professionals. The limited availability of ethics consultation services and traditional nursing training fails to meet the frequent and strong requests by health workers to support their ethical dilemmas. A questionnaire was administered to 374 nurses attending a specialist training and a lifetime learning programme in Italy. The respondents reported a high frequency of ethically sensitive situations, and they described the poor development of ethics support and a scarcity of ethics training programmes. The results suggest the importance of promoting ethics services that include consultation and ethics training. A need for systematic ethics educational activities was identified for improving the capacity of nurses to manage ethical issues in patient care.

  17. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics. (United States)

    Candee, D; Puka, B


    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justice. Both methods are used to resolve the 1971 Johns Hopkins case of a baby born with Down's syndrome and duodenal atresia.

  18. Ethically Challenging Situations Reported by School Psychologists: Implications for Training (United States)

    Dailor, A. Nichole; Jacob, Susan


    Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics…

  19. Painful dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker

    A study of public opinion on how to balance the costs and benefits of medical interventions and research with a specific focus on animal use and obesity health care......A study of public opinion on how to balance the costs and benefits of medical interventions and research with a specific focus on animal use and obesity health care...

  20. Synthetic biology ethics: a deontological assessment. (United States)

    Heavey, Patrick


    In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics.

  1. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics? (United States)

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher


    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  3. Ethical and Moral Decision Making: Praxis and Hermeneutics for School Leaders (United States)

    Minnis, Joan Quinn


    There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…

  4. Ethical Navigation in Leadership Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kvalnes


    Full Text Available Business leaders frequently face dilemmas, circumstances where whatever course of action they choose, something of important value will be offended. How can an organisation prepare its decision makers for such situations? This article presents a pedagogical approach to dilemma training for business leaders and managers. It has evolved through ten years of experience with human resource development, where ethics has been an integral part of programs designed to help individuals to become excellent in their professional roles. The core element in our approach is The Navigation Wheel, a figure used to keep track of relevant decision factors. Feedback from participants indicates that dilemma training has helped them to recognise the ethical dimension of leadership. They respond that the tools and concepts are highly relevant in relation to the challenges that occur in the working environment they return to after leadership training.

  5. Teaching Business Ethics: A Practical Guide and Case Studies. SBDC Professional Enrichment. (United States)

    Collins, Denis; Page, Laura V.

    This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethical dilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These…

  6. Dilemmas in SEA application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...... the Danish energy sector) are starting to get it right. Lessons for SEA implementation in similar contexts are proposed....

  7. Genetic testing and genomic analysis: a debate on ethical, social and legal issues in the Arab world with a focus on Qatar. (United States)

    El Shanti, Hatem; Chouchane, Lotfi; Badii, Ramin; Gallouzi, Imed Eddine; Gasparini, Paolo


    In 2013 both Saudi Arabia and Qatar launched genome projects with the aim of providing information for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases and, ultimately to realize personalized medicine by sequencing hundred thousands samples. These population based genome activities raise a series of relevant ethical, legal and social issues general, related to the specific population structure as well as to the Islamic perspective on genomic analysis and genetic testing. To contribute to the debate, the Authors after reviewing the existing literature and taking advantage of their professional experience in the field and in the geographic area, discuss and provide their opinions. In particular, the Authors focus on the impact of consanguinity on population structure and disease frequency in the Arab world, on genetic testing and genomic analysis (i.e. technical aspects, impact, etc.) and on their regulations. A comparison between the Islamic perspective and the ethical, social and legal issues raised in other population contexts is also carried. In conclusion, this opinion article with an up-to-date contribution to the discussion on the relevance and impact of genomic analysis and genetic testing in the Arab world, might help in producing specific national guidelines on genetic testing and genomic analysis and help accelerate the implementation and roll out of genome projects in Muslim countries and more specifically in Qatar, and other countries of the Gulf.

  8. Can Teaching Social Dilemmas Make People More Prosocial? An Experiment (United States)

    Martins, Julia; Fortmüller, Richard; Powell, Owen


    Economics and business students regularly behave less prosocially than others. Can ethics training reverse this tendency? Results from a repeated public goods experiment reveal that it can. Students who attend an interactive lecture on social dilemmas show significantly more cooperation than others. However, the lecture does not appear to increase…

  9. The Ugly Scholar: Neocolonialism and Ethical Issues in International Research. (United States)

    Rakowski, Cathy A.


    Contends that sociologists confront criticism of the nature and ends of sociological research and ethical dilemmas in the study of social problems and people. Provides suggestions for ending neocolonial attitudes among social science researchers. (CFR)

  10. Ethical dilemmas in the pediatric hemophilia community. (United States)

    Schaefer, J


    How can pediatric nurses best advocate appropriately and knowledgeably for patients with hemophilia in our rapidly changing health care system. This commentary raises many questions, questions that can provide the basis for discussion among parents, providers, and payors. Children with hemophilia have benefited greatly by the creation of comprehensive care teams that support home treatment (Butler, 1998). Ongoing excellence in home care can be achieved by parents' and patients' self-advocacy. The hemophilia community's self-advocacy has been so successful as demonstrated by the move to home care, self-infusion, and the Ricky Ray legislation. This community has an ownership of its preventive care and recognizes that federally funded centers of excellence exist by the use of the family's tax dollars and the patient's patronage. Hemophilia programs are a model for further examination for preventive self-care in other chronic disease states.


    Fenton-Glynn, Claire


    This article argues that the English legislative regime is ineffective in regulating international surrogacy, particularly with regard to commercial payments. It suggests that if English law views surrogacy as exploitative, we have a responsibility to protect women both in England and abroad, and the only way to do so effectively is to create a domestic system of regulation that caters adequately for the demand in this country. This requires a system of authorisation for surrogacy before it is undertaken; ex-post facto examinations of agreements completed in other jurisdictions, after the child is already living with the commissioning parents, cannot be seen as an acceptable compromise, as authorisation will inevitably be granted in the child's best interests.

  12. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective. (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya


    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  13. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl. (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah


    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  14. Painful dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Lassen, Jesper;


    The conflict between animal costs and human benefits has dominated public as well as academic debates about animal research. However, surveys of public perceptions of animal research rarely focus on this part of attitude formation. This paper traces the prevalence of different attitudes to animal...... research in the public when people are asked to take benefit and cost considerations into account concurrently. Results from the examination of two representative samples of the Danish public identify three reproducible attitude stances. Approximately 30–35% of people questioned approved of animal research...

  15. Environmental and Ethical Aspects of Sustainable Mining in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sinne Hjælmsø; Pedersen, Lise Celine; Vilsgaard, Kristine Duelund;


    regulation strategies. Our findings revealed different environmental ethical dilemmas of which the most critical is how Greenland can open up for mining, gain economical revenue while averting destruction of unspoiled regions and aesthetic impairment. We recommend strict environmental legislation involving......The increased use of scarce metals in combination with climate changes pave way for extensive extraction of mineral resources in Greenland. The focus of this study is on environmental ethical aspects of mining activities in a vulnerable and unspoiled arctic nature. Mining can have several economic...... and social benefits for Greenland. On the other hand, the environmental impacts from mining are well known. Through DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, States, Impacts, Responses) and Stakeholder analysis, we assess how future mining in Greenland can be sustainably implemented. The analysis revealed that numerous...

  16. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin


    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  17. The balanced performativity as strategic focus in educational psychotherapy and coaching. An application of Aristotle’s ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The presentation aims at presenting the idea of balanc ed performativity as a strategic tool and focus in educational psychotherapy and coaching. By revitalizing the Aristotelian idea of the balance d life in working with anxiety and stress management among students, it is possible to initiat e...... of educational coaching and psychotherapy...

  18. Psychosomatic approach is the new medicine tailored for patient personality with a focus on ethics, economy, and quality. (United States)

    Fassino, S


    Over the last 40 years the proliferation of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model across clinical and theoretical research has shown that psychosocial factors can be shown to be causes, co-factors, or sequelae of many illnesses. Scientific presuppositions about the BPS model have been grounded firmly in psychobiological, psycho-behavioural, sociobiological, and socio-behavioural processes. According to the allostatic load model, stressful factors can be psychological ones or any other factor that is able to modify the stress-response system; these might include genetic factors or life experiences. Personality profiles, in particular, seem to be predictive of responses to different stressors. Stress responses preceding or following illness are clearly related, from a psychobiological point of view, to different personality traits, which themselves correlate to specific defence mechanisms. Neural processes underlying these mechanisms interact with the biological substrate of somatic illnesses. Recent advances in brain imaging with regard to neurobiological and behavioural interactions of empathy and alexithymia support the crucial role of the (psycho) therapeutic relationship across the whole of medical practice. Psychotherapies operate as biological factors on mind, brain, and body; indeed it is necessary to reconsider the doctor-patient relationship as a psychotherapeutic process. The basic methodological triad of observation (outer viewing), introspection (inner viewing), and dialogue (inter viewing) becomes essential in medical practice and in scientific research. Psychoanalytic processes such as transference, resistance, the therapeutic alliance, and attachment have been reconsidered from a neuroscientific perspective and reconceived as moments of meeting of the procedural memory and are therefore considered relevant to the relationship with patients in primary care. Indeed, they are useful to an ethical approach to understanding the meaning of illness, and they also

  19. Ethical Implications For Attorneys Involved In Extraterritorial Application Of The Civil Rights Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard E. McNier


    Full Text Available Globalization of business has increasingly involved American attorneys in an ethical dilemma which is not just academic, but may result in disciplinary action against the attorney. What is counsel to do when it is discovered that overseas employment practices (legal in the foreign country violate American law? May counsel, citing current case law, ethically advise management that discharge of a troublesome employee may be effected "legally" by simply transferring the employee overseas, then firing her? These ethical issues can be put in sharp focus by reviewing a provision of the 1991 Civil Rights Act (CRA that extends application of the 1964 CRA to cover American citizens working overseas for American owned or controlled firms. Expansive interpretation of this by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC has ensnarled over 21,000 overseas businesses with the threat of being sued, in the United States, for employment practices committed outside of the United States.

  20. Transfer effects between moral dilemmas: a causal model theory. (United States)

    Wiegmann, Alex; Waldmann, Michael R


    Evaluations of analogous situations are an important source for our moral intuitions. A puzzling recent set of findings in experiments exploring transfer effects between intuitions about moral dilemmas has demonstrated a striking asymmetry. Transfer often occurred with a specific ordering of moral dilemmas, but not when the sequence was reversed. In this article we present a new theory of transfer between moral intuitions that focuses on two components of moral dilemmas, namely their causal structure and their default evaluations. According to this theory, transfer effects are expected when the causal models underlying the considered dilemmas allow for a mapping of the highlighted aspect of the first scenario onto the causal structure of the second dilemma, and when the default evaluations of the two dilemmas substantially differ. The theory's key predictions for the occurrence and the direction of transfer effects between two moral dilemmas are tested in five experiments with various variants of moral dilemmas from different domains. A sixth experiment tests the predictions of the theory for how the target action in the moral dilemmas is represented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. ANITHA (Corresponding Author,


    Full Text Available Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death issues. An ethical dilemma will take place when the educator faced with a decision that maybe incongruent with the organization’s values and policies. There are several examples of ethical issues in education. In this reason, the educator must be guided with the appropriate decision-making strategies. With the increasing use of new communication technologies, adoption of distance education by traditional educational institutes and owing to growing demand on the part of learners, it becomes more important to discuss the ethical issues. This important title provides academicians, students, and professionals with ethical insight into the world of e-learning through fascinating case studies that elucidate the issues through real-world examples. Pioneer’s experience in the field of distance education indicates that the profile of distance learners varies, cutting across barriers of gender, class and caste. The distance learner may be suffering from a sense of isolation as he/she makes a return to study after a gap of time or while working. It is there that the distance educator makes a positive, ethical and interventionist role by helping the student to learn beyond the stereotypical classroom situation and can act effectively as the friend, philosopher and guide of the learner. However, the industry of education is a serious one, requiring well defined ethics and values, well bound in visible legal outlines to regulate its exchange and distribution. Because as the industry grows, so do the issues of ethical concern such as plagiarism, electronic voyeurism, and licensing. The objective of this paper is to

  2. A systematic format for resolving ethical issues in clinical periodontics. (United States)

    Schloss, Alexander J


    Ethical dilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethical dilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity.

