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Sample records for focus sources supplement

  1. Plasma focus sources: Supplement to the neutron resonance radiography workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, V.; Brzosko, J.

    1989-01-01

    Since their discovery, plasma focus discharges have been recognized as very intense pulsed sources of deuterium-deuterium (D-D) or deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion-reaction neutrons, with outstanding capabilities. Specifically, the total neutron emission/shot, YN, and the rate of neutron emission, Y/sub n/, of an optimized plasma focus (PF) are higher than the corresponding quantities observed in any other type of pinched discharge at the same level of powering energy W 0 . Recent developments have led to the concept and experimental demonstration of an Advanced Plasma Focus System (APF) that consists of a Mather-geometry plasma focus in which field distortion elements (FDEs) are inserted in the inter-electrode gap for increasing the neutron yield/shot, Y/sub n/. The FDE-induced redistribution of the plasma current increases Y/sub n/ by a factor ≅5-10 above the value obtained without FDEs under otherwise identical conditions of operation of the plasma focus. For example, an APF that is fed by a fast capacitor bank with an energy, W 0 = 6kJ, and voltage, V 0 = 16.5 kV provides Y/sub n/ /congruent/ 4 /times/ 10 9 D-D neutrons/shot (pure D 2 filling) and Y/sub n/ = 4 /times/ 10 11 D-T neutrons/shot (filling is 50% deuterium and 50% tritium). The FDE-induced increase of Y/sub n/ for fixed values of (W 0 , V 0 ), the observed scaling law Y/sub n/ /proportional to/ W 0 2 for optimized plasma focus systems, and our experience with neutron scattering in bulk objects lead us to the conclusion that we can use an APF as a source of high-intensity neutron pulses (10 14 n/pulse) in the field off neutron radiography (surface and bulk) with a nanosecond or millisecond time resolution

  2. Understanding motivations for dietary supplementation during pregnancy: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek PhD, Lenka; Umberger PhD, Wendy J; Makrides PhD, Maria; Collins PhD, Carmel T; Zhou PhD, Shao Jia

    2018-02-01

    to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. South Australia, Australia. 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant oreducation level (secondary education only vs. post-secondary) and gravidity (first vs. subsequent pregnancy). all women, except one, used dietary supplements during pregnancy. Most women took supplements to achieve peace of mind knowing that nutrient requirements were 'definitely' being met. Other common factors motivating supplement use were the beliefs that supplementation: benefits maternal and fetal health; corrects known nutritional deficiencies; and is a more efficient method of obtaining required nutrients relative to food. Advice received from healthcare providers and marketing of supplements also motivated supplementation, while forgetting to take supplements was the most common barrier to use. Cost was only a barrier when considering whether or not to continue supplementation post-birth. women believe that supplements are an easier and more reliable source of nutrients than food intake alone, and rely on dietary supplementation as an insurance policy during pregnancy. Further studies are needed in larger and more representative samples to validate these findings and to test the effectiveness of information and intervention strategies targeting appropriate supplement use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Supplemental Information Source Document Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Craig [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Halpern, Jonathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mond, Michael du [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shain, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Supplemental Information Source Document for Waste Management was prepared in support of future analyses including those that may be performed as part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement. This document presents information about waste management practices at SNL/NM, including definitions, inventory data, and an overview of current activities.

  4. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  5. Plasma focus as a pulsed power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.; McFarland, G.; Barlett, R.; Gullickson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The plasma focus is a remarkable natural phenomena that achieves significant space-time compression of both particle and field energy. Depending on the mode of operation, about 20 percent of the bank energy can be concentrated into the kinetic energy of a thin, dense, cylindrically convergent gas shell, or into a small-diameter, high-ν/γ relativistic electron burst and oppositely directed ion burst. The kinetic energy of the fast ions and electrons can exceed the applied voltage by a factor of greater than 100. The different modes of energy concentration by the plasma focus are presented and discussed both in terms of their role in the direct yield of the focus and for the case of a plasma focus supplemented by various fusionable targets

  6. Optimal wave focusing for seismic source imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Farhad

    In both global and exploration seismology, studying seismic sources provides geophysicists with invaluable insight into the physics of earthquakes and faulting processes. One way to characterize the seismic source is to directly image it. Time-reversal (TR) focusing provides a simple and robust solution to the source imaging problem. However, for recovering a well- resolved image, TR requires a full-aperture receiver array that surrounds the source and adequately samples the wavefield. This requirement often cannot be realized in practice. In most source imaging experiments, the receiver geometry, due to the limited aperture and sparsity of the stations, does not allow adequate sampling of the source wavefield. Incomplete acquisition and imbalanced illumination of the imaging target limit the resolving power of the TR process. The main focus of this thesis is to offer an alternative approach to source imaging with the goal of mitigating the adverse effects of incomplete acquisition on the TR modeling. To this end, I propose a new method, named Backus-Gilbert (BG) source imaging, to optimally focus the wavefield onto the source position using a given receiver geometry. I first introduce BG as a method for focusing waves in acoustic media at a desired location and time. Then, by exploiting the source-receiver reciprocity of the Green function and the linearity of the problem, I show that BG focusing can be adapted and used as a source-imaging tool. Following this, I generalize the BG theory for elastic waves. Applying BG formalism for source imaging requires a model for the wave propagation properties of the earth and an estimate of the source location. Using numerical tests, I next examine the robustness and sensitivity of the proposed method with respect to errors in the earth model, uncertainty in the source location, and noise in data. The BG method can image extended sources as well as point sources. It can also retrieve the source mechanism. These features of

  7. An electromagnetically focused electron beam line source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Masood, Khalid; Rafiq, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Maqbool A.; Aleem, Fazal-e-

    2003-01-01

    A directly heated thermionic electron beam source was constructed. A tungsten wire of length 140 mm with diameter 0.9 mm was used as a cathode. An emission current of 5000 mA was achieved at an input heating power of 600 W. Cathode to anode distance of 6 mm with acceleration voltage of 10 kV was used. A uniform external magnetic field of 50 G was employed to obtain a well-focused electron beam at a deflection of 180 deg., with cathode to work site distance of 130 mm. Dimensions of the beam (1.25x120 mm) recorded at the work site were found to be in good agreement with the designed length of cathode. The deformation of the cathode was overcome by introducing a spring action mechanism, which gives uniform emission current density throughout the emission surface. We have achieved the saturation limit of the designed source resulting in smooth and swift operation of the gun for many hours (10-15 h continuously). The design of gun is so simple that it can accommodate longer cathodes for obtaining higher emission values. This gun has made it possible to coat large substrate surfaces at much faster evaporation rate at lower cost. It can also be useful in large-scale vacuum metallurgy plants for melting, welding and heat treatment

  8. Plasma focus - a pulsed radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoev, Alexandar; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Gol'tsev, Vasilii; Gemishev, Orlin

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the applications of plasma focus (PF) in radiobiology. Briefly describes the principle of operation of the device and the parameters of the PF type 'Mader' at the Physics Department of the University. Phase pinch discharge zones appear hot and dense plasma, which is a source of X-ray and neutron pulse when the working gas is deuterium. These radiations are essential for biological applications. Besides these bundles are obtained from accelerated charged particles and shock wave of ionized gas. Described are some of the contributions of other authors using PF in radiobiology. Given the results in the exposure of living organisms with soft X-ray emission of PF. We examined the viability of the cells of the two types of yeasts, after irradiation with X-rays at a dose of 65 mSv, where no change was found on the performance. It is shown that soft X-ray radiation doses on the order of tens of mSv, cause a significant change in the productivity of the electronic transport in the photosynthetic apparatus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Trichoderma reesei M7 shows remarkable vitality irradiation with substantial doses of hard X-ray radiation (tens Sv). Appear endoglyukonazata changes in the protein component and the residual mass

  9. Reevaluation of HFIR source term: Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.E.

    1986-11-01

    The HFIR source term has been reevaluated to assess the impact of the increase in core lifetime from 15 to 24 days. Calculations were made to determine the nuclide activities of the iodines, noble gases, and other fission products. The results show that there is no significant change in off-site dose due to the increased fuel cycle for the release scenario postulated in ORNL-3573

  10. Locating Supplemental Sources of Revenue to Finance Universities in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunla, Akin L.

    1989-01-01

    Identifies possible sources of supplemental income to finance Nigerian universities, including households and commercial and industrial firms. A consumption tax imposed on certain goods and services would generate needed funds. Also, because firms employ university graduates to earn higher profits, their turnover income should be taxed to support…

  11. Pawpaw leaves supplemented with three calcium sources and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of one hundred and thirty-two (132) grower African giant land snail (Archachatina marginata) with a weight range of 231.33-234.00 g and fed fresh pawpaw (Carica papaya) leaf-based diet supplemented with three mineral calcium sources was investigated in a humid tropical environment of Nigeria.

  12. Technical and experimental investigations of a plasma focus neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, H.K.

    The results obtained from two plasma-focus devices of different size allow to report on the technical and physical properties of such neutron flash sources. The results of some diagnostic methods used for the control of the gas discharge and for the measurement of the neutron production are included. The planning of plasma focus devices is illustrated with the aid of snow-plow calculations

  13. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  14. 77 FR 59931 - Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program Grantee; Exception to... Competition--Single Source Program Expansion Supplement Award to Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program... supplement award to the University of Guam School of Nursing, an Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Program...

  15. Near-Field Source Localization by Using Focusing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongyang; Wang, Yide; Saillard, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    We discuss two fast algorithms to localize multiple sources in near field. The symmetry-based method proposed by Zhi and Chia (2007) is first improved by implementing a search-free procedure for the reduction of computation cost. We present then a focusing-based method which does not require symmetric array configuration. By using focusing technique, the near-field signal model is transformed into a model possessing the same structure as in the far-field situation, which allows the bearing estimation with the well-studied far-field methods. With the estimated bearing, the range estimation of each source is consequently obtained by using 1D MUSIC method without parameter pairing. The performance of the improved symmetry-based method and the proposed focusing-based method is compared by Monte Carlo simulations and with Crammer-Rao bound as well. Unlike other near-field algorithms, these two approaches require neither high-computation cost nor high-order statistics.

  16. Near-Field Source Localization by Using Focusing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saillard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss two fast algorithms to localize multiple sources in near field. The symmetry-based method proposed by Zhi and Chia (2007 is first improved by implementing a search-free procedure for the reduction of computation cost. We present then a focusing-based method which does not require symmetric array configuration. By using focusing technique, the near-field signal model is transformed into a model possessing the same structure as in the far-field situation, which allows the bearing estimation with the well-studied far-field methods. With the estimated bearing, the range estimation of each source is consequently obtained by using 1D MUSIC method without parameter pairing. The performance of the improved symmetry-based method and the proposed focusing-based method is compared by Monte Carlo simulations and with Crammer-Rao bound as well. Unlike other near-field algorithms, these two approaches require neither high-computation cost nor high-order statistics

  17. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  18. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C; Kallivokas, L F; Huh, C; Lake, L W

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential-equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation's kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil

  19. Simulation of a dense plasma focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are performing simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) x-ray source located at Science Research Laboratory (SRL), Alameda, CA, in order to optimize its performance. The SRL DPF, which was developed as a compact source for x-ray lithography, operates at 20 Hz, giving x-ray power (9--14 Angstroms) of 500 W using neon gas. The simulations are performed with the two dimensional MHD code MACH2, developed by Mission Research Corporation, with a steady state corona model as the equation of state. The results of studies of the sensitivity of x-ray output to charging voltage and current, and to initial gas density will be presented. These studies should indicate ways to optimize x-ray production efficiency. Simulations of various inner electrode configurations will also be presented

  20. Beam focusing by aperture displacement in multiampere ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.D.; Kim, J.; Matsuda, S.

    1975-05-01

    Results are given of an experimental study of beam focusing by aperture displacement (Δx) in duoPIGatron ion sources. Measurements with a single aperture, accel-decel electrode geometry show that the beam deflection angle is linear with Δx/z for the round aperture and with Δx/z* 2 for the slit aperture where z and z* are respectively the extraction gap distance and the effective gap distance. Applying the result of the single aperture study to the multiaperture, duoPIGatron sources, it was possible to increase the neutral beam injection power to the ORMAK plasma by approximately 40 percent. Also presented are discussion and comparison of other work on the effect of aperture displacement on beam deflection. (U.S.)

  1. 76 FR 31964 - Announcement of the Award of Nine Single-Source Expansion Supplement Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... the Award of Nine Single-Source Expansion Supplement Grants AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice to announce the award of nine single-source expansion supplement grants to.... Maintaining Funding Level of Matching Grant Program (a) Maintaining Funding Level--Subject to the availability...

  2. Coal as a supplemental heat source in sludge incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, G J; Bergstedt, D C

    1979-07-01

    The use of coal as a supplemental fuel in multiple hearth sludge incineration was investigated; how sulphur lump coal was added to dewatered sludge being fed to the furnace, reducing incinerator oil requirements by 70%. With full-scale retrofit of the treatment plant total annual costs for coal supplemental feeding would be 161,000 dollars, but oil savings would be 240,000 dollars.

  3. Automatic WEMVA by Focusing Subsurface Offset Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-05-26

    Macro velocity building is important for subsequent prestack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes band-limited waveform to invert the velocity in an automatic manner. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers(SOCIGs). We re-examine it with a different perspective and propose to view the SOCIGs and the background wavefield together as subsurface offset virtual sources(SOVS). A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those SOVS and velocity is derived and solved subsequently using a conjugate gradient method. Both synthetic and real dataset examples verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Focusing on Best Value from a Source Selection Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekambaram Palaneewaran

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emerging focus on "best value" in construction projects entails several crucial and complex decision-making tasks for appropriate selection of capable contractors and consultants. In many ways and thus could be correspondingly achieved at different levels. Although traditional "price based" selection approaches are still preferred on various grounds such as simplicity and/or public accountability, they may well result in some "false economy" or missed opportunities for producing a better value. Furthermore, the lower significance of price as compared to the higher risk transference in project delivery methods such as Design-Build and Build-Operate-Transfer type arrangements render the purely "price based" approaches even less useful. Therefore a structured value focused selection approach is considered as beneficial for meeting the client's goals and projct-specific needs. This paper presents discussions on some useful approaches to best value conceptualizations in "Source selection" perspectives, e.g. starting with the "right" selection of competent constructors in Design-Bid-Build type projects. Furthermore, a conceptualized basic framework for best value selection is also presented.

  5. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  6. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-11-30

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control.

  7. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing cosntitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  8. 76 FR 75875 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Open Source Software Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Regulation Supplement; Open Source Software Public Meeting AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... initiate a dialogue with industry regarding the use of open source software in DoD contracts. DATES: Public... to the risks to the contractors and the Government associated with using open source software on DoD...

  9. 75 FR 62838 - Award of a Single-Source Expansion Supplement to the Research Foundation of CUNY on Behalf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Source Expansion Supplement to the Research Foundation of CUNY on Behalf of Hunter College School of... single-source program expansion supplement to the Research Foundation of CUNY on behalf of Hunter College... removal, of the relative's options to become a placement resource for the child. The supplemental funding...

  10. Energy sources in low intake supplements on the productive and reproductive performance of Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcondes de Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous zebu cows supplemented on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with supplements of low intake composed of different energy sources in the postpartum period. Sixty cow-calf pairs were divided into three treatments, a standard mineral salt supplement, a supplement based on ground corn and another containing protected fat, under the same conditions of pasture. The cows had an average initial age of 36 months and 295.9 ± 20 kg of initial body weight. The evaluation period lasted from November 2006 to May 2007, the 24 days after delivery until weaning of calves to 192 days of age. Cows fed the supplement based on ground corn (351 g day-1 and protected fat (357 g day-1 showed a similar increase in body weight, which was higher in relation cows fed with the mineral mixture (179 g day-1. Mineral mixture supplementation resulted in body condition score loss of cows between 80 and 136 days after calving. Cows fed energy supplements of low consumption produced more milk, weaned heavier calves and showed higher pregnancy rate than those fed only with the mineral mixture. The use of 3% calcium salts of fatty acids in energy supplements of low consumption did not alter the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous Zebu cows.

  11. 45 CFR 2522.950 - What requirements and qualifications apply if my program focuses on supplemental academic support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... program focuses on supplemental academic support activities other than tutoring? 2522.950 Section 2522.950... support activities other than tutoring? (a) If your program does not involve tutoring as defined in § 2522... SERVICE AMERICORPS PARTICIPANTS, PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Program Management Requirements for Grantees...

  12. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C; Kallivokas, L F; Huh, C; Lake, L W

    2010-01-01

    that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized

  13. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kholod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder. Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  14. Marine fish as source of protein supplement in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, J G

    1987-01-01

    For the past 2 decades, a great deal of research has been done in fish technology, particularly in the area of mechanically deboned minced fish. Minced fish is the edible muscle flesh of fish that has been mechanically separated from the bones and skin. Ideally, the product is prepared from a high quality fish and resembles hamburger meat. In its final form, minced fish is used either as an ingredient or as an extender in seafood or in food products that require further processing. On the basis of technological advancements, the National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Fisheries Institute jointly petitioned the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1980 to add minced fish at a level of 15% in the meat formulation of frankfurters. This paper explores certain aspects of processing, production, acceptance, and hazard assessment of minced fish ingredients as possible protein supplements in meat and poultry food products relative to this request.

  15. Revenue Sources and Social Media Engagement Among Environmentally Focused Nonprofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. McCaskill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines social media efforts among environmentally focused nonprofits. A survey of environmentally focused nonprofits revealed that more than half of these organizations receive government funding. Prior research demonstrates social media is an efficient medium in which to simultaneously communicate with multiple stakeholders. However, stakeholder engagement is likely tied with the need to raise funds. From that basis, we discuss social media use among nonprofits and develop hypotheses about differences in social media use among organizations receiving government funds and those not receiving government funds. Our hypotheses are rooted in resource dependency theory (RDT and dialogic communication theory (DCT. We test our hypotheses on data from environmentally focused nonprofits by comparing the levels of social media engagement with varying levels of their total funding provided by government grants to determine if there is a correlation with the level of public engagement via social media. We find the level of engagement on the social media site Facebook is lower for government-funded environmental nonprofits than privately funded ones. The findings of reduced social media engagement and the dependence upon government funding versus private funding supports the precepts of resource dependency theory.

  16. The plasma focus as a large fluence neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, O.; Bostick, W.; Long, J.; Luce, J.; Sahlin, H.

    1977-01-01

    A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 10 15 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. With I 5 scaling, predicted from analysis of existing machines, yields of 10 16 -10 17 neutrons per pulse are postulated. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed. (Auth.)

  17. 75 FR 62839 - Award of a Single-Source Expansion Supplement to the Child Welfare League of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-Source Expansion Supplement to the Child Welfare League of America AGENCY: ACF, ACYF, HHS. ACTION: Notice... expansion supplement to the Child Welfare League of America, Arlington, VA, to support the provision of... report period data to ACF by May 15, 2011. The supplemental funding will allow the NRC-CWDT to meet the...

  18. 2011 Addendum to the SNL/NM SWEIS Supplemental Information Source Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimmick, Ross [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document contains updates to the Supplemental Information Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement Source Documents that were developed in 2010. In general, this addendum provides calendar year 2010 data, along with changes or additions to text in the original documents.

  19. A Utilization-Focused Program Evaluation of a Supplemental Educational Services Third-Party Tutoring Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Under the mandates of No Child Left Behind, supplemental educational services (SES) in the form of tutoring are provided to eligible students who attend schools in the 3rd year of program improvement status. A local suburban school district in the southern California currently uses a 3rd party tutoring model to provide tutoring services in both…

  20. EFNEP graduates' perspectives on social media to supplement nutrition education: focus group findings from active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma focus as an heavy ion source in the problem of heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V.A.; Dubrovskij, A.V.; Kalachev, N.V.; Krokhin, O.N.; Silin, P.V.; Nikulin, V.Ya.; Cheblukov, Yu.N.

    1984-01-01

    Results of experiments on the ion flux formation in a plasma focus (PF) to develop a multicharged ion source for thermonuclear facility driver are presented. In plasma focus accelerating section copper ions were injected. Advantages of the suggested method of ion beam formation are demonstrated. Beam emittance equalling < 0.1 cmxmrad is obtained. Plasma focus ion energy exceeds 1 MeV. Plasma focus in combination with a neodymium laser is thought to be a perspective ion source for heavy ion fusion

  2. [Analysis of images in Japanese book Fukusho-Kiran (Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) and Fukusho-Kiran yoku (Supplement to Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; DI, Kan; Song, Yuanliang

    2014-09-01

    Hukusyo-kiran (Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) and Hukusyo-kiran yoku (Supplement to Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) are two typical monographs of Fukushin (abdominal palpation), with a total of 148 images about abdominal palpation. These images can be divided into 5 kinds: locations, theories, techniques, diseases and medicines, with its own system covering the theories, principles, prescriptions and medicines of abdominal palpation. It can be used as a guide for clinicians to differentiate the locations and qualities of diseases, confirm the principles of treatment, guide the usage of medicines, and predict the prognosis, with the rather high theoretic and academic value, deserving further research and analysis for the modern scholars.

  3. 75 FR 65494 - Award of Three Single-Source Expansion Supplements to The University of Colorado Health Sciences...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Single-Source Expansion Supplements to The University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Aurora, CO...), Administration on Developmental Disabilities (ADD) has awarded three single-source expansion supplements for data... people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in all facets of community life. The University...

  4. 77 FR 61002 - Announcement of the Award of Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grants to Seven Assets...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... training on money management and consumer issues. Grant recipients must finance the projects with a....602] Announcement of the Award of Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grants to Seven Assets... the award of single-source program expansion supplements to seven FY 2012 grantees under the Assets...

  5. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so thatuncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortableconditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixturepineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. Thisexperiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milkquality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experimentthat conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments wereR0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX,R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result ofphytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen,mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference(p<0.05 among treatments on blood and milk cholesterol and milk lactose, but there were no difference(P>0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was thefeed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  6. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardalena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  7. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. Methodology Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Center reporting prior to 2013 focused primarily on descriptive statistics (frequencies and means) of student and faculty behaviors. The goal of the analyses reported here and in "Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus" is to understand the engagement of part-time or contingent faculty in various activities that…

  8. Evaluation of Glycerol and Waste Alcohol as Supplemental Carbon Sources for Denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Uprety, Kshitiz

    2013-01-01

    Supplemental carbon has been successfully added and implemented at biological nutrient removal treatment plants all around the world in order to reach low nitrogen discharge limits. Although, methanol has been the most prevalent external electron donor used due to its low cost and effectiveness, many utilities are moving away from it due to cost volatility, safety issues, and hindered performance in cold weather conditions. Many sustainable and alternative sources are being researched, such a...

  9. Effect of supplementing finishing pigs with different sources of chromium on performance and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Louise Manha; Bridi, Ana Maria; Silva, Caio Abércio da; Andreo, Nayara; Barata, Cátia Chilanti Pinheiro; Dário, Julie Gabriela Nagi

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium (inorganic: chromium sulfate and chelated: chromium-methionine) during the finishing period of pigs to obtain improvements in the animal performance, and carcass and meat quality. The statistical design was randomized blocks, where 44 barrows, with an initial weight 60.49±5.12 kg, were divided into four blocks (heavier, heavy, light and lighter) according to initial weight. The experimental diets were i...

  10. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. in brackish groundwater supplemented with municipal wastewater as a nutrient source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Lins de Sousa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study growth potential of the green microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. using brackish groundwater from a well in the semi-arid northeast region of Brazil as culture medium. The medium was supplemented with (% 19.4, 22.0, 44.0 and 50.0% of municipal wastewater after UASB treatment as a low-cost nutrient source. The results showed that the culture tested was capable of growing in the brackish groundwater even at salinity levels as low as 2 ppt. Furthermore it was shown that municipal wastewater could be used as a sole nutrient source for Nannochloropsis sp.

  11. The optical properties of a double focusing bending magnet measured with a thin alpha source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, S.A.; Eastham, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The focusing properties of the 90 0 inflector magnet for the Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) tandem at Daresbury Laboratory have been measured in the 2rho configuration using very thin alpha sources and a position-sensitive detector. (Auth.)

  12. Effect of supplementing finishing pigs with different sources of chromium on performance and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Manha Peres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium (inorganic: chromium sulfate and chelated: chromium-methionine during the finishing period of pigs to obtain improvements in the animal performance, and carcass and meat quality. The statistical design was randomized blocks, where 44 barrows, with an initial weight 60.49±5.12 kg, were divided into four blocks (heavier, heavy, light and lighter according to initial weight. The experimental diets were isoenergetic and isonutrient, except for the chromium level. The treatments were divided as follows: control (without chromium, control + 200 ppb of inorganic chromium (chromium sulfate, and control + 200 ppb of chelated chromium (chromium-methionine. In the performance measures, the stall was considered the experimental unit and in the blood parameters, carcass and meat evaluations each animal constituted the experimental unit. Animals were slaughtered when they reached the final average weight of 107.23±5.23 kg. Blood samples were collected and tested for blood parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose as well as carcass quality (hot and cold weights, yield, loin-eye area, muscle depth and backfat thickness and meat quality (initial and final pH, drip loss, color, chemical composition and lipid oxidation parameters. Chromium-methionine supplementation provides a greater daily weight gain only compared with the animals that are not supplemented with chromium, because feed conversion is better as compared with the other treatments. After 24 hours of storage, the meat from pigs supplemented either with chromium-methionine or with chromium sulfate presents lower lipid oxidation than that from non-supplemented animals. However, after three days of storage, only chromim-methionine is effective in reducing lipid oxidation.

  13. Nuclear Malaysia Plasma Focus Device as a X-ray Source For Radiography Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim; Mohd Rizal Mohd Chulan; Wah, L.K.; Mukhlis Mokhtar; Azaman Ahmad; Rosli Che Ros

    2013-01-01

    A 3.375 kJ plasma focus is designed to operate at 13.5 kV for the purpose of studying x-ray source for radiography in Argon discharge. X-rays is detected by using x-ray film from the mammography radiographic plate. The feasibility of the plasma focus as a high intensity flash x-ray source for good contrast in radiography image is presented. (author)

  14. Suplementação de antioxidantes: enfoque em queimados Antioxidant supplementation: focusing on burned patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    increases the production of free radicals but it is also capable of impairing the antioxidant defense mechanism, subjecting the burned patient to oxidative stress, which can be a perpetuating factor of the inflammatory response and lead to progressive metabolic deterioration. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to provide updated information on antioxidant supplementation in burned patients and describe the benefits of this intervention.

  15. Supplementation of diets for Santa Ines sheep with organic and inorganic zinc sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Garcia Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with objective to evaluate the effect of different zinc (Zn sources and doses in the diet for Santa Ines sheep. Forty lambs at weaning, with 18.4 kg of body weight were supplemented with three different sources of zinc (zinc oxide (ZnO, zinc amino acid and zinc proteinate and three doses of zinc (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg DM added to the basal diet. At every 28 days, animals were weighted and blood samples were collected for analyses of zinc (Zn, alkaline phosphatase and immunoglobulin G (IgG and M (IgM. At the end of experiment, liver samples were collected for determination of the hepatic zinc levels. Zinc was analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while phosphatase alkaline and immunoglobulins G and M were analyzed using Laborlab and Bioclin kits, respectively. There was no effect of diets on phosphatase alkaline levels and hepatic zinc, but there was difference in the plasmatic zinc levels and IgG and IgM levels. Based on the accumulation of hepatic zinc, the estimate of the zinc bioavailability, through the regression equation, showed that supplementation with organic and inorganic sources of zinc did not differ in the diet of Santa Ines sheep.

  16. Calcium supplements as source of trace elements: Adequacy and safety of supplements with vitamin C, vitamin D and phosphate formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements categorized on the basis of Ca with vitamin D, vitamin C and phosphate formulations. The supplements were found to contain low levels of Co, Cr and Cu with elevated amounts of Fe, K and Na. Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective Dietary Reference Intakes. - Highlights: • INAA and AAS were used to quantify trace elements in different national and multinational Ca supplements. • The essential elements contribute to >3% of their respective DRIs. • Toxic elements (As, Cd and Sb) were detected in very few samples at very low concentrations. • All supplements can be considered safe for human intake with respect to trace nutrients

  17. Supplemental shielding of BMIT SOE-1 at the Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassey, Bassey; Abueidda, Abdallah; Cubbon, Grant; Street, Darin; Sabbir Ahmed, Asm; Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Belev, George; Chapman, Dean

    2014-01-01

    High field superconducting wiggler beamlines present shielding challenges due to the high critical energy of the synchrotron spectrum. An unexpected, but predictable, weakness in the secondary optical enclosure (SOE-1) was discovered on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) insertion device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 at the Canadian Light Source (CLS). SOE-1 is a monochromatic beam hutch; the beam in it is supplied by three monochromators housed in an upstream primary optical enclosure (POE-3). The initial shielding of SOE-1 was based on a shielding calculation against target scattered and direct monochromatic (fundamental and harmonics) beams from the monochromators in POE-3. During a radiation survey of the hutch, radiation above the expected level was measured at the downstream end of SOE-1. This increment in radiation level is attributed to scattered white beam into SOE-1 by a K-Edge subtraction (KES) monochromator's crystal (a single crystal monochromator) in POE-3. Though this is peculiar to the BMIT beamline 05ID-2, it may not be uncommon for other beamlines that use single crystal monochromators. Calculations of the level of expected leakage radiation due to the scattered white beam arriving on the downstream wall of the SOE-1 are presented, as well as the supplemental shielding that will reduce the leakage to less than 1 μSv/h as required at the CLS. Also presented are the installed supplemental shielding, and a comparison of the calculations and measurements of the dose rates on the back wall of SOE-1 End Wall, before and after installation of the supplemental shielding. - Highlights: • We discovered an unexpected weakness in the shielding of BMIT SOE-1 End Wall. • We predicted the source of the weakness-scattering of white beam into SOE-1. • White beam scattered into SOE-1 by the crystal of a single crystal monochromator. • We calculated and installed the required supplemental shielding. • With the installed supplemental shielding, we have

  18. Vigilance on use of drugs, herbal products, and food supplements during pregnancy: focus on fosfomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, C; Dante, G; Miroddi, M; Facchinetti, F; D'Anna, R; Santamaria, A; Lenti, M C; Vannacci, A; Calapai, F; Perone, M; Migliardi, G; Alibrandi, A; Navarra, M; Calapai, G

    2017-09-17

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as a common bacterial infection that can lead to significant morbidity such as stricture, fistula, abscess formation, bacteremia, sepsis, pyelonephritis, and kidney dysfunction with a mortality rates reported of 1% in men and 3% in women because of development of pyelonephritis. UTIs are more common in women and the 33% of them require antimicrobials treatment for at least one episode by the age of 24 years. UTIs are the most common infections observed during pregnancy and up to 30% of mothers with not treated asymptomatic bacteriuria may develop acute pyelonephritis which consequently can be associated to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated with antimicrobial treatments being safe for both the mother and the fetus. Approximately one every four women receives prescription of antibiotic treatment during pregnancy, nearly 80% of all the prescription medications during gestation. The use of fosfomycin to treat cystitis in pregnancy generally considered safe and effective. Even though use on antibiotics for urinary tract infections is considered generally safe for the fetus and mothers, this opinion is not based on specific studies monitoring the relationship of among urinary infections, consumption of antibiotics, and pregnancy outcomes. On this basis we decided to analyze data from the database of our multicenter study PHYTOVIGGEST, reporting data from 5362 pregnancies, focusing on use of fosfomycin. Principal outcomes of pregnancy in women treated with fosfomycin were taken into consideration. Women who have been treated with urinary antibiotics during the pregnancy were 183. With respect to the total number of pregnancies of our sample, these women represented the percentage of 3.49% (187/5362). Analysis of different outcomes of pregnancy such as gestational age, neonatal weight, and neonatal Apgar index did not show any significant difference. At the same time, analysis of

  19. Modeling of Acoustic Field for a Parametric Focusing Source Using the Spheroidal Beam Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of acoustic field for a parametric focusing source on concave spherical surface is proposed. In this model, the source boundary conditions of the Spheroidal Beam Equation (SBE for difference frequency wave excitation were studied. Propagation curves and beam patterns for difference frequency component of the acoustic field are compared with those obtained for Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK model. The results demonstrate that the focused parametric model of SBE is good valid for a large aperture angle in the strongly focused acoustic field. It is also investigated that high directivity and good focal ability with the decreasing of downshift ratio and the increasing of half-aperture angle for the focused parametric model of SBE.

  20. [Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, L K; Cozzolino, S M

    1996-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.), as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD), RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization of vitamin A were the vitamin A concentrations in the liver and plasma, and the growth of the animals. The diet was prepared according to the data of Shrimpton and Giugliano for families earning less than two legal minimum salaries. Adult post-partum rats were used, with six male pups each, which received a diet based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, without the addition of zinc or vitamin A for a period of 25 days, for the purpose of obtaining newly-weaned animals which were deficient in Zn and Vit.A. A control group received a diet also based on casein washed with 1% EDTA, but with all the nutrients in the quantities suggested by the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. The repletion period of the newly-weaned rats was of 30 days and the experimental design was entirely randomized with four groups of eight rats each. The diet supplementation followed the recommendations of the Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats which consumed the diet based on the regional diet of Manaus supplemented with either peach palm or vitamin A showed a significantly greater concentration of vitamin A in the liver, 43.3 +/- 6.5 micrograms/g, 42.0 +/- 4.3 micrograms/g, respectively in relation to the regional diet, 5.5 +/- 1.1 micrograms/g (p < 0.05). The amount of zinc present in the regional diet, 10.7 mg per day, was bioavailable as determined by the concentration of zinc in the femurs. The results suggest that the regional diet of Manaus needs to be supplemented with vitamin A to maintain the

  1. About possibilities of obtaining focused beams of thermal neutrons of radionuclide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripov, G.A.; Kurbanov, B.I.; Sulaymanov, N.T.; Ergashev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In the last years significant progress is achieved in development of neutron focusing methods (concentrating neutrons in a given direction and a small area). In this, main attention is given to focusing of neutron beams of reactor, particularly cold neutrons and their applications. [1,2]. However, isotope sources also let obtain intensive neutron beams and solve quite important (tasks) problems (e.g. neutron capture therapy for malignant tumors) [3], and an actual problems is focusing of neutrons. We developed a device on the basis of californium source of neutrons, allowing to obtain focused (preliminarily) beam of thermal neutrons with the aid of respective choice of moderators, reflectors and geometry of their disposition. Here, fast neutrons and gamma rays in the beam are minimized. With the aid of the model we developed on the basis of Monte-Carlo method, it is possible to modify aforementioned device and dynamics of output neutrons in wide energy range and analyze ways of optimization of neutron beams of isotope sources with different neutron outputs. Device of preliminary focusing of thermal neutrons can serve as a basis for further focus of neutrons using micro- and nano-capillar systems. It is known that, capillary systems performed with certain technology can form beam of thermal neutrons increasing its density by more than two orders of magnitude and effectively divert beams up to 20 o with length of system 15 cm

  2. About possibilities of obtaining focused beams of thermal neutrons of radionuclide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripov, G.A.; Kurbanov, B.I.; Sulaymanov, N.T.; Ergashev, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the last years significant progress is achieved in development of neutron focusing methods (concentrating neutrons in a given direction and a small area). In this, main attention is given to focusing of neutron beams of reactor, particularly cold neutrons and their applications. [1,2]. However, isotope sources also let obtain intensive neutron beams and solve quite important (tasks) problems (e.g. neutron capture therapy for malignant tumors) [3], and an actual problems is focusing of neutrons. We developed a device on the basis of californium source of neutrons, allowing to obtain focused (preliminarily) beam of thermal neutrons with the aid of respective choice of moderators, reflectors and geometry of their disposition. Here, fast neutrons and gamma rays in the beam are minimized. With the aid of the model we developed on the basis of Monte-Carlo method, it is possible to modify aforementioned device and dynamics of output neutrons in wide energy range and analyze ways of optimization of neutron beams of isotope sources with different neutron outputs. Device of preliminary focusing of thermal neutrons can serve as a basis for further focus of neutrons using micro- and nano-capillary systems. It is known that, capillary systems performed with certain technology can form beam of thermal neutrons increasing its density by more than two orders of magnitude and effectively divert beams up to 20 o with length of system 15 cm. (author)

  3. Manipulating Electronic States at Oxide Interfaces Using Focused Micro X-Rays from Standard Lab Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Coneri, F.; Stehno, Martin; Campi, Gaetano; Demitri, Nicola; Bais, Giorgio; Wang, X. Renshaw; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, X-ray illumination, using synchrotron radiation, has been used to manipulate defects, stimulate self-organization, and to probe their structure. Here, we explore a method of defect-engineering low-dimensional systems using focused laboratory-scale X-ray sources. We demonstrate an

  4. Demo abstract: Flexhouse-2-an open source building automation platform with a focus on flexible control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Svendsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    , an open-source implementation of a building automation system which has been designed with a strong focus on enabling the integration of the building into a smart power system and dedicated support for the requirements of an R&D environment. We will demonstrate the need for such a platform, discuss...

