Cunha, Carla; Mendes, Inês; Ribeiro, António P; Angus, Lynne; Greenberg, Leslie S; Gonçalves, Miguel M
This research explored the consolidation phase of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for depression and studies-through a task-analysis method-how client-therapist dyads evolved from the exploration of the problem to self-narrative reconstruction. Innovative moments (IMs) were used to situate the process of self-narrative reconstruction within sessions, particularly through reconceptualization and performing change IMs. We contrasted the observation of these occurrences with a rational model of self-narrative reconstruction, previously built. This study presents the rational model and the revised rational-empirical model of the self-narrative reconstruction task in three EFT dyads, suggesting nine steps necessary for task resolution: (1) Explicit recognition of differences in the present and steps in the path of change; (2) Development of a meta-perspective contrast between present self and past self; (3) Amplification of contrast in the self; (4) A positive appreciation of changes is conveyed; (5) Occurrence of feelings of empowerment, competence, and mastery; (6) Reference to difficulties still present; (7) Emphasis on the loss of centrality of the problem; (8) Perception of change as a gradual, developing process; and (9) Reference to projects, experiences of change, or elaboration of new plans. Central aspects of therapist activity in facilitating the client's progression along these nine steps are also elaborated.
Angus, Lynne E; Kagan, Fern
Personality researchers use the term self-narrative to refer to the development of an overall life story that places life events in a temporal sequence and organizes them in accordance to overarching themes. In turn, it is often the case that clients seek out psychotherapy when they can no longer make sense of their life experiences, as a coherent story. Angus and Greenberg (L. Angus and L. Greenberg, 2011, Working with narrative in emotion-focused therapy: Changing stories, healing lives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press) view the articulation and consolidation of an emotionally integrated self-narrative account as an important part of the therapeutic change process that is essential for sustained change in emotion-focused therapy of depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate client experiences of change, and self-narrative reconstruction, in the context of one good outcome emotion-focused therapy dyad drawn from the York II Depression Study. Using the Narrative Assessment Interview (NAI) method, client view of self and experiences of change were assessed at three points in time--after session one, at therapy termination, and at 6 months follow-up. Findings emerging from an intensive narrative theme analyses of the NAI transcripts--and 1 key therapy session identified by the client--are reported and evidence for the contributions of narrative and emotion processes to self-narrative change in emotion-focused therapy of depression are discussed. Finally, the implications of assessing clients' experiences of self-narrative change for psychotherapy research and practice are addressed.
Bailey, P H
Many nurse-researchers using qualitative strategies have been concerned with assuring quality in their work. The early literature reveals that the concepts of validity and reliability, as understood from the positivist perspective, are somehow inappropriate and inadequate when applied to interpretive research. More recent literature suggests that because of the positivist and interpretive paradigms are epistemologically divergent, the transfer of quality criteria from one perspective to the other is not automatic or even reasonable. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to clarify what the terms quality, trustworthiness, credibility, authenticity, and goodness mean in qualitative research findings. The process of assuring quality, validation, in qualitative research will be discussed within the context of the interpretive method, narrative analysis. A brief review of quality in narrative analysis nursing research will also be presented.
The past 10-15 years have seen a rapid increase in the study of narrative across all the social sciences. It is sometimes assumed that narrative has the same meaning irrespective of the context in which it is expressed. This article considers different levels of narrative analysis within health psychology. Specifically, it considers the character of health and illness narratives as a function of the personal, interpersonal, positional and societal levels of analysis. At the personal level of analysis narratives are portrayed as expressions of the lived experience of the narrator. At the interpersonal level of analysis the narrative is one that is co-created in dialogue. At the positional level of analysis the analysis considers the differences in social position between the narrator and the listener. The societal level of analysis is concerned with the socially shared stories that are characteristic of certain communities or societies. The challenge is to articulate the connections between these different levels of narrative analysis and to develop strategies to promote emancipatory narratives.
Vanheule, Stijn; Hauser, Stuart T
The transcripts of semistructured clinical interviews with forty psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were subjected to narrative analysis in an effort to map the logic of their explanations as they spontaneously talked about helplessness experiences, and to determine how helplessness is embedded in broader story lines. Three types of narrative composition were discerned, and are discussed by means of excerpts from the interviews. In a first and predominant type of narrative, a disturbing confrontation with another is pivotal: the other's intentions are obscure; this frightens the narrator, who does not know what to do. Helplessness arises as a direct result of not knowing how to manage the "unbearable riddle" of the other's intentions. In the second, more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is embedded in an account of emptiness and boredom. The protagonist relates enduring experiences of emptiness due to loss and the suffering consequent on it. In the third, also more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is framed in a context of failure: the protagonist adheres to strict standards, feels he or she has fallen short, and concludes that he or she is a failure. Only the first type of narrative is significantly related to the psychiatric diagnoses of mood disorder and major depression.
The purpose of this study is to assess issues that arise in the context of epistemological claims in narrative educational research by means of narrative analysis and epistemological evaluation. The research questions which guided the study were: 1) To what extent is epistemology considered by narrative educational researchers?; 2) What issues do…
Brandon Richard Ro
Full Text Available This study a identifies how people describe, characterize, and communicate in written form Extraordinary Architectural Experiences (EAE, and b expands the traditional qualitative approach to architectural phenomenology by demonstrating a quantitative method to analyze written narratives. Specifically, this study reports on the content analysis of 718 personal accounts of EAEs. Using a deductive, ‘theory-driven’ approach, these narratives were read, coded, and statistically analyzed to identify storyline structure, convincing power, and the relationship between subjective and objective experiential qualities used in the story-telling process. Statistical intercoder agreement tests were conducted to verify the reliability of the interpretations to approach the hard problem of “extraordinary aesthetics” in architecture empirically. The results of this study confirm the aesthetic nature of EAE narratives (and of told experiences by showing their higher dependence on external objective content (e.g., a building’s features and location rather than its internal subjective counterpart (e.g., emotions and sensations, which makes them more outwardly focused. The strong interrelationships and intercoder agreement between the thematic realms provide a unique aesthetic construct revealing EAE narratives as memorable, embodied, emotional events mapped by the externally focused content of place, social setting, time, and building features. A majority of EAE narratives were found to possess plot-structure along with significant relationships to objective-subjective content that further grounded their storylines. This study concludes that content analysis provides not only a valid method to understand written narratives about extraordinary architectural experiences quantitatively, but also a view as to how to map the unique nature of aesthetic phenomenology empirically.
Losh, Molly; Gordon, Peter C
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by serious difficulties with the social use of language, along with impaired social functioning and ritualistic/repetitive behaviors (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, 2013). While substantial heterogeneity exists in symptom expression, impairments in language discourse skills, including narrative (or storytelling), are universally observed in autism (Tager-Flusberg et al. in Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 335-364, 2005). This study applied a computational linguistic tool, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), to objectively characterize narrative performance in high-functioning individuals with autism and typically-developing controls, across two different narrative contexts that differ in the interpersonal and cognitive demands placed on the narrator. Results indicated that high-functioning individuals with autism produced narratives comparable in semantic content to those produced by controls when narrating from a picture book, but produced narratives diminished in semantic quality in a more demanding narrative recall task. This pattern is similar to that detected from analyses of hand-coded picture book narratives in prior research, and extends findings to an additional narrative context that proves particularly challenging for individuals with autism. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of LSA as a quantitative, objective, and efficient measure of narrative ability.
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Dreisbach, Caitlin
This study attempts to advance theorizing about health policy advocacy with combinations of narrative focus and a statistical map in an attempt to increase state legislators' support for policies to address the issue of obesity by reducing food deserts. Specifically, we examine state legislators' responses to variations in narrative focus (individual vs. community) about causes and solutions for food deserts in U.S. communities, and a statistical map (presence vs. absence) depicting the prevalence of food deserts across the United States. Using a Web-based randomized experiment (N=496), we show that narrative focus and the statistical map interact to produce different patterns of cognitive response and support for policies to reduce the prevalence of food deserts. The presence of a statistical map showing the prevalence of food deserts in the United States appeared to matter only when combined with an individual narrative, offsetting the fact that the individual narrative in isolation produced fewer thoughts consistent with the story's persuasive goal and more counterarguments in opposition to environmental causes and solutions for obesity than other message conditions. The image did not have an impact when combined with a story describing a community at large. Cognitive responses fully mediated message effects on intended persuasive outcomes. We conclude by discussing the study's contributions to communication theory and practice.
Papathomas, Anthony; Smith, Brett; Lavallee, David
Families are considered important in the management and treatment of eating disorders. Yet, rarely has research focused on family experiences of living with an eating disorder. Addressing this gap, this study explores the experiences of an elite 21-year-old triathlete with an eating disorder in conjunction with the experiences of her parents. Family members attended interviews individually on three separate occasions over the course of a year. In line with the narrative approach adopted, whereby stories are considered the primary means to construct experience, interviews encouraged storytelling through an open-ended, participant-led structure. Narrative analysis involved repeated readings of the transcripts, sensitising towards issues of narrative content (key themes) and structure (overarching plot). Family difficulties arose when personal experiences strayed from culturally dominant narrative forms and when family members held contrasting narrative preferences. Suggestions are forwarded as to how an appreciation of eating disorder illness narratives might inform treatment and support. © The Author(s) 2015.
Blix, Bodil Hansen; Hamran, Torunn; Normann, Hans Ketil
The point of departure for this article is narrative gerontology's conceptualization of life as storied and the assumption that identity development and meaning making do not cease at any age, but rather continue throughout life. We suggest that if identity construction is considered to be a lifelong project, narrative gerontology would benefit from applying analytical perspectives focused on the situated activity of narration. In this article, we apply a three-level positioning analysis to segments of interviews with two elderly Sami women concerning missed opportunities or roads not taken and, more specifically, to narrations about missed opportunities for education. We argue that such narrations should not necessarily be considered expressions of regret or processes of reconciliation but rather as pivotal in here-and-now identity constructions. Narrations about missed opportunities demonstrate that what narrators choose to insert into their life stories is chosen for a purpose and for an audience in a specific interpersonal and discursive context. We suggest that narrative gerontology would benefit from a broader focus on the diversity of sites of engagement in which older adults perform identity constructions. This shift implies moving beyond traditional studies of older adults' life stories and biographical narratives as related in the context of qualitative research interviews (of which the present study of Sami older adults' life stories is indeed an example). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simpson, Jane; Heath, James; Wall, Gemma
This study aimed to synthesise the illness narratives of individuals living with a pituitary tumour. Eight adults with a pituitary tumour were recruited from an endocrinology service in the north-west of England. A narrative methodology was adopted which investigated elements of the individual narratives such as metaphor and structure but which also aimed to produce a joint account of experience in this particular illness context by extracting themes across the stories; these are presented as part of a chronological narrative. However, the resulting group story was also analysed in terms of different types of narrative plots. The group narrative started from the recognition of symptoms and then diagnosis though treatment to post-treatment and future plans. In terms of narrative plots, one notable element of the joint narrative was the flow between the culturally dominant restitution narrative, where participants focused on treatment and recovery and the chaos narrative when recovery did not seem possible. The findings contain many elements consistent with previous research; however, the use of a celebrity figure to communicate about the illness experience and a perception that objects or individuals should not be taken at face value emerged as more novel findings.
This article uses narrative analysis to explore the narrative construction of Deafhood (Ladd, 2003) in the South African post-apartheid context. The data comprise five life stories of Deaf South Africans. The theoretical framework includes Ladd's notion of Deafhood as belonging and becoming and De Certeau's (1984) notions ...
Stec, Kashmiri; Huiskes, Mike; Redeker, Gisela
We investigate direct speech quotation in informal oral narratives by analyzing the contribution of bodily articulators (character viewpoint gestures, character facial expression, character intonation, and the meaningful use of gaze) in three quote environments, or quote sequences – single quotes,
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe, individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies.
Edwards, Sharon Lorraine
To describe and recommend a variety of data analysis methods when engaging in narrative research using story as an aid to nursing students' learning. Narrative research methodology is used in many nursing research studies. However, narrative research reports are generally unspecific regarding the analysis and interpretive process. This article examines the qualitative analytical approaches of Lieblich et al's ( 1998 ) narrative processes of holistic content and analysis of form, incorporated as overarching theories. To support these theories and to provide a more rounded analytical process, other authors' work is included. Approaching narrative analysis from different perspectives is recommended. For each cycle of analysis, it is important to conceptualise the analysis using descriptors drawn from the initial literature review and the initial text. Rigour and transparency are foremost, and tables are generated that reflect each stage of the analysis. The final stage of analysis is to clearly report, organise and present findings to reflect the richly varied and diverse potential of stories. Engaging in narrative research and then dealing with the large quantities of data to analyse can be daunting, difficult to manage and appear complex. It is also challenging and rewarding. With clear descriptors, examining the data using multiple lenses can serve to develop a greater level of insight into understanding nursing students' learning from their clinical experiences, presented as stories, when involved in the care of individuals. There are many approaches to narrative analysis in nursing research and it can be difficult to establish the main research approach best suited to the study. There is no single way to define narrative analysis and a combination of strategies can be applied.
Cristiane P. Lázaro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the eating behavior of individuals with autism through their mothers’ narratives. Methods The study of narratives was used to report on the narrators’ experiences. Data on the eating habits of individuals with autism were collected using semi-structured interviews held individually with the mothers. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and codified using the NVivo software program. Results Eighteen mothers of boys/young men with autism participated in the study. Analysis yielded three major categories: eating patterns, the family's attitudes to the child's eating habits, and food-related behavior. Conclusion Results show that autism-related factors may affect the child's food choices. Environmental factors, particularly the parents’ behavior, may also play a decisive role, both in reinforcing the child's food choices and in encouraging a healthier and more diversified diet. Professionals should instruct parents regarding their decisive role in reinforcing or discouraging inappropriate mealtime behavior in children with autism.
Hsu, Chien-Ju; Thompson, Cynthia K.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of the manually coded Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis (NNLA) system, which was developed for characterizing agrammatic production patterns, and the automated Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) system, which has recently been adopted to analyze speech samples of individuals…
de Johnson, Teresa H.; O'Connell, Daniel C.
In order to ascertain the effect of different demands on cognitive processes as reflected in speech rate, pause and hesitation phenomena, 90 young men, 45 native speakers of English (U.S.A.) and 45 native speakers of Spanish (Mexico), were asked to retell a story presented in one of three ways: (1) film plus narration; (2) film only; (3) narration…
Bernard, Aaron W; Malone, Matthew; Kman, Nicholas E; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Khandelwal, Sorabh
Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED). Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM) and Internal Medicine (IM) clerkships. A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing a required EM clerkship from July 2008 through May 2010. The narratives were analyzed using established thematic categories from prior research as well as basic descriptive characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the frequency of thematic categories to prior research in IM. Finally, emerging themes not fully appreciated in the established thematic categories were created using grounded theory. Observations involving interactions between attending physician and patient were most abundant. The narratives were coded as positive 198 times, negative 128 times, and hybrid 37 times. The two most abundant narrative themes involved manifesting respect (36.9%) and spending time (23.7%). Both of these themes were statistically more likely to be noted by students on EM clerkships compared to IM clerkships. Finally, one new theme regarding cynicism emerged during analysis. This analysis describes an informal curriculum that is diverse in themes. Student narratives suggest their clinical experiences to be influential on professionalism development. Medical students focus on different aspects of professionalism depending on clerkship specialty.
Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris
-traumatic stress. Patient diaries written in the intensive care unit are used to help ICU-survivors come to terms with their illness. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The study had a qualitative, descriptive and explorative design, using a narrative approach of analysis. Data were analysed on several levels: extra-case level...... plots of nurse, patient and family, which converge during normalisation. Each diary is structured by: summary, daily entries and end note. Each diary entry is structured by: greeting, narrator status, patient status, family status/contextual cues and sign-off note. CONCLUSIONS: Patient diaries...
Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice
In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…
Williams, A E; Crofts, G; Teh, L S
The manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) vary between individuals, from the severe and life-threatening renal and central nervous system involvement, to the involvement of skin, musculoskeletal and vascular system, and the complications of infection influencing the quality of life. However, as specific manifestations affecting the lower limb are perceived as receiving little focus, the purpose of this narrative literature review is to identify the specific factors associated with SLE that may have implications for lower limb and foot morbidity. A structured search of databases was conducted. The inclusion was restricted to publications in the English language, those that specifically investigate the feet as affected with SLE. No restriction on year of publication was imposed to reduce publication bias and to capture as many publication in relation to feet. Eleven papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There were seven additional papers that made observations related to the articular or vascular complications of the feet. This narrative review provides some information on how SLE affects the lower limb and foot in relation to the musculoskeletal and vascular systems. However, there is a lack of literature that specifically focuses on all the manifestations of SLE and the complications associated with its management. There are indications that SLE affects lower limb and foot morbidity but the scale of these problems is unclear and this is partly because of the absence of research and the lack of a 'gold standard' framework for the assessment of the lower limb and foot. In addition to clinical foot health assessment, ultrasonography may be a useful alternative to plain film radiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in capturing the extent of articular and extra-articular manifestations. Further, the Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI) may be useful in identifying those with atherosclerosis and ischaemia. There are indications that SLE affects
Leonardo Yovany Álvarez Ramírez, Psicól*
Full Text Available En la posmodernidad, el lenguaje y la narrativa se constituyeron en la base de la intervención psicoterapéutica, sin embargo las relaciones entre estos y la manera como los individuos estructuran y definen sus actos, creencias, sentimientos e interacciones se ha hecho desde un enfoque basado en valores de armonía, predicción y perfección propios de las ciencias modernas. El objetivo de este trabajo es señalar cómo la realidad desde la cual los individuos construyen su salud emocional puede entenderse desde estos valores pero también y al mismo tiempo, desde sus contrarios al plantear que su realidad personal y social implica la contradicción, la borrosidad, la impredicción, la incertidumbre (elementos del enfoque de la complejidad. Se utiliza el análisis hermenéutico mediante el cual se concluye que la salud mental basada en la intervención desde lo narrativo implica considerar el comportamiento individual y social como realidad compleja. [Álvarez LY. La narrativa psicopatológica desde el enfoque de la complejidad. MedUNAB 2011; 14:103-107].______________________________________________________________________In postmodern age, the language and the narration have become into the base of the psychotherapeutic intervention, however, the relationships between them and the way, individuals structure and define their behaviors, beliefs, feelings and interactions has been done since a focus based on values of harmony, prediction and perfection, which belong to modern sciences. The objective of this work is positing how the reality since the people builds their emotional health should be understand from another and complementary values like contradiction, blurring, impredictiveness, uncertainty (complexity model components. Hermeneutic is used to the analysis through it is concluded that mental health intervention from a narration intervention implies reckoning the individual´s behavior as a complex reality. [Álvarez LY. The
Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L
The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of the data, as well as presenting a quantitative interdisciplinary approach to analyze such open-source data in the context of health narratives. We collected 669,136 tweets referring to vaccination from February 1 to March 9, 2015. These tweets were analyzed to identify key terms, connections among such terms, retweet patterns, the structure of the narrative, and connections to the geographical space. The data analysis captures the anatomy of the themes and relations that make up the discussion about vaccination in Twitter. The results highlight the higher impact of stories contributed by news organizations compared to direct tweets by health organizations in communicating health-related information. They also capture the structure of the antivaccination narrative and its terms of reference. Analysis also revealed the relationship between community engagement in Twitter and state policies regarding child vaccination. Residents of Vermont and Oregon, the two states with the highest rates of non-medical exemption from school-entry vaccines nationwide, are leading the social media discussion in terms of participation. The interdisciplinary study of health-related debates in social media across the cyber-physical debate nexus leads to a greater understanding of public concerns, views, and responses to health-related issues. Further coalescing such capabilities shows promise towards advancing health communication, thus supporting the design of more effective strategies that take into account the complex
Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie
This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy
Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris
The objective was to describe the structure and content of patient diaries written for critically ill patients in Danish intensive care units (ICUs). Critical illness is associated with physical and psychological aftermath including cognitive impairment and post-traumatic stress. Patient diaries written in the intensive care unit are used to help ICU-survivors come to terms with their illness. The study had a qualitative, descriptive and explorative design, using a narrative approach of analysis. Data were analysed on several levels: extra-case level, case level, diary-entry level, and sub-entry level. The sample consisted of 25 patient diaries written by critical care nurses in 2007 for patients at a general ICU in Denmark. The base narrative describes three stages: crisis, turning point, and normalisation. Each case includes parallel plots of nurse, patient and family, which converge during normalisation. Each diary is structured by: summary, daily entries and end note. Each diary entry is structured by: greeting, narrator status, patient status, family status/contextual cues and sign-off note. Patient diaries acknowledge the patient experience and provide new insights into nursing performance. This study offers a framework for understanding ICU patient diaries, which may facilitate cross-unit comparisons and support future guideline development. The dual perspectives of patient diaries and the ambiguous ownership of the narratives may pave the way for insights to improve critical care nursing and ICU rehabilitation.
Saundage, Dilal; Cybulski, Jacob L.; Keller, Susan; Dharmasena, Lasitha
Data analysis is a major part of business analytics (BA), which refers to the skills, methods, and technologies that enable managers to make swift, quality decisions based on large amounts of data. BA has become a major component of Information Systems (IS) courses all over the world. The challenge for IS educators is to teach data analysis--the…
Dawson, Alexandra; Hjorth, Daniel
business. This interpretive perspective is appropriate for family business studies, which address multifaceted and complex social constructs that are performed by different actors in multiple contexts. The analysis highlights five key themes centering on leadership style and succession, trust...
Hoffman, Steven J; Tan, Charlie
Objective: To synthesise what is known about how celebrities influence people’s decisions on health. Design: Meta-narrative analysis of economics, marketing, psychology, and sociology literatures. Data sources Systematic searches of electronic databases: BusinessSource Complete (1886-), Communication & Mass Media Complete (1915-), Humanities Abstracts (1984-), ProQuest Political Science (1985-), PsycINFO (1806-), PubMed (1966-), and Sociology Abstracts (1952-). Inclusion criteria Studies disc...
Hersh, Deborah; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Bourke, Noni
To explore in detail the narrative of a speech pathologist (SP) working with Indigenous Australian clients with acquired communication disorders following stroke or brain injury. There is some evidence that Indigenous clients do not find speech pathology rehabilitation to be culturally appropriate but, currently, there is very little published on the nature of this service or the experiences of SPs who provide this rehabilitation. This research uses both thematic and structural narrative analysis of data from a semi-structured, in-depth interview with a SP to examine the adaptations that she made to address the needs of her adult neurological caseload of (mainly) Indigenous Australians from both urban and remote regions. The thematic analysis resulted in a core theme of flexibility and four other sub-themes: awareness of cultural context, client focus/person-centredness, being practical and working ethically. The structural narrative analysis allowed insight into the nature of clinical reasoning in a context lacking predictability and where previous clinical certainties required adaptation. Individual, detailed narratives are useful in exposing the challenges and clinical reasoning behind culturally sensitive practice. Implications for Rehabilitation Speech pathologists (SPs) can learn from hearing the clinical stories of colleagues with experience of providing rehabilitation in culturally diverse contexts, as well as from ongoing training in culturally competent and safe practices. Such stories help bridge understanding from the general to the particular. SPs working with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders post-stroke and brain injury may find it helpful to consider how the themes, drawn from an interview with the clinician in this study - flexibility, awareness of cultural context, person-centredness, being practical and working ethically - might apply to their practice. Narratives may be helpful in staff training and form an important
Tackney, Charles T.; Chappell, Stacie F.; Sato, Toyoko
This is a founders’ narrative and research paper content analysis of the first 15 years of the Management Spirituality and Religion Interest Group (MSR) of the Academy of Management. Based on archival data and founder interviews, our inquiry recounts how the early collaborators established......: a corpus epitomizing MSR research and practice. The combined study is a benchmark of founding and institutionalization for current and potential MSR members. By tracing the research trends MSR has taken in light of the founding aspirations, we illuminate the distinctive values, tensions, and meanings...
Arthur W. Frank
Full Text Available Narrative analysis is presented as continuous with personal storytelling in the work of remoralizing what Weber identified as disenchanted modernity. Critics of contemporary storytelling seem to misunderstand what kind of authenticity of self is expressed in stories. Against those whom Charles Taylor calls “knockers” of the idea of personal authenticity, this article affirms authenticity, but in terms that are dialogical: authenticity is created in the process of storytelling, it is not a precondition of the telling, and authenticity remains in process. This authenticity is shown to have an affinity with democratic politics, in contrast to the neo-liberal affinity of the knocker position.
Kusuma, Rina Sari
Movie, as a means of mass communication, narrating life in a set of binary - that have different privilege. This research wants to examine movie entitled Rashomon, directed by Akira Kurosawa in 1950, in narrating gender as one of characters code that gave diverse contradictive testimonies about the same events; rape and murder. Rashomon used multiple narrators that build the same story from different point of view that lead to the subjectivity and relativity of truth which the director didn’t...
Thomas S. C. Farrell
Full Text Available Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002 narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.
This paper addresses the fundamental contributions of client narrative disclosure in psychotherapy and its importance for the elaboration of new emotional meanings and self understanding in the context of Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) of depression. An overview of the multi-methodological steps undertaken to empirically investigate the contributions of client story telling, emotional differentiation and meaning-making processes (Narrative Processes Coding System; Angus et al., 1999) in EFT treatments of depression is provided, followed by a summary of key research findings that informed the development of a narrative-informed approach to Emotion-focused therapy of depression (Angus & Greenberg, 2011). Finally, the clinical practice and training implications of adopting a research-informed approach to working with narrative and emotion processes in EFT are described, and future research directions discussed.
Tubbs , Meghan
This thesis aims to explore autobiography as a rhetorical genre and to explore the personal narrative of Aleshia Brevard, an MTF (male to female) transsexual. The critical analysis employs a form of narrative criticism created from the work of several rhetorical critics. Narrative coherence is examined through looking at Brevardâ s arrangement of events, and narrative fidelity is examined through looking at Brevardâ s use of ultimate terms. This thesis suggests that the personal narratives ...
Lomax, Helen Jayne
This paper provides analytic focus on the productive and editorial contexts of children and young people's image-making, making visible its implications for the analysis of photographs. Drawing on participatory research in which children and young people worked alongside researchers to create a visual narrative of their lived experiences of…
Full Text Available ISIS recruits on a 24/7 basis in over 21 languages over the Internet using videos, memes, tweets and other social media postings and swarming in on anyone that retweets, likes or endorses their materials to try to seduce them into the group. Their unprecedented social media drive has resulted in over 30,000 foreign fighters from more than 100 countries migrating to Syria and Iraq. ISIS recruitment in the U.S. is for the most part Internet based and has resulted in the actual and attempted recruitment of over 100 individuals residing in the U.S. with over 200 Americans traveling to Syria to join terrorist groups. To date very little counter-narrative material exists and most of it is cognitive versus emotionally impactful. The International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism (ICSVE Breaking the ISIS Brand – the ISIS Defectors Interviews Project has managed to collect 43 ISIS defector interviews and thus far produce two video clips of ISIS defectors denouncing the group which were focus tested in this research in a small normative college student sample of 75 undergraduate students. The results demonstrate that American college students find the videos authentic, disturbing and turn them away from ISIS, fulfilling the goals that the project is aiming for in producing counter-narrative materials.
Collard, Sarah S; Marlow, Caroline
Research has presented the benefits of and barriers to exercise for people with epilepsy through quantitative means. However, individual experiences through qualitative investigations have been absent. This research will present the narratives of people with epilepsy exercising over time and, as a result, develop further understanding of the psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy. Four interviews were conducted over the course of one year (one every three to four months) with four participants (aged 23-38years) who varied in seizure type and control (16 interviews in total). A narrative analysis was used to analyze their exercise experiences. Results showed that exercise creates a positive effect on psychological and physical well-being. However, prevention from exercise as a result of medical advice or recurrent seizures can create negative effects such as social isolation, anxiety, lack of confidence, frustration, and anger. Adaptations of decreasing exercise intensity level and partaking in different physical activities are techniques used to lessen the negative impact and maintain an exercise routine. Time was shown to be an important factor in this adaptation as well as portrayed the cyclical responses of negative and positive emotions in regard to their exercise life. These findings provide valuable insight into the psychosocial benefits of and barriers to exercising with epilepsy and draw attention to the individual differences in how a person with epilepsy copes with uncontrolled seizures and their impact on his/her exercise routine. This knowledge can lead to future research in exploring how a person with epilepsy can overcome these barriers to exercise and encourage more people with epilepsy to enjoy the benefits of exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Wet, Corene
In order to expand the body of knowledge on workplace bullying in South Africa the aim of this article is to report on findings from a narrative analysis. In this article the professional life stories of two teachers, who have been exposed to bullying by their principals over an extended period of time, are retold. The narratives describe how and…
Moertl, Kathrin; Buchholz, Michael B; Lamott, Franziska
This study was conducted to analyze how male sexual offenders construct mental images of masculinity and femininity to provide insight into therapeutic treatment for such patients. Thematerial examined in this studywas comprised of 21 videotaped prison group therapy sessions in which the participating sexual offenders talked about their crimes and biographies. Aqualitative data analysis softwarewas usedto apply a modified grounded theorymethodology to the transcribed sessions. The resulting categories can be understood as descriptions of how the imprisoned men constructed gender images, and were based on three narrative levels: the structure of narration, the narrative positions in the story, and the interaction between the narrator and the other participants. According to the categories describedin the narrative positions (the narrated self and the narrated significant male others), we constructed masculinity categorizations which corresponded to specific images of femininity (derived from the narrated significant female others).The constructionsprovided insight into the selfimage of the narrator, as well as the accountability and positioning of himself and the other in regard to perpetrator-victim constructions. The study further revealed whether the participants either accepted or rejected responsibility and guilt for their crimes; this is essential for psychotherapeutic process and treatment.
Full Text Available This paper examines shame in three narratives involving the social self and the evaluative perception of that self. The semiotic square is used for analysing some of the conceptualizations of shame and highlighting the structural relations of the shame phenomenon in narrative. The stance of this paper is that shame is a moral emotion which results from two main evaluative perceptions, involving moral sentiment and social reputation. In support of this claim, different aspects of shame are analysed in three types of narratives from different socio-cultural contexts.
Neiva Maria Tebaldi Gomes
Full Text Available This article analyzes the construction of meanings of a narrative in the light of the theory of argumentation in language, proposed by Oswald Ducrot and Jean Anscombre. The object of analysis, the narrative "História de um olhar" [Story of a look] is one among 21 stories from "A vida que ninguém vê" [The life that nobody sees], a book by Eliane Brum, who a Brazilian journalist that has excelled in literary journalism. The analysis, which was conducted with the support of the theory of argumentation in language and, in parallel, with a view at textual syntax, revealed that the structure of the utterances, fragmented at the beginning of the narrative, is modified as the identity of the starring character is being resignified. A narrative whose syntax contributes to the definition of the meanings of the narrative then arises.
Full Text Available In this paper we have analyzed the ideal-type model of the story which represents the basic framework of action in Manhunt category pornographic internet video clips, using narrative analysis methods of Claude Bremond. The results have shown that it is possible to apply the theoretical model to elements of visual and mass culture, with certain modifications and taking into account the wider context of the narrative itself. The narrative analysis indicated the significance of researching categories of pornography on the internet, because it leads to a deep analysis of the distribution of power in relations between the categories of heterosexual and homosexual within a virtual environment.
Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim
Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)
Objective To synthesise what is known about how celebrities influence people’s decisions on health. Design Meta-narrative analysis of economics, marketing, psychology, and sociology literatures. Data sources Systematic searches of electronic databases: BusinessSource Complete (1886-), Communication & Mass Media Complete (1915-), Humanities Abstracts (1984-), ProQuest Political Science (1985-), PsycINFO (1806-), PubMed (1966-), and Sociology Abstracts (1952-). Inclusion criteria Studies discussing mechanisms of celebrities’ influence on people in any context. Results Economics literature shows that celebrity endorsements act as signals of credibility that differentiate products or ideas from competitors and can catalyse herd behaviour. Marketing studies show that celebrities transfer their desirable attributes to products and use their success to boost their perceived credibility. Psychology shows that people are classically conditioned to react positively to the advice of celebrities, experience cognitive dissonance if they do not, and are influenced by congruencies with their self conceptions. Sociology helps explain the spread of celebrity medical advice as a contagion that diffuses through social networks and people’s desire to acquire celebrities’ social capital. Conclusions The influence of celebrity status is a deeply rooted process that can be harnessed for good or abused for harm. A better understanding of celebrity can empower health professionals to take this phenomenon seriously and use patient encounters to educate the public about sources of health information and their trustworthiness. Public health authorities can use these insights to implement regulations and restrictions on celebrity endorsements and design counter marketing initiatives—perhaps even partnering with celebrities—to discredit bogus medical advice while promoting evidence based practices.
Roddy, Chantal; Rickard, Nikki; Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity Anne
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients face unique identity challenges associated with physical limitations, higher comorbid depression, increased suicidality and reduced subjective well-being. Post-injury identity is often unaddressed in subacute rehabilitation environments where critical physical and functional rehabilitation goals are prioritized. Therapeutic songwriting has demonstrated prior efficacy in promoting healthy adjustment and as a means of expression for post-injury narratives. The current study sought to examine the identity narratives of therapeutic songwriting participants. Case-series analysis of the individual identity trajectories of eight individuals. Subacute rehabilitation facility, Victoria, Australia. Eight individuals with an SCI; 7 males and 1 female. Six-week therapeutic songwriting intervention facilitated by a music therapist to promote identity rehabilitation. Identity, subjective well-being and distress, emotional state. Three participants demonstrated positive trajectories and a further three showed negative trajectories; remaining participants were ambiguous in their response. Injury severity differentiated those with positive trajectories from those with negative trajectories, with greater injury severity apparent for those showing negative trends. Self-concept also improved more in those with positive trajectories. Core demographic variables did not however meaningfully predict the direction of change in core identity or wellbeing indices. Identity-focused songwriting holds promise as a means of promoting healthy identity reintegration. Further research on benefits for those with less severe spinal injuries is warranted.
Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed
The article suggests that though narrative inquiry as a research methodology entails free conversations and personal stories, yet it should not be totally free and fictional as it has to conform to some recognized standards used for conducting educational research. Hence, a qualitative study conducted by Russ (1999) was explored as an exemplar…
Pizzigalli, L; Micheletti Cremasco, M; Mulasso, A; Rainoldi, A
Falls are a serious health problem for older adults. Several studies have identified the decline of postural balance as one of the main risk factors for falls. Contrary to what may be believed, the capability of force platform measurements to predict falls remains uncertain. The focus of this narrative review is the identification of postural characteristics of older adults at risk of falling using both static and dynamic postural balance assessments. The literature analysis was conducted on Medline/PubMed. The search ended in May 2015. Centre of pressure (CoP) path length, CoP velocity and sway in medial lateral and anterior-posterior are the variables that distinguish older adult fallers from non-fallers. Recommendations to medical personnel on how to provide efficient balance training for older adults are offered, discussing the relevance and limitations of postural stability on static and dynamic board in falling risk prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
John C. Pruit
Full Text Available The “big” story of human progress has polarizing tendencies featuring the binary options of progress or decline. I consider human progress narratives in the context of everyday life. Analysis of the “little” stories from two narrative environments focusing on peak oil offers a more complex picture of the meaning and contours of the narrative. I consider the impact of differential blog site commitments to peak oil perspectives and identify five narrative types culled from two narrative dimensions. I argue that the lived experience complicates human progress narratives, which is no longer an either/or proposition.
Keijzer, Marian; Liñán, Francisco (Coordinador); Guzmán Cuevas, Joaquín J. (Coordinador)
Some of the most successful entrepreneurs in the Anglo-American world have written their autobiographies. A narrative analysis of these autobiographies reveal the influence of the American Dream on their life and on the way they tell their lifestories. An emphasis on moral correctness as well as on working hard, perseverance and discipline justifies the success of the narrators. The American Myth seems to be a reality – at least for white, Anglo-American, male entrepreneur...
Hatavara, Mari Annukka; Mildorf, Jarmila
This article discusses the recent trends in Fictionality Studies and argues for a point of view focusing more on the narrative dimension of fictionality than on the fictive story content. With the analysis of two case studies, where a non-fictional third person narrator represents the experience...... with other minds travel between fictional and nonfictional narratives, and between stories artistically designed and those occurring in conversational or documentary environments....
Collard, Sarah; Marlow, C.
© 2016 Elsevier Inc.Research has presented the benefits of and barriers to exercise for people with epilepsy through quantitative means. However, individual experiences through qualitative investigations have been absent. This research will present the narratives of people with epilepsy exercising over time and, as a result, develop further understanding of the psychosocial impact of exercising with epilepsy. Four interviews were conducted over the course of one year (one every three to four ...
Mahmood Barati khansari
have not explained them. We categorize them in the following: 1-2-2 simple past + present tense in the statements without Vav (and 2-2-2 - simple past +( subject+ present tense in the statements with Vav (and 2-2-3- past participle + present in the statement with Vav (and 2-2-4- simple past + present tense in the statements with conjunction Vav (and 2-2-5- liking verb + present tense in the statements without conjunction Vav (and 2-2-6- past participle + present in the statement without conjunction Vav (and 2-2-7- Perfect Tense + subject + simple present + in the statements without Vav (and 3-2- the above examples in the conditional sentences and similar conditional sentences 2-2-8- progressive past + Vav (and + present Tense 2-2-9- simple past + subject + present perfect in statement with Vav (and 2-2-10- simile sentences and the like It firstly seems this method to be the literary art of Eltefat which is used in prose texts, as Fruzanfar believed when he says Managhebe Ouhadi Kermani's stylistic characteristics, " the writer narrates a massage through stories which he narrates of third person to first person". He changes third person to first person. This method is named Eltefat in the figures of speech ( badi ( Fruzanfar, 1347, Introduction, p. 61. Surely, this can not be counted figure of speech ( Elme Badi'. Although, on the basis of Eltefat literary art, the person changes from absent to addressee or vice versa ( Homaee, 1361, p. 293. On the basis of examples, the writer does not want to decorate the speech but it is his method of speech and time circumstances. In addition, the verb times have been changed and the persons are fixed ( from absent to addresses. We can negligently call this grammar point literary art of Eltefat as Homaee counted the conjunct absent verb to addresses in examples such as be khoneh Bordan ( I took him to house, sar charb kardam ( I oiled my head and muy setordam ( I removed my hair ( see Homaee, the same, but this method is not correct
the grammarians have not explained them. We categorize them in the following: 1-2-2 simple past + present tense in the statements without Vav (and 2-2-2 - simple past +( subject+ present tense in the statements with Vav (and 2-2-3- past participle + present in the statement with Vav (and 2-2-4- simple past + present tense in the statements with conjunction Vav (and 2-2-5- liking verb + present tense in the statements without conjunction Vav (and 2-2-6- past participle + present in the statement without conjunction Vav (and 2-2-7- Perfect Tense + subject + simple present + in the statements without Vav (and 3-2- the above examples in the conditional sentences and similar conditional sentences 2-2-8- progressive past + Vav (and + present Tense 2-2-9- simple past + subject + present perfect in statement with Vav (and 2-2-10- simile sentences and the like It firstly seems this method to be the literary art of Eltefat which is used in prose texts, as Fruzanfar believed when he says Managhebe Ouhadi Kermani's stylistic characteristics, " the writer narrates a massage through stories which he narrates of third person to first person". He changes third person to first person. This method is named Eltefat in the figures of speech ( badi ( Fruzanfar, 1347, Introduction, p. 61. Surely, this can not be counted figure of speech ( Elme Badi'. Although, on the basis of Eltefat literary art, the person changes from absent to addressee or vice versa ( Homaee, 1361, p. 293. On the basis of examples, the writer does not want to decorate the speech but it is his method of speech and time circumstances. In addition, the verb times have been changed and the persons are fixed ( from absent to addresses. We can negligently call this grammar point literary art of Eltefat as Homaee counted the conjunct absent verb to addresses in examples such as be khoneh Bordan ( I took him to house, sar charb kardam ( I oiled my head and muy setordam ( I removed my hair ( see Homaee, the same, but
a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...