  3. Integrating justice and care in animal ethics. (United States)

    Lekan, Todd


    In this paper I argue that the standoff between justice and care approaches to animal ethics presents us with a false dilemma. We should take justice's focus on reasoning from principles, and care's use of sympathetic awareness, as two integrated deliberative capacities necessary for the consideration of arguments for extending moral concern to animals. Such an integrated approach rests on a plausible account of the psychology of moral deliberation. I develop my argument as follows. Section I summarizes the nature of the debate between justice and care approaches to animal ethics, focusing on Brian Luke's arguments against justice approaches. Section II provides pro-justice rebuttals to Luke's objections. These rebuttals, while largely successful against Luke's objections, do not account for the intuition that sympathy does play a central epistemological role in animal ethics. Section III explains how sympathy cognitively simulates the perspective of the other, and thus can play an epistemological role in animal ethics. I argue that the abilities to simulate the perspective of the other and to reason from moral principles can complement each other. In section IV, I argue that though it may not be desirable to use both sympathy and reasoning from principles in all moral deliberation, it is a desirable aim when offering, and considering, moral arguments for what I will term the "extensionist project" of extending over moral concern to animals. I make this idea plausible by elucidating the claim that arguments for this project are best thought of as second-order deliberations about our first-order deliberative life.

  4. Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Elisa J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV. Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future.

  5. Viewpoint discrimination and contestation of ideas on its merits, leadership and organizational ethics: expanding the African bioethics agenda. (United States)

    Chima, Sylvester C; Mduluza, Takafira; Kipkemboi, Julius


    The 3rd Pan-African Ethics Human Rights and Medical Law (3rd EHRML) conference was held in Johannesburg on July 7, 2013, as part of the Africa Health Congress. The conference brought together bioethicists, researchers and scholars from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya and Nigeria working in the field of bioethics as well as students and healthcare workers interested in learning about ethical issues confronting the African continent. The conference which ran with a theme of "Bioethical and legal perspectives in biomedical research and medical practice in Africa with a focus on: Informed consent, HIV-AIDS & Tuberculosis, leadership & organizational ethics, patients and healthcare workers rights," was designed to expand the dialogue on African bioethics beyond the traditional focus on research ethics and the ethical dilemmas surrounding the conduct of biomedical research in developing countries. This introductory article highlights some of areas of focus at the conference including issues of leadership, organizational ethics and patients and healthcare workers rights in Africa. We analyze the importance of free speech, public debate of issues, argumentation and the need to introduce the teaching and learning of ethics to students in Africa in accordance with UNESCO guidelines. This article also focuses on other challenges confronting Africa today from an ethical standpoint, including the issues of poor leadership and organizational ethics which are main contributors to the problems prevalent in African countries, such as poverty, poor education and healthcare delivery systems, terrorism, social inequities, infrastructural deficits and other forms of 'structural violence' confronting vulnerable African communities. We believe that each of the eight articles included in this supplement, which have been rigorously peer-reviewed are a good example of current research on bioethics in Africa, and explore some new directions towards broadening the African bioethics agenda as we

  6. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective. (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N


    Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  7. Medical Ethics in Nephrology: A Jewish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon J. Friedman


    Full Text Available Jewish medical ethics is arguably the oldest recorded system of bioethics still in use. It should be of interest to practicing nephrologists because of its influence on the ethical systems of Christianity, Islam, and Western secular society; because of the extensive written documentation of rabbinical response in addressing a broad range of bioethical dilemmas; and in understanding the values of patients who choose to adhere to religious Jewish law. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of the basic principles underlying mainstream traditional Jewish medical ethics, apply them to common clinical scenarios experienced in nephrology practice, and contrast them with that of secular medical ethics.

  8. Percepção de enfermeiros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminais em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Percepción de enfermeros sobre dilemas éticos relacionados a pacientes terminales en unidades de terapia intensiva Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Aparecido Bezerra Chaves


    was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten nurses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties about terminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas.

  9. Statistical Physics of the Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma

    CERN Document Server

    Javarone, Marco Alberto


    We introduce an analytical model to study the evolution towards equilibrium in spatial games. In particular, we focus our attention on the spatial Prisoner's Dilemma, as it constitutes an emblematic example of a game whose Nash equilibrium is defection. Previous investigations showed that, under opportune conditions, it is possible to reach, in the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma, an equilibrium of cooperation. Notably, it seems that mechanisms like motion may lead a population to become cooperative. In the proposed model, we map agents to particles of a gas so that, on varying the system temperature, they randomly move. In doing so, we are able to identify a relation between the temperature and the final equilibrium of the population, explaining how it is possible to break the classical Nash equilibrium in the spatial Prisoner's Dilemma. Moreover, we introduce a formalism to study order-disorder phase transitions in these dynamics. As result, we highlight that the proposed model allows to explain analyticall...

  10. Different views on ethics: how animal ethics is situated in a committee culture. (United States)

    Ideland, M


    Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethical dilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions.

  11. Theories of normative ethics - an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne


    in a larger sum of total of welfare in the world Egoism: We ought always to act so as to maximize the sum total of our own welfare. Duty ethics: There are universal duties and prohibition we always should follow, irrespective of the consequences of following them. Virtue ethics:  The most basic question......Introduction: The presentation is a general introduction to the main schools in applied ethics, their implications and problems, and their relationship to the notion of equity. Background: Dilemmas and tensions between ethical principles and the practices of the maritime industry will be discussed...... at an empirical level in the workshop Ethics and Equity. This opening theoretical presentation is an attempt to frame and qualify the following discussion. Summary: The interest of normative ethics' is the content of our moral behaviour. Normative ethical theories seek to provide action-guides - procedures...

  12. Winding roads and faded signs: ethical decision making in a postmodern world. (United States)

    Coverston, C; Rogers, S


    We are living in an era, sometimes referred to as "postmodern," exemplified by complex change related to vast increases in information and technology and exposure to diverse people and ideas. Society as a whole is experiencing dissonance in solving ethical dilemmas, and nurses' ethical dilemmas are never far removed from the social context in which nurses practice. This article explores aspects of postmodernism that complicate ethical decision making. It is hoped that this discussion may aid nurses in understanding how world values, especially those of postmodernism, complicate ethical decision making in health care. Suggestions melding aspects of the postmodern with traditional approaches to ethical decision making are presented.

  13. Business Ethics, Strategy and Organizational Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    With focus on the role of integrity in relation to business ethics versus economic strategy the chapter contains following sections: 1. The concept of organizational integrity as a moral notion as it is described in the work of Lynn-Sharp Paine on organizational integrity. 2. The concept of integ......With focus on the role of integrity in relation to business ethics versus economic strategy the chapter contains following sections: 1. The concept of organizational integrity as a moral notion as it is described in the work of Lynn-Sharp Paine on organizational integrity. 2. The concept...... of integrity as an economic notion as it is described in the recent work of Michael Jensen. This section will discuss recent efforts in the business economics literature to consider integrity as an important notion of strategy. 3. Paine contra Jensen: A virtue or a workability concept of integrity. Here...... the authors discuss the basic dilemmas and problems of integrating integrity, economic performance and strategy in the perspective of the two theories of about integrity of Paine and Jensen....

  14. Analyzing Accuracy and Accessibility in Information and Communication Technology Ethical Scenario Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masrom


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT is indispensable to life. The utilization of ICT has provided advantages for people, organizations and society as a whole. Nevertheless, the widespread and rapid use of ICT in society has exacerbated existing ethical issues or dilemmas and also led to the emergence of new ethical issues such as unauthorized access, software piracy, internet pornography, privacy protection, information gap and many others. Approach: Therefore, the aim of this study is to discuss several issues of the ICT ethics. It will focusing on two major issues, that is, data accuracy and accessibility. Results: The results indicated that more than half percentage of respondents tend to be ethical in data accuracy scenario and also in accessibility scenario. Several computer ethics scenarios that relate to the data accuracy and accessibility are presented and the results of analysis are then discussed. Conclusion: Based on the results in this study, computer ethics issues such as data accuracy and accessibility should receive more attention in the ICT field.

  15. Dilemmas in private psychiatric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanasaheb M Patil


    Full Text Available Background: A practicing psychiatrist faces dilemmas on a number of occasions, in deciding the best course of action he/she needs to undertake while treating a patient. At times, this choice may not be in accordance with the ethical and moral principles and may in fact appear to violate patient′s autonomy and rights. Aim: To study the nature of psychiatric practice by the practicing psychiatrist in the areas of admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight psychiatrists gave consent to participate in the study. A special proforma was prepared, which addresses the common dilemmas in the clinical psychiatric practice. All the psychiatrists were given specially designed profoma and were requested to fill the proforma with appropriate answers. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: There were 42 male and 6 female psychiatrists. The age of the psychiatrists ranged from 28 to 65 years with a mean of 43.08 years. The mean duration of practice of these psychiatrists was 14.81΁11.07 years. Question and answers related to admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy are discussed. Conclusions: The present standard and practice especially in private psychiatric set-up does not confirm to the rules, recommendations, and regulations suggested by Mental Health Act 1987, Mental Health Authorities and various guidelines of practice. Indian Psychiatric Society and other professional bodies need to take steps to prepare guidelines for a good psychiatric practice.

  16. Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities. (United States)

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam


    Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings.

  17. Education for Entry into Practice: An Ethical Perspective. (United States)

    Hess, Joanne D.


    Issues of practice, licensure, and education for associate and bachelor's degree nursing indicate a lack of consensus. The perspective of an ethic of care highlights moral dilemmas that must be resolved because the current state of nursing education and practice is ethically dubious. (SK)

  18. School Administrators and Ethical Decision-Making in Rural Communities. (United States)

    Kallio, Brenda R.


    With the advent of globalization and the growing concept that schools are marketplaces of ideas, educational administrators need guidance in ethical decision making. Moral dilemma is defined, ethical models are presented, and a process is described in which facts, resolution options, and values are reflected upon and decisions made based on…

  19. Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education (United States)

    Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.


    Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

  20. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues (United States)

    Sikes, Pat


    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…

  1. Blueprint of Skills, Concepts for Media Ethics Course. (United States)

    Meyers, Christopher


    Discusses how a course in journalism ethics can integrate theory and practice while giving an accurate description of the profession and an overview of its unique ethical dilemmas. Notes that such a course helps students develop skills, analyze concepts and theories, and critically evaluate the profession. (SR)

  2. Examining Moral Judgment and Ethical Decision-Making in Information Technology Managers and Their Relationship (United States)

    Shahand, Assadullah


    Growing incidences of corporate ethical misconducts have revived the debate over ethical reasoning and moral development of corporate managers. The role of information technology (IT) in the ethical dilemmas is becoming more evident as virtual environments become increasingly popular, organizations adopt digital form of record keeping, and the…

  3. Medical Students' Cases as an Empirical Basis for Teaching Clinical Ethics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijer, Marli; Leeuwen, Evert van; Boenink, A.; Kimsma, G.


    To identify ethical issues that interns encounter in their clinical education and thus build a more empirical basis for the required contents of the clinical ethics curriculum. The authors analyzed a total of 522 required case reports on ethical dilemmas experienced by interns from September 1995 to

  4. Developing an Ethical Framework in Decision Making of Rural Elementary School Principals in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Hozien, Wafa Ismail


    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe individual Pennsylvania rural elementary principals' experiences of ethical decision-making in a complex era. Ethical dilemma, in this case, is the term used to depict an incident which calls for a decision to be made when moral values or ethical principles were in conflict. Also, to learn how…

  5. Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors (United States)

    Olley, Rivka I.


    It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

  6. Ethics: A Bridge for Studying the Social Contexts of Professional Communication. (United States)

    Speck, Bruce W.


    Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)

  7. Ethical Issues in the Assessment and Treatment of a Rational Suicidal Client. (United States)

    Snipe, Rosetta M.


    Notes that rational client's decision to commit suicide may present complex ethical issues for therapist. Presents and discusses three-month account of therapy with client, from perspective of ethical values and principles upon which assessment and treatment decisions were made, and complex ethical dilemmas encountered as therapist juxtaposed…

  8. Chimeras: an ethical consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J.G. Zandman


    Full Text Available Scientists have started with experimentation that raises difficult ethical questions. It comprises taking material from the human blueprint (DNA and inserting this in various test animals. The purpose of such research is noble, namely the alleviation of hu- man suffering. Yet the ethical ramifications of blending the hu- man and animal genome are significant, especially for Chris- tians. The creation of all living entities after their kind and the image-bearing dignity attributed to man both come under se- vere ethical stress for those who presuppose divine order in God’s ecology.  For non-Christians the philosophical dilemma ought not to exist in the ethical sense if applied at the purest level. If the human is merely a kind of animal, along with and ontologically not diffe- rent from other animals, there is little logical reason to object to chimeric research apart from a concern about what such re- search and application might do to the order of life pragmati- cally. However, many non-Christian do object. Man is made in God’s image and the concept of human dignity and a universal sense of right and wrong still binds Christians and non-Chris- tians when considering ethics in the field of chimeric research. As the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals takes place, certain non-Christian authors protest that human dignity is being diminished and the animal essence is being vio- lated.