  5. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Lopez, F.

    1961-01-01

    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  6. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee's final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE's two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information

  7. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Final report, Supplemental Volume 2. Sources and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume and its appendixes supplement the Advisory Committee`s final report by reporting how we went about looking for information concerning human radiation experiments and intentional releases, a description of what we found and where we found it, and a finding aid for the information that we collected. This volume begins with an overview of federal records, including general descriptions of the types of records that have been useful and how the federal government handles these records. This is followed by an agency-by-agency account of the discovery process and descriptions of the records reviewed, together with instructions on how to obtain further information from those agencies. There is also a description of other sources of information that have been important, including institutional records, print resources, and nonprint media and interviews. The third part contains brief accounts of ACHRE`s two major contemporary survey projects (these are described in greater detail in the final report and another supplemental volume) and other research activities. The final section describes how the ACHRE information-nation collections were managed and the records that ACHRE created in the course of its work; this constitutes a general finding aid for the materials deposited with the National Archives. The appendices provide brief references to federal records reviewed, descriptions of the accessions that comprise the ACHRE Research Document Collection, and descriptions of the documents selected for individual treatment. Also included are an account of the documentation available for ACHRE meetings, brief abstracts of the almost 4,000 experiments individually described by ACHRE staff, a full bibliography of secondary sources used, and other information.

  8. Reliability of MEG source imaging of anterior temporal spikes: analysis of an intracranially characterized spike focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Richard; Cheyne, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    To assess the reliability of MEG source imaging (MSI) of anterior temporal spikes through detailed analysis of the localization and orientation of source solutions obtained for a large number of spikes that were separately confirmed by intracranial EEG to be focally generated within a single, well-characterized spike focus. MSI was performed on 64 identical right anterior temporal spikes from an anterolateral temporal neocortical spike focus. The effects of different volume conductors (sphere and realistic head model), removal of noise with low frequency filters (LFFs) and averaging multiple spikes were assessed in terms of the reliability of the source solutions. MSI of single spikes resulted in scattered dipole source solutions that showed reasonable reliability for localization at the lobar level, but only for solutions with a goodness-of-fit exceeding 80% using a LFF of 3 Hz. Reliability at a finer level of intralobar localization was limited. Spike averaging significantly improved the reliability of source solutions and averaging 8 or more spikes reduced dependency on goodness-of-fit and data filtering. MSI performed on topographically identical individual spikes from an intracranially defined classical anterior temporal lobe spike focus was limited by low reliability (i.e., scattered source solutions) in terms of fine, sublobar localization within the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Spike averaging significantly improved reliability. MSI performed on individual anterior temporal spikes is limited by low reliability. Reduction of background noise through spike averaging significantly improves the reliability of MSI solutions. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  10. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie T Gumuchian

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood.To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions.Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis.Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a facing a new reality; (b the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d changing family roles; (e social interactions; and (f navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants' lives.Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease.

  11. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Three Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grants to Unaccompanied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Refugee Resettlement [CFDA Number 93.676... Children's Shelter Care Grantees AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: The Office of Refugee Resettlement announces the award of three single-source program expansion supplement grants from...

  12. Adiponectin,leptin: focus on low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids in chronic glomerulonephritis with hbv patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mou, Shan; Li, Jialin; Ni, Zhaohui; Yu, Zanzhe; Wang, Qin; Xu, Weijia

    2012-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin come from adipose tissue, which can reflect patients' inflammation and status of lipid metabolism. Our study is aim to evaluate the effects of short-term restriction of dietary protein intake (DPI) supplemented with keto acids on nutrition and lipid metabolic disturbance in chronic glomeruloneph-ritis with HBV patients. 17 patients were randomized to either low DPI with keto acid-supplemented (sLP) or low DPI (LP) group for 12 weeks. Low-protein diet (LPD) wasindividual...

  13. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  14. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.

  15. Space-time structure of neutron and X-ray sources in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Nardi, V.; Prior, W.

    1977-01-01

    Systematic measurements with paraffin collimators of the neutron emission intensity have been completed on a plasma focus with a 15-20 kV capacitor bank (hollow centre electrode; discharge period T approximately 8 μs; D 2 filling at 4-8 torr). The space resolution was 1 cm or better. These data indicate that at least 70% of the total neutron yield originates within hot-plasma regions where electron beams and high-energy D beams (approximately > 0.1-1 MeV) are produced. The neutron source is composed of several (approximately > 1-10) space-localized sources of different intensity, each with a duration approximately less than 5 ns (FWHM). Localized neutron sources and hard (approximately > 100 keV) X-ray sources have the same time multiplicity and are usually distributed in two groups over a time interval 40-400 ns long. By the mode of operation used by the authors one group of localized sources (Burst II) is observed 200-400 ns after the other group (Burst I) and its space distribution is broader than for Burst I. The maximum intensity of a localized source of neutrons in Burst I is much higher than the maximum intensity in Burst II. Secondary reactions T(D,n) 4 He (from the tritium produced only by primary reactions in the same discharge; no tritium was used in filling the discharge chamber) are observed in a time coincidence with the strongest D-D neutron pulse of Burst I. The neutron signal from a localized source with high intensity has a relatively long tail of small amplitude (area tail approximately less than 0.2 X area peak). This tail can be generated by the D-D reactions of the unconfined part of an ion beam in the cold plasma. Complete elimination of scattered neutrons on the detector was achieved in these measurements. (author)

  16. Study of neutron focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehring, B.W.; Uenlue, K.

    1995-01-01

    Funds were received for the first year of a three year DOE Nuclear Engineering Research Grant, ''Study of Neutron Focusing at the Texas Cold Neutron Source'' (FGO2-92ER75711). The purpose of this three year study was to develop a neutron focusing system to be used with the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) to produce an intense beam of neutrons. A prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility was also to be designed, setup, and tested under the three year project. During the first year of the DOE grant, a new procedure was developed and used to design a focusing converging guide consisting of truncated rectangular cone sections. Detailed calculations were performed using a 3-D Monte Carlo code which we wrote to trace neutrons through the curved guide of the TCNS into the proposed converging guide. Using realistic reflectivities for Ni-Ti supermirrors, we obtained gains of 3 to 5 for the neutron flux averaged over an area of 1 x 1 cm

  17. Bragging on Facebook: The Interaction of Content Source and Focus in Online Impression Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G; Ravenscroft, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    Warranting Theory proposes that third-party testimonials are more influential in online impression formation than target-authored statements. Individuals posting content on social media accurately convey their offline personality while endeavoring to present themselves in a positive light. In doing so, they may misjudge the psychological distance of the majority of viewers, who could view this positive self-presentation as bragging and form resultant negative impressions. In this study, we asked 136 participants to view the Facebook timelines of four female targets. Timeline content varied by source (owner- vs. friend-authored) and focus (generally positive vs. personally positive). Participants were tasked with forming impressions of targets and rating them based on attractiveness, confidence, modesty, and popularity. We found that source and focus played distinct roles in impression formation. More positive impressions were formed when owner-authored content was general, and when friend-authored content was personal. This highlights the role played by content focus in impression formation, and the potentially damaging effect of perceived bragging. These results are discussed in relation to the application of the Warranting Theory of impression formation online, and discrepancies between these results and those from related articles are examined.

  18. Legislation relating to nutraceuticals in the European Union with a particular focus on botanical-sourced products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Om P.; Berry Ottaway, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or food ingredients that have defined physiological effects. They do not easily fall into the legal categories of food or drug and often inhabit a grey area between the two. These products in general terms cover health promotion, 'optimal nutrition' the concept of enhanced performance - both physically and mentally - and reduction of disease risk factors. In this paper the focus is mainly on legislation governing botanical-sourced nutraceuticals in the European Union (EU). Nutraceutical concept in general has been defined. Different pieces of legislation influencing botanical nutraceuticals are described. The issue of the borderline between food and drug is discussed. The regulatory status of botanical nutraceuticals as food supplement, food ingredient, functional and fortified food, novel foods and foods for particular nutritional use in the diversified, complex and ever-changing European regulatory environment is described. Botanical nutraceuticals present additional problems because of their complex nature and composition particularly with respect to the quality aspects, which in turn affect safety parameters and overall efficacy of the products. Quality issues relating to botanical sources, growth conditions, end products, their specifications and other technical criteria are highlighted. Guiding principles to be observed for conducting in vitro, in vivo studies in animals and their impact on clinical safety data are discussed. Finally, health claims, their types and criteria of substantiation in light of ongoing discussions with regard to the EU frame work of regulation on nutrition and health claims and role of process for the assessment of scientific support for claims (PASSCLAIM) initiative is discussed. The concept of grading of evidence to substantiate different claims and to establish standards, which should not be revoked or reversed by emerging science at a later stage has been considered. These issues are crucial and are being

  19. Are There Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Milk with Supplementation of Omega-3 Sources? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Yasmin Notarbartolo di Villarosa do; Marano, Daniele; Silva, Leila Maria Lopes da; Guimarães, Aline Carnevale Lia Dias; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose  To evaluate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 sources on the fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods  The review consisted of the search for articles published in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Virtual Health Library[VHL]) and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: fatty acids , omega-3 , human milk and supplementation ; for this purpose, we have used the program of research to integrate the services for the maintenance of autonomy (PRISMA) checklist. The following selection criteria were used: articles in English, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, published between 2000 and 2015, and about studies performed in humans. We found 710 articles that met the established criteria; however, only 22 of them were selected to be part of this study. Results  All studies found a positive relationship between the consumption of omega-3 sources and their concentration in human milk. The differences in the findings are due to the distinct methods used, such as the specific time of the omega-3 supplementation, the type of omega-3 source offered, as well as the sample size. Conclusion  Although the studies were different in several methodological aspects, it was possible to observe the importance of omega-3 supplementation during gestation and/or the puerperium. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  20. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  1. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, R S

    2015-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 10 10 J/m 3 . The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I 4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  2. Source apportionment of aerosol particles using polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tianxi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com; Liu Zhiguo [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) and Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: liuzgbeijing@163.com; Zhu Guanghua; Liu Hui [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Xu Qing [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Yude; Wang Guangpu; Luo Ping; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-06-11

    A micro-X-ray fluorescence (Micro-XRF) spectrometer based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) and laboratory X-ray source was designed to carry out the source apportionment of aerosol particles. In the distribution curve of the X-ray intensity in the focal spot of PSFXRL, there was a plateau with a diameter of about 65 {mu}m. The uniformity of this plateau was about 3%. This was helpful in measuring the XRF spectrum of a single aerosol particle in which the element distributions are not uniform. The minimum detection limit (MDL) of this Micro-XRF spectrometer was 15 ppm for the Fe-K{sub {alpha}}. The origins of the aerosol particles at the exit of a subway station and a construction site were apportioned. This Micro-XRF spectrometer has potential applications in analysis of single aerosol particles.

  3. Focusing of megaampere electron beam in gas cell for production of flash X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinchenko, Vl; Chlenov, A M; Shiyan, V D [Research Institute of Scientific Instruments, Turaevo-Lytkarino (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    One of important problems to be solved in the development of an intense source of flash X-rays is the choice of the optimum design of the high-current diode at the exit of the electron accelerator. The results of numerical investigations of megaampere relativistic electron beam (REB) generation and focusing in a compound diode are discussed. The diode consists of a vacuum field-emission annular cathode, a planar anode, and a gas cell inserted between the anode foil and the target. (author). 2 figs., 5 refs.

  4. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  5. Technical characterization of an ultrasound source for noninvasive thermoablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhrmann, K U; Michel, M S; Steidler, A; Marlinghaus, E; Kraut, O; Alken, P

    2002-08-01

    To develop a generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, a method of delivering ultrasonic energy with resultant heat and tissue destruction to a tight focus at a selected depth within the body), designed for extracorporeal coupling to allow various parenchymal organs to be treated. The ultrasound generated by a cylindrical piezo-ceramic element is focused at a depth of 10 cm using a parabolic reflector with a diameter of 10 cm. A diagnostic B-mode ultrasonographic transducer is integrated into the source to allow the focus to be located in the target area. The field distribution of the sound pressure was measured in degassed water using a needle hydrophone. An ultrasound-force balance was used to determine the acoustic power. These measurements allowed the spatially averaged sound intensity to be calculated. The morphology and extent of tissue necrosis induced by HIFU was examined on an ex-vivo kidney model. The two-dimensional field distribution resulted in an approximately ellipsoidal focus of 32 x 4 mm (- 6 dB). The spatially maximum averaged sound intensity was 8591 W/cm2 at an electrical power of 400 W. The lesion caused to the ex-vivo kidney at this maximum generator power with a pulse duration of 2 s was a clearly delineated ellipsoidal coagulation necrosis up to 8.8 x 2.3 mm (length x width) and with central liquefied necrosis of 7.9 x 1.9 mm. This newly developed ultrasound generator with a focal length of 10 cm can induce clear necrosis in parenchymal tissue. Because of its specific configuration and the available power range of the ultrasound generator, there is potential for therapeutic noninvasive ablation of tissue deep within a patient's body.

  6. Effects of sources of protein and enzyme supplementation on protein digestibility and chyme characteristics in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B; Lee, T T T; Chiou, P W S

    2002-07-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein source and enzyme supplementation on protein digestibility and chyme characteristics in broilers. 2. One hundred and twenty growing (13 d old) and 60 finishing (34 d old) Arbor Acre strain commercial male broilers were selected and placed into individual metabolic cages. 3. The experiment was a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 different sources of protein: casein, fish meal, soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC), maize gluten meal (MGM) and two levels of protease (bromelain), 0 and 65 CDU/kg diets. 4. The diets were iso-nitrogenous and semi-purified, with Cr2O3 as an indicator for determination of ileal digestibility and chyme characteristics. 5. Apparent ileal protein digestibility (AIPD) in both growing and finishing chickens was highest on the casein diet, followed by fish meal, SBM, SPC and MGM. 6. Enzyme inclusion did not improve protein digestibility, but significantly decreased the digesta pH value in the gizzard and increased pH in the ileum in the 3-week-old broilers. 7. The digesta pH values in the gizzard and duodenum were significantly lower in the SBM and fish meal groups compared with the other protein groups. The molecular weight distribution pattern of the soluble protein in the chyme of the gastrointestinal (GI) segments showed a similar trend, regardless of the enzyme inclusion or the stage of growth. 8. The molecular weight profile of soluble protein changed dynamically in the casein fed broilers from the gizzard to ileum and the low molecular weight proteins, < 7 kDa, reached maximum levels at the ileum. The molecular weight profile of the soluble protein in the SBM and SPC changed between the jejunum and the ileum and in the intermediate molecular soluble protein weight (7 to 10 kDa) was significantly decreased. This indicated that the hydrolysis process began from the middle to the posterior end of the small intestine. 9. Similar profiles were also shown with

  7. Source-to-target simulation of simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing of heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Welch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal bunching factors in excess of 70 of a 300-keV, 27-mA K^{+} ion beam have been demonstrated in the neutralized drift compression experiment [P. K. Roy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 234801 (2005PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.234801] in rough agreement with particle-in-cell source-to-target simulations. A key aspect of these experiments is that a preformed plasma provides charge neutralization of the ion beam in the last one meter drift region where the beam perveance becomes large. The simulations utilize the measured ion source temperature, diode voltage, and induction-bunching-module voltage waveforms in order to determine the initial beam longitudinal phase space which is critical to accurate modeling of the longitudinal compression. To enable simultaneous longitudinal and transverse compression, numerical simulations were used in the design of the solenoidal focusing system that compensated for the impact of the applied velocity tilt on the transverse phase space of the beam. Complete source-to-target simulations, that include detailed modeling of the diode, magnetic transport, induction bunching module, and plasma neutralized transport, were critical to understanding the interplay between the various accelerator components in the experiment. Here, we compare simulation results with the experiment and discuss the contributions to longitudinal and transverse emittance that limit the final compression.

  8. Automatic Wave Equation Migration Velocity Analysis by Focusing Subsurface Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-11-03

    Macro velocity model building is important for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes the band-limited waveform to invert for the velocity. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers (SOCIGs). We re-examine this concept with a different perspective: In subsurface offset domain, using extended Born modeling, the recorded data can be considered as invariant with respect to the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources and velocity at the same time. A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those virtual sources and velocity is derived and solved subsequently by Conjugate Gradient method. In theory, the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources is given by the Rytov approximation. Thus, compared to the Born approximation, it relaxes the dependency on amplitude and makes the proposed method more applicable for real data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying the proposed method on both isotropic and anisotropic VTI synthetic data. A real dataset example verifies the robustness of the proposed method.

  9. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  10. Improved heating efficiency with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound using a new ultrasound source excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is quickly becoming one of the best methods to thermally ablate tissue noninvasively. Unlike RF or Laser ablation, the tissue can be destroyed without inserting any probes into the body minimizing the risk of secondary complications such as infections. In this study, the heating efficiency of HIFU sources is improved by altering the excitation of the ultrasound source to take advantage of nonlinear propagation. For ultrasound, the phase velocity of the ultrasound wave depends on the amplitude of the wave resulting in the generation of higher harmonics. These higher harmonics are more efficiently converted into heat in the body due to the frequency dependence of the ultrasound absorption in tissue. In our study, the generation of the higher harmonics by nonlinear propagation is enhanced by transmitting an ultrasound wave with both the fundamental and a higher harmonic component included. Computer simulations demonstrated up to a 300% increase in temperature increase compared to transmitting at only the fundamental for the same acoustic power transmitted by the source.

  11. Automatic Wave Equation Migration Velocity Analysis by Focusing Subsurface Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    Macro velocity model building is important for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes the band-limited waveform to invert for the velocity. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers (SOCIGs). We re-examine this concept with a different perspective: In subsurface offset domain, using extended Born modeling, the recorded data can be considered as invariant with respect to the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources and velocity at the same time. A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those virtual sources and velocity is derived and solved subsequently by Conjugate Gradient method. In theory, the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources is given by the Rytov approximation. Thus, compared to the Born approximation, it relaxes the dependency on amplitude and makes the proposed method more applicable for real data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying the proposed method on both isotropic and anisotropic VTI synthetic data. A real dataset example verifies the robustness of the proposed method.

  12. Engaging Foster Parents in Treatment: A Randomized Trial of Supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Evidence-based Engagement Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D.; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and ...

  13. Open-source, small-animal magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, Megan E; Chaplin, Vandiver L; Wilkens, Ken; Dockery, Mary D; Giorgio, Todd D; Grissom, William A; Caskey, Charles F

    2016-01-01

    MR-guided focused ultrasound or high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgFUS/MRgHIFU) is a non-invasive therapeutic modality with many potential applications in areas such as cancer therapy, drug delivery, and blood-brain barrier opening. However, the large financial costs involved in developing preclinical MRgFUS systems represent a barrier to research groups interested in developing new techniques and applications. We aim to mitigate these challenges by detailing a validated, open-source preclinical MRgFUS system capable of delivering thermal and mechanical FUS in a quantifiable and repeatable manner under real-time MRI guidance. A hardware and software package was developed that includes closed-loop feedback controlled thermometry code and CAD drawings for a therapy table designed for a preclinical MRI scanner. For thermal treatments, the modular software uses a proportional integral derivative controller to maintain a precise focal temperature rise in the target given input from MR phase images obtained concurrently. The software computes the required voltage output and transmits it to a FUS transducer that is embedded in the delivery table within the magnet bore. The delivery table holds the FUS transducer, a small animal and its monitoring equipment, and a transmit/receive RF coil. The transducer is coupled to the animal via a water bath and is translatable in two dimensions from outside the magnet. The transducer is driven by a waveform generator and amplifier controlled by real-time software in Matlab. MR acoustic radiation force imaging is also implemented to confirm the position of the focus for mechanical and thermal treatments. The system was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and in vivo during murine tumor hyperthermia treatments. Sonications were successfully controlled over a range of temperatures and thermal doses for up to 20 min with minimal temperature overshoot. MR thermometry was validated with an optical temperature probe, and focus

  14. Supersonic Fe beam source for chromatic aberration-free laser focusing of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, R C M; Van der Straten, P; Leeuwen, K A H

    2002-01-01

    A monochromatic Fe beam is generated by heated supersonic expansion of argon seeded with Fe vapor. At a nozzle temperature of 1930 K and 800 torr argon inlet pressure the Fe beam has an axial velocity spread of 8% and intensity of 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 s sup - sup 1 sr sup - sup 1 , corresponding to a deposition rate of 10 nm/h at 150 mm from the nozzle. The two-chamber alumina crucibles are chemically stable for liquid Fe. With 400 mm sup 3 Fe we have operated for more than 200 hours without reloading. The power consumption at 1930 K is 750 W. Temperature stability at constant power (without feedback) is better than 30 K. The source is intended for deposition of nano-structures by laser focusing of the Fe beam. The small axial velocity spread virtually eliminates the increase in focal spot size due to chromatic aberration. (authors)

  15. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Strobbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time

  16. Dense plasma focus x-ray source for sub-micron lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Mangano, J.; Greene, P.; Qi, Niansheng

    1993-01-01

    A discharge driven, dense plasma focus in neon is under development at SRL for use as a point x-ray source for sub-micron lithography. This source is presently capable of delivering ∼ 13j/pulse of neon K-shell x-rays (8--14 angstrom) into 4π steradians with 2 kj of electrical energy stored in the capacitor bank charged to 9 kV at a pulse repetition rate of 2 Hz. The discharge is produced by a ≤4 kj, ≤12 kV, capacitor bank circuit, which has a fixed inductance of 12 nH and drives ≤450 kA currents into the DPF load, with ∼1.1 μs rise-times. X-rays are produced when a dense pinch of neon is formed along the axis of the DPF electrodes. A new rail-gap switched capacitor bank and DPF have been built, designed for continuous operation at 2 Hz and burst mode operation at 20 Hz. This paper will present measurements of the x-ray output at a repetition rate of 2 Hz using the new capacitor bank. It will also describe measurements of the spot size (0.3--0.8 mm) and the spectrum (8--14 angstrom) of the DPF source. The dependence of these parameters on the DPF head geometry, bank energy and operating pressure will be discussed. The x-ray output has been measured using filtered pin diodes, x-ray diodes, and absolutely calibrated x-ray crystal spectra. Results from the source operating at 2 Hz will be presented. A novel concept of a windowless beamline has also been developed. The results of preliminary experiments to test the concept will be discussed. At a pulse repetition rate of 20 Hz, this source should produce 200--400 W of x-ray power in the 8-14 angstrom wavelength band, with an input power of 40--60 kW

  17. Volcanic or Fluvial Channels on Ascraeus Mons: Focus on the Source Area of Sinuous Channels on the Southeast Rift Apron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorella, J. D.; de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Collins, A.; Schierl, Z. P.; Schwans, B.

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on the source area of sinuous channels on the southeast rift apron on Ascraeus Mons, Mars and attempts to understand whether the channels were formed through volcanic or fluvial processes.

  18. Effect of supplemental protein source during the winter on pre- and postpartum glucose metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating serum glucose concentrations as well as glucose utilization have been shown to be affected by forage quality. Supplemental protein provided to grazing range cows while consuming low quality forage may improve glucose metabolism. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of ...

  19. Guided wave imaging of oblique reflecting interfaces in pipes using common-source synthetic focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zeqing; Sun, Anyu; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Cross-mode-family mode conversion and secondary reflection of guided waves in pipes complicate the processing of guided waves signals, and can cause false detection. In this paper, filters operating in the spectral domain of wavenumber, circumferential order and frequency are designed to suppress the signal components of unwanted mode-family and unwanted traveling direction. Common-source synthetic focusing is used to reconstruct defect images from the guided wave signals. Simulations of the reflections from linear oblique defects and a semicircle defect are separately implemented. Defect images, which are reconstructed from the simulation results under different excitation conditions, are comparatively studied in terms of axial resolution, reflection amplitude, detectable oblique angle and so on. Further, the proposed method is experimentally validated by detecting linear cracks with various oblique angles (10-40°). The proposed method relies on the guided wave signals that are captured during 2-D scanning of a cylindrical area on the pipe. The redundancy of the signals is analyzed to reduce the time-consumption of the scanning process and to enhance the practicability of the proposed method.

  20. Plasma focus as an x-ray source for tailoring of radiation in different energy windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M.; Alamgir, K.; Shafiq, M.; Sharif, M.

    2001-01-01

    A low energy (2.3 kj) plasma focus energized by a single 32 micro f capacitor charged at 12 kv with filling gases hydrogen, neon and argon is investigated as an X-ray source. Experiments are conducted with a copper and an aluminum anode. Specifically, attention in given to tailoring the radiation in different windows, e. g. 1.2-1.3 keV, 1.3-1.5 keV, 2.5-5 keV and Cu-Ka line radiation. The highest X-ray emission is observed with neon filling and the copper anode in the 1.2-1.3 keV window, which speculated to be generated due to recombination of hydrogen like neon ions with a few eV to a few 10s of eV electrons. The wall-plug efficiency of the device is found to be 4%. The other significant emission occurs with Hydrogen filling, which exhibits wall plug efficiency of 1.7% for over all x-ray emission and 0.35% for Cu- Ka line radiation. The emission is dominated by the interaction of electrons in the current sheath with the anode tip. The emission with the aluminum anode and hydrogen filling is up to 10 j, which corresponds to wall-plug efficiency of 0.4%. The X-ray emission with argon filling is less significant. (author)

  1. In situ focus characterization by ablation technique to enable optics alignment at an XUV FEL source

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimova, N.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Weigelt, H.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Vyšín, Luděk; Juha, Libor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 6 (2013), "065104-1"-"065104-6" ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA ČR GAP205/11/0571; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13029; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302; GA ČR GA13-28721S Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057; AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : free electron lasers * laser ablation * laser beams * optical focusing * ultraviolet sources Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.584, year: 2013

  2. Effect of supplementation with methionine and different fat sources on the glutathione redox system of growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Katalin; Mézes, M; Gaál, T; Bartos, A; Balogh, K; Husvéth, F

    2004-01-01

    The effect of supplementary methionine and fats of different saturation levels on the glutathione redox system of growing broiler cockerels was studied. The diet of three groups of chicks was supplemented with corn germ oil, beef tallow and fish oil at the levels of 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of feed, respectively. The diet of further three groups was supplemented with methionine (5 g/kg of feed) in addition to the different fat sources. Control chicks were fed with a compound feed without methionine and fat supplementation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content as well as glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver were determined and GSH/GSSG ratio was calculated at day old and then at one and three weeks of age. Our results indicate that supplementary methionine stimulates both the synthesis of the glutathione redox system and glutathione peroxidase activity in growing chickens in the first period of postnatal life, when the risk of lipid peroxidation is high due to feeding unsaturated fats in the diet.

  3. Compilation of air pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Supplement E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42 Volume I, new or revised emissions data are presented for Anthracite Coal Combustion; Natural Gas Combustion; Liquified Petroleum Gas Combustion; Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers; Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills; Residential Fireplaces; Residential Wood Stoves; Waste Oil Combustion; Automobile Body Incineration; Conical Burners; Open Burning; Stationary Gas Turbines for Electricity Generation; Heavy Duty Natural Gas Fired Pipeline Compressor Engines; Gasoline and Diesel Industrial Engines; Large Stationary Diesel and All Stationary Dual Fuel Engines; Soap and Detergents; and Storage of Organic Liquids

  4. Alternative sources of supplements for Africanized honeybees submitted to royal jelly production

    OpenAIRE

    Sereia, Maria Josiane; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; Furlan, Antonio Claudio; Faquinello, Patrícia; Maia, Fabiana Martins Costa; Wielewski, Priscila

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplements with isolated soy protein, brewer's yeast, a mixture of isolated soy protein with brewer's yeast, linseed oil, palm oil and mixture of linseed oil with palm oil in the production of royal jelly by Africanized honeybee colonies. Total royal jelly production was higher (p < 0.05) in colonies fed with isolated soy protein and brewer's yeast (11.68 g colony-1), followed by linseed oil and palm oil (11.30 g colony-1) and palm oil (9....

  5. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  6. Evaluation of Selenium Content of Plant Samples Collected from Indigenous Sources for Se-supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, T.; Sosan, A.; Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Selenium contents were evaluated in different plant species such as Canola (Brassica napus), Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Soyabean Seeds (Glycine max) and Akk (Calotropis procera) in order to access their possibility for Se-supplementation. The dry ash of bulb of Turmeric and seeds of Canola, Sunflower, and Soyabean were digested in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/ and HCl to obtain selenium (IV). After adding different reagents, stable blue colored complex was formed. From this colored complex, selenium (IV) was determined by UV/visible spectrophotometer. This work was carried out in an attempt to obtain information concerning the amount of selenium present in different plants. It was observed that Akk is a good accumulator of selenium as it contains almost 30 mu g selenium per gram and can be used for different medicinal applications. (author)

  7. Effects of source and level of dietary energy supplementation on in vitro digestibility and methane production from tall fescue-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of information about the effect of different sources, levels, and the mixtures of energy supplements commonly fed to cattle grazing tall fescue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate different common energy sources for beef cattle grazing tall fescue using an in vitr...

  8. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tieland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60% with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80% provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from

  9. Improvement of Rice Straw for Ruminant Feed Through Unconventional Alkali Treatment and Supplementation of Various Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical treatments were conducted to increase the utilization of rice straw as feed for ruminant animals. Various sources of protein, minerals and energy should be added to improve the nutritive value of feeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The objective of the first experiments was to study the effect of chemical treatment on the ruminal fermentation products in cattle. Unconventional alkali treatment made from filtrate of a 10% rice hulls ash solution enriched with urea and minerals (treatment 1 increased volatile fatty acid (VFA production, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS. The maximum values of NH3-N production and rumen microbial protein synthesis were reached at 4 hours after incubation, while VFA was reached at 6 hours. The second experiment was conducted to study the increase of nutritive value of rice straw previously treated in experiment 1 through supplementation with various protein sources. Protein sources from the residues of vegetative oil production such as coconut, peanut and soybean showed higher responses compared to soy-sauce making residue and tofu making residue. The protein effluent production was highest (2.19 g/d at a VFA/NH3-N ration of 37.74 (r = 0.912. It can be recommended that protein sources from agro-industrial wastes can be used to increase the nutritive value and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 82-85 (2010Key Words: rice straw, rumen, fermentation

  10. Liming induces carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in PSB inoculated alkaline soil supplemented with different phosphorus sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Shah, Zahir; Sharif, Muhammad; Rahman, Hidayatur

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural land is a major sink of global organic carbon (C). Its suitable management is crucial for improving C sequestration and reducing soil CO 2 emission. Incubation experiments were performed to assess the impact of phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB) inoculation (inoculated and uninoculated) and soil calcification (4.78, 10, 15, and 20% crushed CaCO 3 ) with phosphorus (P) sources [single superphosphate (SSP), rock phosphate (RP), farm yard manure (FYM), and poultry manure (PM)] in experiment 1 and with various rates of PM (4, 8, and 12 kg ha -1 ) in experiment 2 on cumulative soil respiration. These experiments were arranged in three factorial, complete randomize design (CRD) with three replications. Interactively, lime with P sources (at day 1 and 3) and lime with PSB (at day 1) significantly expedited soil respiration. Mainly, PSB inoculation, liming, PM fertilization, and its various rates significantly enhanced soil respiration with time over control/minimum in alkaline soil at all incubation periods. Higher CO 2 emission was detected in soil supplemented with organic P sources (PM and FYM) than mineral sources (SSP and RP). CO 2 emission was noted to increase with increasing PM content. Since liming intensified CO 2 discharge from soil, therefore addition of lime to an alkaline soil should be avoided; instead, integrated approaches must be adopted for P management in alkaline calcareous soils for climate-smart agriculture.

  11. Analysis of influence on the solar simulator light source off-focus to the spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu ZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at focusing-type solar simulator, the paper researches the relationship between the defocusing amount and the facula irradiance. With the optical system of focusing-type solar simulator as research object, simulation is conducted based on a short-arc xenon lamps and its ellipsoidal condenser. According to the xenon lamp energy distribution figure and its distribution curve flux, the luminous body is simplified to cylindrical luminous light which emits light only on the flank. Model for the simplified luminous light and its ellipsoidal condenser are established in the optical simulation software TracePro, and the impact of axial and radial deviation on the facula is simulated. The results show that light off-focus has little influence on the average of facula irradiance, but has great influence on the maximum value and the distribution of facula irradiance as well as the facula area. The result provides a theoretical reference for the design and alignment of solar simulator focusing system.

  12. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people : a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J.; Van Loon, Luc J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. OBJECTIVES: to assess the

  13. Dietary protein intake in Dutch elderly people: a focus on protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the

  14. Exploring sources of emotional distress among people living with scleroderma: A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuchian, S.T.; Peláez, S.; Delisle, V.C.; Carrier, M.E.; Jewett, L.R.; El-Baalbaki, G.; Fortune, C.; Hudson, M.; Impens, A.; Körner, A.; Persmann, J.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Bartlett, S.J.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives: To gain an

  15. Using Value-Focused Thinking as an Alternative Means of Opportunity Assessment for Strategic Sourcing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    comparison between two objectives at a time. The decision maker develops a micro - version of the value equation using only the two objectives that...variety of different functional areas. Table 10. New Alternatives Identified Alternative Source Base Recycling Services AFCEC Airfield Pavement Repair

  16. Physical and chemical properties of fish and chicken bones as calcium source for mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worapot Suntornsuk

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of two bones of two species of fish, hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae and giant seaperch (Lates calcarifer Bloch., were compared with chicken bone to evaluate their composition for use as natural calcium supplement. The information could be useful for waste utilization in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Physical testing and chemical analyses were performed according to the USP 24 and BP 1998 standards under calcium carbonate monograph. Loss on drying found in hoki, giant seaperch and chicken bones was 12.4, 11.3 and 5.9 % w/w, calculated on dried basis, respectively. Total calcium determined by complexometric titration was 31.8, 28.1 and 32.2% w/w in hoki, giant seaperch and chicken bones, respectively. All samples contained carbonate and phosphate anion residues but gluconate, acetate and citrate were absent. The presence of calcium carbonate was confirmed by thermogravimetry. Results from all bones showed that limit tests for heavy metals, arsenic and iron complied with the USP standard, whereas barium, chloride and sulfate conformed to the BP standard. The magnesium and alkali metals in giant seaperch bone were within the BP limit (1.5%, but those of hoki and chicken bone exceeded the limit.

  17. Performances of broiler supplemented with antibiotic and Morinda citrifolia waste as sources of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of Zinc bacitracin antibiotic (ZnB and dried Morinda citrifolia waste as feed additive in broiler ration was conducted. Two hundred and sixteen day old chicks (DOC was allocated into 4 treatments: control; control + 50 ppm ZnB, and control + M. citrifolia waste at 2 levels (5 and 10 g/kg ration with 9 replications. Each replicatation consist of 6 birds. The treatments were allocated in a completely randomized design. Variables measured were feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, percentages of carcass and internal organs (liver, gizard, abdominal fat, and thickness of intestine. The results showed that feed intake of M. citrifolia waste was significantly (P0.05 from that of control. The use of M. citrifolia waste (5 and 10 g/kg gave significantly lower (P0.05, but was significantly lower (P0,05 than that of control, control + antibiotic ZnB and M. citrifolia waste 5g/kg. It is concluded that the supplementation of M. citrifolia waste (5 g/kg could substitute ZnB to improve feed eficiency in broiler ration.

