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Sample records for focus area multiyear

  1. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan - FY96-FY98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP) presents the recommended TFA technical program. The recommendation covers a 3-year funding outlook (FY96-FY98), with an emphasis on FY96 and FY97. In addition to defining the recommended program, this document also describes the processes used to develop the program, the implementation strategy for the program, the references used to write this report, data on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank site baselines, details on baseline assumptions and the technical elements, and a glossary

  2. Tanks focus area multiyear program plan FY97-FY99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major tank remediation problem with approximately 332 tanks storing over 378,000 ml of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Most of the tanks have significantly exceeded their life spans. Approximately 90 tanks across the DOE complex are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents are potentially explosive. These tanks must be remediated and made safe. How- ever, regulatory drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Therefore, the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) began operation in October 1994. The focus area manages, coordinates, and leverages technology development to provide integrated solutions to remediate problems that will accelerate safe and cost-effective cleanup and closure of DOE's national tank system. The TFA is responsible for technology development to support DOE's four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), INEL (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: safety, characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, and closure

  3. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management`s (EM`s) plan titled, ``Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure``, and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided.

  4. Plutonium stabilization and disposition focus area, FY 1999 and FY 2000 multi-year program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Consistent with the Environmental Management's (EM's) plan titled, ''Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure'', and ongoing efforts within the Executive Branch and Congress, this Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Plutonium Focus Area was written to ensure that technical gap projects are effectively managed and measured. The Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) defines and manages technology development programs that contribute to the effective stabilization of nuclear materials and their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of PFA activities includes the complete spectrum of plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA enables solutions to site-specific and complex-wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. The report describes the current technical activities, namely: Plutonium stabilization (9 studies); Highly enriched uranium stabilization (2 studies); Russian collaboration program (2 studies); Packaging and storage technologies (6 studies); and PFA management work package/product line (3 studies). Budget information for FY 1999 and FY 2000 is provided

  5. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE's Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50)

  6. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30

  7. TFA Tanks Focus Area Multiyear Program Plan FY00-FY04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BA Carteret; JH Westsik; LR Roeder-Smith; RL Gilchrist; RW Allen; SN Schlahta; TM Brouns

    1999-10-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 68 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked contamination to the soil. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE Office of Environmental Management's (EM's) national technology development program. for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE's technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE's five major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) (New York). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across EM organizations that fund tank technology development, including the Offices of Waste

  8. TFA Tank Focus Area - multiyear program plan FY98-FY00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation problem with hundreds of waste tanks containing hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of high-level waste (HLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste across the DOE complex. Approximately 80 tanks are known or assumed to have leaked. Some of the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in a safe condition and eventually remediated to minimize the risk of waste migration and/or exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. However, programmatic drivers are more ambitious than baseline technologies and budgets will support. Science and technology development investments are required to reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with the tank remediation baselines. The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) was initiated in 1994 to serve as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) national technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. The national program was formed to increase integration and realize greater benefits from DOE`s technology development budget. The TFA is responsible for managing, coordinating, and leveraging technology development to support DOE`s four major tank sites: Hanford Site (Washington), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (Idaho), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Tennessee), and Savannah River Site (SRS) (South Carolina). Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. The TFA integrates program activities across organizations that fund tank technology development EM, including the Offices of Waste Management (EM-30), Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and Science and Technology (EM-50).

  9. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  10. Plutonium focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  11. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites

  12. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  13. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  14. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-01-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment

  15. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  16. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area

  17. Tanks Focus Area annual report FY2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) continues to face a major radioactive waste tank remediation effort with tanks containing hazardous and radioactive waste resulting from the production of nuclear materials. With some 90 million gallons of waste in the form of solid, sludge, liquid, and gas stored in 287 tanks across the DOE complex, containing approximately 650 million curies, radioactive waste storage tank remediation is the nation's highest cleanup priority. Differing waste types and unique technical issues require specialized science and technology to achieve tank cleanup in an environmentally acceptable manner. Some of the waste has been stored for over 50 years in tanks that have exceeded their design lives. The challenge is to characterize and maintain these contents in a safe condition and continue to remediate and close each tank to minimize the risks of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) created a group of integrated, multiorganizational teams focusing on specific areas of the EM cleanup mission. These teams have evolved into five focus areas managed within EM's Office of Science and Technology (OST): Tanks Focus Area (TFA); Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area; Nuclear Materials Focus Area; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area; and Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area.

  18. EPA Region 7 Aquatic Focus Areas (ECO_RES.R7_AQUATIC_FOCUS_AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This shapefile consists of 347 individual Aquatic Ecological System (AES) polygons that are the Aquatic Conservation Focus Areas for EPA Region 7. The focus areas...

  19. CY15 Livermore Computing Focus Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Tom M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cupps, Kim C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); D' Hooge, Trent E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fahey, Tim J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fox, Dave M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Futral, Scott W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gary, Mark R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Goldstone, Robin J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hamilton, Pam G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heer, Todd M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Long, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mark, Rich J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morrone, Chris J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shoopman, Jerry D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slavec, Joe A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Springmeyer, Becky R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stearman, Marc D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Watson, Py C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The LC team undertook a survey of primary Center drivers for CY15. Identified key drivers included enhancing user experience and productivity, pre-exascale platform preparation, process improvement, data-centric computing paradigms and business expansion. The team organized critical supporting efforts into three cross-cutting focus areas; Improving Service Quality; Monitoring, Automation, Delegation and Center Efficiency; and Next Generation Compute and Data Environments In each area the team detailed high level challenges and identified discrete actions to address these issues during the calendar year. Identifying the Center’s primary drivers, issues, and plans is intended to serve as a lens focusing LC personnel, resources, and priorities throughout the year.

  20. Tanks focus area. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management is tasked with a major remediation project to treat and dispose of radioactive waste in hundreds of underground storage tanks. These tanks contain about 90,000,000 gallons of high-level and transuranic wastes. We have 68 known or assumed leaking tanks, that have allowed waste to migrate into the soil surrounding the tank. In some cases, the tank contents have reacted to form flammable gases, introducing additional safety risks. These tanks must be maintained in the safest possible condition until their eventual remediation to reduce the risk of waste migration and exposure to workers, the public, and the environment. Science and technology development for safer, more efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment methods will speed up progress toward the final remediation of these tanks. The DOE Office of Environmental Management established the Tanks Focus Area to serve as the DOE-EM's technology development program for radioactive waste tank remediation in partnership with the Offices of Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. The Tanks Focus Area is responsible for leading, coordinating, and facilitating science and technology development to support remediation at DOE's four major tank sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in Idaho, Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank. Safety is integrated across all the functions and is a key component of the Tanks Focus Area program

  1. Mixed Waste Focus Area program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    This plan describes the program management principles and functions to be implemented in the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE Complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation and disposal

  2. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  3. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed

  4. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  5. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  6. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In support of its vision for technological excellence, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) has identified three strategic goals. The three goals of the SCFA are: Contain and/or stabilize contamination sources that pose an imminent threat to surface and ground waters; Delineate DNAPL contamination in the subsurface and remediate DNAPL-contaminated soils and ground water; and Remove a full range of metal and radionuclide contamination in soils and ground water. To meet the challenges of remediating subsurface contaminants in soils and ground water, SCFA funded more than 40 technologies in fiscal year 1997. These technologies are grouped according to the following product lines: Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids; Metals and Radionuclides; Source Term Containment; and Source Term Remediation. This report briefly describes the SCFA 1997 technologies and showcases a few key technologies in each product line

  7. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  8. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  9. Diagnosis of inconsistencies in multi-year gridded precipitation data over mountainous areas and related impacts on hydrologic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, N.; Smith, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    It is common for the error characteristics of long-term precipitation data to change over time due to various factors such as gauge relocation and changes in data processing methods. The temporal consistency of precipitation data error characteristics is as important as data accuracy itself for hydrologic model calibration and subsequent use of the calibrated model for streamflow prediction. In mountainous areas, the generation of precipitation grids relies on sparse gage networks, the makeup of which often varies over time. This causes a change in error characteristics of the long-term precipitation data record. We will discuss the diagnostic analysis of the consistency of gridded precipitation time series and illustrate the adverse effect of inconsistent precipitation data on a hydrologic model simulation. We used hourly 4 km gridded precipitation time series over a mountainous basin in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California from October 1988 through September 2006. The basin is part of the broader study area that served as the focus of the second phase of the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP-2), organized by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To check the consistency of the gridded precipitation time series, double mass analysis was performed using single pixel and basin mean areal precipitation (MAP) values derived from gridded DMIP-2 and Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data. The analysis leads to the conclusion that over the entire study time period, a clear change in error characteristics in the DMIP-2 data occurred in the beginning of 2003. This matches the timing of one of the major gage network changes. The inconsistency of two MAP time series computed from the gridded precipitation fields over two elevation zones was corrected by adjusting hourly values based on the double mass analysis. We show that model

  10. Consolidation of the landfill stabilization and contaminant plumes focus areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.P.; Wright, J.; Chamberlain, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Office of Environmental Management (EM) on January 25, 1994, formally established five focus areas to implement A New Approach to Environmental Research and Technology Development at the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Action Plan. The goal of this new approach was to conduct a research and technology development program that is focused on overcoming the major obstacles to cleaning up DOE sites and ensuring that the best talent within the Department and the national science communities is used. Two of the five focus areas established were Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA) and Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation Focus Area (PFA), which were located at the Savannah River Operations Office (SR)

  11. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text

  12. Tank Focus Area Pretreatment Program. FY 1995 Program Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.I.; McGinnis, C.P.; Wilkenson, W.T.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    This program management plan (PMP) describes the FY 1995 project plans for the Pretreatment Program of the Tank Focus Area. The Tank Focus Area is one of five areas of environmental concerns originally identified by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Technology Development (EM-50). Projects in the Tank Focus Area relate to the remediation of liquid waste stored in underground storage tanks at various US Department of Energy sites. The Pretreatment Program is an organizational unit performing work within the Tank Focus Area. The function of the Pretreatment Program is to develop, test, evaluate, and demonstrate new technologies, with emphasis on separations. The 11 Pretreatment Program projects for FY 1995 are (1) Cesium Extraction Testing, (2) Comprehensive Supernate Treatment, (3) Hot Cell Studies, (4) Cesium Removal Demonstration, (5) Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration, (6) Crossflow Filtration, (7) Technical Interchange with CEA, (8) TRUEX Applications, (9) NAC/NAG Process Studies (conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory), (10) NAC/NAG Process and Waste Form Studies (conducted at Florida International University), and (11) Program Management. Section 2 of this PMP contains a separate subsection for each FY 1995 project. A brief description of the project, a schedule of major milestones, and a breakdown of costs are provided for each project. The PMP also contains sections that describe the project controls that are in place. Quality assurance, document control, the project management system, and the management organization are described in these sections

  13. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs

  14. Contaminant plumes containment and remediation focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    EM has established a new approach to managing environmental technology research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE. The Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation (Plumes) Focus Area is one of five areas targeted to implement the new approach, actively involving representatives from basic research, technology implementation, and regulatory communities in setting objectives and evaluating results. This document presents an overview of current EM activities within the Plumes Focus Area to describe to the appropriate organizations the current thrust of the program and developing input for its future direction. The Plumes Focus Area is developing remediation technologies that address environmental problems associated with certain priority contaminants found at DOE sites, including radionuclides, heavy metals, and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Technologies for cleaning up contaminants of concern to both DOE and other federal agencies, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organics and inorganic compounds, will be developed by leveraging resources in cooperation with industry and interagency programs.

  15. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  16. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  17. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  18. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  19. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) FY1999 Midyear Review Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlahta, Stephan N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) Midyear Review was to improve the quality and responsiveness of TFA technical solutions to identified user needs. This review goal was achieved through executing a multi-phased review approach. The first phase of the midyear review focused on the subset of FY99 work identified by Department of energy users as having continuing benefit in FY00-01. The TFA FY00-02 Technical Responses identified FY99 work that had continued applicability based on the most current set of site user needs. Each TFA FY00-02 Technical Response which included FY work scope was reviewed by the TFA Technical Advisory Group (TAG), in a meeting held in February 1999. Made up of technical experts from across the country, the TAG provides high-quality, short-turnaround, independent technical reviews for the TFA

  20. Technology demonstrations in the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes three large-scale demonstration projects sponsored jointly by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), and the three US Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices that successfully offered to deactivate or decommission (D ampersand D) one of its facilities using a combination of innovative and commercial D ampersand D technologies. The paper also includes discussions on recent technology demonstrations for an Advanced Worker Protection System, an Electrohydraulic Scabbling System, and a Pipe Explorer trademark. The references at the conclusion of this paper should be consulted for more detailed information about the large-scale demonstration projects and recent technology demonstrations sponsored by the DDFA

  1. Tanks Focus Area (TFA) site needs assessment FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RW Allen

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by five major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Savannah River Site (SRS), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). During the past year, the TFA established a link with DOE's Fernald site to exchange, on a continuing basis, mutually beneficial technical information and assistance

  2. Mixed Waste Focus Area: Department of Energy complex needs report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new approach in August of 1993 to environmental research and technology development. A key feature of this new approach included establishment of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA). The mission of the MWFA is to identify, develop, and implement needed technologies such that the major environmental management problems related to meeting DOE's commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can be addressed, while cost-effectively expending the funding resources. To define the deficiencies or needs of the EM customers, the MWFA analyzed Proposed Site Treatment Plans (PSTPs), as well as other applicable documents, and conducted site visits throughout the summer of 1995. Representatives from the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) at each site visited were requested to consult with the Focus Area to collaboratively define their technology needs. This report documents the needs, deficiencies, technology gaps, and opportunities for expedited treatment activities that were identified during the site visit process. The defined deficiencies and needs are categorized by waste type, namely Wastewaters, Combustible Organics, Sludges/Soils, Debris/Solids, and Unique Wastes, and will be prioritized based on the relative affect the deficiency has on the DOE Complex

  3. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE's Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina

  4. Enhanced Approximate Nearest Neighbor via Local Area Focused Search.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Antonio [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blazier, Nicholas Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) algorithms are increasingly important in machine learning, data mining, and image processing applications. There is a large family of space- partitioning ANN algorithms, such as randomized KD-Trees, that work well in practice but are limited by an exponential increase in similarity comparisons required to optimize recall. Additionally, they only support a small set of similarity metrics. We present Local Area Fo- cused Search (LAFS), a method that enhances the way queries are performed using an existing ANN index. Instead of a single query, LAFS performs a number of smaller (fewer similarity comparisons) queries and focuses on a local neighborhood which is refined as candidates are identified. We show that our technique improves performance on several well known datasets and is easily extended to general similarity metrics using kernel projection techniques.

  5. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA's mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997

  6. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE`s Office of Environmental Management`s national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report.

  7. Tanks Focus Area FY98 midyear technical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlahta, S.N.; Brouns, T.M.

    1998-06-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) serves as the DOE's Office of Environmental Management's national technology and solution development program for radioactive waste tank remediation. Its technical scope covers the major functions that comprise a complete tank remediation system: waste retrieval, waste pretreatment, waste immobilization, tank closure, and characterization of both the waste and tank with safety integrated into all the functions. In total, 17 technologies and technical solutions were selected for review. The purpose of each review was to understand the state of development of each technology selected for review and to identify issues to be resolved before the technology or technical solution progressed to the next level of maturity. The reviewers provided detailed technical and programmatic recommendations and comments. The disposition of these recommendations and comments and their impact on the program is documented in this report

  8. Tanks Focus Area Site Needs Assessment - FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Robert W.; Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Nickola, Cheryl L.

    2001-04-30

    The TFA uses a systematic process for developing its annual program that draws from the tanks science and technology development needs expressed by the five DOE tank waste sites. TFA's annual program development process is iterative and involves the following steps: Collection of site needs; Needs analysis; Development of technical responses and initial prioritization; Refinement of the program for the next fiscal year; Formulation of the Corporate Review Budget (CRB); Preparation of Program Execution Guidance (PEG) for the next FY Revision of the Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP). This document describes the outcomes of the first phase of this process, from collection of site needs to the initial prioritization of technical activities. The TFA received site needs in October - December 2000. A total of 170 site needs were received, an increase of 30 over the previous year. The needs were analyzed and integrated, where appropriate. Sixty-six distinct technical responses were drafted and prioritized. In addition, seven strategic tasks were approved to compete for available funding in FY 2002 and FY 2003. Draft technical responses were prepared and provided to the TFA Site Representatives and the TFA User Steering Group (USG) for their review and comment. These responses were discussed at a March 15, 2001, meeting where the TFA Management Team established the priority listing in preparation for input to the DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) budget process. At the time of publication of this document, the TFA continues to finalize technical responses as directed by the TFA Management Team and clarify the intended work scopes for FY 2002 and FY 2003.

  9. Subsurface contamination focus area technical requirements. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is our vision, a vision that replaces the ad hoc or open-quotes delphiclose quotes method which is to get a group of open-quotes expertsclose quotes together and make decisions based upon opinion. To fulfill our vision for the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), it is necessary to generate technical requirements or performance measures which are quantitative or measurable. Decisions can be supported if they are based upon requirements or performance measures which can be traced to the origin (documented) and are verifiable, i.e., prove that requirements are satisfied by inspection (show me), demonstration, analysis, monitoring, or test. The data from which these requirements are derived must also reflect the characteristics of individual landfills or plumes so that technologies that meet these requirements will necessarily work at specific sites. Other subjective factors, such as stakeholder concerns, do influence decisions. Using the requirements as a basic approach, the SCFA can depend upon objective criteria to help influence the areas of subjectivity, like the stakeholders. In the past, traceable requirements were not generated, probably because it seemed too difficult to do so. There are risks that the requirements approach will not be accepted because it is new and represents a departure from the historical paradigm

  10. Subsurface contamination focus area technical requirements. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is our vision, a vision that replaces the ad hoc or {open_quotes}delphi{close_quotes} method which is to get a group of {open_quotes}experts{close_quotes} together and make decisions based upon opinion. To fulfill our vision for the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), it is necessary to generate technical requirements or performance measures which are quantitative or measurable. Decisions can be supported if they are based upon requirements or performance measures which can be traced to the origin (documented) and are verifiable, i.e., prove that requirements are satisfied by inspection (show me), demonstration, analysis, monitoring, or test. The data from which these requirements are derived must also reflect the characteristics of individual landfills or plumes so that technologies that meet these requirements will necessarily work at specific sites. Other subjective factors, such as stakeholder concerns, do influence decisions. Using the requirements as a basic approach, the SCFA can depend upon objective criteria to help influence the areas of subjectivity, like the stakeholders. In the past, traceable requirements were not generated, probably because it seemed too difficult to do so. There are risks that the requirements approach will not be accepted because it is new and represents a departure from the historical paradigm.

  11. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  12. Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by four major US Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and Savannah River Site (SRS). This document describes the TFA's process of collecting site needs, analyzing them, and creating technical responses to the sites. It also summarizes the information contained within the TFA needs database, portraying information provided by four major DOE sites with tank waste problems. The overall TFA program objective is to deliver a tank technology program that reduces the current cost, and the operational and safety risks of tank remediation. The TFA's continues to enjoy close, cooperative relationships with each site. During the past year, the TFA has fostered exchanges of technical information between sites. These exchanges have proven to be healthy for all concerned. The TFA recognizes that site technology needs often change, and the TFA must be prepared not only to amend its program in response, but to help the sites arrive at the best technical approach to solve revised site needs

  13. Tanks Focus Area FY 1996 Site Needs Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Tanks Focus Area's (TFA's) mission is to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the application of technology to safely and efficiently accomplish tank waste remediation across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The TFA uses a systematic process for developing its annual program that draws from the tanks technology development needs expressed by four DOE tank waste sites--Hanford, Idaho, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River Sites. The process is iterative and involves four steps: (1) identify and validate tank technology needs at these four sites, (2) define a technical program that responds to these needs, (3) select specific tasks and schedules that accomplish program objectives, and (4) develop integrated teams to carry out selected tasks. This document describes the first of these four steps: identification of sites' tank technology needs. This step concentrates solely on needs identification, collection, and validation. Funding requirements and specific scope of responsive technical activities are not considered until later steps in program definition. This year, the collection and validation of site needs were accomplished through written input from the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs). The TFA recognizes the importance of a continuing solid partnership with the sites through the STCG and DOE as well as contractor users and, therefore, ensured site participation and close coordination throughout the process

  14. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects

  15. Tanks Focus Area site needs assessment FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report documents the process used by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to analyze and develop responses to technology needs submitted by four major US Department of Energy (DOE) sites with radioactive tank waste problems, and the initial results of the analysis. The sites are the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and Savannah River Site (SRS). This document describes the TFA`s process of collecting site needs, analyzing them, and creating technical responses to the sites. It also summarizes the information contained within the TFA needs database, portraying information provided by four major DOE sites with tank waste problems. The overall TFA program objective is to deliver a tank technology program that reduces the current cost, and the operational and safety risks of tank remediation. The TFA`s continues to enjoy close, cooperative relationships with each site. During the past year, the TFA has fostered exchanges of technical information between sites. These exchanges have proven to be healthy for all concerned. The TFA recognizes that site technology needs often change, and the TFA must be prepared not only to amend its program in response, but to help the sites arrive at the best technical approach to solve revised site needs.

  16. Tanks focus area site needs assessment FY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Tanks Focus Area's (TFA's) mission is to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the application of technology to safely and efficiently accomplish tank waste remediation across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The TFA uses a systematic process for developing its annual program that draws from the tanks technology development needs expressed by four DOE tank waste sites - Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The process is iterative and involves six steps: (1) Site needs identification and documentation, (2) Site communication of priority needs, (3) Technical response development, (4) Review technical responses, (5) Develop program planning documents, and (6) Review planning documents. This document describes the outcomes of the first two steps: site needs identification and documentation, and site communication of priority needs. It also describes the initial phases of the third and fourth steps: technical response development and review technical responses. Each site's Site Technology Coordination Group (STCG) was responsible for developing and delivering priority tank waste needs. This was accomplished using a standardized needs template developed by the National STCG. The standard template helped improve the needs submission process this year. The TFA received the site needs during December 1996 and January 1997

  17. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: July 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-09

    This is the May 2014 Update to the Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Office. It identifies the research, development, demonstration, and deployment activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation.

  18. Greater Focus Needed on Alien Plant Impacts in Protected Areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Pergl, Jan; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Schaffner, U.; Vila, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2014), s. 459-466 ISSN 1755-263X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * impact * protected areas Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.241, year: 2014

  19. Environmental Management Integration Project/Mixed Waste Focus Area Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D.; Kristofferson, K.; Cole, L.

    1999-01-01

    On January 16, 1998, the Assistant Secretary for the Environmental Management (EM) Program at the Department of Energy, issued DOE-Idaho the Program Integration and Systems Engineering Guidance for Fiscal Year 1998, herein called Guidance, which directed that program integration tasks be performed for all EM program areas. This guidance directed the EM Integration team, as part of the Task 1, to develop baseline waste and material disposition maps which are owned by the site Project Baseline Summary (PBS) manager. With these baselines in place Task 2 gave direction to link Science and Technology activities to the waste and material stream supported by that technology. This linkage of EM Program needs with the OST activities supports the DOE goal of maximizing cleanup at DOE sites by 2006 and provides a defensible science and technology program. Additionally, this linkage is a valuable tool in the integration of the waste and material disposition efforts for the DOE complex

  20. Health Promotion: A developing focus area over the years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, Ina

    2015-08-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as 'Empowerment for Child and Adolescent Health Promotion', 'Salutogenesis--from theory to practice' and 'Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 with bi-annual meetings at NHV. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Public participation in a DOE national program: The mixed waste focus area's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the Mixed Waste Focus Area's approach to involving interested Tribal and public members in the mixed waste technology development process. Evidence is provided to support the thesis that the Focus Area's systems engineering process, which provides visible and documented requirements and decision criteria, facilitates effective Tribal and public participation. Also described is a status of Tribal and public involvement at three levels of Focus Area activities

  2. Arctic multiyear ice classification and summer ice cover using passive microwave satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, J. C.

    1990-08-01

    The ability to classify and monitor Arctic multiyear sea ice cover using multispectral passive microwave data is studied. Sea ice concentration maps during several summer minima have been analyzed to obtain estimates of ice surviving the summer. The results are compared with multiyear ice concentrations derived from data the following winter, using an algorithm that assumes a certain emissivity for multiyear ice. The multiyear ice cover inferred from the winter data is approximately 25 to 40% less than the summer ice cover minimum, suggesting that even during winter when the emissivity of sea ice is most stable, passive microwave data may account for only a fraction of the total multiyear ice cover. The difference of about 2×106 km2 is considerably more than estimates of advection through Fram Strait during the intervening period. It appears that as in the Antarctic, some multiyear ice floes in the Arctic, especially those near the summer marginal ice zone, have first-year ice or intermediate signatures in the subsequent winter. A likely mechanism for this is the intrusion of seawater into the snow-ice interface, which often occurs near the marginal ice zone or in areas where snow load is heavy. Spatial variations in melt and melt ponding effects also contribute to the complexity of the microwave emissivity of multiyear ice. Hence the multiyear ice data should be studied in conjunction with the previous summer ice data to obtain a more complete characterization of the state of the Arctic ice cover. The total extent and actual areas of the summertime Arctic pack ice were estimated to be 8.4×106 km2 and 6.2×106 km2, respectively, and exhibit small interannual variability during the years 1979 through 1985, suggesting a relatively stable ice cover.

  3. Traveler information services in rural tourism areas : appendix B, qualitative interviews and focus groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-30

    This report documents results from surveys which were conducted for qualitatively assessing the use of traveler information services in rural areas. The focus of the surveys was to identify those factors which influence travel planning and thus impro...

  4. Mixed waste focus area Department of Energy technology development needs identification and prioritization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the US DOE initiated a new approach in August, 1993 to environmental research and technology development. The key features of this new approach included establishment of five focus areas and three crosscutting technology programs, which overlap the boundaries of the focus areas. The five focus areas include the Contaminant Plumes Containment and Remediation; Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal; High-Level Waste Tank Remediation, Landfill Stabilization, and Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Areas. The three crosscutting technologies programs include Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology; Efficient Separations and Processing; and Robotics. The DOE created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes. To accomplish this goal, the technology deficiencies must be identified and categorized, the deficiencies and needs must be prioritized, and a technical baseline must be established that integrates the requirements associated with these needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. These steps are described

  5. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: November 2014 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    This is the November 2014 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  6. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan: March 2015 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-03-01

    This is the March 2015 Update to the Multi-Year Program Plan, which sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office. It identifies the RDD&D activities the Office will focus on over the next four years.

  7. Transition from Consultation to Monitoring-NRC's Increasingly Focused Review of Factors Important to F-Area Tank Farm Facility Performance - 13153

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Cynthia; Grossman, Christopher; Alexander, George; Parks, Leah; Fuhrmann, Mark; Shaffner, James; McKenney, Christepher [U.S. NRC, Rockville, MD (United States); Pabalan, Roberto; Pickett, David [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Dinwiddie, Cynthia [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In consultation with the NRC, DOE issued a waste determination for the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) facility in March 2012. The FTF consists of 22 underground tanks, each 2.8 to 4.9 million liters in capacity, used to store liquid high-level waste generated as a result of spent fuel reprocessing. The waste determination concluded stabilized waste residuals and associated tanks and auxiliary components at the time of closure are not high-level and can be disposed of as LLW. Prior to issuance of the final waste determination, during the consultation phase, NRC staff reviewed and provided comments on DOE's revision 0 and revision 1 FTF PAs that supported the waste determination and produced a technical evaluation report documenting the results of its multi-year review in October 2011. Following issuance of the waste determination, NRC began to monitor DOE disposal actions to assess compliance with the performance objectives in 10 CFR Part 61, Subpart C. To facilitate its monitoring responsibilities, NRC developed a plan to monitor DOE disposal actions. NRC staff was challenged in developing a focused monitoring plan to ensure limited resources are spent in the most cost-effective manner practical. To address this challenge, NRC prioritized monitoring areas and factors in terms of risk significance and timing. This prioritization was informed by NRC staff's review of DOE's PA documentation, independent probabilistic modeling conducted by NRC staff, and NRC-sponsored research conducted by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses in San Antonio, TX. (authors)

  8. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  9. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  10. Realization of arbitrarily long focus-depth optical vortices with spiral area-varying zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenglong; Zang, Huaping; Du, Yanli; Tian, Yongzhi; Ji, Ziwen; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Quanping; Wang, Chuanke; Cao, Leifeng; Liang, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    We provide a methodology to realize an optical vortex with arbitrarily long focus-depth. With a technique of varying each zone area of a phase spiral zone plate one can obtain optics capable of generating ultra-long focus-depth optical vortex from a plane wave. The focal property of such optics was analysed using the Fresnel diffraction theory, and an experimental demonstration was performed to verify its effectiveness. Such optics may bring new opportunity and benefits for optical vortex application such as optical manipulation and lithography.