  9. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Harrison, James D; Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Glass, Marcia


    The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1) cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy); (2) professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption); (3) limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages); (4) personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness). Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources) were grouped under the core category of "external environmental and/or situational issues" that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training.

  10. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Harrison


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1 cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy; (2 professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption; (3 limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages; (4 personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness. Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources were grouped under the core category of “external environmental and/or situational issues” that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training.

  11. Balancing Ethics and Quality in Educational Research--The Ethical Matrix Method (United States)

    Tangen, Reidun


    This paper addresses ethical issues in educational research with a focus on the interplay between research ethics and both internal and external quality of research. Research ethics is divided into three domains: (1) ethics "within" the research community; (2) ethics concerning relationships with "individuals and groups directly…

  12. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure. (United States)

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M


    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website ( using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society.

  13. A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling. (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah


    This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health.

  14. Subjectivity Dilemma of Economic Ethics-Decision Behavior Logic of Local Government%经济伦理主体性困境--地方政府决策行为逻辑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Local governments′decision -making motives should be a overall balance of efficiency and fairness. However,for a long time,ethical concepts of economic isolated development and one -sided growth have caused local governments to face with troubles including conflict of values,reversal of tool means and purpose of human de-velopment,departure of traditional ethics of the market economy irrational,fracture of economic ethics and ecologi-cal ethics and so on,which they can′t solve.Local governments need deep reflection and interpretation of their own stations and should set up legislative concept and construct modernized ethics and establish public ethics awareness to remove market enchantment.%地方政府决策行为动机应是效率与公平的综合平衡。但长期以来以放任经济的孤立发展和片面增长为旨趣的经济伦理概念使地方政府自身陷入无法解决的困境,包括:价值理念的冲突;工具手段与人类发展目的的颠倒;基于传统伦理观念的市场经济非理性悖离;经济伦理与生态伦理的断裂等。地方政府需要深刻反思与解读自身境遇,通过树立法权观念,实现伦理道德建设的现代化以及树立公共伦理意识等除市场附魅困境。

  15. The ethical practice of psychotherapy: easily within our reach. (United States)

    Barnett, Jeffrey E


    Psychotherapists confront a myriad of ethical dilemmas as they endeavor to provide effective services. This issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session on Ethics in Psychotherapy provides psychotherapists with thoughtful reviews, case examples, and practical guidance in the major areas of ethics. Following this brief introduction, the subsequent seven articles cover Informed consent; confidentiality, privilege, and their limits; treatment of minors and their families; business matters of practice (e.g., money, fees, bartering, advertising); clinical competence and scope of practice; boundaries and nonsexual multiple relationships; and termination and abandonment. This issue is designed to promote ethical practice, to provide guidance on common ethical dilemmas, and to prevent ethical challenges before they occur.

  16. The dilemma of approving antidotes. (United States)

    Steffen, Christian


    Clinical trials with antidotes are difficult to perform for a variety of practical, ethical, and financial reasons. As acute poisoning is a rare event, the commercial interest in basic and clinical research is low. Poisoned patients are usually not available for normal clinical trial procedures and, if they are, they cannot give informed consent. This situation results in a dilemma: antidotes are essential drugs. A resolution of the Council of Europe requests to guarantee the optimal availability of antidotes and the improvement of their use. As comprehensive data on the efficacy of antidotes are often missing, a marketing authorisation under exceptional circumstances according to Article 14(8) of Regulation (EC) No. 276/2004, will often be the only way to get an approval, as: (1) the indications for which the product in question is intended are encountered so rarely that the applicant cannot reasonably be expected to provide comprehensive evidence ("orphan drug"), (2) in the present state of scientific knowledge, comprehensive information cannot be provided, or (3) it would be contrary to generally accepted principles of medical ethics to collect such data. Typically, data on antidotes are obtained from a patchwork of studies with animals, human tissue and a few observations from human poisoning corroborated with data from clinical observations and biochemistry. Generalisations from chemical and mechanistic similarities between groups of poisons are usual, but often lack scientific evidence. Current standards of good clinical practice can rarely be observed. Therefore, public funding and other financial support are necessary incentives to initiate trials in this important area.

  17. Intertwining Psychiatry Residency Training and Ethics in the College Setting. (United States)

    Sondheimer, Adrian


    An ethical responsibility exists, currently unaddressed, for mandated psychiatry residency training with college student populations. Such training brings numerous potential benefits, including exposure to specific disorders and administrative structures. As well, individual cases pose ethical dilemmas unique to this developmental stage, which segues seamlessly from that of adolescence. Relevant case illustrations are employed. Likewise, psychiatric education oversight bodies are urged to fulfill their ethical obligations to provide pertinent training.



    Tomljenović, Ljerka; Stilin, Anita; Hirnig, Saša


    Issues of applied ethics and its influence on the behaviour of people in the wider social context have been investigated from many different aspects. The aim of this paper is to clarify the fundamental differences and similarities between business and engineering ethics, determine the areas which represent potential source of conflict and explore specific ethical dilemmas that occur with individuals who are engaged in the engineering profession in the business surroundings. Previous research ...

  19. Ethics: A Matter of Moral Development (United States)

    Krawczyk, Rosemary; Kudzma, Elizabeth


    Courses in theoretical ethics are unrelated to the moral delemmas that nurses encounter in practice, according to the authors. They present a method for moral education in nursing curricula utilizing seminars for dilemma discussion that can help students to progress in moral judgment. (MF)

  20. Ethical Problems in Teaching: "Paramedic" Training. (United States)

    McCormick, Donald W.


    Discusses ethical dilemmas that professors face in the classroom, drawing on three examples involving students: (1) discussing the illegal activities of an employer; (2) participating in politically controversial military activities; and (3) making racist comments. Argues that academic and professional organizations should issue codes of ethics…

  1. Critical Ethnography, Ethics, and Work: Rearticulating Labor. (United States)

    Horner, Bruce


    Argues that a cultural materialist perspective on the work of critical ethnography in composition studies can provide a useful framework that accounts for and can help to resolve some of the significant ethical dilemmas to which recent critiques of critical ethnography in composition have pointed. Describes recent critiques of ethnography in…

  2. Social Media Use and Teacher Ethics (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Bitters, Todd A.; Falk, Thomas M.; Kim, Sang Hyun


    Teacher use of social networking sites such as Facebook has presented some ethical dilemmas for policy makers. In this article, we argue that schools are justified in taking action against teachers when evidence emerges from social networking sites that teachers are (a) doing something that is illegal, (b) doing something that reflects badly on…

  3. Science Fiction, Ethics and the Human Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian; Halvorsen, Peter Nicolai; Cornea, Christine

    . Further, those with a concern for the future may find inspiration in what a study of the politics and ethics of science fiction can tell us about the moral and political dilemmas of our own time. Although this book is more likely to be picked up by someone who already has an interest in science fiction...

  4. Making an Ethical Decision: A Utilitarian Strategy. (United States)

    Price, Sandra J.


    By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)

  5. Ethics and Computer Scientists. (United States)

    Pulliam, Sylvia Clark

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions that computer science educators have about computer ethics. The study focused on four areas: (1) the extent to which computer science educators believe that ethically inappropriate practices are taking place (both on campus and throughout society); (2) perceptions of such educators about…

  6. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten


    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching throu

  7. Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma. (United States)

    Kraemer, Felicitas


    While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy.

  8. Marginal capacity: the dilemmas faced in assessment and declaration.


    Ho, V.


    Ontario is adopting informed-consent legislation that reflects increasing emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination. Capacity assessment and declaration by physicians and other health care professionals are pivotal under the new legislation. While grossly capable or incapable patients provide few management difficulties, marginally capable patients provide a challenge for physicians who must assess capacity, and decisions concerning them emphasize the ethical dilemma involved in any...

  9. Biomedical ethics. (United States)

    Walters, LeRoy


    An overview is provided of bioethical issues recently under discussion in the United States. Six topics dominated the field in 1984 and early 1985: human gene therapy; in vitro fertilization and research with human embryos; appropriate care for dying patients, both adults and newborns; organ transplantation; resource allocation and payment for health care services; and the role of hospital ethics committees in medical decision making. Walters focuses on three of these topics: (1) the issuing of standards for somatic-cell gene therapy; (2) developments in the death and dying arena, including state living will legislation, the emergence of a viewpoint that artificial nutrition and hydration are not qualitatively different from respiratory life-support systems, and federal efforts to regulate appropriate treatment for handicapped newborns; and (3) the growing support among medical organizations for hospital ethics committees.

  10. A dimensão da ética na pesquisa em saúde com ênfase na abordagem qualitativa Ethic dimension in health research focusing on the qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto de Castro e Silva


    gradually configured. The ethical aspects permeate qualitative research from the choice of the subject matter, the methodological outlines, analysis of the results, to the commitment of providing a feedback for the researched subjects regarding the obtained information. The ethical aspects presuppose the value of an interpersonal relationship in which the different interests, values and worldviews stand as a possibility or not of a joint construction of knowledge. The choice of a subject or object of study is related to a particular life trajectory in which the researcher should ask himself, at all times, how to conciliate the constitution of an ethical attitude in relation to the researched subjects with his own desires, dreams, curiosities and expectations. The article aims to discuss such dilemmas experienced by the researcher, highlighting the importance of ethics for his personal, professional and socio-political growth, and emphasizing the desire for knowledge autonomy, solidarity with social groups and with people involved in the research. Based on the report of a research process, the article intends to contribute to the understanding of how ethical aspects are inextricably linked to research, and also to the researcher, bringing elements to the conduction of qualitative research especially in public health.

  11. Kierkegaard og Euthyphrons dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, David Kristian


    Denne artikel diskuterer Euthyphrons dilemma, som det fremstilles i Platons dialog Euthyphron. Der argumenteres for, at Kierkegaard i virkeligheden forsøger at omgå problemet, idet han vælger en helt tredje løsning. Udgivelsesdato: 1. april......Denne artikel diskuterer Euthyphrons dilemma, som det fremstilles i Platons dialog Euthyphron. Der argumenteres for, at Kierkegaard i virkeligheden forsøger at omgå problemet, idet han vælger en helt tredje løsning. Udgivelsesdato: 1. april...

  12. The Centrality of Ethical Leadership (United States)

    Ehrich, Lisa C.; Harris, Jessica; Klenowski, Val; Smeed, Judy; Spina, Nerida


    Purpose: The central argument in this paper is that ethical school leadership is imperative in a context of increasing performance-driven accountability. The purpose of this paper is to focus on school principals' perceptions of how they understand ethical leadership and how they lead the ethical use of data. Design/Methodology/Approach: This…

  13. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics (United States)

    Wolff, Brian G.


    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  14. 走出医学伦理困境:要规则,也要德性%Get Out the Medical Ethics Dilemmas:Dual Pursuit of Norms and Virtue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    我国20世纪80年代开启的思想解放运动将个人权益从种种束缚中解放出来,极大地调动了医务人员的积极性,但同时在另一方面或者说客观上也诱发了无节制的自由的产生与私欲的极大膨胀,促成了去道德化倾向的形成。而规范伦理适应了新兴市场的需要,能够发挥调节人们之间相互关系的作用,但它的诸多弱点,需要德性伦理的补充。而推动规范伦理与德性伦理的结合,有助于医学走出伦理困境。%The enlightenment movements began from 1980’ s in the 20th century, and it liberated personal rights and interests from all sorts of fetters. This movement boosted enthusiasm of the medical workers. Meanwhile, it brought out unlimited freedom, expansive individualism and inclination of discarding morals. The norm ethics a-dapted to the need of the markets and democratic societies, and it played a role in regulating the relationship among people. However, it still bears many weak points and need the supplement from virtue ethics. Pushing the combi-nation of the normal ethics with virtue ethic may promote the process of getting out the predicament of ethics.