Lombardi, D A; Pannala, R; Sorock, G S; Wellman, H; Courtney, T K; Verma, S; Smith, G S
To determine the activities and circumstances proximal to a welding related occupational eye injury, a hybrid narrative coding approach derived from two well developed classification systems was developed to categorize and describe the activity, initiating process, mechanism of injury, object and/or substance, and the use of protective eyewear from the narrative text data reported for each injury. Routinely collected workers' compensation claims over a one year period (2000) were analyzed from a large US insurance provider. An index term search algorithm of occupation, incident, and injury description fields identified 2209 potential welding related eye injury claims. After detailed review of these claims, 1353 welders and 822 non-welders were analyzed. During 2000, eye(s) as the primary injured body part accounted for 5% (n = 26 413) of all compensation claims. Eye injuries accounted for 25% of all claims for welders. Subjects were mainly male (97.1%) and from manufacturing (70.4%), service (11.8%), or construction (8.4%) related industries. Most injuries were foreign body (71.7%) or burn (22.2%) and 17.6% were bilateral. Common activities include welding (31.9%) and/or grinding (22.5%). Being struck by an airborne object occurred in 56.3% of cases. Non-welders showed similar patterns except that burns (43.8%) were more frequent and more often initiated by another worker (13.9%). Narrative injury text provides valuable data to supplement traditional epidemiologic analyses. Workers performing welding tasks or working nearby welders should be trained to recognize potential hazards and the effective use of proper safety equipment to prevent ocular injury.
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Studies using narratives with children and parents offer ways to study affective meaning-making processes that are central in many theories of developmental psychopathology. This paper reviews theory regarding affective meaning making, and argues that narratives are particularly suited to examine such processes. The review of narrative studies and methods is organized into three sections according to the focus on child, parent, and parent-child narratives. Within each focus three levels of analysis are considered: (a) narrative organization and coherence, (b) narrative content, and (c) the behavior/interactions of the narrator(s). The implications of this research for developmental psychopathology and clinical work are discussed with an emphasis on parent-child jointly constructed narratives as the meeting point of individual child and parent narratives.
Full Text Available This article focuses on the larger project of identifying oppressive structures (during apartheid more specifically in this instance and how educational policy/textbooks (post-apartheid produce transformative knowledge for decolonization. It presents Black South African teacher perceptions and desires of what/how educational policy, history textbooks can intervene in apartheid indoctrination and what role these have in addressing the nation’s meta-narrative of equity and social justice. I take up these teacher narratives as a way to further critique textbooks currently used and examine the written and visual content against post-apartheid decolonizing intentions. Teacher narratives and textbook analysis indicate that even prescriptive post-apartheid textbooks struggle to reimagine history wrought through with colonialism. Decolonizing analysis of visual images in the textbooks show how curriculum policy/practice in South Africa is a collision of anti-apartheid desires and post-apartheid reality. By examining grassroots linkages I attempt to expand the current dialogue on educational policy and textbook studies and to contextualize the field, both historically and contemporarily.
Boeije, H.R.; Slagt, M.I.; van Wesel, F.
In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving
Boeije, H.; Slagt, M.; Wesel, F. van
In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or “yield”). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving
Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt
In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…
Addiction research has demonstrated how recovering individuals need narratives that make sense of past drug use and enable constructions of future, non-addict identities. However, there has not been much investigation into how these recovery narratives actually develop moment-to-moment in drug treatment. Building on the sociology of storytelling and ethnographic fieldwork conducted at two drug treatment institutions for young people in Denmark, this article argues that studying stories in the context of their telling brings forth novel insights. Through a narrative analysis of both 'the whats' (story content) and 'the hows' (storying process) the article presents four findings: (1) stories of change function locally as an institutional requirement; (2) professional drug treatment providers edit young people's storytelling through different techniques; (3) the narrative environment of the drug treatment institution shapes how particular stories make sense of the past, present and future; and (4) storytelling in drug treatment is an interactive achievement. A fine-grained analysis illuminates in particular how some stories on gender and drug use are silenced, while others are encouraged. The demonstration of how local narrative environments shape stories contributes to the general understanding of interactive storytelling in encounters between professionals and clients in treatment settings. © 2015 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of Foundation for Sociology of Health & Illness.
Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.
Full Text Available This article delineates a ground work for shaping Christian leadership characters by examining the book of Ruth, a narrative of cooperation. First, we introduce the general Biblical wisdom, guidance, and religious precepts on leadership characters from the Bible per se. Second, we depict a synopsis and connotation of the Ruth Narrative combined with the historical background of the late Judges time when Naomi, Elimelech, Ruth and Boaz lived and the social and religious background of Moab where the family of Elimelech dwelt in for ten years. Third, based on those background analyses, the main figures’ dialogues, and their actions, we illustrate their positive servant and mentor leadership characters that include a combination of their distinguished traits and cognitive attributes, as well as some weaknesses of Naomi and Elimelech. In a nutshell, Naomi’s leadership characters contain loyalty to God (2:19 – 20, discovering value within (3:1 – 4, and patience and endurance (3:18. Ruth’s leadership characters incorporate faithfulness and positive self-esteem (1:16 – 17, pioneer and daring (2:2, deference (2:10, obedience (3:5, and loving-kindness (3:10. Boaz’s leadership characters include respect (2:4, care (2:5, compassion (2:8 – 9, 11, empowerment (2:15 – 16, leaning on and trusting God (2:12, care (2:14; 3:15, protecting the weak (3:10 – 15, responsibility (3:12, moral integrity and justness (3:13, carefulness (3:14, formation (4:1, unselfishness and cleverness (4:3 – 5, and partnering (4:9 – 10. While we criticize Elimelech’s risk seeking strategy to migrate their family to a pagan country (1:1 – 2 as a spiritual adventure.
Finney, Mark David
This dissertation focuses on the place of narrative in the transformational encounter that can take place between hearers of sermons and God. Chapter 1 surveys the history and development of contemporary scholarship related to narrative preaching. It argues that most homileticians consider narrative either as a way of structuring sermons, or as a…
is presented to give a concrete example of this narrative, community psychological oriented intervention, a process which helps people to develop a sense of personal or cultural identity and an understanding of their doing as being in correspondence with their values and intentions. The overarching focus...
Jacobsen, Frode F
How the general public in Norway conceives being an older adult and the meaning of chronological age has changed over the last few decades. As narratives of aging may be identified in the Norwegian mass media and in the population at large, dominant narratives may also be identified in policy documents, such as government health policy papers. This article explores a narrative analytical framework based on stories, subtexts, and counterstories; it argues that such narratives are characterized as much by what is unsaid as by what is said, and as much by choice of words and word combinations as by explicit messages. Culture strongly influences the conception of a likely future (what will be) and an envisioned future (what ought to be) regarding aging and geriatric care in Norway, as expressed in the public policy papers. The public policy story is discussed as both a story continuously developing, where later health policy papers relate to and comment on earlier documents, and as a story characterized by a measure of cultural incoherence. Some recent government documents dealing with professional geriatric care will serve as material for a narrative analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verzolla, Beatriz Lopes Porto; Isotani, Selma Mie; Perissinoto, Jacy
To verify the oral narrative abilities in preschoolers, before and after language stimulation. Participants were 58 preschoolers. The study was developed in three stages: 1. Pre-stimulation stage (Moment 1) - preschoolers produced the first autonomous narrative based on a sequence of pictures, and the second under adult scaffolding; 2. Stimulation stage - it was conducted a weekly reading of children's stories in group, for ten weeks; 3. Post-stimulation stage (Moment 2): the same procedure of the first stage was repeated. The results analysis considered: the occurrence of central and secondary events; the accountable/explicable conduct, classified according to physical causes, moral/social rules and internal state; the attribution and rectification of false beliefs, analyzed by the internal state's accountable/explicable conduct. There was an increase in the occurrence of central events in Moment 2 as well as after the adult scaffolding, with decrease of secondary events comparing both moments and after the scaffolding. Regarding the accountable/explicable conduct, no differences were found between physical, social/moral rules, and internal state conducts. The internal state accountable/explicable conduct was predominantly found in all the autonomous narratives. Both the reading of children's stories and the adult scaffolding contribute to the increase in the occurrence of events in autonomous narratives. There is no variation on the type of accountable/explicable conduct in the narratives. The internal state accountable/explicable conduct is predominantly used by preschoolers.
Marta Magdalena Boczkowska
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine narratives of the personal religious, spiritual and mystical experiences of adult Poles (N = 74 and their impact on narrative identity. The method for collecting qualitative data about individual understandings and spiritual, religious and mystical experiences was the narrative interview, developed on the basis of the Life Story Interview. During the analysis, the following key topics were identified: awareness of the presence/protection of God, a peak experience, the awareness of oneness with nature and the world, and a sense of closeness/contact with a person who has died. This study provides specific information on the spiritual, religious and mystical experiences of the investigated group of Poles.
Reed, Amy R
This article analyzes narrative illustrations in genetic counseling textbooks as a way of understanding professional habitus--the dispositions that motivate professional behavior. In particular, this analysis shows that there are significant differences in how the textbooks' expository and narrative portions represent Down syndrome, genetic counseling practice, and patient behaviors. While the narrative portions of the text position the genetic counseling profession as working in service to the values of genetic medicine, the expository portions represent genetic counselors as neutral parties. Ultimately, this article argues that this ambiguity is harmful to the production of a professional habitus that is consistent with espoused professional values concerning respect for persons with disabilities and the promotion of psychosocial counseling.
Moreira, Paulo; Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Matias, Carla
The therapist’s theoretical orientation has been shown to impact the psychotherapy process. However, less is known about the extent to which the therapist’s orientation may impact clients’ narratives. This exploratory study analysed clients’ narrative production in psychoptherapy, when interacting with different therapists. The data consisted of transcripts of Shostrom’s videotaped therapy sessions between the client Gloria and the therapists Carl Rogers, Fritz Perls and Alb...
Hovy, Dirk; Anumanchipalli, Gopala; Parlikar, Alok
This paper uses a crowd-sourced definition of a speech phenomenon we have called focus. Given sentences, text and speech, in isolation and in context, we asked annotators to identify what we term the focus word. We present their consistency in identifying the focused word, when presented with text...... or speech stimuli. We then build models to show how well we predict that focus word from lexical (and higher) level features. Also, using spectral and prosodic information, we show the differences in these focus words when spoken with and without context. Finally, we show how we can improve speech synthesis...
Full Text Available This study aims to analyse the interactional construction of fictional accounts produced by dyads of 4- year-old children from marginalised urban populations in Argentina. The narratives, elicited from a sequence of images, were video-taped and transcribed. The data corpus consist of 33 narratives produced by dyads of 4 yearold children. A qualitative analysis was performed that combined the Constant Comparative Method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1990 with tools from Conversation Analysis (Goodwin 1984, 2007; Sacks, Schegloff & Jefferson, 1974. This analysis allowed the generation of a system of categories that identified the narrative roles assumed by the participants. The analysis attended to the juxtaposition of different semiotic fields: linguistic information, body position, intonation, gaze direction, gestures and the manipulation of objects. Findings showed that children adopted roles of storyteller, audience, or parallel player. In most of the cases both children adopted a storyteller role leading to a negotiation process that allowed them to co-construct the narrative. This paper is written in Spanish
Tackney, Charles T.; Chappell, Stacie; Sato, Toyoko
data and founder interviews. The individuals interviewed were identified through preliminary inquiry and from archival data. As a complement of and extension to this inclusive founding narrative, we conducted a content and discourse analysis of the 15 years of MSR Best Papers and Carolyn Dexter Best...
Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Brydges, Ryan
Although feedback has been identified as a key instructional feature in simulation based medical education (SBME), we remain uncertain as to the magnitude of its effectiveness and the mechanisms by which it may be effective. We employed a meta-analysis and critical narrative synthesis to examine the effectiveness of feedback for SBME procedural…
Kennelly, Jeanette D; Baker, Felicity A; Daveson, Barbara A
Limited research exists to inform a music therapist's supervision story from their pre-professional training to their practice as a professional. Evidence is needed to understand the complex nature of supervision experiences and their impact on professional practice. This qualitative study explored the supervisory experiences of Australian-based Registered Music Therapists, according to the: 1) themes that characterize their experiences, 2) influences of the supervisor's professional background, 3) outcomes of supervision, and 4) roles of the employer, the professional music therapy association, and the university in supervision standards and practice. Seven professionals were interviewed for this study. Five stages of narrative analysis were used to create their supervision stories: a life course graph, narrative psychological analysis, component story framework and narrative analysis, analysis of narratives, and final integration of the seven narrative summaries. Findings revealed that supervision practice is influenced by a supervisee's personal and professional needs. A range of supervision models or approaches is recommended, including the access of supervisors from different professional backgrounds to support each stage of learning and development. A quality supervisory experience facilitates shifts in awareness and insight, which results in improved or increased skills, confidence, and accountability of practice. Participants' concern about stakeholders included a limited understanding of the role of the supervisor, a lack of clarity about accountability of supervisory practice, and minimal guidelines, which monitor professional competencies. The benefits of supervision in music therapy depend on the quality of the supervision provided, and clarity about the roles of those involved. Research and guidelines are recommended to target these areas. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Stacey, Gemma; Felton, Anne; Morgan, Alastair; Stickley, Theo; Willis, Martin; Diamond, Bob; Houghton, Philip; Johnson, Beverley; Dumenya, John
Shared decision-making (SDM) is a high priority in healthcare policy and is complementary to the recovery philosophy in mental health care. This agenda has been operationalised within the Values-Based Practice (VBP) framework, which offers a theoretical and practical model to promote democratic interprofessional approaches to decision-making. However, these are limited by a lack of recognition of the implications of power implicit within the mental health system. This study considers issues of power within the context of decision-making and examines to what extent decisions about patients' care on acute in-patient wards are perceived to be shared. Focus groups were conducted with 46 mental health professionals, service users, and carers. The data were analysed using the framework of critical narrative analysis (CNA). The findings of the study suggested each group constructed different identity positions, which placed them as inside or outside of the decision-making process. This reflected their view of themselves as best placed to influence a decision on behalf of the service user. In conclusion, the discourse of VBP and SDM needs to take account of how differentials of power and the positioning of speakers affect the context in which decisions take place.
Kruse, Clemens Scott; Mileski, Michael; Moreno, Joshua
Introduction The ubiquitous nature of mobile technology coupled with the acceptance of mobile health (mHealth) among the elderly offers an opportunity to augment the existing medical workforce in long-term care. The objective of this review and narrative analysis is to identify and analyse facilitators and barriers to adoption of mHealth for the elderly. Methods Studies over the last year were identified in multiple database indices, and three reviewers examined abstracts ( k = 0.82) and analysed articles for themes which were tallied in affinity diagrams to identify frequency of occurrence in the literature (n = 36). Results The three facilitators mentioned most often were independence (18%), understanding (13%), and visibility (13%). The three barriers mentioned most often were complexity (21%), limited by users (12%) and ineffective (12%). Discussion and conclusions The reviewers concluded that the work done so far illustrates that mHealth enables a perception of independence. Future research should focus on the barriers of complexity of technology and improving existing medical literacy in order to facilitate further adoption.
Chubar, O; Snigirev, A
High accuracy calculations of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by a relativistic electron show that the phase of the frequency domain electric field of SR differs from the phase of radiation of a virtual point source. These differences may result in the reduction of focusing efficiency of diffraction-limited SR, if the focusing is performed by conventional optical components optimised for point sources. We show that by applying a phase correction locally, one may transform the phase of SR electric field at a desired polarisation to that of a point source. Such corrections are computed for undulator radiation (planar and helical) and bending magnet radiation (central part and edges). The focusing of the corrected SR wavefront can result in the increase of peak intensity in the focused spot up to several times compared to the focusing without correction. For non-diffraction-limited radiation, the effect of the phase corrections is reduced. Due to this reason, the use of the proposed phase corrections in exist...
Dolan, Brigid M; O'Brien, Celia Laird; Cameron, Kenzie A; Green, Marianne M
Construct: Students entering the health professions require competency in teamwork. Although many teamwork curricula and assessments exist, studies have not demonstrated robust longitudinal assessment of preclerkship students' teamwork skills and attitudes. Assessment portfolios may serve to fill this gap, but it is unknown how narrative comments within portfolios describe student teamwork behaviors. We performed a qualitative analysis of narrative data in 15 assessment portfolios. Student portfolios were randomly selected from 3 groups stratified by quantitative ratings of teamwork performance gathered from small-group and clinical preceptor assessment forms. Narrative data included peer and faculty feedback from these same forms. Data were coded for teamwork-related behaviors using a constant comparative approach combined with an identification of the valence of the coded statements as either "positive observation" or "suggestion for improvement." Eight codes related to teamwork emerged: attitude and demeanor, information facilitation, leadership, preparation and dependability, professionalism, team orientation, values team member contributions, and nonspecific teamwork comments. The frequency of codes and valence varied across the 3 performance groups, with students in the low-performing group receiving more suggestions for improvement across all teamwork codes. Narrative data from assessment portfolios included specific descriptions of teamwork behavior, with important contributions provided by both faculty and peers. A variety of teamwork domains were represented. Such feedback as collected in an assessment portfolio can be used for longitudinal assessment of preclerkship student teamwork skills and attitudes.
Van der Vyver, AG
Full Text Available iteration the researchers focused on any expectations that the respondents reported regarding the DD, as well as on the role of word of mouth communication. After the completion of the open coding process, the researchers engaged in axial coding. Axial... to the integrating and refining of theory (1998, p.143). The researchers started with a line-by-line examination of the data. The words, sentences and phrases embedded in the comments and stories were examined. The first iteration of open coding was done...
Buckley, Catherine; McCormack, Brendan; Ryan, Assumpta
To report on the development of a framework of narrative practice, in residential care settings for older people. Residential care settings for older people provide care for people who are no longer able to live in their own home. To date, the impact and structure of nursing practice on care provision in these settings has proved difficult to conceptualise within a specific nursing theory framework. A hermeneutic approach incorporating narrative methods was used. Forty-six narrative interviews with older people in residential care were secondary-analysed for key themes through a three-stage process: by the first author, four focus groups of 12 clinical nurse managers and two independent experts. Themes were also derived from a focus group of eight residents who explored person-centredness and narrative. Finally, the combined findings were used to derive a single set of themes. The secondary data analysis process led to the development of a framework of narrative practice for the care of older people in residential settings. The framework is influenced by narrative enquiry, person-centred practice and practice development. It has four pillars, prerequisites, care processes, care environment and narrative aspects of care. To operationalise the framework of narrative practice, three narrative elements, narrative knowing, narrative being and narrative doing, need to be considered. Working with the foundational pillars and the narrative elements would enable staff to 'work in a storied way' and provide person-centred outcomes and a narrative informed philosophy of care for older adults in residential care. This framework provides nurses with a template that confirms the identity of the older person taking account of their biography. The framework outlines an approach that provides staff with a template on how to provide person-centred care in a narrative way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Naber, Jessica L; Hall, Joanne; Schadler, Craig Matthew
This study sought to identify characteristics of clinically situated critical thinking in nursing students' reflections, originally part of a study guided by Richard Paul's model of critical thinking. Nurses are expected to apply critical thinking in all practice situations to improve health outcomes, including patient safety and satisfaction. In a previous study, Paul's model of critical thinking was used to develop questions for reflective writing assignments. Within that study, 30 nursing students completed six open-ended narratives of nurse-patient clinical encounters during an 8-week period. Improvements were seen in critical thinking scores after the intervention. This article reports the qualitative analysis of the content of six open-ended narratives. Six overarching themes were identified and combined into a tentative conceptual model. Faculty's understanding of the characteristics of critical thinking in the context of clinical education will help them to teach and evaluate students' progress and competencies for future practice.
Full Text Available Aphasia can globally or selectively affect comprehension and production of verbal and written language. Discourse analysis can aid language assessment and diagnosis.Objective: To explore narratives that produce a number of valid indicators for diagnosing aphasia in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese.  To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of normal individuals.  To analyze the macrostructural aspects of the discourse of aphasic individuals.Methods:The macrostructural aspects of three narratives produced by aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects were analyzed.Results:A total of 30 volunteers were examined comprising 10 aphasic individuals (AG and 20 healthy controls (CG. The CG included 5 males. The CG had a mean age of 38.9 years (SD=15.61 and mean schooling of 13 years (SD=2.67 whereas the AG had a mean age of 51.7 years (SD=17.3 and mean schooling of 9.1 years (SD=3.69. Participants were asked to narrate three fairy tales as a basis for analyzing the macrostructure of discourse. Comparison of the three narratives revealed no statistically significant difference in number of propositions produced by the groups. A significant negative correlation was found between age and number of propositions produced. Also, statistically significant differences were observed in the number of propositions produced by the individuals in the CG and the AG for the three tales.Conclusion:It was concluded that the three tales are applicable for discourse assessment, containing a similar number of propositions and differentiating aphasic individuals and cognitively healthy subjects based on analysis of the macrostructure of discourse.
This essay investigates the ways dance narratives are constructed and aims to reconfirm the significance of dance narratives in the creation of meanings within dance practices. It draws on key concepts in narratology and psychoanalysis. These two critical perspectives are applied to the analysis of the narrative in Kenneth MacMillan's 1991 one-act…
This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…
O'Mara‐Eves, A.; Thomas, J.; Brunton, G.; Caird, J.; Petticrew, M.
Using Toulmin's argumentation theory, we analysed the texts of systematic reviews in the area of workplace health promotion to explore differences in the modes of reasoning embedded in reports of narrative synthesis as compared with reports of meta‐analysis. We used framework synthesis, grounded theory and cross‐case analysis methods to analyse 85 systematic reviews addressing intervention effectiveness in workplace health promotion. Two core categories, or ‘modes of reasoning’, emerged to frame the contrast between narrative synthesis and meta‐analysis: practical–configurational reasoning in narrative synthesis (‘what is going on here? What picture emerges?’) and inferential–predictive reasoning in meta‐analysis (‘does it work, and how well? Will it work again?’). Modes of reasoning examined quality and consistency of the included evidence differently. Meta‐analyses clearly distinguished between warrant and claim, whereas narrative syntheses often presented joint warrant–claims. Narrative syntheses and meta‐analyses represent different modes of reasoning. Systematic reviewers are likely to be addressing research questions in different ways with each method. It is important to consider narrative synthesis in its own right as a method and to develop specific quality criteria and understandings of how it is carried out, not merely as a complement to, or second‐best option for, meta‐analysis. © 2016 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27860329
Pollack, Keshia M; Yee, Nathan; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Rossen, Lauren; Bachynski, Kathleen E; Baker, Susan P
The purpose of this research is to describe the leading circumstances of military vehicle crashes to guide prioritization and implementation of crash avoidance and/or warning technologies. A descriptive study using narrative text analysis on 3,944 military vehicle crash narratives. Crash data on drivers, from 2001 to 2006, were assembled from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness/Safety Center. Reviewers collected information on the circumstances of crashes and determined if vehicle technology could have prevented the crash. Nearly 98% of the crashes were nonfatal; 63% occurred in the U.S. and 24% in Iraq. Among crash events where the direction of the impact was recorded, 32% were to the front of the vehicle and 16% involved a vehicle being rear-ended. Rollovers were mentioned in 20% of the narratives. Technology was determined to have the potential to prevent 26% of the crashes, with the forward collision warning system, rear end collision avoidance, emergency brake assistance, and rollover stability control system likely to have the greatest impacts. Some technologies available for civilian vehicles may prevent certain military crash circumstances. The results of this research are significant in light of ongoing global military operations that rely on military vehicles. Improving the preventive technology featured on military vehicles may be an effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of military crashes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Palombo, Michal; Meitar, Dafna
Breaking bad news (BBN) is a challenge that requires multiple professional competencies. BBN teaching often includes didactic and group role-playing sessions. Both are useful and important, but exclude another critical component of students' learning: day-to-day role-model observation in the clinics. Given the importance of observation and the potential benefit of reflective writing in teaching, we have incorporated reflective writing into our BBN course. The aim of this study was to enhance our understanding of the learning potential in reflective writing about BBN encounters and the ability to identify components that inhibit this learning. This was a systematic qualitative immersion/crystallization analysis of 166 randomly selected BBN narratives written by 83 senior medical students. We analysed the narratives in an iterative consensus-building process to identify the issues discussed, the lessons learned and the enhanced understanding of BBN. Having previously been unaware of, not invited to or having avoided BBN encounters, the mandatory assignment led students to search for or ask their mentors to join them in BBN encounters. Observation and reflective writing enhanced students' awareness that 'bad news' is relative and subjective, while shedding light on patients', families', physicians' and their own experiences and needs, revealing the importance of the different components of the BBN protocol. We identified diversity among the narratives and the extent of students' learning. Narrative writing provided students with an opportunity for a deliberative learning process. This led to deeper understanding of BBN encounters, of how to apply the newly taught protocol, or of the need for it. This process connected the formal and informal or hidden curricula. To maximise learning through reflective writing, students should be encouraged to write in detail about a recent observed encounter, analyse it according to the protocol, address different participants
Full Text Available As fighting between Russian backed rebels and government forces is taking place in eastern Ukraine, it is all the more apparent the existing political divide that exists in the country. The complex history of being subjugated by surrounding countries and major resettlements of Ukrainians is testing the country in a major way. Historically, emphasis on understanding the Soviet Union was focused on the Soviet perspective — the Soviet narratives, and most recently on reemerging Russia. As a result, little attention is placed on Ukraine’s history. In order to understand the Ukrainian identity, it’s necessary to know the narratives that encompass Ukraine’s history. As freedom and liberty exemplifies American identity and ideology, the history of Ukraine also contains a system of stories that support Ukrainian culture. This paper, the first chapter of my dissertation, details the sources I’ve used to develop my methodology for understanding and analyzing narratives. As I began my research I soon realized the complexity of narratives leading me to explore the elements contained in narratives such as story, plot, character, archetypes, and the Hero’s Journey or Monomyth. I will explain how I understand the meaning of narrative and master narrative, supported by relevant sources, and conclude with the methodology I will use for analysis of the master narratives that envelope the major historical events of Ukraine
kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv.......kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv....
Leboul, Danièle; Aubry, Régis; Peter, Jean-Michel; Royer, Victor; Richard, Jean-François; Guirimand, Frédéric
Despite recent advances in palliative medicine, sedating a terminally ill patient is regarded as an indispensable treatment to manage unbearable suffering. With the prospect of widespread use of palliative sedation, the feelings and representations of health care providers and staff (carers) regarding sedation must be carefully explored if we are to gain a better understanding of its impact and potential pitfalls. The objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive description of the opinions of carers about the use of sedation practices in palliative care units (PCU), which have become a focus of public attention following changes in legislation. Data were collected using a qualitative study involving multi-professional focus groups with health care providers and staff as well as personal narratives written by physicians and paramedical staff. A total of 35 medical and paramedical providers volunteered to participate in focus group discussions in three Palliative Care Units in two French hospitals and to write personal narratives. Health care provider and staff opinions had to do with their professional stance and competencies when using midazolam and practicing sedation in palliative care. They expressed uncertainty regarding three aspects of the comprehensive care: biomedical rigour of diagnosis and therapeutics, quality of the patient/provider relationship and care to be provided. Focusing on the sedative effect of midazolam and continuous sedation until death, the interviewed health care providers examined the basics of their professional competency as well as the key role played by the health care team in terms of providing support and minimizing workplace suffering. Nurses were subject to the greatest misgivings about their work when they were called upon to sedate patients. The uncertainty experienced by the carers with regard to the medical, psychosocial and ethical justification for sedation is a source of psychological burden and moral distress
Musacchio Adorisio, Anna Linda
This article focuses on organizational remembering in banking. To provide an alternative to the repository image of memory in organization, organizational remembering is conceptualized as narrative, where narrative represents a way to organize the selection and interpretation of the past....... The narrative perspective deals with both the experiential and contextual nature of remembering by addressing concerns raised by critiques of organizational memory studies, namely, the subjective experience of remembering and the social and historical context in which remembering takes place. Antenarrative...... the narrative perspective reveals ruptures and ambiguities that characterize organizational remembering that would remain hidden in the organizational memory studies approach....
Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe
According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…
Dina Al Raffie
Full Text Available Since the advent of the Global War on Terror, the world has witnessed the continuation of terrorist activity under the banner of Salafi Jihad. With military action proving insufficient to defeat the propagators of the ideology, attention has turned to the ideology itself. Understanding the narratives that constitute this ideology and the systems in place that help propagate it is crucial to defeating it. Analysis brings to light elements that arguably constitute a Jihadist master narrative as well as support structures that help perpetuate key underlying messages of this master narrative. Successful counter-narratives should focus on rolling back and containing Jihadist narratives whilst simultaneously highlighting the values and attitudes of democratic, free societies
Full Text Available The aim of this work is an analysis of the media narratives about the never ended football match between Dynamo Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade on May 13 1990. The article focuses on the media coverage twenty years after the incident in the context of the game's acquired mythic status, symbolically marking the beginning of the war in former Yugoslavia. The object of the analysis are Serbian and Croatian media with the aim of revealing the strategies of representing this event in the period of the normalization of the relations in the region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026: Cultural Heritage and Identity
Urias, Marissa Vasquez; Falcon, Vannessa; Harris, Frank, III; Wood, J. Luke
With the use of a narrative approach to inquiry, this chapter seeks to reframe deficit-oriented research on men of color, which often focuses on patterns of failure and underachievement, by exploring the pathways of community college men of color who successfully transferred to 4-year institutions.
This talk will focus on cognitive processes between conscious and subconscious awareness in order to present a slightly different definition of narrative. Rather than simply accepting that narrative is a conscious selection of stories subject to bias, I will argue that biases are the primary structure of narrative and that their success is explained in painfully simple terms.
I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer.......I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer....
Pilkington, Paul; Bird, Emma; Gray, Selena; Towner, Elizabeth; Weld, Sarah; McKibben, Mary-Ann
Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners' records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners' records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16-24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005-2010. Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner's records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people.
Full Text Available This paper aims to present a first step in the investigation of the environment hosting narrative ecosystems through the tools offered by Social Network Analysis (SNA. The narrative ecosystem paradigm is a cross-disciplinary approach that considers vast narratives as the result of an ecosystemic design, where a general model is developed in advance as an evolutionary system. Consistently with this systemic view, our idea is to bring the relations among the components of the ecosystems and the environment that host them (i.e. the entertainment industry to the fore through the implementation of SNA. In order to do so, we focused on the relational patterns characterizing a sample of 164 U.S. TV series aired between 1984 and 2013. For each one of them, we collected data on executive producers, broadcasters, production studios, actors and writers. Through the analysis of the networks we obtained by computing the data, we drew some conclusions regarding the effectiveness of the ecological and evolutionary paradigm, the non-rigid and opportunistic patterns of alliances and coalitions among competitive firms, the relevance of the strategies of capital implemented by the firms and the strategies of labor implemented by the people.
Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Waters, Theodore E A; Köber, Christin; Raby, K Lee; Habermas, Tilmann; Fivush, Robyn
Narrative theories of personality assume that individual differences in coherence reflect consistent and stable differences in narrative style rather than situational and event-specific differences (e.g., McAdams & McLean, 2013). However, this assumption has received only modest empirical attention. Therefore, we present two studies testing the theoretical assumption of a consistent and stable coherent narrative style. Study 1 focused on the two most traumatic and most positive life events of 224 undergraduates. These event-specific narratives were coded for three coherence dimensions: theme, context, and chronology (NaCCs; Reese et al., 2011). Study 2 focused on two life narratives told 4 years apart by 98 adults, which were coded for thematic, causal, and temporal coherence (Köber, Schmiedek, & Habermas, 2015). Confirmatory factor analysis in both studies revealed that individual differences in the coherence ratings were best explained by a model including both narrative style and event-/narration-specific latent variables. The ways in which we tell autobiographical narratives reflect a stable feature of individual differences. Further, they suggest that this stable element of personality is necessary, but not sufficient, in accounting for specific event and life narrative coherence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many physicians find sickness certification tasks problematic. There is some knowledge about situations that are experienced as problematic, whereas less is understood about how physicians respond to the problems they face. One way to acquire such knowledge is to consider "reflection-in-action", aspects of which are expressed in the physician's interpretation of the patient's story. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the meaning content of case reports about problematic sickness certification. Specifically, we looked for possible messages to the colleagues intended to read the reports. Methods A narrative approach was used to analyse reports about problematic sickness certification cases that had been written by GPs and occupational health service physicians as part of a sickness insurance course. The analysis included elements from both thematic and structural analysis. Nineteen case reports were used in the actual analysis and 25 in the validation of the results. Main narrative qualities and structural features of the written case reports were explored. Results Five types of messages were identified in the case reports, here classified as "a call for help", "a call for understanding", "hidden worries", "in my opinion", and "appearing neutral". In the reports, the physicians tried to achieve neutrality in their writing, and the patients' stories tended to be interpreted within a traditional biomedical framework. In some cases there was an open request for help, in others it was not obvious that the physician had any problems. Overall, the messages were about having problems as such, rather than the specific features of the problems. Conclusions The case reports clearly demonstrated different ways of writing about problems that arise during sickness certification, from being neutral and not mentioning the problems to being emotionally involved and asking for help. The general character of the messages suggests
Narratives may be easy to come by, but not everything is worth narrating. What merits a narrative? Here, I follow the lead of narratologists and literary theorists, and focus on one particular proposal concerning the elements of a story that make it narrative-worthy. These elements correspond to features of the natural world addressed by the historical sciences, where narratives figure so prominently. What matters is contingency. Narratives are especially good for representing contingency and accounting for contingent outcomes. This will be squared with a common view that narratives leave no room for chance. On the contrary, I will argue, tracing one path through a maze of alternative possibilities, and alluding to those possibilities along the way, is what a narrative does particularly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Julie eDe Ganck
Full Text Available Most discussions of the social and interpersonal styles in individuals with strong psychopathic traits focus on their dangerousness or their affective and interpersonal deficiencies. This study has a different focus, and starts from the idea that such focus on the threat emanating from individuals with a psychopathic style might blind us from the logic inherent to their way of relating with the world. By means of a qualitative analysis (thematic analysis of narratives from a Lacanian talking therapy, this study examines how 15 youngsters with strong psychopathic traits make sense of interpersonal events and relations. The main recurring theme across these narratives was that others in general are fundamentally distrustful antagonists that they have to protect themselves from. Especially the father figure, with whom identification seems to take place, is seen as a violent actor. Consequently, these youngsters develop multiple strategies of dealing with the threat they experience in relation to (significant others. These relationship patterns also emerged within the therapeutic relationship, resulting in frequent testing of the therapist’s trustworthiness. The results of this study, discussed in terms of Lacanian theory, might help therapists to develop treatment approaches that better fit with the interpersonal orientation of individuals with strong psychopathic traits.
Kim, Kidong; Jeong, Suyeon; Lee, Kyogu; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha; Lee, Joo Yun; Kim, Yekyung; Yoo, Sooyoung; Doh, Gippeum
Summary Objectives We aimed to determine the characteristics of quantitative metrics for nursing narratives documented in electronic nursing records and their association with hospital admission traits and diagnoses in a large data set not limited to specific patient events or hypotheses. Methods We collected 135,406,873 electronic, structured coded nursing narratives from 231,494 hospital admissions of patients discharged between 2008 and 2012 at a tertiary teaching institution that routinely uses an electronic health records system. The standardized number of nursing narratives (i.e., the total number of nursing narratives divided by the length of the hospital stay) was suggested to integrate the frequency and quantity of nursing documentation. Results The standardized number of nursing narratives was higher for patients aged 70 years (median = 30.2 narratives/day, interquartile range [IQR] = 24.0–39.4 narratives/day), long (8 days) hospital stays (median = 34.6 narratives/day, IQR = 27.2–43.5 narratives/day), and hospital deaths (median = 59.1 narratives/day, IQR = 47.0–74.8 narratives/day). The standardized number of narratives was higher in “pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium” (median = 46.5, IQR = 39.0–54.7) and “diseases of the circulatory system” admissions (median = 35.7, IQR = 29.0–43.4). Conclusions Diverse hospital admissions can be consistently described with nursing-document-derived metrics for similar hospital admissions and diagnoses. Some areas of hospital admissions may have consistently increasing volumes of nursing documentation across years. Usability of electronic nursing document metrics for evaluating healthcare requires multiple aspects of hospital admissions to be considered. PMID:27901174
Manghi Haquin, Dominique; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Otálora Cornejo, Fabiola; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; Arancibia M., Marianela; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Given the need to understand the forms of communication of people with intellectual disability, as to favor their social participation, this study deals with narration as a self-managed instance of discourse beyond language. The purpose is to standardize a methodology which allows us to explore their narrative discourse using a multi-modal perspective. The description corresponds to narrations of fifteen Chilean children of school age with intellectual disability and low development of oral l...
Honkasilta, Juho; Vehkakoski, Tanja; Vehmas, Simo
This interview study addresses the gap in earlier research by focussing on the narratives of 13 ADHDdiagnosed Finnish students regarding teacher reactive classroom management strategies. The data are analysed through narrative analysis. Five different narrative types are identified, in which teacher behaviour is evaluated as (1) disproportionate, (2) traumatising, (3) neglectful, (4) unfair and (5) understanding. The dominant storyline e common to the first four types e constructe...
Geertz, Armin W.
Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...
Branch, William T; Frankel, Richard
We sought to identify and define "highly humanistic" formation narratives, and understand how these events described, together with a reflective learning process, the professional development of physicians in a longitudinal faculty development program. Qualitative analysis of twenty highly humanistic appreciative inquiry narratives selected from a total of 124 written by faculty members at the beginning and end of an eighteen month program at eight medical schools. [9,10] We employed the immersion/crystallization method of Borkan  to capture the rich meanings and emotional depth of the twenty narratives. Highly humanistic formation narratives described emotionally charged events in which the faculty writers provided humanistic care that went beyond what they had previously thought themselves capable of; benefited the patient, family or faculty member to a major extent; and reaffirmed or strengthened their professional values. Highly humanistic formation narratives were clustered at the end of our eighteen month curriculum. Participation in faculty development for humanism may have increased the numbers of highly humanistic events by sensitizing and motivating faculty members to meet their patients' emotional needs. Our paper describes a process whereby faculty members may achieve growth in their capacities to meet patients' needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Renee M. Shelby
Full Text Available "Hooking-up" with friends and acquaintances consists of a variety of sexual activities that range from kissing to intercourse. Rising in popularity, an estimated two-thirds of college students have engaged in at least one “hook-up.” This research explores the context and significance of popular media representations of “hooking-up,” attending to what shared meanings they convey to audience members. This paper presents qualitative analysis of 2011 United States, mainstream, romantic comedies featuring "hooking-up" as their primary narratives. Key findings include a positive portrayal of women’s sexual agency, a reification of men’s sex drive discourse, and the presentation of "hooking-up" as an alternative to relationship development.
Sinding, Christina; Zhou, Yanqiu Rachel
In this paper we use narrative analysis to consider how the discursive resources that come with living 'in between' countries and cultures unfold in personal stories. We do this by presenting a close analysis of two transcripts drawn from a study about the vulnerability to HIV faced by Chinese immigrants to Canada. Our goal is to illustrate the application of narrative analysis and highlight the contributions it can make to conceptualising how transnationalism becomes consequential in accounts of intimate life. In narrative terms, transnationalism lends each life situation dual or multiple interpretive frameworks. Migrants from China to Canada situate their personal stories in relation to social and cultural norms and features of both nations. Yet, as our analysis makes apparent, 'Canada' and 'China' do not carry singular or consistent meanings in migrants' stories. Attention to the role of stories in self-making allows us to better understand why transnational contexts appear as they do in narrative accounts, and responds to calls for more accurate mappings of the interface between transnationalism and the subject. Attention to how stories are 'put together' shows that transnational discursive resources are assembled in ways that bolster, and also undermine, entitlements to safe and equitable intimate relationships.