  11. Terahertz Focusing and Polarization Control in Large-Area Bias-Free Semiconductor Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, Joanna L.; Gow, Paul C.; Berry, Sam A.; Mills, Ben; Apostolopoulos, Vasilis

    2018-03-01

    We show that, when large-area multiplex terahertz semiconductor emitters, that work on diffusion currents and Schottky potentials, are illuminated by ultrashort optical pulses they can radiate a directional electromagnetic terahertz pulse which is controlled by the angular spectrum of the incident optical beam. Using the lens that focuses the incident near-infrared pulse, we have demonstrated THz emission focusing in free space, at the same point where the optical radiation would focus. We investigated the beam waist and Gouy phase shift of the THz emission as a function of frequency. We also show that the polarization profile of the emitted THz can be tailored by the metallic patterning on the semiconductor, demonstrating radial polarization when a circular emitter design is used. Our techniques can be used for fast THz beam steering and mode control for efficiently coupling to waveguides without the need for THz lenses or parabolic mirrors.

  12. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers' Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided

  13. A Program to Stabilize Nuclear Materials as Managed by the Plutonium Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, B.; Scott, B.; Seidel, B.; Knecht, D.; Southworth, F.; Osborne, K.; Chipman, N.; Creque, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the program to stabilize nuclear materials, consistent with the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) plan, Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure. The program is managed by the Plutonium Stabilization and Disposition Focus Area, which defines and manages technology development programs to stabilize nuclear materials and assure their subsequent safe storage and final disposition. The scope of the Plutonium Stabilization and Disposition Focus Area (PFA) activities includes non-weapons plutonium materials, special isotopes, and other fissile materials. The PFA provides solutions to site-specific and complex wide technology issues associated with plutonium remediation, stabilization, and preparation for disposition. Our paper describes an important programmatic function of the Department of Energy nuclear materials stabilization program, including the tie-in of policy to research needs and funding for the nuclear materials disposition area. The PFA uses a rigorous systems engineering determination of technology needs and gaps, under the guidance of a Technical Advisory Panel, consisting of complex-wide experts. The Research and Development planning provides an example for other waste areas and should be of interest to Research and Development managers. The materials disposition maps developed by the PFA and described in this paper provide an evaluation of research needs, data gaps and subsequent guidance for the development of technologies for nuclear materials disposition. This paper also addresses the PFA prioritization methodology and its ability to forecast actual time to implementation

  14. State Performance-Based Regulation Using Multiyear Rate Plans for U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Mark Newton [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Makos, Matt [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Electric utilities today must contain costs at a time when many need to modernize aging systems and all face major changes in technologies, customer preferences and competitive pressures.Most U.S. electric utility facilities are investor-owned, subject to rate and service regulation by state public utility commissions. Regulatory systems under which these utilities operate affect their performance and ability to meet these challenges. In this business environment, multiyear rate plans have some advantages over traditional rate regulation.The report focuses on key design issues and provides case studies of the multiyear rate plan approach, applicable to both vertically integrated and restructured states. Mark Newton Lowry and Matt Makos of Pacific Energy Group Research and Jeff Deason of Berkeley Lab authored the report; Lisa Schwartz, Berkeley Lab, was project manager and technical editor.The report is aimed primarily at state utility regulators and stakeholders in the state regulatory process. The multiyear rate approach also provides ideas on how to streamline oversight of public power utilities and rural electric cooperatives for their governing boards.Two key provisions of multiyear rate plans strengthen cost containment incentives and streamline regulation: 1. Reducing frequency of rate cases, typically to every four or five years 2. Using an attrition relief mechanism to escalate rates or revenue between rate cases to address cost pressures such as inflation and growth in number of customers, independently of the utility’s own cost Better utility performance can be achieved under well-designed multiyear rate plans while achieving lower regulatory costs. Benefits can be shared between utilities and their customers. But plans can be complex and involve significant changes in the regulatory system. Designing plans that stimulate utility performance without undue risk and share benefits fairly can be challenging.This report discusses the rationale for multiyear

  15. Bioenergy Technologies Office Multi-Year Program Plan. March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Amy [Bioenergy Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office is one of the 10 technology development offices within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy at the U.S. Department of Energy. This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) sets forth the goals and structure of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (the Office). It identifies the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D), and market transformation and crosscutting activities the Office will focus on over the next five years and outlines why these activities are important to meeting the energy and sustainability challenges facing the nation. This MYPP is intended for use as an operational guide to help the Office manage and coordinate its activities, as well as a resource to help communicate its mission and goals to stakeholders and the public.

  16. Determination of Cross-Sectional Area of Focused Picosecond Gaussian Laser Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Rodolfo; Fitz-Gerald, James; Palmieri, Frank; Connell, John

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of the waist diameter of a focused Gaussian-beam at the 1/e(sup 2) intensity, also referred to as spot size, is key to determining the fluence in laser processing experiments. Spot size measurements are also helpful to calculate the threshold energy and threshold fluence of a given material. This work reports an application of a conventional method, by analyzing single laser ablated spots for different laser pulse energies, to determine the cross-sectional area of a focused Gaussian-beam, which has a nominal pulse width of approx. 10 ps. Polished tungsten was used as the target material, due to its low surface roughness and low ablation threshold, to measure the beam waist diameter. From the ablative spot measurements, the ablation threshold fluence of the tungsten substrate was also calculated.

  17. Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) activities are part of the Retrieval and Closure Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. The purposes of RPD ampersand E are to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on those processes, so that end users have the requisite technical basis to make retrieval decisions. Work has been initiated to support the need for multiple retrieval technologies across the DOE complex. Technologies addressed during FY96 focused on enhancements to sluicing, borehole mining, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, the lightweight scarifier, and pulsed air mixing. Furthermore, a decision tool and database have been initiated to link retrieval processes with tank closure to assist end users in making retrieval decisions

  18. Historical Perspective on Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) Success: Counting the Things That Really Count

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J. A. Jr.; Middleman, L. I.

    2002-02-27

    The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, (SCFA) is committed to, and has been accountable for, identifying and providing solutions for the most pressing subsurface contamination problems in the DOE Complex. The SCFA program is a DOE end user focused and problem driven organization that provides the best technical solutions for the highest priority problems. This paper will discuss in some detail specific examples of the most successful, innovative technical solutions and the DOE sites where they were deployed or demonstrated. These solutions exhibited outstanding performance in FY 2000/2001 and appear poised to achieve significant success in saving end users money and time. They also provide a reduction in risk to the environment, workers, and the public while expediting environmental clean up of the sites.

  19. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  20. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H. [Battelle Seattle Research Center, WA (United States); Lesperance, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L. [EnvironIssues (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area`s (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE`s technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders.

  1. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  2. Mixed waste focus area integrated master schedule (current as of May 6, 1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with the participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating the Department of Energy's (DOE's) mixed wastes. In support of this mission, the MWTA produced the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report, Phase I Volume 1, January 16, 1996, which identified a prioritized list of 30 national mixed waste technology deficiencies. The MWFA is targeting funding toward technology development projects that address the current list of deficiencies. A clear connection between the technology development projects and the EM-30 and EM-40 treatment systems that they support is essential for optimizing the MWFA efforts. The purpose of the Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) is to establish and document these connections and to ensure that all technology development activities performed by the MWFA are developed for timely use in those treatment systems. The IMS is a list of treatment systems from the Site Treatment Plans (STPs)/Consent Orders that have been assigned technology development needs with associated time-driven schedules, Technology deficiencies and associated technology development (TD) needs have been identified for each treatment system based on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the waste targeted for the treatment system. The schedule, the technology development activities, and the treatment system have been verified through the operations contact from the EM-30 organization at the site

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities

  4. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex

  5. Policy Design of Multi-Year Crop Insurance Contracts with Partial Payments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Erh Chen

    Full Text Available Current crop insurance is designed to mitigate monetary fluctuations resulting from yield losses for a specific year. However, yield realization tendency can vary from year to year and may depend on the correlation of yield realizations across years. When the current single-year Yield Protection (YP and Area Risk Protection Insurance (ARPI contracts are extended to multiple periods, actuarially fair premium rate is expected to decrease as poor yield realizations in a year can be offset by another year's better yield realizations. In this study, we first use simulations to demonstrate how significant premium savings are possible when coverage is based on the sum of yields across years rather than on a year-by-year basis. We then describe the design of a multi-year framework of crop insurance and model the insurance using a copula approach. Insurance terms are extended to more than a year and the premium, liability, and indemnity are determined by a multi-year term. Moreover, partial payment is provided at the end of each term to offset the possibility of significant loss in a single term. County-level data obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to demonstrate the implementations of the proposed multi-year crop insurance. The proposed multi-year plan would benefit farmers by offering insurance guarantees across years for significantly lower costs.

  6. 48 CFR 217.172 - Multiyear contracts for supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... law. For additional policies that apply only to multiyear contracts for weapon systems, see 217.173... requirements of law are met and there are no other statutory restrictions on using a multiyear contract for the... provisions in the contract do not include consideration of recurring manufacturing costs of the contractor...

  7. 7 CFR 22.304 - Multiyear planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiyear planning and programming. 22.304 Section 22.304 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.304 Multiyear planning and programming. State and multicounty...

  8. Technical Targets - A Tool to Support Strategic Planning in the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is supported by a lead laboratory consisting of technical representatives from DOE laboratories across the country. This broadly representative scientific group has developed and implemented a process to define Technical Targets to assist the SCFA in strategic planning and in managing their environmental research and development portfolio. At an initial meeting in Golden Colorado, an initial set of Technical Targets was identified using a rapid consensus based technical triage process. Thirteen Technical Targets were identified and described. Vital scientific and technical objectives were generated for each target. The targets generally fall into one of the following five strategic investment categories: Enhancing Environmental Stewardship, Eliminating Contaminant Sources, Isolating Contaminants, Controlling Contaminant Plumes, Enabling DOEs CleanUp Efforts. The resulting targets and the detail they comprise on what is, and what is not, needed to meet Environmental Management needs provide a comprehensive technically-based framework to assist in prioritizing future work and in managing the SCFA program

  9. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  10. Enhancing technology acceptance: The role of the subsurface contaminants focus area external integration team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan-Taylor, H.; McCabe, G.H.; Lesperance, A.; Kauffman, J.; Serie, P.; Dressen, L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is developing and deploying innovative technologies for cleaning up its contaminated facilities using a market-oriented approach. This report describes the activities of the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area's (SCFA) External Integration Team (EIT) in supporting DOE's technology development program. The SCFA program for technology development is market-oriented, driven by the needs of end users. The purpose of EIT is to understand the technology needs of the DOE sites and identify technology acceptance criteria from users and other stakeholders to enhance deployment of innovative technologies. Stakeholders include regulators, technology users, Native Americans, and environmental and other interest groups. The success of this national program requires close coordination and communication among technology developers and stakeholders to work through all of the various phases of planning and implementation. Staff involved must be willing to commit significant amounts of time to extended discussions with the various stakeholders

  11. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  12. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  13. Quercetin as an Emerging Anti-Melanoma Agent: A four-focus area therapeutic development strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoey Harris

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase -- a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes a feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea. Quercetin has demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in various cancer cell types. Quercetin is readily metabolized by tyrosinase into various compounds that promote anti-cancer activity; additionally, given that tyrosinase expression increases during tumorigenesis, and its activity is associated with pigmentation changes in both early- and late-stage melanocytic lesions, it suggests that quercetin can be used to target melanoma. In this review we explore the potential of Quercetin as an anti-melanoma agent utilizing and extrapolating on evidence from previous in vitro studies in various human malignant cell lines and propose a four-focus area strategy to develop quercetin as a targeted anti-melanoma compound for use as either a preventative or therapeutic agent. The four areas of focus include utilizing quercetin to i modulate cellular bioreduction potential and associated signaling cascades, ii affect transcription of relevant genes, iii regulate epigenetic processes, and iv develop effective combination therapies and delivery modalities/protocols. In general, quercetin could be used to exploit tyrosinase activity to prevent, and/or treat, melanoma with minimal additional side effects.

  14. Multiyear interactive computer almanac, 1800-2050

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Naval Observatory

    2005-01-01

    The Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA Version 2.2.2 ) is a software system that runs on modern versions of Windows and Macintosh computers created by the U.S. Naval Observatory's Astronomical Applications Department, especially for astronomers, surveyors, meteorologists, navigators and others who regularly need accurate information on the positions, motions, and phenomena of celestial objects. MICA produces high-precision astronomical data in tabular form, tailored for the times and locations specified by the user. Unlike traditional almanacs, MICA computes these data in real time, eliminating the need for table look-ups and additional hand calculations. MICA tables can be saved as standard text files, enabling their use in other applications. Several important new features have been added to this edition of MICA, including: extended date coverage from 1800 to 2050; a redesigned user interface; a graphical sky map; a phenomena calculator (eclipses, transits, equinoxes, solstices, conjunctions, oppo...

  15. Technical program plan for the transitioning, decommissioning, and final disposition focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the decision to reduce the size of the nuclear weapons production complex have created a need for DOE to deactivate, decontaminate, and decommission (D ampersand D) a large number of aging, surplus facilities. The nature and magnitude of the facility D ampersand D problems require EM to facilitate the development and application of technologies that will address these problems quickly and cost-effectively. The needed technologies can best be provided by integrating the strengths of DOE's national laboratories with those of industry, universities, and other government agencies. To help focus and direct these activities toward achieving DOE's goals, the EM Office of Technology Development (OTD) devised the strategic concept of an Integrated Demonstration (ID), which involves selecting, demonstrating, testing, and evaluating an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific EM problems, such as those posed by D ampersand D. The ID approach allows optimal use of DOE's resources by avoiding duplication of effort and ensuring rapid demonstration of applicable technologies. Many technologies, including both the commercially mature and the innovative, are combined and evaluated for a cradle-to-grave solution to specific EM problems in areas such as D ampersand D. The process will involve transforming an existing problem condition to a desired end state, recycling waste materials generated, wherever feasible, and minimizing requirements for waste disposal. The D ampersand D ID Strategic Plan has been prepared by a Technical Support Group (TSG) assembled from various sites within the DOE Complex and intended to identify cross-cutting problem areas amenable to applications of the D ampersand D ID concept and to develop specific ID proposals for these problem areas

  16. Inquiring into Pre-Service Content Area Teachers' Development of Literacy Practices and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton Kukner, Jennifer; Murray Orr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative multi-year case study is on preservice teachers' experiences related to the development of their literacy practices in teaching high school science, math, social studies and other content area courses during their final field placement in a teacher education program. Results indicate tangible indicators of overall…

  17. Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Multi-Year Program Crosscut Plan, FY 1994--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    DOE has established a Natural Gas Coordinating Committee to ensure that all natural gas programs are conducted with a single strategic focus and without unnecessary duplication. This group prepared the FY 1993 update of the DOE Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Multi-Year Crosscut Program Plan (FY 1993-1998), which was first produced a year ago as a ``working draft`` for industry comment. This revised version incorporates these external comments and the results and recommendations of such developments as Order No. 636 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the FERC/DOE Natural Gas Deliverability Task Force Report; the National Petroleum Council`s 1992 natural gas study, The Potential for Natural Gas in the United States; relevant provisions of the EPACT, and new policy guidance from the Clinton Administration. The overall goal of the Natural Gas RD&D Program is to improve the Nation`s ability to supply, store, transport, distribute, and utilize gas in an economically efficient and environmentally beneficial manner. In support of DOE`s missions are programs that will: improve the confidence in the continued availability of a long-term gas supply (Resource and Extraction Area); provide more cost-effective and competitive means to use natural gas in both new and existing markets (Utilization Area); develop improved and less costly means of delivering and storing gas (Delivery and Storage Area); and develop and ensure availability of low cost environmental compliance technology, and reduce regulatory barriers to efficient market operations by promoting coordinated, efficient, and innovative Federal and State regulations (Environmental/Regulatory Impact Area). Each program area has its own unique mission that contributes to the goals and mission of the overall Natural Gas Program.

  18. Integrating pretreatment and retrieval: Results from the July 1997 Tanks Focus Area workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    If scientists and researchers working to solve the tank waste challenges, technical program office managers at the tank sites, and others understand the connection between retrieval and pretreatment activities, more efficient processes and reduced costs can be achieved. To make this possible, researchers involved in retrieval and pretreatment activities met at the Conference Center in Richland, Washington, on July 16 and 17, 1997, to discuss the connections between these activities. The purpose of the workshop was to help participants (1) gain a better understanding of retrieval and pretreatment process needs and experiences; (2) gain practical knowledge of the applications, capabilities, and requirements of retrieval and pretreatment technologies being developed and deployed; and (3) focus on identifying and troubleshooting interface issues and problems. The end product of this meeting was to create a checklist of retrieval and pretreatment parameters to consider when developing new technologies or managing work at the sites in these areas. For convenience, the information is also organized by pretreatment parameter and retrieval-pretreatment parameter in Section 5.0

  19. Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Rebecca L.; Lorier, Troy H.; Peeler, David K.; Brown, Kevin G.; Reamer, Irene A.; Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin; Jorgensen, Benaiah M.; Smith, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Waste (LAW) Product Acceptance (HLP): Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package (Vienna (and others) 2000). In addition to new 5000-h product consistency test (PCT), vapor hydration test (VHT), and alteration products data, some previously reported data together with relevant background information are included for an easily accessible source of reference when comparing the response of the various glasses to different test conditions. A matrix of 55 glasses was developed and tested to identify the impact of glass composition on long-term corrosion behavior and to develop an acceptable composition region for Hanford LAW glasses. Of the 55 glasses, 45 were designed to systematically vary the glass composition, and 10 were selected because large and growing databases on their corrosion characteristics had accumulated. The targeted and measured compositions of these glasses are found in the Appendix A. All glasses were fabricated according to standard procedures and heat treated to simulate the slow cooling that will occur in a portion of the waste glass after vitrification in the planned treatment facility at Hanford

  20. US Department of Energy mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area technical baseline development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.A.; Gombert, D.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) created the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet its commitments for treatment of mixed wastes under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), and in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Mixed wastes include both mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste. The goal of the MWFA is to develop mixed waste treatment systems to the point of implementation by the Environmental Management (EM) customer. To accomplish this goal, the MWFA is utilizing a three step process. First, the treatment system technology deficiencies were identified and categorized. Second, these identified needs were prioritized. This resulted in a list of technical deficiencies that will be used to develop a technical baseline. The third step, the Technical Baseline Development Process, is currently ongoing. When finalized, the technical baseline will integrate the requirements associated with the identified needs into the planned and ongoing environmental research and technology development activities supported by the MWFA. Completion of this three-step process will result in a comprehensive technology development program that addresses customer identified and prioritized needs. The MWFA technical baseline will be a cost-effective, technically-defensible tool for addressing and resolving DOE's mixed waste problems

  1. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  2. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Alberts, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT)

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area integrated technical baseline report, Phase 1: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable treatment systems, developed in partnership with users and with participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that are capable of treating DOE's mixed waste. These treatment systems include all necessary steps such as characterization, pretreatment, and disposal. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline is being established that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The technical baseline is the prioritized list of deficiencies, and the resulting technology development activities needed to overcome these deficiencies. This document presents Phase I of the technical baseline development process, which resulted in the prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. A summary of the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based is included, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs. The next phase in the technical baseline development process, Phase II, will result in the identification of technology development activities that will be conducted through the MWFA to resolve the identified deficiencies

  4. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCadbe, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing

  5. Securing Canada’s Information-Technology Infrastructure: Context, Principles, and Focus Areas of Cybersecurity Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the challenges of cybersecurity and ultimately the provision of a stable and resilient information-technology infrastructure for Canada and, more broadly, the world. We describe the context of current cybersecurity challenges by synthesizing key source material whose importance was informed by our own real-world experiences. Furthermore, we present a checklist of guiding principles to a unified response, complete with a set of action-oriented research topics that are linked to known operational limitations. The focus areas are used to drive the formulation of a unified and relevant research and experimental development program, thereby moving us towards a stable and resilient cyberinfrastructure. When cybersecurity is viewed as an inherently interdisciplinary problem of societal concern, we expect that fundamentally new research perspectives will emerge in direct response to domain-specific protection requirements for information-technology infrastructure. Purely technical responses to cybersecurity challenges will be inadequate because human factors are an inherent aspect of the problem. This article will interest managers and entrepreneurs. Senior management teams can assess new technical developments and product releases to fortify their current security solutions, while entrepreneurs can harness new opportunities to commercialize novel technology to solve a high-impact cybersecurity problem..

  6. On equilibrium real exchange rates in euro area: Special focus on behavioral equilibrium exchange rates in Ireland and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Klára Plecitá; Luboš Střelec

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with ...

  7. Multiyear drought-induced morbidity preceding tree death in southeastern U.S. forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdanier, Aaron B; Clark, James S

    2016-01-01

    Recent forest diebacks, combined with threats of future drought, focus attention on the extent to which tree death is caused by catastrophic events as opposed to chronic declines in health that accumulate over years. While recent attention has focused on large-scale diebacks, there is concern that increasing drought stress and chronic morbidity may have pervasive impacts on forest composition in many regions. Here we use long-term, whole-stand inventory data from southeastern U.S. forests to show that trees exposed to drought experience multiyear declines in growth prior to mortality. Following a severe, multiyear drought, 72% of trees that did not recover their pre-drought growth rates died within 10 yr. This pattern was mediated by local moisture availability. As an index of morbidity prior to death, we calculated the difference in cumulative growth after drought relative to surviving conspecifics. The strength of drought-induced morbidity varied among species and was correlated with drought tolerance. These findings support the ability of trees to avoid death during drought events but indicate shifts that could occur over decades. Tree mortality following drought is predictable in these ecosystems based on growth declines, highlighting an opportunity to address multiyear drought-induced morbidity in models, experiments, and management decisions.

  8. Volcanic or Fluvial Channels on Ascraeus Mons: Focus on the Source Area of Sinuous Channels on the Southeast Rift Apron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorella, J. D.; de Wet, A. P.; Bleacher, J. E.; Collins, A.; Schierl, Z. P.; Schwans, B.

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on the source area of sinuous channels on the southeast rift apron on Ascraeus Mons, Mars and attempts to understand whether the channels were formed through volcanic or fluvial processes.

  9. Climate services for an urban area (Baia Mare City, Romania) with a focus on climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Mihaela; Micu, Dana; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Mihalache, Sorin

    2013-04-01

    undertaken with key institutions focusing on environmental, health and urban development issues. The survey was conducted in order to identify the local authorities' perception and needs on climate change information and the importance of climate services for the city and institution's activity. Generally, the results suggest that the selected institutions are poorly aware of the potential impacts of climate change and associated extremes in the area, but they showed a real interest for future climate estimations necessary to undertake reliable adaptation measures. At institutional level, do not exist specialized departments (job positions) to tackle or manage climate information and climate-related aspects, this not being a pressing or priority issue for the city. The climate services aspects are seen with interest mainly in supplying climate scenarios and models for a relatively short term (next 10 or 15 years), the climate information being in this way included in the local planning strategies.

  10. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  11. Spatial and temporal multiyear sea ice distributions in the Arctic: A neural network analysis of SSM/I data, 1988-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Alpatsky, I.V.; Platonov, Nikita G.

    2004-01-01

    Arctic multiyear sea ice concentration maps for January 1988-2001 were generated from SSM/I brightness temperatures (19H, 19V, and 37V) using modified multiple layer perceptron neural networks. Learning data for the neural networks were extracted from ice maps derived from Okean and ERS satellite imagery to capitalize on the stability of active radar multiyear ice signatures. Evaluations of three learning algorithms and several topologies indicated that networks constructed with error back propagation learning and 3-20-1 topology produced the most consistent and physically plausible results. Operational neural networks were developed specifically with January learning data, and then used to estimate daily multiyear ice concentrations from daily-averaged SSM/I brightness temperatures during January. Monthly mean maps were produced for analysis by averaging the respective daily estimates. The 14-year series of January multiyear ice distributions revealed dense and persistent cover in the central Arctic surrounded by expansive regions of highly fluctuating interannual cover. Estimates of total multiyear ice area by the neural network were intermediate to those of other passive microwave algorithms, but annual fluctuations and trends were similar among all algorithms. When compared to Radarsat estimates of multiyear ice concentration in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (1997-1999), average discrepancies were small (0.9-2.5%) and spatial coherency was reasonable, indicating the neural network's Okean and ERS learning data facilitated passive microwave inversion that emulated backscatter signatures. During 1988-2001, total January multiyear ice area declined at a significant linear rate of -54.3 x 103 km2/yr-1 (-1.4%/yr-1). The most persistent and extensive decline in multiyear ice concentration (-3.3%/yr-1) occurred in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. In autumn 1996, a large multiyear ice recruitment of over 106 km2 (mostly in the Siberian Arctic) fully replenished

  12. Analysis of cognitive structure of nuclear energy focusing on inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify people's cognitive structure of nuclear energy, and to analyze how the cognitive structure varies with inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge of nuclear energy. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey of perception of nuclear energy in the urban areas and nuclear power plants (NPP) siting areas. After collecting data, we defined 8 categories in terms of respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge, and applied factor analysis to each category's data. Consequently, we found 4 cognitive factors of nuclear: 'trust in the authorities', 'utility of nuclear power generation', 'benefit for NPP siting areas', and 'risk perception about nuclear technology', regardless of the respondents' inhabiting areas, genders, and knowledge. In addition, when the respondents assess many perceptions of nuclear energy, respondents living in urban areas tend to regard 'trust in the authorities' as important, while respondents living in NPP siting areas tend to take into consideration of risk perception about nuclear technology'. (author)

  13. Active and passive computed tomography mixed waste focus area final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G K; Camp, D C; Decman, D J; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E; Roberson, G P.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) Characterization Development Strategy delineates an approach to resolve technology deficiencies associated with the characterization of mixed wastes. The intent of this strategy is to ensure the availability of technologies to support the Department of Energy s (DOE) mixed-waste, low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated waste characterization management needs. To this end the MWFA has defined and coordinated characterization development programs to ensure that data and test results necessary to evaluate the utility of non-destructive assay technologies are available to meet site contact handled waste management schedules. Requirements used as technology development project benchmarks are based in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan. These requirements include the ability to determine total bias and total measurement uncertainty. These parameters must be completely evaluated for waste types to be processed through a given nondestructive waste assay system constituting the foundation of activities undertaken in technology development projects. Once development and testing activities have been completed, Innovative Technology Summary Reports are generated to provide results and conclusions to support EM-30, -40, or -60 end user or customer technology selection. The active and passive computed tomography non-destructive assay system is one of the technologies selected for development by the MWFA. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the active and passive computed tomography (A ampersand XT) nondestructive assay (NDA) technology to identify and accurately quantify all detectable radioisotopes in closed containers of waste. This technology will be applicable to all types of waste regardless of their classification-low level, transuranic or mixed. Mixed waste contains radioactivity and hazardous organic species. The scope of our technology is to develop a non-invasive waste-drum scanner that

  14. [Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, G E; Vieira, J B; Garcia-Zapata, M T; Schuertz, J C

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

  15. Focused feasibility study of engineered barriers for waste management units in the 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas consisting of the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) included the 200 Areas (as well as the 100, 300, and 1,100 Areas) of the Hanford Site on the National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiates the remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) process to characterize the nature and extent of contamination, assess risks to human health and the environment, and select remedial actions. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) was developed and signed by representatives from the EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and DOE in May 1989 to provide a framework to implement and integrate cleanup activities. The scope of the agreement covers CERCLA past-practice, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) past-practice, and RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) activities on the Hanford Site. The 1991 revision to the Tri-Party Agreement required that an aggregate area approach be implemented in the 200 Areas based on the Hanford Site Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) and established a milestone (M-27-00) to complete 10 Aggregate Area Management Study (AAMS) Reports in 1992

  16. Estimating Global Cropland Extent with Multi-year MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher O. Justice

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the suitability of 250 m MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data for mapping global cropland extent. A set of 39 multi-year MODIS metrics incorporating four MODIS land bands, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and thermal data was employed to depict cropland phenology over the study period. Sub-pixel training datasets were used to generate a set of global classification tree models using a bagging methodology, resulting in a global per-pixel cropland probability layer. This product was subsequently thresholded to create a discrete cropland/non-cropland indicator map using data from the USDA-FAS (Foreign Agricultural Service Production, Supply and Distribution (PSD database describing per-country acreage of production field crops. Five global land cover products, four of which attempted to map croplands in the context of multiclass land cover classifications, were subsequently used to perform regional evaluations of the global MODIS cropland extent map. The global probability layer was further examined with reference to four principle global food crops: corn, soybeans, wheat and rice. Overall results indicate that the MODIS layer best depicts regions of intensive broadleaf crop production (corn and soybean, both in correspondence with existing maps and in associated high probability matching thresholds. Probability thresholds for wheat-growing regions were lower, while areas of rice production had the lowest associated confidence. Regions absent of agricultural intensification, such as Africa, are poorly characterized regardless of crop type. The results reflect the value of MODIS as a generic global cropland indicator for intensive agriculture production regions, but with little sensitivity in areas of low agricultural intensification. Variability in mapping accuracies between areas dominated by different crop types also points to the desirability of a crop-specific approach rather than attempting

  17. Evaluation of Green Infrastructure on Peak Flow Mitigation Focusing on the Connectivity of Impervious Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y.; Hwang, J.; Kwon, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The existence of impervious areas is one of the most distinguishing characteristics of urban catchments. It decreases infiltration and increases direct runoff in urban catchments. The recent introduction of green infrastructure in urban catchments for the purpose of sustainable development contributes to the decrease of the directly connected impervious areas (DCIA) by isolating existing impervious areas and consequently, to the flood risk mitigation. This study coupled the width function-based instantaneous hydrograph (WFIUH), which is able to handle the spatial distribution of the impervious areas, with the concept of the DCIA to assess the impact of decreasing DCIA on the shape of direct runoff hydrographs. Using several scenarios for typical green infrastructure and corresponding changes of DCIA in a test catchment, this study evaluated the effect of green infrastructure on the shape of the resulting direct runoff hydrographs and peak flows. The results showed that the changes in the DCIA immediately affects the shape of the direct runoff hydrograph and decreases peak flows depending on spatial implementation scenarios. The quantitative assessment of the spatial distribution of impervious areas and also the changes to the DCIA suggests effective and well-planned green infrastructure can be introduced in urban environments for flood risk management.