  18. Creativity in ergonomic design: a supplemental value-adding source for product and service development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Proctor, Robert W; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2010-08-01

    This article investigates the role of creativity in ergonomic design and the generic process of developing creative products and services. Creativity is gaining increased emphasis in both academia and industry. More than 50 years of research in creativity indicates that creativity is key to product and service innovation. Nevertheless, there is scarcely any comprehensive review dedicated to appraising the complex construct of creativity, the underlying cognitive process, and the role of creativity in product and service development. We review relevant literature regarding creativity, creative cognition, and the engineering design process to appraise the role of creativity in ergonomic design and to construct a conceptual model of creative product and service development. A framework of ergodesign creativity is advanced that highlights the central role of creativity in synergistically addressing the four dimensions of ergonomic design: functionality, safety, usability, and affectivity. A conceptual model of creative design process is then constructed that is goal oriented and is initiated by active problem finding and problem formulating. This process is carried out in a recursive and dynamic way, facilitated by creative thinking strategies. It is proposed that ergodesign creativity can add supplemental value to products and services, which subsequently affects consumer behavior and helps organizations gain competitive advantage. The proposed conceptual framework of ergodesign creativity and creative design process can serve as the ground for future theory development. Propositions advanced in this study should facilitate designers generating products and services that are creative and commercially competitive.

  19. Customer complaints as a source of customer-focused process improvement: A constructive case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uusitalo, K.,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Process-based thinking commonly focuses on enhancing the efficiency of processes, while it is often criticized for not paying enough attention to the customer. This paper argues that customer complaint information can be used as a basis for customer-focused process improvement. Thus, it is not enough to make the complaining customer satisfied, but the complaint information should also feed back to the actual processes where the fault causing the complaint arose and where it can be removed. The empirical component of the study includes the development of a novel construction to utilize customer complaints for process improvements, which was implemented in a large Finnish enterprise operating in the wholesale logistics environment. The results show benefits at both operational and strategic levels.

  20. Development of refractive X-ray focusing optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alianelli, L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Loader, I. M.; Jenkins, D. W. K.; Stevens, R.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2007-09-01

    The Diamond Optics & Metrology Group and the collaborators at the STFC Central Microstructure Facility have initiated a program for the design and fabrication of in-line micro- and nano-focusing optics for synchrotron radiation beamlines. The first type of optics fabricated is a kinoform lens in silicon on the same model proposed by K. Evans- Lutterodt et al [Opt. Expr. 11 (2003) 919.]. The fabrication utilised ultra high resolution electron beam lithographic patterning of an electron sensitive SU8 polymer and deep reactive ion etching of silicon. The first test of the focusing properties was performed at the ESRF BM5 optics beamline. In this paper we present details on the design and fabrication, and discuss the test results.

  1. Ion beam extraction from a matrix ECR plasma source by discrete ion-focusing effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    -ECR plasma source [3] with transversal magnetic filter for electron temperature control. 12 ECR plasma cells are placed 7.5 cm apart on the top of a cubic chamber 40x40x40 cm3. Each cell can be controlled independently by tuning the injected microwave power. The discharge is operated at pressures below 1 m......Positive or negative ion beams extracted from plasma are used in a large variety of surface functionalization techniques such as implantation, etching, surface activation, passivation or oxidation. Of particular importance is the surface treatment of materials sensitive to direct plasma exposure...... due to high heath fluxes, the controllability of the ion incidence angle, and charge accumulation when treating insulating materials. Despite of a large variety of plasma sources available for ion beam extraction, there is a clear need for new extraction mechanisms that can make available ion beams...

  2. Potential Sources for Financing Environmental Protection Projects – Focusing on Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Počuča

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates financial mechanisms for financing energy efficiency with particular emphasis on the resources from financial institutions and equity funds and capital from the companies themselves. By conducting relevant academic research of literature and data from print and electronic sources (statistical reports, laws and regulations, statements of companies and financial institutions, as well as from the practical experience of some countries, it has been observed that the poor representation of adapted financial mechanisms is a major constraint to the emergence of a culture of energy efficiency in most countries, including Serbia. Even where they exist they are not necessarily known to make use of successful experiences. By conducting an analysis of the relevant academic literature and an analysis of practical experiences in the domain of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources it was concluded that energy efficiency is a significant potential for growth of the economic strength of Serbia, and therefore incentives should nfluence a greater use of renewable energy and a reduction in use of the fossil fuels as an energy source.

  3. Utilization of supplemental methionine sources by primary cultures of chick hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibner, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) as a substrate for protein synthesis was studied by using primary cultures of chick liver cells. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic dissociation of livers from week old Hubbard broiler chicks and were maintained for 4 days under nonproliferative conditions. Hepatocyte differentiation was verified by using dexamethasone induction of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. Conversion of [14C]HMB to L-methionine was shown by chromatographic analysis of hepatocyte protein hydrolysate and incorporation into protein was proven by cycloheximide inhibition of synthesis. When incorporation of HMB was compared to that of DL-methionine (DLM) equimolar quantities of the two sources were found in liver cell protein. These results support, at a cellular level, the conclusion that HMB and DLM are biochemically equivalent sources of methionine for protein synthesis

  4. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  5. Palm top plasma focus device as a portable pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, R. K.; Niranjan, Ram; Srivastava, R.; Rawool, A. M.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    Development of a palm top plasma focus device generating (5.2 ± 0.8) × 10 4 neutrons/pulse into 4π steradians with a pulse width of 15 ± 3 ns is reported for the first time. The weight of the system is less than 1.5 kg. The system comprises a compact capacitor bank, a triggered open air spark gap switch, and a sealed type miniature plasma focus tube. The setup is around 14 cm in diameter and 12.5 cm in length. The energy driver for the unit is a capacitor bank of four cylindrical commercially available electrolytic capacitors. Each capacitor is of 2 μF capacity, 4.5 cm in diameter, and 9.8 cm in length. The cost of each capacitor is less than US$ 10. The internal diameter and the effective length of the plasma focus unit are 2.9 cm and 5 cm, respectively. A DC to DC converter power supply powered by two rechargeable batteries charges the capacitor bank to the desired voltage and also provides a trigger pulse of −15 kV to the spark gap. The maximum energy of operation of the device is 100 J (8 μF, 5 kV, 59 kA) with deuterium gas filling pressure of 3 mbar. The neutrons have also been produced at energy as low as 36 J (3 kV) of operation. The neutron diagnostics are carried out with a bank of 3 He detectors and with a plastic scintillator detector. The device is portable, reusable, and can be operated for multiple shots with a single gas filling.

  6. Phase contrast imaging using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-09-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging, a new technique to increase the imaging contrast for the tissues with close attenuation coefficients, has been studied since mid 1990s. This technique reveals the possibility to show the clear details of the soft tissues and tumors in small scale resolution. A compact and low cost phase contrast imaging system using a conventional x-ray source is described in this paper. Using the conventional x-ray source is of great importance, because it provides the possibility to use the method in hospitals and clinical offices. Simple materials and components are used in the setup to keep the cost in a reasonable and affordable range.Tungsten Kα1 line with the photon energy 59.3 keV was used for imaging. Some of the system design details are discussed. The method that was used to stabilize the system is introduced. A chicken thigh bone tissue sample was used for imaging followed by the image quality, image acquisition time and the potential clinical application discussion. High energy x-ray beam can be used in phase contrast imaging. Therefore the radiation dose to the patients can be greatly decreased compared to the traditional x-ray radiography.

  7. Focus group discussions among owners and non-owners of ground source heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    This research was sponsored by the Office of Buildings and Community Systems and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technology. Federal dollars have supported research on the development of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) for several years. Though several companies currently sell GSHP's for residential use, their share of the total heating and air conditioning business remains less than one percent. Large manufacturing companies with national distribution have not yet added GSHP equipment to their product line. GSHP's use only about one half (Braud 1987) to one third (Bose 1987) of the energy needed to operate conventional furnaces and air conditioners. Consequently, a high level of market penetration by the GSHP offers direct benefits to both utility companies and individual users of the systems. Widespread use of these highly efficient systems will reduce both total energy consupmtion, and problems associated with high levels of energy use during peak periods. This will allow utility companies to delay capital expenditures for new facilities to meet the growing energy demand during peak periods. The cost effective use of electricity also reduces the likelihood of homeowners switching to a different fuel source for heating. 5 refs.

  8. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα 1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample

  9. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα1 line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  10. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [BME Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G., E-mail: brankov@iit.edu [ECE Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  11. Prostate cancer and industrial pollution Risk around putative focus in a multi-source scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Rebeca; Diggle, Peter; Cambra, Koldo; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2011-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men but its aetiology is still largely unknown. Different studies have proposed several risk factors such as ethnic origin, age, genetic factors, hormonal factors, diet and insulin-like growth factor, but the spatial distribution of the disease suggests that other environmental factors are involved. This paper studies the spatial distribution of prostate cancer mortality in an industrialized area using distances from each of a number of industrial facilities as indirect measures of exposure to industrial pollution. We studied the Gran Bilbao area (Spain) with a population of 791,519 inhabitants distributed in 657 census tracts. There were 20 industrial facilities within the area, 8 of them in the central axis of the region. We analysed prostate cancer mortality during the period 1996-2003. There were 883 deaths giving a crude rate of 14 per 100,000 inhabitants. We extended the standard Poisson regression model by the inclusion of a multiplicative non-linear function to model the effect of distance from an industrial facility. The function's shape combined an elevated risk close to the source with a neutral effect at large distance. We also included socio-demographic covariates in the model to control potential confounding. We aggregated the industrial facilities by sector: metal, mineral, chemical and other activities. Results relating to metal industries showed a significantly elevated risk by a factor of approximately 1.4 in the immediate vicinity, decaying with distance to a value of 1.08 at 12km. The remaining sectors did not show a statistically significant excess of risk at the source. Notwithstanding the limitations of this kind of study, we found evidence of association between the spatial distribution of prostate cancer mortality aggregated by census tracts and proximity to metal industrial facilities located within the area, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics at municipality

  12. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  13. Model of the biological flow of phosphorus from supplemental phosphates sources in pig diets, using the 32P as marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Lopes, Jose

    1999-01-01

    The experiment was designed to test hypotheses, to adjust through simulation bio mathematical models to the phosphorus metabolism and to evaluate the absorption, retention, endogenous P that returns to the digestive tract, dietary absorbed P, accretion, reabsorption and balance of P in bone and tissues and fraction of P from total absorbed and the bone and tissue which returns to the digestive tract, in growing pigs fed different phosphates sources. The model mathematical, deterministic and compartimental was adapted from the studies of FERNANDEZ (1995) and GRACE (1981). The model is represented by three compartiments the digestive tract (C1), bones (C2) and liver heart, kidney and muscle (C3). The information on metabolism and kinetics of the P in tissues obtained by isotopcic dilution technique were used. It was concluded that: the hypotheses established in the model are coherent and the obtained values are adjusted to the P flow in pigs; the variables P intake, endogenous P that return to the digestive tract, P retention, dietary absorbed P, incorporation, reabsorption and balance of P from bone and tissues and fraction of P from total absorved that returned to the digestive tract wasn't influenced by the supplemental P of the phosphates sources; the dietary phosphorus can interfere in the distribution of P in the tissues after the process of absorption of that mineral; the fraction of P from total absorbed P which return to the digestive tract is proportional to P intake

  14. Life cycle assessment and costing of urine source separation: Focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-11-15

    Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i.e., centralized biological WWT) was compared with hypothetical treatment scenarios (i.e., centralized biological WWT upgraded with ozonation, and urine source separation). Alternative urine source separation scenarios included varying collection and handling methods (i.e., collection by vacuum truck, vacuum sewer, or decentralized treatment), pharmaceuticals removal by ion-exchange, and struvite precipitation. Urine source separation scenarios had 90% lower environmental impact (based on the TRACI impact assessment method) compared with the centralized wastewater scenarios due to reduced potable water production for flush water, reduced electricity use at the wastewater treatment plant, and nutrient offsets from struvite precipitation. Despite the greatest reduction of pharmaceutical toxicity, centralized treatment upgraded with ozone had the greatest ecotoxicity impacts due to ozonation operation and infrastructure. Among urine source separation scenarios, decentralized treatment of urine and centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum truck had negligible cost differences compared with centralized wastewater treatment. Centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum sewer and centralized treatment with ozone cost 30% more compared with conventional wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental block and programmed cell death in Bos indicus embryos: effects of protein supplementation source and developmental kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Merlo Garcia

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine if the protein source of the medium influences zebu embryo development and if developmental kinetics, developmental block and programmed cell death are related. The culture medium was supplemented with either fetal calf serum or bovine serum albumin. The embryos were classified as Fast (n = 1,235 or Slow (n = 485 based on the time required to reach the fourth cell cycle (48 h and 90 h post insemination - hpi -, respectively. The Slow group was further separated into two groups: those presenting exactly 4 cells at 48 hpi (Slow/4 cells and those that reached the fourth cell cycle at 90 hpi (Slow. Blastocyst quality, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential and signs of apoptosis or necrosis were evaluated. The Slow group had higher incidence of developmental block than the Fast group. The embryos supplemented with fetal calf serum had lower quality. DNA fragmentation and mitochondrial membrane potential were absent in embryos at 48 hpi but present at 90 hpi. Early signs of apoptosis were more frequent in the Slow and Slow/4 cell groups than in the Fast group. We concluded that fetal calf serum reduces blastocyst development and quality, but the mechanism appears to be independent of DNA fragmentation. The apoptotic cells detected at 48 hpi reveal a possible mechanism of programmed cell death activation prior to genome activation. The apoptotic cells observed in the slow-developing embryos suggested a relationship between programmed cell death and embryonic developmental kinetics in zebu in vitro-produced embryos.

  16. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note

  17. Advisory Committee on human radiation experiments. Supplemental Volume 2a, Sources and documentation appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This large document provides a catalog of the location of large numbers of reports pertaining to the charge of the Presidential Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Research and is arranged as a series of appendices. Titles of the appendices are Appendix A- Records at the Washington National Records Center Reviewed in Whole or Part by DoD Personnel or Advisory Committee Staff; Appendix B- Brief Descriptions of Records Accessions in the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Research Document Collection; Appendix C- Bibliography of Secondary Sources Used by ACHRE; Appendix D- Brief Descriptions of Human Radiation Experiments Identified by ACHRE, and Indexes; Appendix E- Documents Cited in the ACHRE Final Report and other Separately Described Materials from the ACHRE Document Collection; Appendix F- Schedule of Advisory Committee Meetings and Meeting Documentation; and Appendix G- Technology Note.

  18. Status of the Spallation Neutron Source with focus on target materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Haines, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the design and construction of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is presented. Key facility performance parameters are summarized and plans for initial operation are described. Early efforts produced a conceptual design in 1997; the project itself was initiated in 1999, with the official groundbreaking taking place in December of 1999. As of April 2005 building construction was complete and the overall project was more than 90% complete. The design of the target and surrounds are finished and the first target was installed in June 2005. First beam on target is expected in June, 2006. The engineering design of the target region is described. The key systems comprise the mercury target, moderator and reflector assemblies, remote handling systems, utilities and shielding. Through interactions with the 1 GeV proton beam, the target, moderators and reflectors produce short pulse neutrons in thermal energy ranges, which are transported to a variety of neutron scattering instruments. The mercury target module itself is described in more detail. Materials issues are expected to govern the overall lifetime and have influenced the design, fabrication and planned operation. A wide range of materials research and development has been carried out to provide experimental data and analyses to ensure the satisfactory performance of the target and to set initial design conditions. Materials R and D concentrated mainly on cavitation erosion, radiation effects, and mercury compatibility issues, including investigations of the mechanical properties during exposure to mercury. Questions that would require future materials research are discussed

  19. Design of an Acceleration / Deceleration Lens System for Ion Beam Focusing Emerging from Penning Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khabeary, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, design of the deceleration lens system has been done by using SIMION 3D version 7.0 computer program. A parallel beam of singly charged argon ions of diameter 2. mm with energy of 5 KeV emerging from Penning ion source was started at a distance of 140 mm before entering the Einzel lens system (three cylinder electrodes ). In order to design this deceleration lens system, two and three cylinder lenses with different parameters are studied. Ion beam emittance as a function of the gap width of the deceleration lens system has been studied for singly charged argon ion trajectories. Influence of the deceleration voltage applied on the deceleration electrode with different voltages of the four electrodes on the ion beam emittance has been investigated with gap widths of 3, 7, 9, 11 and 15 nun. The deceleration lens system was also used as an acceleration lens system by changing and optimising the voltage on each electrode of the deceleration lens system and of the intermediate electrode of the Einzel lens

  20. X-ray photoelectron microscope with a compact x-ray source generated by line-focused laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Hara, T.; Takahashi, Z.; Nishimura, Y.; Sakata, A.; Watanabe, K.; Azuma, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A laboratory-sized microscopic system of x-ray photoelectrons has been developing using a compact x-ray source produced by line-focused laser irradiation. The system is a scanning type photoelectron microscope where x-ray beam is micro-focused via a Schwartzschild optics. A compact laser-plasma x-ray source has been developed with a YAG laser system, a line-focus lens system, a tape-target driving system and a debris prevention system, that was operated at repetition rate of 10 Hz or 50 Hz. X-rays were delivered along line plasma whose length was 0.6 to 11 mm with higher intensity than that from a point-focused source. Because the transition line of Al V (13.1 nm) was prominent in the soft x-ray spectrum when the Al tape target irradiated at the lower power density of 10 11 W/cm 2 , the 13.1 nm x-ray was used as an excitation source. The Schwartzschild optics was set on the beamline at a distance about 1 m from the source, which was coated with Mo/Si multilayers for 13.1 nm x-ray. The designed demagnification is 224 that was confirmed in the previous experiment. Therefore, an x-ray micro spot of sub-micron size can be formed on a sample surface when the source size is less than about 0.2 mm. Samples were set on a two-axis high-precision piezo stage mounted to a four-axis manipulator. The electron energy analyzer was a spherical capacitor analyzer with mean diameter of 279.4 mm. The electron detector was a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor screen and the optical image of electrons on the exit plane of the analyzer was taken and recorded by using an ultra low dark noise CCD camera, that was suited for detection of vast photoelectrons excited by x-ray pulse of ns-order duration. We performed spatial resolution test measurements by using a GaAs wafer coated with photo-resist that formed a stripe pattern. The spatial resolution less than 3 micron has been obtained from the variation of As 3d electron intensity along the position of the GaAs sample

  1. Engaging foster parents in treatment: a randomized trial of supplementing trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with evidence-based engagement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Shannon; Pullmann, Michael D; Berliner, Lucy; Koschmann, Elizabeth; McKay, Mary; Deblinger, Esther

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the impact of supplementing Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen et al., 2006) with evidence-based engagement strategies on foster parent and foster youth engagement in treatment, given challenges engaging foster parents in treatment. A randomized controlled trial of TF-CBT standard delivery compared to TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies was conducted with 47 children and adolescents in foster care and one of their foster parents. Attendance, engagement, and clinical outcomes were assessed 1 month into treatment, end of treatment, and 3 months post-treatment. Youth and foster parents who received TF-CBT plus evidence-based engagement strategies were more likely to be retained in treatment through four sessions and were less likely to drop out of treatment prematurely. The engagement strategies did not appear to have an effect on the number of canceled or no-show sessions or on treatment satisfaction. Clinical outcomes did not differ by study condition, but exploratory analyses suggest that youth had significant improvements with treatment. Strategies that specifically target engagement may hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and for increasing likelihood of treatment completion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of continuous and pulsed emission modes of a hybrid micro focus x-ray source for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin [Center for Biomedical Engineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Rong, John X. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wu, Xizeng [Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249 (United States); Liu, Hong, E-mail: liu@ou.edu [Center for Biomedical Engineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16 µm to 50 µm as the source output power changes from 10 to 39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (µA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 µm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications. - Highlights: • A micro focus x-ray source that operates in both continuous and pulse emission modes was quantitatively characterized. • The source output, beam quality, focal spot measurements, kV accuracy, spectra analyses and spatial resolution were measured. • Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam

  3. Characterization of continuous and pulsed emission modes of a hybrid micro focus x-ray source for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wong, Molly D.; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Zheng, Bin; Rong, John X.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterize a micro focus x-ray tube that can operate in both continuous and pulsed emission modes. The micro focus x-ray source (Model L9181-06, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) has a varying focal spot size ranging from 16 µm to 50 µm as the source output power changes from 10 to 39 W. We measured the source output, beam quality, focal spot sizes, kV accuracy, spectra shapes and spatial resolution. Source output was measured using an ionization chamber for various tube voltages (kVs) with varying current (µA) and distances. The beam quality was measured in terms of half value layer (HVL), kV accuracy was measured with a non-invasive kV meter, and the spectra was measured using a compact integrated spectrometer system. The focal spot sizes were measured using a slit method with a CCD detector with a pixel pitch of 22 µm. The spatial resolution was quantitatively measured using the slit method with a CMOS flat panel detector with a 50 µm pixel pitch, and compared to the qualitative results obtained by imaging a contrast bar pattern. The focal spot sizes in the vertical direction were smaller than that of the horizontal direction, the impact of which was visible when comparing the spatial resolution values. Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam quality, spectra shape and spatial resolution effects. There were no significantly large differences, thus providing the motivation for future studies to design and develop stable and robust cone beam imaging systems for various diagnostic applications. - Highlights: • A micro focus x-ray source that operates in both continuous and pulse emission modes was quantitatively characterized. • The source output, beam quality, focal spot measurements, kV accuracy, spectra analyses and spatial resolution were measured. • Our analyses revealed that both emission modes yield comparable imaging performances in terms of beam

  4. 75 FR 62841 - Award of a Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement to Chapel Hill Training Outreach Project, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Protection and Affordable Care Act. Supplemental funding will assist in the initial planning and... stakeholders including national program model developers; Provide staff time for support for general...

  5. Using FLUKA to Study Concrete Square Shield Performance in Attenuation of Neutron Radiation Produced by APF Plasma Focus Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, M. J.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, representatives from the Nuclear Engineering and physics Department of Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) requested development of a project with the objective of determining the performance of a concrete shield for their Plasma Focus as neutron source. The project team in Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering and physics department of Amirkabir University of Technology choose some shape of shield to study on their performance with Monte Carlo code. In the present work, the capability of Monte Carlo code FLUKA will be explored to model the APF Plasma Focus, and investigating the neutron fluence on the square concrete shield in each region of problem. The physical models embedded in FLUKA are mentioned, as well as examples of benchmarking against future experimental data. As a result of this study suitable thickness of concrete for shielding APF will be considered.

  6. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  7. Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, Maria Magdalena; Niedbalski, Jorge Julio; Moroso, Roberto Luis; Acuña, H.; Malamud, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates. Fil: Supán, L.. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Insti...

  8. The feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with low-dose external beam radiotherapy as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer following hormonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-Yi; Wang, Guo-Min; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Xu, Ye-Qing; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Chen, Bing

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam radiotherapy (CRT). We performed a prospective, controlled and non-randomized study on 120 patients with advanced PCa after HT who received HIFU, CRT, HIFU+LRT and HT alone, respectively. CT/MR imaging showed the primary tumours and pelvic lymph node metastases visibly shrank or even disappeared after HIFU+LRT treatment. There were significant differences among four groups with regard to overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves (P = 0.018 and 0.015). Further comparison between each pair of groups suggested that the long-term DSS of the HIFU+LRT group was higher than those of the other three groups, but there was no significant difference between the HIFU+LRT group and the CRT group. Multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model showed that both HIFU+LRT and CRT were independently associated with DSS (P = 0.001 and 0.035) and had protective effects with regard to the risk of death. Compared with CRT, HIFU+LRT significantly decreased incidences of radiation-related late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity grade ≥ II. In conclusion, long-term survival of patients with advanced PCa benefited from strengthening local control of primary tumour and regional lymph node metastases after HT. As an alternative to CRT, HIFU+LRT showed good efficacy and better safety.

  9. The desing study of high voltage plasma focus for a large fluence neutron source by using a water capacitor bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Isao; Kobata, Tadasuke

    1983-01-01

    A new possibility for high intensity neutron source (HINS) would be opened by the plasma focus device if we have a high voltage capacitor bank. A scaling law of neutron yield for D-T gas discharge in plasma focus device is obtained after Imshennik, Filippov and Filippova. The resulting scaling law shows the realizability of the D-T HINS by the use of plasma focus, provided that the device is operated under a high voltage condition. Until now, it has been difficult to construct the high voltage capacitor bank of long life, for example with V 0 =300kV, C 0 =200μF and L 0 --5nH necessary in the level of HINS. It becomes possible to design this capacitor bank by using the coaxial water capacitor which has been developed for the electron and ion beam accelerator. The size of a capacitor designed for V 0 =300kV, C 0 =1μF is phi5m x 22m. Two hundred capacitors are used in parallel in order to get the 200μF. (author)

  10. NIRS of body and tissues in growing rabbits fed diets with different fat sources and supplemented with Curcuma longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A portable Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS instrument was applied to 40 growing rabbits to determine body and tissue differences induced by experimental factors. The rabbits were examined at 2 live sites, in 7 warm carcass tissues and in longissimus dorsi muscle samples prepared in ethanol. For this purpose, the method was applied in a bi-factorial experiment concerning the dietary oil source (O (maize vs. palm oil and Curcuma longa (C supplementation (0 and 3 g/kg, respectively. Significant chemical differences emerged for palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids in the longissimus dorsi muscle due to the O factor and for linolenic acid due to the C factor. The NIRS spectra and chemical analyses were elaborated by the Partial Least Squares (PLS method, and the rsquares in cross-validation (R2cv were retained as measure of the unoriented differentiation between the levels of the planned factor for each landmark and fatty acid (FA profile. Multivariate PLS analysis of the FA muscular fat showed that the O factor induced strong differentiation (R2cv: 0.96, while less influence (0.33 was observed for the C factor. The model based on the NIRS radiation of the landmarks clearly shows the O factor effects, not only in the perirenal (0.90 and scapular (0.85 fats, but also in the belly (0.76, liver (0.73 and hind legs (0.72. Whereas the C effects were only expressed in the live animals (ears: 0.66 and abdominal wall: 0.58 and in post-mortem (liver: 0.60. It was concluded that a preliminary NIRS scan of the carcass and of live rabbits can point out the presence of intrinsic experimental effects concerning the lipid metabolism of polyunsaturated FA of the n-6 series (O factor and n-3 series (C factor.

  11. Impact of dietary supplemental methionine sources on sensory measurement of odor-related compounds in broiler excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, C; Coufal, C D; Niemeyer, P L; Carey, J B; Lacey, R E; Miller, R K; Beier, R C

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to detect differences in odor characteristics of broiler excreta due to utilization of different supplementary Met sources by a trained human descriptive aroma attribute sensory panel. The 5 treatment groups were no supplemental Met (control group), sodium methioninate aqueous solution, dry Met hydroxy analogue, liquid Met hydroxy analogue, and DL-Met. Two trials were conducted consisting of 5 treatment groups with 3 replications of 13 randomly distributed straight run broiler chicks per pen reared in battery cages. Starter and grower diets were formulated to contain 0.5 and 0.38% Met activity, respectively (except control group, 0.35% Met activity). Excreta were collected for 24 h in litter pans lined with aluminum foil at wk 4, 5, and 6 and analyzed by a trained sensory panel (7 people). Each panelist was given 25 g of manure heated at 27 degrees C for 5 min for sensory analysis. The 13 odor attributes used to determine differences in broiler excreta by the trained sensory panel were ammonia, dirty socks, wet poultry, fermented rotten fruit, hay, musty wet, sharp, sour, urinous, rotten eggs, irritating, pungent, and nauseating. Panelist marked intensities for each attribute ranging from 0 = none and 15 = extremely intense. Each panelist was given 2 replications of each treatment group in a random order each week (total of 10 samples per wk). All data were evaluated by ANOVA using the general linear model procedure of SAS software. No significant differences were observed in BW, feed consumption, or feed conversion among the treatments. The attributes of ammonia, wet poultry, rotten fruit, musty wet, sharp, and pungent differed (P odor production in broiler excreta.

  12. 78 FR 56906 - Announcement of the Award of Three Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grants to National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Supplement Grants to National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program Grantees AGENCY: Office of Refugee.... Email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The National Human Trafficking Victim... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Refugee...

  13. 77 FR 63837 - Announcement of the Award of a Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement to One Grantee Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... provision of subsidized employment, family reunification, and economic stability services to formerly... achieve social and economic self- sufficiency. Activities include the provision of economic stability... activities: Healthy marriage, responsible parenting, and economic stability. The program expansion supplement...

  14. 77 FR 61416 - Announcement of the Award of Single-Source Expansion Supplement Grants to Nine Personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families [CFDA NUMBER: 93... following PREIS grantees: Supplement Grantee organization City State award amount Child & Family Resources... activities. In reviewing grantees' aggressive program and evaluation plans, combined with recruitment efforts...

  15. High-field strong-focusing undulator designs for X-ray Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Schlueter, R.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-01-01

    Linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (e.g., Linac Coherent Light Sources (LCLSs)), operating on the principle of single-pass saturation in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime typically require multi-GeV beam energies and undulator lengths in excess of tens of meters to attain sufficient gain in the 1 angstrom--0.1 angstrom range. In this parameter regime, the undulator structure must provide: (1) field amplitudes B 0 in excess of 1T within periods of 4cm or less, (2) peak on-axis focusing gradients on the order of 30T/m, and (3) field quality in the 0.1%--0.3% range. In this paper the authors report on designs under consideration for a 4.5--1.5 angstrom LCLS based on superconducting (SC), hybrid/PM, and pulsed-Cu technologies

  16. Neon dense plasma focus point x-ray source for ≤ 0.25 μm lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Berg, K.; Conlon, D.; Mangano, J.

    1994-01-01

    A discharge driven, dense plasma focus (DPF) in neon has been developed at SRL as a point x-ray source for sub-micron lithography. This source is presently capable of delivering ∼25 J/pulse of neon K-shell x-rays (8--14 angstrom) into 4 π steradians with a ∼1.4% wall plug efficiency at a 20 Hz repetition rate. The discharge is produced by a capacitor bank circuit (8 kV, 1.8 kJ) which has a fixed inductance of 11 nH and drives ∼ 320 kA currents into the DPF load, with ∼1 μs rise-times. X-rays are produced when a dense pinch of neon is formed along the axis of the DPF electrodes. The dense neon pinch has been found to be a cigar shaped object, ∼0.3 mm in diameter at the waist and ∼8 mm long on a singe shot. This source wanders slightly from shot to shot in an overall envelope which is ∼0.5--0.75 mm in diameter and ∼8 mm long. The spectrum of x-rays emitted by the pinch has been extensively studied. It has been found that 60% of the total x-ray output is radiated in the H-like and He-like lines centered at 12.9 angstrom and 40% of the output is radiated in the H-like and He-like continuum, centered at 9.8 angstrom. More than 4 x 10 5 discharges using a cooled DPF head have been fired producing x-rays. The variation in the measured x-ray output, over several hundreds of thousands of shots, corresponds to a variation in the dose delivered to a resist 40 cm from the source, of less than 1%. Data showing the measurement of the x-ray output, dose delivered to a resist, spectra of the source output, novel beam line concepts and potential lithographic applications will be presented

  17. Ultra-compact swept-source optical coherence tomography handheld probe with motorized focus adjustment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Keller, Brenton; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2017-02-01

    Handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems facilitate imaging of young children, bedridden subjects, and those with less stable fixation. Smaller and lighter OCT probes allow for more efficient imaging and reduced operator fatigue, which is critical for prolonged use in either the operating room or neonatal intensive care unit. In addition to size and weight, the imaging speed, image quality, field of view, resolution, and focus correction capability are critical parameters that determine the clinical utility of a handheld probe. Here, we describe an ultra-compact swept source (SS) OCT handheld probe weighing only 211 g (half the weight of the next lightest handheld SSOCT probe in the literature) with 20.1 µm lateral resolution, 7 µm axial resolution, 102 dB peak sensitivity, a 27° x 23° field of view, and motorized focus adjustment for refraction correction between -10 to +16 D. A 2D microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner, a converging beam-at-scanner telescope configuration, and an optical design employing 6 different custom optics were used to minimize device size and weight while achieving diffraction limited performance throughout the system's field of view. Custom graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated software was used to provide real-time display of OCT B-scans and volumes. Retinal images were acquired from adult volunteers to demonstrate imaging performance.

  18. Looking Upstream: Findings from Focus Groups on Public Perceptions of Source Water Quality in British Columbia, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Henrich

    Full Text Available In association with the development of new microbial tests for source water quality (SWQ, focus groups with members of the public were conducted to gain insight into their perceptions of SWQ, behaviours and contaminants they think pose the greatest threat to its quality, and what/how they want to know about SWQ. Discussions revealed a low concern about SWQ in general, and in particular about microbial contamination. Participants identified behaviours that threaten SWQ, barriers to changing behaviour and suggestions for inducing change. A strong desire was expressed for water quality information to be interpreted and communicated in terms of how SWQ may impact human health and how their actions should be altered in response to test results. The information can be used to inform communication strategies and possibly impact policies associated with water quality testing and implementation of new tests. More broadly, awareness of the public's understanding and beliefs about source water can be used in working with the public to adopt water-friendly behaviours, influence the content and methods of communicating with the public about water issues and water quality, and could contribute to the direction of future research and investment into water technologies to align with the public's priorities.

  19. Isotopic ratio measurement using a double focusing magnetic sector mass analyser with an inductively coupled plasma as an ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, A.J.; Freedman, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma source was coupled to a magnetic sector mass analyser equipped with seven Faraday detectors. An electrostatic filter located between the plasma source and the magnetic sector was used to create a double focusing system. Isotopic ratio measurements of uranium and lead standards revealed levels of internal and external precision comparable to those obtained using thermal inonization mass spectrometry. An external precision of 0.014% was obtained from the 235 U: 238 U measurement of six samples of a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) U-500, while an RSD of 0.022% was obtained from the 206 Pb: 204 Pb measurement of six samples of NBS SRM Pb-981. Measured isotopic ratios deviated from the NBS value by approximately 0.9% per atomic mass unit. This deviation approximates to a linear function of mass bias and can therefore be corrected for by the analysis of standards. The analysis of NBS SRM Sr-987 revealed superior levels of internal and external precision. The normalization of the 87 Sr: 86 Sr ratio to the 86 Sr: 88 Sr ratio reduced the RSD to approximately 0.008%. The measured ratio was within 0.01% of the NBS value and the day-to-day reproducibility was consistent within one standard deviation. (author)

  20. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance: focus on dietary fat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba ePutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondria play a key role in high fat diet induced insulin resistance. Two opposite views are debated on mechanisms by which mitochondrial function could be involved in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. In one theory, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to cause intramyocellular lipid accumulation leading to insulin resistance. In the second theory, excess fuel within mitochondria in the absence of increased energy demand stimulates mitochondrial oxidant production and emission, ultimately leading to the development of insulin resistance. Noteworthy, mitochondrial bioenergetics is strictly associated with the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology by maintaining the balance between the fusion and fission processes. A shift towards mitochondrial fission with reduction of fusion protein, mainly mitofusin 2, has been associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and inflammation in obesity and insulin resistance development. However, dietary fat source during chronic overfeeding differently affects mitochondrial morphology. Saturated fatty acids induce skeletal muscle insulin resistance and inflammation associated with fission phenotype, whereas ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and inflammation, associated with a shift toward mitochondrial fusion phenotype. The present minireview focuses on mitochondrial bioenergetics and morphology in skeletal muscle insulin resistance, with particular attention to the effect of different dietary fat sources on skeletal muscle mitochondria morphology and fusion/fission balance.