Steinhardt, Joseph; Shapiro, Michael A
Narrative messages are increasingly popular in health and risk campaigns, yet gain/loss framing effects have never been tested with such messages. Three experiments examined framing in narrative messages. Experiment 1 found that only the character's decision, not framing, influenced judgments about characters in a narrative derived from a prospect theory context. Experiment 2 found that a framing effect that occurred when presented in a decision format did not occur when the same situation was presented as a narrative. Using a different story/decision context, Experiment 3 found no significant difference in preference for surgery over radiation therapy in a narrative presentation compared to a non-narrative presentation. The results suggest that health and risk campaigns cannot assume that framing effects will be the same in narrative messages and non-narrative messages. Potential reasons for these differences and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
This article focuses on the larger project of identifying oppressive structures (during apartheid more specifically in this instance) and how educational policy/textbooks (post-apartheid) produce transformative knowledge for decolonization. It presents Black South African teacher perceptions and desires of what/how educational policy, history textbooks can intervene in apartheid indoctrination and what role these have in addressing the nation’s meta-narrative of equity and social justice. I t...
Hannon, Michael Damon
This exploratory qualitative dissertation analyzed the narratives of six African-American fathers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Contributors were identified via snowball sampling and data were collected using in-depth interviewing and analyzed using analysis of narratives. Findings are presented via individual case…
Thorne, John C; Coggins, Truman E; Carmichael Olson, Heather; Astley, Susan J
To evaluate classification accuracy and clinical feasibility of a narrative analysis tool for identifying children with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Picture-elicited narratives generated by 16 age-matched pairs of school-aged children (FASD vs. typical development [TD]) were coded for semantic elaboration and reference strategy by judges who were unaware of age, gender, and group membership of the participants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the classification accuracy of the resulting set of narrative measures for making 2 classifications: (a) for the 16 children diagnosed with FASD, low performance (n = 7) versus average performance (n = 9) on a standardized expressive language task and (b) FASD (n = 16) versus TD (n = 16). Combining the rates of semantic elaboration and pragmatically inappropriate reference perfectly matched a classification based on performance on the standardized language task. More importantly, the rate of ambiguous nominal reference was highly accurate in classifying children with an FASD regardless of their performance on the standardized language task (area under the ROC curve = .863, confidence interval = .736-.991). Results support further study of the diagnostic utility of narrative analysis using discourse level measures of elaboration and children's strategic use of reference.
Full Text Available Wah Fung Tse,1 Weimin Yang,2 Wenlong Huang1,3 1School of International Pharmaceutical Business, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Editorial Department of Journal of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 3Center of Drug Discovery, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China Background: Since its introduction in 1996, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, which involves the combination of antiretroviral drugs, has resulted in significant improvements in the morbidity, mortality, and life expectancy of HIV-infected patients. Numerous studies of the cost-effectiveness of HAART from different perspectives in HIV have been reported.Aim: To investigate the economic outcomes and relevance of HAART for people living with HIV.Materials and methods: A narrative literature review was conducted on 22 peer-reviewed full economic evaluations of people living with HIV treated with different HAART regimens and published in English between January 2005 and December 2014. Information regarding study details, such as interventions, outcomes, and modeling methods, was extracted. The high heterogeneity of the included studies rendered a meta-analysis inappropriate; therefore, we conducted a comparative analysis of studies grouped according to the similarity of the different intervention types and outcomes.Results: Most of the economic evaluations of HAART focused on comparisons between the specific HAART regimens and others from the following perspectives: injecting drug users versus noninjecting drug users, HIV-infected adults without AIDS versus those with AIDS, regimens based on developed world guidelines versus those based on developing world guidelines, self-administered HAART versus directly observed HAART, and “ideal” versus “typical” regimens.Conclusion: In general, HAART is more cost-effective than other therapeutic
Narrative coaching is representative of the new wave – or third generation – of coaching practice . The theory and practice of narrative coaching takes into account the social and cultural conditions of late modern society, and must be seen as intertwined with them. Some initial conceptualizations...... of narrative coaching were developed by David Drake (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) in the USA and Australia, by Ho Law in the UK (Law, 2007a + b; Law & Stelter, 2009) and by Reinhard Stelter (2007, 2009, 2012, in preparation; Stelter & Law, 2010) in Denmark. In the following chapter the aim is to present coaching...... as a narrative-collaborative practice, an approach that is based on phenomenology, social constructionism and narrative theory. Seeing narrative coaching as a collaborative practice also leads to reflecting on the relationship between coach and coachee(s) in a new way, where both parts contribute to the dialogue...
Su, I-Ru; Chou, Yi-Chun
Most of the research on second language (L2) narratives has focused on whether or how L2 learners carry their L1 narrative styles into L2 narration; few studies have explored whether L2 learners' knowledge of the L2 also in turn affects their L1 narrative performance. The present study attempted to probe the issue of cultural transfer in narrative…
Warriner, Doris S.
This article investigates when and how narratives of personal experience and displacement reference and characterize dimensions of time and space, with a focus on how temporal elasticity might serve as an interactional resource. Examining the dynamic, situated, and intertwined nature of such narratives, the analysis looks at how…
Oh, Seungtaik; Hwang, Chi-Young; Jeong, Il Kwon; Lee, Sung-Keun; Park, Jae-Hyeung
A novel fast frequency-based method to estimate the focus distance of digital hologram for a single object is proposed. The focus distance is computed by analyzing the distribution of intersections of smoothed-rays. The smoothed-rays are determined by the directions of energy flow which are computed from local spatial frequency spectrum based on the windowed Fourier transform. So our method uses only the intrinsic frequency information of the optical field on the hologram and therefore does not require any sequential numerical reconstructions and focus detection techniques of conventional photography, both of which are the essential parts in previous methods. To show the effectiveness of our method, numerical results and analysis are presented as well.
Winskell, Kate; Singleton, Robyn; Sabben, Gaelle
Distinctive longitudinal narrative data, collected during a critical 18-year period in the history of the HIV epidemic, offer a unique opportunity to examine how young Africans are making sense of evolving developments in HIV prevention and treatment. More than 200,000 young people from across sub-Saharan Africa took part in HIV-themed scriptwriting contests held at eight discrete time points between 1997 and 2014, creating more than 75,000 narratives. This article describes the data reduction and management strategies developed for our cross-national and longitudinal study of these qualitative data. The study aims to inform HIV communication practice by identifying cultural meanings and contextual factors that inform sexual behaviors and social practices, and also to help increase understanding of processes of sociocultural change. We describe our sampling strategies and our triangulating methodologies, combining in-depth narrative analysis, thematic qualitative analysis, and quantitative analysis, which are designed to enable systematic comparison without sacrificing ethnographic richness.
Isoherranen, V. (Ville)
Abstract The primary research target of this dissertation is to develop new strategy analysis frameworks, focusing on analysing changes in strategic position as a function of variations in life cycle s-curve/time/typology/market share/orientation. Research is constructive and qualitative by nature, with case study methodology being the adopted approach. The research work is carried out as a compilation dissertation containing four (4) journal articles. The theoretical framework of thi...
Full Text Available Reduction in maternal mortality requires an in-depth knowledge of the causes of death. This study was conducted to explore the circumstances and events leading to maternal mortality through a holistic approach. Using narrative text analysis, all documents related to maternal deaths occurred from 2007 to 2011 in Kerman province/Iran were reviewed thoroughly by an expert panel. A 93-item chart abstraction instrument was developed according to the expert panel and literature. The instrument consisted of demographic and pregnancy related variables, underlying and contributing causes of death, and type of delays regarding public health aspects, medical and system performance issues. A total of 64 maternal deaths were examined. One third of deaths occurred in women less than 18 or higher than 35 years. Nearly 95% of them lived in a low or mid socioeconomic status. In half of the cases, inappropriate or nonuse of contraceptives was seen. Delay in the provision of any adequate treatment after arrival at the health facility was seen in 59% of cases. The most common medical causes of death were preeclampsia/eclampsia (15.6%, postpartum hemorrhage (12.5% and deep phlebothrombosis (10.9%, respectively. Negligence was accounted for 95% of maternal deaths. To overcome the root causes of maternal death, more emphasis should be devoted to system failures and patient safety rather than the underlying causes of death and medical issues solely.
Moran, Tim P
Cognitive deficits are now widely recognized to be an important component of anxiety. In particular, anxiety is thought to restrict the capacity of working memory by competing with task-relevant processes. The evidence for this claim, however, has been mixed. Although some studies have found restricted working memory in anxiety, others have not. Within studies that have found impairments, there is little agreement regarding the boundary conditions of the anxiety/WMC association. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the evidence for anxiety-related deficits in working memory capacity. First, a meta-analysis of 177 samples (N = 22,061 individuals) demonstrated that self-reported measures of anxiety are reliably related to poorer performance on measures of working memory capacity (g = -.334, p < 10-29). This finding was consistent across complex span (e.g., OSPAN; g = -.342, k = 30, N = 3,196, p = .000001), simple span (e.g., digit span; g = -.318, k = 127, N = 17,547, p < 10-17), and dynamic span tasks (e.g., N-Back; g = -.437, k = 20, N = 1,318, p = .000003). Second, a narrative review of the literature revealed that anxiety, whether self-reported or experimentally induced, is related to poorer performance across a wide variety of tasks. Finally, the review identified a number of methodological limitations common in the literature as well as avenues for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract - This article reports on a study that investigated the description of motion events in narrative texts written by 13-14 and 17-18 year olds learning English as a fourth language at schools where multilingualism is a key objective. The focus was placed on the learners’ references to the animate beings featured in the story and their use of verbs and satellites in order to describe the movement situations elicited from the image selected for analysis from the wordless picture story the teenagers had to retell in words. The main objective of the study was to draw a comparison between the two age or proficiency-level groups within a functional-pragmatic framework. The learners’ narrative and linguistic choices in their motion-event constructions were analysed, with a number of comments made on the basis of the participants’ other languages. Findings revealed preferences and tendencies that were partly similar and partly different in the two school grades. The predominant figures turned out to be the same at both proficiency levels, with the use of superordinates to fill lexical gaps identified as one of the main communication strategies and the more frequent use of personal pronouns characterising the higher-level texts. With the exception of the motion undertaken by one figure, the motion events depicted were described with similar verbs, and a non-target like use of the satellites after and behind was noticed in both age groups. The article is argued to constitute the basis for further investigations into motion events in multilingual learners’ texts.Riassunto - L’articolo costituisce uno studio sulla descrizione degli eventi di moto in testi narrativi prodotti da giovani di 13-14 e 17-18 anni apprendenti di inglese come quarta lingua. Il lavoro si concentra sui riferimenti degli alunni alle entità in movimento con funzione di Figura e sul loro uso di verbi e Satelliti indicanti i percorsi delle entità negli estratti
Ozan-Rafferty, Margaret E; Johnson, James A; Shah, Gulzar H; Kursun, Attila
Patients regularly travel to the West for advanced medical care, but now the trend is also shifting in the opposite direction. Many people from Western countries now seek care outside of their country. This phenomenon has been labeled medical tourism or health travel. Information regarding health travelers' actual outcomes, experiences, and perceptions is lacking or insufficient. However, advanced Internet technology and apps provide information on medical tourism and are a vehicle for patients to share their experiences. Turkey has a large number of internationally accredited hospitals, is a top tourism destination, and is positioning itself to attract international patients. The objective of this research was to identify the important individual characteristics of health travelers, outline the push and pull factors for seeking health care in Turkey, identify satisfaction with the outcomes and the results of these individuals' treatments, and note positive and negative factors influencing their perceptions and overall experiences about patients' health travel. This research uses qualitative data from Internet narratives of medical tourists to Turkey. Ethical considerations of using Internet narratives were reviewed. Narratives for analysis were obtained by using the Google search engine and using multiple search terms to obtain publicly posted blogs and discussion board postings of health travelers via purposeful sampling. Narratives were included if they were written in English, described travel to Turkey for health care, and were publicly accessible. Exclusion criteria included narratives that were on medical tourism facilitator or provider promotional websites, not in English, and did not describe an experience of a medical tourist. Medical tourists' written words were analyzed in an iterative analytic process using narrative analysis theory principles. Three stages of coding (open, axial, and selective) were conducted to identify characteristics and themes
Background Patients regularly travel to the West for advanced medical care, but now the trend is also shifting in the opposite direction. Many people from Western countries now seek care outside of their country. This phenomenon has been labeled medical tourism or health travel. Information regarding health travelers’ actual outcomes, experiences, and perceptions is lacking or insufficient. However, advanced Internet technology and apps provide information on medical tourism and are a vehicle for patients to share their experiences. Turkey has a large number of internationally accredited hospitals, is a top tourism destination, and is positioning itself to attract international patients. Objective The objective of this research was to identify the important individual characteristics of health travelers, outline the push and pull factors for seeking health care in Turkey, identify satisfaction with the outcomes and the results of these individuals’ treatments, and note positive and negative factors influencing their perceptions and overall experiences about patients’ health travel. Methods This research uses qualitative data from Internet narratives of medical tourists to Turkey. Ethical considerations of using Internet narratives were reviewed. Narratives for analysis were obtained by using the Google search engine and using multiple search terms to obtain publicly posted blogs and discussion board postings of health travelers via purposeful sampling. Narratives were included if they were written in English, described travel to Turkey for health care, and were publicly accessible. Exclusion criteria included narratives that were on medical tourism facilitator or provider promotional websites, not in English, and did not describe an experience of a medical tourist. Medical tourists’ written words were analyzed in an iterative analytic process using narrative analysis theory principles. Three stages of coding (open, axial, and selective) were conducted to
Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)
The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.
Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pattengale, Nicholas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carvey, Bradley John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In cybersecurity forensics and incident response, the story of what has happened is the most important artifact yet the one least supported by tools and techniques. Existing tools focus on gathering and manipulating low-level data to allow an analyst to investigate exactly what happened on a host system or a network. Higher-level analysis is usually left to whatever ad hoc tools and techniques an individual may have developed. We discuss visual representations of narrative in the context of cybersecurity incidents with an eye toward multi-scale illustration of actions and actors. We envision that this representation could smoothly encompass individual packets on a wire at the lowest level and nation-state-level actors at the highest. We present progress to date, discuss the impact of technical risk on this project and highlight opportunities for future work.
Full Text Available This performance analysis traces the emergence of masculinity in the open-ended narratives of 14 men who self identify as “physically disabled.” The participants range in physical ability, age, relationship status, build, and socioeconomic status. They also range in their responses to the interaction of their ability and gender: mourning, resisting, accepting, and/or embracing their daily performances of physically disabled masculinity. Through bodies defined as the negation of ‘normal,’ they attend to and expose the nuances of the interacting cultural components of hegemonic masculinity that all human beings negotiate, interpret, create and re-create through our interactions. Their stories and insights offer opportunities for us to understand the impossibilities of ideal gender performance all humans co-imagine, reiterate, and pursue but can never realize. Keywords: Performance Analysis, Masculinity, Physical Disability, Personal Narrative
This study examined collaborative work routines and changes after the implementation of a perinatal EHR. The change process and underlying drivers were analyzed to offer insight into why changes - intended or unintended - did or did not occur and their implications for EHR design and implementation. This mixed-method case study included both qualitative and quantitative information. Pre- and post-implementation observations took place over an 18-month period totaling 90h. Formal and informal interviews with administrative and clinical staff, pre- and post-implementation surveys, project meeting observations, and artifact review supplemented data gathered from the observations. Workflow and narrative network analyses of work routines were used to identify changes pre- and post-EHR and to represent different perspectives of work routines. EHR improved documentation efficiency and in- and out-patient information exchange, but increased variability in documentation. Some variabilities were institutionally sanctioned or tolerated, but other variabilities - while ingenious and emblematic of the generative nature of routines enabled by the EHR - were problematic. EHR's support for clinician communication and coordination was limited and its cognitive support insufficient. In some cases, EHR increased cognitive load as the unlocalized EHR scattered information, and the lengthy printouts contributed to information fragmentation and made information retrieval more difficult. The process of the EHR implementation and the changes observed was the confluence of three factors: resource constraint - in particular EHR expertise and experience - not uncommon in many community hospitals; the functional properties of the EHR focusing on information aggregation, storage, and retrieval; and the extant culture and practice of healthcare emphasizing autonomy and flexibility. While collaborative and communication changes were prompted by EHR implementation, the system played a minimal
Dette pilotstudies ambition er at undersøge, hvordan og hvorfor narrative elementer lejlighedsvist aktiveres af aktører i deres kontakt med bibliotekarer i folkebiblioteker. Ved hjælp af en kulturanalytisk tilgang studeres forskellige aktørers narrative udvidelser af referenceinterviewet. Teoretisk....... Pilotstudiet bekræfter de 2 indledende antagelser: 1) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser, fordi de vælger at betone den mellemmenneskelige relation mellem aktør og bibliotekar, som om det var enhver anden social relation og derved ignorerer andre, mere repræsentative dele af bibliotekarernes...... funktioner. Og 2) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser i bestræbelserne på at legitimere egne sociale positioner og identitetsdannelse gennem kritisk refleksion over bibliotekarernes og folkebibliotekets institutionelle position og magt. Gennem den narrative udvidelse formår disse aktører...
One of the critical issues deliberated amongst researchers on gender and education is that of choosing and decision-making. Often, the focus of analysis is framed through the concept of agency. In this paper, the analytical focus is on educational advancement and agency. The paper is based on narratives of 10 highly educated Tanzanian women.…
Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Desmet, Pieter
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to designing games for serious contexts. In contrast to Serious Games we argue that learning is a too narrow focus for serious contexts and that simulation of real world problems ought to be supplemented with other design strategies that place greater...... emphasis on fiction and narratives. The approach is exemplified through three game prototypes designed to be played by an inmate and his child in a prison during visiting hours. By analyzing these game prototypes we demonstrate how a game can be structured around a narrative plot in three different ways....... Moreover, we discuss how narrative plots in a game may open up for developing player’s emotional experiences over time and grow social relationships between inmate and child. On the basis of our case analysis we discuss, in more detail, how our approach differs from Serious Games and we single out some key...
Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Desmet, Pieter
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to designing games for serious contexts. In contrast to Serious Games we argue that learning is a too narrow focus for serious contexts and that simulation of real world problems ought to be supplemented with other design strategies that place greater....... Moreover, we discuss how narrative plots in a game may open up for developing player’s emotional experiences over time and grow social relationships between inmate and child. On the basis of our case analysis we discuss, in more detail, how our approach differs from Serious Games and we single out some key...... emphasis on fiction and narratives. The approach is exemplified through three game prototypes designed to be played by an inmate and his child in a prison during visiting hours. By analyzing these game prototypes we demonstrate how a game can be structured around a narrative plot in three different ways...
Full Text Available The terrorist group Islamic State succeeds in radicalizing thousands of young people from the West, among them a large number of women. Although the phenomenon of female members in terrorist groups is not entirely new, the massive commitment of females for the Islamic State is surprising. The group makes strong use of the internet, especially social media, to spread its propaganda which contributes to female radicalization and might even lead to their recruitment. By now it is known that the push and especially the pull factors appearing in the radicalization process are different than those in male radicalization. Howeverresearch does barely take the gender-specific dynamics into account when it comes to the development of measures that counter Islamic radicalization. At this point, I argue that a deeper understanding of the gender-specific narratives of the group serves as a key point to develop effective measures. In the propaganda of the Islamic State that directly addresses women from the West, certain narratives can be found. With the analysis of articles that address women taken from the online magazine Dabiq, I identified nine narratives outlined in this paper. The investigation of both images and the strategic use of language in the considered articles indicate how the narratives are constructed. The emphasis on religious and gender-specific narratives in the articles leads me to argue in favor of a stronger focus on female-specific counter-radicalization measures. The involvement of the findings from this paper into radicalization research may help to develop effective counter-narratives and adjust them gender-specifically.
Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme
HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions.
Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara
Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.
This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…
Full Text Available Abstract Feriba Vafi is a hard working novelist of our time. Her first novel was ‘My bird’ has been worried to alleviate the plight of women in the society. In her last novel by the name of ‘bad az payan’ she deals with women issue continuously. But to intensify the effective ness of the story in the community and proper to time condition besides the choice of subject, she has used plot, signs and particular way of telling narrative. In this paper based on the account of Todorov analyzes we study the thematic link, plot and the way of telling narrative. The actions and reactions of characters in the novel ‘bad az payan’ represent an attempt, consciously or unconsciously, more or less, to recover and to reconstruct women’s identity. The plot reflectively addresses the social and partly the familial problems of the community of women. In this novel, the journey leitmotif serves to portray a departure to independence, knowledge and a better life; yet the problems persist and the journey continues, a journey which is associated with solitude and disorderliness. Notwithstanding, the journey is an ‘evasion, as the journey of the characters of the novel is represented as an evasion, in one way or another. Men and women set out the journey hoping to find a better situation, leaving a self-made bitter situation. The narration of Shahrzad in ‘hezar-o yek shab’ has dramatically influenced this novel in terms of such elements of narration as the use of subplots, multiple narrators, which serve to highlight narration as opposed to verbose ‘story-telling’ with which men identify women. That is to say, the type of narration invoked by women is distinct from that of men; this distinction, on the one hand, represents an old style which has bolstered the retention and survival of women, on the other, it represents a mockery towards the masculine world. It, therefore, implies that the reason why women have adopted a narrative discourse is
Mun, Mi Suk
The development of students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing contemporary nursing educators. Nursing educators should know about what kind of contents or situations need critical thinking. The research was undertaken to identify the critical thinking contexts that nursing students confront in psychiatric clinical practices. Students were asked to document their everyday experience. The narratives were analysed and interpreted from the philosophical notion of hermeneutics. Four themes emerged as critical thinking contexts: anxiety, conflict, hyper-awareness, dilemmas. Writing narratives appear to provide opportunities for reflection in addition to facilitating critical thinking and communicative skills in students. Also, for the instructor, students' clinical narratives could provide insight to understand how students are thinking and to share student's personal difficulties.
Ehmann, B.; Balázs, L.; Fülöp, É.; Hargitai, R.; Kabai, P.; Péley, B.; Pólya, T.; Vargha, A.; László, J.
This paper is about a pilot application of narrative psychological content analysis in the psychological status monitoring of Crew 71 of a space analog simulation environment, the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Both the method and its theoretical framework, Scientific Narrative Psychology, are original developments by Hungarian psychologists  (László, 2008). The software was NooJ, a multilingual linguistic development environment  (Silberztein, 2008). Three measures were conceptualized and assessed: emotional status, team spirit and subjective physical comfort. The results showed the patterns of these three measures on a daily basis at group level, and allowed for detecting individual differences as well. The method is adaptable to languages involved in space psychology, e.g. Russian, French and German in addition to English.
Hansen, Per Krogh
Per Krogh Hansen brings attention to one of the most discussed narratological concepts in recent years, the ‘unreliable narrator’. In the article »The Dynamics of Unreliable Narration«, Hansen is considering to what extent the question of authorial control or intention is relevant when analysing...... and interpreting unreliable narrators. In the first part of the article, he questions this claimed essentiality of an authorial agent from three different angles: One concerning the border between diegetic and extradiegetic issues. Another with specific focus on unreliable simultaneous narration (first person......, present tense). And a third with attention paid to the role of unreliable narrators in factual narratives. In the article, he proposes a model for describing the different dynamic roles the authorial agent, as well as the empirical reader, plays in different forms of unreliable narration. Here, terms like...
Castro, Aimee; Andrews, Gavin
The aim of this study was to explore the work-life narratives of nurses through a thematic analysis of the nursing accounts they post in their publicly accessible, anonymous blogs. Many nurses participate on social media. Blogs have been advocated as a self-reflective tool in nursing practice, yet as far as the authors are aware, no previous studies have explored nurses' individual blogs for their potential to reveal nurses' perceptions of nursing work. The research design was qualitative description. Between May-August 2015, Internet search engines were used to discover lists of nursing blogs recommended by organizations representing nurses' interests. Recommended blogs were purposively sampled. Four anonymous blogs written by nurses from different nursing specialties met the sampling criteria. All 520 of their entries from 2014 were read and copied into NVivo 10, where an inductive coding process was followed. Three major themes arose in these nurses' online discussions of their work lives: they truly care about and value their nursing work, but they are feeling stressed and burnt out and they are using their anonymous blogs to share factors that frustrate them in their nursing work. Three main areas of frustration were revealed: teamwork problems, challenging patients and families, and management issues. Anonymous nursing blogs offer valuable, longitudinal insights into nurses' perceptions of their work lives. Nursing blogs should be further explored for ongoing insights into nurses' experiences of nursing work, as well as nurses' recommendations for addressing issues causing them to feel frustrated in their work environments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available In engaging with acts of self-narration that cross species lines, creators of animal autobiographies also broach questions about genre, truth status, and the structure as well as the politics of narrative representation. To address these questions, the present article draws not just on scholarship on (animal autobiography but also on ideas from the fields of linguistic semantics, politeness theory, and discourse analysis, including the “framing and footing” approach that focuses on talk emerging in contexts of face-to-face interaction and that derives most directly from the work of Erving Goffman. On the basis of this research, and using case studies that range from animal riddles to Ceridwen Dovey’s Only the Animals (2014, a collection of life stories posthumously narrated by a variety of nonhuman tellers, I profile autobiographical acts that reach beyond the human as ways of speaking for or in behalf of animal others. Some animal autobiographies correlate with acts of telling for which humans themselves remain the principals as well as authors; their animal animators remain relegated to the role of commenting on human institutions, values, practices, and artifacts. Other examples, however, can be read as co-authored acts of narrating in behalf of equally hybrid (or “humanimal” principals. These experiments with narration beyond the human afford solidarity-building projections of other creatures’ ways of being-in-the-world—projections that enable a reassessment, in turn, of forms of human being.
Kristiansen, Claus Krogholm
The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples.......The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples....
Background/Context: There is evidence that race affects students' learning experiences in mathematics, a subject typically thought of as "race-neutral" and "culture-free." Research in psychology and sociology has shown that racial narratives (e.g., "Asians are good at math") are pervasive in U.S. culture and play a…
Matunda, Robert Stephen Mokaya
The objective of this investigation was to analyze rhetorical strategies of Alice Walker in four narratives, namely, "The Color Purple, In Search of Our Mother's Gardens, Possessing the Secret of Joy, and Now Is the Time To Open Your Heart". As such, this study helps to expand the body of investigation relating linguistics to literature and medium…
This narrative inquiry explored how transgender college students construct, experience, and make meaning of gender. Gender is not constructed or understood in isolation; it is therefore essential to consider how personal cognition intersects with and is influenced by an internal sense of self and relationships with others when exploring how…
Hansen, Tina Birgitte; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe Olsen; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina
collected data over 18 months (April 2013-October 2014). We recruited nine patients undergoing heart valve surgery from a randomized trial, CopenHeartVR and conducted 27 individual narrative interviews at 2-3 weeks, 3-4 months and 8-9 months after surgery. FINDINGS: Following heart valve surgery...
Full Text Available This study is a systematic review of cultural narratives that drive American belief in the value and efficacy of stocking up on fish antibiotics for human consumption. Popularized by “doomsday prepper” forums and survivalist medical professionals’ online videos, this narrative suggests that in some scenarios humans may benefit from such treatments—even as they note its contraindication to mainstream public health advice. Discussions in crowd-sourcing forums however, reveal that in practice Americans are using them as a form of home remedy to treat routine infections without missing work or to make up for gaps in insurance coverage. This article argues for greater attention to what makes it plausible and reasonable to treat human conditions with animal medications. It suggests that public health initiatives should address such decisions as emerging from a rational analysis of social and economic conditions rather than dismissing such practices as dangerous to population and individual health outcomes. As social scientists of medicine have long argued, collective narratives about health and medicine illustrate deeply the broader contexts in which communities understand and experience bodily state and shape how communities interact with public health institutions and respond to medical expertise. This study surveys online discussions about “fish mox” to show how participants contest medical expertise and promote a more distributed form of populist expertise. As such, consuming fish mox is both panacea for health inequality and a critique of health institutions for perpetrating such stratification.
This paper aims to tackle the subtle relation between autobiographical narratives and identity construction, from a non essentialist conception of identity. In a perspective that articulates philosophy of language, psychoanalysis, semiotics and literary critique, we posit the concept of biographical space as an analytical instrument to make a critical update of the reconfiguration of identities and subjectivities in contemporary culture, marked by the predominance of the biographical, the private and a kind of "public intimacy". This look is more symptomatic than descriptive: it intends to account for the rise of auto/biographical narratives and life-stories, from canonic genres to their multiple derivations in the media, social networks and the most diverse artistic practices, a phenomenon that seems to reaffirm the notion of narrative identities by Ricoeur. Our analysis here, from an ethic, aesthetic and political point of view, will focus on two visual arts experiences that have recently taken place for the first time in Buenos Aires: Christian Boltanski's and Tracey Emin's, solo exhibitions, each of them with a different biographical approach.
Jones, Carolyn W; Lynn, Mary R
To identify stressors experienced by parents whose child is hospitalized in an intensive care unit, and identify coping mechanisms utilized to ameliorate those stressors. Using Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping as a framework, 20 publicly available blogs written by parents while their child was a patient in intensive care were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. Stressors and coping techniques were identified, and grouped by theme for further analysis. The most frequently noted types of stressors were related to information; both knowing and not knowing information related to their child's condition was reported as stressful, as well as waiting for information and when the information was not what was expected. Reframing was the emotion-focused technique most often identified by the parents, and seeking support was the most frequently noted problem-focused coping mechanism. Illness blogs represent a rich source of information regarding the experiences of families with a child in the hospital. Parents transitioned from more emotion-focused coping strategies to problem-focused strategies during their child's hospital stay. When nurses give information to parents, they should be aware that knowing information can be stressful as well as not knowing, and care should be taken to provide support for parents after information is given. Nurses can also help parents identify sources of support. Writing about their experiences, either online or in a journal, may help parents cope in stressful situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper is based on the analysis of a focus group interview of a moderator and a group of undergraduate students on the topic of self-regulation of learning. The purpose of the investigation was to identify interaction patterns that appeared in the talk of participants and the moderator. In the stream of communication two rudimentary interaction patterns were recognized. The first pattern was named the Catalogue. It consists of a sequence of turns of participants who respond to a request of the moderator and who provide their answers, one by one, without reacting on the content of the previous partner(s talk. The other interaction pattern was called the Domino. In this pattern participants respond to each other. The Catalogue pattern prevailed in the interview. Alongside with identification of patterns of interaction the study demonstrated the functions of the common ground and its accomplishment in the talk of the moderator and participants.
Mordhorst, Mads; Schwarzkopf, Stefan
’ of the 1970s. It then compares the different conceptualisations of narrative analysis that have emerged in historical research and in management and organisational studies. Finally, this introduction points out various ways in which business history can become enriched if its practitioners become more aware......This article, and the special issue that it introduces, encourages business historians to reflect on the narrative nature of the work they produce. The articles provides an overview of how and why narratives came to occupy such a prominent status during the linguistic and narrative ‘turns...
Armando F. Zubizarreta
Full Text Available Because of its autobiographical appearance, critics have paid little attention to the narrative of "Borges and I" which is so masterfully handled that its complex and transparent texture is almost invisible. A close analysis shows, however, that, in the confessional mode, the two individuals—I and Borges—are true characters involved in a narrative action that is taking place to allow the implementation of vengeance. By focusing on his victim's experience, the narrating I offers an attractive bait to his victimizer, Borges. Borges, the writer, driven by a compulsive pattern of stealing, unsuspectingly takes over the victim's grievances against him by virtue of his own writing. To unveil those basic elements of narrative at play in this short story, the participation of an active reader, as witness to the process and as recipient of the indicting text, is actually demanded. Thus, "Borges and I" may be considered a superb example of Jorge Luis Borges's art.
Brennan, Niamh; Guillamon-Saorin, Encarna; Pierce, Aileen
Purpose – This paper develops a holistic measure for analysing impression management and for detecting bias introduced into corporate narratives as a result of impression management. Design/methodology/approach – Prior research on the seven impression management methods in the literature is summarised. Four of the less-researched methods are described in detail, and are illustrated with examples from UK Annual Results’ Press Releases (ARPRs). A method of computing a holistic composite impr...
narratives, and improving the disclosure of CPARS program office audit results (Black et al., 2014, pp. 48–49). Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations...office audit results (Black et al., 2014, pp. 44–49). Recommendations Based on our conclusions, we identified the following five recommendations...and information technology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw -Hill. Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston, MA
Randall, William; Baldwin, Clive; McKenzie-Mohr, Sue; McKim, Elizabeth; Furlong, Dolores
Of increasing interest to gerontologists is resilience: the capacity for coping with the challenges of later life with openness and positivity. An overlooked factor in resilience, however, is the narrative complexity of older persons' self-accounts. The research on which this article is based is part of a larger project aimed at assessing the role of narrative interventions in strengthening the stories that older people tell about their lives. Presented here are preliminary findings from analyses conducted by our multidisciplinary team (representing gerontology, social work, nursing, dementia studies, and literary theory) on open-ended life story interviews done with 20 community-dwelling individuals (15 F, 5M; aged 65-89 years) who completed the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. Specifically, we compared the self-accounts of the 6 from these 20 who scored highest on the CDRS with the 7 who scored lowest to determine any patterns in how each group "stories" their lives. We conclude with certain observations of relevance to narrative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ryan, Katherine E.; Gandha, Tysza; Culbertson, Michael J.; Carlson, Crystal
In evaluation and applied social research, focus groups may be used to gather different kinds of evidence (e.g., opinion, tacit knowledge). In this article, we argue that making focus group design choices explicitly in relation to the type of evidence required would enhance the empirical value and rigor associated with focus group utilization. We…
Manners, Ian James; Murray, Philomena
the construction and application of an analytical framework drawing on different theoretical perspectives. This framework is then applied to six European integration narratives to demonstrate the value of a narrative approach. The article concludes that narrative analysis provides a means of understanding both EU......, the Nobel Prize and the search for a ‘new narrative for Europe’ demonstrate that the processes of European integration are always narrated as sense-making activities – stories people tell to make sense of their reality. This article argues in favour of a narrative approach to European integration through...
Yoshio Sakka, Noriyuki Hirota, Shigeru Horii and Tsutomu Ando
Full Text Available Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan.Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3, which was held on 14–16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields.This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings
van Leeuwen, L.; van den Putte, B.; Renes, R.J.; Leeuwis, C.
Previous research suggests that narrative engagement (NE) in entertainment-education (E-E) narratives reduces counterarguing, thereby leading to E-E impact on behavior. It is, however, unclear how different NE processes (narrative understanding, attentional focus, emotional engagement, narrative
Bignold, Wendy; Su, Feng
This paper explores narratives as an effective means of capturing multiple identities of research participants in complex social environments in education research. In doing so, it explores the role of the narrator in two case studies in two modes of narrative inquiry. Both studies present narratives of young people, focusing on multiple…
Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...
examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...
Paul Fisher Davies
Full Text Available Narrative Structure in Comics builds on Postema’s PhD thesis to present for a more general audience her focus on the ‘gap’ in comics and its place in the process of reading graphic narrative, from the detailed textual level up to the level of narrative structure overall. Postema's readings of comics texts are well-argued and illuminating; the breadth of theory brought together here, and the range of exemplars used in analysis, make Narrative Structure in Comics an invaluable reader for those interested in engaging with the practical application of medium-specific theory to comics texts themselves.
Paul Fisher Davies
Full Text Available 'Narrative Structure in Comics' builds on Postema’s PhD thesis to present for a more general audience her focus on the ‘gap’ in comics and its place in the process of reading graphic narrative, from the detailed textual level up to the level of narrative structure overall. Postema's readings of comics texts are well-argued and illuminating; the breadth of theory brought together here, and the range of exemplars used in analysis, make 'Narrative Structure in Comics' an invaluable reader for those interested in engaging with the practical application of medium-specific theory to comics texts themselves.
Sakka, Yoshio; Hirota, Noriyuki; Horii, Shigeru; Ando, Tsutomu
Recently, interest in the applications of feeble (diamagnetic and paramagnetic) magnetic materials has grown, whereas the popularity of ferromagnetic materials remains steady and high. This trend is due to the progress of superconducting magnet technology, particularly liquid-helium-free superconducting magnets that can generate magnetic fields of 10 T and higher. As the magnetic energy is proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field, the magnetic energy of such 10 T magnets is in excess of 10 000 times that of conventional 0.1 T permanent magnets. Consequently, many interesting phenomena have been observed over the last decade, such as the Moses effect, magnetic levitation and the alignment of feeble magnetic materials. Researchers in this area are widely spread around the world, but their number in Japan is relatively high, which might explain the success of magnetic field science and technology in Japan. Processing in magnetic fields is a rapidly expanding research area with a wide range of promising applications in materials science. The 3rd International Workshop on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields (MAP3), which was held on 14-16 May 2008 at the University of Tokyo, Japan, focused on various topics including magnetic field effects on chemical, physical, biological, electrochemical, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic phenomena; magnetic field effects on the crystal growth and processing of materials; diamagnetic levitation, the magneto-Archimedes effect, spin chemistry, magnetic orientation, control of structure by magnetic fields, magnetic separation and purification, magnetic-field-induced phase transitions, properties of materials in high magnetic fields, the development of NMR and MRI, medical applications of magnetic fields, novel magnetic phenomena, physical property measurement by magnetic fields, and the generation of high magnetic fields. This focus issue compiles 13 key papers selected from the proceedings of MAP3. Other
Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina
Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a
Price, Sheri Lynn; McGillis Hall, Linda; Angus, Jan E; Peter, Elizabeth
The growth and sustainability of the nursing profession depends on the ability to recruit and retain the upcoming generation of professionals. Understanding the career choice experiences and professional expectations of Millennial nurses (born 1980 or after) is a critical component of recruitment and retention strategies. This study utilized Polkinghorne's interpretive, narrative approach to understand how Millennial nurses explain, account for and make sense of their choice of nursing as a career. The positioning of nursing as a virtuous choice was both temporally and contextually influenced. The decision to enter the profession was initially emplotted around a traditional understanding of nursing as a virtuous profession: altruistic, noble, caring and compassionate. The centricity of virtues depicts one-dimensional understanding of the nursing profession that alone could prove dissatisfying to a generation of professionals who have many career choices available to them. The narratives reveal how participants' perceptions and expectations remain influenced by a stereotypical understanding of nursing, an image that remains prevalent in society and which holds implications for the future recruitment, socialization and retention strategies for upcoming and future generations of nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.
West, Roianne; Foster, Kim; Usher, Kim
Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of morbidity and mortality thanother Australians. One proposed strategy to improve this situation is to increase the participation ofAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nurses, inthe health workforce. Although the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students under-taking tertiary nursing courses have increased, completion rates have not kept pace. The study aimedto describe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ experiences of enablers for successfulcourse completion and to develop a narrative of student experience. A qualitative study using a strengths-based approach with a narrative analysis of semi-structured interview data was conducted across fourschools of Nursing in Queensland, Australia. Eight final-year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursingstudents volunteered to participate in the study. A collective story with the overarching plotline Creatingwalking tracks to success was developed. Six threads of experience emerged: Making a difference, Valu-ing Indigeneity, Healing strength of connections, Resisting racism, Embracing support, and perseveringtowards completion. Key success factors included resilient attributes, building supportive connectionsand having positive expectations of the future, along with sustained institutional support from Aboriginaland Torres Strait Islander nurse academics and clinicians. Development of tailored resilience-buildingtraining for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students and appointment of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander academics in Schools of Nursing that include such students may facilitate futuresuccessful completions in other programs.
universal dimensions of human life and cultural differences in a more and more mediatized global media culture. How do individuals and groups imagine each other in this new, global media culture, in what Appadurai (1996) has called a new post-national political world with an emerging diasporic public sphere......Cosmopolitan Narratives: Documentary Perspectives on Afghanistan Cosmopolitanism is a concept discussed in relation to globalization in contemporary societies by sociologists, anthropologists and media scholars (Beck 2006, Delanty 2006, Appadurai 1996). The concept indicates the dialectic between...... close others in our everyday life. But the media play an increasingly strong and important role in developing a cosmopolitan imaginary through narratives that bring us closer to the various distant, global others. Through migration those earlier distant others are also more and more mixed in our daily...