  18. Multicriteria focus to evaluate the operation of technologies of renewable energy in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the problem of the selection of renewable energy alternatives in rural regions in the developing world. We discuss a multicriteria method, MAP RESURL, for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of the energy systems that have been installed in rural areas. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of energization policies

  19. Biodiversity conservation should focus on no-take Marine Reserves: 94% of Marine Protected Areas allow fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Ballantine, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Conservation needs places where nature is left wild; but only a quarter of coastal countries have no-take Marine Reserves. 'Marine Protected Areas' (MPAs) have been used to indicate conservation progress but we found that 94% allow fishing and thus cannot protect all aspects of biodiversity. Biodiversity conservation should focus on Marine Reserves, not MPAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laughter and Forgetting: Using Focus Groups to Discuss Smoking and Motherhood in Low-Income Areas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude

    2009-01-01

    This article considers previously ignored aspects of verbal communication, humor and laughter, as critical components of social interaction within group discussions. Drawing on data from focus groups, Robinson uses a feminist perspective to explore how mothers living in areas of poverty in Liverpool, UK, use humor and laughter to discuss their…

  1. Skin Effect Simulation for Area 11 Dense Plasma Focus Hot Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, B. Timothy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-07-27

    Two arc flashover events occurred at the DPF Area 11 facility. These flashover events happened in the same location on the bank current delivery plates. The damage from one of these events can be seen on the left-hand side of Figure 1. Since the flashovers occurred in the same area of the bank, and the reliability of the bank is important for future DPF experiments, a failure analysis effort was initiated. Part of this failure analysis effort was an effort to understand the physical reasons behind why the flashover happened, and why it happened in the same place twice. This paper summarizes an effort to simulate the current flow in the bank in order to understand the reasons for the flashover.

  2. Geology of the Tono area with focus on the Toki granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an overview of the petrography, fracturing and large-scale structures occurring in Toki granite at the Tono area (Gifu Pref., Japan). Geological descriptions of the investigated Shobasama and MIU Underground Laboratory Construction Site are also given together with the layout of the facility. The overview provides the starting point for the analyses related to the strength of the Toki granite treated in the rest of this report. (author)

  3. Effect of focusing condition on molten area characteristics in micro-welding of borosilicate glass by picosecond pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, I.H.W.; Okamoto, Y.; Okada, A.; Takekuni, T. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama (Japan); Sakagawa, T. [Kataoka Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The characteristics of the molten area are attributed not only by laser energy condition but also the focusing condition. In this study, a picosecond pulsed laser of 1064 nm in wavelength and 12.5 ps in pulse duration was used as a laser source for joining glass material. Influence of focusing condition on micro-welding of glasses was experimentally investigated by using an objective lens with and without spherical aberration correction, and its molten area was characterized. The usage of objective lens with spherical aberration correction led to a larger molten area inside the bulk material of glass even under the same pulse energy, which related to the efficient micro-welding of glass materials. In addition, an optical system with the spherical aberration correction led to a stable absorption of laser energy inside the bulk glass material, stabilizing the shape of molten area, which resulted in the reliable weld joint. On the other hand, breaking strength of the specimens with spherical aberration correction was higher than that without spherical aberration correction. Therefore, it is concluded that the focusing condition with spherical aberration correction led to the larger and stable molten area, which resulted in higher joining strength in micro-welding of glass materials. (orig.)

  4. Focused feasibility study of engineered barriers for waste management units in the 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) evaluates a total of four conceptual barrier designs for different types of waste sites. The Hanford Barrier, the Modified RCRA Subtitle C Barrier, and the Modified RCRA Subtitle D Barrier are being considered as the baseline design for the purpose of the FFS evaluation. A fourth barrier design, the Standard RCRA Subtitle C Barrier, is also evaluated in this FFS; it is commonly applied at other waste sites across the country. These four designs provide a range of cover options to minimize health and environmental risks associated with a site and specific waste categories for active design life periods of 30, 100, 500, and 1,000 years. Design criteria for the 500 and 1,000-year design life barriers include design performance to extend beyond active institutional control and monitoring periods

  5. Disseminating evidence-based treatments for PTSD in organizational settings: A high priority focus area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, Josef I; Rosen, Raymond C

    2009-11-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based treatments for PTSD has become an important focus of activity in the aftermath of recent terrorist attacks (e.g., London underground and U.S. 9/11 attacks), natural disasters (e.g., Indian Ocean tsunami and Hurricane Katrina), and wars (e.g., in Iraq and Afghanistan). This has become a high priority need for all mental health training and service delivery organizations. Researchers and educators have begun to examine clinician and client perceptions and preferences regarding PTSD treatment processes, and health care systems are organizing more comprehensive efforts at training and system change. As this evolution of services moves forward, effective dissemination should be a major focus of health policy research for the next decade or more. This review critically evaluates the PTSD-related research and emerging theory related to four major sets of variables that affect dissemination: (1) Practitioner factors, (2) Training methods, (3) The practice innovation(s) being disseminated; and (4) Organization or system factors. We evaluate findings from recent studies in light of emerging models of dissemination, and in the final section of the paper, we consider five broad topics with particular implications for dissemination of PTSD-specific treatments. They are: (1) The content of dissemination (i.e., which treatment protocols or intervention methods should be prioritized); (2) Strict adherence versus flexibility in the use of treatment manuals and the role of fidelity assessment; (3) The need for collaboration with user audiences; (4) The potential role of web-based technologies in increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of dissemination; and (5) Development of dissemination infrastructures within organizations.

  6. A Multi-Year Plan for Enhancing Turbulence Modeling in Hydra-TH Revised and Updated Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berndt, Markus [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Magolan, Ben [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a multi-year plan for enhancing turbulence modeling in Hydra-TH for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) program. Hydra-TH is being developed to the meet the high- fidelity, high-Reynolds number CFD based thermal hydraulic simulation needs of the program. This work is being conducted within the thermal hydraulics methods (THM) focus area. This report is an extension of THM CASL milestone L3:THM.CFD.P10.02 [33] (March, 2015) and picks up where it left off. It will also serve to meet the requirements of CASL THM level three milestone, L3:THM.CFD.P11.04, scheduled for completion September 30, 2015. The objectives of this plan will be met by: maturation of recently added turbulence models, strategic design/development of new models and systematic and rigorous testing of existing and new models and model extensions. While multi-phase turbulent flow simulations are important to the program, only single-phase modeling will be considered in this report. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also an important modeling methodology. However, at least in the first year, the focus is on steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence modeling.

  7. Radiological risk assessment for an urban area: Focusing on a drinking water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo-Joon; Hwang, Won-Tae; Kim, Eun-Han; Han, Moon-Hee

    2009-01-01

    This paper specifically discusses a water quality modeling and health risk assessment for cesium-137 to assess the potential and actual effects on human health from drinking water contaminated by a radiological terrorist attack in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. With respect to the source term caused by a terrorist attack, it was assumed that 50 TBq of cesium-137 was introduced into the Paldang Lake which is a single water resource for the Seoul metropolitan area. EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) model was used to calculate the hydrodynamic and water quality for the model domain, Paldang Lake. Mortality risk and morbid risk coefficients caused by the ingestion of tap water were used to assess a human health risk due to cesium-137. The transport of cesium-137 in the Paldang water system was mainly dependent on the flow streamlines and the effect of the dilution from the other branches. The mortality and morbidity risks due to the drinking water contamination by cesium-137 were 4.77 x 10 -7 and 6.92 x 10 -7 , respectively. Accordingly, it is very important to take appropriate countermeasures when radiological terrorist attacks have occurred at water resources to prevent radiological risks by radionuclides.

  8. [The ''neighbourhood health'' strategy: actions focused on areas with special social and health needs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Isabel; Cabezas, Carmen; Brugulat, Pilar; Mompart, Anna

    2008-12-01

    Through the Law 2/2004 on improving neighbourhoods, urban areas and towns requiring special attention, the Government of Catalonia set up a fund for financing projects prepared by town/city councils for the integral improvement of neighbourhoods. The Ministry of Health signed on to the strategy with The Neighbourhood Health Programme, which was a healthcare policy priority. Healthcare and municipal structures cooperate at neighbourhood level in all of the phases of the community intervention project (analysis and detection of needs, prioritisation of the problems detected, definition and distribution of actions). Techniques such as the nominal group are used. Four vulnerable groups have been identified with higher levels of illness, co-morbidity, situations of risk, etc. (the young, the elderly, women and recent immigrants). The actions of all the agents involved, among them those from the Ministry of Health itself, are then intensified and prioritised and a specific portfolio of public health services is prepared.

  9. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  10. Pipe Crawler internal piping characterization system. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Pipe Crawler reg-sign is a pipe surveying system for performing radiological characterization and/or free release surveys of piping systems. The technology employs a family of manually advanced, wheeled platforms, or crawlers, fitted with one or more arrays of thin Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors operated from an external power supply and data processing unit. Survey readings are taken in a step-wise fashion. A video camera and tape recording system are used for video surveys of pipe interiors prior to and during radiological surveys. Pipe Crawler reg-sign has potential advantages over the baseline and other technologies in areas of cost, durability, waste minimization, and intrusiveness. Advantages include potentially reduced cost, potential reuse of the pipe system, reduced waste volume, and the ability to manage pipes in place with minimal disturbance to facility operations. Advantages over competing technologies include potentially reduced costs and the ability to perform beta-gamma surveys that are capable of passing regulatory scrutiny for free release of piping systems

  11. Stability Evaluation of Buildings in Urban Area Using Persistent Scatterer Interfometry -Focused on Thermal Expansion Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J. H.; Kim, S. W.; Won, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is monitoring and evaluating the stability of buildings in Seoul, Korea. This study includes both algorithm development and application to a case study. The development focuses on improving the PSI approach for discriminating various geophysical phase components and separating them from the target displacement phase. A thermal expansion is one of the key components that make it difficult for precise displacement measurement. The core idea is to optimize the thermal expansion factor using air temperature data and to model the corresponding phase by fitting the residual phase. We used TerraSAR-X SAR data acquired over two years from 2011 to 2013 in Seoul, Korea. The temperature fluctuation according to seasons is considerably high in Seoul, Korea. Other problem is the highly-developed skyscrapers in Seoul, which seriously contribute to DEM errors. To avoid a high computational burden and unstable solution of the nonlinear equation due to unknown parameters (a thermal expansion parameter as well as two conventional parameters: linear velocity and DEM errors), we separate a phase model into two main steps as follows. First, multi-baseline pairs with very short time interval in which deformation components and thermal expansion can be negligible were used to estimate DEM errors first. Second, single-baseline pairs were used to estimate two remaining parameters, linear deformation rate and thermal expansion. The thermal expansion of buildings closely correlate with the seasonal temperature fluctuation. Figure 1 shows deformation patterns of two selected buildings in Seoul. In the figures of left column (Figure 1), it is difficult to observe the true ground subsidence due to a large cyclic pattern caused by thermal dilation of the buildings. The thermal dilation often mis-leads the results into wrong conclusions. After the correction by the proposed method, true ground subsidence was able to be precisely measured as in the bottom right figure

  12. From Petascale to Exascale: Eight Focus Areas of R&D Challenges for HPC Simulation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springmeyer, R; Still, C; Schulz, M; Ahrens, J; Hemmert, S; Minnich, R; McCormick, P; Ward, L; Knoll, D

    2011-03-17

    Programming models bridge the gap between the underlying hardware architecture and the supporting layers of software available to applications. Programming models are different from both programming languages and application programming interfaces (APIs). Specifically, a programming model is an abstraction of the underlying computer system that allows for the expression of both algorithms and data structures. In comparison, languages and APIs provide implementations of these abstractions and allow the algorithms and data structures to be put into practice - a programming model exists independently of the choice of both the programming language and the supporting APIs. Programming models are typically focused on achieving increased developer productivity, performance, and portability to other system designs. The rapidly changing nature of processor architectures and the complexity of designing an exascale platform provide significant challenges for these goals. Several other factors are likely to impact the design of future programming models. In particular, the representation and management of increasing levels of parallelism, concurrency and memory hierarchies, combined with the ability to maintain a progressive level of interoperability with today's applications are of significant concern. Overall the design of a programming model is inherently tied not only to the underlying hardware architecture, but also to the requirements of applications and libraries including data analysis, visualization, and uncertainty quantification. Furthermore, the successful implementation of a programming model is dependent on exposed features of the runtime software layers and features of the operating system. Successful use of a programming model also requires effective presentation to the software developer within the context of traditional and new software development tools. Consideration must also be given to the impact of programming models on both languages and the

  13. Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-16

    approaches, see CRS Report RL31404, Defense Procurement: Full Funding Policy— Background, Issues, and Options for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke and Stephen ...proposing  a multiyear procurement contract for FY2017-FY2021 for procuring UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters; and  a multiyear contract for FY2017-FY2021...as reported states: SEC. 112. Multiyear procurement authority for UH–60M and HH–60M Black Hawk helicopters. (a) Authority for multiyear procurement

  14. GABAA receptor drugs and neuronal plasticity in reward and aversion: focus on the ventral tegmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eVashchinkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors are the main fast inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain, and targets for many clinically important drugs widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia and in anesthesia. Nonetheless, there are significant risks associated with the long-term use of these drugs particularly related to development of tolerance and addiction. Addictive mechanisms of GABAA receptor drugs are poorly known, but recent findings suggest that those drugs may induce aberrant neuroadaptations in the brain reward circuitry. Recently, benzodiazepines, acting on synaptic GABAA receptors, and modulators of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (THIP and neurosteroids have been found to induce plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine neurons and their main target projections. Furthermore, depending whether synaptic or extrasynaptic GABAA receptor populations are activated, the behavioral outcome of repeated administration seems to correlate with rewarding or aversive behavioral responses, respectively. The VTA dopamine neurons project to forebrain centers such as the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, and receive afferent projections from these brain regions and especially from the extended amygdala and lateral habenula, forming the major part of the reward and aversion circuitry. Both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA drugs inhibit the VTA GABAergic interneurons, thus activating the VTA DA neurons by disinhibition and this way inducing glutamatergic synaptic plasticity. However, the GABAA drugs failed to alter synaptic spine numbers as studied from Golgi-Cox-stained VTA dendrites. Since the GABAergic drugs are known to depress the brain metabolism and gene expression, their likely way of inducing neuroplasticity in mature neurons is by disinhibiting the principal neurons, which remains to be rigorously tested for a number of clinically important anxiolytics, sedatives and anesthetics in different parts of

  15. Multi-Year SSL Market Development Support Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, Marc R.

    2012-05-01

    work closely with lighting industry organizations 'such as the Next Generation Lighting Industry Alliance, North American Illuminating Engineering Society, and the International Association of Lighting Designers' and with other government programs seeking to improve lighting energy efficiency. While DOE will work closely with these organizations and others from lighting and electric utility industry, the program will focus primarily on assisting buyers of SSL products and others acting on their behalf because satisfied buyers are essential to the success of SSL market adoption. The work product of DOE's efforts will primarily be information, of the right type, at the right time, and provided efficiently to those who can best use it. A secondary work product of DOE's program will be market opportunities, in which DOE will seek to reduce the risks and costs for manufacturers of SSL products to sell good quality, high performance products to motivated buyers. In short, DOE plans to implement a multi-year program that produces highly useful and widely available information for buyers and their agents, while producing important market opportunities for producers, avoids the mistakes of the past, and is closely coordinated with industry and government. The market needs and the overall strategy were used for deciding which types of programs and projects DOE should create, and what general form they should take. Progress toward achieving plan goals with the above program elements will be monitored and periodically reported.

  16. Multi-Year Program Plan - Building Regulatory Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-10-01

    This document presents DOE’s multi-year plan for the three components of the Buildings Regulatory Program: Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Standards, ENERGY STAR, and the Building Energy Codes Program. This document summarizes the history of these programs, the mission and goals of the programs, pertinent statutory requirements, and DOE’s 5-year plan for moving forward.

  17. 41 CFR 101-25.108 - Multiyear subscriptions for publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for publications. 101-25.108 Section 101-25.108 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.108 Multiyear subscriptions for publications. Subscriptions for periodicals, newspapers, and other publications for which it is known in advance that a continuing requirement...

  18. Multi-Year Program Plan 2011-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    The Vehicle Technologies Multi-Year Program Plan, FY 2011 – 2015, outlines the scientific research and technologies developments for the five-year timeframe (beyond the FY 2010 base year) that need to be undertaken to help meet the Administration's goals for reductions in oil consumption and carbon emissions from the ground transport vehicle sector of the economy.

  19. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Wrinkles and Skin Laxity in Seven Different Facial Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunchul; Kim, Eunjin; Kim, Jeongeun; Ro, Youngsuck; Ko, Jooyeon

    2015-01-01

    Background High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment has recently emerged in response to the increasing demand for noninvasive procedures for skin lifting and tightening. Objective This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical efficacy of and patient satisfaction with HIFU treatment for wrinkles and laxity in seven different areas of the face in Asian skin. Methods Twenty Korean patients with facial wrinkle and laxity were analyzed after a single session of HIFU treatment. Two inde...

  20. 76 FR 11411 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Multiyear Contracting (DFARS Case 2009-D026)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... economic order quantity procurement, are merged into 217.170, General, and 217.172, Multiyear contracts for... guided by the following principles when entering into a multiyear contract for services: (1) The portion... authorized by law (10 U.S.C. 2306b and 10 U.S.C. 2306c). A multiyear supply contract may be authorized by an...

  1. Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) Lead Laboratory Providing Technical Assistance to the DOE Weapons Complex in Subsurface Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J. A. Jr.; Corey, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), a DOE-HQ EM-50 organization, is hosted and managed at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. SCFA is an integrated program chartered to find technology and scientific solutions to address DOE subsurface environmental restoration problems throughout the DOE Weapons Complex. Since its inception in 1989, the SCFA program has resulted in a total of 269 deployments of 83 innovative technologies. Until recently, the primary thrust of the program has been to develop, demonstrate, and deploy those remediation technology alternatives that are solutions to technology needs identified by the DOE Sites. Over the last several years, the DOE Sites began to express a need not only for innovative technologies, but also for technical assistance. In response to this need, DOE-HQ EM-50, in collaboration with and in support of a Strategic Lab Council recommendation directed each of its Focus Areas to implement a Lead Laboratory Concept to enhance their technical capabilities. Because each Focus Area is unique as defined by the contrast in either the type of contaminants involved or the environments in which they are found, the Focus Areas were given latitude in how they set up and implemented the Lead Lab Concept. The configuration of choice for the SCFA was a Lead-Partner Lab arrangement. Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) teamed with the SCFA as the Focus Area's Lead Laboratory. SRTC then partnered with the DOE National Laboratories to create a virtual consulting function within DOE. The National Laboratories were established to help solve the Nation's most difficult problems, drawing from a resource pool of the most talented and gifted scientists and engineers. Following that logic, SRTC, through the Lead-Partner Lab arrangement, has that same resource base to draw from to provide assistance to any SCFA DOE customer throughout the Complex. This paper briefly describes how this particular arrangement is organized and

  2. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  3. ERLN Biological Focus Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network supports the goal to increase national capacity for biological analysis of environmental samples. This includes methods development and verification, technology transfer, and collaboration with USDA, FERN, CDC.

  4. Tank Waste Remediation System fiscal year 1996 multi-year program plan WBS 1.1. Revision 1, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document is a compilation of data relating to the Tank Waste Remediation System Multi-Year Program. Topics discussed include: management systems; waste volume, transfer and evaporation management; transition of 200 East and West areas; ferricyanide, volatile organic vapor, and flammable gas management; waste characterization; retrieval from SSTs and DSTs; heat management; interim storage; low-level and high-level radioactive waste management; and tank farm closure

  5. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE's needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities

  6. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Wrinkles and Skin Laxity in Seven Different Facial Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunchul; Kim, Eunjin; Kim, Jeongeun; Ro, Youngsuck; Ko, Jooyeon

    2015-12-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment has recently emerged in response to the increasing demand for noninvasive procedures for skin lifting and tightening. This study was aimed at evaluating the clinical efficacy of and patient satisfaction with HIFU treatment for wrinkles and laxity in seven different areas of the face in Asian skin. Twenty Korean patients with facial wrinkle and laxity were analyzed after a single session of HIFU treatment. Two independent, blinded clinicians evaluated the clinical improvement in seven areas of the face by comparison of standardized photographs obtained before, and at 3 and 6 months after treatment. Assessment of subjective satisfaction and adverse effects of treatment were done by using questionnaires. The physicians' evaluation and patients' satisfaction with the clinical effects of HIFU in each area were similar regardless of the number of treatment shots. The jawline, cheek, and perioral areas were the sites where HIFU was most effective, in decreasing order. The adverse effects included erythema and swelling in six cases, and purpura and bruising in two cases. However, the adverse effects were mild and transient. HIFU could be a safe, effective, and noninvasive procedure that can be used to improve facial wrinkles and skin laxity in Asian skin. It is particularly effective for clinical improvement in the jawline, cheek, and perioral areas.

  7. On equilibrium real exchange rates in euro area: Special focus on behavioral equilibrium exchange rates in Ireland and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Plecitá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the intra-euro-area imbalances. Therefore the first aim of this paper is to identify euro-area countries exhibiting macroeconomic imbalances. The subsequent aim is to estimate equilibrium real exchange rates for these countries and to compute their degrees of real exchange rate misalignment. The intra-area balance is assessed using the Cluster Analysis and the Principle Component Analysis; on this basis Greece and Ireland are selected as the two euro-area countries with largest imbalances in 2010. Further the medium-run equilibrium exchange rates for Greece and Ireland are estimated applying the Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER approach popularised by Clark and MacDonald (1998. In addition, the long-run equilibrium exchange rates are estimated using the Permanent Equilibrium Exchange Rate (PEER model. Employing the BEER and PEER approaches on quarterly time series of real effective exchange rates (REER from 1997: Q1 to 2010: Q4 we identify an undervaluation of the Greek and Irish REER around their entrance to the euro area. For the rest of the period analysed their REER is broadly in line with estimated BEER and PEER levels.

  8. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-01-01

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs

  9. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    and Man Simulation System (ALMaSS), an established simulation system that has been used to simulate a wide range of farmland species relevant to biodiversity. We analysed the benefits of seven greening scenarios for the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), which has been in widespread decline throughout......With the current implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, the European Commission wants to move towards “greener” farming practices in the European Union. Therefore, the EU funds both obligatory measures, such as Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) through the Green Direct...... of each type was increased separately up to 5% of the area in three Danish landscapes, which are characterised by low hare densities. The effects on female and yearling abundance were observed over a period of 30 years. All greening scenarios had significant positive effects on hare populations...

  10. Focusing on sustainable energy ambitions in the area development process. 2. ed.; Centraal stellen van duurzame energieambities in het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    Many local authorities have established firm energy ambitions. Making the built environment more sustainable, both by means of energy saving measures and by making the remaining energy use sustainable, are important focus points. The question rises how sustainable energy ambitions can be embedded in the area development process. Area developments related to new buildings or demolition/new building projects often involve lengthy and complex projects. Projects in which many parties and interests play a role, in which many instruments can be used and energy concepts can be applied. This report provides an overview of the area development process and the corresponding instruments and concepts. [Dutch] Veel gemeenten hebben stevige energieambities vastgesteld. Verduurzaming van de gebouwde omgeving, zowel door energiebesparingsmaatregelen als door het duurzaam invullen van het resterende energieverbruik, zijn daarbij belangrijke aangrijpingspunten. De vraag is hoe duurzame energieambities goed verankerd kunnen worden in het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces. Bij gebiedsontwikkeling van nieuwbouw of sloop/nieuwbouw projecten gaat het vaak om langdurige complexe projecten. Projecten waarbij vele partijen en belangen een rol spelen, diverse instrumenten kunnen worden gebruikt en energieconcepten kunnen worden toegepast. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van het gebiedsontwikkelingsproces en de bijbehorende instrumenten en concepten.

  11. Environment, safety, health, and quality plan for the TRU- Contaminated Arid Soils Project of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, L.R.

    1995-06-01

    The Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. LSFA supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The TRU-Contaminated Arid Soils project is being conducted under the auspices of the LSFA Program. This document describes the Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality requirements for conducting LSFA/Arid Soils activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Topics discussed in this report, as they apply to LSFA/Arid Soils operations, include Federal, State of Idaho, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations, Health and Safety Plans, Quality Program, Data Quality Objectives, and training and job hazard analysis. Finally, a discussion is given on CERCLA criteria and system and performance audits as they apply to the LSFA Program

  12. Basic research on lattice structures focused on the reliance of the cross sectional area and additional coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Julia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.

  13. Multi-focus image fusion based on area-based standard deviation in dual tree contourlet transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Min; Dong, Chenghui; Guo, Miao; Wang, Zhe; Mu, Xiaomin

    2018-04-01

    Multiresolution-based methods, such as wavelet and Contourlet are usually used to image fusion. This work presents a new image fusion frame-work by utilizing area-based standard deviation in dual tree Contourlet trans-form domain. Firstly, the pre-registered source images are decomposed with dual tree Contourlet transform; low-pass and high-pass coefficients are obtained. Then, the low-pass bands are fused with weighted average based on area standard deviation rather than the simple "averaging" rule. While the high-pass bands are merged with the "max-absolute' fusion rule. Finally, the modified low-pass and high-pass coefficients are used to reconstruct the final fused image. The major advantage of the proposed fusion method over conventional fusion is the approximately shift invariance and multidirectional selectivity of dual tree Contourlet transform. The proposed method is compared with wavelet- , Contourletbased methods and other the state-of-the art methods on common used multi focus images. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed fusion framework is feasible and effective, and it performs better in both subjective and objective evaluation.