  15. [Neuroethics: Ethical Endowments of Human Brain]. (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia


    The neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of Neuroethics. Neurosciences demonstrate which cerebral areas are active and inactive whilst people decide how to act when facing a moral dilemma; in this way we know the correlation between determined cerebral areas and our human acts. We can explain how the ″ethical endowments″ of each person, common to all human beings, is ″embedded″ in the dynamic of cerebral flows. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. The outcome of man's natural inclinations is on one hand linked to instinctive systems of animal survival and to basic emotions, and on the other, to the life of each individual human uninhibited by automatism of the biological laws, because he is governed by the laws of freedom. The capacity to formulate an ethical judgement is an innate asset of the human mind.

  16. The ethics curriculum for doctor of nursing practice programs. (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold; Smith, Jennifer A


    Ethical questions dealt with by nurses who have Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degrees include traditional bioethical questions, but also business and legal ethics. Doctorally prepared nurses are increasingly in positions to make ethical decisions rather than to respond to decisions made by others. The traditional master's-degree advanced practice nursing curriculum does not address the extended expertise and decision-making skills needed by DNP practitioners as they face these new types of ethical dilemmas. We propose that a curricular framework that addresses clinical, research, business, and legal ethics is needed by all DNP students.

  17. Techno-Anthropological Ethics and Health Information Systems Technologies. (United States)

    Børsen, Tom; Danborg, Pia Brandt


    One of the most important Techno-Anthropological intellectual virtues is the ability to make contextualized ethical judgments of new and emerging technologies. This Techno-Anthropological core competence is especially relevant in Health Information Systems Technologies, which is a field characterized by inherent ethical dilemmas such as the pros and cons of regulation of research databases with sensitive information, or storing and application of tissue and blood samples. In this paper we present a method to make 'proper and quick' ethical estimates in Health Information. The method guides its user to make ethical judgments by splitting the judgment process into four steps: (1) Identification of intended beneficial consequences, potential misuse, unintended side effects and long-term consequences for culture and society. (2) Linkage of intended consequences, misuse, side effects and cultural implications to appropriate ethical values. (3) Identification of ethical dilemmas related to a specific use of the Health Information Systems Technology under assessment. (4) Formulation of appropriate technological and institution design criteria that can transcend the identified ethical dilemmas. The methodology will be applied to a the discussions at a hearing on ethical challenges accompanying research involving health data organized by the Danish Council of Ethics and the case of risk reducing breast cancer surgery based on diagnosed genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

  18. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation. (United States)

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M


    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics.

  19. Dilemmas and Discarded Leadership (United States)

    Dana, Joyce A.


    Women are challenged most by cultural norms, particularly sex-role norms, religious and political ideologies, and gender-structured opportunities that favor men. Although some stereotypes have loosened a bit, dilemmas remain for women who aspire to fill school district leadership positions. The author's predicament is not unique. It is something…

  20. Dilemmas in Teaching Happiness (United States)

    Barker, Chris; Martin, Brian


    There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the…

  1. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit


    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...

  2. Gældskrisens dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Sven E.


    De vestlige lande står over for et centralt dilemma: På den ene side bliver de nødt til at spare på de offentlige budgetter af hensyn til den langsigtede holdbarhed. På den anden side har besparelserne en ubehagelig sideeffekt i form af stigende arbejdsløshed, social uro m. v. på kort sigt. Hvor...

  3. Jeb Stewart's Dilemma (United States)

    Cedo, Kelli M.; Dickerson, William E.


    This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between…

  4. Dilemmas of partial cooperation. (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich


    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  5. The Monty Hall Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barteld Kooi, [No Value


    Samenvatting: In het begin van de jaren negentig brak een wereldwijde discussie los over een probleem dat in het Engels 'The Monty Hall Dilemma' wordt genoemd. Marilyn vos Savant, die in het Guinness Book of World Records wordt genoemd als degene met het

  6. Ethics and the architecture of choice for home and hospital birth. (United States)

    Bogdan-Lovis, Elizabeth; de Vries, Raymond G


    In this issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics, we offer a variety of perspectives on the moral and medical responsibilities of professionals with regard to a woman's choice of where she will birth her baby. The articles in this special issue focus on place of birth, but they have larger resonance for clinicians whose decisions about providing the best possible care require them to sort through evidence, consider their own possible biases and the limitations of their training, and balance the wishes of their patients with the demands of colleagues, hospitals, and insurers. The articles published in this special issue of The Journal of Clinical Ethics will help those who wrestle with such dilemmas in everyday clinical decision making.

  7. The ethical dimensions of delivering culturally congruent nursing and health care. (United States)

    Zoucha, R; Husted, G L


    This article discusses the ethical parameters of giving culturally congruent care to individual patients by health care professionals. Leininger's Cultural Care Diversity and Universality theory (Leininger, 1995) is used to demonstrate the importance of culture in a person's life and Husted's and Husted's (1995) bioethical theory is used to create a mind-set of ethical interaction and to direct the analysis of a bioethical dilemma involving cultural differences between persons of the same culture, a depressed Mexican-American woman and her husband. The differences between transculturalism and multiculturalism are explored. We defend the position that a patient's culture is only a useful tool in caring for a patient if the individual person is made the primary focus of care.

  8. Ethics and Dualism in Contemporary Psychology: From Avicenna and Descartes to Neuroscience


    Jeftiċ, Alma


    From Avicenna and Descartes a long debate on the role of mind-body dilemma has left a huge impact on ethics of psychological research. That is especially applicable on researches that include both human and non-human participants, as well as their limitations and constraints that are connected to ethical principles. However, these principles are closely related to the interpretation of mind-body dilemma, which depends on different understandings of connection between soul and senses. The purp...

  9. Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum. (United States)

    Bahr, Rose Therese

    This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

  10. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)


    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter. Depic

  11. Neonatal ethics in ELBW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Messner


    Full Text Available The delivery of extremely low gestational age newborns and extremely low birth weight infants presents challenging ethical issues for caregivers and parents. Major concerns regard the high mortality and morbidity resulting in long term sequelae, the limit of viability as well as the conflict and difficulty in judgement involving “quality of life” and “sanctity of life” issues. Other paramount ethical concepts include the newborn’s best interest, the decision to initiate or withhold treatment at birth and the decision to withdraw treatment with the consequence that the infant will die. On the basis of the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, justice and nonmaleficence we will discuss the best interest standards, the standard for the decision making process and treatment decisions, which should always be governed by the prospect for the individual infant. In this paper we propose that ethical questions should not be regulated by law and the legal system should not interfere in the patient-physician relationship. Continuous improvement in medicine over the last decades led to increased treatment possibilities, which on the other hand also resulted in more ethical dilemmas. Therefore, today more than ever, it is essential that the neonatologist becomes familiar with basic ethical concepts and their application to clinical reality.  Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  12. Priming Cooperation in Social Dilemma Games


    Drouvelis, Michalis; Metcalfe, Robert; Powdthavee, Nattavudh


    Research on public goods mainly focuses its attention on the ability of incentives, beliefs and group structure to affect behaviour in social dilemma interactions. This paper investigates the pure effects of a rather subtle mechanism on social preferences in a one-shot linear public good game. Using priming techniques from social psychology, we activate the concept of cooperation and explore the extent to which this intervention brings about changes in people’s voluntary contributions to the ...

  13. Could Ethical Tensions in Oral Healthcare Management Revealed by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Caregivers Explain Unmet Oral Health Needs? Participatory Research with Focus Groups (United States)

    Blaizot, Alessandra; Hamel, Olivier; Folliguet, Marysette; Herve, Christian; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Trentesaux, Thomas


    Background: Cognitively impaired patients often present poor oral health status that may be explained by ethical tensions in oral healthcare management. This participatory study explored such tensions among adults with intellectual disabilities and with caregivers. The second objective was to specify, with caregivers, the points that should be…

  14. Virtue ethics and an ethics of care: complementary or in conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Thomas


    Full Text Available This paper compares and contrasts virtue ethics and care ethics to determine their mutual relation. It is argued that there is one tradition within virtue ethics that emphasises that virtue is knowledge and also focuses on direct altruism. There is no opposition between that form of virtue ethics and ethics of care. Furthermore, there are principled objections to generalising the necessarily asymmetric relations of an ethic of care to the case of justice as reciprocal fairness.

  15. A 'good' ethical review: audit and professionalism in research ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... readings of ‘ethics’. I begin and end with a reflection on the ethical effects of a measurement practice that takes ethics itself as its object....

  16. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice? (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta


    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently.

  17. Autonomous Cars: In Favor of a Mandatory Ethics Setting. (United States)

    Gogoll, Jan; Müller, Julian F


    The recent progress in the development of autonomous cars has seen ethical questions come to the forefront. In particular, life and death decisions regarding the behavior of self-driving cars in trolley dilemma situations are attracting widespread interest in the recent debate. In this essay we want to ask whether we should implement a mandatory ethics setting (MES) for the whole of society or, whether every driver should have the choice to select his own personal ethics setting (PES). While the consensus view seems to be that people would not be willing to use an automated car that might sacrifice themselves in a dilemma situation, we will defend the somewhat contra-intuitive claim that this would be nevertheless in their best interest. The reason is, simply put, that a PES regime would most likely result in a prisoner's dilemma.

  18. Ethics outside of inpatient care: the need for alliances between clinical and organizational ethics. (United States)

    Barina, Rachelle


    The norms and practices of clinical ethics took form relative to the environment and relationships of hospital care. These practices do not easily translate into the outpatient context because the environment and relational dynamics differ. Yet, as outpatient care becomes the center of health care delivery, the experiences of ethical tension for outpatient clinicians warrant greater responses. Although a substantial body of literature on the nature of the doctor-physician relationship has been developed and could provide theoretical groundwork for an outpatient ethics, this literature is not sufficient to support outpatient caregivers in practical dilemmas. For physicians who are employed by or affiliated with a larger organization, a stronger alliance between clinical ethics and organizational ethics, identity, and mission will promote expansion of ethics resources in outpatient settings and address structural constraints in outpatient clinical care.

  19. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Regina da Luz


    Full Text Available Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  20. Ethical issues in physical therapy. (United States)

    Richardson, Robert W


    Healthcare professionals can be confronted with a wide range of ethical and regulatory issues in today's ever-changing practice environments. While achieving best practice standards, physical therapists may need to compromise what is best for patients due to fiscally driven rules, regulations, and limited benefits. Scenarios may surface where ethical issues and associated dilemmas become paramount between what is versus what should be. A challenge that should be in the forefront of professional endeavors is staying current with published rules, regulations, and conditions of participation, as applied to various practice models and environments while still adhering to ethical codes. Knowing and utilizing available resources especially American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), websites, documents, and references can strengthen practice patterns and treatment options.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius NEAGU


    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which aims primarily at improving patient’s physical appearance and, to a lesser extent, the functionality of teeth. This field raises particular ethical dilemmas and requires a careful evaluation of patient’s needs and wishes versus his/her clinical best interests. In this article, the authors discuss the main ethical challenges in the field of aesthetic dentistry in the light of the four “classical” principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The authors conclude that the principles of medical ethics should be at the very foundation of the field of aesthetic dentistry, for establishing a patient-physician relationship which could lead to optimum clinical outcomes, while respecting the wishes of the patient and promoting his/her best interests.

  2. A Computerised Business Ethics Expert System -A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Brenner


    Full Text Available Abstract Where unethical business decision-making arises from failures of ethical perception, there is an important role for ethical training and decision-making tools. These may help business people to consider all relevant issues when assessing the ethical status of potential decisions. Ethical training programmes give business people a basic understanding of the principles which underlie ethical judgements and equip them with many of the necessary skills for dealing with the ethical dilemmas which they face in their jobs. Similarly, ethical decision-making tools may guide managers through the various ethical considerations which are relevant to business decision-making and help them to develop their ethical-perceptual skills. Furthermore, by establishing and reinforcing good ethical decision-making practices, training programmes and decision-making tools may also reduce the incidence of self-consciously unethical decision-making. A new approach to improving the ethical quality of business decision-making by the use of computerized business ethics expert systems is proposed. These systems have the potential to guide business people through a process of ethical evaluation while simultaneously fulfilling an educational role, thus providing many of the benefits of both training programmes and decision-making tools. While the prospect of a computer system which could simply make ethical judgements for business people is both unrealistic and undesirable, a system which leads human decision-makers through a structured assessment process has the potential for genuine benefits. Keywords: Expert Systems, Ethical Decision Making

  3. Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game (United States)

    Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki


    The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

  4. The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities. (United States)

    Lockway, Larry


    Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

  5. The Study of the Ethics Dilemma during the Teaching Procedure of Medical Genetics%医学遗传学教学中的伦理困境与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红英; 杨利丽; 王刚


    为探讨医学遗传学教学中伦理学问题的正确授课方法,我们采用随机抽取﹑面对面交流﹑匿名调查问卷等方法与学生沟通,获得了学生对医学遗传学教学中伦理学问题看法的最真实的资料。总结正确方法,将伦理学问题贯穿到医学遗传学教学过程中,真正达到“教书育人”的目的。%To investigate the correct teaching method of the ethics problem in Medical Gentics. We get the real viewpoint from students by random selection, face to face talking and anonymous questionnaire. And we summarize the data and put the ethics problem into the teaching procedure of Medical Genetics. To achieve the aim of “impart knowledge and educate people”.