Lombardi, David A; Matz, Simon; Brennan, Melanye J; Smith, Gordon S; Courtney, Theodore K
The purpose of this study was to provide new insight into the etiology of primarily nonfatal, work-related electrical injuries. We developed a multistage, case-selection algorithm to identify electrical-related injuries from workers' compensation claims and a customized coding taxonomy to identify pre-injury circumstances. Workers' compensation claims routinely collected over a 1-year period from a large U.S. insurance provider were used to identify electrical-related injuries using an algorithm that evaluated: coded injury cause information, nature of injury, "accident" description, and injury description narratives. Concurrently, a customized coding taxonomy for these narratives was developed to abstract the activity, source, initiating process, mechanism, vector, and voltage. Among the 586,567 reported claims during 2002, electrical-related injuries accounted for 1283 (0.22%) of nonfatal claims and 15 fatalities (1.2% of electrical). Most (72.3%) were male, average age of 36, working in services (33.4%), manufacturing (24.7%), retail trade (17.3%), and construction (7.2%). Body part(s) injured most often were the hands, fingers, or wrist (34.9%); multiple body parts/systems (25.0%); lower/upper arm; elbow; shoulder, and upper extremities (19.2%). The leading activities were conducting manual tasks (55.1%); working with machinery, appliances, or equipment; working with electrical wire; and operating powered or nonpowered hand tools. Primary injury sources were appliances and office equipment (24.4%); wires, cables/cords (18.0%); machines and other equipment (11.8%); fixtures, bulbs, and switches (10.4%); and lightning (4.3%). No vector was identified in 85% of cases. and the work process was initiated by others in less than 1% of cases. Injury narratives provide valuable information to overcome some of the limitations of precoded data, more specially for identifying additional injury cases and in supplementing traditional epidemiologic data for further
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA, the process of interviewing a deceased’s family or caregiver about signs and symptoms leading up to death, employs tools that ask a series of closed questions and can include an open narrative where respondents give an unprompted account of events preceding death. The extent to which an individual interviewer, who generally does not interpret the data, affects the quality of this data, and therefore the assigned cause of death, is poorly documented. We aimed to examine inter-interviewer reliability of open narrative and closed question data gathered during VA interviews. Methods During the introduction of VA data collection, as part of a larger study in Mchinji district, Malawi, we conducted partner interviews whereby two interviewers independently recorded open narrative and closed questions during the same interview. Closed questions were collected using a smartphone application (mobile-InterVA and open narratives using pen and paper. We used mixed methods of analysis to evaluate the differences between recorded responses to open narratives and closed questions, causes of death assigned, and additional information gathered by open narrative. Results Eighteen partner interviews were conducted, with complete data for 11 pairs. Comparing closed questions between interviewers, the median number of differences was 1 (IQR: 0.5–3.5 of an average 65 answered; mean inter-interviewer concordance was 92 % (IQR: 92–99 %. Discrepancies in open narratives were summarized in five categories: demographics, history and care-seeking, diagnoses and symptoms, treatment and cultural. Most discrepancies were seen in the reporting of diagnoses and symptoms (e.g., malaria diagnosis; only one pair demonstrated no clear differences. The average number of clinical symptoms reported was 9 in open narratives and 20 in the closed questions. Open narratives contained additional information on health seeking and social issues
This invention concerns nuclear medicine and specifically an image-forming appliance providing a very sensitive quantitative determination and the localization in space of the radioactivity of a body organ such as the brain of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The characteristics of this appliance, which forms an image in a transversal scanning field by means of radioactive isotope radiations, includes several highly focused collimators, placed in line and focused inwards so that they form an arrangement that surrounds a given scanning field. Each collimator is mobile with respect to the adjacent collimator and a system moves the collimators so that the focus of each one uniformly samples at least a half of the total scanning field corresponding to a cross section. The number of detectors is an even one between two and twenty four, and the collimators are twelve in number [fr
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of analyzing theoretical sources and practical experience some scientists’ works are disclosed, which deal with using and designing digital narratives in future Ukrainian language and literature teachers’ training, to develop a personality’s information and digital competence. It is reported that the themes, which are focused on postgraduate students’ acquainting with digital technologies of studying linguistic subjects at university, in specialized classes in secondary school, and a new type of educational institutions, should be introduced into language and methodological training. The author emphasizes on the relevance and importance of using digital narratives for democratization and humanization, the inspiration of the educational process. Narratives (stories in literary works, letters, confessions, biographies, diaries, comments, portrait sketches, pedagogical aphorisms, scripts, summaries of lessons with notes in the margins and others, biographical and pedagogical narratives provide information about the events, situations, taking into account individual reflexed experience of outstanding teachers. If students have an opportunity to develop skills of making narratives, they will gradually get communicative competences and feeling of confidence in their own ability that are necessary in the life. The works by M. Leshchenko and L. Tymchuk that are devoted to studying biography narratives are overviewed. The author suggests her own works of studying biography narratives of outstanding personalities (O. Zakharenko, I. Ziaziun, N. Voloshyna, L. Matsko and others. Digital narrative is characterized as a dynamic means of sending information messages in which a word, an image and sound are expressed in a joint digital code; as multimedia project that combines text, a picture, audio and video files in a short video clip. It is spoken in detail that digital narratives that are used or made together with students
Full Text Available Dagara folktales, like other African folktales, are embedded with various literary aesthetic features related to structure, language and performance. This paper examines major literary aesthetics found in Dagara folktales. The methodology used is based on the collection, analysis and interpretation of selected Dagara folktales gathered through fieldwork. The focus of the paper is on the structure and the language of Dagara folktales. The argument of this paper is grounded on the Structuralist Theory as seen in Gerard Genette’s Narrative Discourse which offers the basic constituents and techniques of narrative. Genette proposes various categories of narrative which cover Time, Mood and Voice. Genette’s narrative structure suggests that the various categories and subcategories emphasise that the narrative is a complex structure in which the narratee is largely present in the various strata of the structure. Genette is concerned with the macro-text of the recit, that is, the ordering of events in the narrative. The study revealed that there are similarities and differences in the structure and the language of Dagara folktales in relation to other African folktales. Keywords: Dagara People, Folktale, Literary Aesthetics, Performance, Structuralist Theory
In this paper I discuss some concerns related to the analysis of focus groups: (a) the issue of generalisation; (b) the problems of using numbers and quantifying in the analysis; (c) how the concrete situation of the focus groups could be included in the analysis, and (d) what formats can be used when quoting from focus groups. Problems with…
De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.
J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....
Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.
The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...
Sools, Anna Maria
In this article, I explore narrative building blocks for future-oriented what-if (i.e., possibilities-generating) analysis developed in a health promotion study. The aim of this study was to gain insight into future possibilities for good health among participants known for their poor health status.
thought. Furthermore, it is argued that a central role in the structuring of this mental text is played by an overwhelming amount of brackets. The article suggests a categorisation of the different types of parenthetic remarks in the novel according to their function in the textual, would-be narrative...... construct, and concludes that Makanin's use of brackets in Andegraund, the most extensive use in his oeuvre so far, is crucial to the extreme processuality of the novel's text and its paradoxical, solipsistic addressivity. Udgivelsesdato: October...
Kilic, H.; Nardi, V.; Prior, W.
The authors have experimentally determined the energy spectrum of a deuteron beam in the energy interval 100 KeV ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV, with typical beam current I ≥ 1-2 A. A 5 kJ (15 kV, 49 μF) plasma focus machine is used to generate the ion beam at relatively low pressure 3-4 Torr D/sub 2/ (beam anode) and at higher pressure 6-8 Torr D/sub 2/ (high-neutron-yield mode). The spectrum is obtained from two different methods, i.e. from ion time of flight - by using time delays of Faraday cup signals with respect to hard x-ray signals - and from ion filtering, (mylar filter with different thickness from 2.5 μm up to 500 μm are used to cover the Faraday cup). The Faraday cup is located in a differentially pumed chamber (10/sup -4/ - 10/sup -5/ Torr) which is separated from the plasma focus chamber (8-3 Torr) by a 150 μm diam. pinhole (12.5 μm thick tungsten foil). The pinhole and Faraday cup are positioned on the gun axis at a distance of 15 cm and 25 cm from the end of the anode respectively
Full Text Available In this paper the rationale and the first draft of a formal ontology for modeling narrative texts are presented. Building on the semiotic and structuralist narratology, and on the work carried out in the late 1980s by Giuseppe Gigliozzi in Italy, the focus of my research are the concepts of character and of narrative world/space. This formal model is expressed in the OWL 2 ontology language. The main reason to adopt a formal modeling approach is that I consider the purely probabilistic-quantitative methods (now widespread in digital literary studies inadequate. An ontology, on one hand provides a tool for the analysis of strictly literary texts. On the other hand (though beyond the scope of the present work, its formalization can also represent a significant contribution towards grounding the application of storytelling methods outside of scholarly contexts.
Full Text Available This essay argues for narrative competence as an underlying skill neglected in educational policy makers’ calls for enhanced literacy through improved reading, writing, numeracy and working with digital technology. This argument is presented in three parts. First, a genealogy of the narrative is presented by looking at understandings of narratives with respect to changes in technology and socio-cultural relations. Three technological forms of the narrative are examined: the oral, written and image based narrative. Second, revisiting Bernstein, narrative competency is connected to pedagogic practice. The focus is upon code recognition and the rhythm of narrative in a classroom context. Third, a proposal is made to develop narrative competence as a research programme capable of exploring literacy in an age of open learning. The core assertion of this essay is that when narrative is understood in a multi-directional, multi-voiced and multi-punctual sense, opportunities are created for a pedagogic practice that is in tune with the demands placed upon youth and their relationship to changing technologies. This makes the exploration of connections between narrative competence, pedagogic practice and technology the central focus of this essay.
O'Leary, Renée; Borland, Ron; Stockwell, Tim; MacDonald, Marjorie
The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette (vapour device) is a consumer product undergoing rapid growth, and governments have been adopting regulations on the sale of the devices and their nicotine liquids. Competing claims about vapour devices have ignited a contentious debate in the public health community. What claims have been taken up in the state arena, and how have they possibly influenced regulatory outcomes? This study utilized Narrative Policy Framework to analyze the claims made about vapour devices in legislation recommendation reports from Queensland Australia, Canada, and the European Union, and the 2016 deeming rule legislation from the United States, and examined the claims and the regulatory outcomes in these jurisdictions. The vast majority of claims in the policy documents represented vapour devices as a threat: an unsafe product harming the health of vapour device users, a gateway product promoting youth tobacco uptake, and a quasi-tobacco product impeding tobacco control. The opportunity for vapour devices to promote cessation or reduce exposure to toxins was very rarely presented, and these positive claims were not discussed at all in two of the four documents studied. The dominant claims of vapour devices as a public health threat have supported regulations that have limited their potential as a harm reduction strategy. Future policy debates should evaluate the opportunities for vapour devices to decrease the health and social burdens of the tobacco epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Joseph Yaï Olabiyi Babalola
Full Text Available An unresolved tragedy is inherent in the task of translation. The translator knows that translation is at once impossible and necessary. That tragedy attains heroic proportions with anthropologists insofar as they are translators of entire cultures. Thus, anthropologists, at least the most honest and perceptive among them, are tragic heroes. This proposition became crystallized in my mind as an aphorism as I read the last sentence of Melville and Frances Herskovits's lengthy and challenging introduction to their Dahomean Narrative: “As spoken forms, the stories should preferably be read aloud.” It is not by chance that this sentence concludes 122 pages of substantial analytical discourse in cultural anthropology. I see it as an impassioned call upon readers to displace themselves, as an invitation to leave their own world and inhabit the Fon cultural world. We are invited to read aloud, in English, Fon texts of various genres that were supposed to have been performed orally, then translated into French by Dahomean interpreters, and finally translated into English by the anthropologist authors. Only a hero indeed could cross so many borders.
Full Text Available This article describes the methodology and the outcomes of an empirical study of conflict narratives. The narratological analysis deployed narratological categories in the structuralist tradition based on Genette and was conducted with the help of the text annotation tool CATMA. The analysis aimed at covering as many narratological phenomena as possible by establishing 14 fields of narratological phenomena that were annotated in a corpus of 39 factual narratives about situations at the workplace with and without conflicts. The evaluation of approximately 28,000 annotations brought to light a series of interrelations between narratological phenomena and the presence or absence of conflicts in the narratives. Additionally, this approach led to the identification of some oversights of narrative theory by detecting hitherto unnoticed interrelations among narratological concepts.
Allé, M C; Gandolphe, M-C; Doba, K; Köber, C; Potheegadoo, J; Coutelle, R; Habermas, T; Nandrino, J-L; Danion, J-M; Berna, F
Life narratives of patients with schizophrenia are characterized by impaired coherence so that the listener has often difficulties to grasp the life trajectory of the patients. In order to better understand what causes this reduced temporal coherence, we investigated the temporal structure of patients' life narratives through different temporal narrative elements (elaboration of beginnings and endings, local temporal indicators and temporal deviations from a linear order), across two complementary studies. Life narratives were collected by means of two different methods; a free recall in study 1 and a more structured protocol, aiming at reducing the cognitive task demands in study 2. All narratives from the two studies were analyzed using the same validated method. Both studies showed that global temporal coherence is significantly reduced in patients with schizophrenia (ps.02). This is mainly due to their stronger tendency to temporally deviate from a linear temporal order without marking the deviation as such. We also observed significant correlations in the patient groups between global temporal coherence and executive dysfunction (p=.008) or their higher tendency to temporally deviate from a linear temporal order in their life narratives (p<.001). These results shed light on narrative correlates of temporal narrative incoherence in schizophrenia and highlight the central role of executive dysfunction in this incoherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.
Alridge, Derrick P.
In this study, I argue that American history textbooks present discrete, heroic, one-dimensional, and neatly packaged master narratives that deny students a complex, realistic, and rich understanding of people and events in American history. In making this argument, I examine the master narratives of Martin Luther King, Jr., in high school history…
Li, Jessica C M; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Cindy X S; Yu, Yolanda M Y; Nguyen, Ping
This article presents public discourses on compensated dating of adolescent girls in Chinese society. Data are obtained from eight focus groups comprising 50 guardians at private, parochial, and public levels (i.e., social workers, police officers, parents of students, and community representatives). Qualitative data are used to demonstrate how the guardians conceptualize and contextualize compensated dating as an outcome of the dynamics of societal features. Social features such as contemporary ideologies, Internet technology advancement, commercialization of human relationships, and ambiguity between "right" and "wrong" motivate the service providers and customers of compensated dating, and accelerate their convergence and weakened levels of guardianship in society. This study is the first to connect the features of compensated dating of adolescent girls with recent societal changes using the routine activity approach. The findings confirm the application of the routine activity approach in the phenomenon of girls' compensated dating, and also offer theoretical and practical implications.
Boritz, Tali Z; Bryntwick, Emily; Angus, Lynne; Greenberg, Leslie S; Constantino, Michael J
While the individual contributions of narrative and emotion processes to psychotherapy outcome have been the focus of recent interest in psychotherapy research literature, the empirical analysis of narrative and emotion integration has rarely been addressed. The Narrative-Emotion Processes Coding System (NEPCS) was developed to provide researchers with a systematic method for identifying specific narrative and emotion process markers, for application to therapy session videos. The present study examined the relationship between NEPCS-derived problem markers (same old storytelling, empty storytelling, unstoried emotion, abstract storytelling) and change markers (competing plotlines storytelling, inchoate storytelling, unexpected outcome storytelling, and discovery storytelling), and treatment outcome (recovered versus unchanged at therapy termination) and stage of therapy (early, middle, late) in brief emotion-focused (EFT), client-centred (CCT), and cognitive (CT) therapies for depression. Hierarchical linear modelling analyses demonstrated a significant Outcome effect for inchoate storytelling (p = .037) and discovery storytelling (p = .002), a Stage × Outcome effect for abstract storytelling (p = .05), and a Stage × Outcome × Treatment effect for competing plotlines storytelling (p = .001). There was also a significant Stage × Outcome effect for NEPCS problem markers (p = .007) and change markers (p = .03). The results provide preliminary support for the importance of assessing the contribution of narrative-emotion processes to efficacious treatment outcomes in EFT, CCT, and CT treatments of depression.
Nakagawa, Masami, Ph.D.; Fujiono, Hendro, Ph.D.; McCartney, John S., Ph.D.; Reed, Adam, J.D., Esq.
Geothermal Academy: A Pathway for Confirmation of Ground-Source Heat Pumps in the United States. In 2008, Oak Ridge National Laboratory issued a report on geothermal heats pumps (GHPs) focused on the market status, barriers to adoption, and actions to overcome these barriers (Hughes 2008). Of the barriers raised in this report, of the most pressing is the lack of performance and energy usage data for GHPs. Further, an associated barrier is a lack of a fair comparison of the energy usage of conventional heating and cooling systems for the same building. Because of these barriers, we are not able to say how much energy is used by well-designed GHP systems on a long-term basis, nor are we able to say how better their energy usage is compared to conventional systems. The need for a fair comparison with conventional systems is particularly relevant as modern versions of conventional air conditioners, gas furnaces, and boilers have also incorporated energy saving technologies. As a first step to address this barrier, the Geothermal Academy has developed a framework for data collection. This framework has already been applied to several geothermal installations in Colorado (Nakagawa etal. 2010). The framework classifies data into different categories based on the relevance of the dat to understanding the energy consumption of a GHP system. The categories are: direct energy consumption data, heat exchange performance data, and GHP design parameter data. The main recommendation of this project is to include a minimal data collection system on each heat pump installed in the U.S., capable of measuring the electrical energy consumed, the entering/exiting fluid temperatures, and circulation rates. This is a viable and cost effective solution which will provide performance data, as data collection systems are only a fraction of the cost of a GHP unit and modern GHP units already incorporate sensors to monitor energy usage and the entering and exiting fluid temperatures
Full Text Available This paper is aimed to evaluate the role of additives in food production and to identify how these additives are known and used by consumers in their households. The questionnaire technique was used, the research involved 220 respondents. It was found that the respondents are perceptive to adding of additives into food. Cluster analysis confirmed that the majority of respondents is about the incidence of food additives only partially informed, although 87% of respondents knew what the (E letter of additive means. The correct answers for each question depended on the age and education of respondents and were not dependent on gender of respondents. We recommend to enhance public knowledge about nutrition, diet and food composition, functions, benefits and safety of food additives.
Chretien, Katherine C; Swenson, Rebecca; Yoon, Bona; Julian, Ricklie; Keenan, Jonathan; Croffoot, James; Kheirbek, Raya
Narrative medicine educational interventions may enhance patient-centered care, yet most educational interventions do not involve actual patient-provider interactions, nor do they assess narrative competence, a key skill for its practice. An experiential narrative medicine curriculum for medical students was developed and piloted. The purpose of the study was to develop narrative competence, practice attentive listening, and stimulate reflection. Participants were third-year medicine clerkship students. The curriculum involved 1) an introductory session, 2) a patient storytelling activity, and 3) a group reflection session. For the storytelling activity, students elicited illness narratives in storytelling form from patients, listened attentively, wrote their versions of the story, and then read them back to patients. Five student focus groups were conducted between July 2011 and March 2012 (n = 31; 66%) to explore students' experiences, student-patient dynamics, challenges, and what they learned. Patient interviews (n = 17) on their experience were conducted in January 2013. Thematic analysis of the audiotaped stories of ten patients and corresponding student-written stories helped gauge narrative competence. The curriculum was found to be feasible and acceptable to both patients and students. Some patients and students were profoundly moved. Ongoing focus groups resulted in continual process improvement. Students' stories showed attainment of narrative competence.
Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita
To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine's framework as it relates to students' professional development. On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Students' comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine--attention, representation, and affiliation--and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students' lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view.
Miller, Eliza; Balmer, Dorene; Hermann, Nellie; Graham, Gillian; Charon, Rita
Purpose To learn what medical students derive from training in humanities, social sciences, and the arts in a narrative medicine curriculum and to explore narrative medicine’s framework as it relates to students’ professional development. Method On completion of required intensive, half-semester narrative medicine seminars in 2010, 130 second-year medical students at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons participated in focus group discussions of their experiences. Focus group transcriptions were submitted to close iterative reading by a team who performed a grounded-theory-guided content analysis, generating a list of codes into which statements were sorted to develop overarching themes. Provisional interpretations emerged from the close and repeated readings, suggesting a fresh conceptual understanding of how and through what avenues such education achieves its goals in clinical training. Results Students’ comments articulated the known features of narrative medicine—attention, representation, and affiliation—and endorsed all three as being valuable to professional identity development. They spoke of the salience of their work in narrative medicine to medicine and medical education and its dividends of critical thinking, reflection, and pleasure. Critiques constituted a small percentage of the statements in each category. Conclusions Students report that narrative medicine seminars support complex interior, interpersonal, perceptual, and expressive capacities. Students’ lived experiences confirm some expectations of narrative medicine curricular planners while exposing fresh effects of such work to view. PMID:24362390
Full Text Available The mobile journalism and, particularly, hypermedia stories get new possibilities for making narratives, boosted by the mobility itself, and also by the use of touchable screens, accelerometer, GPS receiver and permanent connection to the internet. Due to these potentials, tablets, smartphones and wearables reconfigure processes and journalistic narratives for the web. From this premise, the article focuses the research in hypermedia storytelling for mobile devices, aiming to observe how the hypertext resources are used in the contextualization of journalistic narratives published at mobile devices (tablets and smartphones. To achieve this aim, we realized a systematic analysis from newspaper editions of Globo A Mais journal for two months. This was done by selecting a case exemplifying the way the hypertext features can serve the contextualization.
Matsuda, Shinichi; Aoki, Kotonari; Tomizawa, Shiho; Sone, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Riwa; Kuriki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yoichiro
observed frequently in the ADR database. We also confirmed the feasibility of using visualization techniques to obtain insights from unstructured text-based tōbyōki blog data. Word clouds described the characteristics of each disorder, such as "sleeping" and "anxiety" in depression and "pain" and "painful" in RA. Pharmacovigilance should maintain a strong focus on patients' actual experiences, concerns, and outcomes, and this approach can be expected to uncover hidden adverse event signals earlier and to help us understand adverse events in a patient-centered way. Patient-generated tōbyōki blogs in the TOBYO database showed unique characteristics that were different from the data in existing sources generated by health care professionals. Analysis of tōbyōki blogs would add value to the assessment of disorders with a high prevalence in women, psychiatric disorders in which subjective symptoms have important clinical meaning, refractory disorders, and other chronic disorders. ©Shinichi Matsuda, Kotonari Aoki, Shiho Tomizawa, Masayoshi Sone, Riwa Tanaka, Hiroshi Kuriki, Yoichiro Takahashi. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.02.2017.
Full Text Available The research work done by the author investigates a phenomenological field—the subjective experience of chronic illness and disability—by means of a specific research instrument, the autobiographical narrative interview. It focuses on the concept of narrative identity and its empirical substrate in the scientifically generated texts. Narrative identity is regarded as a situated, pragmatic, autoepistemic and interactive activity drawing on culturally transmitted narrative conventions which is performed within the research context. We have been working with a systematic analytic approach which covers interactive and contextual aspects of the interview situation as well as rhetoric and positioning strategies in the act of telling. Other research questions concern the concept of "narrative coping" and the comparison of partner's narratives on problems of illness and disability, especially on scrutinizing aspects of identity and alterity (self and other in the texts. This work can be understood as combining aspects of the research domains of narratology, identity and coping on the background of a qualitative methodology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002189
Hayes Michael V
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion coincided with a preponderance of research, worldwide, on the social determinants of health and health inequities. Despite the establishment of a 'health inequities knowledge base', the precise roles for municipal governments in reducing health inequities at the local level remain poorly defined. The objective of this study was to monitor thematic trends in this knowledge base over time, and to track scholarly prescriptions for municipal government intervention on local health inequities. Methods Using meta-narrative mapping, four bodies of scholarly literature - 'health promotion', 'Healthy Cities', 'population health' and 'urban health' - that have made substantial contributions to the health inequities knowledge base were analyzed over the 1986-2006 timeframe. Article abstracts were retrieved from the four literature bodies using three electronic databases (PubMed, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, and coded for bibliographic characteristics, article themes and determinants of health profiles, and prescriptions for municipal government interventions on health inequities. Results 1004 journal abstracts pertaining to health inequities were analyzed. The overall quantity of abstracts increased considerably over the 20 year timeframe, and emerged primarily from the 'health promotion' and 'population health' literatures. 'Healthy lifestyles' and 'healthcare' were the most commonly emphasized themes in the abstracts. Only 17% of the abstracts articulated prescriptions for municipal government interventions on local health inequities. Such interventions included public health campaigns, partnering with other governments and non-governmental organizations for health interventions, and delivering effectively on existing responsibilities to improve health outcomes and reduce inequities. Abstracts originating from Europe, and from the 'Healthy Cities' and 'urban health' literatures
Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L James
Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of
Full Text Available Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the
Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L. James
Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of
Full Text Available This article is a proposal of identity research through its process and narrative character. As a starting point I present a definition of identity understood as the whole life process of finding identification. Next I present my own model of auto/biography-narrative research inspired by hermeneutic and phenomenological traditions of thinking about experiencing reality. I treat auto/biography-narrative research as a means of exploratory conduct, based on the narrator’s biography data, also considering the researcher’s autobiographical thought. In the final part of the article I focus on showing the narrative structure of identity and autobiography. I emphasise this relation in definitions qualifying autobiography as written life narration and identity as a narration of autobiography.
The main things which have been focused on so far in the narration of this work are those relating to the blurring of the viewpoints of the narrator and the main character. However, it can be argued that the real strength in the narration of this work is found when the narrator narrates at a distance from the main character. This is revealed in 3 characteristics of narration. By using a literary construction which brings a concord between paradoxical conjunctions like the adverb "muron"(=of c...
Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions.......Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions....
Salzmann-Erikson, Martin; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu
Suffering from post-traumatic stress impacts and restricts the life situation of the individual on several levels, not least regarding social difficulties. Social media on the Internet facilitate new possibilities for interaction and communication. Earlier research has demonstrated that people use social media to seek support and to discuss health-related issues. The current study aimed to describe how individuals suffering from post-traumatic stress use social media to convey authentic narratives of their daily lives, including illness, and further, to analyze the content of this media use. The data comprised YouTube videos, blogs, and forum discussions. Five categories cover the findings: (a) structure of the narrative, (b) narrating the trauma, (c) restrictions in life, (d) strategies in everyday living, and (e) online interaction. We stress that sharing narratives online facilitates a "verbalizing" of the life conditions of the sufferers and can be used as a self-care activity. © The Author(s) 2016.
Donald Jay Bertulfo; Nico Canoy; Michael Angelo Celeste
Prisoner reintegration may be viewed as a crisis situation that may lead to a period of instability within the family. Existing researches in this area remain focused on the individual perspective of ex-offenders rather than the experiences of receiving families back in their households. In this study, we aim to examine the reintegration experiences of the family as a group from an initial state of chaos to equilibrium upon the reentry of an incarcerated parent. Using a sample of 12 interview...
Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed
This qualitative study analyzes the career path narratives of active principals. Structural narrative analysis was supplemented with sociolinguistic theory and thematic narrative analysis to discern the similarities and differences, as well as the patterns in the language used by participating principals. Thematic analysis found four major themes…
Bamberg, Michael; Marchman, Virginia
Explores the relationship between linguistic and conceptual structuring of narratives, focusing on linguistic devices used by German and U.S. narrators to identify transitions in text structure. Identifies and outlines two types of narrative orientation: differentiating events and integrating events. (SR)
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena
Out of the complex influences of event, narrative and listener characteristics on narrative emotions, this paper focuses on event severity, narrative perspectives, mood, and dispositions for emotion regulation and empathy. Event severity and perspective representation were systematically varied in sad autobiographical narratives to study their influence on quantity and quality of readers' emotional response. Each of three stories were manipulated to contain elaborated perspectives, only the past protagonists' perspective (dramatic narration), and very little perspectives at all (impersonal narration). We predicted that event severity influences the quantity of emotional response, while degree of perspective representation influences plausibility and whether emotional responses are sympathetic or interactional, that is, directed against the narrator. Hypotheses were confirmed except for plausibility, and perspective representation had an effect only on anger against and dislike of the narrator. In a second study, impersonal narration evoked anger at and negative evaluations of the narrator which were related to blaming the narrator for showing too little emotional involvement. The generalizability of findings across emotions and implications for sharing of emotions in everyday and clinical settings are discussed.
Armine Kotin Mortimer
Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.
Principles of a mobile gps-enabled gis acting as a tourist information system are discussed and exemplified with special focus on the narrative aspects of tourist guidance. Flexible adaptation to user movements is accomplished by providing information about objects that the user passes as well...
Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.
Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....
Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Christy
This study analysed the topic and vocabulary of Chinese speakers based on language samples of personal recounts in a large spoken Chinese database recently made available in the public domain, i.e. Cantonese AphasiaBank ( http://www.speech.hku.hk/caphbank/search/ ). The goal of the analysis is to offer clinicians a rich source for selecting ecologically valid training materials for rehabilitating Chinese-speaking people with aphasia (PWA) in the design and planning of culturally and linguistically appropriate treatments. Discourse production of 65 Chinese-speaking PWA of fluent types (henceforth, PWFA) and their non-aphasic controls narrating an important event in their life were extracted from Cantonese AphasiaBank. Analyses of topics and vocabularies in terms of part-of-speech, word frequency, lexical semantics, and diversity were conducted. There was significant overlap in topics between the two groups. While the vocabulary was larger for controls than that of PWFA as expected, they were similar in distribution across parts-of-speech, frequency of occurrence, and the ratio of concrete to abstract items in major open word classes. Moreover, proportionately more different verbs than nouns were employed at the individual level for both speaker groups. The findings provide important implications for guiding directions of aphasia rehabilitation not only of fluent but also non-fluent Chinese aphasic speakers.
Gil Llario, M D; Vicent Catalá, Consuelo
Comparative analysis of the efficacy of a playful-narrative program to teach mathematics at pre-school level. In this paper, the effectiveness of a programme comprising several components that are meant to consolidate mathematical concepts and abilities at the pre-school level is analyzed. The instructional methodology of this programme is compared to other methodologies. One-hundred 5-6 year-old children made up the sample that was distributed in the following conditions: (1) traditional methodology; (2) methodology with perceptual and manipulative components, and (3) methodology with language and playful components. Mathematical competence was assessed with the Mathematical Criterial Pre-school Test and the subtest of quantitative-numeric concepts of BADyG. Participants were evaluated before and after the academic course during which they followed one of these methodologies. The results show that the programme with language and playful components is more effective than the traditional methodology (p<.000) and also more effective than the perceptual and manipulative methodology (p<.000). Implications of the results for instructional practices are analyzed.
Christopher R Stones
Oct 2, 2014 ... ... analysis. Likewise, it is argued that Ricoeur's work on narrativity and narrative ... method of Husserl's static phenomenological analysis .... the possibility of description in a qualitative research ... theoretical perspective, assumption, hypothesis, and so on” .... every case the noetic constitution of the object is.
Donald Jay Bertulfo
Full Text Available Prisoner reintegration may be viewed as a crisis situation that may lead to a period of instability within the family. Existing researches in this area remain focused on the individual perspective of ex-offenders rather than the experiences of receiving families back in their households. In this study, we aim to examine the reintegration experiences of the family as a group from an initial state of chaos to equilibrium upon the reentry of an incarcerated parent. Using a sample of 12 interviews of family members left behind by incarcerated fathers, three major storylines relating to the family’s struggle for moral re-ascendancy in the context of parental reintegration are identified: othering, rehabilitation, and restoration. We explain the interlocking emotional, discursive, and material forms of labor embedded in the process of prisoner reintegration. Policy implications on social and institutional aid to the families of reintegrating fathers are also discussed.
Full Text Available By coining the term “unreliable narrator” Wayne Booth hypothesized another agent in his model besides the author, the implicit author, to explain the double coding of narratives where a distorted view of reality and the exposure of this distortion are presented simultaneously. The article deals with the applicability of the concept in visual narratives. Since unreliability is traditionally considered to be intertwined with first person narratives, it works through subjective mediators. According to scholarly literature on the subject, the narrator has to be strongly characterized, or in other words, anthropomorphized. In the case of film, the main problem is that the narrator is either missing or the narration cannot be attributed entirely to them. There is a medial rupture where the apparatus mediates the story instead of a character’s oral or written discourse. The present paper focuses on some important but overlooked questions about the nature of cinematic storytelling through a re-examination of |the lying flashback in Alfred Hitchcock's Stage Fright. Can a character-narrator control the images the viewer sees? How can the filmic image still be unreliable without having an anthropomorphic narrator? How useful is the term focalization when we are dealing with embedded character-narratives in film?
Cloonan, Anne; Fox, Brandi; Ohi, Sarah; Halse, Christine
The currency of intercultural education has risen worldwide in response to increased diversity within societies resulting from migration and global flows of populations. As intercultural education becomes a core responsibility of schooling, critical, detailed analysis of pedagogies for teachers' own intercultural learning is largely absent in…
Roma, Paolo; San Martini, Pietro; Sabatello, Ugo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Ferracuti, Stefano
Objective: The reliability of child witness testimony in sexual abuse cases is often controversial, and few tools are available. Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA) is a widely used instrument for evaluating psychological credibility in cases of suspected child sexual abuse. Only few studies have evaluated CBCA scores in children suspected of…
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the narrative control mechanisms which generate coherence in the elaboration of personal stories presented by professional individuals working under flexible employment conditions. We also examine how these personal stories function to articulate constructions of self in relation to attributes demanded by the conditions associated with patterns of flexible working. A discourse analysis of 32 job interviews with male and female young adult professionals in flexible employment in Chile was undertaken. One of the main aspects of the narratives is a general tendency to present oneself as a successful and enterprising individual. However, the coherence of the image constructed in the account tends to show certain fissures that may refute that constitution. When the narrator realizes the latter, he/she quickly tries to repair the account in order to maintain this coherence. Focusing our attention on this narrative coherence mechanism, and drawing on BAKHTIN's dialogical theory and discursive psychology, we demonstrate how these self narrative constructions involve certain control practices that connect the different forms people use to refer to themselves with the governmental strategies of contemporary societies. Through this analysis we intend to contribute to current discussions of how to empirically deal with the complex relation observed among narrative, identity and social organization. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902292
Borochowitz, Dalit Yassour
Constructing a life story is a need shared by all humans to give their lives meaning and coherence. This article explores some of the narrative devices that batterers use to achieve a sense of coherence when telling their stories and justifying their violent behavior. A central theme that emerged from these stories centered on the men's perception of their wives as the embodiment of their own emotions and inner world. Two narrative strategies were identified in this context: (a) The construction of a "couple narrative" that focused on an idealized marital relationship rather than "allowing" the wife her story and (b) constructing a story around the theme of "she's not the same woman I married," which portrays the wife as "a shrew" and the violence as an attempt to discipline her. The stories of 18 batterers were used for this analysis, and two narratives were used to illustrate these strategies.
Recent work on the relation between narrative and selfhood has emphasized embodiment as an indispensable foundation for selfhood. This has occasioned an interesting debate on the relation between embodiment and narrative. In this paper, I attempt to mediate the range of conflicting intuitions......) strictly is or is not; rather, we need to see narrative as an attribute admitting of degrees. I suggest that the relation between narrative and embodiment should be seen along these lines, proposing three levels of the narrativity of embodied experiencing: 1) the unnarratable, 2) the narratable and 3...
Describes "impersonal narration," an approach that defends the concept of the cinematic narrator as a logical and pragmatic necessity. Compares this approach with existing theories of the cinematic narrator, addressing disagreements in the field of film narrative theory. (MM)
Steinman, Michael A; Bero, Lisa A; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Landefeld, C Seth
Internal documents from the pharmaceutical industry provide a unique window for understanding the structure and methods of pharmaceutical promotion. Such documents have become available through litigation concerning the promotion of gabapentin (Neurontin, Pfizer, Inc., New York, New York) for off-label uses. To describe how gabapentin was promoted, focusing on the use of medical education, research, and publication. Court documents available to the public from United States ex. rel David Franklin vs. Pfizer, Inc., and Parke-Davis, Division of Warner-Lambert Company, mostly from 1994-1998. All documents were reviewed by 1 author, with selected review by coauthors. Marketing strategies and tactics were identified by using an iterative process of review, discussion, and re-review of selected documents. The promotion of gabapentin was a comprehensive and multifaceted process. Advisory boards, consultants meetings, and accredited continuing medical education events organized by third-party vendors were used to deliver promotional messages. These tactics were augmented by the recruitment of local champions and engagement of thought leaders, who could be used to communicate favorable messages about gabapentin to their physician colleagues. Research and scholarship were also used for marketing by encouraging "key customers" to participate in research, using a large study to advance promotional themes and build market share, paying medical communication companies to develop and publish articles about gabapentin for the medical literature, and planning to suppress unfavorable study results. Most available documents were submitted by the plaintiff and may not represent a complete picture of marketing practices. Activities traditionally considered independent of promotional intent, including continuing medical education and research, were extensively used to promote gabapentin. New strategies are needed to ensure a clear separation between scientific and commercial activity.
Full Text Available The popularity of audio books is increasing. In the USA fewer people are reading books but many more are listening to them on tapes, CD’s and in MP3 format. The phenomenon is redefining the notion of reading. The purpose of the paper is to present some pros and cons of listening to books instead of reading them. The conclusions have been reached on the basis of a linguistic analysis of parts of two audio books belonging to two different literary genres: a crime novel (Dan Brown, The Da Vinci Code and a comic one (Helen Fielding, Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason.
information as relevant to their analyses and recommendations. The paper shows that background information about the company, i.e. about products, markets and the industry, along with the analysts' own analysis of financial and operating data account for nearly 55% of the total disclosure in fundamental......This paper contributes to the ongoing debate of developing corporate reporting practices by analyzing the information content of fundamental analyst reports and comparing this with annual reporting practices. As there has been much critique of the lacking relevance of disclosures through corporate...... analyst reports, and the amount of financial data supplied is not related to the other disclosures in the reports. In comparison to business reporting practices, the fundamental analyst reports put relatively less weight on social and sustainability information, intellectual capital and corporate...
Full Text Available With its capacity to unharness the power of narrative to promote meaning-making of lived experience, narrative inquiry is developing as a credible approach to research in several areas in the field of language teaching (Johnson, 2006. This article tells the story of two narrative researchers working in language teacher education who engaged in a collaborative narrative inquiry as both participants and inquirers, in order to learn more about narrative inquiry. The ‘bounded’ nature of their inquiry design provided a feasible way for them to explore their focus of research (i.e. their learning about narrative inquiry, and led them, through an iterative and reflexive process of analysing their narrative data, to formulate what they believe are essential ingredients of principled narrative inquiry work. Four narrative inquiry variables became the scaffolding which enabled them to answer their research questions, and are offered here as a heuristic for teaching practitioners, whether they be teachers, teacher educators or researchers, to guide them in narrative inquiries into their own work.