  14. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  15. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  16. Multi-year expansion planning of large transmission networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binato, S; Oliveira, G C [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a model for multi-year transmission network expansion to be used in long-term system planning. The network is represented by a linearized (DC) power flow and, for each year, operation costs are evaluated by a linear programming (LP) based algorithm that provides sensitivity indices for circuit reinforcements. A Backward/Forward approaches is proposed to devise an expansion plan over the study period. A case study with the southeastern Brazilian system is presented and discussed. (author) 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Experimental Lakes Area: Over 45 Years of Whole Ecosystem Monitoring and Manipulation Experiments and a Focus on the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The IISD Experimental Lakes Area is a unique facility which has existed since 1968 and consists of 58 lakes and their watersheds set aside for research purposes. The IISD-ELA also boasts an on-site water chemistry lab, accommodations and facilities for up to 60 personnel. Since its inception in 1968 over 50 whole ecosystem experiments have been conducted at the ELA including eutrophication, acidification of lakes, environmental mercury fates, hydro-electric reservoir impacts and much more. The recent partnership between IISD and ELA has allowed ELA to refocus on freshwater research and policy development in a time where the preservation of the earth's most precious resource is of the utmost concern. In addition to water quality monitoring, the ELA is also focused on autotrophic ecology, zooplankton community structures, fish population and behaviour and food-web interactions. Monitoring all of these disciplines and their inter-relationships gives the research facility a unique perspective and along with the long term dataset stretching back to 1968 the ELA can look at historical records to monitor long term changes in the environment.

  18. Multi-year Droughts in California in the Last Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, B.; Kafatos, M.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-year droughts in California including the notorious 2013-2014 drought became serious problems recently, causing significant socio-economic damages. In the present study, focusing on the three multi-year droughts in California, i.e., 1999-2002, 2007-2009, and 2012-2014, during the recent two decades (1995-2014), we compared and investigated their characteristics of the atmosphere and the oceans. By positioning abnormally strong anticyclonic circulations at 500 hPa over the North Pacific, the droughts seem to start around strong La Niña years and continued or intensified until the year prior to an El Niño. While precipitation decreases in La Niña years have been well documented previously, the intensification of droughts in the later period has not. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and correlation analyses suggest that, around strong La Niña years, the first EOF mode (EOF1) of the 500 hPa height is active, while the second EOF mode (EOF2) becomes active in moderate/weak La Nina years. It is also found that while EOF1 is sensitive to SST variability in the central Pacific which is associated with the major ENSO events, EOF2 is sensitive to that in the western/South Pacific. Relations to various climate variability other than ENSO, e.g., Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Tropical/Northern Hemisphere (TNH), Pacific/North American (PNA), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), are also examined.

  19. Phase I Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (904-83G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This report presents the completed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS) for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin (LAOCB)/L-Area Acid Caustic Basin (9LAACB) Solid Waste Management Unit/Operable Unit (SWMU/OU) at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  20. MULTI-YEAR BUDGETING–TOWARDS THE ENHANCEMENT OFFISCAL DISCIPLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the reasons for the existing fiscal imbalance shows that it isnecessary tointroducethe institutionalsolutionsof the budgetary process.Thispaper aimsto verify the hypothesis that the application of multi-year budgeting isa factor which increases fiscal discipline and promotes efficiency andtransparency of public finance.Theresearchpresents a comparative analysis ofthe quality of macroeconomic forecasts for EU countries including parameterssuch as the real GDP growth rate, general government sector deficit to GDP ratio,public debt to GDP ratio. Information contained in the EU Stability andConvergence Programmes and in the International Budget Practices andProcedures Database published by the OECD constituted the source of data for theresearch.

  1. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging open-quotes out sourcingclose quotes of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders

  2. Tank waste remediation system multi-year work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) documents the detailed total Program baseline and was constructed to guide Program execution. The TWRS MYWP is one of two elements that comprise the TWRS Program Management Plan. The TWRS MYWP fulfills the Hanford Site Management System requirement for a Multi-Year Program Plan and a Fiscal-Year Work Plan. The MYWP addresses program vision, mission, objectives, strategy, functions and requirements, risks, decisions, assumptions, constraints, structure, logic, schedule, resource requirements, and waste generation and disposition. Sections 1 through 6, Section 8, and the appendixes provide program-wide information. Section 7 includes a subsection for each of the nine program elements that comprise the TWRS Program. The foundation of any program baseline is base planning data (e.g., defendable product definition, logic, schedules, cost estimates, and bases of estimates). The TWRS Program continues to improve base data. As data improve, so will program element planning, integration between program elements, integration outside of the TWRS Program, and the overall quality of the TWRS MYWP. The MYWP establishes the TWRS baseline objectives to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The TWRS Program will complete the baseline mission in 2040 and will incur costs totalling approximately 40 billion dollars. The summary strategy is to meet the above objectives by using a robust systems engineering effort, placing the highest possible priority on safety and environmental protection; encouraging {open_quotes}out sourcing{close_quotes} of the work to the extent practical; and managing significant but limited resources to move toward final disposition of tank wastes, while openly communicating with all interested stakeholders.

  3. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  4. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO(sub x) and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required

  5. 78 FR 21613 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act Patient-Focused Drug Development; Announcement of Disease Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Availability. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the selection of disease areas to... selection criteria, which were published in the September 24, 2012, Federal Register notice: Disease areas... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0967...

  6. A stakeholder involvement approach to evaluate and enhance technology acceptance: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's Plume Focus Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.; Stein, S.L.; Serie, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) faces a major challenge in cleaning up its contaminated sites throughout the United States. One major area of concern is the plumes in soil and ground water which are contaminated with a myriad of different pollutants. DOE recently organized its plume-related problems into the Plume Focus Area. The mission of the Plume Focus Area is to enhance the deployment of innovative technologies for containing and cleaning up contaminant plumes in ground water and soil at all DOE sites. Environmental cleanup priorities for soil and ground water plumes are being defined and technology users have the challenge of matching current and innovative technologies to those priorities. By involving a range of stakeholders in the selection, demonstration, and evaluation of new technologies, the deployment of these technologies can be enhanced. If new plume cleanup technologies are to be deployable, they must improve on today's baseline technologies. The Sites' Coordination Team (SCT) of the Plume Focus Area develops and supports the implementation of methods for stakeholder involvement throughout the multiple steps that define focus area activities. Site-specific teams are being formed to carry out the strategy at each site, and the teams will work through Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) at each location. The SCT is responsible for identifying the site-specific stakeholder involvement teams, training the team members, preparing needed national-level guidance and strategies, helping the teams tailor a strategy for their particular site that meets the overall needs of the focus area, and facilitating inter-site coordination. The results will be used to develop national technology acceptance reports on the innovative technologies being funded and evaluated under the Plume Focus Area

  7. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  8. Dose reduction according to the exposure condition in intervention procedure: Focus on the change of dose area and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jun Ho; Jung, Ku Min; Lee, Kyung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to suggest a method to reduce the dose by Analyzing the dose area product (DAP) and image quality according to the change of tube current using NEMA Phantom. The spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were used as evaluation criteria in addition to signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR), which are important image quality parameters of intervention. Tube voltage was fixed at 80 kVp and the amount of tube current was changed to 20, 30, 40, and 50 mAs, and the dose area product and image quality were compared and analyzed. As a result, the dose area product increased from 1066 mGycm2 to 6160 mGycm2 to 6 times as the condition increased, while the spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were higher than 20 mAs and 30 mAs, Spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were observed below the evaluation criteria. In addition, the SNR and CNR increased up to 30 mAs, slightly increased at 40 mAs, but not significantly different from the previous one, and decreased at 50 mAs. As a result, the exposure dose significantly increased due to overexposure of the test conditions and the image quality deteriorated in all areas of spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, SNR and CNR.

  9. FTA multi-year research program plan (FY 2009 - FY 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The Multi-Year Research Program Plan (Program Plan), prepared by the Federal Transit Administrations (FTA) Office of : Research, Demonstration, and Innovation (TRI), is part of FTAs strategic planning process. It provides descriptive : summarie...

  10. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Technology Validation and Market Introduction 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for technology validation and market introduction, including ENERGY STAR, building energy codes, technology transfer application centers, commercial lighting initiative, EnergySmart Schools, EnergySmar

  11. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  12. A Multiyear Model of Influenza Vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Arnold; Zhang, Yuji; Kamis, Tamara

    2017-07-28

    Vaccinating adults against influenza remains a challenge in the United States. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we present a model for predicting who receives influenza vaccination in the United States between 2012 and 2014, inclusive. The logistic regression model contains nine predictors: age, pneumococcal vaccination, time since last checkup, highest education level attained, employment, health care coverage, number of personal doctors, smoker status, and annual household income. The model, which classifies correctly 67 percent of the data in 2013, is consistent with models tested on the 2012 and 2014 datasets. Thus, we have a multiyear model to explain and predict influenza vaccination in the United States. The results indicate room for improvement in vaccination rates. We discuss how cognitive biases may underlie reluctance to obtain vaccination. We argue that targeted communications addressing cognitive biases could be useful for effective framing of vaccination messages, thus increasing the vaccination rate. Finally, we discuss limitations of the current study and questions for future research.

  13. Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding

  14. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, pnematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  15. Influence of Sea Ice Crack Formation on the Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Microalgae in Flooded Antarctic Multiyear Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Daiki; Aoki, Shigeru; Simizu, Daisuke; Iida, Takahiro

    2018-02-01

    Cracks are common and natural features of sea ice formed in the polar oceans. In this study, a sea ice crack in flooded, multiyear, land-fast Antarctic sea ice was examined to assess its influence on biological productivity and the transport of nutrients and microalgae into the upper layers of neighboring sea ice. The water inside the crack and the surrounding host ice were characterized by a strong discoloration (brown color), an indicator of a massive algal bloom. Salinity and oxygen isotopic ratio measurements indicated that 64-84% of the crack water consisted of snow meltwater supplied during the melt season. Measurements of nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations within the slush layer pool (the flooded layer at the snow-ice interface) revealed the intrusion of water from the crack, likely forced by mixing with underlying seawater during the tidal cycle. Our results suggest that sea ice crack formation provides conditions favorable for algal blooms by directly exposing the crack water to sunlight and supplying nutrients from the under-ice water. Subsequently, constituents of the crack water modified by biological activity were transported into the upper layer of the flooded sea ice. They were then preserved in the multiyear ice column formed by upward growth of sea ice caused by snow ice formation in areas of significant snow accumulation.

  16. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  17. Dynamical Downscaling of NASA/GISS ModelE: Continuous, Multi-Year WRF Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, T.; Bowden, J. H.; Nolte, C. G.; Otte, M. J.; Herwehe, J. A.; Faluvegi, G.; Shindell, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The WRF Model is being used at the U.S. EPA for dynamical downscaling of the NASA/GISS ModelE fields to assess regional impacts of climate change in the United States. The WRF model has been successfully linked to the ModelE fields in their raw hybrid vertical coordinate, and continuous, multi-year WRF downscaling simulations have been performed. WRF will be used to downscale decadal time slices of ModelE for recent past, current, and future climate as the simulations being conducted for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report become available. This presentation will focus on the sensitivity to interior nudging within the RCM. The use of interior nudging for downscaled regional climate simulations has been somewhat controversial over the past several years but has been recently attracting attention. Several recent studies that have used reanalysis (i.e., verifiable) fields as a proxy for GCM input have shown that interior nudging can be beneficial toward achieving the desired downscaled fields. In this study, the value of nudging will be shown using fields from ModelE that are downscaled using WRF. Several different methods of nudging are explored, and it will be shown that the method of nudging and the choices made with respect to how nudging is used in WRF are critical to balance the constraint of ModelE against the freedom of WRF to develop its own fields.

  18. Spatial mapping of leaf area index using hyperspectral remote sensing for hydrological applications with a particular focus on canopy interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Bulcock

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of commercial forestry plantations in natural grassland vegetation, results in increased transpiration and interception which in turn, results in a streamflow reduction. Methods to quantify this impact typically require LAI as an input into the various equations and process models that are applied. The use of remote sensing technology as a tool to estimate leaf area index (LAI for use in estimating canopy interception is described in this paper. Remote sensing provides a potential solution to effectively monitor the spatial and temporal variability of LAI. This is illustrated using Hyperion hyperspectral imagery and three vegetation indices, namely the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI and Vogelmann index 1 to estimate LAI in a catchment afforested with Eucalyptus, Pinus and Acacia genera in the KwaZulu-Natal midlands of South Africa. Of the three vegetation indices used in this study, it was found that the Vogelmann index 1 was the most robust index with an R2 and root mean square error (RMSE values of 0.7 and 0.3 respectively. However, both NDVI and SAVI could be used to estimate the LAI of 12 year old Pinus patula accurately. If the interception component is to be quantified independently, estimates of maximum storage capacity and canopy interception are required. Thus, the spatial distribution of LAI in the catchment is used to estimate maximum canopy storage capacity in the study area.

  19. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area - Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Mark Lee

    2002-04-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB. It has the needed binding rate and capacity, but some of the chemical species that might be present in the containers could interfere with its ability to remove hydrogen. This project is focused upon developing a protective polymeric membrane coating for the DEB getter material, which comes in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. This report summarizes the experimental results of the second phase of the development of the materials.

  20. Multi-year predictability in a coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Scott; Colman, Rob [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2006-02-01

    Multi-year to decadal variability in a 100-year integration of a BMRC coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (CGCM) is examined. The fractional contribution made by the decadal component generally increases with depth and latitude away from surface waters in the equatorial Indo-Pacific Ocean. The relative importance of decadal variability is enhanced in off-equatorial ''wings'' in the subtropical eastern Pacific. The model and observations exhibit ''ENSO-like'' decadal patterns. Analytic results are derived, which show that the patterns can, in theory, occur in the absence of any predictability beyond ENSO time-scales. In practice, however, modification to this stochastic view is needed to account for robust differences between ENSO-like decadal patterns and their interannual counterparts. An analysis of variability in the CGCM, a wind-forced shallow water model, and a simple mixed layer model together with existing and new theoretical results are used to improve upon this stochastic paradigm and to provide a new theory for the origin of decadal ENSO-like patterns like the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In this theory, ENSO-driven wind-stress variability forces internal equatorially-trapped Kelvin waves that propagate towards the eastern boundary. Kelvin waves can excite reflected internal westward propagating equatorially-trapped Rossby waves (RWs) and coastally-trapped waves (CTWs). CTWs have no impact on the off-equatorial sub-surface ocean outside the coastal wave guide, whereas the RWs do. If the frequency of the incident wave is too high, then only CTWs are excited. At lower frequencies, both CTWs and RWs can be excited. The lower the frequency, the greater the fraction of energy transmitted to RWs. This lowers the characteristic frequency of variability off the equator relative to its equatorial counterpart. Both the eastern boundary interactions and the accumulation of

  1. [Mind-body approach in the area of preventive medicine: focusing on relaxation and meditation for stress management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunesik

    2010-09-01

    Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mind-body approach in the preventive service area of medicine.

  2. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  3. Multi-year Estimates of Methane Fluxes in Alaska from an Atmospheric Inverse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. M.; Commane, R.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Miller, C. E.; Michalak, A. M.; Dinardo, S. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Hartery, S.; Karion, A.; Lindaas, J.; Sweeney, C.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    We estimate methane fluxes across Alaska over a multi-year period using observations from a three-year aircraft campaign, the Carbon Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Existing estimates of methane from Alaska and other Arctic regions disagree in both magnitude and distribution, and before the CARVE campaign, atmospheric observations in the region were sparse. We combine these observations with an atmospheric particle trajectory model and a geostatistical inversion to estimate surface fluxes at the model grid scale. We first use this framework to estimate the spatial distribution of methane fluxes across the state. We find the largest fluxes in the south-east and North Slope regions of Alaska. This distribution is consistent with several estimates of wetland extent but contrasts with the distribution in most existing flux models. These flux models concentrate methane in warmer or more southerly regions of Alaska compared to the estimate presented here. This result suggests a discrepancy in how existing bottom-up models translate wetland area into methane fluxes across the state. We next use the inversion framework to explore inter-annual variability in regional-scale methane fluxes for 2012-2014. We examine the extent to which this variability correlates with weather or other environmental conditions. These results indicate the possible sensitivity of wetland fluxes to near-term variability in climate.

  4. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  5. TEM/SEM investigation of microstructural changes within the white etching area under rolling contact fatigue and 3-D crack reconstruction by focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabulov, A.; Ziese, U.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    The white etching area (WEA) surrounding the cracks formed under high-cycle rolling contact fatigue was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dual Beam (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/focused ion beam). SEM revealed the initiation of cracks formed around artificially introduced Al 2 O 3 inclusions in the model steel (composition similar to SAE 52100). TEM investigations showed a microstructural difference between the WEA (formation of nanocrystalline ferrite) and the steel matrix (tempered martensitic structure). A three-dimensional image of the crack reconstructed from ∼400 Dual Beam cross-section images is reported

  6. Focus on focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics

  7. Focus on focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-10-15

    The discovery and impact of the principle of strong focusing was celebrated at a history Symposium at Stanford on 25 July in the course of the 1985 US Summer School on Particle Accelerators. Burt Richter, Stanford Linac Director, who introduced all the speakers with well chosen reminders about their various contributions related to the theme of the symposium, remarked that it was an appropriate time to be lauding the great contributions of accelerator physicists following the Nobel Prize award to Simon van der Meer for outstanding achievements in accelerator physics.

  8. Multi-year lags between forest browning and soil respiration at high northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bond-Lamberty

    Full Text Available High-latitude northern ecosystems are experiencing rapid climate changes, and represent a large potential climate feedback because of their high soil carbon densities and shifting disturbance regimes. A significant carbon flow from these ecosystems is soil respiration (R(S, the flow of carbon dioxide, generated by plant roots and soil fauna, from the soil surface to atmosphere, and any change in the high-latitude carbon cycle might thus be reflected in R(S observed in the field. This study used two variants of a machine-learning algorithm and least squares regression to examine how remotely-sensed canopy greenness (NDVI, climate, and other variables are coupled to annual R(S based on 105 observations from 64 circumpolar sites in a global database. The addition of NDVI roughly doubled model performance, with the best-performing models explaining ∼62% of observed R(S variability. We show that early-summer NDVI from previous years is generally the best single predictor of R(S, and is better than current-year temperature or moisture. This implies significant temporal lags between these variables, with multi-year carbon pools exerting large-scale effects. Areas of decreasing R(S are spatially correlated with browning boreal forests and warmer temperatures, particularly in western North America. We suggest that total circumpolar R(S may have slowed by ∼5% over the last decade, depressed by forest stress and mortality, which in turn decrease R(S. Arctic tundra may exhibit a significantly different response, but few data are available with which to test this. Combining large-scale remote observations and small-scale field measurements, as done here, has the potential to allow inferences about the temporal and spatial complexity of the large-scale response of northern ecosystems to changing climate.

  9. Detailed Geological Modelling in Urban Areas focused on Structures relevant to the Near Surface Groundwater Flow in the context of Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, T.; Pallesen, T. M.; Jensen, N. P.; Mielby, S.; Sandersen, P.; Kristensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    This case demonstrates a practical example from the city of Odense (DK) where new geological modeling techniques has been developed and used in the software GeoScene3D, to create a detailed voxel model of the anthropogenic layer. The voxel model has been combined with a regional hydrostratigraphic layer model. The case is part of a pilot project partly financed by VTU (Foundation for Development of Technology in the Danish Water Sector) and involves many different datatypes such as borehole information, geophysical data, human related elements (landfill, pipelines, basements, roadbeds etc). In the last few years, there has been increased focus on detailed geological modeling in urban areas. The models serve as important input to hydrological models. This focus is partly due to climate changes as high intensity rainfalls are seen more often than in the past, and water recharge is a topic too. In urban areas, this arises new challenges. There is a need of a high level of detailed geological knowledge for the uppermost zone of the soil, which typically are problematic due to practically limitations, especially when using geological layer models. Furthermore, to accommodate the need of a high detail, all relevant available data has to be used in the modeling process. Human activity has deeply changed the soil layers, e.g. by constructions as roadbeds, buildings with basements, pipelines, landfill etc. These elements can act as barriers or pathways regarding surface near groundwater flow and can attribute to local flooding or mobilization and transport of contaminants etc. A geological voxel model is built by small boxes (a voxel). Each box can contain several parameters, ex. lithology, transmissivity or contaminant concentration. Human related elements can be implemented using tools, which gives the modeler advanced options for making detailed small-scale models. This case demonstrates the workflow and the resulting geological model for the pilot area.

  10. Bright is the New Black - Multi-Year Performance of Generic High-Albedo Roofs in an Urban Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, S. R.; Imhoff, M.; Rosenzweig, C.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Pasqualini, A.; Kong, A. Y. Y.; Grillo, D.; Freed, A.; Hillel, D.; Hartung, E.

    2012-01-01

    High-albedo white and cool roofing membranes are recognized as a fundamental strategy that dense urban areas can deploy on a large scale, at low cost, to mitigate the urban heat island effect. We are monitoring three generic white membranes within New York City that represent a cross-section of the dominant white membrane options for U.S. flat roofs: (1) an ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber membrane; (2) a thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) membrane and; (3) an asphaltic multi-ply built-up membrane coated with white elastomeric acrylic paint. The paint product is being used by New York City s government for the first major urban albedo enhancement program in its history. We report on the temperature and related albedo performance of these three membranes at three different sites over a multi-year period. The results indicate that the professionally installed white membranes are maintaining their temperature control effectively and are meeting the Energy Star Cool Roofing performance standards requiring a three-year aged albedo above 0.50. The EPDM membrane however shows evidence of low emissivity. The painted asphaltic surface shows high emissivity but lost about half of its initial albedo within two years after installation. Given that the acrylic approach is an important "do-it-yourself," low-cost, retrofit technique, and, as such, offers the most rapid technique for increasing urban albedo, further product performance research is recommended to identify conditions that optimize its long-term albedo control. Even so, its current multi-year performance still represents a significant albedo enhancement for urban heat island mitigation.

  11. New Technology-Large-Area Three- Dimensional Surface Profiling Using Only Focused Air-Coupled Ultrasound-Given 1999 R&D 100 Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Kautz, Harold E.; Abel, Phillip B.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Surface topography, which significantly affects the performance of many industrial components, is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over small areas or with optical scattering methods over larger areas. To develop air-coupled surface profilometry, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated a Space Act Agreement with Sonix, Inc., through two Glenn programs, the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP) and COMMTECH. The work resulted in quantitative surface topography profiles obtained using only high-frequency, focused ultrasonic pulses in air. The method is nondestructive, noninvasive, and noncontact, and it does not require light-reflective surfaces. Air surface profiling may be desirable when diamond-tip or laserbased methods are impractical, such as over large areas, when a significant depth range is required, or for curved surfaces. When the configuration is optimized, the method is reasonably rapid and all the quantitative analysis facilities are online, including two- and three-dimensional visualization, extreme value filtering (for faulty data), and leveling.

  12. Multi-year and reference year weather data for building energy labelling in north Italy climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pernigotto, G.; Prada, A.; Costola, D.; Gasparella, A.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Representative weather information is essential for a reliable building energy performance evaluation. Even if detailed energy analyses can be carried out considering the multi-year weather data, generally a single reference year is adopted. Thus, this artificial year has to correctly approximate

  13. Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    core aviation program and is approved for full- rate production through the future years defense program. If the proposal is approved, the Army buy ...Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist...

  14. [The Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in the areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni rivers, Territory of Roraima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, M A; Shelley, A J; Luna Dias, A P

    1986-01-01

    A recent survey for onchocerciasis conducted among the Yanomami Indians living on the middle reaches of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni Rivers (Territory of Roraima) has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. In fact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajaí mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory--where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis--come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.1., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Selective area growth of InAs nanowires from SiO2/Si(1 1 1) templates direct-written by focused helium ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Wei; Chen, Wei-Chieh; Chou, Chieh; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2018-02-01

    We report on the selective area growth of InAs nanowires on patterned SiO2/Si (1 1 1) nano-holes, prepared by focused helium ion beam technology. We used a single spot mode, in which the focused helium ion beam was fixed on a single point with a He+-ion dosage, ranging from 1.5 pC to 8 pC, to drill the nano-holes. The smallest hole diameter achieved is ∼8 nm. We found that low He+-ion dosage is able to facilitate the nucleation of (1 1 1)B InAs on the highly mismatched Si, leading to the vertical growth of InAs nanowires (NWs). High He-ion dosage, on the contrary, severely damaged Si surface, resulting in tilted and stripe-like NWs. In addition to titled NW grown from (1 1 1)A InAs domain, a new titled growth direction due to defect induced twinning was observed. Cross-sectional TEM images of vertical NWs show mixed wurtizite (WZ) and zincblende (ZB) phases, while WZ phase dominants. The stacking faults resulting from the phase change is proportional to NW diameter, suggesting that the critical diameter of phase turning is larger than 110 nm, the maximum diameter of our NWs. Period of misfit dislocation at the InAs/Si interface of vertical NW is also found larger than the theoretical value when the diameter of heterointerface is smaller than 50 nm, indicating that the small contact area is able to accommodate the large lattice and thermal mismatch between InAs and Si.

  16. National priorities partnership focus on eliminating overuse: applications to cardiac revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David J; Leonard, Bradley M

    2011-01-01

    As one of several initiatives to transform health care delivery across the United States, the National Priorities Partnership has identified "eliminating overuse while ensuring the delivery of appropriate care" as a top priority. Cardiac revascularization procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), constitute one area of focus for reduction of overuse. Despite the multiyear development of clinical guidelines to define appropriate use of cardiac revascularization, substantial variability in the application of these procedures is observed. Concurrent data collection tools to support real-time clinical decision making regarding appropriateness are needed and can be used, along with financial incentives such as pay-for-performance programs and public reporting of performance information, to support more appropriate use of cardiac revascularization. Efforts to achieve more rational use of CABG and PCI should be made carefully and with the goal that patients receive the most appropriate and effective care.

  17. Measurement of ion beam angular distribution at different helium gas pressures in a plasma focus device by large-area polycarbonate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M.; Habibi, M., E-mail: mortezahabibi@gmail.com; Ramezani, V. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Energy Engineering and Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The paper presents an experimental study and analysis of full helium ion density angular distributions in a 4-kJ plasma focus device (PFD) at pressures of 10, 15, 25, and 30 mbar using large-area polycarbonate track detectors (PCTDs) (15-cm etchable diameter) processed by 50-Hz-HV electrochemical etching (ECE). Helium ion track distributions at different pressures, in particular, at the main axis of the PFD are presented. Maximum ion track density of ~4.4 × 10{sup 4} tracks/cm{sup 2} was obtained in the PCTD placed 6 cm from the anode. The ion distributions for all pressures applied are ring-shaped, which is possibly due to the hollow cylindrical copper anode used. The large-area PCTD processed by ECE proves, at the present state-of-theart, a superior method for direct observation and analysis of ion distributions at a glance with minimum efforts and time. Some observations of the ion density distributions at different pressures are reported and discussed.

  18. Developing Energy Technology Course for Undergraduate Engineering Management Study Program in Lake Toba Area with Particular Focus to Sustainable Energy Systems in Development Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Yosef; Sinaga, Rizal; Saragi, Hadi

    2018-02-01

    Undergraduate Engineering Management Study Program of Institut Teknologi Del is one of the pioneers for its field in Indonesia. Located in Lake Toba Area, this study program has a mission to provide high quality Engineering Management education that produces globally competitive graduates who in turn will contribute to local development. Framing the Energy Technology course—one of the core subjects in Engineering Management Body of Knowledge—in the context of sustainable development of Lake Toba Area is very essential. Thus, one particular focus in this course is sustainable energy systems in local development context that incorporates identification and analysis of locally available energy resources. In this paper we present our experience in designing such course. In this work, we introduce the domains that shape the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge. Then, we explain the results of our evaluation on the key considerations to meet the rapidly changing needs of society in local context. Later, we present the framework of the learning outcomes and the syllabus as a result of mapping the road map with the requirement. At the end, the summary from the first two semesters of delivering this course in academic year 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 are reported.