  6. Business ethics


    Duong, Thi


    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  7. Confidentiality in psychotherapy: Some of actual dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević-Gvozden Tatjana D.


    Full Text Available The article examines confidentiality principle from different perspectives: as the factor which plays a very important part in developing a productive therapist-client relationship, ethical and, in many countries, legal issue. Ways to maintain confidentiality in therapy are stated, as well as situations in which it is inevitably limited. Three dilemmas concerning confidentiality are explained and discussed. The first is when one should speak and when one should be silent and what we should do when we are in two minds. The second is whether the client should be informed about confidentiality limitations at the very beginning, or when the need arises during the treatment. The third is whether confidentiality limitation (when a client poses a threat to himself or to the society should be legally regulated, as it is being done in many western countries.

  8. Doing the right thing: relief agencies, moral dilemmas and responsibility in political emergencies and war. (United States)

    Slim, H


    In recent years a new generation of relief workers and relief agencies has become embroiled in the heat of civil wars and political emergencies, and the humanitarian community has had to revisit its fundamental principles and address the ethics of what it does. This paper sets out to continue this important debate by emphasising that ethical analysis should always be an essential part of humanitarian practice. The paper seeks to recognise the difficult moral choices relief agencies are facing today and gives some practical guidelines to relief agency staff when confronting the ethics of a given situation. In particular, it hopes to introduce some ethical principles into the debate about humanitarianism and contribute to the moral vocabulary which is being developed to improve relief agencies' ethical analysis. The paper starts by looking at the essential characteristics of a moral dilemma, and the way in which other types of tough choice can masquerade as moral dilemmas. It then introduces some basic moral principles surrounding the key ethical notions of action consequences and moral responsibility in an effort to show how relief agencies might begin to develop a process of ethical analysis in their work. Finally, it explores how relief agencies might develop a more intuitive form of ethical analysis based on an organisational conscience and moral role models.

  9. ‘Practice what you preach’: Nurses’ perspectives on the Code of Ethics and Service Pledge in five South African hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine White


    Full Text Available Background: A recent focus of the global discourse on the health workforce has been on its quality, including the existence of codes of ethics. In South Africa, the importance of ethics and value systems in nursing was emphasised in the 2011 National Nursing Summit. Objective: The study explored hospital nurses’ perceptions of the International Code of Ethics for Nurses; their perceptions of the South African Nurses’ Pledge of Service; and their views on contemporary ethical practice. Methods: Following university ethics approval, the study was done at a convenience sample of five hospitals in two South African provinces. In each hospital, all day duty nurses in paediatric, maternity, adult medical, and adult surgical units were requested to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire focused on their perceptions of the Code of Ethics and the Pledge, using a seven-point Likert scale. STATA® 13 and NVIVO 10 were used to analyse survey data and open-ended responses, respectively. Results: The mean age of survey participants (n=69 was 39 years (SD=9.2, and the majority were female (96%. The majority agreed with a statement that they will promote the human rights of individuals (98% and that they have a duty to meet the health and social needs of the public (96%. More nuanced responses were obtained for some questions, with 60% agreeing with a statement that too much emphasis is placed on patients’ rights as opposed to nurses’ rights and 32% agreeing with a statement that they would take part in strike action to improve nurses’ salaries and working conditions. The dilemmas of nurses to uphold the Code of Ethics and the Pledge in face of workplace constraints or poor working conditions were revealed in nurses’ responses to open-ended questions. Conclusion: Continuing education in ethics and addressing health system deficiencies will enhance nurses’ professional development and their ethical decision-making and

  10. Virtue Ethics in School Counseling: A Framework for Decision Making (United States)

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.; Cook, Amy L.


    Virtue ethics focus on the motives that guide ethical decision making and action, and as such, are critical to the competent application of the counseling profession's ethical codes. Knowledge of virtue ethics deepens understanding of moral responsibilities and ethical reasoning in professional practice. This paper is an overview of virtue ethics…

  11. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.


    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  12. What is data ethics? (United States)


    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations—the interactions among hardware, software and data—rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The ethical impact of data science’.

  13. What is data ethics? (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano; Taddeo, Mariarosaria


    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations-the interactions among hardware, software and data-rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'.

  14. Professional ethics. A case study of infusion nurse consultants. (United States)

    Adams, J


    As the healthcare system continues to reform, opportunities exist for infusion nurses to expand their practice into the business world. Traditionally, biomedical ethics have been used in nursing education as a framework for identifying and responding to ethical dilemmas. However, in the business world, professional ethics may be more subtle and insidious. A case study of ten infusion nurse consultants and their experiences with professional ethical issues is presented. Data were obtained using interviews, and content analysis revealed emergent themes of integrity and intuitive knowing with related categories.

  15. The dilemma for Japanese students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Anders


    The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students.......The Japanese job hunting system inhibits Japanese students from studying abroad. A Japanese professor says it is a huge dilemma for the students....

  16. Quantum Samaritan's Dilemma Under Decoherence (United States)

    Huang, Zhiming; Alonso-Sanz, Ramón; Situ, Haozhen


    We study how quantum noise affects the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma. Serval most common dissipative and nondissipative noise channels are considered as the model of the decoherence process. We find that the solution of quantum Samaritan's dilemma is stable under the influence of the amplitude damping, the bit flip and the bit-phase flip channel.

  17. An Investigation of the Ethical Decision-Making of Preschool Teachers: A Cultural Study of a Sample in Turkey (United States)

    Ozturk, Safak


    In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…

  18. The paucity of ethical analysis in allergology. (United States)

    Behrmann, Jason


    While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI) research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study.

  19. Playing, sitting out, and observing the game: an investigation of faculty members' perspectives on political behavior in ethical decision making. (United States)

    Medeiros, Kelsey E; Gibson, Carter; Mecca, Jensen T; Giorgini, Vincent; Connelly, Shane; Mumford, Michael D


    Ethical dilemmas are inherently ambiguous, complex, and ill-defined. Additionally, these dilemmas involve multiple stakeholders. These characteristics may induce political behavior as a resolution tactic. Thus, the goal of the present effort was to investigate perspectives on politics among researchers in an ethical decision-making context. A qualitative analysis of interviews with university faculty members revealed that faculty members' perspectives on political behavior in an ethical decision-making context fall into a number of categories, including positive, negative, and realistic views of political activity. The implications of these varying perspectives on ethical decision making are discussed.

  20. Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Therapeutic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Khanna


    Full Text Available Pancreatic pseudocyst develops in both acute and chronic pancreatitis. It is an entity likely to either remain asymptomatic or develop devastating complications. Despite being diagnosed easily, treatment exercise is still at crossroads whether in the form of internal or external drainage or endoscopic, laparoscopic, or open intervention with a good radiological guidance. The therapeutic dilemma whether to treat a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst, as well as when and with what technique, is a difficult one. This paper is intended to get information about diagnostic and therapeutic exercises most appropriate for acute and chronic pancreatic pseudocyst.

  1. School Psychologists Ethical Decision Making: Implications from Selected Social Psychological Phenomena (United States)

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry


    School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…

  2. A Comparison of Special Education Administrators' and Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Ethics and Professional Standards (United States)

    Fiedler, Craig R.; Van Haren, Barbara


    The field of special education is wrought with ethical dilemmas. The Council for Exceptional Children has outlined its code of ethics and standards for professional practice for individuals working in the field of special education. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which special education administrators and teachers possess…

  3. An Ethic of Connectedness: Enacting Moral School Leadership through People and Programs (United States)

    Frick, J. Edward; Frick, William C.


    As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…

  4. NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada (United States)

    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005


    This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

  5. When Practice Takes Precedence: Conceptions of Inquiry and the Link to Ethical Posture (United States)

    McArdle, Karen; Birchley, Jacinta; Bruce, Jayne; Hurrell, Alison; Paterson, Sandra; Stephen, Mary


    Using participatory action research (PAR), this paper explores the ethical practice of students engaged in practitioner research in a higher education context. Using narrative enquiry, the paper explores the participants' experiences of practitioner research, including ethical dilemmas that resulted from a conflict of values between the…

  6. Ethics in the Work Environment: Applied Bioethics in the Hospital for Delta's Nursing Students. (United States)

    Plackowski, Linda C.

    In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…

  7. Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship (United States)

    Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti


    Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

  8. Ethical Values, the Flow of Journalistic Information and Public Relations Persons. (United States)

    Ryan, Michael; Martinson, David L.


    Reports on a study that found that public relations practitioners respond in different ways to different moral-ethical dilemmas and that they tend to think they are accountable in some situations to an authority higher than management. Concludes that subjectivism is the prevailing moral-ethical theory of practitioners. (FL)

  9. The Moral Imperative: Transformative Leadership and the Perceptions of Ethics Training among High School Principals (United States)

    Meakin, Matthew


    School leadership has always been a moral undertaking. Contemporary school leaders face complex ethical dilemmas every day. A limited amount of research exists to describe the extent to which school principals feel formally prepared to be ethical leaders. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the self-identified…

  10. Ethical Leadership in Schools: Creating Community in an Environment of Accountability. Leadership for Learning Series (United States)

    Strike, Kenneth A.


    Discover the link between ethical leadership and successful educational communities! In an age of accountability and transparency, principals are held responsible for everything from test scores to school finances. Because of this increased accountability, school leaders must regularly confront difficult ethical dilemmas. This book teaches…

  11. Comparing Men's and Women's Perception of Modality of Teaching Business Ethics (United States)

    Mahdavi, Iraj


    This paper is the second report of a research project involving collecting information via e-survey about occasions in which graduates of a California private University have encountered ethical issues/dilemma after graduation and the role that they think their education and the ethics course they had taken played in recognition and resolution of…

  12. Sharing the Stage: Ethical Dimensions of Narrative Inquiry in Music Education (United States)

    Nichols, Jeananne


    In this autoethnographic study, I identify and critique the ethical dimensions of the research relationship from a narrative inquiry into a transgender student's experience in school music. Josselson notes that while many scholars have discussed conducting ethical research in theoretical terms, actual dilemmas of practice are seldom written about.…

  13. The Use of DSM-IV in Family Counseling: Ethical Considerations. (United States)

    Beamish, Patricia M.

    This paper describes the ethical dilemmas encountered by family counselors using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM). Numerous authors have emphasized that the DSM system does not contribute in an effective or efficient manner in the conduct of family therapy. The ethical issues of misrepresentation; trust; malfeasance;…

  14. Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific (United States)

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda


    Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

  15. Ethics in America II: A Video Series for Middle School, High School, and Adult Learners (United States)

    Annenberg Media, 2007


    New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethical dilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…

  16. Ethical Challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth


    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...

  17. 医院在"被精神病"中面临的伦理困境及法学思考%Ethical Dilemma and Legal Consideration those Hospitals Admitting and Treating Patients with Suspected Mental Illness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜贤飞; 王莉


    通过分析当事人"被精神病"的因为及医院在强制收治疑似精神病人中可能面临的伦理及法律问题,提出了解决问题的思路:立法确立非危害性疑似精神病人送治的自愿性原则、建立疑似精神病人非自愿住院的第三方鉴定机制以及对具有社会危害性的精神病人实施免费强制治疗.%Through analyzing the reasons, ethical and legal problems that hospitals faced when they admitted and treated the patients with suspected mental illness, we proposed the solutions to address the problems, including the voluntary admission principle of patients with suspected, harmless mental illness by regulations, establishing the third- party mechamsm to certificate the involuntary admission for patients with suspected mental illness, and free compulsory treatment for patients with severe mental diseases, which will do a harm to himself or society.