This paper focuses on a particular kind of truth that falls within this category, namely non-fictional narrative truth. “Narrative truth” is defined as a judgement of verisimilitude accorded to the meaning of a narrative as a whole. This narrative meaning is neither rationally nor empirically verifiable, but rather arrived at by a ...
Eva Laass: Broken Taboos, Subjective Truths. Forms and Functions of Unreliable Narration in Contemporary American Cinema. A Contribution to Film NarratologyVolker Ferenz: Don’t believe his lies. The unreliable narrator in contemporary American cinema
Full Text Available In this article we argue that mothers often construct images of what they perceive as society's expectations of them. These images become the parameters in the eyes of society to which they aspire. This is reminiscent of the adage: "I am not who you think I am. I am not who I think I am. I am who I think you think I am". This study is based on analysis of the life-stories of four professional female educators. These mother-educators shared their assumptions, cultural values and beliefs and showed how these shaped the subjective construction and harmonisation of the multiple roles of mother and educator. It was found that they often find themselves faced with the conflicting and complementary dimensions of the multiple roles of mother and professional. We contend that these mothers set high standards and expectations for themselves as mother-educator and they worry about failing, not only themselves, but also 'others'. They see the world of work, including parents, educators and school principal, as being against them - which is possibly a manifestation of a faltering self-image and linked to feelings of inadequacy. It is argued that mother educators need to negotiate new meaning in terms of their own perceived multiple role expectations so as to enable them to experience success as both homemakers and professionals. The challenge for the mother then is to engage in a constant search for her own identity.
Dumas, Tara M.; Lawford, Heather; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Pratt, Michael W.
In this longitudinal study, we examined identity development using the life story model (McAdams, 2001), in addition to a traditional identity status approach, in order to explore the association between perceived parenting in adolescence and the subsequent quality of life story narration in emerging adulthood. Participants (N = 100) were given a…
Hubain, Bryan S.
The experiences of international students along the lines of race and ethnicity, sexuality, gender, and nationality are virtually unknown. This study utilizes experience-centered narrative inquiry to explore the experiences of Black gay international students, and how they are racialized and sexualized in American higher education. Using a Queer…
Jones, Susan Robb; LePeau, Lucy A.; Robbins, Claire K.
This article reports the results of a study that explored the possibilities and limitations of service-learning by deconstructing the narratives about HIV/AIDS that emerged from five college students who participated in an alternative spring break program. Employing a critical (Rhoads, 1997) and anti-foundational (Butin, 2010) approach to inquiry,…
Thompson, C; Lewis, D J; Greenhalgh, T; Smith, N R; Fahy, A E; Cummins, S
Housing is a significant determinant of health and substandard housing is a public health issue. East London has long had a shortage of social and affordable housing, worsened in recent years by a combination of stressors. In one of East London's most deprived boroughs, Newham, changes brought about by the 2011 Localism Act and the unique demands of being the host Olympic borough in 2012 have brought considerable pressures to bear on social infrastructure. This paper examines how these pressures were experienced by local residents via their narratives of social housing and health. The data reported here are from a qualitative study comprising two waves of data collection. Narrative family interviews and go-along interviews were conducted with 40 Newham residents at wave one and 28 at wave two. A narrative analysis with a Bakhtinian interpretation was undertaken. This revealed that residents framed experiences of social housing in terms of an inherent system-level ideology based on notions of need and waiting. A particularly striking feature of this ideology was the extent to which descriptions of ill health and impairment were implicated in constructions of housing need; participants directly attributed a range of health complaints to their housing predicaments, including stress, depression, cancer scares, panic attacks and loss of sleep. Understanding the contested ideology of social housing can illuminate both the dynamic processes of social exclusion and the ways in which its subjects seek to resist it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Open data sources regarding conflicts are increasingly enriched by broad social media; these yield a volume of information that exceeds our process capabilities. One of the critical factors is that knowledge extraction from mixed data formats requires systematic, sophisticated modeling. Here, we propose using text mining modeling tools for building associations of heterogeneous semi-structured data to enhance decision-making. Using narrative plots, text representation, and cluster analysis, we provide a data association framework that can mine spatiotemporal data that occur in similar contexts. The framework contains the following steps: (1 a novel text representation is presented to vectorize the textual semantics by learning both co-word features and word orders in a unified form; (2 text clustering technology is employed to associate events of interest with similar events in historical logs, based solely on narrative plots of the events; and (3 the inferred activity procedure is visualized via an evolving spatiotemporal map through the Kriging algorithm. Our results demonstrate that the approach enables deeper discrimination into the trends underlying conflicts and possesses a narrative reasoning forward prediction with a precision of 0.4817, in addition to a high consistency with the conclusions of existing studies.
The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…
Elson, David K.
This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…
Gaydos, H Lea
This paper explores the need for and nature of personal narratives and their relevance to nursing practice. It proposes that the co-creative aesthetic process can be used to understand and co-create personal narratives through an emphasis on self-defining memories and metaphor. Many authors in nursing and other human sciences have recognized the need for and importance of personal narrative, its relationship to aesthetic knowing and its value in qualitative research and in practice. The role of memory and metaphor in the creation of meaning in personal narratives, however, has not been sufficiently explored in nursing literature. The nature of personal narrative is explored, focusing on the way meaning is created from self-defining memories using metaphor. Then, the importance of personal narratives in nursing practice is considered, followed by discussion about how meaning in personal narratives may be co-created between clients and nurses using an aesthetic process developed by the author. The co-creative aesthetic process is an example of nursing as art and can be used to co-create personal narratives in practice. The experience of co-creating a self story with a nurse can be healing, as the self story is heard by a caring person, memories are understood in new ways, and the self story is both confirmed and recreated.
Full Text Available The article consists in exposes the importance, need and convenience to develop a financial analysis with focus of risks in the banking activity to avoid damages and to take exactly and opportunity decisions. This analysis linked with bank risks will allow to the banking system measuring the efficiency in the different services that you render, detecting the different inherent risks to the financial activity with a former focus before, for the sake of giving fulfillment to the organizational goals
Quadrupole magnets will introduce focusing effect to a beam of the charge particle passing parallel to the magnet faces. The focusing effect is need to control the particle beam, so that it is in accordance with necessity requirement stated. This paper describes the analysis of focusing effect on the quadrupole magnetic by the finite element method. The finite element method in this paper is used for solve the potential distribution of magnetic field. If the potential magnetic field distribution in every node have known, a charge particle trajectory can be traced. This charge particle trajectory will secure the focusing effect of the quadrupole magnets. (author)
Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lingjie; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Jizhen; Qu, Hemeng
In this paper, we developed a pinhole ring diffraction model for the focusing analysis of a large photon sieve. Instead of analyzing individual pinholes, we discuss the focusing of all of the pinholes in a single ring. An explicit equation for the diffracted field of individual pinhole ring has been proposed. We investigated the validity range of this generalized model and analytically describe the sufficient conditions for the validity of this pinhole ring diffraction model. A practical example and investigation reveals the high accuracy of the pinhole ring diffraction model. This simulation method could be used for fast and accurate focusing analysis of a large photon sieve.
Van der Aa, Jef
This article discusses the narrative architecture and interactional uptake of a school child's story about independence in Barbados during sharing time. It is found that an institutional focus on standard resources impacts both teachers' and children's sociolinguistic behavior. Ethnopoetic analysis brings out the child's patterned use of narrative…
Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce activity systems as a methodological tool in narrative inquiry to gain a holistic understanding of socially shared experiences from an examination of documents. The research question was how can qualitative researchers use activity systems as a tool for engaging in narrative inquiry of socially shared experiences to uncover new meanings by constructing a story? In this article, we share a sample analysis of our experience relying on documents and media as a form of narrative to begin to understand the socially shared human activity associated with net neutrality and its potential impact on U.S. residents. We end this article with reflections of lessons learned from our activity systems guided story construction process.
Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo
We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to map out - by analysing the film Son of Saul, but also by its comparison with two other films dealing with the topic, Himmelkommando and The Grey Zone, the narrative mechanism that satisfies the complex ethical and aesthetical demands imposed by the theme of Sonderkommando as the particular episode of the Holocaust. The key element of the narrative structure is the construction of the Levi’s “dead and drowned” witness who “resurrected” through the narrative intervention becomes the only reliable and credible narrator of the historical trauma. The prerequisite for his emergence is the narration and representation of the death which makes but also solves the traumatised - understood as multiple, fragmented, opposed - identities of the members of the special squad. Their entangled identity involves the simultaneous presence of a victim, perpetrator, witness and the authentic narrator of the trauma of the death camp. The death of the perpetrator is the condition sina qua non for the emergence of the figure of the victim-witness narrator but also for making of narrative which overcomes the initial trauma of the Holocaust. The detailed analysis of the film Son of Saul confirms and identifies these narratives as the modernist narration of the post-traumatic film.
Vyacheslav V. Volchik
Full Text Available This article addresses a range of questions associated with the occurrence of a new field of study – narrative economics, which is considered in the context of modern institutionalism. Pioneering works of R. Shiller, G. Akerlof and D. Snower spotlighted the importance of analyzing narratives and narrative influence when studying economic processes. In this paper, a qualitative study of narratives is seen through the prism of an answer to the question: «How do prescribed narratives influence institutions and change them? ». Narratives have much in common with institutions since very often, explicitly or implicitly, they contain value judgements about social interactions or normative aspects shaping behavioral patterns. The identification of dominating narratives enables us to understand better how institutions influence economic (social action. Repeated interactions among social actors are structured through understanding and learning the rules. Understanding of social rules comes from the language – we articulate and perceive the rules drawing on common narratives. Narratives and institutions are helpful when actors gain knowledge about various forms of social communication. Digital technologies, mass media and social networking sites facilitate the spread of narratives, values and beliefs; this process is characterized by increasing returns. Studying narratives and institutions is crucial for modern economic theory because it helps to improve qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing empirical evidence and enables researchers to understand complex economic processes.
Full Text Available Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design: A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results: New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions: Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael
Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or 'chunks' of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data 'chunks'. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.
Koenitz, Hartmut; Haahr, Mads; Sezen, Digdem; Sezen, Tonguç Ibrahim
The book is concerned with narrative in digital media that changes according to user input-Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN). It provides a broad overview of current issues and future directions in this multi-disciplinary field that includes humanities-based and computational perspectives. It assembles the voices of leading researchers and practitioners like Janet Murray, Marie-Laure Ryan, Scott Rettberg and Martin Rieser. In three sections, it covers history, theoretical perspectives and varieties of practice including narrative game design, with a special focus on changes in the power rela
Full Text Available Sport is often considered a masculine area of social life, and few sports are more commonly associated with traditional norms of masculinity than ice hockey. Ice hockey is played with a great level of intensity and body contact. This is true for both men and women’s hockey. However, men’s ice hockey in particular has been subjected to criticism for its excessive violence. Sport has also been analyzed as an arena where boys and men learn masculine values, relations, and rituals, and is often linked to orthodox masculinity in particular. Tolerance for gender diversity and diverse forms of masculinity has generally increased during the last 30 years. However, orthodox masculinity seems to maintain a dominate position in sports, particularly in hyper-masculine sports such as ice hockey. In this article, narratives of masculinity and violence in professional ice hockey are a central focus. Through a narrative analysis of the biographies of two former National Hockey League (NHL players, Bob Probert and Derek Boogaard, this article explores how narratives of masculinity and violence among hockey players have been described and how these narratives tell stories of the interplay between masculinity and violence in modern sport. The analysis illustrates how the narratives of the lives and careers of these athletes provide insight into the many personal risks and implications athletes in highly masculine sporting environments face. The analysis also illustrates how the common acceptance (and sometimes encouragement of player violence and ‘violence against the self’ in ice hockey has led to many broken bodies, lives, and careers among professional male athletes.
"Teen drama" television programs use sexual scripts that provide a framework for narrating virginity loss (Gagnon & Simon, 1973). Drawing on the work of Carpenter (2005), this study identifies the following sexual scripts in virginity-loss narratives: (a) the abstinence script, which places a high value on virginity and emphasizes delaying virginity loss; (b) the urgency script, which defines virginity as a stigma and virginity loss as necessary to maintain social status and affirm gendered identity; and (c) the management script, which suggests teenagers' sexual behavior is inevitable and focuses on managing the physical, social, and emotional risks associated with virginity loss. Reliance on different scripts resulted in varied meanings of virginity, characteristics of the storylines, consequences of virginity loss, and implications for sexually healthy messages. The narratives included positive components, such as contraception use and portrayals of consensual sex, but also contained problematic elements, such as a lack of female desire and underrepresentation of racial, ethnic, and sexual minority characters. This article suggests that an analysis of the sexual scripts used in virginity-loss narratives provides insight into both the messages about virginity provided to teenagers as well as the social construction of the multiple meanings of virginity.
Healthcare organisations, medical knowledge and clinical practice are among the contexts that have most strongly felt the impact of the over 75 population. This is a population of multimorbidity and polypharmacy patients. They are often seen as a conglomeration of juxtaposed guidelines resulting in the intake of more than 10 drugs a day, with absolutely no certainty of their efficacy. The scientific community is increasingly calling into question the current disease-focused approach. Narrative medicine can provide the tools for a treatment plan which is instead more patient-centred. Narrative medicine can promote the development of a systemic, integrated and multi-disciplinary approach to elderly patients. The stories of patients and caregivers, their representations, perceptions, experiences and preferences can reduce the risk of inappropriate tests and treatments. They can promote deprescribing procedures based on a careful analysis of a specific patient's needs. Narration time is treatment time which does not necessarily create a burden on organisations and caregivers. Quite the contrary since by facilitating adherence and team work, it can significantly reduce time and costs. Given their training and the importance of their relationship with elderly patients, internists, together with geriatricians, can play a key role in promoting and coordinating a narrative medicine approach. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Principles of a mobile gps-enabled gis acting as a tourist information system are discussed and exemplified with special focus on the narrative aspects of tourist guidance. Flexible adaptation to user movements is accomplished by providing information about objects that the user passes as well......-study of H.C. Andersen's residences in Copenhagen...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to conceptualize a feminist narrative approach to male anorexia nervosa (MAN. Both narrative and feminist theories have been utilized to enrich the discourse of AN among women. An unintended result of this primary focus on women’s experiences has been a limited focus on the experiences of men with AN. This article will explore a contemporary social discourse on masculinity, why some men utilize AN as a means of attaining the ideals put forth through such discourse, and how a feminist narrative approach can be applied to working with men struggling with AN.
The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.
The subject of the diploma thesis titled, "The Implementation Analysis of the Educational Portal with a Focus on Its Monetization" is the creation of a strategy that could be used for a new educational portal and subsequently its monetization. Primarily, the portal will be designed for university students. The theoretical part is focused on basic terms associated with issues of portals, web content monetization and operational expenses for running a website. In the practical part, there is a ...
Full Text Available This research aimed to reveal creative accounting practices in the form of narrative accounting occuring in companies in Indonesia. Using content analysis, this research analyzed the management discussion and analysis section in the annual report on the group of companies whose performance had increased and declined in several companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. This research finds that the narrative accounting practices are applied in these companies. The four methods of accounting narratives are found in both groups of companies. There are stressing the positive and downplaying the negative, baffling the readers, differential reporting, and attribution.
The analysis of narrative data in applied linguistics has focused to varying degrees on their content, form, and context, with content and thematic analyses being the focus in much of the narrative research in language learning and teaching (Pavlenko 2007). The aim of this article is to report on a positioning analysis of a small story about the…
Winchester, Jules; Williams, Simon
This paper aims to provide Business English and EAP practitioners with a rationale for including the analysis of narrative elements in business addresses in their language teaching in order to encourage critical thinking in learners. By studying these elements, and the rhetorical function of the narrative in particular, students can become more…
J. Woudenberg; L. Bobbink; E. Geurts; M. Pelzer; H. Degen-Nijeboer
This book is about narrative methods and narrative research. The word narrativity derives from the Latin word narrare, which means ‘to tell’. Narratives are present everywhere. They come in the form of fairy tales, drama, drawings, art, history, biography, myths and legends. Narratives can be found
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a canonical narrative arc, followed by a discussion of complex structures that extend beyond the canonical schema. This demands that the canonical arc be reconsidered as a generative schema whereby any narrative category can be expanded into a node in a tree structure. Narrative "pacing" is interpreted as a reflection of various patterns of this embedding: conjunction, left-branching trees, center-embedded constituencies, and others. Following this, diagnostic methods are proposed for testing narrative categories and constituency. Finally, we outline the applicability of this theory beyond sequential images, such as to film and verbal discourse, and compare this theory with previous approaches to narrative and discourse. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Schweier, Rebecca; Grande, Gesine; Richter, Cynthia; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Romppel, Matthias
To investigate the use of lebensstil-aendern.de ("lifestyle change"), a website providing peer narratives of experiences with successful lifestyle change, and to analyze whether peer model characteristics, clip content, and media type have an influence on the number of visitors, dwell time, and exit rates. An in-depth statistical analysis of website use with multilevel regression analyses. In two years, lebensstil-aendern.de attracted 12,844 visitors. The in-depth statistical analysis of usage rates demonstrated that audio clips were less popular than video or text-only clips, longer clips attracted more visitors, and clips by younger and female interviewees were preferred. User preferences for clip content categories differed between heart and back pain patients. Clips about stress management drew the smallest numbers of visitors in both indication modules. Patients are interested in the experiences of others. Because the quality of information for user-generated content is generally low, healthcare providers should include quality-assured patient narratives in their interventions. User preferences for content, medium, and peer characteristics need to be taken into account. If healthcare providers decide to include patient experiences in their websites, they should plan their intervention according to the different needs and preferences of users. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Breccia, Massimo; Graffigna, Guendalina; Galimberti, Sara; Iurlo, Alessandra; Pungolino, Ester; Pizzuti, Michele; Maggi, Alessandro; Falzetti, Franca; Capalbo, Silvana Franca; Intermesoli, Tamara; Maffioli, Margherita; Elena, Chiara; Melosi, Alessandro; Simonetti, Federico; Capochiani, Enrico; Seta, Roberta Della; Pacilli, Matteo; Luppi, Mario; Di Renzo, Nicola; Mastrullo, Lucia; Trabacchi, Elena; Vallisa, Daniele; Rapezzi, Davide; Orlandi, Ester Maria; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Efficace, Fabio; Alimena, Giuliana
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) drastically changed the outcome of patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Several reports indicated the advantage of continue long-term adherence associated with positive outcome. Therefore, it is important to better understand from the patient's standpoint the experience of living with the disease and the related treatment. In this study, quantitative analysis and narrative medicine were combined to get insights on this issue in a population of 257 patients with CML in chronic phase treated with TKIs (43 % men, with a median age of 58 years, 27 % aged 31-50 years), followed for a median time of 5 years. Sixty-one percent of patients enrolled were treated in first line, whereas 37 % were treated in second line. The results showed more positive perceptions and acceptance in males compared to females, without impact of disease on relationships. Level of positive acceptance was more evident in elderly compared to younger patients, with a close connection with median time from diagnosis. Overall, female patients reported negative perceptions and an impact of disease on family daily living. The majority of patients understood the importance of continue adherence to treatment, with 27 % resulting less adherent (60 % for forgetfulness), even if well informed and supported by his/her physician. Narrative medicine, in association to quantitative analysis, can help physicians to understand needs of their patients in order to improve communication.
Bilbao, L.; Bruzzone, H.
The results obtained by shadow and Schlieren photographies and interferometry in a 1MJ plasma focus device of Frascati (CNEN-EURATOM, Italy) are compared with a great number of similar measurement results in several devices of the world. A critical analysis of the above results is presented. (L.C.) [pt
Uddholm, Mats; Nilsson, Bo
involving music therapists or music educators, such as: with clients, students, children, elder people; among nurses, deacons, social workers, preschools teachers or care assistants. The field of Music and Health is not necessarily about illness or care, but can as well be understood as an aspect of quality......Narratives about music and health Dr Bo Nilsson, Kristianstad University, Sweden Dr Mats Uddholm, University College Nordjylland, Denmark Music is used in many professional contexts that are not associated with music therapy or music education in a traditional sense. How do professionals...... in different contexts use music and how do they describe their thoughts about music in their professional work? Those are the main questions in our study focusing on narratives about music and health in professional relations. In a pilot study six strategically chosen participants from Sweden and Denmark...
Full Text Available In this article, the focus is on how to represent narratives of self well. This dilemma concerns the specific narrative of self of Hajja, a market woman who lived in the provincial town of Kebkabiya, North Darfur, Sudan. The challenge of "responsible representation" in relation to her narrative concerns the question of how to represent a narrative that does not follow the expected structure of such a narrative. By considering the narrative as a performance of identities in the discursive and material context of narration, the author points out that a narrative is part and parcel of its context of narration. A representation of that narrative should therefore include elements of this context. Not only the discursive and verbal, but also the visual, spatial, and ultimately the temporal dimensions of the context allow us to understand narratives as enactments of self in a specific context. This consideration ties into the current debate on the nature of narrative. Narratives should not only be understood in terms of the what and how, but also in relation to the where and when of their narration. Narratives constitute spaces that allow the narrator a temporal moment of closure, of constructing oneself as a unified, coherent, bounded self in a specific place at a specific time.
There is a strong tradition in psychology and philosophy, claiming that the self is a narrative construction. The paper examines this idea and concludes that the narrative self is not a viable theoretical construct, but that we should opt for an adjacent idea of a historical self. The aim is to e...
Poulsen, Jens Aage
Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen......Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen...
Aerts, Walter; Clubb, C.; Imam, S.
Narrative accounting disclosures are an integral part of the corporate financial reporting package. They are deemed to provide a view of the company “through the eyes of management”. The narratives represent management's construal of corporate events and are largely discretionary. Research in
Raises issues involved in the study and teaching of narrative, with reference to both literature and film. Considers the function of realism in narrative fiction and the teaching of theory and practice of those writers and filmmakers who have challenged the realist text by alternative strategies. (JMF)
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out…
In Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity, 16 internationally renowned scholars reflect on the nature and history of peoplehood and discuss how narratives inform national identities, public culture and academic historiography. The book is a timely contribution to the ongoing debate on belonging...
Tamura, Eileen H.
While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
I argue for a broad education in narratives as a way to address several problems found in moral psychology and social cognition. First, an education in narratives will address a common problem of narrowness or lack of diversity, shared by virtue ethics and the simulation theory of social cognition. Secondly, it also solves the "starting…
Chong, K.K. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Off Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
In the previous work, non-imaging focusing heliostat that consists of m x n facet mirrors can carry out continuous astigmatic correction during sun-tracking with the use of only (m + n - 2) controllers. For this paper, a simplified astigmatic correction of non-imaging focusing heliostat is proposed for reducing the number of controllers from (m + n - 2) to only two. Furthermore, a detailed optical analysis of the new proposal has been carried out and the simulated result has shown that the two-controller system can perform comparably well in astigmatic correction with a much simpler and more cost effective design. (author)
Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L
A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can occur. The need to orient the focus of attention implies that single-object accounts typically predict response time costs associated with object selection even when working memory is not full (i.e., memory load is less than 4 items). For other theories that assume storage of multiple items in the focus of attention, predictions depend on specific assumptions about the way resources are allocated among items held in the focus, and how this affects the time course of retrieval of items from the focus. These broad theoretical accounts have been difficult to distinguish because conventional analyses fail to separate components of empirical response times related to decision-making from components related to selection and retrieval processes associated with accessing information in working memory. To better distinguish these response time components from one another, we analyze data from a probed visual working memory task using extensions of the diffusion decision model. Analysis of model parameters revealed that increases in memory load resulted in (a) reductions in the quality of the underlying stimulus representations in a manner consistent with a sample size model of visual working memory capacity and (b) systematic increases in the time needed to selectively access a probed representation in memory. The results are consistent with single-object theories of the focus of attention. The results are also consistent with a subset of theories that assume a multiobject focus of attention in which resource allocation diminishes both the quality and accessibility of the underlying representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...
on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely......Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...
Herron, Mark A.
. The use of narratives of and by presidents in the White House can be seen as an essential part of the ceremonial role of the presidency. This use of narratives in epideictic speech has increased with modern day interests in the domestic life of the president, and the use of visual mass media......The dissertation Narrator-in-Chief: The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama seeks to show how the concept of “narrative” can be used in rhetorical criticism of presidential speeches, particularly when considering the speeches and the biographical text, Dreams from My Father (1995), of Barack Obama...... as a communication platform for the president. While this has been described as a negative development (Stuckey, 1991; Salmon, 2010) this dissertation argues that narrative rhetoric should not be seen only as a negative part of political rhetoric, but also as a possibly vital way to educate the audience on issues...
m Mohammadi Fesharaki
Full Text Available How and to what extent the narrative structure of Nasserkhosrow travelogue can participate in reflecting the thoughts and creating a literary-narrative framework? Why is the structure of Nasserkhosrow travelogue similar to a story plot? And based on Zheplint Voltâs theory, what is the narrative type of Nasserkhosrow travelogue? A unique feature of Nasserkhosrow travelogue, unlike other travelogues, is that it begins with a fictional event and has narrative-literary language, pleasant tales, carefulness and description. Although the overall structure of travelogue is different from stories and novels, this travelogue is more similar to stories than travelogues and reports due to unique narrative and structural reasons. Many structural features of story such as initial state, destructive force, middle state and final phase, have given a different structure to this travelogue. In addition to these unique narrative types, this work can easily attract the addressees. This research tries to analyze the plot structure and narrative type in Nasserkhosrow travelogue based on modern narrative approach of Zheplint Volt. Accordingly, our results show that he has used similar narrative pattern (narrator=character and two internal and zero points of view to express his travel experiences.
The philosophical narrative of Vladimir Solovyov : an application of narrative analysis to Russian classical philosophy: a case-study of The crisis of western philosophy and other works by Vladimir Solovyov
In chapter 1 I present the narrative method as I use it, and outline its application to philosophy in sections 1.1-1.2. In section 1.3 I discuss the important recent achievements as to methods and vision in Solovyov studies, in order to show the obvious shift from general doxographical,
Smorti, Andrea; Fioretti, Chiara
This paper aims to reflect on the relation between autobiographical memory (ME) and autobiographical narrative (NA), examining studies on the effects of narrating on the narrator and showing how studying these relations can make more comprehensible both memory's and narrating's way of working. Studies that address explicitly on ME and NA are scarce and touch this issue indirectly. Authors consider different trends of studies of ME and NA: congruency vs incongruency hypotheses on retrieving, the way of organizing memories according to gist or verbatim format and their role in organizing positive and negative emotional experiences, the social roots of ME and NA, the rules of conversation based on narrating. Analysis of investigations leads the Authors to point out three basic results of their research. Firstly, NA transforms ME because it narrativizes memories according to a narrative format. This means that memories, when are narrated, are transformed in stories (verbal language) and socialised. Secondly, the narrativization process is determined by the act of telling something within a communicative situation. Thus, relational situation of narrating act, by modifying the story, modifies also memories. The Authors propose the RE.NA.ME model (RElation, NArration, MEmory) to understand and study ME and NA. Finally, this study claims that ME and NA refer to two different types of processes having a wide area of overlapping. This is due to common social, developmental and cultural roots that make NA to include part of ME (narrative of memory) and ME to include part of NA (memory of personal events that have been narrated).
Björkman, Ida; Simrén, Magnus; Ringström, Gisela; Jakobsson Ung, Eva
This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder with symptoms such as abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits, the cause of which is not completely known. Treatments options are limited, and healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome have been described as unsatisfying and frustrating for both patients and professional healthcare providers. Furthermore, the influence of power on healthcare encounters has long been recognised, especially regarding the disadvantaged position of those suffering from functional illness which cannot be identified by commonly used tests or investigations. We interviewed 10 patients during 2014, all attending an outpatient clinic and suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome. Relying on narrative and feminist theory, we explored how they actively negotiate professional discourse communicated to them in the clinical encounter. The patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome were mostly described as negative, and often induced feelings of confusion and self-doubt. Positive encounters were described as being listened to, believed and taken seriously. Narrators found it especially problematic when healthcare professionals described irritable bowel syndrome as a minor disorder with primarily stress or psychological aetiology and put the responsibility for recovery onto the patient. Patients' actively negotiated such professional discourse by presenting a counternarrative describing their own suffering and strengths, experienced healthcare shortcomings and possible organic aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome described how they often felt a need to protect their positive identities in the face of trivialisation and disbelief by healthcare professionals. A deepened understanding of patients' experiences of healthcare
Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.
An Gie Yong
Full Text Available The following paper discusses exploratory factor analysis and gives an overview of the statistical technique and how it is used in various research designs and applications. A basic outline of how the technique works and its criteria, including its main assumptions are discussed as well as when it should be used. Mathematical theories are explored to enlighten students on how exploratory factor analysis works, an example of how to run an exploratory factor analysis on SPSS is given, and finally a section on how to write up the results is provided. This will allow readers to develop a better understanding of when to employ factor analysis and how to interpret the tables and graphs in the output.
Marcello Arnaldo Picucci
Full Text Available In the present study a model is proposed offering a comprehensive categorization of video game narrative structures intended as the methods and techniques used by game designers and allowed by the medium to deliver the story content throughout the gameplay in collaboration with the players. A case is first made for the presence of narrative in video games and its growth of importance as a central component in game design. An in-depth analysis ensues focusing on how games tell stories, guided by the criteria of linearity/nonlinearity, interactivity and randomness. Light is shed upon the fundamental architectures through which stories are told as well as the essential boundaries posed by the close link between narrative and game AI.
Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke
This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing. Subsequ...... training of voice and narratives as a resource for academic writing, and that the Bildung potential of L1 writing may be tied to this issue.......This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...
Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan
This investigation focuses on a tool used in a reading methods course to introduce reading specialist candidates to text analysis as a critical component of planning for text-based discussions. Unlike planning that focuses mainly on important text content or information, a text analysis approach focuses both on content and how that content is…
Roseli Araújo Barros Costa
Full Text Available This article is about a review of a broader research on the understanding of the professional development of Mathematics teachers, especially the results of the analysis of one of the selected categories, the projectors and the crisis narratives. This analysis was theoretically supported by Larrosa (2002. To carry out the research, we adopted the qualitative research, with a narrative focus, based on semi-structured interviews about the life history of a teacher who teaches mathematics in Basic Education. Based on a concept of professional development taken from a continuous perspective, idealized in a broader context of teaching work, permeating crises and conflicts, the analysis shows that the teacher's crisis reports are related to factors such as: low salaries, conflicts in her current institution Lack of social prestige and insecurity. His reports reveal that initial training did nothing to address the "new" changes in education. It shows that their lack of enthusiasm is associated with the emptying of the useful meaning of their formation, which results from the overvaluation of their exchange value. However, a crisis narrative can construct the present as a critical moment in the double sense of the word as a decisive moment and, at the same time, as a moment in which the subject critically recovers his own history, appropriates himself critically To find out where it is and to decide its own movement (LARRROSA, 2002. The individual, by critically restoring his history, can rethink the past, think the present, and (reconstruct his own future. The teacher, in her crisis narratives, shows that, by critically recovering her story, by putting out all her "revolt", she opens a "door" that will possibly show a new path to be taken. This seeks new challenges for their professional development
Graaf, A.M.; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience -
Graaf, A. de; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience –
McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark
Narrative career counselling is a growing force in career guidance and counselling that offers a direction for the field to respond to the needs of increasingly diverse client groups. In this article, we review established and emerging approaches to narrative career counselling, then focus on the emerging story telling approach. We offer examples…
Koerten, H.; Veenswijk, M.
This paper examines narratives relating to the development of National Geo Information Infrastructures (NGII) in eth-nographic research on a Dutch NGII project which was monitored throughout its course. We used an approach which focuses on narratives concerning the environment, groups and practice
The article revolves around narratives that were shaped, adapted and maintained by past and present heroes in the city of Aphrodisias. The focus is on two different years, AD 14 and AD 100, and the intention is to see when, how and why certain narratives developed in a limited time period...
Using a critical theory framework, the article explores emancipatory narratives obtained through a case study of women in rural India. In-depth interviews, focus group conversations, observations, and document analysis highlight the complexity of the subsequent set of challenges facing women as it relates to both the education and empowerment for…
Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore
is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person’s own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through e.g. psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important...... role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing...
Full Text Available One of the most crucial palliative care challenges is in determining how patients’ needs are defined and assessed. Although physical and psychological needs are commonly documented in patient’s charts, spiritual needs are less frequently reported. The aim of this review was to determine which explicit, longitudinal documentation of spiritual concerns would sufficiently affect clinical care to alleviate spiritual distress or promote spiritual wellbeing. A secondary analysis of a systematic review originally aimed at appraising the effectiveness of complex interventions focused on quality of life in palliative care was conducted. Five databases were searched for articles reporting interventions focused on QoL including at least two or more QoL dimensions. A narrative synthesis was performed to synthesize findings. In total, 10 studies were included. Only three studies included spiritual wellbeing assessment. Spirituality tools used to assess spiritual wellbeing were different between studies: Hospital QoL Index 14; Spiritual Needs Inventory; Missoula-Vitas QoL Index; and the Needs Assessment Tool: Progressive Disease-Cancer. Only one study reported a healthcare professional’s session training in the use of the QoL tool. Two out of three studies showed in participants an improvement in spiritual wellbeing, but changes in spiritual wellbeing scores were not significant. Overall patients receiving interventions focused on QoL assessment experienced both improvements in their QoL and in their spiritual needs. Although spiritual changes were not significant, the results provide evidence that a spiritual need exists and that spiritual care should be appropriately planned and delivered. Spiritual needs assessment precedes spiritual caring. It is essential that interventions focused on QoL assessment in palliative care include training on how to conduct a spiritual assessment and appropriate interventions to be offered to patients to address their
Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.
In this letter, we numerically designed and experimentally demonstrated a compact photonic structure for the subwavelength focusing of light using all-dielectric absorption-free and nonmagnetic scattering objects distributed in an air medium. In order to design the subwavelength focusing flat lens, an evolutionary algorithm is combined with the finite-difference time-domain method for determining the locations of cylindrical scatterers. During the multi-objective optimization process, a specific objective function is defined to reduce the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and diminish side lobe level (SLL) values of light at the focal point. The time-domain response of the optimized flat lens exhibits subwavelength light focusing with an FWHM value of 0.19λ and an SLL value of 0.23, where λ denotes the operating wavelength of light. Experimental analysis of the proposed flat lens is conducted in a microwave regime and findings exactly verify the numerical results with an FWHM of 0.192λ and an SLL value of 0.311 at the operating frequency of 5.42 GHz. Moreover, the designed flat lens provides a broadband subwavelength focusing effect with a 9% bandwidth covering frequency range of 5.10 GHz-5.58 GHz, where corresponding FWHM values remain under 0.21λ. Also, it is important to note that the designed flat lens structure performs a line focusing effect. Possible applications of the designed structure in telecom wavelengths are speculated upon for future perspectives. Namely, the designed structure can perform well in photonic integrated circuits for different fields of applications such as high efficiency light coupling, imaging and optical microscopy, with its compact size and ability for strong focusing.
Full Text Available A single narrative about the Gorongosa Restoration Project (GRP in Mozambique circulates widely in the popular media. This story characterises the project as an innovative intervention into an ecological crisis situation. The narrative hails the project′s aim to use profits from tourism to address the goals of both human development and conservation of biodiversity, and portrays the park project as widely embraced by long-term residents. This representation helps the project attract broad acclaim, donor funding, and socially conscious visitors, yet it obscures the early emergence of unified opposition to the project′s interventions among long-term residents of Gorongosa Mountain. This article draws on ethnographic research conducted on Gorongosa Mountain between 2006 and 2008 to examine the project′s early activities there. I examine two crisis narratives that led to entrenched conflict between park-based actors and mountain residents. Focusing on the emergence and solidification of divergent narratives-narrative fortresses-about the extension of the park′s activities to Gorongosa Mountain offers insight into the powerful role of crisis narratives in producing and maintaining conflict, leading to outcomes counter to the desires of conservationists. Ultimately, the article points to ways in which narratives of environmental crisis work against aspirations of partnership and collaboration with resident populations in conservation and development schemes.
Rejnö, Åsa; Berg, Linda; Danielson, Ella
The narrative method is used in healthcare research, mostly in data collection but also in the analysis. Narrative approaches draw attention to how people tell about and create meaning of experiences. The aim of the article was to examine the narrative structure, the elements in the structure and their function and how these can be used in research to gain insights into experiences. Examples are taken from a material of narratives from a study where next of kin were asked to narrate their experiences of sudden and unexpected death from stroke. The narratives had a clear beginning, midpoint and ending. In the beginning, orientation of the narrated events was given. The narrated events were told to have a turning point constituted of complicating actions that lead to a resolution that solved the narrated event. The narratives were built up by multiple recaps into the narrated events and also consisted of asides - side narratives and flashbacks - events back in time. Use of a narrative structure can contribute with valuable information that might be missed with other analysis. The analysis can be used on its own, as a complement to other narrative analysis or even as a complement to other qualitative analysis. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Kim, J. H.; Jeong, W. D.
The conventional Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods such as THERP/ASEP, HCR and SLIM has been criticised for their deficiency in analysing cognitive errors which occurs during operator's decision making process. In order to supplement the limitation of the conventional methods, an advanced HRA method, what is called the 2 nd generation HRA method, including both qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of cognitive errors has been being developed based on the state-of-the-art theory of cognitive systems engineering and error psychology. The method was developed on the basis of human decision-making model and the relation between the cognitive function and the performance influencing factors. The application of the proposed method to two emergency operation tasks is presented
Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe
Narrative medicine strives toward a humanized form of medicine in which empathy and the ability to listen are developed with the same emphasis as scientific rigor. We hypothesize that the adoption of narrative medicine in dentistry would be an excellent method to cultivate the philosophy behind the emerging clinical concept of patient-centered dentistry. Reading literary works, reflective writing, and creative writing would sensitize practitioners to the daily lives of people, human uniqueness, and alterity. Narrative dentistry could lead to more empathic and self-aware practices, and improve dental professionals' observational abilities by making them more perceptive and more attentive to image, metaphor, and meaning. The introduction of narrative dentistry would enrich the clinical clerkship of dentists by bringing the often-missing humanities to the dental professional, academic, and scientific environment. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The dissertation, consisting of an introductory essay and four independent articles, provides phenomenological investigations into the relation between embodied selfhood and narrative. More precisely, it investigates this relation in regards to three specifying questions: (1) What is the relation...