  19. Areas on which to focus when seeking to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of commercial waste management. A case study of a hypermarket, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M

    2018-03-22

    This study focuses on commercial waste, which has received less attention than household waste in regards to greenhouse gas emission research. First, the global warming potential (GWP) of commercial waste management was calculated. Second, the impacts of different waste fractions and the processes of waste management were recognised. Third, the key areas on which to focus when aiming to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of commercial waste management were determined. This study was conducted on the waste generated by a real hypermarket in South-East Finland and included eight different waste fractions. The waste treatment plants were selected based on the actual situation. Three different scenarios were employed to evaluate the environmental impact of managing mixed waste: landfilling, combustion and more accurate source separation. The GaBi software and impact assessment methodology CML 2001 were used to perform a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the waste management. The results indicated that the total GWP of commercial waste management could be reduced by 93% by directing the mixed waste to combustion instead of landfill. A further 5% GWP reduction could be achieved by more accurate source separation of the mixed waste. Utilisation of energy waste had the most significant influence (41-52%) on the total GWP (-880 to -860 kgCO 2 -eq./t), followed by landfilling of mixed waste (influence 15-23% on the total GWP, 430 kgCO 2 -eq./t), recycling polyethylene (PE) plastic (influence 18-21% on the total GWP, -1800 kgCO 2 -eq./t) and recycling cardboard (influence 11-13% on the total GWP, 51 kgCO 2 -eq./t). A key focus should be placed on treatment processes and substitutions, especially in terms of substitutions of energy waste and PE plastic. This study also clarified the importance of sorting PE plastic, even though the share of this waste fraction was not substantial. The results of this paper were compared to those of

  20. Experience with the Multi-Year Implementation of an Industrial Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, H K; Juillerat, A C; Rabany, Michel; Wollès, J C

    2000-01-01

    In 1990, CERN passed a multi-year purchasing and installation contract for the LEP 200 Cryogenics control system with ABB, one of the world's leading suppliers of integrated Distributed Control Systems (DCS). A financial framework provided over a period of eight years the required supplies. These were called up with so called "Release Orders", taking into account the latest technical developments. The issues and experiences with such a new approach and the resulting control system are described.

  1. Multi-year ozone concentration and its spectra in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Fuhai; Mao, Xiaoqin [Shanghai Meteorological Bureau, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and Health, Shanghai (China); Zhou, Mingyu, E-mail: mingyuzhou34@163.com [National Marine Environmental Forecasts Center, State Oceanic Administration, Beijing (China); Zhong, Shiyuan [Department of Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Lenschow, Donald [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The periodic properties of surface ozone variation were studied at five stations with different environmental conditions in Shanghai based on multi-year observations of ozone concentration and UV radiation using spectral decomposition methods. The spectra of surface ozone have distinct peaks at semi-diurnal, diurnal, intraseasonal, semiannual, annual, and quasi-biennial periods. The spectra for the frequency band larger than the semi-diurnal follow a − 5/3 power law at all the stations. The diurnal peak values for all stations in different years are similar to each other, while the semi-diurnal peak values are somewhat different among the stations. The peak value of semi-diurnal cycle at the station Dongtan (ecological environment area) is smaller than that at the other stations. The monthly mean of surface ozone has a significant seasonal variation with a maximum in May, a secondary maximum in fall, a lower value in summer (July and August), and a minimum in December or January. However the seasonal variation of UV radiation monthly mean shows a relatively higher value in summer (July and August), and for other months it is closely related to the ozone monthly mean. These secondary peaks of the ozone monthly mean in fall might be caused by the UV radiation coming back to its relevant value after falling off during the Asia summer monsoon; it was not related to biomass burning. The intraseasonal cycling of ozone might be related to the MJO (Madden–Julian Oscillation). Further studies are needed to understand the relationship between the local ozone intraseasonal variation and the MJO. The quasi-biennial variation of ozone in Shanghai might be a local reflection of climate change and could be associated with ENSO (El-Nino Southern Oscillation). Further studies will be needed to understand the relationship of the quasi-biennial variation of ozone to ENSO. - Highlights: • The spectral decomposition methods are used. • The spectra of surface ozone have multi

  2. Multi-year ozone concentration and its spectra in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Fuhai; Mao, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Mingyu; Zhong, Shiyuan; Lenschow, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The periodic properties of surface ozone variation were studied at five stations with different environmental conditions in Shanghai based on multi-year observations of ozone concentration and UV radiation using spectral decomposition methods. The spectra of surface ozone have distinct peaks at semi-diurnal, diurnal, intraseasonal, semiannual, annual, and quasi-biennial periods. The spectra for the frequency band larger than the semi-diurnal follow a − 5/3 power law at all the stations. The diurnal peak values for all stations in different years are similar to each other, while the semi-diurnal peak values are somewhat different among the stations. The peak value of semi-diurnal cycle at the station Dongtan (ecological environment area) is smaller than that at the other stations. The monthly mean of surface ozone has a significant seasonal variation with a maximum in May, a secondary maximum in fall, a lower value in summer (July and August), and a minimum in December or January. However the seasonal variation of UV radiation monthly mean shows a relatively higher value in summer (July and August), and for other months it is closely related to the ozone monthly mean. These secondary peaks of the ozone monthly mean in fall might be caused by the UV radiation coming back to its relevant value after falling off during the Asia summer monsoon; it was not related to biomass burning. The intraseasonal cycling of ozone might be related to the MJO (Madden–Julian Oscillation). Further studies are needed to understand the relationship between the local ozone intraseasonal variation and the MJO. The quasi-biennial variation of ozone in Shanghai might be a local reflection of climate change and could be associated with ENSO (El-Nino Southern Oscillation). Further studies will be needed to understand the relationship of the quasi-biennial variation of ozone to ENSO. - Highlights: • The spectral decomposition methods are used. • The spectra of surface ozone have multi

  3. Multiyear Downstream Response to Dam Removal on the White Salmon River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.; O'Connor, J. E.; Major, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The 2011 removal of the 38 m tall Condit Dam on the White Salmon River, Washington was one of the largest dam removals to date, in terms of both dam height and sediment release. We examined the multiyear geomorphic response to this event, through 2015, including in a bedrock-confined canyon and in a less-confined, backwater-influenced pool reach near the river's mouth, to the large, rapid influx of fine reservoir sediment produced by the breach and to subsequent sediment transfer in the free-flowing White Salmon River. In the canyon reach, aggraded sediments were rapidly eroded from riffles, returning them toward pre-breach bed elevations within weeks, but pool aggradation persisted for longer. The downstream, less-confined reach transformed from a deep pool to a narrower pool-riffle channel with alternate bars; multiyear observations showed persistence of bars and of this new and distinct morphology. This downstream reach marks a rare case in post-dam removal channel response; in most dam removals, channels have rapidly reverted toward pre-removal morphology, as in the canyon reach here. Comparison of the multiyear geomorphic evolution of the White Salmon River to other recent large dam removals in the U.S. allows evaluation of the relative influences of antecedent channel morphology, post-breach hydrology, and dam removal style, as well as providing a basis for predicting responses to future dam removals.

  4. Multiyear ice transport and small scale sea ice deformation near the Alaska coast measured by air-deployable Ice Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Kasper, J.; Winsor, P.

    2015-12-01

    Highly complex patterns of ice motion and deformation were captured by fifteen satellite-telemetered GPS buoys (known as Ice Trackers) deployed near Barrow, Alaska, in spring 2015. Two pentagonal clusters of buoys were deployed on pack ice by helicopter in the Beaufort Sea between 20 and 80 km offshore. During deployment, ice motion in the study region was effectively zero, but two days later the buoys captured a rapid transport event in which multiyear ice from the Beaufort Sea was flushed into the Chukchi Sea. During this event, westward ice motion began in the Chukchi Sea and propagated eastward. This created new openings in the ice and led to rapid elongation of the clusters as the westernmost buoys accelerated away from their neighbors to the east. The buoys tracked ice velocities of over 1.5 ms-1, with fastest motion occurring closest to the coast indicating strong current shear. Three days later, ice motion reversed and the two clusters became intermingled, rendering divergence calculations based on the area enclosed by clusters invalid. The data show no detectable difference in velocity between first year and multiyear ice floes, but Lagrangian timeseries of SAR imagery centered on each buoy show that first year ice underwent significant small-scale deformation during the event. The five remaining buoys were deployed by local residents on prominent ridges embedded in the landfast ice within 16 km of Barrow in order to track the fate of such features after they detached from the coast. Break-up of the landfast ice took place over a period of several days and, although the buoys each initially followed a similar eastward trajectory around Point Barrow into the Beaufort Sea, they rapidly dispersed over an area more than 50 km across. With rapid environmental and socio-economic change in the Arctic, understanding the complexity of nearshore ice motion is increasingly important for predict future changes in the ice and the tracking ice-related hazards

  5. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substitutes for leaf area which could be collected in a non-destructive way, namely crown surface area and crown projection area. In 8 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), divided into three age classes and two thinning treatments, a total of 156 trees were felled in order to test the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area and crown projection area, respectively. Individual tree leaf area of the felled sample trees was estimated by 3P-branch sampling with an accuracy of ±10%. Crown projection area and crown surface area were compared with other, more commonly used, but destructive predictors of leaf area, namely sapwood area at different heights on the bole. Our investigations confirmed findings of several studies that sapwood area is the most precise measure for leaf area because of the high correlation between sapwood area and the leaf area. But behind sapwood area at crown base and sapwood area at three tenth of the tree height the predictive ability of crown surface area was ranked third and even better than that of sapwood area at breast height (R2 = 0.656 compared with 0.600). Within the stands leaf area is proportional to crown surface area. Using the pooled data of all stands a mixed model approach showed that additionally to crown surface area dominant height and diameter at breast height (dbh) improved the leaf area estimates. Thus, taking dominant height and dbh into account, crown surface area can be recommended for estimating the leaf area of

  6. Applicability of non-destructive substitutes for leaf area in different stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) focusing on traditional forest crown measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubhann, Daniel; Eckmüllner, Otto; Sterba, Hubert

    2010-09-30

    Since individual tree leaf area is an important measure for productivity as well as for site occupancy, it is of high interest in many studies about forest growth. The exact determination of leaf area is nearly impossible. Thus, a common way to get information about leaf area is to use substitutes. These substitutes are often variables which are collected in a destructive way which is not feasible for long term studies. Therefore, this study aimed at testing the applicability of using substitutes for leaf area which could be collected in a non-destructive way, namely crown surface area and crown projection area. In 8 stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), divided into three age classes and two thinning treatments, a total of 156 trees were felled in order to test the relationship between leaf area and crown surface area and crown projection area, respectively. Individual tree leaf area of the felled sample trees was estimated by 3P-branch sampling with an accuracy of ±10%. Crown projection area and crown surface area were compared with other, more commonly used, but destructive predictors of leaf area, namely sapwood area at different heights on the bole. Our investigations confirmed findings of several studies that sapwood area is the most precise measure for leaf area because of the high correlation between sapwood area and the leaf area. But behind sapwood area at crown base and sapwood area at three tenth of the tree height the predictive ability of crown surface area was ranked third and even better than that of sapwood area at breast height (R(2) = 0.656 compared with 0.600). Within the stands leaf area is proportional to crown surface area. Using the pooled data of all stands a mixed model approach showed that additionally to crown surface area dominant height and diameter at breast height (dbh) improved the leaf area estimates. Thus, taking dominant height and dbh into account, crown surface area can be recommended for estimating the leaf area

  7. Environmental Quality Information Analysis Center multi-year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, R.G.; Das, S.; Walsh, T.E.

    1992-09-01

    An information analysis center (IAC) is a federal resource that provides technical information for a specific technology field. An IAC links an expert technical staff with an experienced information specialist group, supported by in-house or external data bases to provide technical information and maintain a corporate knowledge in a technical area. An IAC promotes the rapid transfer of technology among its users and provides assistance in adopting new technology and predicting and assessing emerging technology. This document outlines the concept, requirements, and proposed development of an Environmental Quality IAC (EQIAC). An EQIAC network is composed of several nodes, each of which has specific technology capabilities. This document outlines strategic and operational objectives for the phased development of one such node of an EQIAC network

  8. Assessment of the High Resolution SAR Mode of the RADARSAT Constellation Mission for First Year Ice and Multiyear Ice Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dabboor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulated compact polarimetry from the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM is evaluated for sea ice classification. Compared to previous studies that evaluated the potential of RCM for sea ice classification, this study focuses on the High Resolution (HR Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR mode of the RCM associated with a higher noise floor (Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero of −19 dB, which can prove challenging for sea ice monitoring. Twenty three Compact Polarimetric (CP parameters were derived and analyzed for the discrimination between first year ice (FYI and multiyear ice (MYI. The results of the RCM HR mode are compared with those previously obtained for other RCM SAR modes for possible CP consistency parameters in sea ice classification under different noise floors, spatial resolutions, and radar incidence angles. Finally, effective CP parameters were identified and used for the classification of FYI and MYI using the Random Forest (RF classification algorithm. This study indicates that, despite the expected high noise floor of the RCM HR mode, CP SAR data from this mode are promising for the classification of FYI and MYI in dry ice winter conditions. The overall classification accuracies of CP SAR data over two test sites (96.13% and 96.84% were found to be comparable to the accuracies obtained using Full Polarimetric (FP SAR data (98.99% and 99.20%.

  9. The Benefits of Multi-Year Research Experiences: Differences in Novice and Experienced Students’ Reported Gains from Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Heather; Weston, Timothy J.; Laursen, Sandra L.; Hunter, Anne-Barrie

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explores differences in novice and experienced undergraduate students’ perceptions of their cognitive, personal, and professional gains from engaging in scientific research. The study was conducted in four different undergraduate research (UR) programs at two research-extensive universities; three of these programs had a focus on the biosciences. Seventy-three entry-level and experienced student researchers participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews and completed the quantitative Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment (URSSA) instrument. Interviews and surveys assessed students’ developmental outcomes from engaging in UR. Experienced students reported distinct personal, professional, and cognitive outcomes relative to their novice peers, including a more sophisticated understanding of the process of scientific research. Students also described the trajectories by which they developed not only the intellectual skills necessary to advance in science, but also the behaviors and temperament necessary to be a scientist. The findings suggest that students benefit from multi-year UR experiences. Implications for UR program design, advising practices, and funding structures are discussed. PMID:22949423

  10. Multiyear greenhouse gas balances at a rewetted temperate peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Farrell, Catherine A; Fallon, David; Moser, Gerald; Müller, Christoph; Renou-Wilson, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Drained peat soils are a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. Rewetting these soils is considered an important climate change mitigation tool to reduce emissions and create suitable conditions for carbon sequestration. Long-term monitoring is essential to capture interannual variations in GHG emissions and associated environmental variables and to reduce the uncertainty linked with GHG emission factor calculations. In this study, we present GHG balances: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) calculated for a 5-year period at a rewetted industrial cutaway peatland in Ireland (rewetted 7 years prior to the start of the study); and compare the results with an adjacent drained area (2-year data set), and with ten long-term data sets from intact (i.e. undrained) peatlands in temperate and boreal regions. In the rewetted site, CO 2 exchange (or net ecosystem exchange (NEE)) was strongly influenced by ecosystem respiration (R eco ) rather than gross primary production (GPP). CH 4 emissions were related to soil temperature and either water table level or plant biomass. N 2 O emissions were not detected in either drained or rewetted sites. Rewetting reduced CO 2 emissions in unvegetated areas by approximately 50%. When upscaled to the ecosystem level, the emission factors (calculated as 5-year mean of annual balances) for the rewetted site were (±SD) -104 ± 80 g CO 2 -C m -2  yr -1 (i.e. CO 2 sink) and 9 ± 2 g CH 4 -C m -2  yr -1 (i.e. CH 4 source). Nearly a decade after rewetting, the GHG balance (100-year global warming potential) had reduced noticeably (i.e. less warming) in comparison with the drained site but was still higher than comparative intact sites. Our results indicate that rewetted sites may be more sensitive to interannual changes in weather conditions than their more resilient intact counterparts and may switch from an annual CO 2 sink to a source if triggered by slightly drier

  11. Multi-Year Professional Development Grounded in Educative Curriculum Focused on Integrating Technology with Reformed Science Teaching Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Max L.; Coster, Daniel C.; Wolf, Paul G.; Duffy, Aaron M.; Lee, Hyunju; Campbell, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Visions of science teaching and learning in the newest U.S. standards documents are dramatically different than those found in most classrooms. This research addresses these differences through closely examining one professional development (PD) project that connects teacher learning and teacher practice with student learning/achievement. This…

  12. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  13. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Christensen, John N.; Conrad, Mark E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Haggerty, Roy; Hammon, Glenn; Kent, Douglas B.; Konopka, Allan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Rubin, Yoram; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2010-02-01

    The Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC) at the Hanford Site 300 Area uranium (U) plume addresses multi-scale mass transfer processes in a complex hydrogeologic setting where groundwater and riverwater interact. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research which relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements and approaches needed to characterize and model a mass-transfer dominated system. The project was initiated in February 2007, with CY 2007 and CY 2008 progress summarized in preceding reports. The site has 35 instrumented wells, and an extensive monitoring system. It includes a deep borehole for microbiologic and biogeochemical research that sampled the entire thickness of the unconfined 300 A aquifer. Significant, impactful progress has been made in CY 2009 with completion of extensive laboratory measurements on field sediments, field hydrologic and geophysical characterization, four field experiments, and modeling. The laboratory characterization results are being subjected to geostatistical analyses to develop spatial heterogeneity models of U concentration and chemical, physical, and hydrologic properties needed for reactive transport modeling. The field experiments focused on: (1) physical characterization of the groundwater flow field during a period of stable hydrologic conditions in early spring, (2) comprehensive groundwater monitoring during spring to characterize the release of U(VI) from the lower vadose zone to the aquifer during water table rise and fall, (3) dynamic geophysical monitoring of salt-plume migration during summer, and (4) a U reactive tracer experiment (desorption) during the fall. Geophysical characterization of the well field was completed using the down-well Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) array, with results subjected to robust

  14. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-01-01

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 2030, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of$24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency

  15. Spatial distribution of marine litter along italian coastal areas in the Pelagos sanctuary (Ligurian Sea - NW Mediterranean Sea): A focus on natural and urban beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovacchini, Alice; Merlino, Silvia; Locritani, Marina; Stroobant, Mascha

    2018-05-01

    Our paper will show data on quantity, typology, distribution of beach litter (Anthropogenic Marine Debris - AMD) within a coastal macroarea surrounding the Pelagos Sanctuary, an International Protected Area in the NW Mediterranean Sea. AMD Monitoring and characterisation have been performed by using SEACleaner Protocol: an adapted version of UNEP/IOC, OSPAR and EU guidelines. 11 beaches located in 5 different areas, have been monitored with a total amount of thirty three surveys, from January 2014 to December 2015, during different seasons. Three kinds of beaches have been considered: Natural (belonging to MPAs), Urbanized and Urban. A total of 34,027 items on a total area of 32,154 m 2 have been removed and classified. Spatial difference in abundance and composition of AMDs - as well as beach environmental quality - has been detected. Natural sites, and particularly protected areas close to river mouths show a major density compared to other areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  17. A review on substances and processes relevant for optical remote sensing of extremely turbid marine areas, with a focus on the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommersom, A.; Wernand, M.R.; Peters, S.W.M.; de Boer, J.

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of optical remote sensing data of estuaries and tidal flat areas is hampered by optical complexity and often extreme turbidity. Extremely high concentrations of suspended matter, chlorophyll and dissolved organic matter, local differences, seasonal and tidal variations and

  18. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: conservation planning for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish to Tsitsikamma water management area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish- to-Tsitsikamma water management area Project Aims To put in practice and refine, through a pilot study in the Eastern Cape Province, the policy and planning tools developed for systematic conservation... engagement in developing the technical approach to river prioritization and selection, as well as the reviewing of results to facilitate buy-in and ownership of the product. Project Description The Fish to Tsitsikamma Water Management Area is one...

  19. Environmental support FY 1995 multi-year program plan/fiscal year work plan WBS 1.5.2/7.4.11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    The multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) is the programmatic planning baseline document for technical, schedule, and cost data. The MYPP contains data by which all work is managed, performed and controlled. The integrated planning process, defined by RL, is redicted on establishment of detailed data in the MYPP. The MYPP includes detailed information for the data elements including Level II critical path schedules, cost estimate detail, and updated technical data to be done annually. There will be baseline execution year and out year approval with work authorization for execution. The MYPP will concentrate on definition of the scope, schedule, cost and program element level critical path schedules that show the relationship of planned activities. The Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) is prepared for each program to provide the basis for authorizing fiscal year work. The MYPP/FYWP will be structured into three main areas: (1) Program Overview; (2) Program Baselines; (3) Fiscal Year Work Plan

  20. Regional-scale assessment of soil salinity in the Red River Valley using multi-year MODIS EVI and NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D B; Lesch, S M; Corwin, D L; Ulmer, M G; Anderson, K A; Potts, D J; Doolittle, J A; Matos, M R; Baltes, M J

    2010-01-01

    The ability to inventory and map soil salinity at regional scales remains a significant challenge to scientists concerned with the salinization of agricultural soils throughout the world. Previous attempts to use satellite or aerial imagery to assess soil salinity have found limited success in part because of the inability of methods to isolate the effects of soil salinity on vegetative growth from other factors. This study evaluated the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in conjunction with directed soil sampling to assess and map soil salinity at a regional scale (i.e., 10-10(5) km(2)) in a parsimonious manner. Correlations with three soil salinity ground truth datasets differing in scale were made in Kittson County within the Red River Valley (RRV) of North Dakota and Minnesota, an area where soil salinity assessment is a top priority for the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Multi-year MODIS imagery was used to mitigate the influence of temporally dynamic factors such as weather, pests, disease, and management influences. The average of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) for a 7-yr period exhibited a strong relationship with soil salinity in all three datasets, and outperformed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). One-third to one-half of the spatial variability in soil salinity could be captured by measuring average MODIS EVI and whether the land qualified for the Conservation Reserve Program (a USDA program that sets aside marginally productive land based on conservation principles). The approach has the practical simplicity to allow broad application in areas where limited resources are available for salinity assessment.

  1. Advanced reactors transition fiscal year 1995 multi-year program plan WBS 7.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loika, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes in detail the work to be accomplished in FY-1995 and the out years for the Advanced Reactors Transition (WBS 7.3). This document describes specific milestones and funding profiles. Based upon the Fiscal Year 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan, DOE will provide authorization to perform the work outlined in the FY 1995 MYPP. Following direction given by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on December 15, 1993, Advanced Reactors Transition (ART), previously known as Advanced Reactors, will provide the planning and perform the necessary activities for placing the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition. The DOE goal is to accomplish the shutdown in approximately five years. The Advanced Reactors Transition Multi-Year Program Plan, and the supporting documents; i.e., the FFTF Shutdown Program Plan and the FFTF Shutdown Project Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS), are defined for the life of the Program. During the transition period to achieve the Shutdown end-state, the facilities and systems will continue to be maintained in a safe and environmentally sound condition. Additionally, facilities that were associated with the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Programs, and are no longer required to support the Liquid Metal Reactor Program will be deactivated and transferred to an alternate sponsor or the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program for final disposition, as appropriate

  2. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  3. Oak Forest Responses to Episodic-Seasonal-Drought, Chronic Multi-year Precipitation Change and Acute Drought Manipulations in a Region With Deep Soils and High Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Paul J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Todd, Donald E.; Auge, Robert M.; Froberg, Mats; Johnson, Dale W.

    2010-05-01

    Implications of episodic-seasonal drought (extremely dry late summers), chronic multi-year precipitation manipulations (±33 percent over 12 years) and acute drought (-100 percent over 3 years) were evaluated for the response of vegetation and biogeochemical cycles for an upland-oak forest. The Quercus-Acer forest is located in eastern Tennessee on deep acidic soils with mean annual temperatures of 14.2 °C and abundant precipitation (1352 mm y-1). The multi-year observations and chronic manipulations were conducted from 1993 through 2005 using understory throughfall collection troughs and redistribution gutters and pipes. Acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were conducted from 2003 through 2005 using full understory tents. Regional and severe late-summer droughts were produced reduced stand water use and photosynthetic carbon gain as expected. Likewise, seedlings and saplings exhibited reduced survival and cumulative growth reductions. Conversely, multi-year chronic increases or decreases in precipitation and associated soil water deficits did not reduce large tree basal area growth for the tree species present. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between carbon allocation to tree growth (an early-season phenomenon) and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited physiological responses and minimal cumulative growth reductions. Lateral root water sources were removed through trenching and could not explain the lack of response to extreme soil drying. Therefore, deep rooting the primary mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought. Extensive trench-based assessments of rooting depth suggested that ‘deep' water supplies were being obtained from limited numbers of deep fine roots. Observations of carbon stocks in organic horizons demonstrated accumulation with precipitation reductions and

  4. Few multiyear precipitation-reduction experiments find a shift in the productivity-precipitation relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estiarte, Marc; Vicca, Sara; Peñuelas, Josep; Bahn, Michael; Beier, Claus; Emmett, Bridget A; Fay, Philip A; Hanson, Paul J; Hasibeder, Roland; Kigel, Jaime; Kröel-Dulay, Gyorgy; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Ogaya, Romà; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Reinsch, Sabine; Sala, Osvaldo E; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Sternberg, Marcelo; Tielbörger, Katja; Tietema, Albert; Janssens, Ivan A

    2016-07-01

    Well-defined productivity-precipitation relationships of ecosystems are needed as benchmarks for the validation of land models used for future projections. The productivity-precipitation relationship may be studied in two ways: the spatial approach relates differences in productivity to those in precipitation among sites along a precipitation gradient (the spatial fit, with a steeper slope); the temporal approach relates interannual productivity changes to variation in precipitation within sites (the temporal fits, with flatter slopes). Precipitation-reduction experiments in natural ecosystems represent a complement to the fits, because they can reduce precipitation below the natural range and are thus well suited to study potential effects of climate drying. Here, we analyse the effects of dry treatments in eleven multiyear precipitation-manipulation experiments, focusing on changes in the temporal fit. We expected that structural changes in the dry treatments would occur in some experiments, thereby reducing the intercept of the temporal fit and displacing the productivity-precipitation relationship downward the spatial fit. The majority of experiments (72%) showed that dry treatments did not alter the temporal fit. This implies that current temporal fits are to be preferred over the spatial fit to benchmark land-model projections of productivity under future climate within the precipitation ranges covered by the experiments. Moreover, in two experiments, the intercept of the temporal fit unexpectedly increased due to mechanisms that reduced either water loss or nutrient loss. The expected decrease of the intercept was observed in only one experiment, and only when distinguishing between the late and the early phases of the experiment. This implies that we currently do not know at which precipitation-reduction level or at which experimental duration structural changes will start to alter ecosystem productivity. Our study highlights the need for experiments with

  5. Suggestions for the New Social Entrepreneurship Initiative: Focus on Building a Body of Research-Proven Programs, Shown to Produce Major Gains in Education, Poverty Reduction, Crime Prevention, and Other Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines a possible approach to implementing the Social Entrepreneurship initiative, focused on building a body of research-proven program models/strategies, and scaling them up, so as to produce major progress in education, poverty reduction, crime prevention, and other areas. The paper summarizes the rationale for this approach, then…

  6. Guidelines for the Use of Mathematics in Operational Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Programmes Using the Sterile Insect Technique with a Special Focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, H.L.; Enkerlin, W.R.; Manoukis, N.C.; Reyes-Flores, J.

    2016-01-01

    This guideline attempts to assist managers in the use of mathematics in area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). It describes mathematical tools that can be used at different stages of suppression/eradication programmes. For instance, it provides simple methods for calculating the various quantities of sterile insects required in the intervention area so that more realistic sterile: fertile rates to suppress pest populations can be achieved. The calculations, for the most part, only involve high school mathematics and can be done easily with small portable computers or calculators. The guideline is intended to be a reference book, to be consulted when necessary. As such, any particular AW-IPM programme using the SIT will probably only need certain sections, and much of the book can be ignored if that is the case. For example, if the intervention area is relatively small and well isolated, then the section on dispersal can safely be ignored, as the boundedness of the area means that dispersal should not be a problem, and so the section on diffusion equations can be ignored. An overview is given in each chapter to try to let the programme manager make a decision about where to put the programme efforts. On the other hand, most SIT programmes have an information system (many of them based on GIS) that produces reliable profiles of historic information. Based on the results of past activities they describe what has happened in the last days or weeks but usually do not explain, or barely explain, what is expected in the following days or weeks. Current AW-IPM progammes using the SIT have produced over many years a vast amount of every-day data from the field operations and from the mass rearing facility and packing and sterile insect releasing centres. With the help of this guideline, that information can be used to develop predictive models for their particular conditions to better plan control measures.