  18. 高校思政课教师队伍面临的困境及师德建设途径%Discussion on the Dilemma of Political Teachers in Colleges and the Way of Construction on the Teachers’ Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    思政课教师是高校对学生进行德育教育的主体,但目前也面临着诸多困境使思政课的实效功能不尽如人意。因此,探索高校思政课教师师德建设的途径、方法,加强思政课教师的师德建设,是当前师德建设中亟待解决的课题。%The recent emergence of a series of events that contrary to virtue illustrate the importance of strengthening ur‐gency and the construction of teachers’ morality .The ideological and political teacher is the main part of moral education of students ,but now also faced with many difficulties which brought unsatisfactory function of actual effect of ideological and po‐litical course .Therefore it is the current urgently issue to be solved in the construction of teachers’ morals subject to explore the approach and method of construction of teachers’ Morality in Colleges and to strengthen the construction of professional ethics on ideological and political teachers .

  19. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi


    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  20. Does Moral Case Deliberation Help Professionals in Care for the Homeless in Dealing with Their Dilemmas? A Mixed-Methods Responsive Study. (United States)

    Spijkerboer, R P; van der Stel, J C; Widdershoven, G A M; Molewijk, A C


    Health care professionals often face moral dilemmas. Not dealing constructively with moral dilemmas can cause moral distress and can negatively affect the quality of care. Little research has been documented with methodologies meant to support professionals in care for the homeless in dealing with their dilemmas. Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a method for systematic reflection on moral dilemmas and is increasingly being used as ethics support for professionals in various health-care domains. This study deals with the question: What is the contribution of MCD in helping professionals in an institution for care for the homeless to deal with their moral dilemmas? A mixed-methods responsive evaluation design was used to answer the research question. Five teams of professionals from a Dutch care institution for the homeless participated in MCD three times. Professionals in care for the homeless value MCD positively. They report that MCD helped them to identify the moral dilemma/question, and that they learned from other people's perspectives while reflecting and deliberating on the values at stake in the dilemma or moral question. They became aware of the moral dimension of moral dilemmas, of related norms and values, of other perspectives, and learned to formulate a moral standpoint. Some experienced the influence of MCD in the way they dealt with moral dilemmas in daily practice. Half of the professionals expect MCD will influence the way they deal with moral dilemmas in the future. Most of them were in favour of further implementation of MCD in their organization.

  1. Ethical Impotence (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.


    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  2. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.


    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a behav

  3. Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists. (United States)

    Hoffman, Anna


    Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families.

  4. The social worker as moral citizen: ethics in action. (United States)

    Manning, S S


    Social workers today face some of the most complex ethical dilemmas in the history of the profession. This article presents a framework of moral citizenship to guide ethical social work practice. The framework includes the action philosophies of philosopher Hannah Arendt and Lutheran theologian Paul Tillich integrated with concepts of professional responsibility and the unique contributions of social work pioneer Charlotte Towle. Social conscience and social consciousness, including awareness, thinking, feeling, and action, are major components of the framework.

  5. [Medical ethics in residency training]. (United States)

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcioğlu, Harun


    Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed.

  6. 关注青光眼治疗中的医学伦理学问题%Focus on the ethics problem in glaucoma management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯; 石砚; 张钰; 黄萍


    Due to the different goals of current glaucoma treatments,various treatment methods have their pros and cons.Therefore,their applications are affected by factors inside and outside medical category,thus prone to a series of problems.In clinical practice,in addition to following the related clinical guidelines and standards,medical ethics problems must be considered.And besides,based on the principles of nonmaleficence,beneficence,respect and justice in medical ethics,the treatments should be carefully selected to weigh the advantages and disadvantages to the patients.Only in this way,the efficacy and safety of glaucoma treatment can be improved,and the medical and social missions of glaucoma specialists can be more reasonably completed.%由于目前青光眼的治疗目的和各种治疗方式各有利弊,临床治疗工作受到医学范畴内和外各种因素影响,容易引发一系列问题,因此在实际工作中,除了应遵循相关专业临床指南和标准外,必须考虑医学伦理学问题,并依据医学伦理学的不伤害原则、有利原则、尊重原则和公正原则规范治疗青光眼,为患者权衡利弊,谨慎选择治疗方案,只有这样才能提高青光眼治疗的有效性和安全性,更为合理地完成医学和社会赋予青光眼专业医师的使命.

  7. Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors Dilemas éticos na publicação científica: dificuldades e soluções para editores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laragh Gollogly


    Full Text Available Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing.Editores de revistas científicas precisam estar atentos aos mecanismos de disseminação de condutas inadequadas no processo de publicação. Este artigo fornece definições, formas de documentar a extensão do problema e exemplos de iniciativas para conter fraudes editorias. Fabricação, falsificação, duplicação, autoria-fantasma, autoria concedida, falta de ética na aprovação de manuscritos, não-divulgação desses fatos, publicação "salami", conflitos de interesse, autocitação, submissão e publicação duplicadas, e plágio são problemas comuns. A conduta editorial inadequada

  8. [Medical ethics as professional ethics]. (United States)

    Kwon, Ivo


    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (倫, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason.

  9. Ethical problems in radiology: radiological consumerism. (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A


    One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethical dilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health.

  10. THE BRANDING OF ETHICS: A Multidisciplinary Investigation into the Ethical Branding Phenomenon in the UK


    Zhang, Lifu


    Ethical considerations are a potentially powerful influence on consumer purchasing decisions. Marketers have begun to recognize the need to incorporate business ethics into their marketing activities. The practice of 'ethical branding' is a relatively new phenomenon and previous studies have been mainly focusing on how consumers make sense of it, rather than how and why marketers position their products as ethical brands. This study aims to explore the motives behind ethical branding decision...

  11. Dilemma of dilemmas: how collective and individual perspectives can clarify the size dilemma in voluntary linear public goods dilemmas. (United States)

    Shank, Daniel B; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael


    Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size-the number of people in the dilemma-sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit) by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties) factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390) confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest) and group (other-interest and equality) preference are included. Our research contributes to

  12. Dilemma of dilemmas: how collective and individual perspectives can clarify the size dilemma in voluntary linear public goods dilemmas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Shank

    Full Text Available Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size-the number of people in the dilemma-sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier, mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390 confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest and group (other-interest and equality preference are included. Our research contributes

  13. Ethical considerations in disease management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a cross-cultural, worldwide perspective. (United States)

    Russell, J A


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is universally fatal. Technological advances have provided a means to impact upon, without radically improving, the natural history of the disease. In addition, we now have the capability of potentially identifying patients who are pre-symptomatic carriers of the rare heritable forms of the disease. These capabilities provide the basis for the numerous ethical dilemmas that face patients, physicians, and agencies responsible for health care expenditures; dilemmas that can only be amplified between cultures. This paper attempts to address some of the major ethical issues germane to the care of ALS patients. It discusses the emergence of autonomy as the reigning principle of medical ethics in the United States and its potential conflict with the ethical dilemma of limited resource allocation. Finally, it attempts to compare and contrast, in an admittedly anecdotal and fragmentary fashion, the perspective of other cultures regarding the care of ALS patients.

  14. Ethics--Business Educators Teach Students To Do the Right Thing! (United States)

    Keying In, 1997


    This issue focuses on teaching ethics in business education programs. Exploring the teaching of ethics in both high school and college, the newsletter first presents an overview of ethics and the study of ethics and makes a case for teaching ethics in business education courses. Following a short commentary on the difficulty of teaching ethics is…

  15. Comparing Ethical Content Ratings of Text and Video Versions of Stories (United States)

    Gomberg, Anna; Orlova, Darya; Squillace, Mary; Narvaez, Darcia


    The Rating Ethical Content System (RECS) provides a systematic method for rating the positive content of stories, based on the Four Process model of ethical behavior (Rest, 1983): ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment, ethical focus and ethical action. We present data from an experiment in which college students and children rated the ethical…

  16. Dilemmas of Modernity in Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Suta-Selejan


    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this paper is to try to find out some reference points in order to understand many dilemmas which accompanied modern society – its birth, evolution and spread throughout countries and centuries. The most frequent such dilemmas concerned the paramount criteria for choosing between individual or societal matters, between private propriety or public (state one, between private or public interests, between market mechanism or government policy as basis of the best decisions in human actions and matters. While analyzing such inconsistencies and dilemmas we can better understand the real nature of modernity and liberalism, especially what some researchers call “postmodernity”.

  17. Dilemmas of Modernity in Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Suta-Selejan


    Full Text Available The subject-matter of this paper is to try to find out some reference points in order to understand many dilemmas which accompanied modern society – its birth, evolution and spread throughout countries and centuries. The most frequent such dilemmas concerned the paramount criteria for choosing between individual or societal matters, between private propriety or public (state one, between private or public interests, between market mechanism or government policy as basis of the best decisions in human actions and matters. While analyzing such inconsistencies and dilemmas we can better understand the real nature of modernity and liberalism, especially what some researchers call “postmodernity”.

  18. The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Webber


    Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.

  19. Embryonic stem cell research: an ethical problem


    Рамазанова, А.


    Embryonic stem cells offer hope for new therapies, but their use and research entail an ethical problem, which does not have a certain solution. Therefore, we can ask: What exactly are the ethical arguments? Why are they so tricky to resolve?Embryonic stem cell research poses a moral dilemma. It forces us to choose between two moral principles: The duty to prevent or alleviate suffering The duty to respect the value of human life To obtain embryonic stem cells, the early embryo has to be dest...

  20. Ethics and technology design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    This article offers a discussion of the connection between technology and values and, specifically, I take a closer look at ethically sound design. In order to bring the discussion into a concrete context, the theory of Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be the focus point. To illustrate my argument...... concerning design ethics, the discussion involves a case study of an augmented window, designed by the VSD Research Lab, which has turned out to be a potentially surveillanceenabling technology. I call attention to a “positivist problem” that has to do with the connection between the design context...... of design ethics, is intended as a constructive criticism, which can hopefully contribute to the further development of design ethics....

  1. Documentary ethics in contemporary practices. Alternative participation, alternative ethics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.


    Documentary scholars have presupposed a certain documentary practice, and have ethically evaluated this practice, with a focus on the need for protection for a vulnerable and ignorant participant. But times have changed. By researching the experience of ethical challenges by both documentary filmmak

  2. Alternative Education, Equity and Compromise: Dilemmas for Practice Development (United States)

    Bryson, Peter


    The focus of this article is to provide a child rights analysis of the equity of educational experience afforded to young people outside mainstream schools by alternative providers. The dilemma for policy and existing practice is that alternative education supports children's right to an education as stated in Article 28 of the United Nations…

  3. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John


    The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...

  4. Business ethics in ethics committees? (United States)

    Boyle, P


    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  5. Questions of Ethics and Loyalty: An Assistant Principal's Tale (United States)

    Martinez, Melissa A.


    Inspired by real-life events, this case describes the dilemma of a novice assistant principal who must balance her role as an administrator at her high school campus where a cousin's son, Eddie, recently enrolled and is proving to be disruptive the first month of school. Troubled by questions of ethics and loyalty, the issue is complicated after…

  6. Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective. (United States)

    Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.


    Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

  7. Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors (United States)

    Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola


    This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

  8. Ethics in biomedical engineering. (United States)

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer


    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  9. Toothbrush selection : A dilemma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Dhiraj


    Full Text Available The toothbrush is a fundamental tool used for accomplishing plaque control. Various types of toothbrushes available in the market keep the buyer in a state of dilemma as to which one to choose, due to lack of information about the "quality" of it. This study has been designed to understand whether all the products available in the market adhere to the specifications laid down by the ADA, which is universally accepted in standardization of a tooth brush. 95% of the brushes surveyed contain less number of bristles per tuft than specified and a large percentage deviate from the standard prescribed value for their bristle diameter and other dimensions. Few brushes labeled as "Soft" were "Medium" and labeled "Medium" were "Hard". The study will bring to light the quality of toothbrushes available in India for a rationalised selection of appropriate toothbrush by the community at large.

  10. A 'good' ethical review: audit and professionalism in research ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... by FERCAP, which recognises committees according to a set of standards that are designed to render ‘local’ committees internationally legible. The article adds to a growing comparative literature that expands studies of audit-like measuring and disciplining activities beyond western contexts and enriches...

  11. The Importance of Teaching Ethics of Sustainability (United States)

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Monroe, Martha C.; Oxarart, Annie


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.…

  12. Ethical aspects of information security and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip; Petkovic, Milan; Jonker, Willem


    This chapter reviews ethical aspects of computer and information security and privacy. After an introduction to ethical approaches to information technology, the focus is first on ethical aspects of computer security. These include the moral importance of computer security, the relation between comp

  13. Fostering nursing ethics for practical nursing


    森田, 敏子; モリタ, トシコ; Morita, Toshiko


    Higher nursing ethics can raise nursing quality. The author attempts to define theproblem from the seedling of sensibility in practical nursing and focuses on the clinical environment surrounding nursing ethics from its pedagogical and historicalaspects. On the basis of these standpoints, the author discusses issues on the practical nursing as a practitioner of nursing ethics.