  1. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental protein source on ADG, feed intake, calf birth BW, and subsequent pregnancy rate in pregnant beef heifers. Crossbred, Angus-based, AI-pregnant heifers (yr 1, n = 38; yr 2, n = 40; and yr 3, n = 36) were stratified by BW (450 ± 10 kg) and placed in a Calan Broadbent individual feeding system at approximately d 142 of gestation. Following a 25-d adaptation period, an 84-d feeding trial was conducted. Heifers were offered ad libitum grass hay (8 to 11% CP, DM basis) and no supplement (CON), 0.83 kg/d distillers-based supplement (HI), or 0.83 kg/d dried corn gluten-based supplement (LO). Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous (28% CP, DM basis), and equal in lipid content but differed in RUP, with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). Dry matter intake was also calculated based on feed NE values to account for different energy levels of the supplement compared with the control diet. Control heifers tended (P = 0.09) to consume less total DM than either supplement treatment. However, forage-only DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for CON heifers (9.94 ± 0.12 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (8.50 and 8.34 ± 0.12 kg, respectively). Net energy DMI was less (P < 0.01) for CON heifers (4.98 ± 0.23 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (5.43 and 5.35 ± 0.23 kg, respectively). Control heifers gained less (P < 0.01; 0.59 ± 0.14 kg/d) than either HI (0.82 ± 0.14 kg/d) or LO heifers (0.78 ± 0.14 kg/d), resulting in lower (501 ± 9 kg) BW (P < 0.01) than HI (519 ± 9 kg) heifers at the end of the feeding period. Calf birth BW was similar (P = 0.99) among treatments. At prebreeding, CON heifers weighed less (P < 0.03) than LO heifers. Cow BW was similar (P = 0.48) among treatments at pregnancy diagnosis, and final pregnancy rate was also similar (87%; P = 0.22). Protein supplementation increased ADG in pregnant heifers; however, calf birth BW and subsequent pregnancy

  2. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on II. Progeny performance and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Blair, A D; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study using primiparous crossbred beef heifers (n = 114) was conducted to determine the effects of protein supplement during late gestation on progeny performance and carcass characteristics. Pregnant heifers were stratified by heifer development system, initial BW, and AI service sire and placed in an individual feeding system. Heifers were offered meadow hay (8 to 11% CP) from early November to mid-February and provided no supplement (CON; n = 37), 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried distillers grains with solubles-based supplement (HI; n = 39), or 0.83 kg/d (DM basis) of a dried corn gluten feed-based supplement (LO; n = 38). Supplements were designed to be isonitrogenous (28% CP) and isocaloric but to differ in RUP with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). After the individual feeding period, heifers were placed in a drylot for calving. All heifers were bred using a fixed-timed AI protocol and pairs were moved to a commercial ranch in the Nebraska Sandhills for summer grazing. Calf weaning BW did not differ (P = 0.14) based on maternal diet. However, feedlot entry BW was greater (P = 0.03) for HI compared with CON calves. Average daily gain during the initial feedlot phase tended (P = 0.10) to be greatest for calves born to CON dams and lowest for calves born to LO dams. However, overall ADG was similar (P = 0.50) for the entire feedlot period. Residual feed intake during the reimplant and total feeding period was improved in calves born to supplemented dams in yr 2 and 3 compared with calves born to CON dams. There was no difference in final BW among treatments (P = 0.71). Hot carcass weight was similar (P = 0.72) among treatments; however, steers had greater (P RUP supplements, similar to those used in this study, to primiparous heifers in late gestation consuming ad libitum grass hay resulted in increased initial feedlot BW for HI compared to CON calves, improved feed efficiency, and altered carcass characteristics in calves born

  3. Constraining the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) Bonin deep-focus earthquake using seismogram envelopes of high-frequency P waveforms: Occurrence of deep-focus earthquake at the bottom of a subducting slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the source location of the 30 May 2015 (Mw 7.9) deep-focus Bonin earthquake was constrained using P wave seismograms recorded across Japan. We focus on propagation characteristics of high-frequency P wave. Deep-focus intraslab earthquakes typically show spindle-shaped seismogram envelopes with peak delays of several seconds and subsequent long-duration coda waves; however, both the main shock and aftershock of the 2015 Bonin event exhibited pulse-like P wave propagations with high apparent velocities (~12.2 km/s). Such P wave propagation features were reproduced by finite-difference method simulations of seismic wave propagation in the case of slab-bottom source. The pulse-like P wave seismogram envelopes observed from the 2015 Bonin earthquake show that its source was located at the bottom of the Pacific slab at a depth of ~680 km, rather than within its middle or upper regions.

  4. 78 FR 63216 - Announcing the Award of Four Single-Source Expansion Supplement Grants Under the Tribal Maternal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...,000 Indians. The program expansion supplement awards will support expanded services to identify and... plans to improve outcomes, continue the implementation of and expand the development of concrete...)(2)(A) of Title V of the Social Security Act, as added by Section 2951 of the Patient Protection and...

  5. Effects of Different Level and Source of Sulfur Supplement in Close-up diets of Dairy Cows on Blood Metabolites, Colostrums Composition and Liver Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Manidari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24 maltiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated in a completely randomized design to study the effects of different level and source of sulfur supplement in close-up diets on blood metabolites, colostrums composition and liver performance. The mean body weight of the cows was 687.9 kg and the mean days until expected calving date was 21.8 d. The first treatment (T1 has contained 0.21% sulfur (DM basis, the second treatment (T2 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied entirely through magnesium sulfate and the third treatment (T3 has contained 0.41% sulfur which supplied through a combination of magnesium sulfate and an organic source of sulfur (Mepran. The DMI for pre-calving (P < 0.001 was affected by treatments and T2 showed the lowest DMI among treatments. Colostrums yield, protein, DM and ash significantly decreased in inorganic sulfur supplemented treatment (P < 0.05. Among the blood metabolites, calcium, copper and glucose were decreased in T2 compared with two other treatments (P < 0.05. However, BHBA, NEFA and urea were increased in T2 (P < 0.05. Urine pH was affected with different treatments (P < 0.0001. The both liver enzymes (i.e. AST and CPK were increased supplementing inorganic sulfur showing that inorganic sulfur has potential to decrease liver performance in dairy cows. The results of the present study indicate that although magnesium sulfate (inorganic source has negative effect on dairy cow health and performance, a combination of magnesium sulfate and organic source of sulfur could have positive effects on dry matter intake, blood metabolites and liver health in dairy cows.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with an organic source of selenium on characteristics of semen quality and in vitro fertility in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speight, S M; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F; Crawford, R J; Knight, J W; Whitaker, B D

    2012-03-01

    Semen characteristics in boars fed organic or inorganic sources of Se were assessed in 3 experiments. Crossbred boars were randomly assigned at weaning to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: I) basal diets with no supplemental Se (control), II) basal diets with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from an organic source (Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY), and III) basal diets supplemented with 0.3 mg/kg of supplemental Se from sodium selenite (Premium Selenium 270, North American Nutrition Co. Inc., Lewisburg, OH). For Exp. 1, semen was collected from boars (n = 10/dietary treatment) on 5 consecutive days at 15 mo of age. Effects of treatment × day were detected for the proportions of progressively motile (P = 0.02) and rapidly moving (P = 0.03) spermatozoa, and measures of sperm velocity, including path velocity of the smoothed cell path (P = 0.05) and average velocity measured in a straight line from the beginning to the end of the track (P = 0.05). Negative effects of day of semen collection on sperm motility were least pronounced in boars fed Sel-Plex. Experiment 2 was conducted when boars were 17 mo of age, and semen was collected (n = 10 boars/dietary treatment), diluted in commercially available extenders, and stored at 18°C for 9 d. Effects of treatment × day were detected for percentages of motile (P = 0.01) and static (P = 0.01) spermatozoa, amplitude of lateral head displacement (P = 0.02), frequency with which the sperm track crossed the sperm path (P = 0.04), straightness (P = 0.01), and average size of all sperm heads (P = 0.03). In general, sperm cells from boars fed Sel-Plex were better able to maintain motility during liquid storage compared with boars fed sodium selenite. For Exp. 3, semen was collected from boars (n = 6/dietary treatment) at 23 mo of age, and spermatozoa were evaluated at d 1 and 8 after semen collection using in vitro fertilization procedures. There was a tendency for an effect (P = 0.11) of dietary treatment on fertilization rate

  7. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  8. Effects of Supplemental Chromium Source and Concentration on Growth, Carcass Characteristics, and Serum Lipid Parameters of Broilers Reared Under Normal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cancai; Huang, Yanling; Xiao, Fang; Lin, Xi; Lloyd, Karen

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chromium (Cr) source and concentration on growth performance, carcass traits, and some serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions for 42 days. A total of 252 1-day-old Cobb 500 commercial female broilers were randomly allotted by body weight (BW) to one of six replicate cages (six broilers per cage) for each of seven treatments in a completely randomized design involved in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three Cr sources (Cr propionate (CrPro), Cr picolinate (CrPic), Cr chloride (CrCl3)) and two concentrations of added Cr (0.4 and 2.0 mg of Cr/kg) plus a Cr-unsupplemented control diet. The results showed that dietary Cr supplementation tended to increase the breast muscle percentage compared with the Cr-unsupplemented control group (P = 0.0784), while Cr from CrPic tended to have higher breast muscle percentage compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0881). Chromium from CrPic also tended to increase the breast intramuscular fat (IMF) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0648). In addition, supplementation of 0.4 mg/kg Cr tended to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.0614). Compared with the control group, broilers fed Cr-supplemented diets had higher triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.0129) regardless of Cr source and Cr concentration. Chromium from CrPro and CrPic had lower total cholesterol (TC) compared with Cr from CrCl3 (P = 0.0220). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of Cr has effects on carcass characteristics and serum lipid parameters of broilers under normal rearing conditions, while supplementation of organic Cr can improve carcass characteristics and reduce the cholesterol content in serum.

  9. Soft X-ray focusing Telescope aboard AstroSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...

  10. Laminaria digitata as potential carbon source in heterotrophic microalgae cultivation for the production of fish feed supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    A novel concept using the macroalgae Laminaria digitata as substrate to grow heterotrophically microalgae species to be used as fish feed supplement is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the macroalgae was performed to release the sugars present in the biomass. The hydroly......A novel concept using the macroalgae Laminaria digitata as substrate to grow heterotrophically microalgae species to be used as fish feed supplement is investigated in the present study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the macroalgae was performed to release the sugars present in the biomass...... was selected for further cultivation in batch reactors and its protein content and amino acid composition were measured. At the end of the process the biomass production reached 10.68 ± 1.33 g L− 1with a total protein accumulation of 41.77 ± 1.82% (dry weight basis) and a protein yield of 0.17 ± 0.06. Moreover...

  11. Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation Parameters, and Production Performance in Response to Dietary Grain Source and Oil Supplement of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Kargar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High-producing dairy cows require large amounts of concentrates that are rich in energy and crude protein to meet their nutrient requirements. Cereal grains and oil supplements are commonly used for increasing energy density of diets fed to high-producing dairy cows. Dietary grain source (barley vs. corn and oil supplement (soybean- vs. fish oil resulted in varied dry matter intake and milk production responses in different research studies based on effects on nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation characteristics. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effects of, and interactions between, grain source and oil supplement on the feed intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility and lactational performance of Holstein cows. Materials and Methods Eight lactating multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3.3 ± 1.3 and days in milk = 77 ± 22.1; mean ± SD, were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 25-d periods. Each experimental period consisted of an 18-d diet adaptation period and a 7-d collection period. Cows within a square were assigned randomly to dietary treatments. Cows were blocked into 2 squares of 4 cows each based upon milk production, and days in milk, and within blocks were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental diets with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 1 BF = barley-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, 2 BS = barley-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM, 3 CF = corn-based diet supplemented with fish oil at 2% of dietary DM, and 4 CS = corn-based diet supplemented with soybean oil at 2% of dietary DM. The TMR amounts offered and refused were measured daily for each cow and DMI determined daily for each cow. Cows were milked three times daily at 0200, 1000, and 1800 h in a herringbone milking parlor. Milk yield for all cows was recorded and sampled at each milking during the last 7 d of each period. Milk samples were

  12. Compilation of air-pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary point and area sources. Fourth edition. Supplement D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, W.M.

    1991-09-01

    In the Supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42, new or revised emissions data are presented for Natural Gas Combustion; Residential Fireplaces, Residential Wood Stoves; Refuse Combustion; Nonindustrial Surface Coating; Waste Water Collection, Treatment and Storage; Polyvinyl Chloride and Polypropylene; Poly(ethylene terephthalate); Polystyrene; Ammonium Phosphates; Portland Cement Manufacturing; Sand and Gravel Processing; Western Surface Coal Mining; Wildfires and Prescribed Burning; Wet Cooling Towers and Industrial Flares

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyun Yoon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4 as an alternative phosphorus (P source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP, dicalcium phosphate (DCP and tricalcium phosphate [TCP] as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE significantly higher (p0.05 among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05 from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05 than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish.

  14. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Chichilichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  15. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichilichi, Biswal; Mohanty, G P; Mishra, S K; Pradhan, C R; Behura, N C; Das, A; Behera, K

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38(th) day of age. At 42(nd) day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  16. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement) and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena Anna; Peroni, Gabriella; Moncaglieri, Francesca; Infantino, Vittoria; Naso, Maurizio; Perna, Simone

    2015-09-25

    Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1) the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment); and (2) the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition); increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil), olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols) or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  17. Focus on Pivotal Role of Dietary Intake (Diet and Supplement and Blood Levels of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Obtaining Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specific age-related morbidities have been correlated with low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. We performed a review in order to evaluate the extant evidence regarding: (1 the association between intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols and age-related pathologies (osteoporosis, sarcopenia and cognitive impairment; and (2 the optimum diet therapy or supplementation with tocopherols and tocotrienols for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 51 eligible studies. The recent literature underlines that, given the detrimental effect of low intake and serum levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols on bone, muscle mass, and cognitive function, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the prevention of these specific age-related pathologies related to vitamin E-deficient status. The optimum diet therapy in the elderly for avoiding vitamin E deficiency and its negative correlates, such as high inflammation and oxidation, must aim at achieving specific nutritional goals. These goals must be reached through: accession of the elderly subjects to specific personalized dietary programs aimed at achieving and/or maintaining body weight (avoid malnutrition; increase their intake of food rich in vitamin E, such as derivatives of oily seeds (in particular wheat germ oil, olive oil, hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and cereals rich in vitamin E (such as specific rice cultivar rich in tocotrienols or take vitamin E supplements. In this case, vitamin E can be correctly used in a personalized way either for the outcome from the pathology or to achieve healthy aging and longevity without any adverse effects.

  18. 77 FR 65195 - Announcement of the Award of Four Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grants To Support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... for Children and Families, Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of award of four single-source... Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start, announces the award of single-source program... systems and improved outcomes for young children and families including strategies to support parent...

  19. A Value Focused Thinking Model for the Development and Selection of Electrical Energy Source Alternatives at Military Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schanding, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    .... This thesis presents a Value Focused Thinking approach to the development of a decision analysis model to assist a decision maker at a military installation in the generation and selection of back...

  20. Source parameter inversion for wave energy focusing to a target inclusion embedded in a three-dimensional heterogeneous halfspace

    KAUST Repository

    Karve, Pranav M.

    2016-12-28

    We discuss a methodology for computing the optimal spatio-temporal characteristics of surface wave sources necessary for delivering wave energy to a targeted subsurface formation. The wave stimulation is applied to the target formation to enhance the mobility of particles trapped in its pore space. We formulate the associated wave propagation problem for three-dimensional, heterogeneous, semi-infinite, elastic media. We use hybrid perfectly matched layers at the truncation boundaries of the computational domain to mimic the semi-infiniteness of the physical domain of interest. To recover the source parameters, we define an inverse source problem using the mathematical framework of constrained optimization and resolve it by employing a reduced-space approach. We report the results of our numerical experiments attesting to the methodology\\'s ability to specify the spatio-temporal description of sources that maximize wave energy delivery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Source parameter inversion for wave energy focusing to a target inclusion embedded in a three-dimensional heterogeneous halfspace

    KAUST Repository

    Karve, Pranav M.; Fathi, Arash; Poursartip, Babak; Kallivokas, Loukas F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a methodology for computing the optimal spatio-temporal characteristics of surface wave sources necessary for delivering wave energy to a targeted subsurface formation. The wave stimulation is applied to the target formation to enhance

  2. The impact of customer focus on program participation rates in the Virginia WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, K G; Green, C G

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown in the for-profit sector (business, service, and manufacturing) that the success of an organization depends on its ability to satisfy customer requirements while eliminating waste and reducing costs. The purpose of this article was to examine the impact of current practices in customer focus on program participation rates in the Virginia WIC Program. The results of this study showed that the use of customer-focused strategies was correlated to program participation rates in the WIC Program. The mean data showed that teamwork and accessibility were at unsatisfactory levels in Virginia.

  3. Investigations on the effect of forage source, grinding, and urea supplementation on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein flow in a semi-continuous rumen simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Bastian; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of maize silage and grass silage on microbial fermentation and protein flow in a semi-continuous rumen simulation system (Rusitec) when milling screen size (MSS) during grinding was varied. Oven-dried silages were milled through screens of 1, 4 or 9 mm pore size and incubated for 48 h in a Rusitec system. Furthermore, the effect of N supplementation to maize silage (MSS: 4 mm) was investigated and single dose vs. continuous infusion of urea-N were compared. Degradation of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), fibre fractions and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) as well as short-chain fatty acid production differed significantly between forage sources. Urea-N supplementation improved the degradation of NSC, but not that of fibre fractions in maize silage. The way of urea supply had only marginal effects on fermentation characteristics. An increase in MSS, and consequently in mean feed particle size, led to an improvement in the degradation of OM, CP and NSC, but efficiency of microbial net protein synthesis (EMPS; mg microbial N flow/g degraded OM) and the microbial amino acid profile were less affected. EMPS was higher in grass silage than in maize silage and was improved by urea-N supplementation in maize silage. This study indicates that fermentation of NSC as well as EMPS during incubation of maize silage was limited by availability of NH3-N. Furthermore, an increase in MSS above 1 mm seems to improve fermentation of silages in the Rusitec system.

  4. Effect of Supplementation Purslane (Portulaca oleracea as a Source of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Production Performance and Physical Quality of Egg of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Kartikasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion plant source of n 3 fat in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3 on the diets of layers on production performance and physical quality of eggs. A total of  125 Hy-Line Brown hens (38 weeks old were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for five weeks following a seven day adaptation period. Water and feed were provided ad libitum. Feed intake (FI measured weekly and feed consumption ratio (FCR was calculated at the end of the trial. A total of 25 egg yolk samples of day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment were collected to analyse physical quality of eggs. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analyzed using Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Results showed that the incorporation of plants rich in ALA did not modify FI, FCR, and egg production. Supplementation of purslane meal in the diets had no effect on physical quality of eggs, including egg weight, yolk weight, albumen index, yolk index and Haugh Unit (HU. The average of egg weight and yolk weight were 60,5 and 15.3 g, respectively. Diet containing purslane meal increased yolk colour. In conclusion, laying hens that fed diet supplemented with purslane meal rich in ALA improved yolk colour and did not change the production performance of the laying hens or the qualities of the eggs.

  5. Interactions between barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on nitrogen metabolism and urea-nitrogen recycling in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Hobin, M R; Mutsvangwa, T

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (656.3 +/- 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 +/- 12.3 d in milk) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods and a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Experimental diets contained dry-rolled barley or pelleted barley in combination with whole canola or whole flaxseed as supplemental fat sources. Nitrogen balance was measured from d 15 to 19, with concurrent measurements of urea-N kinetics using continuous intrajugular infusions of [15N 15N]-urea. Dry matter intake and N intake were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Nitrogen retention was not affected by diet, but fecal N excretion was higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in those fed pelleted barley. Actual and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by diet. Milk fat content and milk fat yield were higher in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. Source of supplemental fat did not affect urea-N kinetics. Urea-N production was higher (442.2 vs. 334.3 g of N/d), and urea-N entering the GIT tended to be higher (272.9 vs. 202.0 g of N/d), in cows fed dry-rolled barley compared with those fed pelleted barley. The amount of urea-N entry into the GIT that was returned to the ornithine cycle was higher (204.1 vs. 159.5 g of N/d) in cows fed dry-rolled barley than in pelleted barley-fed cows. The amount of urea-N recycled to the GIT and used for anabolic purposes, and the amounts lost in the urine or feces were not affected by dietary treatment. Microbial nonammonia N supply, estimated using total urinary excretion of purine derivatives, was not affected by diet. These results show that even though barley grain processing altered urea

  6. Students' and teachers' focus of attention in classroom interaction — subtle sources for the reproduction of social disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Anna-Marietha; Prediger, Susanne; Quasthoff, Uta; Heller, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics classroom interaction has often been described as an important context for involving all students. However, this article shows that teacher-student-interaction is still not really in the focus of teachers' attention. Based on classroom video studies, some authors hypothesize that the implicitness of establishing norms and practices is, among others, an obstacle for students with low socio-economic status. The article intends to put this hypothesis into perspective by investigating teachers' and students' focus of attention on classroom interaction in video-stimulated group discussions (six discussions with 5-6 students, four discussions with 5-9 teachers). The data analysis used inductive procedures of category development, frequency analysis, and deeper qualitative analysis of the transcripts. For students' focus of attention, differential patterns could be extrapolated: Whereas students of high socio-economic status seem to be more attentive to teacher's contextual expectations, the students of low socio-economic status seem to be more focused on general norms without taking into account contextual expectations. For the teachers, the analysis shows that interactive mechanisms of teacher-student exchanges in classrooms are usually not in the teachers' focus of attention. Additionally, the teachers address, but rarely problematize the implicitness by which norms and practices are established. Together with the differential findings on students' attention, these findings are discussed with respect to equity concerns and consequences for professional development of teachers.

  7. Effects of marketing group and production focus on quality and variability of adipose tissue and bellies sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives were to determine the effects of marketing group on quality and variability of belly and adipose tissue quality traits of pigs sourced from differing production focuses (lean vs. quality). Pigs (N = 8,042) raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) were used. Three groups wer...

  8. Development of X-ray photoelectron microscope with a compact X-ray source generated by line-focused laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Takahashi, Z.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Okamoto, Y.; Sakata, A.; Azuma, H.; Hara, T.

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-sized X-ray photoelectron microscope was constructed using a compact X-ray source produced by line-focused laser irradiation. The system is a scanning type photoelectron microscope where X-ray beam is micro-focused via Schwarzschild optics. A compact laser-plasma X-ray source has been developed with a YAG laser, a line-focus lens assembly, an Al tape-target driver and a debris prevention system. The 13.1 nm X-ray was delivered along line plasma whose length was 0.6 or 11 mm with higher intensity than that from a point-focused source. The Schwarzschild optics having the designed demagnification of 224, which was coated with Mo/Si multilayers for 13.1 nm X-ray, was set on the beamline 1 m distant from the source. The electron energy analyser was a spherical capacitor analyser with the photoelectron image detection system that was suited for detection of vast photoelectrons excited by an X-ray pulse of ns-order duration. The spatial resolution less than 5 μm has been confirmed from the variation of As 3d electron intensity along the position of the GaAs sample coated with a photo-resist test pattern

  9. Production of succinic acid from sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of corn steep liquor powder and peanut meal as nitrogen sources by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, N; Qin, Y; Wang, Q; Liao, S; Zhu, J; Zhu, Q; Mi, H; Adhikari, B; Wei, Y; Huang, R

    2015-06-01

    The potential of using corn steep liquor powder (CSLP), peanut meal (PM), soybean meal (SM), cotton meal (CM) and urea as the substitute of yeast extract (YE) as the nitrogen source was investigated for producing succinic acid (SA). Actinobacillus succinogenes GXAS137 was used as the fermenting bacterium and sugarcane molasses was used as the main substrate. None of these materials were able to produce SA as high as YE did. The CSLP could still be considered as a feasible and inexpensive alternate for YE as the yield of SA produced using CSLP was second only to the yield of SA obtained by YE. The use of CSLP-PM mixed formulation (CSLP to PM ratio = 2·6) as nitrogen source produced SA up to 59·2 g l(-1) with a productivity of 1·2 g l(-1) h(-1). A batch fermentation using a stirred bioreactor produced up to 60·7 g l(-1) of SA at the same formulation. Fed-batch fermentation that minimized the substrate inhibition produced 64·7 g l(-1) SA. These results suggest that sugarcane molasses supplemented with a mixture of CSLP and PM as the nitrogen source could be used to produce SA more economically using A. succinogenes. Significance and impact of the study: Succinic acid (SA) is commonly used as a platform chemical to produce a number of high value derivatives. Yeast extract (YE) is used as a nitrogen source to produce SA. The high cost of YE is currently the limiting factor for industrial production of SA. This study reports the use of a mixture of corn steep liquor powder (CSLP) and peanut meal (PM) as an inexpensive nitrogen source to substitute YE. The results showed that this CSLP-PM mixed formulation can be used as an effective and economic nitrogen source for the production of SA. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Inspection of radiation sources and regulatory enforcement (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depends on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for carrying out regulatory inspections, and taking necessary enforcement actions. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the processes for carrying out regulatory inspections and taking enforcement actions. It includes information on the development and use of procedures and standard review plans (i.e. checklists) for inspection. Specific procedures for inspection of radiation practices and sources are provided in the Appendices

  11. Inspection of radiation sources and regulatory enforcement (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depends on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for carrying out regulatory inspections, and taking necessary enforcement actions. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the processes for carrying out regulatory inspections and taking enforcement actions. It includes information on the development and use of procedures and standard review plans (i.e. checklists) for inspection. Specific procedures for inspection of radiation practices and sources are provided in the Appendices

  12. Optimal allocation of energy sources for sustainable development in South Korea: Focus on the electric power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joongha; Woo, JongRoul; Lee, Jongsu

    2015-01-01

    National energy planning has become increasingly complex owing to a pressing need to incorporate sustainability considerations. In this context, we applied least-cost and cost-risk optimization models to allocate energy sources for sustainable development in the Korean electric power generation industry. The least-cost model determined an electricity generation mix from 2012 to 2030 that incurs minimum generation cost to meet electricity demand. The cost-risk model determined electricity generation mixes in 2030 considering the risks associated with each energy source in order to lessen external risks. In deriving these optimal electricity generation mixes, we considered both conventional and renewable energy sources in conjunction with physical and policy constraints that realistically reflect Korean circumstances. Moreover, we accounted for CO 2 and external costs within the electricity generation costs for each energy source. For sustainable development in Korea, we conclude that a portion of the coal and gas in the electricity generation mix must be substituted with nuclear and renewable energy. Furthermore, we found that least-cost allocation is sub-optimal from cost-risk perspective and that it limits the adoption of renewables. Finally, we also discuss the implications of decisions taken by the Korean government regarding the electricity generation mix for next-generation energy planning to achieve sustainability. - Highlights: • Optimal least-cost/cost-risk energy mix for sustainable development in Korea. • We account for CO 2 and external costs of generation from each energy source. • Externalities and physical/policy constraints in Korea produce realistic energy mix. • Nuclear and renewables should replace coal and gas for sustainability in Korea. • Least-cost approach limits uptake of renewables and produces high-risk energy mix

  13. Composition of α-tocopherol and fatty acids in porcine tissues after dietary supplementation with vitamin E and different fat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    in transfer of α-tocopherol, and oxidation and metabolism of fatty acids. From day 28 to 56 of age, pigs were provided 5% of tallow, fish oil or sunflower oil and 85, 150, or 300 mg/kg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate. Samples of liver, heart, and adipose tissue were obtained from littermates at day 56. Tissue...... fatty acid composition was highly influenced by dietary fat sources. Dietary fatty acid composition (Pfish oil...... lower in pigs fed fish oil compared to other treatments, whereas the fatty acid oxidation, as indicated by the expression of PPAR-α, was higher when sunflower and fish oil was provided (P=0.03). Expression of α-TTP in liver was higher in pigs fed fish oil (P=0.01). Vitamin E supplementation did...

  14. Self-magnetically-insulated 'plasma-focus diode' as a new source of an intence pulsed light-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akira; Aga, Keigo; Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Michiaki; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    1986-01-01

    A new and simple type of self-magnetically-insulated diode named ''Plasma-Focus Diode'' has been successfully developed, where anode and cathode are constituted by a pair of coaxial cylindrical electrodes similarly to a Mather-type plasma-focus device. Operating conditions are typically as follows: inductively-calibrated diode voltage ∼ 660 kV, diode current ∼ 142 kA, total ion current ∼ 32 kA, pulse width ∼ 90 ns and diode efficiency ∼ 22 %. Multiple-shots operation more than 50 shots has been possible without changing flashboard. Local divergence angle has been observed to be 0.9 deg ∼ 1.6 deg. Using such a simple ion diode, we have demonstrated a possibility of high concentration of beam-power density onto a target placed at the center. (author)

  15. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  16. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-01-01

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Group at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; (c) Development of elliptic beam theory; and (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX)

  17. Far-field self-focusing and -defocusing radiation behaviors of the electroluminescent light sources due to negative refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yu-Feng; Lin, Yen-Chen; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Shen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Jianjang

    2013-01-15

    In recent years, researchers have demonstrated negative refraction theoretically and experimentally by pumping optical power into photonic crystal (PhC) or waveguide structures. The concept of negative refraction can be used to create a perfect lens that focuses an object smaller than the wavelength. By inserting two-dimensional PhCs into the peripheral of a semiconductor light emitting structure, this study presents an electroluminescent device with negative refraction in the visible wavelength range. This approach produces polarization dependent collimation behavior in far-field radiation patterns. The modal dispersion of negative refraction results in strong group velocity modulation, and self-focusing and -defocusing behaviors are apparent from light extraction. This study further verifies experimental results by using theoretic calculations based on equifrequency contours.

  18. Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Busold

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 10^{9} particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤30  mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.

  19. Focusing and transport of high-intensity multi-MeV proton bunches from a compact laser-driven source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Frydrych, S.; Kroll, F.; Joost, M.; Al-Omari, H.; Blažević, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Hofmann, I.; Bagnoud, V.; Cowan, T. E.; Roth, M.

    2013-10-01

    Laser ion acceleration provides for compact, high-intensity ion sources in the multi-MeV range. Using a pulsed high-field solenoid, for the first time high-intensity laser-accelerated proton bunches could be selected from the continuous exponential spectrum and delivered to large distances, containing more than 109 particles in a narrow energy interval around a central energy of 9.4 MeV and showing ≤30mrad envelope divergence. The bunches of only a few nanoseconds bunch duration were characterized 2.2 m behind the laser-plasma source with respect to arrival time, energy width, and intensity as well as spatial and temporal bunch profile.

  20. Effects of gas chamber geometry and gas flow on the neutron production in a fast plasma focus neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    This work reports that gas chamber geometry and gas flow management substantially affect the neutron production of a repetitive fast plasma focus. The gas flow rate is the most sensitive parameter. An appropriate design of the gas chamber combined with a suitable flow-rate management can lead to improvements in the neutron production of one order of magnitude working in a fast repetitive mode. (paper)

  1. Microplastics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment: sources (with a specific focus on personal care products), fate and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Karen; Coors, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Due to the widespread use and durability of synthetic polymers, plastic debris occurs in the environment worldwide. In the present work, information on sources and fate of microplastic particles in the aquatic and terrestrial environment, and on their uptake and effects, mainly in aquatic organisms, is reviewed. Microplastics in the environment originate from a variety of sources. Quantitative information on the relevance of these sources is generally lacking, but first estimates indicate that abrasion and fragmentation of larger plastic items and materials containing synthetic polymers are likely to be most relevant. Microplastics are ingested and, mostly, excreted rapidly by numerous aquatic organisms. So far, there is no clear evidence of bioaccumulation or biomagnification. In laboratory studies, the ingestion of large amounts of microplastics mainly led to a lower food uptake and, consequently, reduced energy reserves and effects on other physiological functions. Based on the evaluated data, the lowest microplastic concentrations affecting marine organisms exposed via water are much higher than levels measured in marine water. In lugworms exposed via sediment, effects were observed at microplastic levels that were higher than those in subtidal sediments but in the same range as maximum levels in beach sediments. Hydrophobic contaminants are enriched on microplastics, but the available experimental results and modelling approaches indicate that the transfer of sorbed pollutants by microplastics is not likely to contribute significantly to bioaccumulation of these pollutants. Prior to being able to comprehensively assess possible environmental risks caused by microplastics a number of knowledge gaps need to be filled. However, in view of the persistence of microplastics in the environment, the high concentrations measured at some environmental sites and the prospective of strongly increasing concentrations, the release of plastics into the environment should be

  2. Large Industrial Point Sources in Italy: a focus on mercury concentrations resulting from three seasonal ship-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencardino M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy there are 25 Large Industrial Point Sources whose mercury emissions in air exceed the established threshold of 10 kg year−1. Many of these mercury point sources, mostly distributed along the Italian coastal area, are located at sites qualified as National Interest Rehabilitation Sites because of documented contamination in qualitative and/or quantitative terms and of potential health impact. Atmospheric mercury emissions related to Italian Large Industrial Point Sources, with a value of 1.04 Mg·yr−1 for 2007, have a not negligible contribution, accounting, on their own, for more than 10% of the total mercury emissions resulting from all activity sectors at a national level. Among others, thermal power stations, pig iron and steel as well as basic inorganic chemical production, result to be the main contributing industrial activities. In order to assess how mercury species concentrations and distribution in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL change with vicinity to large industrial sites, measurements of atmospheric mercury were performed during three oceanographic campaigns aboard the Research Vessel (R.V. Urania of the Italian CNR. Collection of GEM, GOM and PBM was conducted across the Adriatic sea, during autumn 2004 (27th of October to 12th of November and summer 2005 (17th to 29th of June, and across the Tyrrhenian sea during autumn 2007 (12th of September to 1st October. Analysis were carried out with reference to the period in which the R.V. Urania has stopped close to the main Italian industrial contaminated sites. Explorative statistical parameters of atmospheric mercury species were computed over each single stop-period and then compared with the overall cruise campaign measurements. Results are herein presented and discussed.

  3. Sources of SOA gaseous precursors in contrasted urban environments: a focus on mono-aromatic compounds and intermediate volatility compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese; Borbon, Agnès; Ait-Helal, Warda; Afif, Charbel; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Bonneau, Stéphane; Sanchez, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Among Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), the mono-aromatic compounds so-called BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) and the intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOC) with C>12 are two remarkable chemical families having high impact on health, as well as on the production of secondary pollutants like secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and ozone. However, the nature and relative importance of their sources and, consequently, their impact on SOA formation at urban scale is still under debate. On the one hand, BTEX observations in urban areas of northern mid-latitudes do not reconcile with emission inventories; the latter pointing to solvent use as the dominant source compared to traffic. Moreover, a recent study by Borbon et al. (2013) has shown an enrichment in the C7-C9 aromatic fraction in Paris atmosphere by a factor of 3 compared to other cities. Causes would be: (i) differences in gasoline composition, (ii) differences in vehicle fleet composition, and (iii) differences in solvent use related sources. On the other hand, many smog chamber studies have highlighted IVOCs as important SOA precursors over the last decade but their origin and importance in urban areas relative to other precursors like BTEX is still poorly addressed. Here we combined large VOC datasets to investigate sources of BTEX and IVOC in contrasted urban areas by source-receptor approaches and laboratory experiments. Ambient data include multi-site speciated ambient measurements of C2 to C17 VOCs (traffic, urban background, and tunnel) from air quality networks (ie. AIRPARIF in Paris) and intensive field campaigns (MEGAPOLI-Paris, TRANSEMED in Beirut and Istanbul, PHOTOPAQ in Brussels). Preliminary results for Paris suggest that traffic dominates BTEX concentrations while traffic and domestic heating for IVOC (>70%). In parallel, the detailed composition of the fuel liquid phase was determined at the laboratory for typical fuels distributed in Ile de France region (diesel, SP95

  4. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  5. Linking the open source, spatial electrification tool (ONSSET) and the open source energy modelling system (OSeMOSYS), with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Arderne, Christopher; Siyal, Shahid; Zepeda, Eduardo; Taliotis, Constantinos; Bazilian, Morgan; de Roo, Ad; Tanvez, Yann; Oudalov, Alexandre; Scholtz, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. "Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030" is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank's 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of world population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach coupled with open access data and linked to the Electricity Model Base for Africa (TEMBA), a model that represents each continental African country's electricity supply system. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.