  7. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  8. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  9. Multi-year climate variability in the Southwestern United States within a context of a dynamically downscaled twentieth century reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carlos M.; Castro, Christopher L.; Chang, Hsin-I.; Luong, Thang M.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation evaluates whether there is coherency in warm and cool season precipitation at the low-frequency scale that may be responsible for multi-year droughts in the US Southwest. This low-frequency climate variability at the decadal scale and longer is studied within the context of a twentieth-century reanalysis (20CR) and its dynamically-downscaled version (DD-20CR). A spectral domain matrix methods technique (Multiple-Taper-Method Singular Value Decomposition) is applied to these datasets to identify statistically significant spatiotemporal precipitation patterns for the cool (November-April) and warm (July-August) seasons. The low-frequency variability in the 20CR is evaluated by exploring global to continental-scale spatiotemporal variability in moisture flux convergence (MFC) to the occurrence of multiyear droughts and pluvials in Central America, as this region has a demonstrated anti-phase relationship in low-frequency climate variability with northern Mexico and the southwestern US By using the MFC in lieu of precipitation, this study reveals that the 20CR is able to resolve well the low-frequency, multiyear climate variability. In the context of the DD-20CR, multiyear droughts and pluvials in the southwestern US (in the early twentieth century) are significantly related to this low-frequency climate variability. The precipitation anomalies at these low-frequency timescales are in phase between the cool and warm seasons, consistent with the concept of dual-season drought as has been suggested in tree ring studies.

  10. Multi-year analysis of distributed glacier mass balance modelling and equilibrium line altitude on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ulrike; López, Damián A.; Silva-Busso, Adrián

    2018-04-01

    The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m)-1) and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The Fourcade Glacier catchment drains

  11. Planning integration FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP)/Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Planning Integration Program, Work Breakdown structure (WBS) Element 1.8.2, is the primary management tool to document the technical, schedule, and cost baseline for work directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL). As an approved document, it establishes a binding agreement between RL and the performing contractors for the work to be performed. It was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This MYPP provides a picture from fiscal year 1995 through FY 2001 for the Planning Integration Program. The MYPP provides a window of detailed information for the first three years. It also provides 'execution year' work plans. The MYPP provides summary information for the next four years, documenting the same period as the Activity Data Sheets

  12. Planning integration FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP)/Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for the Planning Integration Program, Work Breakdown structure (WBS) Element 1.8.2, is the primary management tool to document the technical, schedule, and cost baseline for work directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL). As an approved document, it establishes a binding agreement between RL and the performing contractors for the work to be performed. It was prepared by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This MYPP provides a picture from fiscal year 1995 through FY 2001 for the Planning Integration Program. The MYPP provides a window of detailed information for the first three years. It also provides `execution year` work plans. The MYPP provides summary information for the next four years, documenting the same period as the Activity Data Sheets.

  13. Systems engineering aspects to installation of the phased multi-year LANSCE-refurbishment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieck, Martin; Erickson, John E.; Gulley, Mark S.; Jones, Kevin W.; Rybarcyk, Larry J.

    2009-01-01

    The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) is a phased, multiyear project. The project is scheduled to start refurbishment in the 2nd quarter of fiscal year 2011. Closeout will occur during the 4th quarter of FY2016. During the LANSCE-R project, installation of project components must be scheduled during six annual 6-month maintenance-outages and not conflict with annual LANSCE operational commitments to its user facilities. The project and operations schedules must be synchronized carefully. Therefore, the scheduled maintenance outages, functional testing (with beam off, by primarily project personnel) and commissioning (with beam on, by primarily Accelerator Operation Technology (AOT) personnel) must be managed to accommodate operation. Active and effective coordination and communication between the project and AOT personnel must be encouraged to identify, as early as possible, any operational issues. This paper will report on the systems engineering approach to the integration and control of engineering activities.

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project multi-year work plan WBS number 1.4.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) is a controlled living document that contains the current SNF Project Technical, Schedule and Cost Baselines. These baselines reflect the current Project execution strategies and are controlled via the change control process. Other changes to the MYWP document will be controlled using the document control process. These changes will be processed as they are approved to keep the MYWP a living document. The MYWP will be maintained continuously as the project baseline through the life of the project and not revised annually. The MYWP is the one document which summarizes and links these three baselines in one place. Supporting documentation for each baseline referred to herein may be impacted by changes to the MYWP, and must also be revised through change control to maintain consistency

  15. A Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); McKeown, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States).Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Zimmerman, Gregory P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Multi-Year Plan for Research, Development, and Prototype Testing of Standard Modular Hydropower Technology (MYRP) presents a strategy for specifying, designing, testing, and demonstrating the efficacy of standard modular hydropower (SMH) as an environmentally compatible and cost-optimized renewable electricity generation technology. The MYRP provides the context, background, and vision for testing the SMH hypothesis: if standardization, modularity, and preservation of stream functionality become essential and fully realized features of hydropower technology, project design, and regulatory processes, they will enable previously unrealized levels of new project development with increased acceptance, reduced costs, increased predictability of outcomes, and increased value to stakeholders. To achieve success in this effort, the MYRP outlines a framework of stakeholder-validated criteria, models, design tools, testing facilities, and assessment protocols that will facilitate the development of next-generation hydropower technologies.

  16. The potential effects of global warming on changes in canine leishmaniasis in a focus outside the classical area of the disease in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereure, Jacques; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Malé, Pierre; Martinez, Susana; Pratlong, Francine; Balard, Yves; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-12-01

    In 1994, an ecoepidemiologic study was carried out in the mid-Ariège valley (French Pyrenees) where autochthonous cases of canine leishmaniasis had been previously reported. Serologic samples were collected from 336 dogs in two groups of villages. The seroprevalences were 11.67% in the valley villages and only 1.43% in the foothill villages. Five lymph node biopsies were taken from serologically positive dogs, and resultant isolates were identified as Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1. Phlebotomine sandflies were collected in five locations by CDC light traps. Both of the known French vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were identified. Bioclimatic and floristic studies showed that this area is an enclave of the supra-Mediterranean climatic zone, containing a typically xerothermophilic Mediterranean flora. The Pyrenees Mountains are usually considered to be outside of the endemic range of leishmaniasis in southern France, and so our demonstration of a microfocus of canine leishmaniasis in the northern foothills is noteworthy. A second serologic survey carried out in 2007 (216 dogs) showed an inversion of the seropositive rates between the two groups of villages compared with those of 1994: only 2.72% in the valley villages and 11.32% in the foothills villages. The decrease of seroprevalence in the first area (valley villages) can be related to a considerable use of deltamethrin collars during the transmission season. The increase of seroprevalence of the foothill villages could be related to climatic conditions, since there was an increase of about 1 degrees C in the mean annual temperature.

  17. Multi-year programming of energy - The energy transition for a green growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers several documents. It contains the decree related to the definition of the multi-year programming of energy (in France), and then a synthesis of this policy which addresses its main objectives: to define a coherent framework for action for energy transition, to improve energy efficiency and reduce the consumption of fossil energies, to accelerate the development of renewable energies, to maintain a high level of security of supply while complying with environmental requirements, to prepare tomorrow's energy system, to develop a clean mobility, and to take economic and social of energy transition into account and to act with territories. The next documents address the implementation framework of the multi-year programming of energy, aspects related to energy demand management, aspects related to energy supply, aspects related to security of supply, to the development of infrastructures and to the flexibility of the electricity system, the strategy for the development of a clean mobility, aspects related to social and economic impacts, aspects related to the French western isles. A report is also proposed as an environmental strategic assessment of this programming and of its part related to the strategy for the development of a clean mobility. The opinion of Environmental Authority on this programming is also provided, as well as an information note published as an answer to this opinion. A debate of the national council for energy transition is included, as well as the opinion of the High Council for Energy, the texts of several amendments notably proposed by EDF, and the opinion of the expert committee for energy transition

  18. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  19. eHealth Use Among First-Generation Immigrants From Pakistan in the Oslo Area, Norway, With Focus on Diabetes: Survey Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Naoe; Kjøllesdal, Marte Karoline Råberg; Mirkovic, Jelena; Andreassen, Hege Kristin

    2016-04-25

    A variety of eHealth services are available and commonly used by the general public. eHealth has the potential to engage and empower people with managing their health. The prerequisite is, however, that eHealth services are adapted to the sociocultural heterogeneity of the user base and are available in a language and with contents that fit the users' preference, skills, and abilities. Pakistani immigrants in the Oslo area, Norway, have a much higher risk of Type-2 diabetes (T2D) than their Norwegian counterparts do. In spite of having access to information and communication technology (ICT) and the Internet, ICT skills in this population are reported to be relatively low. Further, there is insufficient information about their use of and attitudes toward eHealth services, necessitating investigation of this group in particular. This study targets first-generation immigrants from Pakistan living in the Oslo area and examines their use of and attitudes toward eHealth services, specifically: information searches, communication using ICT, and use of ICT for self-management or decision making, all concerning T2D. Due to a high prevalence of low literacy among the target population, we employed questionnaire-based individual interviews. The questionnaire was developed by implementing potentially relevant theoretical constructs (technology acceptance model (TAM) and health belief model (HBM)) as measures. To explore issues around language, culture, and general ICT skills, we also implemented questions that we assume were particularly relevant in the context studied but do not appear in any theoretical frameworks. The questionnaire was revised to reflect results of a pilot study involving 10 participants. We employed culturally sensitive sampling methods to reach informants who could otherwise fail to be included in the survey. This paper presents a survey protocol. The data collection is ongoing. The aim is to collect 200 responses in total by March 2016. For eHealth to

  20. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford’s 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2011 to January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Christensen, John N.; Conrad, Mark S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Haggerty, Roy; Hammond, Glenn E.; Kent, Douglas B.; Konopka, Allan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Rubin, Yoram; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2012-03-05

    The Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) at the Hanford Site 300 Area uranium (U) plume addresses multi-scale mass transfer processes in a complex subsurface biogeochemical setting where groundwater and riverwater interact. A series of forefront science questions on reactive mass transfer motivates research. These questions relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements and approaches needed to characterize and model a mass-transfer dominated biogeochemical system. The project was initiated in February 2007, with CY 2007, CY 2008, CY 2009, and CY 2010 progress summarized in preceding reports. A project peer review was held in March 2010, and the IFRC project acted upon all suggestions and recommendations made in consequence by reviewers and SBR/DOE. These responses have included the development of 'Modeling' and 'Well-Field Mitigation' plans that are now posted on the Hanford IFRC web-site, and modifications to the IFRC well-field completed in CY 2011. The site has 35 instrumented wells, and an extensive monitoring system. It includes a deep borehole for microbiologic and biogeochemical research that sampled the entire thickness of the unconfined 300 A aquifer. Significant, impactful progress has been made in CY 2011 including: (i) well modifications to eliminate well-bore flows, (ii) hydrologic testing of the modified well-field and upper aquifer, (iii) geophysical monitoring of winter precipitation infiltration through the U-contaminated vadose zone and spring river water intrusion to the IFRC, (iv) injection experimentation to probe the lower vadose zone and to evaluate the transport behavior of high U concentrations, (v) extended passive monitoring during the period of water table rise and fall, and (vi) collaborative down-hole experimentation with the PNNL SFA on the biogeochemistry of the 300 A Hanford

  1. Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on Hanford's 300 Area Uranium Plume January 2011 to January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachara, John M.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Christensen, John N.; Conrad, Mark S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Haggerty, Roy; Hammond, Glenn E.; Kent, Douglas B.; Konopka, Allan; Lichtner, Peter C.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Rubin, Yoram; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) at the Hanford Site 300 Area uranium (U) plume addresses multi-scale mass transfer processes in a complex subsurface biogeochemical setting where groundwater and riverwater interact. A series of forefront science questions on reactive mass transfer motivates research. These questions relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements and approaches needed to characterize and model a mass-transfer dominated biogeochemical system. The project was initiated in February 2007, with CY 2007, CY 2008, CY 2009, and CY 2010 progress summarized in preceding reports. A project peer review was held in March 2010, and the IFRC project acted upon all suggestions and recommendations made in consequence by reviewers and SBR/DOE. These responses have included the development of 'Modeling' and 'Well-Field Mitigation' plans that are now posted on the Hanford IFRC web-site, and modifications to the IFRC well-field completed in CY 2011. The site has 35 instrumented wells, and an extensive monitoring system. It includes a deep borehole for microbiologic and biogeochemical research that sampled the entire thickness of the unconfined 300 A aquifer. Significant, impactful progress has been made in CY 2011 including: (i) well modifications to eliminate well-bore flows, (ii) hydrologic testing of the modified well-field and upper aquifer, (iii) geophysical monitoring of winter precipitation infiltration through the U-contaminated vadose zone and spring river water intrusion to the IFRC, (iv) injection experimentation to probe the lower vadose zone and to evaluate the transport behavior of high U concentrations, (v) extended passive monitoring during the period of water table rise and fall, and (vi) collaborative down-hole experimentation with the PNNL SFA on the biogeochemistry of the 300 A Hanford-Ringold contact and the

  2. Identification of remediation needs and technology development focus areas for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.D.

    1995-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project has been tasked with the characterization, assessment, remediation and long-term monitoring of contaminated waste sites at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). Many of these sites will require remediation which will involve the use of baseline technologies, innovative technologies that are currently under development, and new methods which will be developed in the near future. The Technology Applications Program (TAP) supports the ER Project and is responsible for development of new technologies for use at the contaminated waste sites, including technologies that will be used for remediation and restoration of these sites. The purpose of this report is to define the remediation needs of the ER Project and to identify those remediation needs for which the baseline technologies and the current development efforts are inadequate. The area between the remediation needs and the existing baseline/innovative technology base represents a technology gap which must be filled in order to remediate contaminated waste sites at SNL/NM economically and efficiently. In the first part of this report, the remediation needs of the ER Project are defined by both the ER Project task leaders and by TAP personnel. The next section outlines the baseline technologies, including EPA defined Best Demonstrated Available Technologies (BDATs), that are applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. This is followed by recommendations of innovative technologies that are currently being developed that may also be applicable at SNL/NM ER sites. Finally, the gap between the existing baseline/innovative technology base and the remediation needs is identified. This technology gap will help define the future direction of technology development for the ER Project

  3. Seasonal monitoring of blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) populations in a harbor area: A focus on responses to environmental factors and chronic contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C; Duvieilbourg, E; Guillou, N; Guyomarch, J; Bassoulet, C; Moraga, D; Chapalain, G; Auffret, M

    2017-08-01

    Coastal waters corresponding to macrotidal systems are among the most variable marine biotopes. Sessile animals as bivalve mollusks may however be found forming intertidal beds at high densities, as allowed by full adaptation to local conditions. A better knowledge of adaptive responses to environmental factors is required to foresee possible adverse effects of global change. At the sub-cellular level, transcriptional responses are among the earliest signals of environmental disturbances and they can reveal subtle and meaningful changes in organism exposed to stress. Three blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) populations inhabiting the Bay of Brest (France) in sites exposed to different levels of chronic pollution, from low to moderate, were surveyed upon a seasonal schedule, with special attention to the reproductive cycle. Major seawater parameters were monitored over a full-year in the framework of the S!RANO project, based on an automatic high frequency acquisition system installed aboard a ship of opportunity. The health status of mussels has been assessed by measuring a condition index and gametogenesis has been followed by histology. Selected biological responses to environmental stress were detected using a multimarker approach including expression of genes involved in chemical stress response and energetic metabolism, and cellular immune parameters. Environmental parameters showed deep seasonal variations which differed among sites. Most biological responses followed a seasonal pattern. Late winter and spring corresponded to an active reproduction period in the Bay of Brest. Earlier spawning was observed in harbor areas compared to the oceanic site and an altered physiological state was assumed in commercial harbor mussels during the reproductive period, suggesting that their health is compromised at this time of year. However, no signs of severe chemical stress were detected in both harbor mussel populations, which could reflect adaptive responses to adverse

  4. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. Methods The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities. Results Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR. The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Conclusions Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  5. Focusing on fast food restaurants alone underestimates the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and exposure to fast food in a large rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; Dean, Wesley R; Horel, Scott A

    2011-01-25

    Individuals and families are relying more on food prepared outside the home as a source for at-home and away-from-home consumption. Restricting the estimation of fast-food access to fast-food restaurants alone may underestimate potential spatial access to fast food. The study used data from the 2006 Brazos Valley Food Environment Project (BVFEP) and the 2000 U.S. Census Summary File 3 for six rural counties in the Texas Brazos Valley region. BVFEP ground-truthed data included identification and geocoding of all fast-food restaurants, convenience stores, supermarkets, and grocery stores in study area and on-site assessment of the availability and variety of fast-food lunch/dinner entrées and side dishes. Network distance was calculated from the population-weighted centroid of each census block group to all retail locations that marketed fast food (n = 205 fast-food opportunities). Spatial access to fast-food opportunities (FFO) was significantly better than to traditional fast-food restaurants (FFR). The median distance to the nearest FFO was 2.7 miles, compared with 4.5 miles to the nearest FFR. Residents of high deprivation neighborhoods had better spatial access to a variety of healthier fast-food entrée and side dish options than residents of low deprivation neighborhoods. Our analyses revealed that identifying fast-food restaurants as the sole source of fast-food entrées and side dishes underestimated neighborhood exposure to fast food, in terms of both neighborhood proximity and coverage. Potential interventions must consider all retail opportunities for fast food, and not just traditional FFR.

  6. Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Alain; Jolas, Alain; Garconnet, J.-P.; Mascureau, J. de; Nazet, Christian; Coudeville, Alain; Bekiarian, Andre.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is the edition of the lectures given in a conference on the Focus experiment held at the Centre d'etudes de Limeil, on Oct. 1975. After a survey of the early laboratories one will find the main results obtained in Limeil concerning interferometry, laser scattering, electric and magnetic-measurements, X-ray and neutron emission and also the possible use of explosive current generators instead of capacitor banks at high energy levels. The principal lines of future research are given in the conclusion [fr

  7. Focus: Digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Technology has been an all-important and defining element within the arts throughout the 20th century, and it has fundamentally changed the ways in which we produce and consume music. With this Focus we investigate the latest developments in the digital domain – and their pervasiveness and rapid...... production and reception of contemporary music and sound art. With ‘Digital’ we present four composers' very different answers to how technology impact their work. To Juliana Hodkinson it has become an integral part of her sonic writing. Rudiger Meyer analyses the relationships between art and design and how...

  8. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  9. Pan-Arctic sea ice-algal chl a biomass and suitable habitat are largely underestimated for multiyear ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Benjamin A; Flores, Hauke; Michel, Christine; Beckers, Justin F; Bublitz, Anne; Casey, John Alec; Castellani, Giulia; Hatam, Ido; Reppchen, Anke; Rudolph, Svenja A; Haas, Christian

    2017-11-01

    There is mounting evidence that multiyear ice (MYI) is a unique component of the Arctic Ocean and may play a more important ecological role than previously assumed. This study improves our understanding of the potential of MYI as a suitable habitat for sea ice algae on a pan-Arctic scale. We sampled sea ice cores from MYI and first-year sea ice (FYI) within the Lincoln Sea during four consecutive spring seasons. This included four MYI hummocks with a mean chl a biomass of 2.0 mg/m 2 , a value significantly higher than FYI and MYI refrozen ponds. Our results support the hypothesis that MYI hummocks can host substantial ice-algal biomass and represent a reliable ice-algal habitat due to the (quasi-) permanent low-snow surface of these features. We identified an ice-algal habitat threshold value for calculated light transmittance of 0.014%. Ice classes and coverage of suitable ice-algal habitat were determined from snow and ice surveys. These ice classes and associated coverage of suitable habitat were applied to pan-Arctic CryoSat-2 snow and ice thickness data products. This habitat classification accounted for the variability of the snow and ice properties and showed an areal coverage of suitable ice-algal habitat within the MYI-covered region of 0.54 million km 2 (8.5% of total ice area). This is 27 times greater than the areal coverage of 0.02 million km 2 (0.3% of total ice area) determined using the conventional block-model classification, which assigns single-parameter values to each grid cell and does not account for subgrid cell variability. This emphasizes the importance of accounting for variable snow and ice conditions in all sea ice studies. Furthermore, our results indicate the loss of MYI will also mean the loss of reliable ice-algal habitat during spring when food is sparse and many organisms depend on ice-algae. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

  11. [A valid quality system for mental health care: from accountability and control in institutionalised settings to co-creation in small areas and a focus on community vital signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, J; Delespaul, P H

    In a given year, around 25% of the Dutch population may experience significant mental health problems, much more than the mental health service can attend to, given a maximum capacity of 6% of the population per year. Due to the lack of a public mental health system, there is fierce competition over who gets to receive care from mental health services and little control over how the level of needs can be matched with the appropriate intensity of care. As a result, resources are being wasted and both overtreatment and undertreatment are prevalent. AIM: To propose a valid quality system that benefits the mental health of the entire population and does not simply attend to the symptoms of a strategically selected group. METHOD: Literature review from an epidemiological and public mental health perspective. RESULTS: In our view, a valid quality system for mental health care needs to focus on two distinct areas. The first area involves the analysis of about 20 quantitative population parameters or 'Community Vital Signs' (care consumption, pharmaco-epidemiological indicators, mortality, somatic morbidity, social care, housing, work, benefits, involuntary admissions). This analysis will reveal regional variation in the mental health of the entire population rather than in the relatively small, selected group receiving mental health care. The second area to which attention needs to be directed comprises a system of simple qualitative visits to mental health care institutions based on 10 quality parameters that currently remain invisible; these parameters will measure the impact at local community level. The focus of these will be on a transition from accountability and control in large institutions to provision of care in small areas that was co-designed with users and other stakeholders. CONCLUSION: A valid quality system for mental health care is within reach, provided it is combined with a novel system of public mental health and transition of care to a system of co

  12. Genomic prediction in early selection stages using multi-year data in a hybrid rye breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vasquez, Angela-Maria; Gordillo, Andres; Schmidt, Malthe; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2017-05-31

    The use of multiple genetic backgrounds across years is appealing for genomic prediction (GP) because past years' data provide valuable information on marker effects. Nonetheless, single-year GP models are less complex and computationally less demanding than multi-year GP models. In devising a suitable analysis strategy for multi-year data, we may exploit the fact that even if there is no replication of genotypes across years, there is plenty of replication at the level of marker loci. Our principal aim was to evaluate different GP approaches to simultaneously model genotype-by-year (GY) effects and breeding values using multi-year data in terms of predictive ability. The models were evaluated under different scenarios reflecting common practice in plant breeding programs, such as different degrees of relatedness between training and validation sets, and using a selected fraction of genotypes in the training set. We used empirical grain yield data of a rye hybrid breeding program. A detailed description of the prediction approaches highlighting the use of kinship for modeling GY is presented. Using the kinship to model GY was advantageous in particular for datasets disconnected across years. On average, predictive abilities were 5% higher for models using kinship to model GY over models without kinship. We confirmed that using data from multiple selection stages provides valuable GY information and helps increasing predictive ability. This increase is on average 30% higher when the predicted genotypes are closely related with the genotypes in the training set. A selection of top-yielding genotypes together with the use of kinship to model GY improves the predictive ability in datasets composed of single years of several selection cycles. Our results clearly demonstrate that the use of multi-year data and appropriate modeling is beneficial for GP because it allows dissecting GY effects from genomic estimated breeding values. The model choice, as well as ensuring

  13. Multiyear Statistics of 2-D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the importance of horizontal photon transport effects, which are not considered in the 1-D calculations of solar radiative heating used by most atmospheric dynamical models. In particular, the paper analyzes the difference between 2-D and 1-D radiative calculations for 2-D vertical cross-sections of clouds that were observed at three sites over 2- to 3-year periods. The results show that 2-D effects increase multiyear 24-hour average total solar absorption by about 4.1 W/sq m, 1.2 W/sq m, and 0.3 W/sq m at a tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic site, respectively. However, 2-D effects are often much larger than these average values, especially for high sun and for convective clouds. The results also reveal a somewhat unexpected behavior, that horizontal photon transport often enhances solar heating even for oblique sun. These findings underscore the need for fast radiation calculation methods that can allow atmospheric dynamical simulations to consider the inherently multidimensional nature of shortwave radiative processes.

  14. Building energy simulation using multi-years and typical meteorological years in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu Jiaping; Tsang, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Detailed hourly energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter - in China using multi-year (1971-2000) weather databases as well as typical meteorological years (TMY). The primary aim was to compare the energy simulation results from the TMY with those from individual years and their long term means. A total of 154 simulation runs were performed. Building heating and cooling loads, their components and energy use for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning were analysed. Predicted monthly load and energy consumption profiles from the TMY tended to follow the long term mean quite closely. Mean bias errors ranged from -4.3% in Guangzhou to 0% in Beijing and root-mean-square errors from 3% in Harbin to 5.4% in Guangzhou. These percentages were not always the smallest compared with the 30 individual years, however, they are at the lower end of the percentage error ranges. This paper presents the work and its findings

  15. Multi-year high-frequency hydrothermal monitoring of selected high-threat Cascade Range volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, I. M.; Archfield, S. A.; Newman, A. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Clor, L. E.; Spicer, K. R.; Kelly, P. J.; Evans, W. C.; Ingebritsen, S. E.

    2018-05-01

    From 2009 to 2015 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) systematically monitored hydrothermal behavior at selected Cascade Range volcanoes in order to define baseline hydrothermal and geochemical conditions. Gas and water data were collected regularly at 25 sites on 10 of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascade Range. These sites include near-summit fumarole groups and springs/streams that show clear evidence of magmatic influence (high 3He/4He ratios and/or large fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat). Site records consist mainly of hourly temperature and hydrothermal-flux data. Having established baseline conditions during a multiyear quiescent period, the USGS reduced monitoring frequency from 2015 to present. The archived monitoring data are housed at (doi:10.5066/F72N5088). These data (1) are suitable for retrospective comparison with other continuous geophysical monitoring data and (2) will provide context during future episodes of volcanic unrest, such that unrest-related variations at these thoroughly characterized sites will be more clearly recognizable. Relatively high-frequency year-round data are essential to achieve these objectives, because many of the time series reveal significant diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability that would tend to mask unrest signals in the absence of baseline data. Here we characterize normal variability for each site, suggest strategies to detect future volcanic unrest, and explore deviations from background associated with recent unrest.

  16. Multi-year analysis of distributed glacier mass balance modelling and equilibrium line altitude on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Falk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP. This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m−1 and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA. The

  17. Superior sensory, motor, and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with multi-year dancing activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years amateur dancing (AD in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65 to 84 years as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.

  18. Inferring source attribution from a multiyear multisource data set of Salmonella in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, C; Muellner, P; Spencer, S E F; Hong, S; Saupe, A; Rovira, A; Hedberg, C; Perez, A; Muellner, U; Alvarez, J

    2017-12-01

    Salmonella enterica is a global health concern because of its widespread association with foodborne illness. Bayesian models have been developed to attribute the burden of human salmonellosis to specific sources with the ultimate objective of prioritizing intervention strategies. Important considerations of source attribution models include the evaluation of the quality of input data, assessment of whether attribution results logically reflect the data trends and identification of patterns within the data that might explain the detailed contribution of different sources to the disease burden. Here, more than 12,000 non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human, bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey sources that originated in Minnesota were analysed. A modified Bayesian source attribution model (available in a dedicated R package), accounting for non-sampled sources of infection, attributed 4,672 human cases to sources assessed here. Most (60%) cases were attributed to chicken, although there was a spike in cases attributed to a non-sampled source in the second half of the study period. Molecular epidemiological analysis methods were used to supplement risk modelling, and a visual attribution application was developed to facilitate data exploration and comprehension of the large multiyear data set assessed here. A large amount of within-source diversity and low similarity between sources was observed, and visual exploration of data provided clues into variations driving the attribution modelling results. Results from this pillared approach provided first attribution estimates for Salmonella in Minnesota and offer an understanding of current data gaps as well as key pathogen population features, such as serotype frequency, similarity and diversity across the sources. Results here will be used to inform policy and management strategies ultimately intended to prevent and control Salmonella infection in the state. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara; Fernández, Laura; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia; Moirano, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based GNSS products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, seven-year long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay (Bianchi et al. 2016). As preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2% per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model fairly reproduces the observed mean delays, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited form the underling atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available at a scientific repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858234). References: C. Bianchi, L. Mendoza, L. Fernandez, M. P. Natali, A. Meza, J. F. Moirano, Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies, Ann. Geophys., ISSN 0992-7689, eISSN 1432-0576, 34 (7), 623-639 (doi:10.5194/angeo-34-623-2016).