This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)
Wilkins, James M
Dementia is a common neurodegenerative process that can significantly impair decision-making capacity as the disease progresses. When a person is found to lack capacity to make a decision, a surrogate decision-maker is generally sought to aid in decision-making. Typical bases for surrogate decision-making include the substituted judgment standard and the best interest standard. Given the heterogeneous and progressive course of dementia, however, these standards for surrogate decision-making are often insufficient in providing guidance for the decision-making for a person with dementia, escalating the likelihood of conflict in these decisions. In this article, the narrative interest standard is presented as a novel and more appropriate approach to surrogate decision-making for people with dementia. Through case presentation and ethical analysis, the standard mechanisms for surrogate decision-making for people with dementia are reviewed and critiqued. The narrative interest standard is then introduced and discussed as a dementia-specific model for surrogate decision-making. Through incorporation of elements of a best interest standard in focusing on the current benefit-burden ratio and elements of narrative to provide context, history, and flexibility for values and preferences that may change over time, the narrative interest standard allows for elaboration of an enriched context for surrogate decision-making for people with dementia. More importantly, however, a narrative approach encourages the direct contribution from people with dementia in authoring the story of what matters to them in their lives.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes narratives regarding educational experiences and memories of a group of adult and elder Spaniards. Data was gathered through life history interviews, most often by participant's grandchildren. Schooling is examined as a life-transition from a life-span perspective. While the participants of the study attended formal education under very different socio-historical and political conditions, a number of shared patterns emerge in the data. First, participants on average spent little time in schools, yet overall would have liked to continue their education. Both the reasons to leave school and the curriculum in schools are organized around gender categories. Second, the implications of early school withdrawal are contextualized in the rural context in which participants grew up and which provided adult social roles and occupations that were only partially connected to formal education. Third, participants show an orientation towards instrumental and school skills, which are also acquired and expanded in out-of-school contexts. The findings are discussed in relation to general theories of development in later life and situated in historical context. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401389
Hayashi, Ayami; Tokimatsu, Koji; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Mori, Shunsuke
Social, technological, economic and environmental issues should be considered comprehensively for the evaluation of global-warming mitigation options. Existing integrated assessment models include assessment of quantitative factors; however, these models do not explicitly consider interactions among qualitative factors in the background - for example, introductions of nuclear power stations interact with social acceptability. In this paper, we applied a technological forecasting method - the cross-impact method - which explicitly deals with the relationships among relevant factors, and we then developed narrative scenarios having consistency with qualitative social contexts. An example of developed scenarios in 2050, assuming the global population and the gross domestic product are the same as those of the A1 scenario of the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, tells us that: (1) the Internet will be extensively used in all regions; (2) the global unified market will appear; (3) regional cultures will tend to converge; (4) long-term investments (of more than 30 years) will become difficult and therefore nuclear-power stations will not increase so remarkably; (5) the self-sufficient supply and diversification of primary energy sources will not progress so rapidly; and (6) due to the widespread use of the Internet, people will be more educated in global environmental issues and environmental costs will be more socially acceptable
Clandinin, D. Jean; Murphy, M. Shaun
In this comment article on Coulter and Smith (2009), the authors raise concerns that focusing exclusively on issues of representation may lead readers to misunderstandings about narrative research. The authors argue that narrative ways of thinking about the phenomena under study are interwoven with narrative research methodologies. Drawing on…
Zweers, Alexander Frederik
I have attempted in this study to analyze the narrative structure of L. N. Tolstoj's trilogy Childhood, Boyhood and Youtlr, in which a first-person technique is used and the narrator relates his autobiography from the age of ten to that of sixteen. The special feature of this story is the fact that
The initial cognitive ability to coordinate experience into a hierarchically organized, multi-episode narrative occurs in youth, beginning a narrative record of ego identity development that continues throughout the life span (Habermas and Bluck in "Psychological Bulletin" 126:748-769, 2000; Habermas and de Silveira in "Developmental Psychology"…
Full Text Available AIM – This article explores the multiplicity of former heavy drinkers’ narratives. The focus lies on turning points from heavy drinking among people who have recovered through self-change and among those who recovered by participating in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA meetings.
Lofranco, Lee Ann L.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.
Purpose: The current study focuses on describing the English language narrative skills of children who have been exposed to the Filipino language. Method: Eight children between the ages of 6;0 (years;months) and 7;7 who spoke primarily English but who were exposed to the Filipino language at home participated. Each child produced three narrative…
Price-Lackey, P; Cashman, J
Two life history interviews were conducted to discover how one women, Jenny, experienced a traumatic head injury, rehabilitation, and recovery. Narrative analysis of the transcribed interviews revealed a rich story of how Jenny had fashioned her identity and character through childhood occupations, including studying classical literature and music, and of how she drew upon resources developed in childhood to engineer her recovery. It also illustrated how Jenny used a recursive process of narrative construction and engagement in self-devised graduated occupations, including studying, playing music, writing, computer graphics, and theater production, to create a new identity and develop capacities to process complex information and exercise creativity. Jenny's story illustrates the usefulness of gaining a perspective on patients as occupational beings through the gathering of life histories focused on occupation, the importance of collaborative patient-therapist goal setting, and the necessity for considering both the doing (practic) and the meaning (narrative) aspects of occupation. Her story supports many scholars' arguments that the therapeutic relationship, and thus occupational therapy practice, may be enhanced through the use of life history interviewing in occupational therapy evaluation and treatment.
Full Text Available The paper presents research conducted within the narrative psychology paradigm. Its main purpose was to explore the relationships between features of adolescents’ identity narratives and their assessments of family functioning and themselves as family members. The choice of subject was motivated by current reports on identity formation difficulties in adolescence. Adolescents’ narratives were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Associations between specific aspects of self-narratives and participants’ perceptions of how their families functioned and how they functioned in the family system were evaluated. The results confirm the hypothesized relationships between the features of adolescents’ narratives and evaluations of their families and self-assessments of their own functioning in those families. Multi-thematic, content-rich and positively evaluated self-narratives are associated with positive assessments of selected aspects of family functioning and adolescents’ own functioning within the family. The following aspects of family assessment are significant: affective expression, level of emotional involvement in the family, level of control, family role performance and communication. Important factors in the self-assessment were: sense of competence in family role performance, assessment of one’s communication, behavior control and affective expression.
Yelle, Maria T; Stevens, Patricia E; Lanuza, Dorothy M
Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.
Maria T. Yelle
Full Text Available Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman’s concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients’ stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.
This paper aims to (re)ignite debate about the role of narrative in the medical humanities. It begins with a critical review of the ways in which narrative has been mobilised by humanities and social science scholars to understand the experience of health and illness. I highlight seven dangers or blind spots in the dominant medical humanities approach to narrative, including the frequently unexamined assumption that all human beings are 'naturally narrative'. I then explore this assumption further through an analysis of philosopher Galen Strawson's influential article 'Against Narrativity'. Strawson rejects the descriptive claim that "human beings typically see or live or experience their lives as a narrative" and the normative claim that "a richly Narrative outlook is essential to a well-lived life, to true or full personhood". His work has been taken up across a range of disciplines, but its implications in the context of health and illness have not yet been sufficiently discussed. This article argues that 'Against Narrativity' can and should stimulate robust debate within the medical humanities regarding the limits of narrative, and concludes by discussing a range of possibilities for venturing 'beyond narrative'.
Abdulla, A.; Ford, M. J.; Morgan, M. G.; Victor, D. G.
Deep decarbonization of the global energy system will require large investments in energy innovation and the deployment of new technologies. While many studies have focused on the expenditure that will be needed, here we focus on how government has spent public sector resources on innovation for a key carbon-free technology: advanced nuclear. We focus on nuclear power because it has been contributing almost 20% of total US electric generation, and because the US program in this area has historically been the world’s leading effort. Using extensive data acquired through the Freedom of Information Act, we reconstruct the budget history of the Department of Energy’s program to develop advanced, non-light water nuclear reactors. Our analysis shows that—despite spending 2 billion since the late 1990s—no advanced design is ready for deployment. Even if the program had been well designed, it still would have been insufficient to demonstrate even one non-light water technology. It has violated much of the wisdom about the effective execution of innovative programs: annual funding varies fourfold, priorities are ephemeral, incumbent technologies and fuels are prized over innovation, and infrastructure spending consumes half the budget. Absent substantial changes, the possibility of US-designed advanced reactors playing a role in decarbonization by mid-century is low.
Full Text Available This latest book by Tony Davenport represents not only a very useful guide to the different types of narrative associated with the Middle Ages but also succinctly describes their origins in Antiquity as well as linking up the various genres of medieval story-telling to present-day fiction in prose and film. The introductory pages thus give a global picture of narrative both before and after the medieval period and the Middle Ages are thereby not left in a vacuum. Although the focus is on Engl...
Dickey, Michele D.
The purpose of this conceptual analysis is to investigate how contemporary video and computer games might inform instructional design by looking at how narrative devices and techniques support problem solving within complex, multimodal environments. Specifically, this analysis presents a brief overview of game genres and the role of narrative in…
Knudsen, Marie Veje; Laustsen, Sussie; Petersen, Annemette Krintel
Lifestyle following heart disease is considered important to prevent and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, cardiac rehabilitation is focused on potential lifestyle changes. Further insight into patients’ perspective on lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation is needed as changing habits fo...
Kitson, Alison L.; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa
Aim. To develop and test a framework describing the interrelationship of three key dimensions (physical, psychosocial, and relational) in the provision of the fundamentals of care to patients. Background. There are few conceptual frameworks to help healthcare staff, particularly nurses, know how to provide direct care around fundamental needs such as eating, drinking, and going to the toilet. Design. Deductive development of a conceptual framework and qualitative analysis of secondary interview data. Method. Framework development followed by a secondary in-depth analysis of primary narrative interview data from three stroke survivors. Results. Using the physical, psychosocial and relational dimensions to develop a conceptual framework, it was possible to identify a number of “archetypes” or scenarios that could explain stroke survivors' positive experiences of their care. Factors contributing to suboptimal care were also identified. Conclusions. This way of thinking about how the fundamentals of care are experienced by patients may help to elucidate the complex processes involved around providing high quality fundamentals of care. This analysis illustrates the multiple dimensions at play. However, more systematic investigation is required with further refining and testing with wider healthcare user groups. The framework has potential to be used as a predictive, evaluative, and explanatory tool. PMID:23864946
Alison L. Kitson
Full Text Available Aim. To develop and test a framework describing the interrelationship of three key dimensions (physical, psychosocial, and relational in the provision of the fundamentals of care to patients. Background. There are few conceptual frameworks to help healthcare staff, particularly nurses, know how to provide direct care around fundamental needs such as eating, drinking, and going to the toilet. Design. Deductive development of a conceptual framework and qualitative analysis of secondary interview data. Method. Framework development followed by a secondary in-depth analysis of primary narrative interview data from three stroke survivors. Results. Using the physical, psychosocial and relational dimensions to develop a conceptual framework, it was possible to identify a number of “archetypes” or scenarios that could explain stroke survivors’ positive experiences of their care. Factors contributing to suboptimal care were also identified. Conclusions. This way of thinking about how the fundamentals of care are experienced by patients may help to elucidate the complex processes involved around providing high quality fundamentals of care. This analysis illustrates the multiple dimensions at play. However, more systematic investigation is required with further refining and testing with wider healthcare user groups. The framework has potential to be used as a predictive, evaluative, and explanatory tool.
Ioannou, Maria; Canter, David; Youngs, Donna
A neglected area of research within criminality has been that of the experience of the offence for the offender. The present study investigates the emotions and narrative roles that are experienced by an offender while committing a broad range of crimes and proposes a model of criminal narrative experience (CNE). Hypotheses were derived from the circumplex of emotions, Frye, narrative theory, and its link with investigative psychology. The analysis was based on 120 cases. Convicted for a variety of crimes, incarcerated criminals were interviewed and the data were subjected to smallest space analysis (SSA). Four themes of CNE were identified: Elated Hero, Calm Professional, Distressed Revenger, and Depressed Victim in line with the recent theoretical framework posited for narrative offence roles. The theoretical implications for understanding crime on the basis of the CNE as well as practical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the main linguistic indications of Lithuanian preschoolers’ narratives. The analysis is based on experimental data of 24 typically developing monolingual Lithuanian children (6–7 years of age from middle-class families, attending a state kindergarten in Kaunas (Lithuania. During the experiment, the children were asked to tell a story according to the Cat Story (Hickmann 1993 picture sequence. The stories were recorded, transcribed and annotated for an automatic analysis using CHILDES software. During the analysis, the syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, and general productivity (MLUw and type/token ratio of the narratives were investigated. The results indicated the main microstructural tendencies of Lithuanian narrative language at preschool age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa8.02
Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray
Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy Body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic patients with LBSD, and we related their narrative impairments to gray matter (GM) atrophy using voxel-based morphometry. We found that patients with PDD and DLB have significant difficulty organizing their narrative speech. This was correlated with deficits on measures of executive functioning and speech fluency. Regression analyses associated this deficit with reduced cortical volume in inferior frontal and anterior cingulate regions. These findings are consistent with a model of narrative discourse that includes executive as well as language components and with an impairment of the organizational component of narrative discourse in patients with PDD and DLB. PMID:21689852
This paper focuses on the folk narrative tradition of Istria, which reflect the area's cultural landscape as well as the everyday life of its inhabitants. Presented is an overview of the changing narrative tradition in the area situated along presently disappearing formal state borders within the expanded European Union. The author explores older studies and research conducted by contemporary scholars who focused their scholarly interest in the spiritual culture of this area. Special interest...
Full Text Available Following the recent “animal turn” in literary studies, which has inspired scholars to revisit traditional human-centered interpretations of texts narrated by animals, this article focuses on the convergence of animal studies and trauma theory. It offers new animal-centered close readings of Tolstoy’s Strider and Bulgakov’s Heart of a Dog, paying attention to animal pain rather than seeing it, and the text as a whole, as an allegory of human society. Like many other authors of literary fiction featuring animal narrators, Tolstoy and Bulgakov employ a kind of empathic ventriloquism to narrate animal pain, an important project which, however, given the status of both the animal and trauma outside human language, and thus susceptible to being distorted by it, produces inauthentic discourse (animal-like, rather than animal narration; therefore, these authors get closest to animal pain, not through sophisticated narration, but through the use of ellipses and onomatopoeia. Ultimately, any narratological difficulty with animal focalization is minor compared to the ethical imperative of anti-speciesist animal-standpoint criticism, and the goal is to reconceive the status of animals in literature so as to change their ontological place in the world, urging that this critical work and animal rights advocacy be continued in the classroom.
Narratives have become increasingly important in the field of applied linguistics, as recent publications have illustrated, yet narrative analysis could still be considered undertheorized. This article outlines a specific, dialogical approach to the narrative analysis of data in qualitative research. Building on Bakhtin's notion of dialogue,…
Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance
Petty, Julia; Jarvis, Joy; Thomas, Rebecca
Educational research uses narrative enquiry to gain and interpret people's experiences. Narrative analysis is used to organise and make sense of acquired narrative. 'Core story creation' is a way of managing raw data obtained from narrative interviews to construct stories for learning. To explain how core story creation can be used to construct stories from raw narratives obtained by interviewing parents about their neonatal experiences and then use these stories to educate learners. Core story creation involves reconfiguration of raw narratives. Reconfiguration includes listening to and rereading transcribed narratives, identifying elements of 'emplotment' and reordering these to form a constructed story. Thematic analysis is then performed on the story to draw out learning themes informed by the participants. Core story creation using emplotment is a strategy of narrative reconfiguration that produces stories which can be used to develop resources relating to person-centred education about the patient experience. Stories constructed from raw narratives in the context of constructivism can provide a medium or an 'end product' for use in learning resource development. This can then contribute to educating students or health professionals about patients' experiences. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
George, Asha; Scott, Kerry; Garimella, Surekha; Mondal, Shinjini; Ved, Rajani; Sheikh, Kabir
Health committees, councils or boards (HCs) mediate between communities and health services in many health systems. Despite their widespread prevalence, HC functions vary due to their diversity and complexity, not least because of their context specific nature. We undertook a narrative review to better understand the contextual features relevant to HCs, drawing from Scopus and the internet. We found 390 English language articles from journals and grey literature since 1996 on health committees, councils and boards. After screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria, we focused on 44 articles. Through an iterative process of exploring previous attempts at understanding context in health policy and systems research (HPSR) and the HC literature, we developed a conceptual framework that delineates these contextual factors into four overlapping spheres (community, health facilities, health administration, society) with cross-cutting issues (awareness, trust, benefits, resources, legal mandates, capacity-building, the role of political parties, non-governmental organizations, markets, media, social movements and inequalities). While many attempts at describing context in HPSR result in empty arenas, generic lists or amorphous detail, we suggest anchoring an understanding of context to a conceptual framework specific to the phenomena of interest. By doing so, our review distinguishes between contextual elements that are relatively well understood and those that are not. In addition, our review found that contextual elements are dynamic and porous in nature, influencing HCs but also being influenced by them due to the permeability of HCs. While reforms focus on tangible HC inputs and outputs (training, guidelines, number of meetings held), our review of contextual factors highlights the dynamic relationships and broader structural elements that facilitate and/or hinder the role of health committees in health systems. Such an understanding of context points to its
Zhang, Lijun; DI, Kan; Song, Yuanliang
Hukusyo-kiran (Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) and Hukusyo-kiran yoku (Supplement to Medical Book Focusing on Abdominal Palpation) are two typical monographs of Fukushin (abdominal palpation), with a total of 148 images about abdominal palpation. These images can be divided into 5 kinds: locations, theories, techniques, diseases and medicines, with its own system covering the theories, principles, prescriptions and medicines of abdominal palpation. It can be used as a guide for clinicians to differentiate the locations and qualities of diseases, confirm the principles of treatment, guide the usage of medicines, and predict the prognosis, with the rather high theoretic and academic value, deserving further research and analysis for the modern scholars.
Wood, Lisa; Byrne, Rory; Varese, Filippo; Morrison, Anthony P
It is acknowledged that people with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis experience higher levels of stigma compared to any other mental health diagnosis. As a consequence, their experience of internalised stigma is likely to be the most detrimental and pervasive. Internalised stigma interventions have shown some benefits in those who experience serious mental illness including those with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. A systematic narrative review and meta-analysis were conducted examining the efficacy of internalised stigma interventions for people with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis. Randomised Controlled Trials, controlled trials, and cohort studies were included and assessed against quality criteria. The search identified 12 studies; 7 randomised controlled trials, 3 cohort studies and 2 controlled trials. A variety of psychosocial interventions were utilised with the majority employing Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), psychoeducation and social skills training. The core outcomes used to examine the efficacy of the intervention were internalised stigma, self-esteem, empowerment, and functioning. The meta-analysis revealed an improvement in internalised stigma favouring the internalised stigma intervention but was not significant (5 RCTs, n=200). Self-efficacy and insight were significantly improved favouring the internalised stigma intervention. Internalised stigma interventions show promise in those with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses. Existing interventions have demonstrated small effects and employed small samples. Large scale RCTs are required to further develop the evidence base of more targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pront, Leeanne; Gillham, David; Schuwirth, Lambert W T
Clinical supervision is essential for development of health professional students and widely recognised as a significant factor influencing student learning. Although considered important, delivery is often founded on personal experience or a series of predetermined steps that offer standardised behavioural approaches. Such a view may limit the capacity to promote individualised student learning in complex clinical environments. The objective of this review was to develop a comprehensive understanding of what is considered 'good' clinical supervision, within health student education. The literature provides many perspectives, so collation and interpretation were needed to aid development and understanding for all clinicians required to perform clinical supervision within their daily practice. A comprehensive thematic literature review was carried out, which included a variety of health disciplines and geographical environments. Literature addressing 'good' clinical supervision consists primarily of descriptive qualitative research comprising mostly small studies that repeated descriptions of student and supervisor opinions of 'good' supervision. Synthesis and thematic analysis of the literature resulted in four 'competency' domains perceived to inform delivery of learning-focused or 'good' clinical supervision. Domains understood to promote student learning are co-dependent and include 'to partner', 'to nurture', 'to engage' and 'to facilitate meaning'. Clinical supervision is a complex phenomenon and establishing a comprehensive understanding across health disciplines can influence the future health workforce. The learning-focused clinical supervision domains presented here provide an alternative perspective of clinical supervision of health students. This paper is the first step in establishing a more comprehensive understanding of learning-focused clinical supervision, which may lead to development of competencies for clinical supervision. © 2016 John Wiley
Wennberg, Richard; Cheyne, Douglas
To assess the reliability of MEG source imaging (MSI) of anterior temporal spikes through detailed analysis of the localization and orientation of source solutions obtained for a large number of spikes that were separately confirmed by intracranial EEG to be focally generated within a single, well-characterized spike focus. MSI was performed on 64 identical right anterior temporal spikes from an anterolateral temporal neocortical spike focus. The effects of different volume conductors (sphere and realistic head model), removal of noise with low frequency filters (LFFs) and averaging multiple spikes were assessed in terms of the reliability of the source solutions. MSI of single spikes resulted in scattered dipole source solutions that showed reasonable reliability for localization at the lobar level, but only for solutions with a goodness-of-fit exceeding 80% using a LFF of 3 Hz. Reliability at a finer level of intralobar localization was limited. Spike averaging significantly improved the reliability of source solutions and averaging 8 or more spikes reduced dependency on goodness-of-fit and data filtering. MSI performed on topographically identical individual spikes from an intracranially defined classical anterior temporal lobe spike focus was limited by low reliability (i.e., scattered source solutions) in terms of fine, sublobar localization within the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Spike averaging significantly improved reliability. MSI performed on individual anterior temporal spikes is limited by low reliability. Reduction of background noise through spike averaging significantly improves the reliability of MSI solutions. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article focuses on the larger project of identifying oppressive structures (during apartheid more specifically in this instance) and how educational policy/textbooks (post-apartheid) produce transformative knowledge for decolonization. It presents Black South African teacher perceptions and desires of what/how educational policy, history…
Hinton, Devon E; Chhean, Dara; Pich, Vuth; Um, Khin; Fama, Jeanne M; Pollack, Mark H
Consecutive Cambodian refugees attending a psychiatric clinic were assessed for the presence and severity of current--i.e., at least one episode in the last month--neck-focused panic. Among the whole sample (N=130), in a logistic regression analysis, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; odds ratio=3.70) and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; odds ratio=2.61) significantly predicted the presence of current neck panic (NP). Among the neck panic patients (N=60), in the linear regression analysis, NP severity was significantly predicted by NP-associated flashbacks (beta=.42), NP-associated catastrophic cognitions (beta=.22), and CAPS score (beta=.28). Further analysis revealed the effect of the CAPS score to be significantly mediated (Sobel test [Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182]) by both NP-associated flashbacks and catastrophic cognitions. In the care of traumatized Cambodian refugees, NP severity, as well as NP-associated flashbacks and catastrophic cognitions, should be specifically assessed and treated.
In the previous decade, the industry has made a significant investment in technical training and procedure revisions. However, many in the industry remain reactive to emergent issues with a frustrating lack of results. This paper will share with the industry an ongoing program at Calvert Cliffs to develop a culture for problem prevention/problem solving. The approach forming the basis for this focus is Kepner-Tregoe's Problem/Decision Analysis process. Rather than individually targeted training or attitude awareness, the approach here was to integrate the process into work systems and jobs, and train to specific roles. In this manner, skills learned are consistently applied, clearly documentable, and positively supported. To date, the program has resulted in millions of dollars saved and at least 15 days outage time prevented, and has identified several opportunities to revise functional relationships to best focus on results. The clear lesson here is that change and continuous improvement can best occur when results and roles are defined and trained to at the organizational level in addition to the individual task level
Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB) analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples. (author)
Jamil R. Memon
Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H2SO4. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples.
Full Text Available The present democratic values in most Western societies have fostered social norms promoting inclusion of groups at risk of social exclusion. This research has focused on the inclusion of the disabled collectives at conventional university environment. For that purpose an inquiry was carried out to young university students registered in the University of A Coruña, in several grades and levels of Economics and Business Administration studies. Thereinafter, we performed a descriptive research and a factorial analysis based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. Results obtained indicate that dominant social values are a determining factor for inclusion, however individual attitudes, although favorable for helping and giving support to people with disabilities, are not as significant as it was expected. Furthermore, results concerning the intention to help for people with disabilities inclusion indicate that students would rather prefer public institutions to take care of this issue.
Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L.; Daniels, J.I.
This study focuses on the probabilistic travel time approach for predicting transport of radionuclides by groundwater velocity considering parameter uncertainty. The principal entity in the presented model is a travel time probability density function (pdf) conditioned on the set of parameters used to describe different transport processes like advection, dispersion, sorption, and decay. The model is applied to predict the arrival time of radionuclides in groundwater from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) at possible locations of potential human receptors nearby. Because of the lack of sorption the Tritium is found to provide the largest risk. Inclusion of sorption processes indicate that the parameter uncertainty and especially negative correlation between the mean velocity and the sorption strength is instrumental in evaluating the radionuclides arrival time at the prespecified accessible environment. Our analysis of potential health risks takes into consideration uncertainties in physiological attributes, as well as in committed effective dose and the estimate of physical detriment per unit Committed Effective Dose
Alda Cristina Silva da Costa
Full Text Available On December 11, 2011, a plebiscite was held in Pará proposing to create two separatist states, Carajás and Tapajós, out of the state of Pará. The public voted against both projects. This article analyzes the narrative identities found on the front pages of O Liberal and Diário do Pará newspapers about the plebiscite in Pará. Depth Hermeneutics (DH, as proposed by Thompson (2011, was used as the methodological reference. DH emphasizes the object of analysis as a meaningful symbolic construction requiring interpretation. Narrative analysis, as proposed by Motta (2007, was the main research technique used to highlight the movement of construction of journalistic (discursive characters. The narrative identities built by the two newspapers showed that both were against the creation of the new states, but for very different reasons. The flag of Pará was the main object used to induce the idea of unity. Em 11 de dezembro de 2011, o plebiscito no Pará propôs a criação dos estados de Carajás e de Tapajós a partir da divisão do estado do Pará. O resultado da consulta pública foi negativo aos dois projetos. O artigo analisa as identidades narrativas constituídas pelas primeiras páginas dos jornais O Liberal e Diário do Pará sobre o plebiscito no Pará. Utilizou-se como referencial metodológico a Hermenêutica em Profundidade (HP, proposta por Thompson (2011. A HP evidencia o fato de que o objeto de análise é uma construção simbólica significativa, que exige uma interpretação. Como principal técnica de pesquisa, a análise narrativa, proposta por Motta (2007, com ênfase no movimento de construção de personagens jornalísticas (discursivas. As identidades narrativas construídas pelos dois jornais indicaram que ambos eram contrários à criação dos novos estados, porém por motivos divergentes. A bandeira do Pará foi o principal elemento utilizado para evocar a ideia de unidade. En 11 de diciembre de 2011, el plebiscito en
Horsch, Corine; Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul
Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate adherence rates in technology-mediated insomnia therapy. Several databases were queried for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. After inclusion and exclusion steps, data from 18 studies were retrieved and aggregated to find an average adherence rate. Next, 15 semistructured interviews about sleep-support technologies were conducted to investigate perceived adherence. Lastly, several scenarios were written about the usage of a virtual sleep coach that could support adherence rates. The scenarios were discussed in six different focus groups consisting of potential users (n=15), sleep experts (n=7), and coaches (n=9). From the meta-analysis, average treatment adherence appeared to be approximately 52% (95% CI 43%-61%) for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. This means that, on average, half of the treatment exercises were not executed, suggesting there is a substantial need for adherence and room for improvement in this area. However, the users in the interviews believed they adhered quite well to their sleep products. Users mentioned relying on personal commitment (ie, willpower) for therapy adherence. Participants of the focus groups reconfirmed their belief in the effectiveness of personal commitment, which they regarded as more effective than adherence-enhancing strategies. Although adherence rates for insomnia interventions indicate extensive room for improvement, users might not consider adherence to be a problem; they believe willpower to be an
Coulter, Cathy A.
The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…
Popova, Yanna B
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
Yanna B. Popova
Full Text Available This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
O'Kane, Gabrielle; Pamphilon, Barbara
Despite the usefulness of quantitative research, qualitative research methodologies are equally needed to allow researchers to better understand the important social and environmental factors affecting food choice and eating habits. The present paper contributes insights from narrative inquiry, a well-established qualitative methodology, to a food-related doctoral research study. The connections between food shoppers and the producer, family, friends and others in the food system, between eaters and the earth, and how these connections affect people's meaning-making of food and pathways to food citizenship, were explored in the research. The research used narrative inquiry methodology and focus groups for data collection. Five different food-ways in the Canberra region of Australia were selected for the present research; that is, community gardens, community-supported agriculture, farmers' markets, fresh food markets and supermarkets. Fifty-two people voluntarily attended eight focus groups with four to nine participants in each. From a practical perspective, the present paper offers a guide to the way in which narrative inquiry has been applied to one research project. The paper describes the application of narrative inquiry methodology, revealing the important place of narratives in generating new knowledge. The paper further outlines how phased narrative analysis can lead to a defensible and rigorous interpretive framework grounded in the data generated from people's stories and meaning-making. We argue that individual, social and system change will not be possible without further rigorous qualitative studies to inform and complement the empirical basis of public health nutrition practice.
Martin, Timothy J.
A major dilemma confronting religious educators in the utilization of short stories, film, and other emerging forms of narratives is the question of how to evaluate their "religiousness." This can present dilemmas in the selection, analysis, and comparison of narratives for the purposes of teaching Religious Education. This article forwards useful…
Lock, Andrew; Epston, David; Maisel, Richard; de Faria, Natasha
Foucault's analysis of unseen power as it operates in discourses that construct "practices of discipline" and "technologies of the self" has been a central conceptual resource in the development of narrative therapy. Narrative therapists take the view that ?unseen aspects of power work to construct both how a person understands their situation,…
Bayer, Angela M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsui, Amy O.; Hindin, Michelle J.
This study explores the lives of Peruvian adolescents in a low-income human settlement outside of Lima. Twenty 12-17 year olds were asked to narrate their own life stories using the life history narrative research method. Holistic content analysis was coupled with a grounded-theory approach to explore these data. Intergenerational responsibility,…
Conservation narratives and contested protected areas in Zambia: a political ecological analysis. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... This paper uses a political ecological perspective to examine the link between environmental conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia's protected ...
Ironside, Pamela M
This article describes how teachers enable Narrative Pedagogy in their courses by explicating the Concernful Practice Inviting: Waiting and Letting Be. Narrative Pedagogy, a research-based, phenomenological approach to teaching and learning, extends conventional pedagogies and offers nursing faculty an alternative way of transforming their schools and courses. Using hermeneutic phenomenology, interview data collected over a 10-year period were analyzed by coding practical examples of teachers' efforts to enact Narrative Pedagogy. When Narrative Pedagogy is enacted, teachers and students focus on thinking and learning together about nursing phenomena and seek new understandings about how they may provide care in the myriad situations they encounter. Although the Concernful Practices co-occur, explicating inviting experiences can assist new teachers, and those seeking to extend their pedagogical literacy, by providing new understandings of how Narrative Pedagogy can be enacted.
Full Text Available Peer-reviewed publications focusing on climate change are growing exponentially with the consequence that the uptake and influence of individual papers varies greatly. Here, we derive metrics of narrativity from psychology and literary theory, and use these metrics to test the hypothesis that more narrative climate change writing is more likely to be influential, using citation frequency as a proxy for influence. From a sample of 732 scientific abstracts drawn from the climate change literature, we find that articles with more narrative abstracts are cited more often. This effect is closely associated with journal identity: higher-impact journals tend to feature more narrative articles, and these articles tend to be cited more often. These results suggest that writing in a more narrative style increases the uptake and influence of articles in climate literature, and perhaps in scientific literature more broadly.
Hillier, Ann; Kelly, Ryan P; Klinger, Terrie
Peer-reviewed publications focusing on climate change are growing exponentially with the consequence that the uptake and influence of individual papers varies greatly. Here, we derive metrics of narrativity from psychology and literary theory, and use these metrics to test the hypothesis that more narrative climate change writing is more likely to be influential, using citation frequency as a proxy for influence. From a sample of 732 scientific abstracts drawn from the climate change literature, we find that articles with more narrative abstracts are cited more often. This effect is closely associated with journal identity: higher-impact journals tend to feature more narrative articles, and these articles tend to be cited more often. These results suggest that writing in a more narrative style increases the uptake and influence of articles in climate literature, and perhaps in scientific literature more broadly.
Kohl, Sebastian; Schoenfelder, Jan; Fügener, Andreas; Brunner, Jens O
The healthcare sector in general and hospitals in particular represent a main application area for Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). This paper reviews 262 papers of DEA applications in healthcare with special focus on hospitals and therefore closes a gap of over ten years that were not covered by existing review articles. Apart from providing descriptive statistics of the papers, we are the first to examine the research purposes of the publications. These research goals can be grouped into four distinct clusters according to our proposed framework. The four clusters are (1) "Pure DEA efficiency analysis", i.e. performing a DEA on hospital data, (2) "Developments or applications of new methodologies", i.e. applying new DEAy approaches on hospital data, (3) "Specific management question", i.e. analyzing the effects of managerial specification, such as ownership, on hospital efficiency, and (4) "Surveys on the effects of reforms", i.e. researching the impact of policy making, such as reforms of health systems, on hospital efficiency. Furthermore, we analyze the methodological settings of the studies and describe the applied models. We analyze the chosen inputs and outputs as well as all relevant downstream techniques. A further contribution of this paper is its function as a roadmap to important methodological literature and publications, which provide crucial information on the setup of DEA studies. Thus, this paper should be of assistance to researchers planning to apply DEA in a hospital setting by providing information on a) what has been published between 2005 and 2016, b) possible pitfalls when setting up a DEA analysis, and c) possible ways to apply the DEA analysis in practice. Finally, we discuss what could be done to advance DEA from a scientific tool to an instrument that is actually utilized by managers and policymakers.
Full Text Available There are various traditional Islamic narratives in relation to treating children. The common understanding of these narratives allows for the corporal punishment of children in the family, although some narratives forbid parents from such behavior. With reference to traditional Islamic texts, the word “hitting” (Arabic: dharb is the main and most frequently used word implying the permissibility of corporal punishment. An investigation of the use of the term “dharb” (Arabic: ضرب in the Quran, traditional Islamic narratives and the Arabic language reveals different instances of a general sense of “occurence” which can denote “doing or carrying out”. On this basis, a wide range of usages for this word in absolute terms (without preposition is conceivable with the meanings of protecting, financially supporting, guiding and nurturing children. It seems that limiting the meaning of dharb to corporal punishment in all traditional Islamic narratives without considering the other meanings has led to incorrect interpretations of such narratives.
Ryan, Kath; Bissell, Paul; Morecroft, Charles
Part 2 of this paper aims to provide a methodological framework for the study of medication narratives, including a semi-structured interview guide and suggested method of analysis, in an attempt to aid the development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy practice research. Examples of medication narratives are provided to illustrate their diversity and usefulness. The framework is derived from the work of other researchers and adapted for our specific purpose. It comes from social psychology, narrative psychology, narrative anthropology, sociology and critical theory and fits within the social constructionist paradigm. The suggested methods of analysis could broadly be described as narrative analysis and discourse analysis. Examples of medication narratives are chosen from a variety of sources and brief interpretations are presented by way of illustration. Narrative analysis, a neglected area of research in pharmacy practice, has the potential to provide new understanding about how people relate to their medicines, how pharmacists are engaged in producing narratives and the importance of narrative in the education of students. IMPACT OF THE ARTICLE: This article aims to have the following impact on pharmacy practice research: Innovative approach to researching and conceptualising the use of medicines. Introduction of a new theoretical perspective and methodology. Incorporation of social science research methods into pharmacy practice research. Development of narrative scholarship within pharmacy.
Calleja, Gordon; Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) 2009 Conference
This paper explores the contentious notion of experiential narrative and proposes the first step in a narrative framework for game environment. It argues for a shift in emphasis from story-telling, the dominant mode of narrative in literature and cinema, to story generation. To this effect the paper forwards a perspective on experiential narrative that is grounded in the specific qualities of the game. This avoids the over-generalization that tends to accompany discussions of experiential nar...
Full Text Available This article is a more general "companion" to the subsequent, Brian ROBERTS (2011 "Interpreting Photographic Portraits: Autobiography, Time Perspectives and Two School Photographs". The article seeks to add to the growing awareness of the importance of visual materials and methods in qualitative social research and to give an introduction to the "photographic self image"—self-portraits and portraits. It focuses on time and memory, including the experiential associations (in consciousness and the senses that the self engenders, thus linking the "visual" (photographic and "auto/biographical". The article attempts to "map" a field—the use of portraiture within social science—drawing on narrative and biographical research, on one side, and photographic portraiture, on the other. In supporting the use of photography in qualitative research it points to the need for researchers to have a greater knowledge of photographic (and art criticism and cognisance of photographic practices. The article does not intend to give a definitive account of photographic portraiture or prescribe in detail how it may be used within social science. It is an initial overview of the development and issues within the area of photographic portraiture and an exploration of relevant methodological issues when images of individuals are employed within social science—so that "portraiture" is better understood and developed within biographical and narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110263
Full Text Available Transmedia narratives are a key topic of communication research. Transmedia adaptations occur when a narrator transposes an original work by using various media platforms. Considering pictorial turn, this study employed the intermediality of an animated work that was adapted from an award-winning picture book as an example to propose an analysis for theory building. After examining the literature on transmedia narratives, intermediality, and aesthetic communication, this study proposed analyses for the dimensions of transmedia adaptations of pictorial narratives and aesthetic pole interpretations. Focusing on the three layers of the artistic pole, aesthetic pole, and interactions and effects, this study cited the cases of award-winning picture books and adapted animated works as the basis for reflecting on aesthetic communication. The artistic pole of transmedia adaptation was used as an example of how a narrator employs intermediality by citing the pictures, plot, or art forms from an original work to reinvent structures and then adapts them according to intermediality. If the aesthetic pole views the adapted animated work after reading the picture book or forms an expectation of the adaptation because of intermediality, then when the audience watches the adapted animated work, their imagination could be stimulated by the intermediality (i.e., picture book graphics and scene depictions. For transmedia narrative interaction, the aesthetic pole must “fill blanks” or “negate” to continue to view the adaptation. For filling blanks, because of intermediality, the aesthetic pole must construct an “intracompositional intermediality” to connect with the visual and audio links of the same work or construct “extracompositional intermedialtiy” to associate the original work with the transmedia adaptation. For negation, when viewing the adaptation (i.e., presentation of picture book graphics, added music, or theme song, the aesthetic pole
design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI...
Maria Lúcia Rocha-Coutinho
Full Text Available Neste trabalho desenvolvemos a idéia de que os Estudos de Gênero inserem-se na nova tradição em ciência, que alguns autores denominam pós-empírica, que questiona a objetividade do conhecimento e a impessoalidade do pesquisador e que toma como importante a dimensão interpretativa da realidade social. Dentro dessa tradição, acreditamos que o uso da narrativa oral e da análise de discurso pode ser um rico e poderoso instrumento para uma melhor compreensão de mulheres e homens e, assim, em muito pode contribuir para os Estudos de Gênero nas Ciências Humanas e Sociais, em geral, e na Psicologia, em particular.In this work we argue that Gender Studies can be seen as part of the new tradition in science, that some authors call post-empirical, which questions the objectivity of knowledge and the impersonality of researchers and which takes the interpretative dimension of social reality as important. In accordance with this tradition, we believe that the use of oral narrative and of discourse analysis can be a rich and powerful instrument to a better understanding of women and men and, thus, can greatly contribute to Gender Studies in Social Sciences, in general, and in Psychology, in particular.
Held, Philip; Klassen, Brian J; Hall, Joanne M; Friese, Tanya R; Bertsch-Gout, Marcel M; Zalta, Alyson K; Pollack, Mark H
Moral injury is a nascent construct intended to capture reactions to events that violate deeply held beliefs and moral values. Although a model of moral injury has been proposed, many of the theoretical propositions of this model have yet to be systematically studied. We conducted semistructured interviews with eight veterans who reported experiencing morally injurious events during war zone deployments. Using narrative thematic analysis, five main themes and associated subthemes emerged from the data. The main themes capture the timing of the event, contextual factors that affected the decision-making process during the morally injurious event, reactions to the moral injurious event, search for purpose and meaning, and opening up. The findings from the present study supported an existing model of moral injury, while extending it in several important ways. Preliminary clinical recommendations and directions for future research are discussed based on the study findings. These include directly exploring the context surrounding the morally injurious event, examining the veterans' moral appraisals, and helping them assume appropriate responsibility for their actions to reduce excessive self-blame. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne
Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Special Relativity – An Exoteric Narrative ! S R Madhu Rao. Classroom Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 61-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/01/0061-0066 ...
Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Geise, Aaron C; Roberts, Brent W; Robins, Richard W
The present research investigated the longitudinal relations between personality traits and narratives. Specifically, the authors examined how individual differences in 170 college students' narratives of personality change (a) were predicted by personality traits at the beginning of college, (b) related to actual changes and perceived changes in personality traits during college, and (c) related to changes in emotional health during college. Individual differences in narratives of personality trait change told in the 4th year of college fell into 2 dimensions: affective processing, characterized by positive emotions, and exploratory processing, characterized by meaning making and causal processing. Conscientious, open, and extraverted freshmen told exploratory stories of change as seniors. Emotionally healthy freshmen told stories of change that were high in positive affect. Both positive affective and exploratory stories corresponded to change in emotional stability and conscientiousness during college above and beyond the effects of perceived changes in these traits. In addition, both positive affective and exploratory narratives corresponded to increases in emotional health during college independent of the effects of changes in personality traits. These findings improve our understanding of how individuals conceptualize their changing identity over time.
(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...
Hansen, Per Krogh
to the position of A. Nünning. In the final section, a four-category taxonomy for the different textual strategies that establishes unreliable narration is suggested. The headlines for the taxonomy are intranarrational unreliability, internarrational unreliability, intertextual unreliability, and extratextual...
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited BATTLE OF NARRATIVES...from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2012 Author: Lars Ruth Approved by: Prof. Sean F. Everton Thesis Advisor Dr. Hy...are more important than are others. For example, for some, social security and taxes are very important while gun control and LGBT are not. For
Objective There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. Results The cost was €326.3 per parent, of which €53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and €272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of €47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from €41 739 to €55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of €55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Conclusion Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation. PMID:26681349
Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenAbstract: Pregnancy has different meanings to different women depending upon their circumstances. A number of qualitative studies have described the experience of miscarriage by women who had desired to carry their pregnancy to full term. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify a scale of psychological reaction to miscarriage. Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach for reviewing articles from scientific journals through statistical analysis of findings from individual studies. In this review, a meta-analytic method was used to identify and analyze psychological reactions in women who have suffered a miscarriage. Different reactions to stress associated with the period following miscarriage were identified. The depression reaction had the highest average, weighted, unbiased estimate of effect (d+ = 0.99 and was frequently associated with the experience of perinatal loss. Psychiatric morbidity was found after miscarriage in 27% of cases by a diagnostic interview ten days after miscarriage. The grief reaction had a medium d+ of 0.56 in the studies included. However, grief after miscarriage differed from other types of grief after perinatal loss because the parents had no focus for their grief. The guilt is greater after miscarriage than after other types of perinatal loss. Measurement of the stress reaction and anxiety reaction seems to be difficult in the included studies, as evidenced by a low d+ (0.17 and 0.16, respectively. It has been recommended that grief after perinatal loss be measured by an adapted instrument called the Perinatal Grief Scale Short Version.Keywords: psychological, perinatal loss, pregnancy, depression
Full Text Available There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC. The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness.A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data.The cost was € 326.3 per parent, of which € 53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and € 272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of € 47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from € 41 739 to € 55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of € 55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent.Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation.
Ulfsdotter, Malin; Lindberg, Lene; Månsdotter, Anna
There are few health economic evaluations of parenting programs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as the outcome measure. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of the universal parenting program All Children in Focus (ABC). The goals were to estimate the costs of program implementation, investigate the health effects of the program, and examine its cost-effectiveness. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Costs included setup costs and operating costs. A parent proxy Visual Analog Scale was used to measure QALYs in children, whereas the General Health Questionnaire-12 was used for parents. A societal perspective was adopted, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated. To account for uncertainty in the estimate, the probability of cost-effectiveness was investigated, and sensitivity analyses were used to account for the uncertainty in cost data. The cost was € 326.3 per parent, of which € 53.7 represented setup costs under the assumption that group leaders on average run 10 groups, and € 272.6 was the operating costs. For health effects, the QALY gain was 0.0042 per child and 0.0027 per parent. These gains resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the base case of € 47 290 per gained QALY. The sensitivity analyses resulted in ratios from € 41 739 to € 55 072. With the common Swedish threshold value of € 55 000 per QALY, the probability of the ABC program being cost-effective was 50.8 percent. Our analysis of the ABC program demonstrates cost-effectiveness ratios below or just above the QALY threshold in Sweden. However, due to great uncertainty about the data, the health economic rationale for implementation should be further studied considering a longer time perspective, effects on siblings, and validated measuring techniques, before full scale implementation.
Andrzejak, R G; Chicharro, D; Lehnertz, K; Mormann, F
The disease epilepsy is related to hypersynchronous activity of networks of neurons. While acute epileptic seizures are the most extreme manifestation of this hypersynchronous activity, an elevated level of interdependence of neuronal dynamics is thought to persist also during the seizure-free interval. In multichannel recordings from brain areas involved in the epileptic process, this interdependence can be reflected in an increased linear cross correlation but also in signal properties of higher order. Bivariate time series analysis comprises a variety of approaches, each with different degrees of sensitivity and specificity for interdependencies reflected in lower- or higher-order properties of pairs of simultaneously recorded signals. Here we investigate which approach is best suited to detect putatively elevated interdependence levels in signals recorded from brain areas involved in the epileptic process. For this purpose, we use the linear cross correlation that is sensitive to lower-order signatures of interdependence, a nonlinear interdependence measure that integrates both lower- and higher-order properties, and a surrogate-corrected nonlinear interdependence measure that aims to specifically characterize higher-order properties. We analyze intracranial electroencephalographic recordings of the seizure-free interval from 29 patients with an epileptic focus located in the medial temporal lobe. Our results show that all three approaches detect higher levels of interdependence for signals recorded from the brain hemisphere containing the epileptic focus as compared to signals recorded from the opposite hemisphere. For the linear cross correlation, however, these differences are not significant. For the nonlinear interdependence measure, results are significant but only of moderate accuracy with regard to the discriminative power for the focal and nonfocal hemispheres. The highest significance and accuracy is obtained for the surrogate-corrected nonlinear
Brisbois, Ben; Plamondon, Katrina
Representations of the world enable global health research (GHR), discursively constructing sites in which studies can legitimately take place. Depoliticized portrayals of the global South frequently obscure messy legacies of colonialism and motivate technical responses to health problems with political and economic root causes. Such problematic representations of the world have not yet been rigorously examined in relation to global health ethics, a major site of scholarly effort towards GHR that promotes justice and fairness. We carried out a discourse analysis of four guidance documents relevant to the ethical practice of GHR, purposively selecting texts covering different genres (UN documents and journal articles) and prominent GHR foci (HIV and clinical trials). In light of increasing acknowledgement of the lessons Indigenous health scholarship holds for global health ethics, the four analyzed texts also included a set of principles developed to support Indigenous nation-building. Three of four documents featured global disparities as reasons for ethical caution. These inequalities appeared without explanation or causes, with generation of new scientific knowledge following as a logical response to such disparities. The fourth - Indigenous health-focused - document clearly identified 'colonialism' as a reason for both inequities in society, and related harmful research practices. Solutions to disparities in this text did not necessarily involve cutting-edge research, but focused instead on empowerment and responsiveness to community priorities and needs. These contrasting representations of the world were accomplished in ways that depended on texts' 'participants', or the people they represented; specific vocabularies or language usages; intertextual relationships to prior texts; and overall objectives or intentions of the author(s). Our results illustrate how ethics and other guidance documents serve as an important terrain for constructing, naturalizing or
Narrative pedagogy has been developed over the last decade in nursing as a means of complementing a conventional content and competency driven pedagogy. It focuses attention on the human experience of health care by deriving shared meanings from interpretation of stories. This allows students to explore the different perspectives of those involved. The emotional experiences of participants can be understood, conventional wisdom challenged and new knowledge emerge as students work together to construct their learning. Individual stories are embedded within the narrative and teachers have successfully used literature and film as narratives to help them explore the meaning of health care with students. Modern technology has opened up a new range of electronic narratives such as virtual simulation. These are considered and rejected as devices for a health care narrative due to their dehumanized and unrealistic nature. However it is argued that a multimedia online simulation of a typical neighbourhood can achieve the goal of providing a suitable narrative. Human actors replace avatars and real world settings replace gaming environments as the stories of people in this community are related and used to support narrative pedagogy. An example of such a narrative developed jointly in the UK and Canada is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Oral narrative production develops dramatically from 3 to 5 years of age, and is a key factor in a child’s ability to communicate about the world. Concomitant with this are developments in executive function (EF. For example, executive attention and behavioral inhibition show marked development beginning around 4 years of age. Both EF and oral narrative abilities have important implications for academic success, but the relationship between them is not well understood. The present paper utilizes a cross-lagged design to assess convergent and predictive relations between EF and narrative ability. As a collateral measure, we collected a Language Sample during 10 minutes of free play. Language Sample did not share significant variance with Narrative Production, thus general language growth from Wave 1 to Wave 2 cannot account for the predictive relations between EF and Narrative. Our findings suggest that although EF and Narrative ability appear independent at each wave, they nevertheless support each other over developmental time. Specifically, the ability to maintain focus at 4 years supports subsequent narrative ability and narrative ability at 4 years supports subsequent facility and speed in learning and implementing new rules.
In this paper, the author aims to substantiate Freud's claim that neurotic illness creates gaps in autobiographical narratives in terms of the narrator's stating and inducing perspectives. He sketches out the role of narrative perspective and the joint taking of a shared perspective by analyst and patient in psychoanalytic therapy. He introduces four ways of representing perspectives in narratives. Three degrees of narrative distortion are exemplified by three excerpts from life narratives and explored in terms of narrative perspective representation. The most comprehensive perspective representation is achieved in the first example by explicitly stating the present perspective of the narrator as well as the past perspective of the story's protagonist by use of mental verbs. In the second narrative, exclusive use of linguistic forms for inducing the protagonist's perspective both overwhelms the narrator and gives the listener an incomplete picture of what happened. Inconsistent motives, denial of responsibility and omission of detail render the third narrative even more difficult to follow. The author discusses the clinical significance of this exploratory analysis of perspectives in narratives in terms of claiming responsibility for one's past action and of level of defence mechanisms, and by highlighting the emotional impact on listeners, which the author suggests is the stronger the more perspectives are left out. He discusses analogies to countertransference. The analysis of narrative perspectives offers an approach for systematic research in psychoanalytic practice.
Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas
Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE
Kruizinga, Renske; Hartog, Iris D; Jacobs, Marc; Daams, Joost G; Scherer-Rath, Michael; Schilderman, Johannes B A M; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spiritual interventions on quality of life of cancer patients. We conducted our search on June 6, 2014 in Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and PubMed. All clinical trials were included that compared standard care with a spiritual intervention that addressed existential themes using a narrative approach. Study quality was evaluated by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. A total of 4972 studies were identified, of which 14 clinical trials (2050 patients) met the inclusion criteria, and 12 trials (1878 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall risk of bias was high. When combined, all studies showed a moderate effect (d) 0.50 (95% CI = 0.20-0.79) 0-2 weeks after the intervention on overall quality of life in favor of the spiritual interventions. Meta-analysis at 3-6 months after the intervention showed a small insignificant effect (0.14, 95% CI = -0.08 to 0.35). Subgroup analysis including only the western studies showed a small effect of 0.17 (95% CI = 0.05-0.29). Including only studies that met the allocation concealment criteria showed an insignificant effect of 0.14 (95% CI = -0.05 to 0.33). Directly after the intervention, spiritual interventions had a moderate beneficial effect in terms of improving quality of life of cancer patients compared with that of a control group. No evidence was found that the interventions maintained this effect up to 3-6 months after the intervention. Further research is needed to understand how spiritual interventions could contribute to a long-term effect of increasing or maintaining quality of life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Adeoye-Agboola, D I; Evans, H; Hewson, D; Pappas, Y
To critically review, appraise and evaluate quality of evidence on HIV disclosure among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria, and to identify a possible gap in knowledge on HIV/AIDS and disclosure. A systematic review using narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. MedLine, PsycINFO, PubMed Central, Scopus and CINAHL were searched. Data were extracted with the use of spread sheet. An analysis of heterogeneity was performed for the disclosure rate and the presence of a supportive reaction from partners. A meta-analysis was performed for the disclosure rates to sexual partners, with data available for all ten studies. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The outcomes show that HIV disclosure of sero-positive status is most common between spouses or sexual partners than disclosure to relatives/family members, friends, pastor/Imam or work colleagues/employers. The participants in most of these studies are women, and amongst the most influential factors on disclosure are gender, anticipated outcome, marital status and knowledge of partners' status. Some studies reported non-disclosure as a way of limiting stigma. Almost all of the studies highlighted that there is fear of stigma and social exclusion associated with disclosure. This review discusses the overall experience of HIV disclosure on the management of the disease and barriers to disclosure. We found that PLWHA in Nigeria disclosed to at least one person within their social networks. Stigma is still a major consideration for PLWHA who experience a range of misconceptions around HIV transmission. The findings of this study may inform local policies and plans for improving the PLWHA quality of life. Targeted policies to increase disclosure of sero-positive status and reduce stigma may facilitate disease prevention. The methodological rigour of the included studies was appraised low. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hyry-Beihammer, Eeva Kaisa
The present article considers the narratives told in piano lessons, studied as both a teacher's "way of knowing" and as echoes of "masters' voices" in classical music. The main character is a well known Finnish music pedagogue and artist, Matti Raekallio, and the study focuses on his knowledge of teaching practice; that is, his…
Urhammer, Emil; Røpke, Inge
Since the financial crisis in 2008, a series of publications on macroeconomic responses to the compound crises of the economy and the environment have emerged. Under labels such as green new deal, green growth and the great transition, attempts at offering coherent responses to the crises have been...... discourse theory and narrative analysis and investigates discourses by studying the narratives they produce. The study thus contributes to the long line of analyses on discourses on sustainable economy: empirically, by investigating and analysing a number of macroeconomic proposals for solving the system...
Knudsen, Ann-Christina; Gram-Skjoldager, Karen
The ‘transnational turn’ has been one of the most widely debated historiographical directions in the past decade or so. This article explores one of its landmark publications: The Palgrave dictionary of transnational history (2009), which presents around 400 entries on transnational history written...... by around 350 authors from some 25 countries. Drawing on narrative theory and the sociology of knowledge, the article develops an extensive quantitative and qualitative analysis of the most prominent narrative structures that can be found across the Dictionary, thus piecing together a coherent...
Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn
Research into recommendation algorithms has made great strides in recent years. However, these algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios: given information about a user's past preferences, what will they like in the future? Recommendation is often more complex......: evaluating recommended items never takes place in a vacuum, and it is often a single step in the user's more complex background task. In this paper, we define a specific type of recommendation scenario called narrative-driven recommendation, where the recommendation process is driven by both a log...... of the user's past transactions as well as a narrative description of their current interest(s). Through an analysis of a set of real-world recommendation narratives from the LibraryThing forums, we demonstrate the uniqueness and richness of this scenario and highlight common patterns and properties...
In eighteenth-century France, geodesy (the measure of the earth's shape) became an arena where mathematics and narrative intersected productively. Mathematics played a crucial role not only in the measurements and analysis necessary to geodesy but also in the narrative accounts that presented the results of elaborate and expensive expeditions to the reading public. When they returned to France to write these accounts after their travels, mathematician-observers developed a variety of ways to display numbers and mathematical arguments and techniques. The numbers, equations, and diagrams they produced could not be separated from the story of their acquisition. Reading these accounts for the interplay of these two aspects--the mathematical and the narrative--shows how travelers articulated the intellectual and physical difficulties of their work to enhance the value of their results for specialist and lay readers alike.
Full Text Available The article presents the object and results of a study which combines the psychology of religion and folkloristics in the form of a qualitative analysis of empirical ethnographic material compiled from sources in a local neo-charismatic congregation called the ‘Word of Life’. Personal narrative is discussed as a genre which represents the collective tradition of a religious community. It is a socially-learned speech act and a means of interpreting and sharing religious experience, thus constructing and confirming the faith of the community, both individually and collectively. In the neo-charismatic tradition, everyday speech draws on a literal (biblical tradition as well as on socially-shared narrative genres such as ritual testimonies, prophecies, sermons and casual, personal narratives of co-believers. The faith-creative power of these stories can be found in their performative utterances and evaluative structures as well as in non-communication.
Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.
on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...
This is the second of two articles that are connected in a reading of "The plague" by Albert Camus. The other article is a determined narration of the events of a tragedy that befalls a city on the coast of Algeria. That article resists analysis beyond the decisions that are made regarding text to use, and of course interpretations to…
Yang, Shu Ching; Chen, Shih-Fen
The study explores development of the concept of death among 204 Chinese children and adolescents and analyzes the relationships between death concept development and background variables. A coding manual for content analysis of death constructs adapted from R. A. Neimeyer et al. (1983) was used to classify each construct in the paragraphs written…
Fitzpatrick, Jacki; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which family formation processes were presented in international children's adoption books. Guided by Pinderhughes' (1996) adoptive family development model, we conducted a content analysis for the representation of two developmental phases (anticipation and accommodation). A total…
Contrera-Moreno, Luciana; de Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; Pinto, Alexandra Maria Almeida Carvalho; Salas, Frederico Reis Pouso; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiros Faro
Firefighters are exposed to a wide range of risks, among them, biological risk. The objective was to analyze working conditions of firefighters in the city of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, focusing on risk conditions of exposure to biological material. Three hundred and seven (307) firefighters were interviewed for data collection and observed for ergonomic job analysis (AET). 63.5% of the firefighters suffered some kind of job related accident with blood or body fluids. Statistically significant association was found between having suffered accidents at work and incomplete use of personal protective equipment (PPE). About AET regarding the biological risks, 57.1% of all patients had blood or secretions, which corresponds in average to 16.0% of the total work time, based on a working day of 24 h. Besides biological risks, other stressing factors were identified: emergency and complexity of decision, high responsibility regarding patients and environment, and conflicts. Health promotion and accident prevention actions must be emphasized as measures to minimize these risks.
Ouyang, Min; Wang, Zhenghua
As infrastructure systems are highly interconnected, it is crucial to analyze their resilience with the consideration of their interdependencies. This paper adapts an existing resilience assessment framework for single systems to interdependent systems and mainly focuses on modeling and resilience contribution analysis of multi-systems’ joint restoration processes, which are seldom addressed in the literature. Taking interdependent power and gas systems in Houston, Texas, USA under hurricane hazards as an illustrative exmaple, five types of joint restoration stategies are proposed, including random restoration strategy RS 1 , independent restoration strategy RS 2 , power first and gas second restoration strategy RS 3 , gas aimed restoration strategy RS 4 , and power and gas compromised restoration strategy RS 5 . Results show that under limited restoration resources, RS 1 produces the least resilience for both systems, RS 2 and RS 3 both generates the largest power system resilience while RS 4 is the best for the gas system; and if quantifying the total resilience as the evenly weighted sum of two systems’ individual resilience, RS 5 produces the largest total resilience. The proposed method can help decision makers search optimum joint restoration strategy, which can significantly enhance both systems’ resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a method to assess resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems. • We consider unidirectional interdependencies from power system to gas system. • Multi-systems’ restoration processes are solved by using genetic algorithm. • Effectiveness of five restoration strategies are compared and analyzed. • Interdependency-based strategies produce the largest total resilience
Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios G; Zhao, Yifan; He, Fei; Billings, Stephen A; Baster, Kathleen; Rittey, Chris; Yianni, John; Zis, Panagiotis; Wei, Hualiang; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Grünewald, Richard
To determine the origin and dynamic characteristics of the generalised hyper-synchronous spike and wave (SW) discharges in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). We applied nonlinear methods, the error reduction ratio (ERR) causality test and cross-frequency analysis, with a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model, to electroencephalograms (EEGs) from CAE, selected with stringent electro-clinical criteria (17 cases, 42 absences). We analysed the pre-ictal and ictal strength of association between homologous and heterologous EEG derivations and estimated the direction of synchronisation and corresponding time lags. A frontal/fronto-central onset of the absences is detected in 13 of the 17 cases with the highest ictal strength of association between homologous frontal followed by centro-temporal and fronto-central areas. Delays consistently in excess of 4 ms occur at the very onset between these regions, swiftly followed by the emergence of "isochronous" (0-2 ms) synchronisation but dynamic time lag changes occur during SW discharges. In absences an initial cortico-cortical spread leads to dynamic lag changes to include periods of isochronous interhemispheric synchronisation, which we hypothesize is mediated by the thalamus. Absences from CAE show ictal epileptic network dynamics remarkably similar to those observed in WAG/Rij rats which guided the formulation of the cortical focus theory. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Macro velocity model building is important for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes the band-limited waveform to invert for the velocity. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers (SOCIGs). We re-examine this concept with a different perspective: In subsurface offset domain, using extended Born modeling, the recorded data can be considered as invariant with respect to the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources and velocity at the same time. A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those virtual sources and velocity is derived and solved subsequently by Conjugate Gradient method. In theory, the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources is given by the Rytov approximation. Thus, compared to the Born approximation, it relaxes the dependency on amplitude and makes the proposed method more applicable for real data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying the proposed method on both isotropic and anisotropic VTI synthetic data. A real dataset example verifies the robustness of the proposed method.
Full Text Available The chemosensory capacity of the somatosensory system relies on the appropriate expression of chemoreceptors, which detect chemical stimuli and transduce sensory information into cellular signals. Knowledge of the complete repertoire of the chemoreceptors expressed in human sensory ganglia is lacking. This study employed the next-generation sequencing technique (RNA-Seq to conduct the first expression analysis of human trigeminal ganglia (TG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG. We analyzed the data with a focus on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and ion channels, which are (potentially involved in chemosensation by somatosensory neurons in the human TG and DRG. For years, transient receptor potential (TRP channels have been considered the main group of receptors for chemosensation in the trigeminal system. Interestingly, we could show that sensory ganglia also express a panel of different olfactory receptors (ORs with putative chemosensory function. To characterize OR expression in more detail, we performed microarray, semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments, and immunohistochemical staining. Additionally, we analyzed the expression data to identify further known or putative classes of chemoreceptors in the human TG and DRG. Our results give an overview of the major classes of chemoreceptors expressed in the human TG and DRG and provide the basis for a broader understanding of the reception of chemical cues.
Sun, Bingbing; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
Macro velocity model building is important for subsequent pre-stack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes the band-limited waveform to invert for the velocity. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers (SOCIGs). We re-examine this concept with a different perspective: In subsurface offset domain, using extended Born modeling, the recorded data can be considered as invariant with respect to the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources and velocity at the same time. A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those virtual sources and velocity is derived and solved subsequently by Conjugate Gradient method. In theory, the perturbation of the position of the virtual sources is given by the Rytov approximation. Thus, compared to the Born approximation, it relaxes the dependency on amplitude and makes the proposed method more applicable for real data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by applying the proposed method on both isotropic and anisotropic VTI synthetic data. A real dataset example verifies the robustness of the proposed method.
Drukteinis, Albert M
Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
What are the links between narrative theories and computing? Narrative works are countless in the digital world: narrative hypertext and hypermedia, interactive fiction, video games, blogs, location-based narrative, etc. They not only form new analytical objects for narrative theories, but also may extend existing narrative theories. One specific type of digital narratives, AI-based Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN), plays a special role in this landscape because it makes use of narrative t...
Objectives: This article aims to elaborate chronotope disruption —a changed relation to time and space— as a sensitizing concept for understanding chronic illness narratives. Methods: Sixteen men and 16 women with Type 2 diabetes were purposefully sampled. Each was interviewed about his or her experience of diabetes self-management using the biographical-narrative interview method. Transcripts were inspected for key moments defined as emotionally laden stories relevant to the purpose of the research. We present dialogically inflected discursive analysis of exemplar extracts. Results: The analysis demonstrates how the concept of chronotope disruption helps identify, and understand, important aspects of patients’ chronic illness narratives. First, we investigate how medical advice can conflict with embodied experience and how progressive bodily deterioration can provoke a reevaluation of past illness (self-mis)management. Second, the increasing temporal and spatial intrusion of chronic illness into participants’ lives is examined. Finally, we focus on the masquerade of health as an attempt to manage, hide, or deny that one is physically challenged. Conclusions: Chronotope disruption offers a useful sensitizing concept for approaching chronic illness narratives and around which to organize analytical insights and to develop practice. Chronotope analysis fills an important gap in the science through compensating current health sciences’ focus on rationality, cognition, and prospective time (prediction) with a patient-oriented focus on emotionality, embodiment, and retrospective time (nostalgia). Chronotope disruption could be used to develop practice by gaining empathic understanding of patients’ life-worlds and provides a tool to examine how new technologies change the way in which the chronically ill have “being” in the world. PMID:25197985
Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed "aversion" to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to the damage illness does to identity and life-trajectory. Underlying these alleged benefits are two key presuppositions: that it is the whole of one's life that is narratively unified, and that one's identity is inextricably bound up with narrative. By letting go of these assumptions, illness narrative advocates can respond to the challenges of narrative aversions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Application of inquiry in teacher education is gaining momentum. Inquiry is used to build connections with the local community (Nicholas, Baker-Sennett, McClanahan, & Harwood, 2012), student-centered inquiry is used as a curricular model (Oliver et al., 2015), inquiry is used to accentuate......’-module is a 6 week full-time study including a 2 weeks stay at a youth folk high school, where the teacher students are to focus on a self-determined element of the praxis. The students are to study this focus through narrative inquiry based on the North-American tradition within narrative inquiry (Clandinin....... Aarhus; Kbh.: Klim; i samarbejde med Folkehøjskolernes Forening. Salerno, A. S., & Kibler, A. K. (2015). Questions they ask: Considering teacher-inquiry questions posed by pre-service english teachers. Educational Action Research, 23(3), 399-415....
Combs, Gene; Freedman, Jill
We describe how we think of identity as relational, distributed, performed, and fluid, and we illustrate the use of this conceptualization within a narrative worldview. Drawing on the work of Michael White, we describe how this relational view of identity leads to therapeutic responses that give value to interconnection across multiple contexts and that focus on becoming rather than on being. We show how a narrative worldview helps focus on the relational, co-evolving perspective that was the basis of our early attraction to family therapy. We offer detailed examples from our work of practices that help us stay firmly situated in a relational worldview that is counter to the pervasive influence of individualism in our contemporary culture. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Attota, Ravi Kiran; Park, Haesung
Misalignment of the aperture diaphragm present in optical microscopes results in angular illumination asymmetry (ANILAS) at the sample plane. Here we show that through-focus propagation of ANILAS results in a lateral image shift with a focus position. This could lead to substantial errors in quantitative results for optical methods that use through-focus images such as three-dimensional nanoparticle tracking, confocal microscopy, and through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM). A correlation exists between ANILAS and the slant in TSOM images. Hence, the slant in the TSOM image can be used to detect, analyze, and rectify the presence of ANILAS.
Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meta-narrative review is one of an emerging menu of new approaches to qualitative and mixed-method systematic review. A meta-narrative review seeks to illuminate a heterogeneous topic area by highlighting the contrasting and complementary ways in which researchers have studied the same or a similar topic. No previous publication standards exist for the reporting of meta-narrative reviews. This publication standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for meta-narrative reviews. Methods We (a collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in meta-narrative reviews; (b considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published reviews, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, meta-narrative reviews, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d provided real-time support to ongoing meta-narrative reviews and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e synthesized expert input, evidence review and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified nine published meta-narrative reviews, provided real-time support to four ongoing reviews and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature, and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 33 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 20 key publication standards, with an
Gifreu-Castells, Arnau; Misek, Richard; Verbruggen, Erwin
abstractOver the last years, interactive digital media have greatly affected the logics of production, exhibition and reception of non-fiction audiovisual works, leading to the emergence of a new area called ‘interactive and transmedia non-fiction’. Whilethe audiovisual non-fiction field has been partially studied, a few years ago emerged a new field focusing on interactive and transmedia non-fiction narratives, an unexplored territory that needs new theories and taxonomies to differentiate f...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore what is performed in students’ and teachers’ actions in physical education practice in terms of “didactic irritations,” through an analysis of YouTube clips from 285 PE lessons from 27 different countries. Didactic irritations are occurrences that Rønholt describes as those demanding “didactic, pedagogical reflections and discussions, which in turn could lead to alternative thinking and understanding about teaching and learning.” Drawing on Barad’s ideas of performativity to challenge our habitual anthropocentric analytical gaze when looking at educational visual data, and using narrative construction, we also aim to give meaning to actions, relations, and experiences of the participants in the YouTube clips. To do this, we present juxtaposing narratives from teachers and students in terms of three “didactic irritations”: (a stories from a track, (b, stories from a game, and (c, stories from a bench. The stories re-present events-of-moving in the data offering insights into embodied experiences in PE practice, making students’ as well as teachers’ actions in PE practice understandable.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the expressions used to refer to the experience of immersive in narrative games. The starting point is a review of the meanings associated with the suspension of disbelief in literature, cinema and television, challenging the myth of the naïve audience that cannot distinguish between representation and reality. Two characteristics of interactive media narratives – the possibility of agency and the disparities between hardware and software interfaces – reveal the active nature of the audience’s involvement with media representations. It is proposed that, in the case of games, this ability, which allows for simultaneous actions in the world of games and in the real world, is better described as a performance of belief.
Bo, Inger Glavind
I kapitlet gennemgås en socialkonstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer. I kapitlet vil jeg gennemgå centrale teoretiske pointer, der samlet set er grundlæggende for en social konstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer for herved at udfolde forståelsen af den narrative tilgang og desuden...... tydeliggøre, hvordan tilgangen er forbundet med en særlig forståelse af identitetsskabelse. Der er tale om pointer der almindeligvis forbindes med ”små fortællinger” i form af længere identitetsfortællinger og narrative interviews. Kapitlet gennemgår således centrale inspirationskilder og teoretiske pointer...
Sewell, David K.; Lilburn, Simon D.; Smith, Philip L.
A central question in working memory research concerns the degree to which information in working memory is accessible to other cognitive processes (e.g., decision-making). Theories assuming that the focus of attention can only store a single object at a time require the focus to orient to a target representation before further processing can…
G. van de Kaa (Geerten); H.J. de Vries (Henk); B. Baskaran (Balakumaran)
textabstractThis paper analyzes to which extent research published in Computer Standards & Interfaces (CSI) has a technical focus. We find that CSI has been following its scope very closely in the last three years and that the majority of its publications have a technical focus. Articles published
Mohsen Mohammadi fesharaki
of them is visual function and the other is word's phonetic capacity. The advantage that a poet can take from word's sound and form of writing to increase the dramatic richness of Ghazal in the story is by no means available. Differences between narrative Ghazal and cinematic narrative 1- From the viewpoint of power of play, perhaps the major advantage the literature has over films is that a poem does not need any facilities except words to make up atmosphere and design the scene. This advantage makes poetry capable to image surreal spaces that film can not show . 2- In Ghazal, just the special signs that poet wanted is conveyed to the audience namely the author's control is more. So whenever he wants, makes the audience to focus his attention on the text or, on the contrary, divert attention away from. Similarities between narrative Ghazal and cinematic narrative 1- Sometimes, sense and experience that the sequence of short words and phrases of Ghazal suggest to audience is the same as experience the serial of film shots convey. 2- The reader of story - even a short story– has opportunity as well as possibility to read and review each part of the story he prefers , but the movie spectator does not . Considering this, Ghazal is closer to cinema than story. Because, Ghazal is a poem to be read rather than listened , and due to the brevity prevailing over the space of poetry and Ghazal's structural limitations, poet has little opportunity to convey a sense and to present an artistic experience . 3-Today poetry uses the pattern of stanza in its formal system , like plan and shot employed in cinema. This more than verse and hemistich shows temporal and spatial distances , events and sections in the vertical axis of poetry. Such a way that each stanza expresses one temporal and spatial feature of the detached narration , whereas the sections and components of ancient poetry in the lines of verses is cluttered and the process and movement of poem are
Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma
Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228
This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...
Dickey, Michele D.
The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of narrative design in a game-based learning environment. Specifically, this investigation focuses the narrative design in an adventure-styled, game-based learning environment for fostering argumentation writing by looking at how the game narrative impacted player/learner (1) intrinsic…
Moon, J Y; Yun, E J; Yoon, D Y; Choi, C S; Seo, Y L; Cho, Y K; Lim, K J; Baek, S; Hong, S J; Yoon, S J
Purpose The number of citations that an article has received reflects its impact on a particular research area. The aim of this study was to identify the 100 most-cited articles focused on ultrasound (US) imaging and to analyze the characteristics of these articles. Methods We determined the 100 most-cited articles on US imaging via the Web of Science database, using the search term. The following parameters were used to analyze the characteristics of the 100 most-cited articles: publication year, journal, journal impact factor, number of citations and annual citations, authors, department, institution, country, type of article, and topic. Results The number of citations for the 100 most-cited articles ranged from 1849 to 341 (median: 442.0) and the number of annual citations ranged from 108.0 to 8.1 (median: 22.1). The majority of articles were published in 1990 - 1999 (39 %), published in radiology journals (20 %), originated in the United States (45 %), were clinical observation studies (67 %), and dealt with the vessels (35 %). The Department of Internal Medicine at the University of California and the Research Institute of Public Health at the University of Kuopio (n = 4 each) were the leading institutions and Salonen JT and Salonen R (n = 4 each) were the most prolific authors. Conclusion Our study presents a detailed list and analysis of the 100 most-cited US articles, which provides a unique insight into the historical development in this field. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Jenaro, C; Vega, V; Flores, N; Cruz, M
Concepts such as support, quality of life and quality of services are customary in services for people with intellectual disabilities. The identification of the different ways of conceiving, prioritising and implementing these concepts by service providers can help to drive changes to achieve better personal outcomes for this population. The current study aims to identify service providers' perceptions regarding the quality of life of their clients and the quality of services they provide. It also aims to identify similarities and differences of appraisals among professionals, and to identify associations between supports, quality of life and quality of services. Data were collected from 22 service providers who attended three focus groups (professionals, direct support staff, and managers) from whom 424 comments were analysed. Service providers were asked about the required support for users, the meaning of quality of life for those users, and about features that should characterise quality services. Thematic analysis was employed and transcripts of the sessions were coded according to the dimensions of models on supports, quality of life and quality of services. Chi-squared tests were utilised to test for potential differences among groups. Each professional group has its own priorities concerning required supports. Among the organisation different and potentially conflicting perceptions regarding the meaning of experiencing quality of life coexist. Concerning quality of services, only managers mentioned personal outcomes. Finally, institutionalisation has a negative impact on supports, quality of life and quality of services. It is necessary to move beyond a shared awareness of the negative impact of institutionalisation towards the transformation of services in search of personal quality outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Matthew J Loza
Full Text Available Recent identifications of associations between novel variants in inflammation-related genes and several common diseases emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of these genes in disease susceptibility. Considering that many genes are involved in the complex inflammation responses and many genetic variants in these genes have the potential to alter the functions and expression of these genes, we assembled a list of key inflammation-related genes to facilitate the identification of genetic associations of diseases with an inflammation-related etiology. We first reviewed various phases of inflammation responses, including the development of immune cells, sensing of danger, influx of cells to sites of insult, activation and functional responses of immune and non-immune cells, and resolution of the immune response. Assisted by the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we then identified 17 functional sub-pathways that are involved in one or multiple phases. This organization would greatly increase the chance of detecting gene-gene interactions by hierarchical clustering of genes with their functional closeness in a pathway. Finally, as an example application, we have developed tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (tSNP arrays for populations of European and African descent to capture all the common variants of these key inflammation-related genes. Assays of these tSNPs have been designed and assembled into two Affymetrix ParAllele customized chips, one each for European (12,011 SNPs and African (21,542 SNPs populations. These tSNPs have greater coverage for these inflammation-related genes compared to the existing genome-wide arrays, particularly in the African population. These tSNP arrays can facilitate systematic evaluation of inflammation pathways in disease susceptibility. For additional applications, other genotyping platforms could also be employed. For existing genome-wide association data, this list of key inflammation-related genes and
Hamed, Sarah; Ahlberg, Beth-Maina; Trenholm, Jill
Eastern Sudan has high prevalence of female circumcision and child marriage constituting a risk for developing obstetric fistula. Few studies have examined gender roles' relation with obstetric fistula in Sudan. To explore the associated power-relations that may put women at increased risk for developing obstetric fistula, we conducted nine interviews with women living with obstetric fistula in Kassala in eastern Sudan. Using a Foucauldian discourse analysis, we identified three discourses: powerlessness, normalization, and covert resistance. Existing power-relations between the women and other societal members revealed their internalization of social norms as absolute truth, and influenced their status and decision-making power in regard to circumcision, early marriage, and other transformative decisions as well as women's general behaviors. The women showed subtle resistance to these norms and the harassment they encountered because of their fistula. These findings suggest that a more in-depth contextual assessment could benefit future maternal health interventions.
Blake Stephen Howald
Full Text Available Structurally, formal definitions of the linguistic narrative minimally require two temporally linked past-time events. The role of space in this definition, based on spatial language indicating where events occur, is considered optional and non-structural. However, based on narratives with a high frequency of spatial language, recent research has questioned this perspective, suggesting that space is more critical than may be readily apparent. Through an analysis of spatially rich serial criminal narratives, it will be demonstrated that spatial information qualitatively varies relative to narrative events. In particular, statistical classifiers in a supervised machine learning task achieve a 90% accuracy in predicting Pre-Crime, Crime, and Post-Crime events based on spatial (and temporal information. Overall, these results suggest a deeper spatial organization of discourse, which not only provides practical event resolution possibilities, but also challenges traditional formal linguistic definitions of narrative.
De Silveira, Cybèle; Habermas, Tilmann
Adolescence is a passage from dependence to adult responsibility. Alongside identity development, social-cognitive development, and the ability to construct a life story, adolescents become increasingly aware of both their potential responsibility in an expanded sphere of life and of complex, contextual influences on their lives. This was partially tested in a cross-sectional study, both in terms of linguistic means and content expressed in life narratives. Indicators were defined for narrative agency, grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points, and tested for age differences in relative frequencies in 102 life narratives from age groups of 8, 12, 16, and 20 years, balanced for gender. Narrative grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points increased throughout adolescence. The relative frequency of narrative agency, in contrast, remained constant across age groups. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent development of narrative identity.
Full Text Available Narrative is one of many qualitative methodologies that can be brought to bear in collecting and analysing data and reporting results, though it is not as frequently used as say in case studies. This article provides a window into its use, from the perspective of a researcher who has used it consistently over the past decade to examine early career researcher experience – doctoral students, and those who have completed their degrees and are advancing their careers. This experience has contributed to a robust understanding of the potential of narrative, as well as its limitations. This paper first lays out the broad landscape of narrative research and then makes transparent the thinking, processes and procedures involved in the ten-year narrative study including the potential for creativity that narrative invites. The goal is to engage other researchers to consider exploring the use of narrative – if it aligns with their epistemological stance.
The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics
The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.
This paper aims to (re)ignite debate about the role of narrative in the medical humanities. It begins with a critical review of the ways in which narrative has been mobilised by humanities and social science scholars to understand the experience of health and illness. I highlight seven dangers or blind spots in the dominant medical humanities approach to narrative, including the frequently unexamined assumption that all human beings are “naturally narrative.” I then explore this assumption further through an analysis of philosopher Galen Strawson’s influential article “Against Narrativity.” Strawson rejects the descriptive claim that “human beings typically see or live or experience their lives as a narrative” and the normative claim that “a richly Narrative outlook is essential to a well-lived life, to true or full personhood.” His work has been taken up across a range of disciplines but its implications in the context of health and illness have not yet been sufficiently discussed. This article argues that “Against Narrativity” can and should stimulate robust debate within the medical humanities regarding the limits of narrative, and concludes by discussing a range of possibilities for venturing “beyond narrative.” PMID:22038696
Tae Won Chung
Full Text Available Due mainly to the privatization and commercialization of airline companies and deregulation of the aviation rules, the demand for air transport has continuously been increasing. Airport authorities state that transfer passengers, who contribute to the large portion of the airports’ profits, are gaining much more importance, particularly in the Northeast Asia region where the air transport industry is very vital. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the competitiveness of IIA (Incheon International Airport with other major airports located in Northeast Asia in passenger transfers made between Southeast Asia and China to North America using Conjoint Analysis. Results have indicated that airport brand is the most important attribute for the competitiveness of airport, followed by cost, connectivity and duty free shops. In further analysis focusing on brand value of the three airports measured by the use of transfer passengers, it was revealed that IIA needs more effort in developing their brand identity to become the leading transfer hub airport. Based on the results, recommendations for increasing the brand value have also been suggested.