  6. Effect of dietary Astaxanthin sources supplementation on muscle pigmentation and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Saroglia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is one of the major carotenoids in aquatic animals including salmonid fishes and is the preferred pigments added to salmon feed. It’s also a powerful antioxidant compared to other carotenoids and that may confer numerous health benefits. The aim of the present experi- ment was to investigate the effect of Astaxanthin deposition on the lipids peroxidation by studying the Malondialdeide (MDA level in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The Astaxanthin concentrations in fish fed with a commercial sources as Lucantin®Pink (BASF Ludwigshafen, Ger- many reached values to 5.76±0.18x10-3 mg/g after 50 days feeding, while the MDA concentration de- creased from 1.56x103 to 0.45x103 ng/g. The correlation between MDA and Astaxanthin concentrations decreased linearly and confirmed the antioxidant properties of the pigment by reducing the lipids peroxidation.

  7. Studies for the development of a micro-focus monochromatic x-ray source with making use of a highly charged heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yoshiyasu, Nobuo; Nakayama, Ryo; Watanabe, Hirofumi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for a micro-focus monochromatic X-ray source using a focused highly charged ion beam colliding with a solid surface. When highly charged ion approaches a surface, many electrons are captured into the ion and the so-called hollow atom is produced. The hollow atom will decay by emitting X-rays before and after hitting the surface. Such X-rays do not contain any contribution from bremsstrahlung, so that monochromatic X-rays can be obtained by using proper filters. For the first step of realizing the proposed scheme, an ion focusing system with a glass capillary has been developed. In order to study the monochromaticity of the emission, X-ray spectra from hollow atoms produced in the collisions between highly charged heavy ions and several surfaces have been observed. (author)

  8. Ten years of surveillance of the Yulong plague focus in China and the molecular typing and source tracing of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Shi, Liyuan; Zhang, Fuxin; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhikai; Tan, Hongli; Cui, Zhigang; Ding, Yibo; Liang, Ying; Liang, Yun; Yu, Dongzheng; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Wei; Song, Zhizhong

    2018-03-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, was classified as a reemerging infectious disease by the World Health Organization. The five human pneumonic plague cases in Yulong County in 2005 gave rise to the discovery of a Yulong plague focus in Yunnan province, China. Thereafter, continuous wild rodent plague (sylvatic plague) was identified as the main plague reservoir of this focus. In this study, the epizootics in Yulong focus were described, and three molecular typing methods, including the different region (DFR) analysis, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) (14+12), were used for the molecular typing and source tracing of Y. pestis isolates in the Yulong plague focus. Simultaneously, several isolates from the vicinity of Yunnan were used as controls. The results showed that during the 10-year period from 2006 to 2016, an animal plague epidemic occurred in 6 of those years, and 5 villages underwent an animal plague epidemic within a 30-km2 area of the Yulong plague focus. Searching for dead mice was the most effective monitoring method in this plague focus. No positive sample has been found in 6937 captured live rodents thus far, suggesting that the virulence of strains in the Yulong plague focus is stronger and the survival time of mice is shorter after infection. Strains from Lijiang, Sichuan and Tibet were of the same complex based on a typing analysis of DFR and CRISPR. The genetic relationship of Y. pestis illustrated by MLVA "14+12" demonstrates that Tibet and Sichuan strains evolved from the strains 1.IN2 (Qinghai, 1970 and Tibet, 1976), and Lijiang strains are closer to Batang strains (Batang County in Sichuan province, 2011, Himalaya marmot plague foci) in terms of genetic or phylogenic relationships. In conclusion, we have a deeper understanding of this new plague focus throughout this study, which provides a basis for effective prevention and

  9. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  10. THE INTERPLANETARY NETWORK SUPPLEMENT TO THE BURST AND TRANSIENT SOURCE EXPERIMENT 5B CATALOG OF COSMIC GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.; Briggs, M. S.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.; Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Boynton, W.; Starr, R.; McNutt, R.; Boer, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present Interplanetary Network localization information for 343 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) between the end of the 4th BATSE catalog and the end of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) mission, obtained by analyzing the arrival times of these bursts at the Ulysses, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), and CGRO spacecraft. For any given burst observed by CGRO and one other spacecraft, arrival time analysis (or t riangulation ) results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose half-width varies between 11 arcsec and 21 0 , depending on the intensity, time history, and arrival direction of the burst, as well as the distance between the spacecraft. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in an average reduction of the area of a factor of 20. When all three spacecraft observe a burst, the result is an error box whose area varies between 1 and 48,000 arcmin 2 , resulting in an average reduction of the BATSE error circle area of a factor of 87.

  11. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  12. Performance summary on a high power dense plasma focus x-ray lithography point source producing 70 nm line features in AlGaAs microcircuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, Rodney; Bykanov, Alexander; Freshman, Jay; Reilly, Dennis; Mangano, Joseph; Roche, Maureen; Dickenson, Jason; Burte, Mitchell; Heaton, John

    2004-01-01

    A high average power dense plasma focus (DPF), x-ray point source has been used to produce ∼70 nm line features in AlGaAs-based monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs). The DPF source has produced up to 12 J per pulse of x-ray energy into 4π steradians at ∼1 keV effective wavelength in ∼2 Torr neon at pulse repetition rates up to 60 Hz, with an effective x-ray yield efficiency of ∼0.8%. Plasma temperature and electron concentration are estimated from the x-ray spectrum to be ∼170 eV and ∼5·10 19 cm -3 , respectively. The x-ray point source utilizes solid-state pulse power technology to extend the operating lifetime of electrodes and insulators in the DPF discharge. By eliminating current reversals in the DPF head, an anode electrode has demonstrated a lifetime of more than 5 million shots. The x-ray point source has also been operated continuously for 8 h run times at 27 Hz average pulse recurrent frequency. Measurements of shock waves produced by the plasma discharge indicate that overpressure pulses must be attenuated before a collimator can be integrated with the DPF point source

  13. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  14. Occurrence and temporal variability of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other volatile organic compounds in select sources of drinking water : results of the focused survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzer, Gregory C.; Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale use of the gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and its high solubility, low soil adsorption, and low biodegradability, has resulted in its detection in ground water and surface water in many places throughout the United States. Studies by numerous researchers, as well as many State and local environmental agencies, have discovered high levels of MTBE in soils and ground water at leaking underground gasoline-storage-tank sites and frequent occurrence of low to intermediate levels of MTBE in reservoirs used for both public water supply and recreational boating.In response to these findings, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation sponsored an investigation of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Nation's sources of drinking water. The goal of the investigation was to provide additional information on the frequency of occurrence, concentration, and temporal variability of MTBE and other VOCs in source water used by community water systems (CWSs). The investigation was completed in two stages: (1) reviews of available literature and (2) the collection of new data. Two surveys were associated with the collection of new data. The first, termed the Random Survey, employed a statistically stratified design for sampling source water from 954 randomly selected CWSs. The second, which is the focus of this report, is termed the Focused Survey, which included samples collected from 134 CWS source waters, including ground water, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and streams, that were suspected or known to contain MTBE. The general intent of the Focused Survey was to compare results with the Random Survey and provide an improved understanding of the occurrence, concentration, temporal variability, and anthropogenic factors associated with frequently detected VOCs. Each sample collected was analyzed for 66 VOCs, including MTBE and three other ether gasoline oxygenates (hereafter termed gasoline oxygenates). As part of

  15. [Whether the advertisement of dietary supplements is objective source of data about their impact on health? Analysis of broadcasting advertisements in the terms of the food law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements are intensively advertised in the media. Due to their form analogous to drugs many people don't notice differences between them, although it is fundamental. The dietary supplement, as the category of food don't have medicinal properties and suggesting such properties by producers is forbidden. The aim of this study was analysis of advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the media in accordance with the law requirements, especially with the conditions of nutrition and health claims established in 2012. Advertisements of dietary supplements, transmitted in the period of one week (17-23 of September 2014 r.) into 5 radio and television channels. In the analysed period commercials of 27 assortments of the dietary supplement were being transmitted. Advertisements of 23 of them declared improvement the action of organs or concentration of biochemical indicators in the body. The strength of declarations about the benefits of action of dietary supplements was diversified, from expressions such as "support" to "treat" and "prevent". In some advertisements the authority of medical profession was being used. Moreover many advertisements emphasized the unique and comprehensive active ingredients of dietary supplement on the market. Advertisements of dietary supplements promise beneficial effect to the human body. In spite of more and more detailed legal requirements many of them are going beyond conditions established for food. It can cause incorrect opinion about the role of dietary supplements in curing medical disorders.

  16. Effects of marketing group and production focus on quality and variability of adipose tissue and bellies sourced from a commercial processing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of marketing group on quality and variability of belly and adipose tissue quality traits of pigs sourced from differing production focuses (lean vs. quality). Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) were used. Three groups were marketed from each barn with 2 barns per production focus marketed per season. Data were collected on 7,684 carcasses at a commercial abattoir. Fresh belly characteristics, American Oil Chemists' Society iodine value (AOCS-IV), and near-infrared iodine value were measured on a targeted 50, 10, and 100% of carcasses, respectively. Data were analyzed as a split-plot design in the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4 with production focus as the whole-plot factor and marketing group as the split-plot factor. Barn (block), season, and sex were random variables. A multivariance model was fit using the REPEATED statement with the marketing group × production focus interaction as the grouping variable. Variances for production focus and marketing groups were calculated using the MEANS procedure. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using the Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Among quality focus carcasses, marketing group 3 bellies weighed less ( ≤ 0.03) than those from either marketing group 1 or 2, but there was no difference ( ≥ 0.99) among marketing groups of the lean focus carcasses. There was no effect ( ≥ 0.11) of production focus on fresh belly measures, SFA, or iodine value (IV), but lean focus carcasses had decreased ( = 0.04) total MUFA and increased ( Marketing group did not affect ( ≥ 0.10) fresh belly dimensions, total SFA, total MUFA, total PUFA, or IV. Belly weight, flop score, width, and all depth measurements were less variable ( ≤ 0.01); whereas, belly length, total SFA, and total MUFA were more variable ( marketing groups. Belly weight, length, width, and depth measurements; SFA; or IV variance did not differ ( ≥ 0.06) among marketing groups

  17. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  18. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  20. Nutritional supplement use by elite young UK athletes: fallacies of advice regarding efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloodworth Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study nutritional supplement use among young elite UK athletes to establish whether a rationale versus practice incongruence exists, and to investigate the sources of information. Survey data were analysed for association between supplements used and motives for using such substances among young athletes along with the sources of advice and literature precedents on supplement effects. Methods Participants were elite UK male and female athletes, within the age range between 12 and 21 (n = 403, mean age 17.66 ± 1.99. Associations between type of supplements and reasons for using supplements were tested by calculating Pearson's χ2 and the strength of these symmetric associations shown by phi (ϕ association coefficients. Results Single supplement use was reported by 48.1%, with energy drinks being the most popular, consumed by 41.7% of all athletes and 86.6% of the supplement users in the sample. No agreement was observed between athletes' rationale and behaviour in relation to nutritional supplements except for creatine. Among health professionals, nutritionists and physiotherapists, followed by coaches, were most frequently consulted. Answers regarding reasons and supplements used showed incongruence and suggest widespread misinformation regarding supplements and their effects is an issue for the young athlete. Conclusion Widespread supplement taking behaviour was evidenced in the young elite athlete population with the most notable congruence between rationale and practice among young athletes being performance-related. Young athletes in the present sample appear to be less 'health conscious' and more 'performance focused' than their adult counterparts. Further research, using a full list of supplements, is warranted to test the hypothesis that health consciousness is less dominant in supplement choice by young athletes.

  1. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  2. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  3. Three-energy focusing Laue monochromator for the diamond light source x-ray pair distribution function beamline I15-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Chater, Philip A.; Hillman, Michael R.; Keeble, Dean S.; Wilhelm, Heribert [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Tucker, Matt G. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    The I15-1 beamline, the new side station to I15 at the Diamond Light Source, will be dedicated to the collection of atomic pair distribution function data. A Laue monochromator will be used consisting of three silicon crystals diffracting X-rays at a common Bragg angle of 2.83°. The crystals use the (1 1 1), (2 2 0), and (3 1 1) planes to select 40, 65, and 76 keV X-rays, respectively, and will be bent meridionally to horizontally focus the selected X-rays onto the sample. All crystals will be cut to the same optimized asymmetry angle in order to eliminate image broadening from the crystal thickness. Finite element calculations show that the thermal distortion of the crystals will affect the image size and bandpass.

  4. Three-energy focusing Laue monochromator for the diamond light source x-ray pair distribution function beamline I15-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, John P.; Chater, Philip A.; Hillman, Michael R.; Keeble, Dean S.; Wilhelm, Heribert; Tucker, Matt G.

    2016-01-01

    The I15-1 beamline, the new side station to I15 at the Diamond Light Source, will be dedicated to the collection of atomic pair distribution function data. A Laue monochromator will be used consisting of three silicon crystals diffracting X-rays at a common Bragg angle of 2.83°. The crystals use the (1 1 1), (2 2 0), and (3 1 1) planes to select 40, 65, and 76 keV X-rays, respectively, and will be bent meridionally to horizontally focus the selected X-rays onto the sample. All crystals will be cut to the same optimized asymmetry angle in order to eliminate image broadening from the crystal thickness. Finite element calculations show that the thermal distortion of the crystals will affect the image size and bandpass.

  5. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics Talk: Low energy spread Ion source for focused ion beam systems-Search for the holy grail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bill

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will cover my personal experiences as a serial entrepreneur and founder of a succession of focused ion beam companies (1). Ion Beam Technology, which developed a 200kv (FIB) direct ion implanter (2). Micrion, where the FIB found a market in circuit edit and mask repair, which eventually merged with FEI corporation. and (3). ALIS Corporation which develop the Orion system, the first commercially successful sub-nanometer helium ion microscope, that was ultimately acquired by Carl Zeiss corporation. I will share this adventure beginning with my experiences in the early days of ion beam implantation and e-beam lithography which lead up to the final breakthrough understanding of the mechanisms that govern the successful creation and operation of a single atom ion source.

  6. Use of delayed gamma rays for active non-destructive assay of {sup 235}U irradiated by pulsed neutron source (plasma focus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kaushik, T.C., E-mail: tckk@barc.gov.in [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Rout, R.K. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D.B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B.S.; Ramakumar, K.L. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, S.C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-07-01

    A pulsed neutron source based on plasma focus device has been used for active interrogation and assay of {sup 235}U by monitoring its delayed high energy γ-rays. The method involves irradiation of fissile material by thermal neutrons obtained after moderation of a burst of neutrons emitted upon fusion of deuterium in plasma focus (PF) device. The delayed gamma rays emitted from the fissile material as a consequence of induced fission were detected by a large volume sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector. The detector is coupled to a data acquisition system of 2k input size with 2k ADC conversion gain. Counting was carried out in pulse height analysis mode for time integrated counts up to 100 s while the temporal profile of delayed gamma has been obtained by counting in multichannel scaling mode with dwell time of 50 ms. To avoid the effect of passive (natural) and active (from surrounding materials) backgrounds, counts have been acquired for gamma energy between 3 and 10 MeV. The lower limit of detection of {sup 235}U in the oxide samples with this set-up is estimated to be 14 mg.

  7. FocusStack and StimServer: a new open source MATLAB toolchain for visual stimulation and analysis of two-photon calcium neuronal imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Dylan R; Kampa, Björn M

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal responses is an increasingly accessible technology for probing population responses in cortex at single cell resolution, and with reasonable and improving temporal resolution. However, analysis of two-photon data is usually performed using ad-hoc solutions. To date, no publicly available software exists for straightforward analysis of stimulus-triggered two-photon imaging experiments. In addition, the increasing data rates of two-photon acquisition systems imply increasing cost of computing hardware required for in-memory analysis. Here we present a Matlab toolbox, FocusStack, for simple and efficient analysis of two-photon calcium imaging stacks on consumer-level hardware, with minimal memory footprint. We also present a Matlab toolbox, StimServer, for generation and sequencing of visual stimuli, designed to be triggered over a network link from a two-photon acquisition system. FocusStack is compatible out of the box with several existing two-photon acquisition systems, and is simple to adapt to arbitrary binary file formats. Analysis tools such as stack alignment for movement correction, automated cell detection and peri-stimulus time histograms are already provided, and further tools can be easily incorporated. Both packages are available as publicly-accessible source-code repositories.

  8. Effect of supplemental nutrient source on heifer growth and reproductive performance, and on utilization of corn silage-based diets by beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, C M; Vanzant, E S; Anderson, L H; Burris, W R; Fieser, B G; Bapst, R F

    2003-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of oilseeds or soybean hulls on growth and reproductive performance of heifers and utilization of corn silage diets by growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 beef heifers (249 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON) at 56% of the DMI; 2) whole linted cottonseed at 15% of the DMI (COT); 3) whole raw soybeans at 15% of the DMI (SB); or 4) pelleted soyhulls at 30% of the DMI (SH). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) and fed to achieve target weights equal to 65% of expected mature BW at the time of AI. Estrus was synchronized and heifers were inseminated by AI in response to detected estrus. Because the energy value for SH was underestimated, cumulative ADG for SH (1.03 kg/d) was greater (P 0.10) the proportion of pubertal heifers at the beginning of the breeding season: CON (60%), COT (53%), SB (69%), SH (71%), or first-service conception rates: CON (37%); COT (38%); SB (57%); SH (42%). In Exp. 2, crossbred steers (387 kg) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of supplemental nutrient source on utilization of corn silage diets. Treatments included diets used in Exp. 1, plus a negative control (soybean meal at 10% of the DMI; SIL) and whole raw soybeans at 25% of the DMI (SB25). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (13.8% CP) except SB25 (17% CP), and were fed twice daily at 1.8 x NEm. Oilseed inclusion decreased (P tract NDF digestibilities. The CON and SH diets had the greatest (P tract OM digestibilities. Microbial efficiencies were greatest (P reproductive performance of heifers. Although oilseed additions increased total fatty acid flow to the duodenum, a high degree of biohydrogenation occurred, greatly increasing C18:0, with only marginal increases in unsaturated fatty acid flow. Depending on diet and feeding conditions, inclusion of whole oilseeds may not be an effective means of

  9. Efficacy of a supplemental candy coproduct as an alternative carbohydrate source to lactose on growth performance of newly weaned pigs in a commercial farm condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J Y; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-11-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of a supplemental candy coproduct (Chocolate Candy Feed [CCF]; International Ingredient Corp., St. Louis, MO), an alternative carbohydrate source to dietary lactose, on growth performance and on health status of nursery pigs. Crossbred pigs ( = 1,408; 21 d of age and 7.1 ± 0.3 kg BW; Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (16 pens/treatment and 22 pigs/pen) in a randomized complete block design: 0, 15, 30, and 45% of lactose replaced by CCF based on equal amounts of total sugars. The experimental period was divided into 3 phases: phase I (1.8 kg diet/pig for 11 ± 1 d), phase II (6.8 kg diet/pig for 17 ± 2 d), and phase III (until 49 d after weaning). Pigs received a common phase III diet. The levels of lactose, supplied by whey permeate (79.3 ± 0.8% lactose), were 20, 8, and 0% in phase I, II, and III, respectively. All experimental diets contained the same levels of essential AA and energy (ME) for each phase. Fecal scores were observed on d 5, 7, and 9 after weaning. Blood samples were taken at the end of phase I and II to measure blood urea N. The duration of phase I tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.063) with increasing CCF. In phase I, the ADFI increased ( lactose on growth performance of nursery pigs. Blood urea N did not change in phase I but tended to linearly increase ( = 0.088) in phase II as CCF increased. There were no differences in fecal scores and mortality as CCF increased. However, increasing CCF tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.083) morbidity, which implies no adverse effects of a candy coproduct replacement on health status of nursery pigs. In conclusion, a candy coproduct can be used to replace up to 45% of dietary lactose for nursery pigs without negative effects on growth performance or health status. A candy coproduct could be an economical alternative to partly replace the use of lactose in swine production.

  10. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  11. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  12. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative sources of supplements in Africanized honeybees submitted to royal jelly production - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Martins Costa-Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplements with isolated soy protein, brewer’s yeast, a mixture of isolated soy protein with brewer’s yeast, linseed oil, palm oil and mixture of linseed oil with palm oil in the royal jelly production of Africanized honey bee colonies. Total royal jelly produced was superior (P

  14. Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

    2014-02-01

    In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Short communication : Supplementation of fructo-oligosaccharides does not improve insulin sensitivity in heavy veal calves fed different sources of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A. J.; Gilbert, M. S.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Vonk, R. J.

    Heavy veal calves (4–6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  16. Reconstruction of atmospheric trace metals pollution in Southwest China using sediments from a large and deep alpine lake: Historical trends, sources and sediment focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qi; Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Nath, Bibhash; Shen, Ji; Yuan, Hezhong; Wang, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution, one of the leading environmental problems in South and East Asia, and its impact on the terrestrial environmental quality remain poorly understood particularly in alpine areas where both historical and present-day mining and smelting operations might leave an imprint. Here, we reconstructed atmospheric trace metals pollution during the past century using core sediments from a large and deep alpine lake in Southwest China. The implication of in lake and/or in watershed sediment focusing in pollution quantification is discussed by analyzing 15 sediment cores. Factor analysis and enrichment factor indicated Cd, Pb and Sb as the typical pollutants. Distinct peaks of Pb and Sb pollution were observed around the 1920s, but little Pb pollution was detected in recent decades, different from other studies in similar regions. Cadmium pollution was observed until the mid-1980s synchronized with Sb. The distinctive variations in atmospheric trace metal pollution process in Southwest China highlight the regional and sub-regional sources of metal pollutants, which should be primarily attributed to non-ferrous metal smelting emissions. Both natural and anthropogenic metals showed wide concentration ranges though exhibited similar temporal trends in the 15 cores. Spatial variations of anthropogenic metals were influenced by the in-watershed pollutants remobilization, whereas, natural metals were regulated by the detrital materials in the sub-basin. In-lake sediment focusing had little influence on the spatial distributions of all metals, different from the traditional sediment focusing pattern observed in small lakes. Anthropogenic Cd accumulation in sediments ranged from 1.5 to 10.1mgm -2 in a specific core with an average of 6.5mgm -2 for the entire lake, highlighting that a reliable whole-lake pollutant budget requires an analysis of multiple cores. Our study suggests that the management of aquatic ecosystem health should take the remobilization of in

  17. Whole Food versus Supplement: Comparing the Clinical Evidence of Tomato Intake and Lycopene Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M.; Sesso, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. A link between diet and CVD is well established, with dietary modification a foundational component of CVD prevention and management. With the discovery of bioactive components beyond the essential nutrients of foods, a new era of nutritional, medical, botanical, physiologic, and analytical sciences has unfolded. The ability to identify, isolate, purify, and deliver single components has expanded the dietary supplement business and health opportunity for consumers. Lycopene is an example of a food component that has attracted attention from scientists as well as food, agriculture, and dietary supplement industries. A major question, however, is whether delivering lycopene through a supplement source is as effective as or more effective than consuming lycopene through whole food sources, specifically the tomato, which is the richest source of lycopene in the Western diet. In this review, we examined clinical trials comparing the efficacy of lycopene supplements with tomato products on intermediate CVD risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism. Overall, the present review highlights the need for more targeted research; however, at present, the available clinical research supports consuming tomato-based foods as a first-line approach to cardiovascular health. With the exception of blood pressure management where lycopene supplementation was favored, tomato intake provided more favorable results on cardiovascular risk endpoints than did lycopene supplementation. Indeed, future research that is well designed, clinically focused, mechanistically revealing, and relevant to human intake will undoubtedly add to the growing body of knowledge unveiling the promise of tomatoes and/or lycopene supplementation as an integral component of a heart-healthy diet. PMID:25469376

  18. Child hunger and the protective effects of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and alternative food sources among Mexican-origin families in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C

    2013-09-13

    Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among children of Mexican immigrants. This study determines the prevalence of child hunger and identifies protective and risk factors associated with it in two Texas border areas. This study uses 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA) data from 470 mothers who were randomly recruited by promotora-researchers. Participants from colonias near two small towns in two South Texas counties participated in an in-home community and household assessment. Interviewer-administered surveys collected data in Spanish on sociodemographics, federal food assistance program participation, and food security status. Frequencies and bivariate correlations were examined while a random-effects logistic regression model with backward elimination was used to determine correlates of childhood hunger. Hunger among children was reported in 51% (n = 239) of households in this C-HCFRA sample. Bivariate analyses revealed that hunger status was associated with select maternal characteristics, such as lower educational attainment and Mexican nativity, and household characteristics, including household composition, reliance on friend or neighbor for transportation, food purchase at dollar stores and from neighbors, and participation in school-based nutrition programs. A smaller percentage of households with child hunger participated in school-based nutrition programs (51%) or used alternative food sources, while 131 households were unable to give their child or children a balanced meal during the school year and 145 households during summer months. In the random effects model (RE = small town), increased household

  19. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  20. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  1. SU-F-T-347: An Absolute Dose-Volume Constraint Based Deterministic Optimization Framework for Multi-Co60 Source Focused Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, B; Liu, B; Li, Y; Guo, B; Xu, X; Wei, R; Zhou, F [Beihang University, Beijing, Beijing (China); Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Treatment plan optimization in multi-Co60 source focused radiotherapy with multiple isocenters is challenging, because dose distribution is normalized to maximum dose during optimization and evaluation. The objective functions are traditionally defined based on relative dosimetric distribution. This study presents an alternative absolute dose-volume constraint (ADC) based deterministic optimization framework (ADC-DOF). Methods: The initial isocenters are placed on the eroded target surface. Collimator size is chosen based on the area of 2D contour on corresponding axial slice. The isocenter spacing is determined by adjacent collimator sizes. The weights are optimized by minimizing the deviation from ADCs using the steepest descent technique. An iterative procedure is developed to reduce the number of isocenters, where the isocenter with lowest weight is removed without affecting plan quality. The ADC-DOF is compared with the genetic algorithm (GA) using the same arbitrary shaped target (254cc), with a 15mm margin ring structure representing normal tissues. Results: For ADC-DOF, the ADCs imposed on target and ring are (D100>10Gy, D50,10, 0<12Gy, 15Gy and 20Gy) and (D40<10Gy). The resulting D100, 50, 10, 0 and D40 are (9.9Gy, 12.0Gy, 14.1Gy and 16.2Gy) and (10.2Gy). The objectives of GA are to maximize 50% isodose target coverage (TC) while minimize the dose delivered to the ring structure, which results in 97% TC and 47.2% average dose in ring structure. For ADC-DOF (GA) techniques, 20 out of 38 (10 out of 12) initial isocenters are used in the final plan, and the computation time is 8.7s (412.2s) on an i5 computer. Conclusion: We have developed a new optimization technique using ADC and deterministic optimization. Compared with GA, ADC-DOF uses more isocenters but is faster and more robust, and achieves a better conformity. For future work, we will focus on developing a more effective mechanism for initial isocenter determination.

  2. Production and quality of milk from Mantiqueira dairy cows feeding on Mombasa grass pasture and receiving different sources of roughage supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Aurélio de Carvalho Peres

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Production and quality of milk from dairy cows grazing exclusively on Mombasa grass pasture, during the spring-summer period and fed roughage supplementations, during the autumn-winter, were evaluated in two consecutive years. The pasture of 11.4 ha was divided into 57 paddocks of 2,000 m² each, including three replications with 19 paddocks each. The pasture was managed with two occupation days and 36 resting days. During the spring-summer period, cows received only grass pasture. In the autumn-winter period, they had access to Mombasa grass pasture and received roughage supplementations (black oat pasture; sorghum silage or sugarcane + urea and pasture every 28 days, alternately. The animals had access to mineral mix and water and received 500 g of concentrated in each of the two milking times. The experimental design used was for response to continuous flow in rotational trial, similar to the Latin square model. In the spring-summer period, the average milk production was 12.2±2.2 and 14.0±3.8 kg/cow per day; for the autumn-winter period, the milk production was 13.5±2.9 and 12.1±2.5 kg/cow per day in the black oat pasture; 11.8±2.5 and 10.9±2.3 kg/cow per day in the sorghum silage and 11.3±1.8 and 8.4±1.5 kg/cow per day in the sugarcane + urea, for 1st and 2nd years evaluated, respectively. The black oat was the roughage supplementation that yielded the highest average daily milk production. There were no differences in the milk chemical composition between roughage supplementations.

  3. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  4. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (penergy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.

  5. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  6. Supplemental analysis of accident sequences and source terms for waste treatment and storage operations and related facilities for the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folga, S.; Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Kohout, E.; Mishima, J.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents supplemental information for the document Analysis of Accident Sequences and Source Terms at Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities for Waste Generated by US Department of Energy Waste Management Operations. Additional technical support information is supplied concerning treatment of transuranic waste by incineration and considering the Alternative Organic Treatment option for low-level mixed waste. The latest respirable airborne release fraction values published by the US Department of Energy for use in accident analysis have been used and are included as Appendix D, where respirable airborne release fraction is defined as the fraction of material exposed to accident stresses that could become airborne as a result of the accident. A set of dominant waste treatment processes and accident scenarios was selected for a screening-process analysis. A subset of results (release source terms) from this analysis is presented

  7. Desempenho de vacas Jersey suplementadas com diferentes fontes lipídicas na fase inicial da lactação Performance of early lactating Jersey cows supplemented with different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Laerte Nörnberg

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da inclusão de três fontes lipídicas (6% de EE total em dietas com teores semelhantes de proteína, fibra e lipídios sobre o consumo voluntário, a produção de leite e a eficiência alimentar de vacas Jersey na fase inicial da lactação. Foram utilizadas oito vacas multíparas em estágio próximo ao pico de lactação, com 420 kg de PV e produção média de 20 kg de leite (corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, estabuladas em baias individuais. Os tratamentos foram avaliados em dois quadrados latinos (4 x 4 com períodos de 28 dias, conforme descritos a seguir: CON - dieta controle, sem inclusão de lipídios; GPC - dieta com gordura protegida comercial (sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos de óleo de palma; FAIO - dieta com farelo de arroz integral e óleo de arroz; FAIS - dieta com farelo de arroz integral e sebo bovino. Utilizaram-se concentrados à base de grãos de milho moídos e farelo de soja e, como volumosos, silagem de milho e feno de alfafa (1:1, na MS. Os concentrados foram fornecidos três vezes ao dia, separadamente dos volumosos. Os volumosos foram fornecidos à vontade, procurando-se manter a proporção de 55% em relação ao concentrado. A interpretação estatística foi feita por meio de análise de variância dos valores médios de cada tratamento aplicando-se o teste F. Os resultados comprovaram que as fontes lipídicas estudadas não afetam o consumo voluntário de MS e proporcionam maior produção de leite, de modo que a fonte de sais cálcicos de ácidos graxos de óleo de palma promoveu, também, maior produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e melhorou a eficiência alimentar.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of supplementing diets with similar protein, fiber and lipid contents with different lipid sources on dry matter intake, milk yield and feed efficiency of early lactating Jersey cows. Eight multiparous cows averaging

  8. Selenium Dynamics in the Blood of Beef Cows and Calves Fed Diets Supplemented with Organic and Inorganic Selenium Sources and the Effect on their Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Slavík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of feed supplementation with sodium selenite or selenized yeast on serum Se levels and reproduction indicators in cattle. In three beef herds young heifers, cows in late pregnancy, and their calves were randomly grouped by 6. In Herd 1, the mean Se serum levels were 51.01 μg l-1 in heifers, 32.12 μg l-1 in cows in late pregnancy, and 29.07 μg l-1 in their calves. In Herd 2, 27.42 μg l-1 (heifers, Z22.9 μg l-1 (late pregnancy, and 23.46 μg l-1 (calves. In Herd 3, 27.07 μg l-1 (heifers, 22 μg l-1 (late pregnant cows, and 31.05 μg l-1 (calves. Over a 6-month period, the animals in Herd 1 were given selenium yeast supplement; in Herd 2 sodium selenite, whereas Herd 3 served as a negative control. Afterwards, a second blood sample was taken. The mean Se serum levels were as follows: Herd 1 (selenium yeast: 90.73 μg l-1 in late pregnant cows ( p -1 in calves (p -1 (late pregnant cows p -1 (calves p -1 (late pregnant cows, 32.85 μg l-1 (calves. A significant difference was also observed in the second blood sample taken in both the late pregnant cows and the calves between the Herds 1 and 2 (late pregnant cows p p < 0.01. No significant differences were demonstrated between the groups. Herds 1 and 2 showed an improvement in their health status, as compared with the previous period, neither in reproduction indicators nor in the weight gain of the calves.

  9. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, N. G.; Simeoni, G. G.; Lefmann, K.

    2016-01-01

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (a...... than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum....

  10. Use of neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence with radioactive sources (Cf-252 and Am-241) for the instrumental qualiquantitative simultaneous analysis of some elements in samples of mineral supplement for animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    To study the possibility of using two non-destructive (neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence) analyses in simultaneous quali-quantitative evaluations of some elements in mineral supplement for animals, a Cf-252 neutron source (11.3 mCi; 21.1 μgrams) and a Am-241 low energy gamma-ray emitter source (59.5 KeV; 100 mCi) were employed. For these sources, shieldings and sample irradiation systems were built. For the neutron activation analysis a reservoir of 72 cm height and 43 cm diameter was filled with paraffine, and the samples and neutron sources were put inside this reservoir using polypropilene and nylon tubes. To detect the gamma-rays emitted by the radioisotopes a well-type solid NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator (3x3') was used, coupled to a multi-channel analyser. For the X-ray fluorescence analysis a lead cylinder of 9.75 cm height and 5.6 cm diameter (with 0.7 cm thickness) was made and internally lined with a 0.36 mm copper and 0.1 mm aluminium foil. (Author) [pt

  11. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  12. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  13. Proteomics in quality control: Whey protein-based supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Bruno Carius; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Lourenço, Daniela C; Fasciotti, Maíra

    2016-09-16

    The growing consumption of nutritional supplements might represent a problem, given the concern about the quality of these supplements. One of the most used supplements is whey protein (WP); because of its popularity, it has been a target of adulteration with substitute products, such as cheaper proteins with lower biological value. To investigate this type of adulteration, this study used shotgun proteomics analyses by MS(E) (multiplexed, low- and high-collision energy, data-independent acquisition) of WP-based supplements. Seventeen WP-based supplement samples were evaluated. Chicken, maize, rice, potato, soybean, and wheat proteins were considered as probable sources of bovine whey adulteration. Collectively, 523 proteins were identified across all 16 samples and replicates, with 94% of peptides inside a normal distribution within 10ppm of maximum error. In 10 of the 16 samples analyzed, only proteins from bovine whey could be detected, while in the other samples several other protein sources were detected in high concentrations, especially soybean, wheat, and rice. These results point out a probable adulteration and/or sample contamination during manufacturing that could only be detected using this proteomic approach. The present work shows how shotgun proteomics can be used to provide reliable answers in quality control matters, especially focusing on Whey Protein nutritional supplements which are a very popular subject in food and nutrition. In order to achieve an appropriate methodology, careful evaluation was performed applying extremely rigorous quality criteria, established for the proteomic analysis. These criteria and the methodological approach used in this work might serve as a guide for other authors seeking to use proteomics in quality control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems; Banco de pruebas portatil para el estudio de fuentes de iones y de la extraccion y enfoque del haz de iones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero Lopez, F

    1961-07-01

    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  15. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G. Polotow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA. However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation, drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  16. Redox Status and Neuro Inflammation Indexes in Cerebellum and Motor Cortex of Wistar Rats Supplemented with Natural Sources of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin: Fish Oil, Krill Oil, and Algal Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotow, Tatiana G; Poppe, Sandra C; Vardaris, Cristina V; Ganini, Douglas; Guariroba, Maísa; Mattei, Rita; Hatanaka, Elaine; Martins, Maria F; Bondan, Eduardo F; Barros, Marcelo P

    2015-09-28

    Health authorities worldwide have consistently recommended the regular consumption of marine fishes and seafood to preserve memory, sustain cognitive functions, and prevent neurodegenerative processes in humans. Shrimp, crabs, lobster, and salmon are of particular interest in the human diet due to their substantial provision of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3/PUFAs) and the antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA). However, the optimal ratio between these nutraceuticals in natural sources is apparently the key factor for maximum protection against most neuro-motor disorders. Therefore, we aimed here to investigate the effects of a long-term supplementation with (n-3)/PUFAs-rich fish oil, ASTA-rich algal biomass, the combination of them, or krill oil (a natural combination of both nutrients) on baseline redox balance and neuro-inflammation indexes in cerebellum and motor cortex of Wistar rats. Significant changes in redox metabolism were only observed upon ASTA supplementation, which reinforce its antioxidant properties with a putative mitochondrial-centered action in rat brain. Krill oil imposed mild astrocyte activation in motor cortex of Wistar rats, although no redox or inflammatory index was concomitantly altered. In summary, there is no experimental evidence that krill oil, fish oil, oralgal biomass (minor variation), drastically change the baseline oxidative conditions or the neuro-inflammatory scenario in neuromotor-associated rat brain regions.