  20. Transition projects, Fiscal Year 1996: Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for WBS 1.31, 7.1, and 6.13. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartmell, D.B.

    1995-09-01

    Based on US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) review, specific areas of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Transition Projects ``Draft`` Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) were revised in preparation for the RL approval ceremony on September 26, 1995. These changes were reviewed with the appropriate RL Project Manager. The changes have been incorporated to the MYPP electronic file, and hard copies replacing the ``Draft`` MYPP will be distributed after the formal signing. In addition to the comments received, a summary level schedule and outyear estimates for the K Basin deactivation beginning in FY 2001 have been included. The K Basin outyear waste data is nearing completion this week and will be incorporated. This exclusion was discussed with Mr. N.D. Moorer, RL, Facility Transition Program Support/Integration. The attached MYPP scope/schedule reflects the Integrated Target Case submitted in the April 1995 Activity Data Sheets (ADS) with the exception of B Plant and the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The 8 Plant assumption in FY 1997 reflects the planning case in the FY 1997 ADS with a shortfall of $5 million. PFP assumptions have been revised from the FY 1997 ADS based on the direction provided this past summer by DOE-Headquarters. This includes the acceleration of the polycube stabilization back to its originally planned completion date. Although the overall program repricing in FY 1996 allowed the scheduled acceleration to fall with the funding allocation, the FY 1997 total reflects a shortfall of $6 million.

  1. Transition projects, Fiscal Year 1996: Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) for WBS 1.31, 7.1, and 6.13. Revision 1, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartmell, D.B.

    1995-09-01

    Based on US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) review, specific areas of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Transition Projects ''Draft'' Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) were revised in preparation for the RL approval ceremony on September 26, 1995. These changes were reviewed with the appropriate RL Project Manager. The changes have been incorporated to the MYPP electronic file, and hard copies replacing the ''Draft'' MYPP will be distributed after the formal signing. In addition to the comments received, a summary level schedule and outyear estimates for the K Basin deactivation beginning in FY 2001 have been included. The K Basin outyear waste data is nearing completion this week and will be incorporated. This exclusion was discussed with Mr. N.D. Moorer, RL, Facility Transition Program Support/Integration. The attached MYPP scope/schedule reflects the Integrated Target Case submitted in the April 1995 Activity Data Sheets (ADS) with the exception of B Plant and the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The 8 Plant assumption in FY 1997 reflects the planning case in the FY 1997 ADS with a shortfall of $5 million. PFP assumptions have been revised from the FY 1997 ADS based on the direction provided this past summer by DOE-Headquarters. This includes the acceleration of the polycube stabilization back to its originally planned completion date. Although the overall program repricing in FY 1996 allowed the scheduled acceleration to fall with the funding allocation, the FY 1997 total reflects a shortfall of $6 million

  2. Focus Group Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    home for the arrival of school- aged children. TIP: Do not conduct focus groups in a command conference room in the command group area. Doing so...organizational effectiveness and equal opportunity/equal employment opportunity/fair treatment and sexual assault and response factors (which are listed on the... Sexual Harassment (C) Sex Harassment Retaliation (D) Discrimination - Sex (E) Discrimination - Race (F) Discrimination - Disability (G

  3. Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  4. Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond

  5. Hanford environmental management program multi-year work plan FY1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Support FY 1998 Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP), consisting of the Hanford Environmental Management Program (HEMP) and the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring (EEM) Program MYWP is prepared to specifically establish the execution year's work scope, budget targets, and schedule baselines. The work plan contains the work breakdown structure (WBS) and the WBS dictionary, milestone listings and milestone description sheets, and cost targets that the program manager will use to manage program work for the fiscal year. Where activities required to maintain or attain compliance with environmental requirements and agreements are impacted as a result of a reduction of the authorized funds, the ''Work Authorization'' identifies the impacted scope and requires the Contracting Officer's or Assistant Manager-Contracting Officer's Representative signature. Change requests will be submitted to RL by the contractor for approval, further documenting the impacts of any environmental and agreement noncompliances as a result of funding limitations. This is the first year that the MYWPs are submitted under the new Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC). The MYWPs are structured differently than in prior years. The MYWP is divided into two main sections. Section One is titled the ''Project Summary Section'' and Section Two is titled the ''Additional Sections at the Project Baseline Summaries Level''. Section One is where the major project summary-level information is provided. Section Two is designed to detail the information for each Project Baseline Summary (PBS) that falls under the purview of the major project listed in Section One. Considering all of the PHMC MYWPs, the HEMP and EEM programs are the one exception to the above description. HEMP and EEM are two of five separate programs that are organized under one common PBS that is titled Mission Support (PBS number-sign RL-OT01). RL has given guidance that HEMP and EEM will be submitted as one common MYWP

  6. Area-wide integrated pest management and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.

    2005-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) focuses on the preventive management of pest populations throughout the ecosystem. It seeks to treat all habitats of the pest population so that none produces migrants to re-establish significant infestations in areas of concern. In contrast, the conventional strategy focuses narrowly on defending the valued entity (crop, livestock, people, buildings, etc.) from direct attack by pests. AW-IPM requires multiyear planning, and an organization dedicated exclusively to its implementation, whereas conventional pest management involves minimal forward planning, tends to be reactive, and is implemented independently by individual producers, businesses, or households. AW-IPM tends to utilize advanced technologies, whereas the conventional strategy tends to rely on traditional tactics and tools. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a species-specific form of birth control imposed on the pest population. It is a powerful tool for 'mopping up' sparse pest populations, and is most efficient when applied as a tactic in a system deployed on an area-wide basis. On environmental, economic and biological grounds, the case for the SIT is compelling. (author)

  7. A multiyear DG-incorporated framework for expansion planning of distribution networks using binary chaotic shark smell optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadigorji, Masoud; Amjady, Nima

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new model for MEPDN (multiyear expansion planning of distribution networks) is proposed. By solving this model, the optimal expansion scheme of primary (i.e. medium voltage) distribution network including the reinforcement pattern of primary feeders as well as location and size of DG (distributed generators) during an ascertained planning period is determined. Furthermore, the time-based feature of proposed model allows it to specify the investments/reinforcements time (i.e. year). Moreover, a minimum load shedding-based analytical approach for optimizing the network's reliability is introduced. The associated objective function of proposed model is minimizing the total investment and operation costs. To solve the formulated MEPDN model as a complex multi-dimensional optimization problem, a new evolutionary algorithm-based solution method called BCSSO (Binary Chaotic Shark Smell Optimization) is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed MEPDN model and solution approach is illustrated by applying them on two widely-used test cases including 12-bus and 33-bus distribution network and comparing the acquired results with the results of other solution methods. - Highlights: • A multiyear expansion planning model for distribution network is presented. • A new evolutionary algorithm-based solution approach is proposed. • A minimum load shedding-based analytical method for EENS minimization is suggested. • The efficacy of the proposed solution approach is broadly investigated.

  8. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João

    2017-08-01

    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  9. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  10. Integrating Chemical Information Instruction into the Chemistry Curriculum on Borrowed Time: A Multiyear Case Study of a Capstone Research Report for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Danielle L.; Dalal, Heather A.; Dawson, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    To develop information literacy skills in chemistry and biochemistry majors at a primarily undergraduate institution, a multiyear collaboration between chemistry faculty and librarians has resulted in the establishment of a semester-long capstone project for Organic Chemistry II. Information literacy skills were instilled via a progressive…

  11. Increasing URM Undergraduate Student Success through Assessment-Driven Interventions: A Multiyear Study Using Freshman-Level General Biology as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Mary C.; St. Clair, Candace; Edwards, Andrea M.; Barrett, Peter; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Awad, Mohamed; Kundu, Anup; Ireland, Shubha Kale

    2016-01-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana leads the nation in awarding BS degrees in the biological sciences to African-American students. In this multiyear study with ~5500 participants, data-driven interventions were adopted to improve student academic performance in a freshman-level general biology course. The three hour-long exams were common and…

  12. Advanced energy design and operation technologies research: Recommendations for a US Department of Energy multiyear program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Crawley, D.B.; Hostetler, D.D.; Stratton, R.C.; Addision, M.S.; Deringer, J.J.; Hall, J.D.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1988-12-01

    This document describes recommendations for a multiyear plan developed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Advanced Energy Design and Operation Technologies (AEDOT) project. The plan is an outgrowth of earlier planning activities conducted for DOE as part of design process research under the Building System Integration Program (BSIP). The proposed research will produce intelligent computer-based design and operation technologies for commercial buildings. In this document, the concept is explained, the need for these new computer-based environments is discussed, the benefits are described, and a plan for developing the AEDOT technologies is presented for the 9-year period beginning FY 1989. 45 refs., 37 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. CT Dose Optimization in Pediatric Radiology: A Multiyear Effort to Preserve the Benefits of Imaging While Reducing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Taylor J; Lopez-Costa, Rodrigo I; Rhoades, Patrick D; Ramírez-Giraldo, Juan C; Starr, Matthew; Street, Mandie; Duncan, James; McKinstry, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    The marked increase in radiation exposure from medical imaging, especially in children, has caused considerable alarm and spurred efforts to preserve the benefits but reduce the risks of imaging. Applying the principles of the Image Gently campaign, data-driven process and quality improvement techniques such as process mapping and flowcharting, cause-and-effect diagrams, Pareto analysis, statistical process control (control charts), failure mode and effects analysis, "lean" or Six Sigma methodology, and closed feedback loops led to a multiyear program that has reduced overall computed tomographic (CT) examination volume by more than fourfold and concurrently decreased radiation exposure per CT study without compromising diagnostic utility. This systematic approach involving education, streamlining access to magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography, auditing with comparison with benchmarks, applying modern CT technology, and revising CT protocols has led to a more than twofold reduction in CT radiation exposure between 2005 and 2012 for patients at the authors' institution while maintaining diagnostic utility. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project multi-year work plan WBS {number_sign}1.4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Year Work Plan (MYWP) is a controlled living document that contains the current SNF Project Technical, Schedule and Cost Baselines. These baselines reflect the current Project execution strategies and are controlled via the change control process. Other changes to the MYWP document will be controlled using the document control process. These changes will be processed as they are approved to keep the MYWP a living document. The MYWP will be maintained continuously as the project baseline through the life of the project and not revised annually. The MYWP is the one document which summarizes and links these three baselines in one place. Supporting documentation for each baseline referred to herein may be impacted by changes to the MYWP, and must also be revised through change control to maintain consistency.

  15. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest: A First Multiyear Assessment Based on CALIPSO Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Omar, Ali; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 to approximately 48) Tg a(exp -1) or 29 (8 to approximately 50) kg ha(exp -1) a(exp -1). The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.0060.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 to approximately 39) g P ha(exp -1) a(exp -1) to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input largely compensates the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  16. Multi-year longitudinal profiles of cortisol and corticosterone recovered from baleen of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Lysiak, Nadine S; Moore, Michael; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2017-12-01

    Research into stress physiology of mysticete whales has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining repeated physiological samples from individuals over time. We investigated whether multi-year longitudinal records of glucocorticoids can be reconstructed from serial sampling along full-length baleen plates (representing ∼10years of baleen growth), using baleen recovered from two female North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) of known reproductive history. Cortisol and corticosterone were quantified with immunoassay of subsamples taken every 4cm (representing ∼60d time intervals) along a full-length baleen plate from each female. In both whales, corticosterone was significantly elevated during known pregnancies (inferred from calf sightings and necropsy data) as compared to intercalving intervals; cortisol was significantly elevated during pregnancies in one female but not the other. Within intercalving intervals, corticosterone was significantly elevated during the first year (lactation year) and/or the second year (post-lactation year) as compared to later years of the intercalving interval, while cortisol showed more variable patterns. Cortisol occasionally showed brief high elevations ("spikes") not paralleled by corticosterone, suggesting that the two glucocorticoids might be differentially responsive to certain stressors. Generally, immunoreactive corticosterone was present in higher concentration in baleen than immunoreactive cortisol; corticosterone:cortisol ratio was usually >4 and was highly variable in both individuals. Further investigation of baleen cortisol and corticosterone profiles could prove fruitful for elucidating long-term, multi-year patterns in stress physiology of large whales, determined retrospectively from stranded or archived specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Making the Invisible of Learning Visible: Pre-Service Teachers Identify Connections between the Use of Literacy Strategies and Their Content Area Assessment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton-Kukner, Jennifer; Orr, Anne Murray

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe four ways secondary pre-service teachers appeared to be developing assessment practices during field experience, after taking a content area literacy course. This paper arises from a multi-year study exploring pre-service and beginning content area teachers' use of literacy strategies in teaching mathematics, science, and…

  18. The FOCUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Randers, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a distinct feature among people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and pose a barrier to functional recovery. Insufficient evidence exists on how to ameliorate these cognitive deficits in patients at UHR for psychosis and hence improve daily living and quality...... of life. The aim of the trial is to investigate whether cognitive remediation can improve cognitive and psychosocial function in patients at UHR for psychosis. METHODS: The FOCUS trial (Function and Overall Cognition in Ultra-high risk States) is a randomised, parallel group, observer-blinded clinical...... trial enrolling 126 patients meeting the standardised criteria of being at UHR for psychosis. Patients are recruited from psychiatric in- and outpatient facilities in the Copenhagen catchment area. Patients are randomised to one of the two treatment arms: cognitive remediation plus standard treatment...

  19. Natural gas strategic plan and multi-year program crosscut plan, FY 1993--1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The overall mission of the Natural Gas Program is to enhance the Nation's energy security, environmental quality, and economic strength by displacing oil use in the US and increasing efficient use of natural gas. In support of this are programs that will improve the confidence in the continued availability of a long term gas supply (Resource and Extraction Area); provide more cost-effective and competitive means to use natural gas (Utilization Area); develop improved and less costly means of delivering and storing natural gas (Delivery and Storage Area); and to minimize barriers to efficient market operation, promote cost-effective regulation based on improved environmental assessments, and to assure availability to industry of low-cost waste management and waste minimization technology (Environmental/Regulatory Impact Area). (VC)

  20. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  1. Transportation and packaging headquarters support 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 8.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    To develop and implement baseline and state-of-the-art transportation and packaging resources for DOE, and its support contractors. These resources include effective strategies, tools and techniques, packaging and transportation systems, operational methods, policy and guidance focused at providing safety,efficient, regulatory compliant and cost-effective materials transportation

  2. Differential recovery of habitat use by birds after wind farm installation: A multi-year comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfán, M.A., E-mail: mafarfanaguilar@hotmail.com [Biogea Consultores, Calle Navarro Ledesma 243, Portal 4, 3° C, 29010, Málaga (Spain); Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga (Spain); Duarte, J., E-mail: jddofitecma@gmail.com [Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga (Spain); Ofitecma, Calle Colombia 5, 29400 Ronda, Málaga (Spain); Real, R. [Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga (Spain); Muñoz, A.R., E-mail: roman@uma.es [Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga (Spain); Departamento de Botànica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Fa, J.E., E-mail: jfa949@gmail.com [Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Vargas, J.M. [Departamento de Biología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071, Málaga (Spain)

    2017-05-15

    Onshore wind farms remain one of the most widely used technologies for the production of renewable energy. These are known to affect birds through disturbance or collision. Most research focus on the impact of wind farms on raptors or other large bird species, especially those of conservation concern. However, limited information exists on the effect of wind farms on small birds. Recovery of large versus small bird populations impacted by wind farms is also largely unstudied. A reason for this is the lack of long-term datasets based on standardized, systematic assessments. We monitored birds in the vicinity of a wind farm in an upland habitat in southern Spain (Malaga province), immediately after installation and 6.5 years post-construction. During both study periods, we observed 11 raptor and 38 non-raptor species (including 30 passerines). We found differences in recovery rates between raptors and non-raptors. Raptors showed an upturn in numbers but non-raptor abundance fell significantly. Greater attention should be paid to the recovery of wildlife after initial impact assessments than at present. This study confirms that regulatory authorities and developers should consider the likely impacts of wind farms on small bird populations. Mitigation measures focused particularly on non-raptor species should be considered and implemented as a means to reduce these negative effects.

  3. Differential recovery of habitat use by birds after wind farm installation: A multi-year comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfán, M.A.; Duarte, J.; Real, R.; Muñoz, A.R.; Fa, J.E.; Vargas, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Onshore wind farms remain one of the most widely used technologies for the production of renewable energy. These are known to affect birds through disturbance or collision. Most research focus on the impact of wind farms on raptors or other large bird species, especially those of conservation concern. However, limited information exists on the effect of wind farms on small birds. Recovery of large versus small bird populations impacted by wind farms is also largely unstudied. A reason for this is the lack of long-term datasets based on standardized, systematic assessments. We monitored birds in the vicinity of a wind farm in an upland habitat in southern Spain (Malaga province), immediately after installation and 6.5 years post-construction. During both study periods, we observed 11 raptor and 38 non-raptor species (including 30 passerines). We found differences in recovery rates between raptors and non-raptors. Raptors showed an upturn in numbers but non-raptor abundance fell significantly. Greater attention should be paid to the recovery of wildlife after initial impact assessments than at present. This study confirms that regulatory authorities and developers should consider the likely impacts of wind farms on small bird populations. Mitigation measures focused particularly on non-raptor species should be considered and implemented as a means to reduce these negative effects.

  4. Analytical Services Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-year Program Plan Fiscal Year Work Plan WBS 1.5.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Work Plan and Multi-Year Program Plan for the Analytical Services Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Analytical Services Program provides vital support to the Hanford Site mission and provides technically sound, defensible, cost effective, high quality analytical chemistry data for the site programs. This report describes the goals and strategies for continuance of the Analytical Services Program through fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  5. Analytical Services Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-year Program Plan Fiscal Year Work Plan WBS 1.5.1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Work Plan and Multi-Year Program Plan for the Analytical Services Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Analytical Services Program provides vital support to the Hanford Site mission and provides technically sound, defensible, cost effective, high quality analytical chemistry data for the site programs. This report describes the goals and strategies for continuance of the Analytical Services Program through fiscal year 1996 and beyond

  6. Hydrological performance of extensive green roofs in New York City: observations and multi-year modeling of three full-scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, T B; Marasco, D E; Culligan, P J; McGillis, W R

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs can be an attractive strategy for adding perviousness in dense urban environments where rooftops are a high fraction of the impervious land area. As a result, green roofs are being increasingly implemented as part of urban stormwater management plans in cities around the world. In this study, three full-scale green roofs in New York City (NYC) were monitored, representing the three extensive green roof types most commonly constructed: (1) a vegetated mat system installed on a Columbia University residential building, referred to as W118; (2) a built-in-place system installed on the United States Postal Service (USPS) Morgan general mail facility; and (3) a modular tray system installed on the ConEdison (ConEd) Learning Center. Continuous rainfall and runoff data were collected from each green roof between June 2011 and June 2012, resulting in 243 storm events suitable for analysis ranging from 0.25 to 180 mm in depth. Over the monitoring period the W118, USPS, and ConEd roofs retained 36%, 47%, and 61% of the total rainfall respectively. Rainfall attenuation of individual storm events ranged from 3 to 100% for W118, 9 to 100% for USPS, and 20 to 100% for ConEd, where, generally, as total rainfall increased the per cent of rainfall attenuation decreased. Seasonal retention behavior also displayed event size dependence. For events of 10–40 mm rainfall depth, median retention was highest in the summer and lowest in the winter, whereas median retention for events of 0–10 mm and 40 +mm rainfall depth did not conform to this expectation. Given the significant influence of event size on attenuation, the total per cent retention during a given monitoring period might not be indicative of annual rooftop retention if the distribution of observed event sizes varies from characteristic annual rainfall. To account for this, the 12 months of monitoring data were used to develop a characteristic runoff equation (CRE), relating runoff depth and event size, for each

  7. Hydrological performance of extensive green roofs in New York City: observations and multi-year modeling of three full-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, T. B.; Marasco, D. E.; Culligan, P. J.; McGillis, W. R.

    2013-06-01

    Green roofs can be an attractive strategy for adding perviousness in dense urban environments where rooftops are a high fraction of the impervious land area. As a result, green roofs are being increasingly implemented as part of urban stormwater management plans in cities around the world. In this study, three full-scale green roofs in New York City (NYC) were monitored, representing the three extensive green roof types most commonly constructed: (1) a vegetated mat system installed on a Columbia University residential building, referred to as W118; (2) a built-in-place system installed on the United States Postal Service (USPS) Morgan general mail facility; and (3) a modular tray system installed on the ConEdison (ConEd) Learning Center. Continuous rainfall and runoff data were collected from each green roof between June 2011 and June 2012, resulting in 243 storm events suitable for analysis ranging from 0.25 to 180 mm in depth. Over the monitoring period the W118, USPS, and ConEd roofs retained 36%, 47%, and 61% of the total rainfall respectively. Rainfall attenuation of individual storm events ranged from 3 to 100% for W118, 9 to 100% for USPS, and 20 to 100% for ConEd, where, generally, as total rainfall increased the per cent of rainfall attenuation decreased. Seasonal retention behavior also displayed event size dependence. For events of 10-40 mm rainfall depth, median retention was highest in the summer and lowest in the winter, whereas median retention for events of 0-10 mm and 40 +mm rainfall depth did not conform to this expectation. Given the significant influence of event size on attenuation, the total per cent retention during a given monitoring period might not be indicative of annual rooftop retention if the distribution of observed event sizes varies from characteristic annual rainfall. To account for this, the 12 months of monitoring data were used to develop a characteristic runoff equation (CRE), relating runoff depth and event size, for each

  8. Analysis of the Effect of Interior Nudging on Temperature and Precipitation Distributions of Multi-year Regional Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, C. G.; Otte, T. L.; Bowden, J. H.; Otte, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    There is disagreement in the regional climate modeling community as to the appropriateness of the use of internal nudging. Some investigators argue that the regional model should be minimally constrained and allowed to respond to regional-scale forcing, while others have noted that in the absence of interior nudging, significant large-scale discrepancies develop between the regional model solution and the driving coarse-scale fields. These discrepancies lead to reduced confidence in the ability of regional climate models to dynamically downscale global climate model simulations under climate change scenarios, and detract from the usability of the regional simulations for impact assessments. The advantages and limitations of interior nudging schemes for regional climate modeling are investigated in this study. Multi-year simulations using the WRF model driven by reanalysis data over the continental United States at 36km resolution are conducted using spectral nudging, grid point nudging, and for a base case without interior nudging. The means, distributions, and inter-annual variability of temperature and precipitation will be evaluated in comparison to regional analyses.

  9. Bacterial communities from Arctic seasonal sea ice are more compositionally variable than those from multi-year sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Ido; Lange, Benjamin; Beckers, Justin; Haas, Christian; Lanoil, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Arctic sea ice can be classified into two types: seasonal ice (first-year ice, FYI) and multi-year ice (MYI). Despite striking differences in the physical and chemical characteristics of FYI and MYI, and the key role sea ice bacteria play in biogeochemical cycles of the Arctic Ocean, there are a limited number of studies comparing the bacterial communities from these two ice types. Here, we compare the membership and composition of bacterial communities from FYI and MYI sampled north of Ellesmere Island, Canada. Our results show that communities from both ice types were dominated by similar class-level phylogenetic groups. However, at the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) level, communities from MYI and FYI differed in both membership and composition. Communities from MYI sites had consistent structure, with similar membership (presence/absence) and composition (OTU abundance) independent of location and year of sample. By contrast, communities from FYI were more variable. Although FYI bacterial communities from different locations and different years shared similar membership, they varied significantly in composition. Should these findings apply to sea ice across the Arctic, we predict increased compositional variability in sea ice bacterial communities resulting from the ongoing transition from predominantly MYI to FYI, which may impact nutrient dynamics in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Honey bee colonies act as reservoirs for two Spiroplasma facultative symbionts and incur complex, multiyear infection dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ryan S; Teixeira, Érica Weinstein; Tauber, James P; Birke, Juliane M; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Fonseca, Isabela; Evans, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    Two species of Spiroplasma (Mollicutes) bacteria were isolated from and described as pathogens of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, ∼30 years ago but recent information on them is lacking despite global concern to understand bee population declines. Here we provide a comprehensive survey for the prevalence of these two Spiroplasma species in current populations of honey bees using improved molecular diagnostic techniques to assay multiyear colony samples from North America (U.S.A.) and South America (Brazil). Significant annual and seasonal fluctuations of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum prevalence in colonies from the U.S.A. (n = 616) and Brazil (n = 139) occurred during surveys from 2011 through 2013. Overall, 33% of U.S.A. colonies and 54% of Brazil colonies were infected by Spiroplasma spp., where S. melliferum predominated over S. apis in both countries (25% vs. 14% and 44% vs. 38% frequency, respectively). Colonies were co-infected by both species more frequently than expected in both countries and at a much higher rate in Brazil (52%) compared to the U.S.A. (16.5%). U.S.A. samples showed that both species were prevalent not only during spring, as expected from prior research, but also during other seasons. These findings demonstrate that the model of honey bee spiroplasmas as springtime-restricted pathogens needs to be broadened and their role as occasional pathogens considered in current contexts. PMID:24771723

  11. Multi-year consumption analysis and innovative energy perspectives: The case study of Leonardo da Vinci International Airport of Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubeis, Tullio de; Nardi, Iole; Paoletti, Domenica; Di Leonardo, Antonella; Ambrosini, Dario; Poli, Ruggero; Sfarra, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A systematic approach for energy management of complex structures is proposed. • Technological systems of Leonardo da Vinci Airport of Rome are described. • A multi-year consumption analysis highlights the most energy-consuming sectors. • The “Smart Grid” prototype project inherent to T1 Terminal is presented. • Wind and photovoltaic plants are designed and discussed to test the smart storage. - Abstract: Because of the growing need for efficient energy production systems, energy policies promoted in recent years have also involved complex structures, like airports. This paper proposes the implementation of an energy management system for a very energy-consuming structure, composed of different power plants and many energy consumers: the Leonardo da Vinci International Airport of Rome. In this study, the examination of historical data related to airport electric power, thermal energy and fuel consumption is discussed, starting with the analysis of the production energy plants, mainly based on a combined heat and power system. Furthermore, pioneering solutions are proposed, not only to cover airport energy requirements, but also to test the safety and reliability of innovative load management systems. For this reason, the choice of the Leonardo da Vinci management company, oriented to install a smart storage in order to manage the bidirectional energy flows by consumers and producers, is justified. Such innovative energy procurement systems are examined, with the goal of achieving greater penetration of renewable sources: mini and micro wind power plants and high concentrator photovoltaic plants.

  12. Multi-Year Impacts of Ecotourism on Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Visitation at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzogni, R L; Meekan, M G; Meeuwig, J J

    2015-01-01

    In-water viewing of sharks by tourists has become a popular and lucrative industry. There is some concern that interactions with tourists with ecotourism operations might harm sharks through disruption of behaviours. Here, we analysed five years of whale shark (Rhincodon typus) encounter data by an ecotourism industry at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to assess the impact of ecotourism interactions on shark visitation, within the context of the biological and physical oceanography of the region. Our data base consisted of 2823 encounter records for 951 individual whale sharks collected by ecotourism operators between 2007 and 2011. We found that total encounters per whale shark and encounters per boat trip increased through time. On average, whale sharks re-encountered in subsequent years were encountered earlier, stayed longer and tended to be encountered more often within a season than sharks that were only encountered in a single year. Sequential comparisons between years did not show any patterns consistent with disturbance and the rate of departure of whale sharks from the aggregation was negatively correlated to the number of operator trips. Overall, our analysis of this multi-year data base found no evidence that interactions with tourists affected the likelihood of whale shark re-encounters and that instead, physical and biological environmental factors had a far greater influence on whale shark visitation rates. Our approach provides a template for assessing the effects of ecotourism interactions and environmental factors on the visitation patterns of marine megafauna over multiple years.