Timothy H. Wideman
Full Text Available Chronic pain negatively impacts health, well-being, and social participation. Effective rehabilitation often hinges on long-term changes in pain-related perceptions and behaviors. However, there are important gaps in understanding how patients perceive these changes. The present pilot study addresses this gap by using qualitative and quantitative methodologies to explore how patients perceive and experience changes in function, participation, and pain-related factors following a chronic pain rehabilitation program. A mixed-method design was used in which the core method was qualitative. Descriptive quantitative data was used to further characterize the sample. Semistructured interviews were conducted 1–6 months following treatment completion. Questionnaires were administered before and after treatment and at follow-up. Interview data was analyzed thematically. Participants’ individual descriptive data was compared to established cut-scores and criteria for change. A major theme of personal growth emerged in the qualitative analysis. Participants also discussed the factors that facilitated personal growth and the ongoing challenges to this growth. The quantitative data revealed limited improvement on measures of pain, disability, catastrophizing, and depression. These findings suggest that, despite limited improvement on treatment-related questionnaires, patients can experience an important and enduring sense of personal growth. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Artioli, Giovanna; Foà, Chiara; Cosentino, Chiara; Sulla, Francesco; Sollami, Alfonso; Taffurelli, Chiara
The Integrated Narrative Nursing Model (INNM) is an approach that integrates the qualitative methodology typical of the human sciences, with the quantitative methodology more often associated with the natural sciences. This complex model, which combines a focus on narrative with quantitative measures, has recently been effectively applied to the assessment of chronic patients. In this study, the model is applied to the planning phase of education (Integrated Narrative Nursing Education, INNE), and proves to be a valid instrument for the promotion of the current educational paradigm that is centered on the engagement of both the patient and the caregiver in their own path of care. The aim of this study is therefore to describe the nurse's strategy in the planning of an educational intervention by using the INNE model. The case of a 70-year-old woman with pulmonary neoplasm is described at her first admission to Hospice. Each step conducted by the reference nurse, who uses INNE to record the nurse-patient narrative and collect subsequent questionnaires in order to create a shared educational plan, is also described. The information collected was submitted, starting from a grounded methodology to the following four levels of analysis: I. Needs Assessment, II. Narrative Diagnosis, III. Quantitative Outcome, IV. Integrated Outcome. Step IV, which is derived from the integration of all levels of analysis, allows a nurse to define, even graphically, the conceptual map of a patient's needs, resources and perspectives, in a completely tailored manner. The INNE model offers a valid methodological support for the professional who intends to educate the patient through an inter-subjective and engaged pathway, between the professional, their patient and the socio-relational context. It is a matter of adopting a complex vision that combines processes and methods that require a steady scientific basis and advanced methodological expertise with active listening and empathy
Abou Taam, M; Rossard, C; Cantaloube, L; Bouscaren, N; Roche, G; Pochard, L; Montastruc, F; Herxheimer, A; Montastruc, J L; Bagheri, H
Websites and discussion lists on health issues are among the most popular resources on the Web. Use experience reported on social media websites may provide useful information on drugs and their adverse reactions (ADRs). Clear communication on the benefit/harm balance of drugs is important to inform proper use of drugs. Some data have shown that communication (advisories or warnings) is difficult. This study aimed to explore the Internet as a source of data on patients' perception of risk associated with benfluorex and the impact of wider media coverage. Three French websites were selected: Doctissimo, Atoute.org considered the best-known and visited website in France for health questions and Vivelesrondes (Long live the Tubbies) for overweight people. Three periods were chosen: (1) before November 2009 (i.e. before benfluorex withdrawal), (2) between November 2009 and November 2010 (when the risk of valvulopathy with benfluorex appeared in social media) and (3) after November 2010. Two hundred twenty initial postings were analysed. These lead to 660 secondary postings which were analysed separately. In period 1, 114 initial postings were analysed, mostly concerning efficacy of the drug (72%). In period 2, 42 initial postings were analysed involving mainly ADRs or warnings (73%). In period 3, 64 initial postings were analysed; most frequent expressing anger directed at the healthcare system (58%) and anxiety about cardiovascular ADRs (30%). Online consumer postings showed that there were drastic changes in consumers' perceptions following media coverage. This study suggests that analysis of website data can inform on drug ADRs. Social media are important for communicating information on drug ADRs and for assessing consumer behaviour and their risk perception. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available A computer-assisted content analysis (Bolasco 2000 of seven textbooks currently used for history teaching in Italian high schools was carried out to ex- amine to what extent past atrocities perpetrated during Italy’s African colonial wars are acknowledged and taught. More specifically, we investigated the relative importance these texts devote to teaching established historical facts or to achieve socio-psychological aims, such as advancing reconciliation processes and protecting the in-group’s social identity. Social psychologists working in the field of intergroup reconciliation usually consider these two aims as partially competing. The models reviewed by Nadler et al. (2008a all consider the need to protect personal social identity as a source of biases, which the search for historical truth has to accommodate. In contrast, a recent work by Pratto and Glasford (2008 stresses that social identity can play a positive role as a powerful motivation for reconciliation. They suggest that acknowledging historical faults may assist the difficult process of finding a balance between the need for self-esteem and self-integrity and the need to belong. Our results seem to confirm certain aspects of the first group of models, and other aspects of Pratto and Glasford’s review. The crucial point seems to be the use of abstract or concrete terms to describe in-group wrongdoings. Strikingly, more than seventy years after the Italian colonial wars only three textbooks out of seven fully describe atrocities perpetrated by the in-group using clear, concrete terminology; this is consistent with the idea of a tension between reconciliation and justice. On the other hand, the more concrete descriptions, although less frequent, seem better able to protect the in-group’s self-integrity by showing their young readers a clearer acceptance of moral responsibility for the historical faults of their group.
Full Text Available This thematic issue addresses how strategic narratives affect international order. Strategic narratives are conceived of as stories with a political purpose or narratives used by political actors to affect the behavior of others. The articles in this issue address two significant areas important to the study of international relations: how strategic narratives support or undermine alliances, and how they affect norm formation and contestation. Within a post-Cold War world and in the midst of a changing media environment, strategic narratives affect how the world and its complex issues are understood. This special issue speaks to the difficulties associated with creating creative and committed international cooperation by noting how strategic narratives are working to shape the Post-Cold War international context.
John T. Booker
Full Text Available Gide's The Immoralist , a short first-person novel written at the beginning of the century, has long been seen as an early example of the unreliable narrator. More recently, critical attention has focused on the tensions set up in the work between the carefully drawn formal structure of the narrative and the claim of Michel, the narrator, to tell his story in a direct and simple manner. Of more general interest, however, is the way Michel's narration provides insight into important developments that have taken place in the first-person novel itself in the twentieth century. Cast initially in a very traditional mold, Michel's story breaks down progressively as it moves from events of a more distant past to those much closer in time to his moment of narration. This breakdown of Michel's narrative seems to presage the movement in the first- person novel in France away from the relation of a story as traditionally conceived and towards the increasing importance accorded the present of narration itself. In that sense, The Immoralist is a key, pivotal work in the long line of short first-person works of fiction in France.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
We sought to learn how employees reacted to changes in the corporate narrative of Philip Morris Companies (PMC) in the late 1990s and early 2000s. We analyzed archival internal tobacco industry documents about PMC's creation of a new corporate story. In response to litigation and public opprobrium, PMC replaced its market success-oriented corporate narrative with a new one centered on responsibility. Although management sought to downplay inconsistencies between the old and new narratives, some employees reportedly had difficulty reconciling them, concerned that the responsibility focus might affect company profitability. However, others embraced the new narrative, suggesting radical ideas to prevent youth smoking. These ideas were not adopted. PMC's new narrative was unconvincing to many of its employees, who perceived it either as a threat to the company's continued profits or as incongruous with what they had previously been told. As it had done with the public, PMC misled its employees in explaining a narrative repositioning that would help the company continue business as usual. Moving toward a tobacco endgame will require ongoing discursive and symbolic efforts to disrupt this narrative.
Alm, Per A
Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies toward elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs. This paper provides a review and analysis of studies of anxiety, temperament, and personality, organized with the objective to clarify cause and effect relations. Readers will be able to (a) understand the importance of effect size and distribution of data for interpretation of group differences; (b) understand the role of temporal relations for interpretation
Full Text Available The article presents the different types of narratives in marketing communications. Presented essence of thesignr in the narrative, the power of myth, power of archetype and consistency of monomith in marketing. It is discussed on the advertising message perceived through the prism of commercial semiotics. The strength of the narrative is presented in the context of storytelling. The paper also presents a case study of marketing communications.
Moon, Margaret; Taylor, Holly A; McDonald, Erin L; Hughes, Mark T; Beach, Mary Catherine; Carrese, Joseph A
A limiting factor in ethics education in medical training has been difficulty in assessing competence in ethics. This study was conducted to test the concept that content analysis of pediatric residents' personal reflections about ethics experiences can identify changes in ethical sensitivity and reasoning over time. Analysis of written narratives focused on two of our ethics curriculum's goals: 1) To raise sensitivity to ethical issues in everyday clinical practice and 2) to enhance critical reflection on personal and professional values as they affect patient care. Content analysis of written reflections was guided by a tool developed to identify and assess the level of ethical reasoning in eight domains determined to be important aspects of ethical competence. Based on the assessment of narratives written at two times (12 to 16 months/apart) during their training, residents showed significant progress in two specific domains: use of professional values, and use of personal values. Residents did not show decline in ethical reasoning in any domain. This study demonstrates that content analysis of personal narratives may provide a useful method for assessment of developing ethical sensitivity and reasoning.
Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrodynamic mechanism of moving particles in laminar micro-channel flows was numerically investigated. A hydrodynamic criterion was proposed to determine whether particles in channel flows can form a focusing pattern or not. A simple formula was derived to demonstrate how the focusing position varies with Reynolds number and particle size. Based on this proposed criterion, a possible hydrodynamic mechanism was discussed as to why the particles would not be focused if their sizes were too small or the channel Reynolds number was too low. The Re-λ curve (Re, λ respectively represents the channel-based Reynolds number and the particle’s diameter scaled by the channel was obtained using the data fitting with a least square method so as to obtain a parameter range of the focusing pattern. In addition, the importance of the particle rotation to the numerical modeling for the focusing of particles was discussed in view of the hydrodynamics. This research is expected to deepen the understanding of the particle transport phenomena in bounded flow, either in micro or macro fluidic scope.
Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
A comparative analysis of the performance of the modified enclosed energy (MEE) method for self-focusing holograms recorded with digital lensless holographic microscopy is presented. Notwithstanding the MEE analysis previously published, no extended analysis of its performance has been reported. We have tested the MEE in terms of the minimum axial distance allowed between the set of reconstructed holograms to search for the focal plane and the elapsed time to obtain the focused image. These parameters have been compared with those for some of the already reported methods in the literature. The MEE achieves better results in terms of self-focusing quality but at a higher computational cost. Despite its longer processing time, the method remains within a time frame to be technologically attractive. Modeled and experimental holograms have been utilized in this work to perform the comparative study.
Lasiter, Sue; Marchiondo, Lisa; Marchiondo, Kathleen
Academic incivility remains a problem on college campuses. Nursing research has refocused from student impropriety to aberrant faculty behaviors. Our original study using the Nursing Education Environment Survey showed that 133 of 152 student participants experienced uncivil treatment. Latent, inductive content analysis was undertaken to analyze narratives about their "worst experience" of negative faculty behavior. Four categories were identified: "In front of someone," "Talked to others about me," "Made me feel stupid," and "I felt belittled." Incivility had a profound effect on students and is problematic because it increases already significant academic pressure; it interferes with learning and safe clinical performance; it is contrary to caring, a central nursing concept; and it decreases program satisfaction and retention. Few nursing schools have civility policies for faculty behavior. Formal procedures that promote professional interaction should be crafted and implemented. Equally important is creating ways for nursing students to document incivility without fear of retaliation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson
Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.
Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia
Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune
Acknowledging that narratives are an important resource in human communication and cognition, the focus of this article is on the cognitive aspects of involvement with visual and auditory non-verbal narratives, particularly in relation to the newest immersive media and digital interactive...... representational technologies. We consider three relevant trends in narrative studies that have emerged in the 60 years of cognitive and digital revolution. The issue at hand could have implications for developmental psychology, pedagogics, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, ethology and evolutionary studies...... of language. In particular, it is of great importance for narratology in relation to interactive media and new representational technologies. Therefore we outline a research agenda for a bio-cognitive semiotic interdisciplinary investigation on how people understand, react to, and interact with narratives...
Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Nissim, Geffen; Goldberg, Miriam
In this article, we present the use of illustrated metaphorical cards as a technique to enrich the qualitative narrative interview. We examine the advantages of incorporating a projective tool to assist in constructing and understanding personal narratives of people living with severe mental illness. We interviewed 25 participants-staff and members of a clubhouse in Israel (an international community model of rehabilitation in mental health)-and sought to understand their stories focused on personal and organizational values. The findings revealed that, in most cases, the cards contributed to data collection by enhancing the interviewees' ability for expression and by facilitating richer, more comprehensive stories and descriptions. This in turn enhanced the researcher's ability to understand the messages and stories presented. The research conclusions discuss the cards' potential contribution to improving data collection and analysis. The cards became an additional channel for expressing participants' experiences, emotions, and unique voice. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students' comprehension during Physical Education lesson: narration versus animation with concurrent narration, during teaching shot put event. Thirty primary school children (boys and girls volunteered to participate in this study. In experiment students listened (narration and viewed (animation with narration the presentation of two shot putting styles. A problem-solving and a retention test were used to evaluate students' comprehension. Results showed that students' comprehension was better when shot putting styles were presented through a mixed model (animation and narration group than a single (narration. The animation with concurrent narration group performed better than the narration group, in problem-solving (M = 4.91, SD = 1.36 and in retention test (M = 5.98, SD = 1.28 t(28 = 1.89 p<0.01. An instructional implication is that pictures with words is more effective way of teaching when they occur continuingly in time, than only words during Physical Education lesson.
This article is a tribute to Michael White, co-founder of narrative therapy, who passed away on 5 April 2008. Michael White and David Epston founded a substantial and ground-breaking psychological movement based on narrative therapy. Michael touched with dignity and changed for the better the lives of thousands.
Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene
This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Brøns, Morten; Kaper, T.J.; Rotstein, H.G.
Mixed mode oscillations ( MMOs ) occur when a dynamical system switches between fast and slow motion and small and large amplitude. MMOs appear in a variety of systems in nature, and may be simple or complex. This focus issue presents a series of articles on theoretical, numerical, and experiment...
Bischoff, Rainer; Roecklin, D.; Roitsch, C.
Isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients (IEF-IPG) was used to analyze three different recombinant proteins. Recombinant leech hirudin (65 amino acids, three disulfide bonds) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a secreted protein and purified by anion-exchange and reversed-phase
Blerta Dragusha (Spahija
Determining the factors that attract FDI, and furthermore identify the main characteristics of the host country’s economy, are essential to understand the reason of FDI inflows to a country or region. In the empirical perspective, various studies give different results. More specifically, this paper has focused on determining the factors for and against FDI in Albania.
Full Text Available Aiming at focusing-type solar simulator, the paper researches the relationship between the defocusing amount and the facula irradiance. With the optical system of focusing-type solar simulator as research object, simulation is conducted based on a short-arc xenon lamps and its ellipsoidal condenser. According to the xenon lamp energy distribution figure and its distribution curve flux, the luminous body is simplified to cylindrical luminous light which emits light only on the flank. Model for the simplified luminous light and its ellipsoidal condenser are established in the optical simulation software TracePro, and the impact of axial and radial deviation on the facula is simulated. The results show that light off-focus has little influence on the average of facula irradiance, but has great influence on the maximum value and the distribution of facula irradiance as well as the facula area. The result provides a theoretical reference for the design and alignment of solar simulator focusing system.
Full Text Available Traditionally, the exploration of the impact of trauma on trauma survivors in South Africa has been focused mainly on the bio-psychosocial aspects. The bio-psychosocial approach recognises that trauma affects people biologically, socially and psychologically. In this article, the author explores a holistic understanding of the effects of trauma on people from communities historically affected by political violence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a participatory action research design (PAR as a way of working through trauma, a longitudinal study was conducted in Pietermaritzburg from 2009–2013. At the end of the study, life narratives were documented and published. The textual analysis of these life narratives reveals that, besides the bio-psychosocial effects that research participants experienced during and after the trauma, they also sustained moral and spiritual injuries. Trauma took its toll in their lives emotionally, psychologically, spiritually, morally and in their relationships with themselves, others and God. From these findings, the author argues that the bio-psychosocial approach is incomplete for understanding the holistic effects of trauma on the whole person. Therefore, he recommends the integration of the moral and spiritual aspects of trauma to come up with a holistic model of understanding the effects of trauma on traumatised individuals. The holistic model will enhance the treatment, healing and recovery of trauma survivors. This, in turn, will alleviate the severe disruption of many aspects of psychological functioning and well-being of trauma survivors caused by the effects of trauma.
Full Text Available The large availability of user provided contents on online social media facilitates people aggregation around shared beliefs, interests, worldviews and narratives. In spite of the enthusiastic rhetoric about the so called collective intelligence unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories-e.g., chemtrails, reptilians or the Illuminati-are pervasive in online social networks (OSN. In this work we study, on a sample of 1.2 million of individuals, how information related to very distinct narratives-i.e. main stream scientific and conspiracy news-are consumed and shape communities on Facebook. Our results show that polarized communities emerge around distinct types of contents and usual consumers of conspiracy news result to be more focused and self-contained on their specific contents. To test potential biases induced by the continued exposure to unsubstantiated rumors on users' content selection, we conclude our analysis measuring how users respond to 4,709 troll information-i.e. parodistic and sarcastic imitation of conspiracy theories. We find that 77.92% of likes and 80.86% of comments are from users usually interacting with conspiracy stories.
Bessi, Alessandro; Coletto, Mauro; Davidescu, George Alexandru; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Quattrociocchi, Walter
The large availability of user provided contents on online social media facilitates people aggregation around shared beliefs, interests, worldviews and narratives. In spite of the enthusiastic rhetoric about the so called collective intelligence unsubstantiated rumors and conspiracy theories-e.g., chemtrails, reptilians or the Illuminati-are pervasive in online social networks (OSN). In this work we study, on a sample of 1.2 million of individuals, how information related to very distinct narratives-i.e. main stream scientific and conspiracy news-are consumed and shape communities on Facebook. Our results show that polarized communities emerge around distinct types of contents and usual consumers of conspiracy news result to be more focused and self-contained on their specific contents. To test potential biases induced by the continued exposure to unsubstantiated rumors on users' content selection, we conclude our analysis measuring how users respond to 4,709 troll information-i.e. parodistic and sarcastic imitation of conspiracy theories. We find that 77.92% of likes and 80.86% of comments are from users usually interacting with conspiracy stories.
Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko; Nakai, Kenya; Ohmaki, Masayuki
We theoretically calculate behaviors of focusing error signals generated by an astigmatic method in a land-groove-type optical disk. The focusing error signal from the land does not coincide with that from the groove. This behavior is enhanced when a focused spot of an optical pickup moves beyond the radius of the optical disk. A gain difference between the slope sensitivities of focusing error signals from the land and the groove is an important factor with respect to stable focusing servo control. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and the dependences of the gain difference on various factors are investigated. The gain difference strongly depends on the optical intensity distribution of the laser beam in the optical pickup. The calculation method and results in this paper will be reflected in newly developed land-groove-type optical disks.
Mellen, Brian C.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis focuses on the nexus between a terrorist group's narrative and the group's success or failure in achieving its strategic goals. This work theorizes that the interaction of competing narratives exerts a systematic impact on the ability of the terrorist group to achieve its strategic goals through the influence that the narratives have over a group's members, the group's adversary, and the affected population. Although a te...
This article draws on interviews with 60 children and young people to explore how they construct narrative accounts of post-divorce family life. Rather than seeking to describe children's experiences as if their accounts are simple factual recollections, the focus of the article is on how young people position themselves in their narratives and the ways in which they construct their past experiences. It is argued that these narratives are multi-layered, often revealing ambivalence and contrad...
This article analyses the impact of narratives on entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions. To this end, a quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate web-based entrepreneurial narratives. The paired-sample tests and regression analysis use a sample of 466 people from Austria, Finland, and Greece and indicate that individuals' perceptions of the desirability of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention are significantly different before and after exposure to entrepreneurial narratives. Furthermore, the findings indicate that perceptions of the feasibility of entrepreneurship are more strongly affected by videos than by cases. From a policy perspective, this study raises awareness that entrepreneurship is an attractive career path.
Alba Lucy Guerrero
Full Text Available Narrative is a system of understanding that we use to construct and express meaning in our daily lives. The stories we narrate are not justresources for the development and presentation of the individual self; they allow us to see how identity is constructed within social and culturalworlds (Bruner, 1990. Schools and communities play a powerful role in shaping students identities; the ways in which stories are told and theidentities they create are influenced by the environment in which they take place. In this paper, by using excerpts from a conversation I hadwith a High School student in an urban school in Bogotá, I will discuss how narrative analysis can be used to understand the way studentsconstruct their identities within their schools and communities. First, I will present the theoretical contexts linking narrative with self-construction.Next, I will discuss the methodological implications in the process of collecting and representing experiences highlighting the possibilities ofnarrative to make visible the construction of identities. Then pieces of a narrative told in a research interview will be analyzed illustrating differentapproaches of narrative analysis. The paper will conclude with a section that outlines the implications of using narrative in educational research.
Shelley Navari Christianini
Full Text Available This paper presents a development methodology about gamification systems, in which discuss the learning in these media from entertainment, concept defined as Edutertainment. By employing gamification in this type of production, it is believed that the investigation must be focused only on the playing techniques. However, from a literature review, it was found that the focus should be on the player, considering their feelings and real motivations to stay in the system. As a result, it is providing a comparative overview on the theories of Bartle (1996, 2005 and Marczewski (2015 with the main differences between player types in gaming environments and gamification systems, especially with regard to motivational strategies in the context of education.
Goswami, A., E-mail: email@example.com; Sing Babu, P., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Pandit, V.S., E-mail: email@example.com
The stability properties of transverse envelopes of mismatched intense continuous charge particle beam propagating in a general quadrupole focusing channel have been investigated in the presence of image charge effect due to a cylindrical conducting pipe. Phase shifts and growth factors of the envelope oscillations in the case of instability are calculated by numerical evaluation of the eigenvalues of linearly perturbed envelope equations for small deviations from the matched beam conditions. A detailed study on the region of instability and its dependence on the system parameters like occupancy of the quadrupole focusing field, syncopation factor, zero current phase advance, beam intensity etc. have been carried out. It has been found that the strength and regions of envelope instability due to the lattice and confluent resonances in the parametric space are affected by the presence of image charge.
Niknam Sharak, M.; Goudarzi, S.; Raeisdana, A.; Jafarabadi, M.
In this paper the experimental results in different working conditions in Amirkabir Plasma Focus (APF) Device have been compared with the numerical results of a two-dimensional simulation code based on Lee's model. The experiments were done with pure Neon and Argon as operating gases over a wide range of working conditions (gas pressures and discharge voltages). It is observed that by a proper choice for values of the efficiency factors, comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement.
Koval, Dušan; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, H.
Roč. 413, č. 1 (2011), s. 8-15 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P485; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * capillary isoelectric focusing * glycated hemoglobin HbA1c Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2011
Caeiro, Carmen; Cruz, Eduardo Brazete; Pereira, Carla Mendes
The use of arts, literature and reflective writing has becoming increasingly popular in health professionals education. However, research examining its contribution as an educational strategy to promote narrative reasoning capabilities is limited, particularly from the students' perspective. This study aimed to explore the final year physiotherapy students' perspectives about the contribution of arts, literature and reflective writing in facilitating narrative reasoning capabilities. Three focus group meetings using a semi-structured interview schedule were carried out to collect data. Focus group sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to conduct the study and analyze the transcripts. Three themes emerged: (1) developmental understanding of the patients' experiences; (2) developmental understanding about the self; and (3) embedding reflection in clinical practice. Students emphasized an increasing capability to be sensitive and vicariously experience the patient's experience. Through reflective writing, students reported they became more capable of thinking critically about their practice and learning needs for continuous professional development. Finally, students highlighted the contribution of these strategies in making reflection part of their practice. Final year physiotherapy students reported enhanced skills of narrative reasoning. The findings support the inclusion of these strategies within the undergraduate physiotherapy curricula.
Mangum, John S.; Chan, Lisa H.; Schmidt, Ute; Garten, Lauren M.; Ginley, David S.; Gorman, Brian P.
Site-specific preparation of specimens using focused ion beam instruments for transmission electron microscopy is at the forefront of targeting regions of interest for nanoscale characterization. Typical methods of pinpointing desired features include electron backscatter diffraction for differentiating crystal structures and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy for probing compositional variations. Yet there are situations, notably in the titanium dioxide system, where these techniques can fail. Differentiating between the brookite and anatase polymorphs of titania is either excessively laborious or impossible with the aforementioned techniques. However, due to differences in bonding structure, Raman spectroscopy serves as an ideal candidate for polymorph differentiation. In this work, a correlative approach utilizing Raman spectroscopy for targeted focused ion beam specimen preparation was employed. Dark field imaging and diffraction in the transmission electron microscope confirmed the region of interest located via Raman spectroscopy and demonstrated the validity of this new method. Correlative Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and focused ion beam is shown to be a promising new technique for identifying site-specific preparation of nanoscale specimens in cases where conventional approaches do not suffice.
Bavelas, J B; Coates, L; Johnson, T
A collaborative theory of narrative story-telling was tested in two experiments that examined what listeners do and their effect on the narrator. In 63 unacquainted dyads (81 women and 45 men), a narrator told his or her own close-call story. The listeners made 2 different kinds of listener responses: Generic responses included nodding and vocalizations such as "mhm." Specific responses, such as wincing or exclaiming, were tightly connected to (and served to illustrate) what the narrator was saying at the moment. In experimental conditions that distracted listeners from the narrative content, listeners made fewer responses, especially specific ones, and the narrators also told their stories significantly less well, particularly at what should have been the dramatic ending. Thus, listeners were co-narrators both through their own specific responses, which helped illustrate the story, and in their apparent effect on the narrator's performance. The results demonstrate the importance of moment-by-moment collaboration in face-to-face dialogue.
Reese, Elaine; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie; Wang, Qi; McAnally, Helena
Adolescents' intergenerational narratives--the stories they tell about their mothers' and fathers' early experiences--are an important component of their identities (Fivush & Merrill, 2016; Merrill & Fivush, 2016). This study explored adolescents' intergenerational narratives across cultures. Adolescents aged 12 to 21 from 3 cultural…
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune; Arief, Mohammed
In this article we explore some of the methodological problems related to characterizing cognitive aspects of involvement with interactive narratives using well known EEG/ERP techniques. To exemplify this, we construct an experimental EEG-ERP set-up with an interactive narrative that considers th...
Magdalena Flores Ferres
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to demonstrate that Genesis 2.4 to 3.24, can be considered, from the perspective of the structure, a traditional folk story, since it contains the morphologic elements of this type of literature. To that end, in this paper we focus on the study of the structure of the folk tale. The structure of the action sequence of such tales is interesting from differente disciplines, due to its remarkable stability. To that end, we will review the postulates proposed by Vladimir Propp in his book “Morphology of the Folktale” (1928. From these theoretical foundations, we conducted a contrastive analysis of the Genesis 2.4 to 3.24, in paralell to the russian folktale “The Cat, the Rooster and the Fox” (Afanasiev, 1981, after which it was found that both tales have the same narrative structure.
Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum
This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…
De Boer, A.
Introduction (chapter 1) In analysis software models the infrastructural constructions are often reduced to geometrical linear and surface models (plane stress and shell models). The selection of a model much depends on the speed of the analysis process and the total processing time. The increased
Novikova, Anna; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Rades, Thomas
In the present study the applicability of multispectral UV imaging in combination with multivariate image analysis for surface evaluation of MUPS tablets was investigated with respect to the differentiation of the API pellets from the excipients matrix, estimation of the drug content as well as p...... image analysis is a promising approach for the automatic quality control of MUPS tablets during the manufacturing process....
Anthony Pak Hin Kong
Full Text Available Background Analysis of aphasic narratives can be a challenge for clinicians. Previous studies have mainly employed measures that categorized speech samples at the word level. They included quantification of the use and misuse of different word classes, presence and absence of narrative contents and errors, paraphasias, and perseverations, as well as morphological structures and errors within a narrative. In other words, a great amount of research has been conducted in the aphasiology literature focusing on micro-linguistic structures of oral narratives. Aspects of macro- linguistic structures, such as the analysis of content information by a speaker, consistency of using cohesive devices to present information within a narrative, and order of presenting information necessary to form a coherent discourse, have not been extensively investigated. The current investigation proposes a clinical analytic system to target three aspects of macro-linguistic structures in narratives among speakers with aphasia. Specifically, (1 the presence of search events (i.e., the mentioning of key events that allow the listener to understand; Capilouto, Wright, &Wagovich, 2006 within a narrative, (2 the sequence of the mentioned events, and (3 the informativeness (i.e., the fulfillment of lexical items that allow the user to understand what the event is detailing of the event contents, were focused in the proposed framework. Method Ten controls transcripts from were selected from the AphasiaBank (MacWhinney, Fromm, Forbes, & Holland, 2011. Three narrative tasks, including sequential picture description of ‘Refused Umbrella’, procedural narrative of making a ‘Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich’, and telling of ‘Cinderella’ story, were used to establish normative data for the basis of analysis. Specifically, the Search Events (e and Informative Words (i used by at least 70% of the speakers were listed for each genre. The sequential order of mentioning the
Treloar, Anna; Stone, Teresa Elizabeth; McMillan, Margaret; Flakus, Kirstin
Research papers present us with the summaries of scholars' work; what we readers do not see are the struggles behind the decision to choose one methodology over another. A student's mental health portfolio contained a narrative that led to an exploration of the most appropriate methodology for a projected study of clinical anecdotes told by nurses who work in mental health settings to undergraduates and new recruits about mental health nursing. This paper describes the process of struggle, beginning with the student's account, before posing a number of questions needing answers before the choice of the most appropriate methodology. We argue, after discussing the case for the use of literary analysis, discourse analysis, symbolic interactionism, hermeneutics, and narrative research, that case study research is the methodology of choice. Case study is frequently used in educational research and is sufficiently flexible to allow for an exploration of the phenomenon. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Arevalo, E.; Becker, A.
By using perturbation theory we derive an expression for the electrical field of a Gaussian laser beam propagating in a gas medium. This expression is used as a trial solution in a variational method to get quasianalytical solutions for the width, intensity, and self-focusing distance. The approximation gives a better agreement with results of numerical simulations for a broad range of values of the input power than previous analytical results available in the literature. The results apply in the case of ultrashort pulses too
Habermas, Tilmann; Döll-Hentschker, Susanne
We ask which are the clinically relevant qualities of narratives in psychotherapy and how they can be measured. On the background of psychoanalytic assumptions and narrative theory, we propose to measure formal narrative processes which stay close to the linguistic surface, because these escape conscious control. We propose five aspects of narratives to be especially sensitive to distortions and therefore prone to change in successful therapies: (1) The actual chronological, stepwise narrating of events, (2) the intentional structuring of events, or emplotment, (3) the immediate evaluation, (4) the reflected interpretation of events, and finally (5) the consistency and completeness of the narrative. For each aspect we discuss ways to measure them. Finally the aspects are illustrated with excerpts from a series of diagnostic interviews. Implications for the analysis of the co-narrative role of the therapist are suggested.
Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie
This study explores the cultured understanding of mental health and mental illnesses among members of Generation Y in China through a narrative approach. Five prominent narratives are identified through the analysis of stories about mental illnesses collected through semistructured interviews with college students. These five narratives feature the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, the fragile victim, the antisocial recluse, and the homosexual. These narratives are gendered, in that women are the primary protagonists in the narrative about the fragile victim, while men are featured prominently in the narratives about the tragic genius, the psychotic criminal, and the antisocial recluse. Our study demonstrates that these narratives are based on, and will further reinforce, highly cultural-specific stereotypes and biases about mental illnesses in China. Theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.
nation of plant development and physiology (Forestan and. Varotto 2010). PAT is ..... Digital expression of ABCBs in apple. Gene name. Leaf. Root. Flower. Fruit. Shoot. Seed. Bud .... classification and expression analysis. BMC Genomics 13 ...
Storytelling is an increasingly well recognised and valued platform to learn about the human experience within healthcare. Little is known however about how stories can enhance understanding in neonatal care, a specialised field offering rich opportunities for learning. This study focuses on the creation of stories based on the experiences of student nurses to inform teaching and learning strategies in the neonatal field. The study aimed to create stories from the narratives of student nurses working within the neonatal field and identify what key themes for learning emerged in order to develop a storytelling resource to share experiences with their peers. An interpretive, constructivist approach was used to collect, analyse and create stories from student nurse's experiences, in line with narrative inquiry. Six pre-registration children's nursing students were selected by purposive sampling. Interviews were undertaken within six weeks following placement completion in an agreed location. Narratives were obtained by semi-structured interviews. Narrative analysis and core story creation was undertaken to construct stories and key learning themes emerged which provided the pedagogical basis for subsequent digital resource development. Key themes emerged relating to the insight and observances of student nurses and the neonatal journey they had experienced, including the nature of neonatal care, experiences of the neonate and parents, the environment and their own learning transition. Preliminary peer evaluation of the storytelling resource revealed storytelling as an interesting and novel approach to teaching & learning, learning from ones' peers, preparation for practice and a valuable insight into a new specialist area. The study has value to teaching and learning by enabling an appreciation of how narrative can be used to portray the experiences of learners. Findings also support an approach to analysing narrative to create stories for learning and inform
Reddy, Shalini T; Zegarek, Matthew H; Fromme, H Barrett; Ryan, Michael S; Schumann, Sarah-Anne; Harris, Ilene B
Despite the importance of feedback, the literature suggests that there is inadequate feedback in graduate medical education. We explored barriers and facilitators that residents in anesthesiology, emergency medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery experience with giving and receiving feedback during their clinical training. Residents from 3 geographically diverse teaching institutions were recruited to participate in focus groups in 2012. Open-ended questions prompted residents to describe their experiences with giving and receiving feedback, and discuss facilitators and barriers. Data were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with a grounded theory approach. A total of 19 residents participated in 1 of 3 focus groups. Five major themes related to feedback were identified: teacher factors, learner factors, feedback process, feedback content, and educational context. Unapproachable attendings, time pressures due to clinical work, and discomfort with giving negative feedback were cited as major barriers in the feedback process. Learner engagement in the process was a major facilitator in the feedback process. Residents provided insights for improving the feedback process based on their dual roles as teachers and learners. Time pressures in the learning environment may be mitigated by efforts to improve the quality of teacher-learner relationships. Forms for collecting written feedback should be augmented by faculty development to ensure meaningful use. Efforts to improve residents' comfort with giving feedback and encouraging learners to engage in the feedback process may foster an environment conducive to increasing feedback.
Ishikawa, Isao; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Ogura, Yukio; Katakura, Kageyoshi
When a point-focused acoustic lens in the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) is faced to test specimen and defocused to some extent, two effective echoes can be obtained. One is the echo of longitudinal wave, which is normally incident upon the specimen of an on-axis beam in the central region of the lens and is reflected normal to the lens surface, hence detected by the transducer. The other is of leaky surface acoustic waves(LSAW), which are mode converted front a narrow beam of off-axis longitudinal wave, then propagate across the surface of the specimen and reradiate at angles normal to the lens surface, thus detected by the transducer. These two echoes are either interfered or separated with each other depending ell the defocused distance. It turned out theoretically that the LSAW have a narrow focal spot in the central region of the point-focused acoustic lens, whose size is approximately 40% of the LSAW wavelength. On top of that, a wavelength of LSAW is about 50% short as that of longitudinal wave. So, It is expected that high resolution images can be obtained provided LSAW are used in the scanning acoustic microscope.
Sabet Sarvestani, Amir; Bufumbo, Leonard; Geiger, James D; Sienko, Kathleen H
The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC) providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. During 2010-11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches.
Schilithz, Anderson Correa
We present in this thesis the Dalitz Plot analysis of the D s + → π + π - π + decay, with the data of the E831/FOCUS, that took data in 1996 and 1997. The masses and widhts of f 0 (980) and f 0 (1370) are free parametres of the fit on Dalitz Plot, objectiving to study in detail these resonances. After this analysis we present the Spectator Model study on the S wave in this decay. For this study we used the formalism developed by M. Svec  for scattering. We present the comparison between the Isobar Model, frequently used in Dalitz Plot analysis, and this formalism.
Barrett, J. D.; Holland, A. W.; Vessey, W. B.
Industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists play a key role in NASA astronaut candidate selection through the identification of the competencies necessary to successfully engage in the astronaut job. A set of psychosocial competencies, developed by I/O psychologists during a prior job analysis conducted in 1996 and updated in 2003, were identified as necessary for individuals working and living in the space shuttle and on the International Space Station (ISS). This set of competencies applied to the space shuttle and applies to current ISS missions, but may not apply to longer-duration or long-distance exploration missions. With the 2015 launch of the first 12- month ISS mission and the shift in the 2020s to missions beyond low earth orbit, the type of missions that astronauts will conduct and the environment in which they do their work will change dramatically, leading to new challenges for these crews. To support future astronaut selection, training, and research, I/O psychologists in NASA's Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Operations and Research groups engaged in a joint effort to conduct an updated analysis of the astronaut job for current and future operations. This project will result in the identification of behavioral competencies critical to performing the astronaut job, along with relative weights for each of the identified competencies, through the application of job analysis techniques. While this job analysis is being conducted according to job analysis best practices, the project poses a number of novel challenges. These challenges include the need to identify competencies for multiple mission types simultaneously, to evaluate jobs that have no incumbents as they have never before been conducted, and working with a very limited population of subject matter experts. Given these challenges, under the guidance of job analysis experts, we used the following methods to conduct the job analysis and identify the key competencies for current and
Peruzzi, Mariangela; De Luca, Leonardo; Thomsen, Henrik S
-analysis. Randomized trials focusing on statins were searched and pooled with random-effect odds ratios. A total of 14 trials (6,160 patients) were included, focusing on atorvastatin (high/low dose), rosuvastatin (high dose), simvastatin (high/low dose), and placebo or no statin therapy before contrast administration....... The risk of contrast-induced nephropathy was reduced by atorvastatin high dose and rosuvastatin high dose, with no difference between these two agents. Results for atorvastatin low dose and simvastatin (high/low dose) in comparison to placebo were inconclusive. Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin administered...
Jimenez-Gutierrez, L. R.; Barrios-Hernández, C. J.; Pedraza-Ferreira, G. R.; Vera-Cala, L.; Martinez-Perez, F.
Recently, bioinformatics has become a new field of science, indispensable in the analysis of millions of nucleic acids sequences, which are currently deposited in international databases (public or private); these databases contain information of genes, RNA, ORF, proteins, intergenic regions, including entire genomes from some species. The analysis of this information requires computer programs; which were renewed in the use of new mathematical methods, and the introduction of the use of artificial intelligence. In addition to the constant creation of supercomputing units trained to withstand the heavy workload of sequence analysis. However, it is still necessary the innovation on platforms that allow genomic analyses, faster and more effectively, with a technological understanding of all biological processes.