  17. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  18. Development of Tandem, Double-Focusing, Electron Impact, Gas Source Mass Spectrometer for Measurement of Rare Double-Substituted Isotoplogues in Geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Edward D. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-30

    This project culminated in construction and delivery of the world’s first large-radius gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometer that permits unparalleled analyses of the stable isotopic composition of methane gas. The instrument, referred to as the “Panorama” and installed at UCLA in March 2015, can now be used to determine the relative abundances of rare isotopic species of methane that serve as tracers of temperature of formation and/or subsequent processing of gas. With this technology we can begin to delineate different sources and sinks of methane isotopically in ways not possible until now.

  19. Notification and authorization for the use of radiation sources (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depend on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for notification and authorization for control over radiation sources, including a system for review and assessment of applications for authorization. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the process for dealing with applications for authorization and accepting notifications to regulatory bodies. Examples of guidelines that may be used by persons required to notify or apply for authorization and of the regulatory body's review and assessment procedures are provided in the Appendices. The TECDOC is oriented towards national regulatory infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  20. Notification and authorization for the use of radiation sources (supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depend on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for notification and authorization for control over radiation sources, including a system for review and assessment of applications for authorization. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the process for dealing with applications for authorization and accepting notifications to regulatory bodies. Examples of guidelines that may be used by persons required to notify or apply for authorization and of the regulatory body's review and assessment procedures are provided in the Appendices. The TECDOC is oriented towards national regulatory infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  1. Notification and authorization for the use of radiation sources (Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The achievement and maintenance of a high level of safety in the use of radiation sources depend on there being a sound legal and governmental infrastructure, including a national regulatory body with well-defined responsibilities and functions. These responsibilities and functions include establishing and implementing a system for notification and authorization for control over radiation sources, including a system for review and assessment of applications for authorization. The Safety Requirements publication entitled Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety establishes the requirements for legal and governmental infrastructure. The term 'infrastructure' refers to the underlying structure of systems and organizations. This includes requirements concerning the establishment of a regulatory body for radiation sources and the responsibilities and functions assigned to it. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or the BSS) establish basic requirements for protection against risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. The application of the BSS is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities to for radiation protection and safety. This TECDOC provides practical guidance on the process for dealing with applications for authorization and accepting notifications to regulatory bodies. Examples of guidelines that may be used by persons required to notify or apply for authorization and of the regulatory body's review and assessment procedures are provided in the Appendices. The TECDOC is oriented towards national regulatory infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education. The IAEA

  2. Characterization of a multi-keV x-ray source produced by nanosecond laser irradiation of a solid target: The influence of laser focus spot and target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Guangyue; Zheng Jian; Shen Baifei; Lei Anle; Xu Zhizhan; Liu Shenye; Zhang Jiyan; Yang Jiamin; Ding Yongkun; Hu Xin; Huang Yixiang; Du Huabing; Yi Rongqing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of focus spot and target thickness on multi-keV x-ray sources generated by 2 ns duration laser heated solid targets are investigated on the Shenguang II laser facility. In the case of thick-foil targets, the experimental data and theoretical analysis show that the emission volume of the x-ray sources is sensitive to the laser focus spot and proportional to the 3 power of the focus spot size. The steady x-ray flux is proportional to the 5/3 power of the focus spot size of the given laser beam in our experimental condition. In the case of thin-foil targets, experimental data show that there is an optimal foil thickness corresponding to the given laser parameters. With the given laser beam, the optimal thin-foil thickness is proportional to the -2/3 power of the focus spot size, and the optimal x-ray energy of thin foil is independent of focus spot size

  3. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Supplement I. [Additional information on 38 items requested by KY/DNREP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Jr., John F.

    1981-02-13

    In response to a letter from KY/DNREP, January 19, 1981, ICRC and DOE have prepared the enclosed supplement to the Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Permit Application for Air Contaminant Source for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Each of the 38 comments contained in the letter has been addressed in accordance with the discussions held in Frankfort on January 28, 1981, among representatives of KY/DNREP, EPA Region IV, US DOE, and ICRC. The questions raised involve requests for detailed information on the performance and reliability of proprietary equipment, back-up methods, monitoring plans for various pollutants, composition of wastes to flares, emissions estimates from particular operations, origin of baseline information, mathematical models, storage tanks, dusts, etc. (LTN)

  4. Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): II. Effects of urbanization, food supplementation and social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah; Fokidis, H Bobby

    2016-09-01

    Perturbations in an organism's environment can induce significant shifts in hormone secretory patterns. In this context, the glucocorticoid (GC) steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex have received much attention from ecologists and behaviorists due to their role in the vertebrate stress response. Adrenal GCs, such as corticosterone (CORT), are highly responsive to instability in environmental and social conditions. However, little is understood about how adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is influenced by changing conditions. We conducted field experiments to determine how circulating CORT and DHEA vary during restraint stress in the male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Specifically, we examined how four different changes in the physical (urbanization and food availability) and social (territorial conflict, distress of a mate) environment affect CORT and DHEA levels. The majority of cardinals responded to restraint stress by increasing and decreasing CORT and DHEA, respectively, however this depended on sampling context. Cardinals sampled from urban habitats had both lower initial and restraint stress CORT concentrations, but a comparable DHEA pattern to those sampled from a forest. Supplementing food to territorial males did not alter circulating initial DHEA or CORT concentrations nor did it change the response to restraint stress when compared to unsupplemented controls. Exposing cardinals to varying durations of song playback, which mimics a territorial intrusion, did not affect CORT levels, but did attenuate the DHEA response to restraint stress. Examining a larger dataset of males captured before, after or at the same time as their female mate, allowed us to address how the stress of a captured mate affected the male's CORT and DHEA response. Males showed elevated initial and restraint CORT and DHEA when their female mate was captured first. Taken together, these data demonstrate that both CORT and DHEA secretion patterns depends on

  5. Non-double-couple earthquake mechanism as an artifact of the point-source approach applied to a finite-extent focus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamová, Petra; Šílený, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 2 (2010), s. 447-457 ISSN 0037-1106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0724 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) specifický-výzkum Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : non-double-couple earthquake mechanism * moment tensor * finite-extent focus Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.027, year: 2010

  6. Influence of Implementation of Renewable Energy Sources on Sustainable Development of Energetic System of the Republic of Croatia with a Focus on Greenhouse Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovic, B.; Blecich, P.; Hustic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Between political objectives and real possibilities in the moment, there is a large gap, mainly because of the current economic situation. Therefore, the described problems of replacing conventional energy sources renewable sources must be approached with extreme caution, watching valuing energy but primarily environmental and economic indicators. It is necessary to address all the specifics of the Croatian electricity system and to analyse the impact of the implementation of renewable energy on the development of the power sector and the economic growth of the Croatian. It is necessary to examine whether and to what extent the implementation of renewable energy sources have environmental effects (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions), to estimate the external costs that may arise due to further changes in the structure of the system due to the increasing share of intermittent energy sources, and to estimate the optimal schedule for further implementation of incentive measures for renewable energy projects in the Republic of Croatia in terms of its current energy resources. It is extremely important to examine the readiness and capacity of the system of countries in the region (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Hungary and Serbia) to compensate for variations resulting from the application of intermittent energy sources. How does this kind of compensation can be carried out by creating a common energy market that is in regard to the EU, it is necessary to examine and assess the possibilities and dangers that the Republic of Croatia may encounter. Particularly interesting is the potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by introducing renewable energy which Croatia could become more competitive in trading greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, it is necessary to work to look at what proportion and what are the possibilities of small producers of renewable energy (up to 35 kW of installed capacity), and that power distribution network Such a detailed analysis

  7. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. Optimizing a neutron-beam focusing device for the direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the FRM II reactor source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, N.G. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Simeoni, G.G., E-mail: ggsimeoni@outlook.com [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) and Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lefmann, K. [Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2016-04-21

    A dedicated beam-focusing device has been designed for the direct geometry thermal-cold neutron time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF at the neutron facility FRM II (Garching, Germany). The prototype, based on the compressed Archimedes' mirror concept, benefits from the adaptive-optics technology (adjustable supermirror curvature) and the compact size (only 0.5 m long). We have simulated the neutron transport across the entire guide system. We present a detailed computer characterization of the existing device, along with the study of the factors mostly influencing the future improvement. We have optimized the simulated prototype as a function of the neutron wavelength, accounting also for all relevant features of a real instrument like the non-reflecting side edges. The results confirm the “chromatic” displacement of the focal point (flux density maximum) at fixed supermirror curvature, and the ability of a variable curvature to keep the focal point at the sample position. Our simulations are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions and the experimentally measured beam profile. With respect to the possibility of a further upgrade, we find that supermirror coatings with m-values higher than 3.5 would have only marginal influence on the optimal behaviour, whereas comparable spectrometers could take advantage of longer focusing segments, with particular impact for the thermal region of the neutron spectrum.

  5. Parâmetros sanguíneos de vacas leiteiras suplementadas com diferentes fontes de gordura Blood parameters of dairy cows supplemented with different fat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Esler de Freitas Júnior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de diferentes fontes de gordura nas rações de vacas em lactação e seus efeitos sobre o consumo de matéria seca e as concentrações dos parâmetros sangüíneos. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandês, agrupadas em três quadrados latinos balanceados 4x4 e alimentadas com as seguintes rações: 1 controle; 2 óleo de soja refinado; 3 grão de soja in natura; e 4 sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos (Megalac-E. As concentrações de colesterol total, colesterol, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e colesterol de alta densidade (HDL foram maiores (PThis study was carried out to evaluate the use of different fat sources in dairy cows rations and its effects on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, and blood parameter. Twelve Holstein cows were allocated in three balanced latin square 4x4, and fed with the following rations: 1 Control, with 2.5%; 2 Refined soybean oil; 3 Whole soybean; and 4, Calcium salts of fatty acids (Megalac-E. The concentrations of total cholesterol and lipoprotein low density (LDL were higher (P<0.05 for cows that received rations with fat sources, which also causes increased (P<0.05 e concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL. The concentrations of urea and blood urea nitrogen were similar among the rations, except for the diet containing calcium salts of fatty acids, which showed lower (P<0.05. The dry matter intake was lower (P<0.05 in cows that received calcium salts in the rations. The animals that received a diet containing whole soybeans as a source of fat had lower (P<0.05 yield milk when compared to other rations used. The use of fat sources in dairy cows rations influenced the blood parameters, especially for parameters related to lipidogram.

  6. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  7. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  8. Characterizing the Sources and Processing of Submicron Aerosols at a Coastal Site near Houston, TX, with a Specific Focus on the Impact of Regional Shipping Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, B.; Wallace, H. W., IV; Bui, A.; Flynn, J. H., III; Erickson, M. H.; Griffin, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Texas Gulf Coast region historically has been influenced heavily by regional shipping emissions. However, the effects of the recent establishment of the North American Emissions Control Area (ECA) on aerosol properties in this region are presently unknown. In order to understand better the current sources and processing mechanisms influencing coastal aerosol near Houston, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed for three weeks at a coastal location during May-June 2016. Total mass loadings of organic and inorganic non-refractory aerosol components during onshore flow periods were similar to those published before establishment of the regulations. Using estimated methanesulfonic acid (MSA) mass loadings and published biogenic MSA:non-sea-salt-sulfate (nss-SO4) ratios, we determined that over 70% of nss-SO4 over the Gulf was from anthropogenic sources, predominantly shipping emissions. Mass spectral analysis indicated that for periods with similar backward-trajectory-averaged meteorological conditions, air masses influenced by shipping emissions have an increased mass fraction of ions related to carboxylic acids and a significantly larger oxygen-to-carbon (O:C) ratio than air masses that stay within the ECA boundary, suggesting that shipping emissions impact marine organic aerosol (OA) oxidation state. Amine fragment mass loadings were positively correlated with anthropogenic nss-SO4 during onshore flow, implying anthropogenic-biogenic interaction in marine OA production. Five OA factors were resolved by positive matrix factorization, corresponding to a hydrocarbon-like OA, a semi-volatile OA, and three different oxygenated organic aerosols ranked by their O:C ratio (OOA-1, OOA-2, and OOA-3). OOA-1 constituted the majority of OA mass during a period likely influenced by aqueous-phase processing and may be linked to local glyoxal/methylglyoxal-related sources. OOA-2 was produced within the Houston urban region and was

  9. FONTES ENERGÉTICAS PARA SUPLEMENTAÇÃO DE BEZERROS DESMAMADOS PRECOCEMENTE, MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE (Pennisetum purpureum, SCHUM. ENERGETIC SOURCES FOR SUPPLEMENTATION OF EARLY WEANED BEEF CALVES KEPT ON ELEPHANT GRASS PASTURE (Pennisetum pupureum, SCHUM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joilmaro Rodrigo Pereira Rosa

    2008-04-01

    . The average pasture forage mass of the whole plant was 7285.59 kg of dry matter/ha, with 34.31% of leaves. No influence was observed for the energetic sources on the average daily weight gain, being .867; .841; .753 and .817 kg for soybean hulls, ground corn grain, rice bran and the mixture, respectively. The average daily weight gain showed a quadratic response according to the experimental periods (1,119-0,024X+0,00034X2. The final weight was higher for calves supplemented with ground corn grain (162 kg than for those supplemented with rice bran (156 kg, both not differing from those supplemented with soybean hulls (160 kg or the mixture (158 kg.The final body condition was higher for animals that received soybean hulls and the mixture (3.62 and 3.64, respectively, comparing with those that received ground corn grain or rice bran (3.48 and 3.43, respectively. Key Words: Body condition, soybean hulls, rice bran, corn grain, weight gain

  10. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  11. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  12. 13.1 micrometers hard X-ray focusing by a new type monocapillary X-ray optic designed for common laboratory X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuepeng; zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Shang, Hongzhong; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2018-04-01

    A new type of monocapillary X-ray optic, called 'two bounces monocapillary X-ray optics' (TBMXO), is proposed for generating a small focal spot with high power-density gain for micro X-ray analysis, using a common laboratory X-ray source. TBMXO is consists of two parts: an ellipsoidal part and a tapered part. Before experimental testing, the TBMXO was simulated by the ray tracing method in MATLAB. The simulated results predicted that the proposed TBMXO would produce a smaller focal spot with higher power-density gain than the ellipsoidal monocapillary X-ray optic (EMXO). In the experiment, the TBMXO performance was tested by both an optical device and a Cu target X-ray tube with focal spot of 100 μm. The results indicated that the TBMXO had a slope error of 57.6 μrad and a 13.1 μm focal spot and a 1360 gain in power density were obtained.

  13. A dense plasma focus-based neutron source for a single-shot detection of illicit materials and explosives by a nanosecond neutron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribkov, V A; Latyshev, S V; Miklaszewski, R A; Chernyshova, M; Drozdowicz, K; Wiacek, U; Tomaszewski, K; Lemeshko, B D

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in a single-pulse Nanosecond Impulse Neutron Investigation System (NINIS) intended for interrogation of hidden objects by means of measuring elastically scattered neutrons is presented in this paper. The method uses very bright neutron pulses having duration of the order of 10 ns only, which are generated by dense plasma focus (DPF) devices filled with pure deuterium or DT mixture as a working gas. The small size occupied by the neutron bunch in space, number of neutrons per pulse and mono-chromaticity (ΔE/E∼1%) of the neutron spectrum provides the opportunity to use a time-of-flight (TOF) technique with flying bases of about a few metres. In our researches we used DPF devices having bank energy in the range 2-7 kJ. The devices generate a neutron yield of the level of 10 8 -10 9 2.45 MeV and 10 10 -10 11 14 MeV neutrons per pulse with pulse duration ∼10-20 ns. TOF base in the tests was 2.2-18.5 m. We have demonstrated the possibility of registering of neutrons scattered by the substances under investigation-1 litre bottles with methanol (CH 3 OH), phosphoric (H 2 PO 4 ) and nitric (HNO 3 ) acids as well as a long object-a 1 m gas tank filled with deuterium at high pressure. It is shown that the above mentioned short TOF bases and relatively low neutron yields are enough to distinguish different elements' nuclei composing the substance under interrogation and to characterize the geometry of lengthy objects in some cases. The wavelet technique was employed to 'clean' the experimental data registered. The advantages and restrictions of the proposed and tested NINIS technique in comparison with other methods are discussed.

  14. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  15. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  16. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos para bezerros Nelore em creep-feeding: desempenho produtivo, consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Energy sources in multiple supplements for Nellore calves in creep-feeding: productive performance, nutrient intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo, o consumo e a digestibilidade em bezerros Nelore em fase de amamentação em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementada com diferentes fontes de energia. A área foi dividida em cinco piquetes de 6,8 ha, com disponibilidade média de matéria seca e matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 4,10 e 2,38 t/ha, respectivamente. Foram utilizados 45 bezerros Nelore, com peso e idade iniciais de 96,0 ± 11,0 kg e 101 ± 12 dias, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5 × 2 (cinco suplementos e dois sexos. Os suplementos foram: MM - mistura mineral (controle; GM - farelo de soja (FS + grão de milho triturado (GM e mistura mineral; FTGM - farelo de soja + farelo de trigo + grão de milho triturado e mistura mineral; FA - farelo de soja + farelo de arroz e mistura mineral; GMS - farelo de soja + grão de milho triturado + grão de sorgo triturados e mistura mineral, fornecidos diariamente na quantidade de 60 g/animal para o grupo controle e 500 g/animal para os demais suplementos. Os animais que receberam suplemento múltiplo com milho e sorgo como fonte de energia proporcionaram ganho diário médio adicional de 100 g/animal (16,39% em comparação à mistura mineral. O uso do suplemento múltiplo à base de grão de milho como fonte de energia reduziu o consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica de pasto e fibra em detergente neutro em relação às fontes energéticas farelo de arroz e à combinação de milho com sorgo. A suplementação com as fontes de energia, sobretudo as combinações de farelo de trigo e milho ou de milho e sorgo, podem proporcionar ganhos adicionais em animais em creep-feeding. A suplementação múltipla aumenta o consumo de pasto quando se utilizam grão de milho e sorgo combinados como fonte de energia.The performance, intake and digestibility were evaluated in Nellore beef calves supplemented with different energy sources in Brachiaria decumbens pasture

  17. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.

  18. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  19. Complementarity in dietary supplements and foods: are supplement users vegetable eaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoung-Goo; Joo, Hailey Hayeon; Choi, Kyong Duk; Lee, Dongmin; Moon, Junghoon

    2017-01-01

    Background : The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and dietary supplements correlate. Most previous studies have aimed to identify the determinants of supplement uses or the distinct features of supplement users; this literature lacks a discussion on dietary supplement consumption as a predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Objective : This study examines how dietary supplement consumption correlates with fruit and vegetable consumption by combining scanner data and surveys of Korean household grocery shopping. Methods : Propensity score matching (PSM) is used to identify the relationship between dietary supplement consumption and fruit and vegetable consumption in a household. A logit regression using supplement consumption as the dependent variable is used. Then, the supplement takers (the treatment group) are matched with non-takers (the control group) based on the propensity scores estimated in the logit regression. The fruit and vegetable consumption levels of the groups are then compared. Results : We found that dietary supplement use is associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. This supports the health consciousness hypothesis based on attention bias, availability heuristics, the focusing effect, and the consumption episode effect. It rejects the health substitute hypothesis based on economic substitutes and mental accounting. Conclusions : Future research on the health benefits of dietary supplements should address the complementary consumption of fruits/vegetables and their health benefits to avoid misstating the health effects of supplements.

  20. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  1. Boron supplementation in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Fassani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Boron supplementation in broiler feed is not a routine practice. However, some reports suggest a positive effect of boron on performance. This study assessed the effects of boron supplementation on broiler performance. Diets were based on maize and soybean meal, using boric acid P.A. as boron source. Six supplementation levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm were evaluated using 1,440 one-day old males housed at a density of 30 chickens in each of 48 experimental plots of 3m². A completely randomized block design was used with 8 replicates. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were assessed in the periods from 1 to 7 days, 1 to 21 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and viability was evaluated for the total 42-day rearing period. No performance variable was affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05 in the period from 1 to 7 days. The regression analysis indicated an ideal level of 37.4 ppm of boron for weight gain from 1 to 21 days (p0.05, although feed intake was reduced linearly with increased boron levels (p0.05. Ash and calcium percentages in the tibias of broilers and viability in the total rearing period were not affected by boron supplementation (p>0.05.

  2. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  3. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the “virtual” X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  4. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  5. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  6. Taking iron supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007478.htm Taking iron supplements To use the sharing features on this page, ... levels. You may also need to take iron supplements as well to rebuild iron stores in your ...

  7. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  8. Use of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Clair Garcez NABUCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence and establish the profile of the consumption of dietary supplements among Brazilian athletes. Methods: A total of 182 athletes of both genders from 20 different sports participated in this study. The athletes answered a questionnaire containing sociodemographic and sports-related questions and were interviewed about the consumption of dietary supplements. Results: Forty seven percent of athletes reported having consumed at least one type of dietary supplement and 38% said they use more than three different types of supplements concurrently. Whey protein was the most commonly consumed supplement, and the most frequently mentioned reason for its consumption was performance improvement. The main source of information was coaches, and individual sport athletes were the greatest consumers and the most likely to seek dietary supplement. Conclusion: Approximately half of the participants used dietary supplements, which on most occasions were recommended by coaches. The consumption profile also revealed multiple supplementation practice and showed that nutrition education is essential for this specific population.

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  10. Efeito da suplementação com pupunha como fonte de vitamina A em dieta: estudo em ratos Effect of supplementation with peach palm as source of vitamin A: study with rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia K.O. Yuyama

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito da suplementação com pupunha (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., polpa cozida e transformada em farinha, como fonte de vitamina A, em dieta regional de Manaus, AM,Brasil, por meio do ensaio biológico com ratos. A metodologia utilizada foi da depleção dos animais em zinco e vitamina A, seguida da repleção com a dieta regional (DR, DR + pupunha, DR + vitamina A e dieta controle (DC. A dieta foi elaborada para famílias com rendimentos inferiores a dois salários-mínimos. Foram utilizadas ratas albinas adultas pós-parto, cada qual com 6 filhotes machos, que receberam ração à base de caseína lavada com EDTA a 1%, sem adição de Zn e vitamina A, por 25 dias, com a finalidade de obtenção de animais recém-desmamados deficientes nestes dois nutrientes. O período de repleção dos animais, recém-desmamados, foi de 30 dias e o delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos de 8 animais cada. A suplementação efetuada seguiu as recomendações do "Committee on Laboratory Animal Diets". Os parâmetros empregados para a avaliação da utilização de vitamina A foram as concentrações de vitamina A no fígado e plasma e o crescimento dos animais. Ao final do experimento, observou-se que os animais que consumiram a ração à base da dieta regional de Manaus, suplementada com pupunha e vitamina A, apresentaram, respectivamente, concentração significativamente maior de vitamina A no fígado, 43,3 ± 6,5 µg/g e 42,0 ± 4,3 µg/g em relação à dieta regional, 5,5 ± 1,1 µg/g (pThe effect of supplementation with peach palm (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., as an alternative source of vit. A, in the regional diet of Manaus, AM, Brazil, in which the pulp was cooked and transformed into flour, was studied. The biological trial involved rats which were depleted in zinc and vitamin A, followed by repletion using the regional diet (RD, RD plus peach palm and RD plus vitamin A. The parameters used to determine the utilization

  11. CAM and Hepatitis C: A Focus on Herbal Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sophora root), chlorella (a type of algae), black cumin (Nigella sativa) , S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), and thymus ... 184. Prasad AS. Zinc: role in immunity, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation . Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition ...

  12. Optimization of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with filter cake: Effects of macronutrients supplementation on conversion kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F; Schüch, Andrea; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw co-digested with sugarcane filter cake was investigated with a special focus on macronutrients supplementation for an optimized conversion process. Experimental data from batch tests and a semi-continuous experiment operated in different supplementation phases were used for modeling the conversion kinetics based on continuous stirred-tank reactors. The semi-continuous experiment showed an overall decrease in the performance along the inoculum washout from the reactors. By supplementing nitrogen alone or in combination to phosphorus and sulfur the specific methane production significantly increased (P0.99), the use of the depicted kinetics did not provide a good estimation for process simulation of the semi-continuous process (in any supplementation phase), possibly due to the different feeding modes and inoculum source, activity and adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "Test me and treat me"--attitudes to vitamin D deficiency and supplementation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Siddharth; Gadhvi, Dev; Jakeways, Niki; Saeed, Maryum; Sohanpal, Ratna; Hull, Sally; Famakin, Olufunke; Martineau, Adrian; Griffiths, Chris

    2015-07-14

    Lay interest in vitamin D and the potential benefits of supplementation is considerable, but little information exists concerning lay knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards vitamin D to inform public health initiatives and professional guidance. Qualitative focus group study. 58 adults capturing diversity in disease status, gender, age and ethnicity. A large general practice in east London. Many respondents lacked knowledge about vitamin D, including dietary sources and government recommendations. Most were positive about sun exposure, but confused by ambiguous health messages about risks and benefits of sunshine. Medicalised views of vitamin D were prominent, notably from those in favour of supplementation, who talked of "doses", "side effects" and "regular testing." Fortification of food with vitamin D was controversial, with opposing utilitarian (better overall for the majority) and libertarian (freedom to choose) views. Knowledge about vitamin D was limited. Clearer messages are needed about risks and benefits of sun exposure. Testing and supplementation by health professionals, while potentially useful in some high-risk groups, have contributed to a medicalised view of vitamin D. Health policy should address the public's need for clear information on sources and effects of vitamin D, including risks and benefits of sun exposure, and take account of divergent views on fortification. Professional guidance is needed on testing and supplementation to counter inappropriate medicalisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H - volume sources and, especially, caesiated H - volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H - ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H - volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H - sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H - beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H - sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H - output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source. (author)

  15. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  16. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  17. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Agnes A.M.; Lieshout, van Lilou E.L.M.; Heuvel, van den Ellen G.H.M.; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch

  18. Resveratrol food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consumers increasingly choose food supplements in addition to their diet. Research on supplement users finds they are likely to be female, older and well-educated; Furthermore, supplement users are often characterised as being especially health-oriented, an observation which is termed...... the ‘inverse supplement hypothesis’. However, results are dependent on the substance in question. Little is known so far about botanicals in general, and more specifically, little is known about resveratrol. The psychographic variables of food supplement users are yet relatively underexplored. By comparing US...... and Danish respondents, we aimed to identify whether sociodemographic variables, health status, health beliefs and behaviour and interest in food aspects specifically relevant to resveratrol (e.g., naturalness, indulgence, and Mediterranean food) explain favourable attitudes and adoption intentions toward...

  19. Frequência de suplementação e fontes de proteína para recria de bovinos em pastejo no período seco: desempenho produtivo e econômico Supplementation frequency and proteins sources for growing of steers in pasture during the dry season: productive and economical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcino Francisco de Paula

    2010-04-01

    effects of the frequency of supplementation with two proteins sources on productive and economical performance (experiment 1 and the nutrients digestibility of steers in supplemented pasture during the dry season over a year. It was used twenty weaned zebu calves at the age of 10 months and initial live weight (LW of 208.43 kg, distributed in four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, each one with 1.6 ha. Both experiments were structured in 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two supplements (with soybean meal and high energy cottonseed meal. There was no protein sources × supplementation frequency interaction for any of the economical and productive performance traits. The protein sources didn't affect the daily average gain, but the frequency of supply affected performance, which was better in the animals under supplementation at three times a week (0.670 kg /day. The highest economic return was obtained with the offer of supplement with cottonseed meal three times a week. The frequency of supplementation affect the nutrients intake, while the protein source of the supplement had effect only on the ethereal extract intake, which was higher in the animals that consumed the supplement with cottonseed meal. The supplement with high energy cottonseed meal provided higher digestibility of diet crude protein. The supply of supplement three times a week, not only reduces the costs of supplementation, but it possibilities a higher performance than the one obtained with daily supplementation. The use of higher energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements replacing soybean meal is satisfactory mainly under economical point of view.

  20. Rumen microorganisms decrease bioavailability of inorganic selenium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the availaility of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study w...

  1. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  2. Main issues in micronutrient supplementation in phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammardo, A. M.; Robert, M.; Rocha, J. C.; van Rijn, M.; Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; MacDonald, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Goyens, P.; Feillet, F.

    2013-01-01

    For almost all patients with PKU, a low phenylalanine diet is the basis of the treatment despite a widely varying natural protein tolerance. A vitamin and mineral supplement is essential and it is commonly added to a phenylalanine-free (phe-free) source of L-amino acids. In PKU, many phe-free

  3. Supplemental energy sources for Santa Inês sheep grazing on urochloa grass in the dry season Fontes energéticas suplementares para ovinos Santa Inês em pastagens de capim urocloa na época seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The trial aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding of 1% body weight of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (mesquite pod meal , sorghum meal or wheat bran, or without concentrate supplementation on behavioral parameters and cost of production of sheep kept in grazing urocloa grass. We used 24 Santa Inês sheep, non-castrated, weaned with body weight averaging 20 ± 2kg and an average of 120 days of age. The animals were assigned in the four treatments consisting by animals fed forage under deferred grazing of Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis. The dry matter intake was significant and the values were higher to the animals what receive concentrate supplement. The differences in the dry matter intake did not affect the feeding activity, already the time of grazing had a higher value for the animals without concentrate supplementation, in compared with other. The time of rumination was higher for treating without concentrate supplementation . The number of ruminated bolus (nº/day and chewing time/bolus (sec were not affected. The feeding efficiency (g DM/hours and rumination efficiency (g DM/hours were lower for the treatment without concentrate supplementation . The economic result was positive for all treatments with concentrate supplementation, however, the without concentrate supplementation treatment showed negative revenue. The concentrate supplementation positively influences the efficiency of feeding that reflects in minor time grazing, being that the economic return depends on the price and availability of fed.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de 1% do peso corporal de suplementação concentrada, formulada com diferentes ingredientes (farelo da vagem de algaroba, farelo de sorgo ou farelo de trigo, ou sem suplementação concentrada sobre os parâmetros comportamentais e custo de produção de ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim urocloa. Foram utilizados 24 ovinos Santa Inês, n

  4. Calcium supplementation in osteoporosis: useful or harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Bolland, Mark J

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are important social and economic problems worldwide and are due to both the loss of bone mineral density and sarcopenia. Indeed, fragility fractures are associated with increased disability, morbidity and mortality. It is known that a normal calcium balance together with a normal vitamin D status is important for maintaining well-balanced bone metabolism, and for many years, calcium and vitamin D have been considered crucial in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, recently, the usefulness of calcium supplementation (alone or with concomitant vitamin D) has been questioned, since some studies reported only weak efficacy of these supplementations in reducing fragility fracture risk. On the other hand, besides the gastrointestinal side effects of calcium supplements and the risk of kidney stones related to use of co-administered calcium and vitamin D supplements, other recent data suggested potential adverse cardiovascular effects from calcium supplementation. This debate article is focused on the evidence regarding both the possible usefulness for bone health and the potential harmful effects of calcium and/or calcium with vitamin D supplementation. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gezari, D.Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed

  6. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  7. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  8. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  9. Photosynthetically supplemental lighting for vegetable crop production with super-bright laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongguang; Li, Pingping; Shi, Jintong

    2007-02-01

    Although many artificial light sources like high-pressure sodium lamp, metal halide lamp, fluorescent lamp and so on are commonly used in horticulture, they are not widely applied because of the disadvantages of unreasonable spectra, high cost and complex control. Recently new light sources of light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) are becoming more and more popular in the field of display and illumination with the improvement of material and manufacturing, long life-span and increasingly low cost. A new type of super-bright red LD (BL650, central wavelength is 650 nm) was selected to make up of the supplemental lighting panel, on which LDs were distributed with regular hexagon array. Drive circuit was designed to power it and adjust light intensity. System performance including temperature rise and light intensity distribution under different vertical/horizontal distances were tested. Photosynthesis of sweet pepper and eggplant leaf under LD was measured with LI-6400 to show the supplemental lighting effects. The results show that LD system can supply the maximum light intensity of 180 μmol/m2 •s at the distance of 50 mm below the panel and the temperature rise is little within 1 °C. Net photosynthetic rate became faster when LD system increased light intensity. Compared with sunlight and LED supplemental lighting system, LD's promotion on photosynthesis is in the middle. Thus it is feasible for LD light source to supplement light for vegetable crops. Further study would focus on the integration of LD and other artificial light sources.

  10. SUPPLEMENT: “GOING THE DISTANCE: MAPPING HOST GALAXIES OF LIGO AND VIRGO SOURCES IN THREE DIMENSIONS USING LOCAL COSMOGRAPHY AND TARGETED FOLLOW-UP” (2016, ApJL, 829, L15)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Leo P.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John [Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chen, Hsin-Yu; Holz, Daniel E.; Farr, Ben [Department of Physics, Enrico Fermi Institute, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Farr, Will M.; Veitch, John; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Mandel, Ilya [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Price, Larry R.; Raymond, Vivien [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nissanke, Samaya [Institute of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Coughlin, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Urban, Alex L. [Leonard E. Parker Center for Gravitation, Cosmology, and Astrophysics, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Vitale, Salvatore; Mohapatra, Satya [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 185 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Graff, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This is a supplement to the Letter of Singer et al., in which we demonstrated a rapid algorithm for obtaining joint 3D estimates of sky location and luminosity distance from observations of binary neutron star mergers with Advanced LIGO and Virgo. We argued that combining the reconstructed volumes with positions and redshifts of possible host galaxies can provide large-aperture but small field of view instruments with a manageable list of targets to search for optical or infrared emission. In this Supplement, we document the new HEALPix-based file format for 3D localizations of gravitational-wave transients. We include Python sample code to show the reader how to perform simple manipulations of the 3D sky maps and extract ranked lists of likely host galaxies. Finally, we include mathematical details of the rapid volume reconstruction algorithm.