  14. Islamic and Western perspectives on applied media ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Izzeldin Malik


    Full Text Available This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media values of social responsibility. These clashing media values are part of the broader practices of newsgathering and news reporting that encompass many ethical dilemmas in the field of media and journalism. The study concludes by discussing Western perspectives on character education. It also provides an Islamic moral perspective based on character education as an approach compatible with the Western perspective on moral education. This perspective will help reconcile global clashing media values.

  15. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics. (United States)

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y


    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result.

  16. Ethics of compassion in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available One of the main challenges currently facing education is the incorporation of the ethics of compassion at the theoretical level as well as in educational practice. This article outlines the main arguments that permit us to introduce a sentiment of compassion in the pedagogical proposals for moral education. Emphasis is placed on the complementary nature of ethics and moral development which, under various denominations, consider similar aspects: ethics of moral sentiments; ethics of care and responsibility; ethics of otherness; and ethics of hospitality among others. Finally, we arrive at two features that should be considered when implementing the teaching of compassion in the moral realm: the relationship between students and teachers, and the narrative focus in moral development.

  17. Ethics in Crimes and Misdemeanors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Haraldsson


    Full Text Available In this paper I employ Goodenough´s distinction between films that illustrate, are about and do philosophy to answer the question how we can identify the ethical content of movies. Crimes and Misdemeanors by Woody Allen is taken as an example but Mary L. Litch has argued that this movie illustrates ethical problems and is about ethics. On Litch´s reading the film reveals inherent flaws in utilitarianism and illustrates a Kantian insight as well as other ethical and religious theses. I argue, however, that Litch has relied on a too narrow method when identifying the ethics of Crimes and Misdemeanors. She focuses almost exclusively on dialogue and the general storyline. If we broaden our method to include sensitivity to filming, editing, camera angulation etc., we will not only realize a rather different ethical content in Crimes and Misdemeanors but also see how the movie stirkes close to home for most viewers of Hollywood movies.

  18. Late Termination of Pregnancy. Professional Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel


    Full Text Available Abortion is an issue as long as history and hotly debated in all societies and communities. In some societies and countries it is legal, while other countries have no legal basis, and some countries have made it a crime. Today up to 90% of abortions take place in the first trimester, about 9% in the second trimester, and the rest in the third trimester.This paper deals with the issue of late termination of pregnancy, the practical medical aspects, legal issues, international aspects, and the dilemma for the professional.In early history, abortion was accepted by clergy and societies, but in recent history it is more restricted and in some countries prohibited. It does not seem that restriction leads to a lower abortion rate, but rather an active contraceptive policy, campaign, and availability to prevent pregnancies that are unwanted. In countries where abortion is restricted, the trend has been an increase in illegal abortion that leads to unsafe abortion with complications, permanent injuries, and maternal mortality.Unsafe and illegal abortion is a public health concern that governments should try to prevent and instead find ways to strengthen their commitments toward better and safer health and family planning services for women.Late termination of pregnancies is an issue of grave concern with many practical medical aspects, ethical questions, and professional dilemmas. This is especially of concern because of the viability of the fetus and should only take place in order to prevent harm to the physical and mental health of the mother or due to an anomaly or disability of the fetus.

  19. Ethical Ambiguity in Science. (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Ecklund, Elaine Howard


    Drawing on 171 in-depth interviews with physicists at universities in the United States and the UK, this study examines the narratives of 48 physicists to explain the concept of ethical ambiguity: the border where legitimate and illegitimate conduct is blurred. Researchers generally assume that scientists agree on what constitutes both egregious and more routine forms of misconduct in science. The results of this study show that scientists perceive many scenarios as ethically gray, rather than black and white. Three orientations to ethical ambiguity are considered-altruism, inconsequential outcomes, and preserving the status quo-that allow possibly questionable behavior to persist unchallenged. Each discursive strategy is rationalized as promoting the collective interest of science rather than addressing what is ethically correct or incorrect. The results of this study suggest that ethics training in science should focus not only on fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism and more routine forms of misconduct, but also on strategies for resolving ethically ambiguous scenarios where appropriate action may not be clear.

  20. (Inadvertently) Instructing Missionaries in (Public University) World Religions Courses: Examining a Pedagogical Dilemma, Its Dimensions, and a Course Section Solution (United States)

    Karapanagiotis, Nicole


    In this article, I explore an ethical and pedagogical dilemma that I encounter each semester in my world religions courses: namely, that a great number of students enroll in the courses as part of their missionary training programs, and come to class understanding successful learning to mean gathering enough information about the world's religious…

  1. Myths, magic and reality in nursing ethics: a personal perspective. (United States)

    Tschudin, V


    Ethics, especially in nursing, tends to be surrounded by myths and ideas that have more in common with magic than reality. This article argues from quotes of two medieval men, Thomas Aquinas and Meister Eckhart, that ethical behaviour among nurses is not something difficult or far-fetched, but something immediate, everyday, and often very simple. The more weighty ethical dilemmas are not diminished by this. Aspects of justice, compassion and courage are discussed from the point of view of relationships with clients and colleagues, and the need for (helpful) myths is stressed.

  2. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations. (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine


    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  3. Hacia el enunciado de dilemas éticos sobre la enfermedad de Alzheimer precoz, en Antioquia, Colombia Towards the enunciation of ethical dilemmas regarding early onset alzheimer's in Antioquia Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lopera Restrepo


    Full Text Available Hemos tratado de presentar, principalmente, aspectos legales y morales que tienen que ver con la enfermedad de Alzheimer de inicio precoz, con énfasis en la situación epidemiológica de Antioquia, Colombia. Más allá de la discusión moderna sobre los aspectos moleculares, queremos enfocarnos en las condiciones objetivas de nuestros pacientes y sus familias incluídas sus condiciones socioeconómicas. Esperamos que, ojalá más temprano que tarde, nuestras reflexiones sean de importancia práctica y, eventualmente, que sean también de utilidad para otros grupos humanos en condiciones similares. This paper discusses moral and legal aspects regarding early onset Alzheimer’s Disease (EOAD focusing on the epidemiological situation in Antioquia, Colombia. Beyond modern discussions on molecular aspects of genetic diseases we want to try to look at the objective situation of our patients, their families and their socioeconomic environments. It is our hope that as soon as possible our thoughts could be of practical help. Eventually, some of these reflections may be applicable to other human groups under similar conditions.

  4. [Hospital clinical ethics committees]. (United States)

    Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor


    The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of

  5. Guest Editors’ Introduction On Understanding Ethical Behavior and Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. de Cremer (David); D.M. Mayer (David); M. Schminke (Marshall)


    textabstractBehavioral ethics is an emerging field that takes an empirical, social scientific approach to the study of business ethics. In this special issue, we include six articles that fall within the domain of behavioral ethics and that focus on three themes—moral awareness, ethical decision mak

  6. Self-with-Other in Teacher Practice: A Case Study through Care, Aristotelian Virtue, and Buddhist Ethics (United States)

    Chang, Dave; Bai, Heesoon


    Many teacher candidates get their first taste of life as a full-time teacher in their practicums, during which they confront a host of challenges, pedagogical and ethical. Because ethics is fundamental to the connection between teachers and students, teacher candidates are often required to negotiate dilemmas in ways that keep with the ethical…

  7. The Ethics of Human Spaceflight (United States)

    Zoloth, Laurie


    This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

  8. Ethics in Maritime Medicine: Introduction to Workshop 6 - Ethics and Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Ergle, Andra

    their source in ethical deliberations, where contrasting sets of principles may be at stake. Examples of such dilemmas could be for medical assessment: What are the consequences for the seaman/fisherman of one's decisions? How much and for how long time should one follow up medically, economically, etc when......, the answers will be collected, discussed and summed op in plenum. A written compendium of the presentations and a list over selected relevant writings will be delivered to the participants.  ...

  9. Dilemmas in international research and the value of practical wisdom. (United States)

    Jarvis, Kimberly


    When conducting research in an international setting, in a country different than that of the researcher, unpredictable circumstances can arise. A study conducted by a novice North American researcher with a vulnerable population in northern Ghana highlights these happenings with an emphasis placed on the ethical challenges encountered. An illustration from the research is used to highlight an ethical dilemma while in the field, and how utilizing a moral decision-making framework can assist in making choices about a participant's right to autonomy, privacy, and confidentiality during the research process. Moral frameworks, however, can never be enough to solve a dilemma since guidelines only describe what to aim for and not how to interpret or use them. Researchers must therefore strive to move beyond these frameworks to employ practical wisdom or phronesis so to combine the right thing to do with the skill required to figure out what the right choice is. The skill of practical wisdom must be acquired because without it international researchers indecisively fumble around with good intentions, often leaving a situation in worse shape than they found it.

  10. Editorial: Dilemmas of Modern Economy and Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stankevičienė


    Full Text Available Various dilemmas concerning modern economy and business have been in the focus of scientific discussion in recent years (Klich, 2013; Renko & Knezevic, 2013; Szarucki, 2013; Agrawal & Gugnani, 2014; Pardhasaradhi & Grace, 2015. In modern economy, not only researches but corporations face complex economic and business dilemmas in their daily routine. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission addresses key economic challenges by stimulating innovations, sustainability policies, social and environmental responsibilities. These challenges require the mobilization of significant resources by science, innovation and regional policy makers and scientific communities across Europe (EUA, 2014. Broader scientific discussions are crucial for the success of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. According to the Global Risks Report 2015, the biggest threat to world stability in the next 10 years arise from the four most serious economic risks. These are high structural unemployment or underemployment, energy price shock, critical information infrastructure breakdown and fiscal crises. We continuously agree that innovation is critical to global prosperity (WEF, 2015. Currently, the internationalisation of family businesses is an increasingly important research area. Substantial numbers of FBs are forced to expand into foreign markets in order to survive and grow in the competitive environment (Daszkiewicz & Wach, 2014. The roles of business angels are especially important taken both decreasing the levels of formal venture capital investment and growing average amount of individual deals. Angel investors are the key players in generating high-growth companies, essential to regional economic development. As a result, they have attracted the attention of policy makers (Rostamzadeh et. al., 2014. Consequently, this issue of EBER concentrates on the current dilemmas of modern economy and business, particularly dealing

  11. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...

  12. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist


    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  13. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Ramadhan


    Full Text Available Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government ethics and formulating the issues of e-Government ethics. The e-Government ethics position, based on the previous three applied ethics, is also described in this paper. Computer ethics, information ethics and cyber ethics are considered as the foundations of e-Government ethics and several others applied ethics could enrich the e-Government ethics.

  14. The Prisoner's Dilemma: Introducing Game Theory (United States)

    Shaw, Doug J.; Miller, Catherine M.