  11. Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products and Dietary Supplements Are Not Interchangeable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilleman, Daniel; Smer, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    To provide an overview of prescription and dietary supplement omega-3 fatty acid (OM3-FA) products and considerations for clinical use. Narrative review. The PubMed database was searched for cardiovascular-related investigations focused on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (limit: English-only articles). Additional regulatory information on prescription and dietary supplements was obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration online sources. Prescription QM3-FA products are supported by robust clinical development and safety monitoring programs, whereas dietary supplements are not required to demonstrate safety or efficacy prior to marketing. There are no over-the-counter OM3-FA products available in the United States. Investigations of OM3-FA dietary supplements show that quantities of EPA and DHA are highly variable within and between brands. Dietary supplements also may contain potentially harmful components, including oxidized OM3-FA, other lipids, cholesterol, and toxins. Prescription OM3-FA products may contain DHA and EPA or EPA alone. All prescription OM3-FA products have demonstrated statistically significant triglyceride reduction as monotherapy or in combination with statins in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Differential effects between products containing EPA and DHA compared with a high-purity EPA product (icosapent ethyl) have clinical implications: Increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with DHA have the potential to confound strategies for managing patients with dyslipidemia. Cardiovascular outcomes studies of prescription CM3-FA products are ongoing. OM3-FA dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products, and prescription OM3-FA products that contain DHA are not equivalent to or interchangeable with high-purity EPA (icosapent ethyl) and should not be substituted for it.

  12. Iron supplements (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  13. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements, making it hard to identify any benefits from the MVMs. Should I take an MVM? MVMs cannot take the place of eating a variety of foods that are important to a healthy diet. Foods ...

  14. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  15. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  16. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  17. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  18. Suplementação infrequente e fontes proteicas para recria de bovinos em pastejo no período seco: parâmetros nutricionais Infrequent supplementation and protein sources for growing steers grazing in the dry season: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Paula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os efeitos de fontes proteicas e da frequência de fornecimento de suplemento sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, as concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3, o pH ruminal e o nitrogênio ureico no soro de bovinos recriados em pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu no período seco. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Nelore × Angus fistulados no rúmen, castrados, com peso médio inicial de 295 kg em um delineamento quadrado latino 5 × 5. Avaliaram-se dois suplementos isoproteicos, um com farelo de soja (FS e outro com farelo de algodão de alta energia, fornecidos em duas frequências: diariamente (7 vezes por semana e 3 vezes por semana (segundas, quartas e sextas-feiras; e mistura mineral (MM. A suplementação aumentou o consumo de PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, em kg/dia. O suplemento com farelo de algodão o consumo de extrato etéreo. Houve efeito positivo da suplementação 3 vezes por semana sobre os consumos de matéria seca total, de forragem, de matéria orgânica de forragem, carboidratos totais (CT e FDN. A suplementação reduziu a digestibilidade da FDN e aumentou a de PB. O suplemento com farelo de algodão reduziu a digestibilidade de FDN e carboidratos totais. A suplementação 3 vezes por semana não afetou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes nem o pH ruminal. O consumo de suplemento aumenta as concentrações de N-NH3, principalmente se realizado 3 vezes por semana. As concentrações de nitrogênio ureico no soro de bovinos em pastejo aumentam com o consumo de suplementos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein sources and frequency of supplement offer on the intake and nutrient digestibility, on the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3, on rumen pH and on serum urea nitrogen concentrations in steers grazing pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu during the dry season. Five crossbred Zebu

  19. Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. McNabney

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance.

  20. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  1. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  2. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  3. Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Les G; Dalvi Tapashi B; Norkus Edward P; Jensen Christopher D; Block Gladys; McManus Jamie F; Hudes Mark L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplement use in the United States is prevalent and represents an important source of nutrition. However, little is known about individuals who routinely consume multiple dietary supplements. This study describes the dietary supplement usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users, and where possible makes comparisons to non-users and multivitamin/mineral supplement users. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design...

  4. Supplementation in the Columbia Basin : Summary Report Series : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-12-01

    This progress report broadly defines the scope of supplementation plans and activities in the Columbia Basin. It provides the foundation for more detailed analysis of supplementation in subsequent reports in this series. Topics included in this report are: definition of supplementation, project diversity, objectives and performance standards, uncertainties and theory. Since this is a progress report, the content is subject to modification with new information. The supplementation theory will continue to evolve throughout the duration of RASP and beyond. The other topics in this report are essentially complete and are not expected to change significantly. This is the first of a series of four reports which will summarize information contained in the larger, RASP progress and completion reports. Our goal is to make the findings of RASP more accessible by grouping related topics into smaller but complete narratives on important aspects of supplementation. We are planning to publish the following reports under the general title Supplementation in the Columbia River Basin: Part 1, Background, Description, Performance Measures, Uncertainty and Theory; Part 2, Theoretical Framework and Models; Part 3, Planning Guidelines; and Part 4, Regional Coordination of Research and Monitoring. Supplementation is expected to be a major contributor to the planned increase in salmon and steelhead production in the Columbia Basin. The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) uses three approaches to protect and enhance salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin: (1) enhance fish production; (2) improve passage in the mainstem rivers; and (3) revise harvest management to support the rebuilding of fish runs (NPPC 1987). The fish production segment calls for a three-part approach focused on natural production, hatchery production, and supplementation. Supplementation is planned to provide over half of the total production increases. The Regional Assessment

  5. Equine dietary supplements: an insight into their use and perceptions in the Irish equine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J M D; Hanna, E; Hastie, P

    2018-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are frequently used by horse owners/caregivers to supplement their horse(s) diets. Some work has been done to identify the types of supplements fed and the reasons for doing so; however, this has been predominantly disciple-specific and with little focus on participants' perceptions of supplement testing and regulation. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the use and perceptions of equine dietary supplements in the Irish equestrian industry. An online survey was designed to ascertain the following information: demographics, types of supplements fed and reasons for use, factors that influenced respondents' choice of supplement, where advice was sought and perceptions of testing and regulation of equine supplements. The survey yielded 134 responses, 70% non-professionals and 30% professionals. A greater percentage of professionals included supplements in their horse(s) diets (98%) compared to non-professionals (86%). Almost 70% of professionals fed more than two supplements, whereas 80% of non-professionals reported to feed only one supplement. Joint supplements were most commonly fed by all respondents (22%) followed by calming supplements (13%). The enhancement of performance (35%) and prevention of joint disorders (34%) were the most common reasons reported by respondents for using a supplement. Over 53% of respondents sought advice on choosing a supplement from their feed merchant, followed by their veterinarian (46%). Veterinary recommendation was given as the most influential factor when choosing a supplement by 90% of respondents, followed by cost (69%). Most (93%) respondents thought that feed supplements had to meet legal standards, with each batch analysed for quality (72%) and the supplement tested on horses before being launched on to the market (92%). This study has identified the main types of supplements used in the Irish equestrian industry along with the reasons for their use. However, it has also highlighted

  6. Inszenierung eines Supplements / Staging a Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas-M. Seibert

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Richter Adam, Anwalt Liebling und William, der Detektiv. Die Rechtspraxis setzt etwas voraus, das sie nicht nur begründet oder ergänzt, sondern grundsätzlich in Frage stellt. So macht der Zwang, in einem Verfahren zu entscheiden und zu begründen, zugleich deutlich, dass jede Form der Entscheidung unangemessen, unbegründet und in ganz anderer Weise neu herzustellen ist. Das ist das juridische Supplement im Geiste von Jacques Derrida. Supplementiert wird die Wahrheit des Rechts in anderen Medien: in Drama, Film und Literatur etwa. Dort wird in Szene gesetzt, was in der real erlebbaren Rechtswelt nicht wirklich erlebt werden kann, was aber doch – wie kein Amtsträger bestreiten würde – zum Verfahrensergebnis gehört. Judge Adam, Advocate “Liebling” and William, the Detective. Legal practice is based on something that is not only an integral part of it and complements it, but also puts it into question generally. The compulsion to argue and reach decisions in a legal trial clarifies simultaneously that all forms of decision are inapproprate, unreasonable, and can be recreated in an entirely new manner [to suit the needs of the trial]. This is the legalistic supplement in the spirit of Jacques Derrida. The legal truth is supplemented by other forms of media such as drama, film and literature, which are able to stage scenes that cannot be experienced in a real life legal world, but – as no legal official would deny – are an integral part of the trial and verdict procedure.

  7. “Test me and treat me”—attitudes to vitamin D deficiency and supplementation: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Siddharth; Gadhvi, Dev; Jakeways, Niki; Saeed, Maryum; Sohanpal, Ratna; Hull, Sally; Famakin, Olufunke; Martineau, Adrian; Griffiths, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lay interest in vitamin D and the potential benefits of supplementation is considerable, but little information exists concerning lay knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards vitamin D to inform public health initiatives and professional guidance. Design Qualitative focus group study. Participants 58 adults capturing diversity in disease status, gender, age and ethnicity. Setting A large general practice in east London. Results Many respondents lacked knowledge about vitamin D, including dietary sources and government recommendations. Most were positive about sun exposure, but confused by ambiguous health messages about risks and benefits of sunshine. Medicalised views of vitamin D were prominent, notably from those in favour of supplementation, who talked of “doses”, “side effects” and “regular testing.” Fortification of food with vitamin D was controversial, with opposing utilitarian (better overall for the majority) and libertarian (freedom to choose) views. Conclusions Knowledge about vitamin D was limited. Clearer messages are needed about risks and benefits of sun exposure. Testing and supplementation by health professionals, while potentially useful in some high-risk groups, have contributed to a medicalised view of vitamin D. Health policy should address the public's need for clear information on sources and effects of vitamin D, including risks and benefits of sun exposure, and take account of divergent views on fortification. Professional guidance is needed on testing and supplementation to counter inappropriate medicalisation. PMID:26173717

  8. Consumption of nutritional supplements among adolescents: usage and perceived benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents, and the reasons for their consumption, with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. Semi-structured focus group interviews (n = 16) were conducted among 78 adolescents aged 11-18 years from a co-educational government high school. Participants reported consuming sports drinks, vitamin and mineral supplements, energy drinks, herbal supplements, guarana, creatine, high protein milk supplements, and coenzyme Q10. Reasons for supplement use included perceived short-term health benefits, prevention of illness, improved immunity, parental supply of supplements, taste, energy boost, better sports performance and to rectify a poor diet. Results suggest that some adolescents consume nutritional supplements, sports drinks and energy drinks for their perceived physiological benefits, and that they may not be aware of any potential risks. Health educators should be aware that adolescents seek specific health benefits from nutritional supplements and drinks, which may be better achieved through appropriate consumption of a nutritious diet. Health education programmes should incorporate the perceptions, aspirations and motivations of young people into the planning of interventions and activities in order to make them most relevant and effective.

  9. Local e extensão da digestão em terneiros desmamados alimentados "Ad Libitum" com dietas ricas em concentrado contendo diferentes fontes de proteína suplementar Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed "Ad Libitum" on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilmar Kozloski

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg, fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10. A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (PNine weaned Holstein calves (139 ± 2.4kg fitted with duodenal cannulas were used in a completly ramdomized design to study the effects of supplemental protein sources (2% of urea or 10% of meat meal of high concentrate diets (corn and soybean meal on site and extent of digestion of feed, in ad libitum feeding conditions. The forage:concentrate ratio was 30:70. The ruminal and total digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and nitrogen, as well as microbial and feed residual nitrogen duodenal flow, and the microbial protein synthesis efficiency were similar for both treatments (P>0.10. The ruminal digestibility of starch was also similar, but total digestibility was lower for urea treatment (P<0.10. However, this is probably due more to the limited capacity of ruminants to digest starch in the intestines than to an effect of the protein supplement. The use of urea or meat meal, as supplemental protein sources for corn and soybean meal based diets, formulated to supply the growth requirements of calves fed ad libitum, did not affect the digestion process.Thus, the choise of the protein

  10. Fluid supplementation for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Nai Ming; Ahmad Kamar, Azanna; Choo, Yao Mun; Kong, Juin Yee; Ngim, Chin Fang

    2017-08-01

    quality of evidence, downgraded one level for imprecision).One study contributed to all outcome data in the comparison of IV versus oral fluid supplementation. In this comparison, no infant in either group developed abnormal neurological signs. Serum bilirubin, as well as the rate of change of serum bilirubin, were similar between the two groups at four hours after phototherapy (serum bilirubin: MD 11.00 μmol/L (0.64 mg/dL), 95% CI -21.58 (-1.26) to 43.58 (2.55); rate of change of serum bilirubin: MD 0.80 μmol/L/hour (0.05 mg/dL/hour), 95% CI -2.55 (-0.15) to 4.15 (0.24); participants = 54 in both outcomes) (moderate quality of evidence for both outcomes, downgraded one level for indirectness). The number of infants who required exchange transfusion was similar between the two groups (RR 1.60, 95% CI 0.60 to 4.27; RD 0.11, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.34; participants = 54). No infant in either group developed adverse effects including vomiting or abdominal distension. There is no evidence that IV fluid supplementation affects important clinical outcomes such as bilirubin encephalopathy, kernicterus, or cerebral palsy in healthy, term newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia requiring phototherapy. In this review, no infant developed these bilirubin-associated clinical complications. Low- to moderate-quality evidence shows that there are differences in total serum bilirubin levels between fluid-supplemented and control groups at some time points but not at others, the clinical significance of which is uncertain. There is no evidence of a difference between the effectiveness of IV and oral fluid supplementations in reducing serum bilirubin. Similarly, no infant developed adverse events or complications from fluid supplementation such as vomiting or abdominal distension. This suggests a need for future research to focus on different population groups with possibly higher baseline risks of bilirubin-related neurological complications, such as preterm or low birthweight

  11. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  12. Supplementation in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    We therefore designed this study to measure thoracic aortic ring .... contraction obtained from pilot study (1 x 10-6. M for control and 1 x .... muscle cell hyperpolarisation20. Similarly, several reports have suggested that potassium supplementation enhances endothelium- dependent relaxations, increased vascular activity of ...

  13. Creatine supplementation and glycemic control: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Camila Lemos; Botelho, Patrícia Borges; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Campos-Ferraz, Patrícia Lopes; Mota, João Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The focus of this review is the effects of creatine supplementation with or without exercise on glucose metabolism. A comprehensive examination of the past 16 years of study within the field provided a distillation of key data. Both in animal and human studies, creatine supplementation together with exercise training demonstrated greater beneficial effects on glucose metabolism; creatine supplementation itself demonstrated positive results in only a few of the studies. In the animal studies, the effects of creatine supplementation on glucose metabolism were even more distinct, and caution is needed in extrapolating these data to different species, especially to humans. Regarding human studies, considering the samples characteristics, the findings cannot be extrapolated to patients who have poorer glycemic control, are older, are on a different pharmacological treatment (e.g., exogenous insulin therapy) or are physically inactive. Thus, creatine supplementation is a possible nutritional therapy adjuvant with hypoglycemic effects, particularly when used in conjunction with exercise.

  14. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  15. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  16. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  17. Fontes suplementares de proteína para novilhos mestiços em recria em pastagens de capim-braquiária no período das águas: desempenho produtivo e econômico Protein sources in multiple supplements for finishing crossbred steers on Brachiaria pasture, in the wet season: productive and economical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de novilhos mestiços Holandês-Zebu em fase de recria recebendo suplementação com fontes de proteína em uma área de pastagem de Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu, durante o período das águas. A área foi dividida em piquetes de 1,5 ha, com disponibilidade média de matéria seca e matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 7,46 e 4,50 t/ha, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se 25 novilhos mestiços com peso e idade iniciais médios de 229 kg e 12 meses, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco fontes de proteína e cinco repetições. As fontes de proteína testadas foram mistura mineral - grupo controle (60 g/animal; farelo de soja + farelo de algodão + mistura mineral (510 g/animal; farelo de soja + mistura mineral (460 g/animal; grão de soja triturado e mistura mineral (560 g/animal; grão de soja inteiro e mistura mineral (560 g/animal. Embora sem significância estatística, os animais que receberam suplemento múltiplo apresentaram ganho médio diário de 211 g/animal (23,78% a mais que aqueles que receberam somente mistura mineral. O uso do suplemento múltiplo à base de farelo de soja e farelo de algodão proporcionou aumento numérico de 247 g/animal em relação à mistura mineral. A suplementação com as fontes de proteína pode proporcionar ganhos adicionais durante o período das águas. A suplementação múltipla proporcionou retorno econômico, indiferentemente da fonte de proteína utilizada.The performance was evaluated of beef crossbred Holstein-Zebu steers, supplemented with different protein sources on pasture of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu, during the wet season. The area was divided into paddocks of 1.5 ha, with an availability of dry matter and potentially digestible dry matter of 7.46 and 4.50 t/ha, respectively. Twenty-five animals with 229 kg initial weight and 12 months of age were distributed in a complete randomized design, with five treatments and five

  18. Classification of calcium supplements through application of principal component analysis: a study by inaa and aas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2013-01-01

    Different types of Ca supplements are available in the local markets of Pakistan. It is sometimes difficult to classify these with respect to their composition. In the present work principal component analysis (PCA) technique was applied to classify different Ca supplements on the basis of their elemental data obtained using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) techniques. The graphical representation of principal component analysis (PCA) scores utilizing intricate analytical data successfully generated four different types of Ca supplements with compatible samples grouped together. These included Ca supplements with CaCO/sub 3/as Ca source along with vitamin C, the supplements with CaCO/sub 3/ as Ca source along with vitamin D, Supplements with Ca from bone meal and supplements with chelated calcium. (author)

  19. 26 CFR 31.3221-4 - Exception from supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exception from supplemental tax. 31.3221-4...) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employers § 31.3221...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3211-3 - Employee representative supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee representative supplemental tax. 31... (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad Retirement Tax Act (Chapter 22, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) Tax on Employee...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3221-3 - Supplemental tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental tax. 31.3221-3 Section 31.3221-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Railroad...

  2. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  3. Potential harmful effects of dietary supplements in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to collect the most recent data regarding the safety of well-known or emerging dietary supplements used by athletes. From January 2014 to April 2016, about 30 articles have been published in the field. New data show that 90% of sports supplements contain trace of estrogenic endocrine disruptors, with 25% of them having a higher estrogenic activity than acceptable. About 50% of the supplements are contaminated by melamine, a source of nonprotein nitrogen. Additional data accumulate toward the safety of nitrate ingestion. In the last 2 years, the safety of emerging supplements such as higenamine, potentially interesting to lose weight, creatine nitrate and guanidinoacetic acid has been evaluated but still needs further investigation. The consumption of over-the-counter supplements is very popular in athletes. Although most supplements may be considered as safe when taking at the recommended doses, athletes should be aware of the potential risks linked to the consumption of supplements. In addition to the risks linked to overdosage and cross-effects when combining different supplements at the same time, inadvertent or deliberate contamination with stimulants, estrogenic compounds, diuretics or anabolic agents may occur.

  4. Prevalence of Dietary Supplements Use among Gymnasium Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman H. Jawadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies showed that regular gymnasium users use various dietary supplements without comprehension of their potential risks. Objective. To determine the prevalence and dietary supplement intake and assess the awareness of supplement use among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among regular gymnasium users in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between April 2015 and June 2015. A validated structured questionnaire was used. Results. The study included 299 participants. Of these 113 (37.8% were dietary supplements users and this was more common among males than females (44.7% versus 16.4%. Gender based analysis showed that males were exercising more frequently than females and the type of cardiovascular exercise was more among them. The most commonly used supplements were whey protein (22.1%, amino acids (16.8%, multivitamins (16.8%, creatine (11.5%, and omega 3 (11.5%. The reasons for taking dietary supplements were to improve body shape (47.7%, increase health (44.2%, and improve performance (41.5%. Conclusion. Most of the information about supplements was obtained from unreliable sources. More studies are needed to better understand supplements use and their impact on health in Saudi Arabia.

  5. EDM forum supplement overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, Ned

    2012-07-01

    The Agency for Health Research and Quality funded the Electronic Data Methods Forum (EDM Forum) to share the experiences and learnings from 11 research teams funded through three different grant programs, each of which involve the use of electronic clinical data in Comparative Effectiveness Research and Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. This overview is meant to describe the context in which the EDM forum was created and to introduce the set of papers in this supplement to Medical Care that describe the challenges and approaches to the use of electronic clinical data in the three key areas of analytic methods, clinical informatics and data governance. The participants in the EDM Forum are providing innovative approaches to generate information that can support the building of a "learning health care system." The compilation of papers presented in this supplement should serve as a resource to others working to develop the infrastructure for collecting, validating and using electronic data for research.

  6. Radioactive {sup 210}Po in magnesium supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida [Gdansk Univ. (Poland). Environmental Chemistry and Radiochemistry Chair

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium {sup 210}Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between {sup 210}Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest {sup 210}Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g{sup -1} (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from {sup 210}Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year{sup -1} respectively.

  7. Radioactive 210Po in magnesium supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struminska-Parulska, Dagmara Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to determine polonium 210 Po in the most popular magnesium supplements in Poland and estimate the possible related dose assessment to the consumers. The analyzed magnesium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic magnesium compounds; some from natural sources. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring 210 Po activity concentrations in magnesium supplements, find the correlations between 210 Po concentration in medicament and magnesium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed magnesium supplement consumption. The highest 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks, namely dolomite - 3.84 ± 0.15 mBq g -1 (sample Mg17). The highest annual radiation dose from 210 Po taken with 1 tablet of magnesium supplement per day or with 400 mg of pure Mg daily would come from sample Mg17 (dolomite) - 1.35 ± 0.5 and 8.44 ± 0.33 μSv year -1 respectively.

  8. Dietary supplement usage, motivation, and education in young, Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Kristin; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Stadnyk, Megan; Parnell, Jill A

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate dietary supplement use in young Canadian athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, and their sources of information. A questionnaire tested for content validity and reliability was administered to 567 athletes between the ages of 11 and 25 years from the Canadian athletic community in face-to-face meetings. Demographics and sport variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine dietary supplementation patterns and sources of information regarding dietary supplement use between categories of gender, age, sport type, and competition level. Ninety-eight percent of athletes were taking at least one dietary supplement. Males were more likely to consume protein powder, energy drinks, recovery drinks, branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, and glutamine (p performance. Primary sources of information were family and friends, coaches, and athletic trainers; with 48% of athletes having met with a dietitian. Preferred means of education included individual consultations, presentations, and the internet. The majority of young athletes are using dietary supplements with the belief they will improve performance and health; however, may not always have reliable information. Educational programs using individual consultations and electronic media are recommended for this demographic.

  9. Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste. Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, requires that governments establish laws and statutes to make provisions for an effective governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. The framework for safety includes the establishment of a regulatory body. The regulatory body has the authority and responsibility for promulgating regulations, and for preparing their implementation. This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The regulations provide the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education and agriculture. The regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance. This publication allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of local conditions, technical resources and the scale of facilities and activities in the State. The set of regulations in this publication is based on the requirements established in the IAEA safety standards series, in particular in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 5, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, and in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-5, Disposal of Radioactive Waste. They are also derived from the Code of Conduct of the Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. This publication allows States to appraise the

  10. Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste. Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, requires that governments establish laws and statutes to make provisions for an effective governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. The framework for safety includes the establishment of a regulatory body. The regulatory body has the authority and responsibility for promulgating regulations, and for preparing their implementation. This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The regulations provide the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education and agriculture. The regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance. This publication allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of local conditions, technical resources and the scale of facilities and activities in the State. The set of regulations in this publication is based on the requirements established in the IAEA safety standards series, in particular in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 5, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, and in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-5, Disposal of Radioactive Waste. They are also derived from the Code of Conduct of the Safety and Security of Radiation Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. This publication allows States to appraise the

  11. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  12. Protein supplements and adolescent athletes: A pilot study investigating the risk knowledge, motivations and prevalence of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Gavin; Lawlis, Tanya

    2017-11-01

    Protein-based sports supplements are among the more common types of nutrition supplements consumed by athletes; however, there is currently limited data investigating the knowledge, motivations and occurrence of use among the adolescent population (13-18 years). This pilot study looks to obtain initial data regarding the use of protein supplements in this population. This study investigates the understanding and occurrence of protein supplement use in 87 adolescent athletes based in an Australian capital city who compete in a variety of sports. Sources of information, regularity of use, purchasing habits, associated risk knowledge and supplement beliefs were examined using a self-reported, written questionnaire. A total of 60% (n = 52) of athletes reported using protein supplements, with a positive relationship between age and use (P supplement consumption, with the most common risk reported as 'I don't know' (22%). Coaches were found to initiate protein supplement use more than other figures in the athlete's life (50%) and were the primary source of information regarding supplements (58%). It was found that 19% of adolescent athletes obtained information about protein supplements from the Internet, and 17% of all consumers purchase their supplements online. The evident lack of knowledge regarding protein supplements demonstrates a necessity for further education of athletes, coaches and families regarding the responsible purchasing and use of protein supplements in the current landscape of sports nutrition. Future research should further explore the role of the Internet in protein supplement purchase and education. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  13. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  14. Natural gas annual 1992: Supplement: Company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The data for the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement : Company Profiles are taken from Form EIA-176, (open quotes) Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition (close quotes). Other sources include industry literature and corporate annual reports to shareholders. The companies appearing in this report are major interstate natural gas pipeline companies, large distribution companies, or combination companies with both pipeline and distribution operations. The report contains profiles of 45 corporate families. The profiles describe briefly each company, where it operates, and any important issues that the company faces. The purpose of this report is to show the movement of natural gas through the various States served by the 45 large companies profiled.

  15. Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 is a companion document to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO). Supplement tables provide the regional projections underlying the national data and projections in the AEO. The domestic coal, electric power, commercial nuclear power, end-use consumption, and end-use price tables present AEO forecasts at the 10 Federal Region level. World coal tables provide data and projections on international flows of steam coal and metallurgical coal, and the oil and gas tables provide the AEO oil and gas supply forecasts by Oil and Gas Supply Regions and by source of supply. All tables refer to cases presented in the AEO, which provides a range of projections for energy markets through 2010

  16. A new electrophoretic focusing principle: focusing of nonamphoteric weak ionogenic analytes using inverse electromigration dispersion profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Petr; Malá, Zdena; Bocek, Petr

    2010-03-01

    This contribution introduces a new separation principle in CE which offers focusing of weak nonamphoteric ionogenic species and their inherent transport to the detector. The prerequisite condition for application of this principle is the existence of an inverse electromigration dispersion profile, i.e. a profile where pH is decreasing toward the anode or cathode for focusing of anionic or cationic weak analytes, respectively. The theory presented defines the principal conditions under which an analyte is focused on a profile of this type. Since electromigration dispersion profiles are migrating ones, the new principle offers inherent transport of focused analytes into the detection cell. The focusing principle described utilizes a mechanism different from both CZE (where separation is based on the difference in mobilities) and IEF (where separation is based on difference in pI), and hence, offers another separation dimension in CE. The new principle and its theory presented here are supplemented by convincing experiments as their proof.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  18. Analysis and modeling of "focus" in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...... or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...

  19. Lead in calcium supplements (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Khalid, N.

    2011-01-01

    Lead present in calcium supplements is of grave concern as some lead levels have been measured up to the extent of regulatory limit set by the United States. Calcium supplements inevitably get contaminated with lead as both are naturally occurring elements. Therefore, it is imperative to indicate its level in these supplements in order to create awareness among consumers. In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze Pb contents in 27 commonly consumed Ca supplements manufactured by different national and multinational companies. The daily intake of lead through these supplements was calculated. Only 10% of the calcium supplements analyzed met the criteria of acceptable Pb levels (1.5 mu g/daily dose) in supplements/consumer products set by the United States. It was also found that Pb intake was highest in chelated calcium supplements 28.5 mu g/daily dose, whereas lowest 0.47 mu g/daily dose through calcium supplements with vitamin D formulation. In order to validate our results from the study conducted, IAEA-certified reference material (animal bone, H-5) was analyzed for its Pb levels. The levels of Pb determined were quite in good agreement with the certified values. (author)

  20. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  1. Costs of the multimicronutrient supplementation program in Chiclayo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Gross, Rainer; Paulini, Javier; de Romaã, Daniel López

    2006-01-01

    There is little information on the cost parameters of weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs. To assess the cost parameters and cost-effectiveness of a weekly multimicronutrient supplementation program in an urban population of Peru. Data from the Integrated Food Security Program (Programa Integrado de Seguridad Alimentaria [PISA]), which distributed capsules and foodlets to women and adolescent girls and to children under five, were extrapolated to a population of 100,000 inhabitants. The annual cost per community member was US$1.51. The cost-effectiveness ratio was US$0.12 per 1% of prevented anemia per community member. These costs are in the upper margin of iron supplementation alone. They will decrease notably when weekly multimicronutrient supplementation programs are integrated into health packages and participation by women increases. Focusing on micronutrient deficiencies would prevent these problems, and food-distribution programs would be effectively targeted to food-deficient populations.

  2. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  3. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  4. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  5. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos para novilhos em pastejo durante o período das águas Energy sources in multiple supplements for steers on pasture during rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Lopes do Nascimento

    2010-04-01

    crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers grazing Brachiara decumbens Stapf. in the rainy season. The experimental area was constituted of five 2 ha paddocks with dry matter average avaibility of 5,853.0 kg/ha. It was used 24 castrated crossbread steers aproximately at the age of 27 months and initial live weight of 377.03 ± 7.28 kg. It was given to each animal one of the following suplements: mineral mixture ad libitum, sorghum grain or corn grain as starch energy sources, and soybean hulls or wheat bran as fibrous energy sources. For the energy sources, the following were added: mineral mixture, cotton seed meal and urea to compose suplements with 33% crude protein based on dry matter given at 1.0 kg/animal/day proportion. For the animals under energetic source suplementation, the daily average gain was 33.4% higher and those that consumed suplement with sorghum grain were the ones that showed higher daily average grain and higher pasture nutrients intake regarded to the animals that consumed corn grain. The fiber total aparent digestibilidty in neutral detergent corrected for ashes and protein was not affected by the suplementation, regardless to the energy source. Urinary ureic nitrogen level was lower in animals with no suplementation. Multiple suplements provided in quantity equal to 0.3% of the live weight promote weight gain higher to that obtained with mineral mixture in finishing crosbread steers in the rainy season. Fibrous or starch source formulated suplements provide a similar yield performance.

  6. Human Donor Milk or Formula: A Qualitative Study of Maternal Perspectives on Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Molly R; Kair, Laura R; Sipsma, Heather L; Phillipi, Carrie A; Larson, Ilse A

    2018-04-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental to maternal and child health and is the most cost-effective intervention to reduce child mortality. Pasteurized human donor milk (HDM) is increasingly provided for term newborns requiring temporary supplementation. Few studies examine maternal perspectives on supplementation of term newborns. We conducted semistructured in-person interviews with mothers of term newborns (n = 24) during postpartum hospitalization. Mothers were asked whether they had chosen or would choose to supplement with HDM versus infant formula, if medically indicated, and why. Data were gathered to saturation and analyzed inductively by consensus. Emerging semantic themes were compared between mothers who chose or would choose HDM and those who chose or would choose infant formula. Most mothers had concerns about HDM, including uncertainty regarding screening and substances passed through HDM. Experiences with prior children influenced decision-making. Mothers who chose or would choose HDM (56%, n = 14) praised it as "natural," and some felt suspicious of infant formula as "synthetic." Mothers who chose or would choose infant formula (44%, n = 10) did not know enough about HDM to choose it, and many viewed infant formula as a short-term solution to supply concerns. Mothers unanimously mistrusted online milk purchasing sources, although the majority felt positively about using a friend or family member's milk. Counseling regarding term newborn supplementation should focus on HDM education, specifically on areas of greatest concern and uncertainty such as donor selection, screening, transmission of substances, and mother's milk supply. Research is needed to assess the long-term impact of attitudes and choices on breastfeeding.

  7. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Parnell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young athletes experience numerous dietary challenges including growth, training/competition, unhealthy food environments, and travel. The objective was to determine nutrient intakes and supplement use in pre-adolescent and adolescent Canadian athletes. Athletes (n = 187 aged 11–18 years completed an on-line 24-h food recall and dietary supplement questionnaire. Median energy intake (interquartile range varied from 2159 kcal/day (1717–2437 in 11–13 years old females to 2905 kcal/day (2291–3483 in 14–18 years old males. Carbohydrate and protein intakes were 8.1 (6.1–10.5; 2.4 (1.6–3.4 in males 11–13 years, 5.7 (4.5–7.9; 2.0 (1.4–2.6 in females 11–13 years, 5.3 (4.3–7.4; 2.0 (1.5–2.4 in males 14–18 y and 4.9 (4.4–6.2; 1.7 (1.3–2.0 in females 14–18 years g/kg of body weight respectively. Median vitamin D intakes were below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA and potassium was below the adequate intake (AI for all athlete groups. Females 14–18 years had intakes below the RDA for iron 91% (72–112, folate 89% (61–114 and calcium 84% (48–106. Multivitamin-multiminerals, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin-enriched water, protein powder, sport foods, fatty acids, probiotics, and plant extracts were popular supplements. Canadian pre-adolescent and adolescent athletes could improve their dietary intakes by focusing on food sources of calcium, vitamin D, potassium, iron, and folate. With the exceptions of vitamin D and carbohydrates during long exercise sessions, supplementation is generally unnecessary.

  8. Open Source Business Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This analyses the Open source movement. Open source development process and management is seen different from the classical point of view. This focuses on characteristics and software market tendencies for the main Open source initiatives. It also points out the labor market future evolution for the software developers.

  9. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  10. Nutritional supplements in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis

    2017-09-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.

  11. Aerosol characterization over the southeastern United States using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: spatial and seasonal variation of aerosol composition and sources with a focus on organic nitrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L.; Suresh, S.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Ng, N. L.

    2015-07-01

    We deployed a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) to characterize the chemical composition of submicron non-refractory particulate matter (NR-PM1) in the southeastern USA. Measurements were performed in both rural and urban sites in the greater Atlanta area, Georgia (GA), and Centreville, Alabama (AL), for approximately 1 year as part of Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology study (SCAPE) and Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). Organic aerosol (OA) accounts for more than half of NR-PM1 mass concentration regardless of sampling sites and seasons. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of HR-ToF-AMS measurements identified various OA sources, depending on location and season. Hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and cooking OA (COA) have important, but not dominant, contributions to total OA in urban sites (i.e., 21-38 % of total OA depending on site and season). Biomass burning OA (BBOA) concentration shows a distinct seasonal variation with a larger enhancement in winter than summer. We find a good correlation between BBOA and brown carbon, indicating biomass burning is an important source for brown carbon, although an additional, unidentified brown carbon source is likely present at the rural Yorkville site. Isoprene-derived OA factor (isoprene-OA) is only deconvolved in warmer months and contributes 18-36 % of total OA. The presence of isoprene-OA factor in urban sites is more likely from local production in the presence of NOx than transport from rural sites. More-oxidized and less-oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MO-OOA and LO-OOA, respectively) are dominant fractions (47-79 %) of OA in all sites. MO-OOA correlates well with ozone in summer but not in winter, indicating MO-OOA sources may vary with seasons. LO-OOA, which reaches a daily maximum at night, correlates better with estimated nitrate functionality from organic nitrates than total nitrates. Based

  12. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  13. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  14. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  15. Combined effects of blue light and supplemental far-red light and effects of increasing red light with constant far-red light on growth of kidney bean [Phaseolus vulgaris] under mixtures of narrow-band light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, H.; Shoji, K.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing blue light and decreasing R: FR with supplementary far-red light affect morphogenesis, dry matter production and dry matter partitioning to leaves, stems and roots. In this study, the combined effects of the two spectral treatments were examined in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under the mixture of four different narrow-band light sources. In addition, because the leaf and stem growth are accelerated by increasing red light (600-700 nm) in proportion to far-red light (700-800 nm) while keeping R : FR constant, this study was conducted to determine whether red light or far-red light causes the acceleration of growth. Increasing blue light (400-500 nm) and decreasing R : FR only interacted on stem extension. The results illustrated with figures suggest that blue light amplifies or attenuates the acceleration of stem extension caused by decreasing R : FR. On the other hand, increasing red light with constant far-red light had no influence on leaf expansion or stem extension while R : FR increased. Because the acceleration of leaf and stem growth is caused by increasing either far-red light or both red and far-red light in our environmental conditions, the stimulative effects on leaves and stems seem to require increases in far-red light rather than red light

  16. Selenium supplementation of Portuguese wheat cultivars through foliar treatment in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Jose Coutinho; Benvindo Macas; Ana Sofia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element essential to the well-being and health quality of humankind. Plant-derived foodstuffs, namely cereals, are the major dietary sources of Se in most countries throughout the world, even if Se contents are strongly dependent upon the corresponding levels in cereal-growing soils. Therefore, wheat is one of the staple crops that appears as an obvious candidate for Se biofortification, considering its gross-tonnage production and nutritional relevance worldwide. The present paper focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat-Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum Desf., respectively-to accumulate Se after supplementation via a foliar-addition procedure. Two of the most representative wheat cultivars in Portugal - Jordao (bread) and Marialva (durum) - have been selected for supplementation trials, following the same agronomic practices and field schedules as the regular (non-supplemented) crops of those varieties (sowing: November 2010; harvesting: July 2011). Foliar additions were performed at the booting and grain-filling stages, using sodium selenate and sodium selenite solutions at three different Se concentrations-equivalent to field supplementation rates of 4, 20 and 100 g of Se per ha-with and without potassium iodide. Selenium contents in wheat grains obtained under foliar application are compared to data from regular wheat samples (field blanks) grown at the same soil/season, yet devoid of any Se supplementation. Total Se in all field samples was determined by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), via the short-lived nuclide 77m Se (half-life time: 17.5 s), in the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI; CTN-IST, Sacavem). Quality control of the analytical procedure was asserted through concurrent analyses of NIST-SRM R 1567a (Wheat Flour). Results show that foliar additions can increase Se contents in mature grains up to 15 and 40 times for Marialva and Jordao, respectively, when compared to non-supplemented crops. Jordao and

  17. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients...... can interact with enzyme systems related to xenobiotic metabolism either by regulation of their expression or direct interference with their enzymatic activity. During food consumption, we consume a wide range of xenobiotics along with the consumable food, either as an original part of the food (e...

  18. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    acting as carcinogens) to health-protective effects (e.g., flavonoids ameliorating detrimental effects of mitochondrial oxidative stress). In particular, secondary plant metabolites along with vitamins, specific types of macronutrients and live bacteria (probiotics) as well as substances promoting.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  19. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  20. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  1. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  2. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  3. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  4. Focusing America's National Powers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kabana, Dana P

    2006-01-01

    .... The National Security Counsel (NSC) should modify its efforts to take full advantage of all sources of power to ensure national security by first establishing the NSC/Deputies Committee as the element mandated to manage the interagency process...

  5. Silicon integrated circuits part A : supplement 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahng, Dawon

    1981-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science, Supplement 2: Silicon Integrated Circuits, Part A focuses on MOS device physics. This book is divided into three chapters-physics of the MOS transistor; nonvolatile memories; and properties of silicon-on-sapphire substrates devices, and integrated circuits. The topics covered include the short channel effects, MOSFET structures, floating gate devices, technology for nonvolatile semiconductor memories, sapphire substrates, and SOS integrated circuits and systems. The MOS capacitor, MIOS devices, and SOS process and device technology are also deliberated. This public

  6. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  7. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  8. Potassium supplements for oral diarrhoea regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, M L; Levine, M M; Black, R E; Hughes, T P; Rust, J; Tome, F C

    1980-10-18

    A study is proposed for supplementing potassium loss from diarrhea in rehydration therapies with fresh fruit and other naturally potassium-rich foods. Bananas contain .1 mol of potassium per gm. Freshly squeezed lemon or orange juices were tested for potassium and sodium content and found to have very low potassium concentration. Therefore, the banana was chosen for an upcoming study that will determine if infants and children suffering from diarrhea can ingest the amounts of the fruit necessary to elevate the potassium level sufficiently. Bananas as the potassium source are thought to be well-accepted in developing areas.

  9. Nutrition and dietary supplements in psychiatric diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Plemenitaš

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches to management of medical conditions are based on a holistic view, taking into account bidirectional connections between physical and mental health. The current pharmacologically focused model has so far provided modest benefits in addressing the burden of poor mental health. Convincing data suggest that diet quality and select nutrient-based supplements might influence a range of neurochemical modulatory activities, improving the management of mental disorders. Examples of these nutrient-based supplements include omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, zinc, B vitamins (including folic acid, and vitamin D. The traditional Mediterranean diet is considered to be the most beneficial diet in our region. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we are increasingly aware of the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of mental disorders. Bidirectional signalling between the brain and the gut microbiome involving vagal neurocrine and endocrine signalling mechanisms influences mental and physical wellbeing. These findings suggest that using prebiotics, probiotics or in the strict sense psychobiotics, as well as incorporating fermented foods in the diet, could have a potential role in the management of mental disorders. As of now, we lack sufficient evidence to implement recommendations for dietary supplements in treatment guidelines, however, this might change in light of emerging data from contemporary research studies, at least for certain indications.

  10. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  11. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  12. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  13. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report

  14. 78 FR 65218 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Private Sector Notification Requirements of In-Sourcing Actions... Supplement (DFARS) to implement a section of the National Defense Authorization Act regarding private sector... section 938 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012 regarding private sector...

  15. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruton Benny D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  16. Supplementation of Carrot (Daucus carrota as Natural Source of Beta-carotene prepared by Several Methods in Feed to Increase Blue Colour of Freshwater Crayfish Red Claw (Cherax quadricarinatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro H. Satyantini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus is one kind of freshwater crayfish that can cultured as consumption or ornamental fish commodities.  The colour of body was important character for performance of red claw as ornamental fish commodity.  Red claw with blue body colour is more expensive than brown.  The purpose of  this experiment was to know the influence addition of carrot with several methods in feed on blue colour  of freshwater crayfish red claw and which was the best preparation method to increase blue colour of freshwater crayfish red claw. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design with four treatments: A (control, B (extract, C (juice and D (shreeded of carrot with 45 ppm dose and five time replicates.  Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis and continued with Z test. Result of the experiment was showed that addition of carrot as natural source of beta-carotene with several preparation in feed increase significantly (P Keywords: freshwater crayfish, colour of red claw, carrot, beta-carotene   ABSTRAK Red claw (Cherax quadricarinatus adalah salah satu jenis lobster air tawar yang dapat dibudidayakan sebagai komoditas konsumsi maupun hias.  Sebagai komoditas ikan hias, warna tubuh merupakan karakter penting untuk menunjang penampilan red claw.  Red claw ukuran konsumsi yang memiliki warna biru akan memiliki nilai jual yang lebih tinggi daripada red claw berwarna coklat.  Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metoda pengolahan pada pakan terhadap peningkatan warna biru lobster red claw. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan : A (kontrol, B (ekstrak, C (jus dan D (serutan wortel dengan menggunakan dosis 45 ppm beta karoten dan ulangan 5 kali.  Data dianalisis dengan uji Kruskal-Wallis dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Z.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan wortel sebagai sumber beta karoten alami dengan beberapa metode

  17. Fontes protéicas suplementadas com aminoácidos e minerais para a tilápia do Nilo durante a reversão sexual Protein sources supplemented with amino acids and minerals to Nile tilapia during sex reversal phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Meurer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente experimento, comparar o efeito da origem da fonte protéica e da suplementação com lisina e metionina ou cálcio e fósforo para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, durante a reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 200 larvas, distribuídas em 20 aquários de 12 litros, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. A temperatura pela manhã e à tarde, o oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica da água foram, respectivamente, de 22,6 ± 0,1ºC, 24,1±0,4ºC; 6,77 ± 0,38 mg/L, 7,75 ± 0,16; e 173,4 ± 2 mS/m. Os tratamentos foram compostos por quatro rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas: uma somente com ingredientes de origem animal (FA; outra com ingredientes de origem vegetal (FV e duas com ingredientes de origem vegetal, uma com adição dos aminoácidos lisina e metionina (FAA e outra com cálcio e fósforo (FP. Os valores médios finais de peso e comprimento dos animais submetidos à ração FA foi superior aos demais tratamentos, seguido pelo FP e FV, que não diferiram da FAA. O tratamento FA apresentou os maior valores de biomassa final, seguido do FP e FAA, que foram semelhantes ao FV. O fator de condição dos peixes do tratamento FA foi superior aos FAA e FV, porém o FP foi semelhante aos demais. A sobrevivência dos tratamentos FA, FV e FP foram semelhantes entre si e superiores ao FAA. Para a fase de reversão sexual da tilápia do Nilo, rações formuladas com ingredientes de origem animal foram mais eficientes que as formuladas com ingredientes de origem vegetal, mesmo quando estas foram suplementadas com lisina e metionina ou cálcio e fósforo.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of protein source origin and lysine and methionine or phosphorus and calcium supplementation to Nile tilapia during sex reversal phase. Two hundred fries were assigned to a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replications, in twenty 12 L

  18. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  19. Monitoring and surveillance for multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zuguo; Jefferds, Maria Elena; Namaste, Sorrel; Suchdev, Parminder S; Flores-Ayala, Rafael C

    2017-12-22

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation in pregnancy has been implemented in select countries and emerging evidence suggests that MMN supplementation in pregnancy may provide additional benefits compared to IFA alone. In 2015, WHO, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the Micronutrient Initiative held a "Technical Consultation on MMN supplements in pregnancy: implementation considerations for successful incorporation into existing programmemes," which included a call for indicators needed for monitoring, evaluation, and surveillance of MMN supplementation programmes. Currently, global surveillance and monitoring data show that overall IFA supplementation programmes suffer from low coverage and intake adherence, despite inclusion in national policies. Common barriers that limit the effectiveness of IFA-which also apply to MMN programmes-include weak supply chains, low access to antenatal care services, low-quality behaviour change interventions to support and motivate women, and weak or non-existent monitoring systems used for programme improvement. The causes of these barriers in a given country need careful review to resolve them. As countries heighten their focus on supplementation during pregnancy, or if they decide to initiate or transition into MMN supplementation, a priority is to identify key monitoring indicators to address these issues and support effective programmes. National and global monitoring and surveillance data on IFA supplementation during pregnancy are primarily derived from cross-sectional surveys and, on a more routine basis, through health and logistics management information systems. Indicators for IFA supplementation exist; however, the new indicators for MMN supplementation need to be incorporated. We reviewed practice-based evidence, guided by the WHO/Centers for Disease

  20. Iodine and Pregnancy—A Qualitative Study Focusing on Dietary Guidance and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bouga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, ~60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO (World Health Organization recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored the perceptions, awareness, and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n = 48 were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%, but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day. Most were unaware of the importance, sources of iodine, and recommendations for iodine intake. Attitudes toward dairy products consumption were positive (e.g., helps with heartburn; easy to increase. Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn, and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with a desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.

  1. Effect Of Enzyme Supplementation On The Utilization Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that SWM can be employed as an animal protein source in broiler diets. The exogenous enzyme (Roxazyme G) used did not effect any appreciable improvement on the utilization of SWM based diets. Keywords: Enzyme supplementation, utilization, shrimp waste, broiler chicken.

  2. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  3. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  4. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: A case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Dare; Jennifer Hewett; Joseph Kartaik Lim

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxiciLy, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the seLLing of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements,and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted.

  5. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  6. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  7. Nutrition Knowledge and Supplement Use among Elite U.S. Army Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R

    2003-01-01

    A U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) unit was studied to determine the characteristics of those who were dietary supplement users, assess their nutrition knowledge, and identify the nutrition information sources they use. SF-qualified (n=119...

  8. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  9. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  10. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics (OEDA) produced an annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement report providing detailed statistical...

  11. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  12. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  13. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  14. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  15. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  16. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  17. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  18. HERBAL SUPPLEMENTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Borrione; Luigi Di Luigi; Nicola Maffulli; Fabio Pigozzi

    2008-01-01

    More than 1400 herbal products or herbal-derived compounds are commonly commercialised for health uses worldwide (Tyler, 1996). Herbs are considered dietary supplements, and therefore are subjected to a very limited form of regulation, and advertisements normally highlight their potential activities without mentioning any side effect. Also, herbs are generally believed to be 'natural', and hence safe. Many nutritional supplements contains herb compounds usually not present in the diet (e.g. G...

  19. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  20. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  1. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  2. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Jiunian Guan; Baixing Yan; Hui Zhu; Yingying Xu

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting season...

  3. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L.

    2004-01-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, ∼ 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, ∼ 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  4. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  5. 7 CFR 1955.22 - State supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.22 Section 1955.22 Agriculture... Real and Chattel Property § 1955.22 State supplements. State Supplements will be prepared with the... supplements will be submitted to the National Office for post approval in accordance with FmHA or its...

  6. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...

  7. Effect of fat source, energy level and enzyme supplementation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2014-09-24

    Sep 24, 2014 ... ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 2221-4062 (online) ... were fed ad libitum in cages from 1 to 30 days of age. ... diet, improve efficiency and increase nutrient digestibility in broilers (Baião & Lara, 2005; Fascina et al., ... feed to reduce the cost per ton of feed and then, by adding enzymes, restores the nutritional ...

  8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and S-Adenosylmethionine Supplementation in Predementia Syndromes and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Panza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that nutritional supplements can improve cognition; however, which supplements are effective remains controversial. In this review article, we focus on dietary supplementation suggested for predementia syndromes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with particular emphasis on S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Very recent findings confirmed that SAM can exert a direct effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST activity. AD is accompanied by reduced GST activity, diminished SAM, and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, the downstream metabolic product resulting from SAM-mediated transmethylation reactions, when deprived of folate. Therefore, these findings underscored the critical role of SAM in maintenance of neuronal health, suggesting a possible role of SAM as a neuroprotective dietary supplement for AD patients. In fact, very recent studies on early-stage AD patients and moderate- to late-stage AD patients were conducted with a nutriceutical supplementation that included SAM, with promising results. Given recent findings from randomized clinical trials (RCTs in which n-3 PUFA supplementation was effective only in very mild AD subgroups or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, we suggest future intervention trials using measures of dietary supplementation (dietary n-3 PUFA and SAM plus B vitamin supplementation to determine if such supplements will reduce the risk for cognitive decline in very mild AD and MCI. Therefore, key supplements are not necessarily working in isolation and the most profound impact, or in some cases the only impact, is noted very early in the course of AD, suggesting that nutriceutical supplements may bolster pharmacological approaches well past the window where supplements can work on their own. Recommendations regarding future research on the effects of SAM or n-3 PUFA supplementation on predementia syndromes and very mild AD include properly designed RCTs that are

  9. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  10. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  11. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  12. Focus radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebermann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    The publication of the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz on radiation protection covers the following issues: (i) exposure from natural sources: health hazard due to radon, radiation protection in residential homes, radon in Germany, natural raw materials in industrial processes; (ii) clearance of radioactive wastes: clearance in the frame of nuclear power plant dismantling, the situation in Germany and Europe; (iii) emergency management: principles of radiation protection, fictive sequence of accident events; (iiii) other actual radiation protection topics: more limits - more protection? radiation protection in medicine, occupational radiation protection.

  13. Nutritional supplements in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the Western World. While with new therapies that are directed towards vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potentially efficient treatment option for the wet form of the disease has been introduced, a therapeutic regimen for dry AMD is still lacking. There is evidence from several studies that oral intake of supplements is beneficial in preventing progression of the disease. Several formulations of micronutrients are currently available. The present review focuses on the role of supplements in the treatment and prevention of AMD and sums up the current knowledge about the most frequently used micronutrients. In addition, regulatory issues are discussed, and future directions for the role of supplementation in AMD are highlighted. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  15. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  16. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  17. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  18. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  19. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  20. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  1. Energy in focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, G.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Part one of the publication abstracted contains some introductory information about different aspects of energy supply. The publication summarizes a number of papers held in connection with a project dealing with the 'social compatibility of energy systems'. The papers were presented to different groups interested in the subject by technico-scientific experts from university or research institutes. In a popular way the papers discuss the properties of different energy sources and deal with different conversion techniques applied on the electric power and heat market. They point out environmental effects, health and safety risks of energy systems and economic aspects of different energy systems. Part two deals with competing long-term energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany, that is with the four 'energy paths' of the Enquete Commission. The paths are covering a large variety of feasible developments and trends and therefore reflect all aspects of the energy debate to their full extent. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  3. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  4. Evidence-Based Supplements for the Enhancement of Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Binnie, Martyn J; Goods, Paul S R; Sim, Marc; Burke, Louise M

    2018-03-01

    A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); and (3) developing. Within each section, the relevant performance type, the potential mechanisms of action, and the most common protocols used in the supplement dosing schedule are summarized.

  5. Folic acid and diseases - supplement it or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaw-Cheok Liew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: folic acid is a water soluble vitamin, which is synthetically-produced and found in fortified foods and supplements. Folate is found naturally in plants, such as the dark green leafy vegetables. Folate is not synthesizedde novo by humans, therefore the daily requirements are met from the dietary intake of folic acid supplements or food rich in this vitamin. Folate deficiency could lead to numerous common health problems. Hyperhomocysteinemia and the possibility of malignancy developments are the long term consequences of this deficit albeit contradictory findings on these claims. Methods: the articles included in this review focused on recent updated evidence-based reports and meta-analyses on the associations of the serum folate/folic acid and the various diseases found globally. Results: the benefit of folic acid supplementation in the pre-conception period for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs was well established and it was suggested that counseling sessions should be given to women with previous pregnancies affected by NTDs. However, supplementation of folic acid and its medicinal effects in the treatment of other diseases were contradictory and unclear. Conclusion: more detailed investigations into the health benefits of folic acid are needed before it could be recommended for supplementation, treatment or prevention of some of the diseases discussed in this review.

  6. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Concerning Dietary Supplements among a Student Population in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavičić Žeželj

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of usage and the knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements among medical sciences and nonmedical sciences students from Croatia. The study was conducted based on a questionnaire about dietary supplement usage, knowledge and attitudes. The prevalence of dietary supplement use, among 910 university students was 30.5%. The most-used dietary supplements were vitamins (18.0% in medical sciences students and 9.8% in non-medical sciences students. For all students, the internet (66.1% was the most common source of information, followed by healthcare professionals (33.2%. The most common reason for taking dietary supplements was to maintain good health (26.4%. Use of the internet rather than health professionals as a trusted information source should be revised among this young population. Supplement intake was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (p = 0.016 and physical activity (p = 0.050. Students with normal BMI (61.5% and the most physically active students (37.7% took significantly more dietary supplements. Results of this study could help medicine faculties to improve their curriculum and support the development of public health messages aimed at wise and safe use of dietary supplements.

  7. Maternal supplementation with natural or synthetic vitamin E and its levels in human colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Heleni A; Ramalho, Heryka M M; Lima, Mayara S R; Grilo, Evellyn C; Dimenstein, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Newborns are considered a high-risk group for vitamin E deficiency. Breast milk is a source of alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH), a form of vitamin E that prevents deficiency. The present study aimed to assess whether supplementation with a natural or synthetic form of α-TOH, in addition to maternal sources of vitamin E, would increase the concentration of α-TOH in colostrum. A total of 109 healthy lactating women were recruited from a Brazilian public maternity clinic and randomized into 3 groups: control without supplementation (n = 36), natural α-TOH supplementation (n = 40), and synthetic α-TOH supplementation (n = 33). Blood and colostrum samples were collected before and after supplementation to check the nutritional status of these women by high-performance liquid chromatography. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for independent samples, and Tukey test was used for 2-way analysis of the averages of the groups. The baseline nutritional status of vitamin E of all of the lactating women enrolled in the trial was considered adequate. Women who received supplementation had higher concentrations of α-TOH in colostrum than the control group, with 57% and 39% increases in women supplemented with the natural and synthetic forms of α-TOH, respectively. Supplementation with both forms of α-TOH increased vitamin E concentrations in colostrum; however, the natural form was more efficient in increasing the levels.

  8. Data source handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Warden, Pete

    2011-01-01

    If you''re a developer looking to supplement your own data tools and services, this concise ebook covers the most useful sources of public data available today. You''ll find useful information on APIs that offer broad coverage, tie their data to the outside world, and are either accessible online or feature downloadable bulk data. You''ll also find code and helpful links. This guide organizes APIs by the subjects they cover-such as websites, people, or places-so you can quickly locate the best resources for augmenting the data you handle in your own service. Categories include: Website tools

  9. A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4ak

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel N. Smith; Amruta S. Agharkar; Eric B. Gonzales

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may b...

  10. Phase analysis and focusing of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chubar, O; Snigirev, A

    1999-01-01

    High accuracy calculations of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by a relativistic electron show that the phase of the frequency domain electric field of SR differs from the phase of radiation of a virtual point source. These differences may result in the reduction of focusing efficiency of diffraction-limited SR, if the focusing is performed by conventional optical components optimised for point sources. We show that by applying a phase correction locally, one may transform the phase of SR electric field at a desired polarisation to that of a point source. Such corrections are computed for undulator radiation (planar and helical) and bending magnet radiation (central part and edges). The focusing of the corrected SR wavefront can result in the increase of peak intensity in the focused spot up to several times compared to the focusing without correction. For non-diffraction-limited radiation, the effect of the phase corrections is reduced. Due to this reason, the use of the proposed phase corrections in exist...

  11. Innovating by developing new uses of already-approved drugs: trends in the marketing approval of supplemental indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMasi, Joseph A

    2013-06-01

    Much of the literature on trends and factors affecting biopharmaceutical innovation has focused overwhelmingly on the development and approval of never-before approved drugs and biologics. Little attention has been paid to new uses for already-approved compounds, which can be an important form of innovation. This paper aimed to determine and analyze recent trends in the number and type of new or modified US indication approvals for drugs and biologics. We also examine regulatory approval-phase times for new-use efficacy supplements and compare them to approval-phase times for original-use approvals over the same period. We developed a data set of efficacy supplements approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1998 to 2011 that includes information on the type, approval-phase time (time from submission to the FDA of an application for marketing approval to approval of the application), and FDA therapeutic-significance rating for the approved application, which we obtained from an FDA Web site. This data set was merged with a Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development (CSDD) data set of US new drug and biologics approvals. We developed descriptive statistics on trends in the number and type of new-use efficacy supplements, on US regulatory approval-phase times for the supplements, and on original new drug and biologics approvals over the study period and for the time from original- to new-use approval. The total number of new-use efficacy-supplement approvals did not exhibit a marked trend, but the number of new pediatric-indication approvals increased substantially. Approval-phase times for new-use supplements varied by therapeutic class and FDA therapeutic-significance rating. Mean approval-phase times were highest for central nervous system compounds (13.8 months) and lowest for antineoplastics (8.9 months). The mean time from original to supplement approval was substantially longer for new pediatric indications than for other new uses. Mean

  12. A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel N.; Agharkar, Amruta S.; Gonzales, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine is an endogenous compound synthesized from arginine, glycine and methionine. This dietary supplement can be acquired from food sources such as meat and fish, along with athlete supplement powders. Since the majority of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, dietary creatine supplementation has traditionally been important for athletes and bodybuilders to increase the power, strength, and mass of the skeletal muscle. However, new uses for creatine have emerged suggesting that it may be important in preventing or delaying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. On average, 30% of muscle mass is lost by age 80, while muscular weakness remains a vital cause for loss of independence in the elderly population. In light of these new roles of creatine, the dietary supplement’s usage has been studied to determine its efficacy in treating congestive heart failure, gyrate atrophy, insulin insensitivity, cancer, and high cholesterol. In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. In this review, we explore the normal mechanisms by which creatine is produced and its necessary physiology, while paying special attention to the importance of creatine supplementation in improving diseases and disorders associated with brain aging and outlining the clinical trials involving creatine to treat these diseases. PMID:25664170

  13. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Ward

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376 attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05 number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05 females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05 calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years had the highest (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05 frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05 in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.

  14. Getting More Than You Paid For: Unauthorized "Natural" Substances in Herbal Food Supplements on EU Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko Končić, Marijana

    2018-04-01

    As the population in the industrialized world develops preference for what is perceived as a natural and holistic way of disease treatment, the popularity and the number of food supplements on the market, including herbal ones, is experiencing an unprecedented rise. However, unlike herbal medicinal products, intended for treating or preventing disease, current legislation classifies food supplements as products intended for achieving nutritional or physiological effect and to supplement the normal diet. Accordingly, most food supplements are not to be associated with specific health claims. However, either due to the subtle suggestions by the producers or the wishful thinking of the consumers, certain pharmacological effects from food supplements are often expected. Medicinal plants included in food supplements usually do not produce dramatic and instant pharmacological effects. Therefore, in order to meet the expectation of their customers, some producers have turned to the illicit and dangerous practice of adulterating their products with synthetic adulterants, including naturally occurring molecules, having the desired activity. Such practice is prevalent in, although not limited to, food supplements intended for use as weight-loss aids, as well as for sport performance and libido enhancement. The review is focusing on naturally occurring alkaloids, phenylethanolamines, and their semi-synthetic derivatives in food supplements in the European Union as reported by the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Their desired and undesired pharmacological effects, as well as the methods for their detection and quantification in food supplements, will be reviewed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2010-01-01

    of the benefit:harm ratio of antioxidant supplements. We have examined the literature on vitamin C intervention with the intention of drawing a conclusion on its possible beneficial or deleterious effect on health and the result is discouraging. One of several important issues is that vitamin C uptake is tightly...... controlled, resulting in a wide-ranging bioavailability depending on the current vitamin C status. Lack of proper selection criteria dominates the currently available literature. Thus, while supplementation with vitamin C is likely to be without effect for the majority of the Western population due...... to saturation through their normal diet, there could be a large subpopulation with a potential health problem that remains uninvestigated. The present review discusses the relevance of the available literature on vitamin C supplementation and proposes guidelines for future randomised intervention trials....

  16. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  17. Focus on Quantum Cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiat, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    implemented a totally new protocol, using polarization-entangled photons, which in some circumstances can tolerate higher error rates than the traditional one of Bennett and Brassard; moreover, the use of entanglement provides a means of 'automatic source verification'. Finally, looking to the future, Elliott gives a provocative view of how these technologies may be merged into network operation, and Shapiro describes a method to combine a novel source of entangled photons with a means to transfer the photons' quantum state to trapped-atom quantum memories. If realized, these systems could presage the world's first quantum network. (author)

  18. Chlorella vulgaris: A Multifunctional Dietary Supplement with Diverse Medicinal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Darvishi, Behrad; Jowzi, Narges; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteinsChlorella vulgaris is a green unicellular microalgae with biological and pharmacological properties important for human health. C. vulgaris has a long history of use as a food source and contains a unique and diverse composition of functional macro- and micro-nutrients including proteins, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects., omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Clinical trials have suggested that supplementation with C. vulgaris can ameliorate amelioration hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and protect against oxidative stress, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the findings on the health benefits of Chlorella supplementation and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  19. Use of dietary supplements by female seniors in a large Northern California health plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffer Donna M

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged ≥ 65 years are high utilizers of prescription and over-the-counter medications, and many of these women are also taking dietary supplements. Dietary supplement use by older women is a concern because of possible side effects and drug-supplement interactions. The primary aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture of dietary supplement use among older women in a large health plan in Northern California, USA, to raise awareness among health care providers and pharmacists about the need for implementing structural and educational interventions to minimize adverse consequences of self-directed supplement use. A secondary aim was to raise awareness about how the focus on use of herbals and megavitamins that has occurred in most surveys of complementary and alternative therapy use results in a significant underestimate of the proportion of older women who are using all types of dietary supplements for the same purposes. Methods We used data about use of different vitamin/mineral (VM supplements and nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM supplements, including herbals, from a 1999 general health survey mailed to a random sample of adult members of a large Northern California health plan to estimate prevalence of and characteristics associated with supplement use among women aged 65–84 (n = 3,109. Results Based on weighted data, 84% had in the past 12 months used >1 dietary supplement, 82% a VM, 59% a supplement other than just multivitamin or calcium, 32% an NVNM, and 25% an herbal. Compared to white, nonHispanic women, African-Americans and Latinas were significantly less likely to use VM and NVNM supplements and Asian/Pacific Islanders were less likely to use NVNM supplements. Higher education was strongly associated with use of an NVNM supplement. Prevalence did not differ by number of prescription medications taken. Among white, nonHispanic women, multiple logistic regression models showed that college

  20. [Quality control in herbal supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelker, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    Quality and safety of food and herbal supplements are the result of a whole of different elements as good manufacturing practice and process control. The process control must be active and able to individuate and correct all possible hazards. The main and most utilized instrument is the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system the correct application of which can guarantee the safety of the product. Herbal supplements need, in addition to standard quality control, a set of checks to assure the harmlessness and safety of the plants used.

  1. The effect of supplementing untreated, urea-supplemented and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3x2x2 factorial experiment, involving an intake and in vivo digestibility trial with 48 adult S.A. Mutton Merino wethers. Straw dry matter (OM) intake on ammoniated wheat-straw diets was 27 and 22% higher (P ';;0,01) than on untreated and urea-supplemented diets, respectively. No significant difference was found between ...

  2. Suplementação de lipídeos de diferentes fontes em dietas para vacas Jersey na fase inicial de lactação Fat supplementation from different sources in the diet of Jersey cows in the initial lactation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Barcellos Costa

    2007-08-01

    Jersey cows of 2nd and 3rd lactation were used, with 70 days in milk, average weight of 420 kg and body condition of 3.5 to 4. A replicated 4 x 4 Latin square experimental design was used, with eight cows, four diets and four experimental periods. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days (14 days for adaptation and 7 for sample collection for the chemical analysis of milk and feeds. Milk production of 3.5% fat corrected milk (FCM 3.5% was higher with the fat supplementation to the diet. There was no difference in dry matter intake. Fat supplementation showed better results for productive efficiency expressed as FCM3.5% in function of metabolic weight. Independently of lipid source, there was not effect of the diets on PLC3.5%, dry matter intake and productive efficiency, expressed as PLC3.5% in function of the metabolic weight. The addition of different fat sources to high production dairy cows diets could be viable, because its addition to the diet improved milk yield without alter feed intake.

  3. Metabolismo de cálcio em ovinos em crescimento sob suplementação com diferentes fontes de cálcio: aplicação e comparação de dois modelos matemáticos Calcium metabolism in growing sheep supplemented with different calcium sources: application and comparison of two mathematical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt Vitti

    2006-12-01

    with different Ca sources. Twenty Brazilian male sheep averaging 7 to 8 months of age were fed a basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse, urea, mono-ammonium phosphate, mineral mixture and one of the following Ca sources: limestone (LM, alfalfa hay (AH, dicalcium phosphate (DP, oyster shell meal (SM, and citrus pulp (CP. On day 22 each animal received an intravenous injection of 7.7 MBq of radio-calcium (45Ca followed by collection of blood, feces, and urine every 24 h for 7 days. Total Ca and radioactivity were measured in all samples. At the end of the collection period, animals were slaughtered and samples of liver, heart, kidney, muscles and 12th rib were taken for analysis. Calcium metabolism was evaluated by the models proposed by Vitti et al. (2000 and Fernandez (1995. A completely randomized design was used and means were compared by the Duncan test. No significant differences were observed for Ca intake among treatments. However, total fecal excretion of Ca differed and was lowest in animals fed LM. Calcium balance was negative in sheep receiving AH and CP because Ca absorption might have been compromised by the high contents of pectin and oxalate in these two supplements, respectively. Flows of Ca between the central pool and the digestive tract showed the greatest absorption of Ca on animals fed LM. Diets supplemented with LM, DP, and SM had highest Ca availability with values of 65.38, 34.12 and 32.43%, respectively. The models differed in the predictions of Ca flows among blood, bone and soft tissues but showed similar values for Ca balance in the different compartments. These discrepant results may be explained by structural difference between models.

  4. Nuclear Law Bulletin: Index + supplement no.56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This book deals with the status of legislation governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in Central and Eastern European Countries. Readers are informed about regulatory and institutional developments in these countries. The Supplement to this Bulletin reproduces the Ukraine fundamental nuclear law of the 8 february 1995 on the use of nuclear energy and radiation safety. It shall establish the priority of human and environmental safety and the rights and responsibilities of citizens with regard to the use of nuclear energy, it shall regulate activities connected with the use of nuclear installations and ionizing radiation sources, and, as well, establish the legal basis for Ukraine's international commitments with respect to the use of nuclear energy. (authors). 71 refs

  5. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  6. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  7. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); psupplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  8. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  9. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIALS ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 60 REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1961 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, UNDERACHIEVERS, PROBABILITY ESTIMATES, AND…

  10. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  11. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  12. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  13. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  14. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  15. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  16. Adverse Effects of Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J J; Pedersen, Kim B; Watt, James

    2018-01-06

    Over 70% of Americans take some form of dietary supplement every day, and the supplement industry is currently big business, with a gross of over $28 billion. However, unlike either foods or drugs, supplements do not need to be registered or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior to production or sales. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, the FDA is restricted to adverse report monitoring postmarketing. Despite widespread consumption, there is limited evidence of health benefits related to nutraceutical or supplement use in well-nourished adults. In contrast, a small number of these products have the potential to produce significant toxicity. In addition, patients often do not disclose supplement use to their physicians. Therefore, the risk of adverse drug-supplement interactions is significant. An overview of the major supplement and nutraceutical classes is presented here, together with known toxic effects and the potential for drug interactions.

  17. Determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-28

    Jan 28, 2014 ... practice of routine iron supplementation in pregnancy. The major problem with .... elemental iron and 350 μg of folic acid per tablet. Definition of ..... Determinants of adherence to iron/folate supplementation during pregnancy.

  18. Dietary Supplements for Exercise and Athletic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ... protein. If needed, protein supplements and protein-fortified food and beverage products can help you get enough protein. Sports- ...

  19. Four essays on the economics of climate change - with a supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, A.

    1993-01-01

    Climate change has been a main environmental issue over the last decade. The atmospheric concentration of some trace gases are increased through various human activities. Some of these trace gases, the greenhouse gases (GHGs), are transparent to incoming solar radiation, but absorb the infrared radiation from the Earth's surface. Through this mechanism the GHGs are able to induce global warming and climate change, even if their concentration is relatively low. The essays of this dissertation relate to different aspects of the climate change issue. The first essay and the supplement analyze the carbon dioxide emission sources and the distribution of emissions. In the first essay, ''Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973-87'', the relation between carbon dioxide emissions in manufacturing and output, structure, energy source mix and technology is discussed. In the supplement, ''Global, regional and national carbon dioxide emissions 1949-86'', the geographical distribution and time series of emissions are described. The next three essays relate to various aspects of climate policy. In ''An optimal growth model for Norway with a carbon dioxide emissions constraint'', the focus is on the economic consequences of an emissions abatement policy implemented as a carbon tax on fossil fuels. The topic of the subsequent essay, ''Efficient contracts in a game of nations pursuing greenhouse gas emissions abatement'', is the design and enforcement by a policing institution of efficient contracts to reduce GHG emissions under country moral hazard. Finally, in the last essay, ''Uncertain change in an intergenerational planning model'', some long-term aspects of climate policy such as intergenerational equity and uncertainty are analyzed

  20. Food supplements: survey of the ASL TO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valfrè, R; Bioletti, L; Spagna, S; Rolle, M; Zucaro, D; Vietti, F; Laurenti, P

    2014-01-01

    supplements at gyms located on the territory of ASLTO3: 59 gyms are available on territory, but only in one of them supplements are sold. Some customers of these gyms have filled a questionnaire concerning the consumption of supplements. The processing of the questionnaires showed that 27% of respondents in the past 2 years used only occasionally food supplements. For 42% of the subjects the use of these products was to achieve weight loss, for 33% for athletes and 17% have used specific products in the case of particular physiological situations such as pregnancy and lactation. The reasons that lead to the use of dietary supplements, in all cases, are attributed to the improvement of health status. In addition, in 50% of cases the pharmacist has led to the use of these products or, alternatively, friends and relatives. The general practitioner is often not informed even in case of disturbances introduced after their use (seen in 8% of our sample). The majority of the sample (58%) said that they had benefited from the use of supplements and they are aware (68%) that there could be contraindications. A greater knowledge of the topic, with attention focused on the entire supply chain of the product, is essential to ensure the safety of consumers in the use of food supplements. For these reasons a more detailed check on the procedure is essential: selection and verification of suppliers (especially for raw materials coming from Eastern countries, because they are not subjected to a thorough inspection); traceability of products marketed; correspondence between manufactured and authorized products. Finally, promote an awareness campaign at all levels is necessary, including general practitioners for a conscious purchase.