    Since 1950, the Prisoner's Dilemma has intrigued economists and amused fans of mathematics. It presents a situation in which two players acting to their own advantage do not do as well together as two players whose actions oppose their individual interests--hence, the dilemma. Variations of the Prisoner's Dilemma have appeared in diverse…

  15. Developing the Optimal Protocol to Aid in Ethical Decision Making Involving Terminally Ill Patients at Womack Army Community Hospital (United States)


    Administration D)TIC ELECTEamb" S MAY3O,199Q By Captain James C. Kohler, MSC August 1984 is( 05IB0 6ON . TAnhM ,.,r A 90 05 29 036 DlfibUn* ftd SECURITY...followed external factors should be considered. Issues in Reproduction Scientific advances have produced ethical dilemmas in newborn care, genetic ...Infant Care Review Committees (ICRC) to address ethical problems. 3 0 Other dilemmas being faced are the ethics of genetic engineering, such as who

  16. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Botes


    Full Text Available This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decisionmaking. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169. Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15. 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34 and Strauss and Corbin (1990. The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990. The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985 and Morse (1994 related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based

  17. Critical thinking by nurses on ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies. (United States)

    Botes, A


    This research forms part of a larger interdisciplinary research project on the termination of pregnancies. The focus of this part of the project is on the ethical issues related to termination of pregnancies. The practice of the professional nurse is confronted with ethical dilemmas and disputes. Whether the nurse chooses to participate in the termination of pregnancies or not, the core function of the nurse is that of counseling and ethical decision-making. Effective counseling requires empathy, respect for human rights and unconditional acceptance of a person. Making ethical decisions implies making critical decisions. It is self-evident, therefore, that such decisions should be based on sound arguments and logical reasoning. It is of vital importance that ethical decisions can be justified on rational ground. Decision-making is a critical thinking approach process for choosing the best action to meet a desired goal. The research question that is relevant for this paper is: Are nurses thinking critically about ethical issues like the termination of pregnancies? To answer the research question a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was used (Mouton, 1996:103-169). Registered nurses were selected purposively (Creswell, 1994:15). 1200 registered nurses completed the open-ended questionnaires. Focus group interviews were conducted with 22 registered nurses from a public hospital for women and child health services. Data analysis, using secondary data from open-ended questionnaires and transcribed focus group interviews, were based on the approach of Morse and Field (1994:25-34) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). The themes and categories from open coding were compared, conceptualized and linked with theories on critical thinking (Paul, 1994; Watson & Glaser, 1991 and the American Philosophical Association, 1990). The measures of Lincoln and Guba (1985) and Morse (1994) related to secondary data analysis were employed to ensure trustworthiness. Based on these

  18. Ethics in the practice of speech-language pathology in health care settings. (United States)

    Kummer, Ann W; Turner, Jan


    ETHICS refers to a moral philosophy or a set of moral principles that determine appropriate behavior in a society. Medical ethics includes a set of specific values that are considered in determining appropriate conduct in the practice of medicine or health care. Because the practice of medicine and medical speech-language pathology affects the health, well-being, and quality of life of individuals served, adherence to a code of ethical conduct is critically important in the health care environment. When ethical dilemmas arise, consultation with a bioethics committee can be helpful in determining the best course of action. This article will help to define medical ethics and to discuss the six basic values that are commonly considered in discussions of medical ethics. Common ethical mistakes in the practice of speech-language pathology will be described. Finally, the value of a bioethics consultation for help in resolving complex ethical issues will be discussed.

  19. Law and bioethics in Israel: between liberal ethical values and Jewish religious norms. (United States)

    Shapira, Amos


    In Israel, the bulk of the population leads an essentially secularist, liberal, and permissive individual lifestyle. At the same time, certain cultural-religious values, institutions, practices, and injunctions are formally woven into the Israeli communal fabric. Consequently, the bioethical discourse in Israel has evolved in a sociocultural context which manifests a unique mix of orthodoxy and secularism, of communal paternalism and assertive individualism, of proscription and permissiveness, of religious norms and liberal ethical values. There can be no denying of the impact of Jewish religious tenets, and the political groups that champion them, on the shaping of Israeli biomedical jurisprudence. Yet it would be wrong to assume that such impact invariably has been prohibitive and restrictive. To illustrate the diverse influence of religious attitudes on normative postures regarding biomedical dilemmas in Israel, I will focus on end-of-life medical decision making, on the one hand and on embryonic stem cells research, on the other.

  20. The Role of Moral Reasoning and Order Effects on Ethical Decision Making Ability: Novice vs. Experienced Accounting Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillalamarri, Sudarshan Kumar; Holm, Claus

    that novice accounting students cannot differentiate between these two types of reasoning, but would exhibit order effects while making ethical decisions. One hundred forty graduate accounting students from universities in Denmark respond to an audit-specific DIT instrument, measuring prescriptive...... investigates the order effects of presentation of dilemmas on ethical decision making ability of novice and experienced accounting students. Rest (1979, 1983, 1991) categorizes moral reasoning into prescriptive reasoning i.e. consideration of what should ideally be done to resolve a particular ethical dilemma...... and deliberative reasoning i.e. consideration of what would actually be done in resolving ethical dilemmas. Because of lack of work experience, novice accounting students often do not face scenarios where there is a difference between their prescriptive and deliberative reasoning. This study hypothesizes...

  1. Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon? (United States)

    Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.


    Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

  2. Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud

  3. Overview on business ethics and human resources management ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Ph.D. Cãtãlina Bonciu


    Full Text Available In the contemporary business world ethics represents one of the most exciting challenges,precisely because there is still no universally valid modality for solving a problem of this kind. Adopting anethic personal behavior does not always ensure winning in the problems regarding the actual business, norin the organizational behavior itself. The personal values, either native or gained by an individual throughouthis socializing do not represent a support or advantage in the attitude towards the economic life. What is it that actually concerns the managers:to succeed in their activity or to have an ethic activity? A successful business is necessarily an ethic one, or one lacking ethics? In particular, should the human resources manager choose the human factor of solid moral and ethic grounds, or the one exclusively focused on money quantifiable performance?

  4. Publication ethics: whose problem is it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wager


    Full Text Available Discussions about publication ethics often focus on misconduct by authors, such as data fabrication and plagiarism. However, this article focuses on the roles of editors, publishers, academic societies and research institutions. All these players have ethical responsibilities and should carefully consider the effects of their policies and actions. If people believe that publication ethics is ‘somebody else's problem’, little progress will be made and problems will persist.

  5. Publication ethics: whose problem is it?


    Wager, Elizabeth


    Discussions about publication ethics often focus on misconduct by authors, such as data fabrication and plagiarism. However, this article focuses on the roles of editors, publishers, academic societies and research institutions. All these players have ethical responsibilities and should carefully consider the effects of their policies and actions. If people believe that publication ethics is ‘somebody else's problem’, little progress will be made and problems will persist.

  6. Health branding ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Sandøe, Peter; Kamin, Tanja


    Commercial food health branding is a challenging branch of marketing because it might, at the same time, promote healthy living and be commercially viable. However, the power to influence individuals’ health behavior and overall health status makes it crucial for marketing professionals to take...... into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols......) as well as a number of general concerns that apply to health branding as such. Being a pioneering analysis, this article advances the academic understanding of health branding and provides practitioners with knowledge of important concerns to take into account when marketing health brands....

  7. Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética


    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França; Rosilene Santos Baptista; Virgínia Rosana de Sousa Brito


    OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW), listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repea...

  8. Trends and Dilemmas in Citizenship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Solhaug


    Full Text Available This article elaborates some important trends and discussions in citizenship education. It seems that there are strong arguments from scientific scholars which express opposition to a focus on only formal facts and democratic procedures in the teaching of citizenship education. This approach is also criticized by students for its meaninglessness and irrelevance. There also seems to be relative agreement that democracies are being challenged for various reasons, that school plays an important role in citizenship education, that republicanism is the preferred framework, and that students construct their own views of the world (constructivist learning processes. Despite this rather general agreement, there remain quite a few important dilemmas and also disagreements in the field of citizenship education. Among these are: the conceptualization of democracy, the knowledge to be presented, adopting a national versus a global perspective, the maturity of young citizens regarding the question of multiculturalism, and approaches to teaching (particularly providing room for criticism. These and other dilemmas are discussed, and a summary of recommendations is put forward.

  9. Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review. (United States)

    Saha, S; Saha, P S


    Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers.

  10. Psychologists abandon the Nuremberg ethic: concerns for detainee interrogations. (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S; Gutheil, Thomas G


    In the aftermath of 9-11, the American Psychological Association, one of the largest U.S. health professions, changed its ethics code so that it now runs counter to the Nuremberg Ethic. This historic post-9-11 change allows psychologists to set aside their ethical responsibilities whenever they are in irreconcilable conflict with military orders, governmental regulations, national and local laws, and other forms of governing legal authority. This article discusses the history, wording, rationale, and implications of the ethical standard that U.S. psychologists adopted 7 years ago, particularly in light of concerns over health care professionals' involvement in detainee interrogations and the controversy over psychologists' prominent involvement in settings like the Guantánamo Bay Detainment Camp and the Abu Ghraib prison. It discusses possible approaches to the complex dilemmas arising when ethical responsibilities conflict with laws, regulations, or other governing legal authority.

  11. Home Nutrition Support: Ethics and Reimbursement. (United States)

    Martin, Karen; McGinnis, Carol


    Ethical dilemmas challenge providers on both sides of the hospital and clinic doors. In addition to establishing the nutrition care plan and guiding the client into the home setting with safe and effective parenteral or enteral nutrition therapy, procuring home nutrition support involves meeting documentation requirements and verifying that clients meet reimbursement criteria for home therapy based on third-party payer criteria. Providers have entered a realm for which training has been scarce and they face moral and ethical dilemmas involving serving as patient advocates, possibly stretching the truth to fit the clinical documentation to criteria vs maintaining professional integrity. Nutrition research and evidence-based practice have outpaced modifications to policies including Medicare's national and local coverage determinations, the bulk of which have not seen revisions in 32 years. This review elucidates clinical dilemmas and urges a political call to action to advocate for changes in current, outdated requirements for reimbursement. Given the current healthcare environment and trend toward expedited hospital stays, patients may be better served (and nourished) with revised guidelines.

  12. 'The deserving': Moral reasoning and ideological dilemmas in public responses to humanitarian communications. (United States)

    Seu, Irene Bruna


    This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises. Discursive analyses of these dilemmatic repertoires of deservingness identify the cultural and ideological resources behind these constructions and show how humanitarianism intersects and clashes with other ideologies and value systems. The data suggest that a neoliberal ideology, which endorses self-gratification, materialistic and individualistic ethics, and cultural assimilation of helper and receiver play important roles in decisions about humanitarian helping. The study argues for the need for psychological research to engage more actively with the dilemmas involved in the moral reasoning related to humanitarianism and to contextualize decisions about giving and helping within the sociocultural and ideological landscape in which the helper operates.

  13. Applied Ethics and tertiary education in South Africa: Teaching Business Ethics at the University of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kretzschmar


    Full Text Available This article explores how Applied Ethics, especially Business Ethics, is taught at the University of South Africa (Unisa. This discussion refers to the content of a particular Unisa module, Theoretical and Applied Ethics, which serves as an introduction to Bio-medical Ethics, Business Ethics and Environmental Ethics. The fundamentals of this course are: defining ethics; providing methods for moral decision-making; describing the role of ethics in a particular field and addressing common dilemmas in a specific context. The intention is to empower students to identify issues they are likely to face in the workplace, and to grow in confidence in their ability to make sound moral decisions when required to do so. The aim of this article is to contribute to the ongoing discussion between tertiary institutions about how the teaching of Business Ethics can be promoted, how moral decision-making in the workplace can be encouraged and what role theological ethics can play in this regard.

  14. Metacommunication and ethics in clinical situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederikke; Dindler, Camilla


    The article argues for the potential of explicit metacommunication to become an intentional and practically wise element of ethical communicative interaction with patients. Theories of ethics of medicine and interactionism are combined in order to argue for an applied ethics of metacommunication......, the article argues that ethical and communicatively professional practice must highlight both the interactive processes of meaning making as well as focus on medical decision-making. Medical reasoning may rely on measurable facts and accurate information about the patient’s health condition, but to become...... ethical it must also rely on an explicit sensitivity towards the cultural and situational meanings emerging during the patient-physician interaction....

  15. The patient suicide attempt – An ethical dilemma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jie


    Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.

  16. The dilemma of ethical political communication in South African elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Fourie


    Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.

  17. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman]. (United States)

    Gual-Castro, Carlos


    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization.

  18. Rudolph Hess, A Strategic Move or Ethical Dilemma? (United States)


    still suffered from stomach cramps which had been treated for years by " astrologers and quacks without success." 40 He also indicated that he had...34always beer a great believer in the occult phenomena, astrology , faith-healing and nature-healing." 4 1 Up until his flight to England, Hess continued to...that, in his fanatic love for the fatherland, he wanted to make the greatest sacrifice of which he was capable to Adolf Hitler and the German people

  19. Cross-Country Ethical Dilemmas in Business: A Descriptive Framework


    Ferro, Nicoletta


    As businesses span the globe, multinational and translational companies conduct their business operations in foreign settings, especially in developing countries and in countries in transition from Communist regimes. This poses new challenges to expatriate managers and to home-based staff in charge of foreign affiliates. They are called on to determine the right versus the wrong, the good versus the bad over international business transactions, negotiations, advertisement and supply chain man...

  20. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Exploring the Role of Moral Principles (United States)


    Kohlberg (1969) developed a seminal model that has had a profound effect on thinking about moral principles, as well as on the course of research in this...area. For Kohlberg , the stages of moral development are considered to be progressive, invariant and non-regressive, although the exact number of...associated with cognitive and developmental gains that can only occur with maturation. For instance, Kohlberg posited the stages 1 and 2 with their