  13. Decree nr 2017-457 of 30 March 2017 related to Guyana energy multi-year programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Michel; Bareigts, Ericka

    2017-01-01

    The decree defines objectives of energy efficiency and reduction of fossil energy consumption, and of development of energy production from renewable energies, addresses issues related to security of supply and to the balance between supply and demand, to access to electric power, and to studies on infrastructures. As appendix, the text of the 2016-2018 and 2019-2023 energy multi-year programming (PPE) for Guyana is provided. This document first presents the Guyana energy system: history and energy assessment for 2014, legal and regulatory framework specific to Guyana, European and international context, power production costs. It analyses the energy demand: past evolution, determining factors of supply evolution, objectives of strengthening energy efficiency measures, objectives of reduction of energy poverty, objectives of reduction of primary fossil energy consumption. The third part addresses objectives of security of supply (for fuel, other fossil energies, and electricity). The next part analyses the energy supply: stakes, quantitative objectives for biomass, waste valorisation, hydraulic and other energy sources, objectives of development of renewable energies. It discusses the issue of connection of inland communes to the network, and issues related to energy infrastructure and networks

  14. Development of multi-year land cover data to assess wildfire impacts to coastal watersheds and the nearshore environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Katherine D.

    In the Mediterranean ecosystems of coastal California, wildfire is a common disturbance that can significantly alter vegetation in watersheds that transport sediment and nutrients to the adjacent nearshore oceanic environment. We assess the impact of two wildfires that burned in 2008 on land cover and to the nearshore environment along the Big Sur coast in central California. We created a multi-year land cover dataset to assess changes to coastal watersheds as a result of fire. This land cover dataset was then used to model changes in nonpoint source pollutants transported to the nearshore environment. Results indicate post-fire increases in percent export compared to pre-fire years and also link wildfire severity to the specific land cover changes that subsequently increase exports of pollutants and sediment to the nearshore environment. This approach is a replicable across watersheds and also provides a framework for including the nearshore environment as a value at risk terrestrial land management revolving around wildfire, including suppression, thinning, and other activities that change land cover at a landscape scale.

  15. The value of a poison control center in preventing unnecessary ED visits and hospital charges: A multi-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Casey R; Malheiro, Marty C; Bennett, Heather K W; Crouch, Barbara I

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the economic value of the Utah Poison Control Center (UPCC) by examining its contribution to the reduction of unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and associated charges across multiple years. A multi-year (2009-2014) analysis of cross-sectional data was performed. Callers were asked what they would do for a poison emergency if the UPCC was not available. Healthcare charges for ED visits averted were calculated according to insurance status using charges obtained from a statewide database. Of the 10,656 survey attempts, 5018 were completed. Over 30,000 cases were managed on-site each year. Using the proportion of callers who noted they would call 911, visit an ED, or call a physician's office, between 20.0 and 24.2 thousand ED visits were potentially prevented each year of the survey. Between $16.6 and $24.4 million dollars in unnecessary healthcare charges were potentially averted annually. Compared to the cost of operation, the service UPCC provides demonstrates economic value by reducing ED visits and associated charges. As the majority of patients have private insurance, the largest benefit falls to private payers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RCRA and operational monitoring (ROM): Multi-year program plan and fiscal year 96 work plan. WBS 1.5.3, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The RCRA & Operational Monitoring (ROM) Program Office manages the Hanford Site direct funded Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Operational Monitoring under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.01.05.03. The ROM Program Office is included in Hanford Technical Services, a part of Projects & Site Services of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) includes the Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP). The Multi-Year Program Plan takes its direction from the Westinghouse Planning Baseline Integration Organization. The MYPP provides both the near term, enhanced details and the long term, projected details for the Program Office to use as baseline Cost, Scope and Schedule. Change Control administered during the fiscal year is against the baseline provided by near term details of this document. The MYPP process has been developed by WHC to meet its internal planning and integration needs and complies with the requirements of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Long Range Planning Process Directive (RLID 5000.2). Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed the multi-year planning process for programs to establish the technical, schedule and cost baselines for program and support activities under WHC`s scope of responsibility. The baseline information is developed by both WHC indirect funded support services organization, and direct funded programs in WHC. WHC Planning and Integration utilizes the information presented in the program specific MYPP and the Program Master Baseline Schedule (PMBS) to develop the Site-Wide Integrated Schedule.

  17. RCRA and operational monitoring (ROM): Multi-year program plan and fiscal year 96 work plan. WBS 1.5.3, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The RCRA ampersand Operational Monitoring (ROM) Program Office manages the Hanford Site direct funded Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Operational Monitoring under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.01.05.03. The ROM Program Office is included in Hanford Technical Services, a part of Projects ampersand Site Services of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) includes the Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP). The Multi-Year Program Plan takes its direction from the Westinghouse Planning Baseline Integration Organization. The MYPP provides both the near term, enhanced details and the long term, projected details for the Program Office to use as baseline Cost, Scope and Schedule. Change Control administered during the fiscal year is against the baseline provided by near term details of this document. The MYPP process has been developed by WHC to meet its internal planning and integration needs and complies with the requirements of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Long Range Planning Process Directive (RLID 5000.2). Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed the multi-year planning process for programs to establish the technical, schedule and cost baselines for program and support activities under WHC's scope of responsibility. The baseline information is developed by both WHC indirect funded support services organization, and direct funded programs in WHC. WHC Planning and Integration utilizes the information presented in the program specific MYPP and the Program Master Baseline Schedule (PMBS) to develop the Site-Wide Integrated Schedule

  18. Focusing liquid microjets with nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acero, A J; Ferrera, C; Montanero, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2012-01-01

    The stability of flow focusing taking place in a converging–diverging nozzle, as well as the size of the resulting microjets, is examined experimentally in this paper. The results obtained in most aspects of the problem are similar to those of the classical plate-orifice configuration. There is, however, a notable difference between flow focusing in nozzles and in the plate-orifice configuration. In the former case, the liquid meniscus oscillates laterally (global whipping) for a significant area of the control parameter plane, a phenomenon never observed when focusing with the plate-orifice configuration. Global whipping may constitute an important drawback of flow focusing with nozzles because it reduces the robustness of the technique. (paper)

  19. Multi-year net ecosystem carbon balance at a horticulture-extracted restored peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Kelly; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Restoration of previously extracted peatlands is essential to minimize the impact of drainage and peat removal. Best practices restoration methods have been developed that include ditch blocking, site leveling and reintroducing bog vegetation using the moss layer transfer technique. A long term goal of restoration is the return to a peat accumulating ecosystem. Bois-des-Bel is a cool-temperate bog, located in eastern Quebec, Canada, that was vacuum harvested until 1980 and restored in 1999. While several studies have used discrete (chamber) methods to determine the net carbon exchange from rewetted or restored peatlands, ours appears to be the first to have multiple complete years of net ecosystem carbon exchange from a restored northern peatland. An eddy covariance flux tower instrumented with a sonic anemometer and open-path CO2/H2O and CH4 analyzers was operated continuously over three years to produce a robust estimate of net carbon sequestration. Our initial results indicate that this restored peatland was a consistent moderate annual net sink for CO2, a moderate source of CH4 and had low losses of dissolved organic carbon compared to undisturbed northern latitude peatlands. Closed chambers combined with a fast response CO2/H2O/CH4 analyzer were used to investigate ecohydrological controls on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and CH4 flux from the restored fields and remnant ditches at the site. CH4 release was found to be an order of magnitude higher in the ditches compared to the fields, with non-vegetated ditch showing a greater range in flux compared to areas invaded by Typha latifolia. Bubble magnitude and count were highest in the non-vegetated ditch, followed by Typha plots and were undetectable in the restored fields. The latter may be partially attributed to the high cover of Eriophorum vaginatum in the restored fields, plants that have aerenchymous tissue, as well as a much deeper water table level. While the non-vegetated ditch areas were a steady

  20. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  1. Landlord project multi-year program plan, fiscal year 1999, WBS 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, M.D.

    1998-09-22

    The MYWP technical baseline describes the work to be accomplished by the Project and the technical standards which govern that work. The mission of Landlord Project is to provide more maintenance replacement of general infrastructure facilities and systems to facilitate the Hanford Site cleanup mission. Also, once an infrastructure facility or system is no longer needed the Landlord Project transitions the facility to final closure/removal through excess, salvage or demolition. Landlord Project activities will be performed in an environmentally sound, safe, economical, prudent, and reliable manner. The Landlord Project consists of the following facilities systems: steam, water, liquid sanitary waste, electrical distribution, telecommunication, sanitary landfill, emergency services, general purpose offices, general purpose shops, general purpose warehouses, environmental supports facilities, roads, railroad, and the site land. The objectives for general infrastructure support are reflected in two specific areas, (1) Core Infrastructure Maintenance, and (2) Infrastructure Risk Mitigation.

  2. Fiscal year 1999 multi-year work plan, advanced reactors transition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gantt, D.A.

    1998-09-17

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) has two missions. One, funded by DOE-EM is to transition assigned, surplus facilities to a safe and compliant, low-cost stable, deactivated condition (requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance) pending eventual reuse or D and D. Facilities to be transitioned include the 309 Building/Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) and Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacy Facilities. The second mission, funded by DOE-NE, is to maintain the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and affiliated 400 Area buildings in a safe and compliant standby condition. The condition of the plant hardware, software and personnel is to be preserved in a manner not to preclude a plant restart.

  3. Fiscal year 1999 multi-year work plan, advanced reactors transition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantt, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) has two missions. One, funded by DOE-EM is to transition assigned, surplus facilities to a safe and compliant, low-cost stable, deactivated condition (requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance) pending eventual reuse or D and D. Facilities to be transitioned include the 309 Building/Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) and Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacy Facilities. The second mission, funded by DOE-NE, is to maintain the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and affiliated 400 Area buildings in a safe and compliant standby condition. The condition of the plant hardware, software and personnel is to be preserved in a manner not to preclude a plant restart

  4. Opinion of the committee of experts for energy transition on the energy multi-year programming (PPE). Opinion of the committee of experts for energy transition for energy multi-year programming for Corsica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a discussion on the whole project of energy multi-year programming (PPE), a first document more particularly discusses issues related to the management of energy demand, to the security of supply (for the electric power sector, the gas sector, the gas/power sector), and to the development of infrastructures and flexibility for the power system. The issue of energy supply is then addressed. Then, the authors discuss some statements present in various appendices to the PPE: its legal framework with its articulation to other planning documents, its energy hypotheses (for buildings), its measures related to the preservation of consumer purchasing power and to that of company competitiveness, its definition of a maximum envelope of public funds dedicated to the achievement of PPE quantitative objectives, its assessment of needs of professional abilities in the field of energy and the adaptation of education and training to these needs, its strategic environmental assessment. Then, the committee discusses the content of the strategy of development of a clean mobility which has been elaborated as foreseen by the law on energy transition, and has been attached to the PPE project. A second document addresses some of these issues in the specific case of Corsica. It more particularly states recommendations on the PPE general framework, on objectives related to energy demand, on objectives related to security of supply, on energy supply, on energy infrastructures, on the elaboration and consultation process, on economic assessment, on social assessment, on environmental assessment, and on the follow-up of the Corsica PPE. Some propositions are finally made by the committee at the attention of writers of the Corsica PPE

  5. A Multi-Year Study on Rice Morphological Parameter Estimation with X-Band Polsar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Yuzugullu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields have been monitored with spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR systems for decades. SAR is an essential source of data and allows for the estimation of plant properties such as canopy height, leaf area index, phenological phase, and yield. However, the information on detailed plant morphology in meter-scale resolution is necessary for the development of better management practices. This letter presents the results of the procedure that estimates the stalk height, leaf length and leaf width of rice fields from a copolar X-band TerraSAR-X time series data based on a priori phenological phase. The methodology includes a computationally efficient stochastic inversion algorithm of a metamodel that mimics a radiative transfer theory-driven electromagnetic scattering (EM model. The EM model and its metamodel are employed to simulate the backscattering intensities from flooded rice fields based on their simplified physical structures. The results of the inversion procedure are found to be accurate for cultivation seasons from 2013 to 2015 with root mean square errors less than 13.5 cm for stalk height, 7 cm for leaf length, and 4 mm for leaf width parameters. The results of this research provided new perspectives on the use of EM models and computationally efficient metamodels for agriculture management practices.

  6. How Can Improvements Be Made to the United States Metrorail System (With a Focus on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Metrorail System) to Enhance Safety for Its Riders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    on the rail system, and recommended improvements to improve the safety of the Metrorail system. These three influences show a holistic view of the...due to special events in the area to include Washington Redskins football , Washington National baseball, and other events held in the Washington, D.C...Station in Washington, DC. The accident resulted in nine people including the train operator were killed. Emergency response agencies reported

  7. Multi-year MAX-DOAS observations of formaldehyde and glyoxal in Phimai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, H. M. S.; Irie, H.; Shimizu, A.; Damiani, A.

    2017-12-01

    The first long-term Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations were performed in Phimai, Thailand (15.18 °N, 102.56 °E), a site in Southeast Asia, where ground-based remote sensing observations of trace gases and aerosols are very limited. Vertical profile information of eight components was retrieved independently using the Japanese MAX-DOAS profile retrieval algorithm, version 2 (JM2). Here we focus on the two organic compounds, formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), and study their volume mixing ratio data in the lowest layer (0-1 km) of our retrieved vertical profiles. In addition to the systematic climatological analysis of HCHO and CHOCHO, we also report the ratio of CHOCHO to HCHO, RGF, which is suggested to be an important tracer of changes of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources. Higher concentration of HCHO and CHOCHO was observed during the dry season (January-April), whereas the concentration level was close to the background level during the wet season (June-September). Such enhancements correspond well the influence of the pronounced seasonal variation of biomass burning activity. The RGF for the Phimai site was estimated to be 0.030±0.010. Our estimated RGF during the dry season ( 0.025±0.008) was lower than that in the wet season ( 0.033±0.012). This change in the RGF is consistent with the satellite retrievals, suggesting a higher RGF for strong biogenic emission sources. While the site can be characterized as environment with a low nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration level ( 1 ppbv), the impact of biomass burning on the lower RGF during the dry season was confirmed by occasional enhancement of the NO2 level as an anthropogenic tracer. The results are further supported by additional error analyses for the cloud influence. Our findings are expected to be used to reduce model uncertainties related to VOC chemistry and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation

  8. Surface-atmospheric water cycle at Gale crater through multi-year MSL/REMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A. M.; Genzer, M.; McConnochie, T. H.; Savijarvi, H. I.; Smith, M. D.; Martinez, G.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Haberle, R. M.; Polkko, J.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Renno, N. O.; Kemppinen, O.; Paton, M.; Richardson, M. I.; Newman, C. E.; Siili, T. T.; Mäkinen, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) has been successfully operating for almost three Martian years. That includes an unprecedented long time series of atmospheric observations by the REMS instrument performing measurements of atmospheric pressure, relative humidity (REMS-H), temperature of the air, ground temperature, UV and wind speed and direction. The REMS-H relative humidity device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. and it makes use of three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The REMS-H humidity instrument has created an unprecedented data record of more than two full Martian. REMS-H measured the relative humidity and temperature at 1.6 m height for a period of 5 minutes every hour as part of the MSL/REMS instrument package. We focus on describing the annual in situ water cycle with the REMS-H instrument data for the period of almost three Martian years. The results will be constrained through comparison with independent indirect observations and through modeling efforts. We inferred the hourly atmospheric VMR from the REMS-H observations and compared these VMR measurements with predictions of VMR from our 1D column Martian atmospheric model and regolith to investigate the local water cycle, exchange processes and the local climate in Gale Crater. The strong diurnal variation suggests there are surface-atmosphere exchange processes at Gale Crater during all seasons, which depletes moisture to the ground in the evening and nighttime and release the moisture back to the atmosphere during the daytime. On the other hand, these processes do not seem to result in significant water deposition on the ground. Hence, our modelling results presumably indicate that adsorption processes take place during the nighttime and desorption during the daytime. Other processes, e.g. convective

  9. Multiyear impacts of partial throughfall exclusion on Buxus sempervirens in a Mediterranean forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calcerrada, J.; Letts, M. G.; Rolo, V.; Roset, S.; Rambal, S.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study:We examined the impact of sustained partial throughfall exclusion on the functional performance of Buxus sempervirens L. in the understory of a Mediterranean evergreen forest. We further considered whether any impacts of throughfall exclusion were affected by light availability. Area of study: The study was conducted in the south of France. Material and methods: Several leaf physiological and branch structural traits were measured along a light gradient after seven years from the onset of a throughfall exclusion experiment (TEE). The results were analysed along with annual growth and survival data. Main results: Plant mortality was nil in both the throughfall exclusion and control treatments. Stem diameter growth was reduced by 39% in plants subjected to throughfall exclusion, but this difference was only significant at the p = 0.10 significance level. Leaf physiology remained unaffected by the TEE, but small changes were evident in branch structural traits in high light microsites following throughfall exclusion; branches had lower wood density in the TEE plot, and more biomass was partitioned to leaves relative to stems. Research highlights: These changes do not seem to reflect an acclimatory response that would enhance drought tolerance. Instead, we suggest that these drought effects might exacerbate vulnerability to xylem cavitation in the more open microsites. Reduced growth and increased vulnerability to drought may indicate an incipient decline in plant vitality following TEE. The extension of observations to the whole-plant level and longer periods will elucidate the consequences of these observations for plant fitness, and permit verification of the positive effect of shade on Buxus sempervirens under increased drought. (Author)

  10. Improving the Characterization of Arctic Coastline Ecosystem Change near Utqiagvik, Alaska Utilizing Multiyear Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escarzaga, S. M.; Cody, R. P.; Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Fuson, T.; Hodge, B. E.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean comprises the largest coastline on Earth and is undergoing environmental change on a level disproportionate to those in lower-latitudes. In the US Arctic, coastal erosion rates along the North Slope of Alaska show that they are among highest in the nation at an average rate of 1.4 meters per year. Despite their importance to biogeochemical cycling, Native village infrastructure and providing pristine species habitat, Arctic coastlines and near shore environments are relatively understudied due to logistical challenges of conducting fieldwork in these locations. This study expands on past efforts which showed dGPS foot surveys work well at describing planar erosion on less complex permafrost bluff types like those seen on the higher-energy coasts east of Utqiagvik, Alaska along the Beaufort Sea where the main mechanism of erosion happens by block failure caused by wave action. However, coastal bluffs along the Chukchi Sea to the west are more complex and variable in terms of form and mechanisms of erosion. Here, where wide beaches tend to buffer wave action, thermal erosion and permafrost slumping produce slower erosion rates. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has been applied across a multitude of terrain types, including coastlines spanning various ecosystems. Additionally, this approach allows 3D modeling of fine scale geomorphological features which can facilitate modeling of erosion rates in these areas. This study utilizes a six year time series of TLS on a section of coastal permafrost bluff along the Chukchi Sea south of Utqiagvik. The aim of the work presented is to better understand spatio-temporal trends of coastal bluff face erosion, bluff top subsidence and how these landscape microtopographic changes are coupled to ecosystem changes and land cover types. Preliminary analysis suggests a high rate of stability of the bluff face over the TLS record with most of the detectable permafrost subsidence happening closer to the coastal bluff edge.

  11. A Stabilizing Feedback Between Cloud Radiative Effects and Greenland Surface Melt: Verification From Multi-year Automatic Weather Station Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.; Wang, W.; van As, D.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds have strong impacts on Greenland's surface melt through the interaction with the dry atmosphere and reflective surfaces. However, their effects are uncertain due to the lack of in situ observations. To better quantify cloud radiative effects (CRE) in Greenland, we analyze and interpret multi-year radiation measurements from 30 automatic weather stations encompassing a broad range of climatological and topographical conditions. During melt season, clouds warm surface over most of Greenland, meaning the longwave greenhouse effect outweighs the shortwave shading effect; on the other hand, the spatial variability of net (longwave and shortwave) CRE is dominated by shortwave CRE and in turn by surface albedo, which controls the potential absorption of solar radiation when clouds are absent. The net warming effect decreases with shortwave CRE from high to low altitudes and from north to south (Fig. 1). The spatial correlation between albedo and net CRE is strong (r=0.93, palbedo determines the net CRE seasonal trend, which decreases from May to July and increases afterwards. On an hourly timescale, we find two distinct radiative states in Greenland (Fig. 2). The clear state is characterized by clear-sky conditions or thin clouds, when albedo and solar zenith angle (SZA) weakly correlates with CRE. The cloudy state is characterized by opaque clouds, when the combination of albedo and SZA strongly correlates with CRE (r=0.85, palbedo and solar zenith angle, explains the majority of the CRE variation in spatial distribution, seasonal trend in the ablation zone, and in hourly variability in the cloudy radiative state. Clouds warm the brighter and colder surfaces of Greenland, enhance snow melt, and tend to lower the albedo. Clouds cool the darker and warmer surfaces, inhibiting snow melt, which increases albedo, and thus stabilizes surface melt. This stabilizing mechanism may also occur over sea ice, helping to forestall surface melt as the Arctic becomes dimmer.

  12. Colloid Microthruster Feed System Development for Fine Pointing and Drag-Free Control of Multi-Year Astronomical Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, John; Mueller, J.; Spence, D.; Hruby, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new Colloid Microthruster feed system, including a propellant tank and redundant Microvalves, is being developed for fine pointing and drag-free operations of multi-year astronomical observatories under the PCOS SAT program. Almost all Gravitational Wave Observatory (GWO) concepts require microthrusters to maintain a drag-free environment for the inertial sensor instrument to meet the mission science objectives. The current state-of-the-art microthruster in the US is the Busek Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) originally developed under the New Millennium Program for the Space Technology 7 (ST7) and ESA's LISA Pathfinder (LPF) technology demonstration mission. The ST7 CMNT design includes a bellows propellant storage tank that is sized to provide up to 90 days of maximum thrust (30 µN). The new propellant tank is based on a blow-down, metal-diaphragm spherical tank design with enough capacity for a 5-year GWO mission. The new feed system will also include the third generation of Busek’s Microvalve, currently being developed under a NASA Phase II SBIR. The Microvalve is responsible for the picoliter per second control of the propellant from the tank to the thruster head, demanding parts with micron-level tolerances, critical alignments, and challenging acceptance test protocols. This microthruster system could also be considered for replacement of reaction wheels for slewing and fine pointing of other astronomical observatories, including Exo-Planet Observatory concepts. The goal of the PCOS SAT effort is to raise the new system to TRL 5 with performance and environmental testing within the next two years.

  13. Diagnosis, clinical staging, and treatment of breast cancer: a retrospective multiyear study of a large controlled population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, Antonio P; Chernicoff, Helen O; Trinh, Jennifer B; Parker, Robert G

    2004-04-01

    This study compares diagnosis, staging, and treatment of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases over a several-year period. The study design was a retrospective, multiyear comparison between new breast cancer cases diagnosed in 1995 (n = 827) and 1997 (n = 815). Cases were identified through claims data, and medical record abstraction was used to verify each case and to identify clinical staging and type of treatment. All medical records were reviewed by one physician to maximize internal reliability. Both cohorts were predominantly 40 and older, white, married, and postmenopausal. The latter cohort (1997) had a higher proportion of women aged 70 to 79 and a lower proportion of women aged 40 to 49. In both cohorts, women age 40 and older were likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at the time of mammographic screening, while women younger than 40 were more likely to be diagnosed by clinical breast examination. In logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors such as age, undergoing mammographic screening increased the likelihood of having a low cancer stage at diagnosis by more than three and a half times. Mammographic screening was statistically significantly positively associated with having eligibility for breast-conserving treatment (BCT); however, although an increase in BCT eligibility was observed, actual use of BCT did not change. Mammography leads to a lower clinical stage as well as a greater likelihood of BCT eligibility at time of breast cancer diagnosis, but may not have a substantial effect on treatment choice (lumpectomy vs. mastectomy). Between 1995 and 1997, a trend was observed toward downstaging of disease at diagnosis; further research is warranted to observe whether this trend continues over time.

  14. A Multi-Year Dust Devil Vortex Survey Using an Automated Search of Pressure Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian K.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Dust devils occur in arid climates on the Earth and ubiquitously on Mars, where they likely dominate the supply of atmospheric dust and influence climate. Martian dust devils have been studied with a combination of orbiting and landed spacecraft, while most studies of terrestrial dust devils have involved manned monitoring of field sites, which can be costly both in time and personnel. As an alternative approach, we describe a multi-year in-situ survey of terrestrial dust devils using pressure loggers deployed at El Dorado Playa in Nevada, USA, a site known for dust devil activity. Analogous to previous surveys for Martian dust devils, we conduct a post-hoc analysis of the barometric data to search for putative dust devil pressure dips using a new automated detection algorithm. We investigate the completeness and false positive rates of our new algorithm and conduct several statistically robust analyses of the resulting population of dips. We also investigate seasonal, annual, and spatial variability of the putative dust devil dips, possible correlations with precipitation, and the influence of sample size on the derived population statistics. Our results suggest that large numbers of dips (> 1,000) collected over multiple seasons are probably required for accurate assessment of the underlying dust devil population. Correlating long-term barometric time-series with other data streams (e.g., solar flux measurements from photovoltaic cells) can uniquely elucidate the natures and origins of dust devils, and accurately assessing their influence requires consideration of the full distribution of dust devil properties, rather than average values. For example, our results suggest the dust flux from the average terrestrial devil is nearly 1,000 times smaller than the (more representative) population-weighted average flux. If applicable to Martian dust devils, such corrections may help resolve purported discrepancies between the dust fluxes estimated from dust devil studies

  15. Drought's legacy: multiyear hydraulic deterioration underlies widespread aspen forest die-off and portends increased future risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R L; Plavcová, Lenka; Anderegg, Leander D L; Hacke, Uwe G; Berry, Joseph A; Field, Christopher B

    2013-04-01

    Forest mortality constitutes a major uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and carbon-cycle feedbacks. Recent drought-induced, widespread forest die-offs highlight that climate change could accelerate forest mortality with its diverse and potentially severe consequences for the global carbon cycle, ecosystem services, and biodiversity. How trees die during drought over multiple years remains largely unknown and precludes mechanistic modeling and prediction of forest die-off with climate change. Here, we examine the physiological basis of a recent multiyear widespread die-off of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) across much of western North America. Using observations from both native trees while they are dying and a rainfall exclusion experiment on mature trees, we measure hydraulic performance over multiple seasons and years and assess pathways of accumulated hydraulic damage. We test whether accumulated hydraulic damage can predict the probability of tree survival over 2 years. We find that hydraulic damage persisted and increased in dying trees over multiple years and exhibited few signs of repair. This accumulated hydraulic deterioration is largely mediated by increased vulnerability to cavitation, a process known as cavitation fatigue. Furthermore, this hydraulic damage predicts the probability of interyear stem mortality. Contrary to the expectation that surviving trees have weathered severe drought, the hydraulic deterioration demonstrated here reveals that surviving regions of these forests are actually more vulnerable to future droughts due to accumulated xylem damage. As the most widespread tree species in North America, increasing vulnerability to drought in these forests has important ramifications for ecosystem stability, biodiversity, and ecosystem carbon balance. Our results provide a foundation for incorporating accumulated drought impacts into climate-vegetation models. Finally, our findings highlight the

  16. Focused ultrasound in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman RH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald H Silverman1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University Medical Center, 2F.L. Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via cilio-destruction, tumors, and other pathologies. Linear and annular transducer arrays offer synthetic focusing in which precise timing of the excitation of independently addressable array elements allows formation of a converging wavefront to create a focus at one or more programmable depths. Most recently, linear array-based plane-wave ultrasound, in which the array emits an unfocused wavefront and focusing is performed solely on received data, has been demonstrated for imaging ocular anatomy and blood flow. While the history of ophthalmic ultrasound extends back over half-a-century, new and powerful technologic advances continue to be made, offering the prospect of novel diagnostic capabilities. Keywords: ophthalmic ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, ultrafast imaging, Doppler imaging 

  17. BrightFocus Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About BrightFocus Foundation Featured Content BrightFocus: Investing in Science to Save Mind and Sight We're here to help. Explore ... recognition is very important. Monday, November 6, 2017 New Diagnosis? Managing a mind and sight disease is a journey. And you’ ...

  18. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Graphene physics is currently one of the most active research areas in condensed matter physics. Countless theoretical and experimental studies have already been performed, targeting electronic, magnetic, thermal, optical, structural and vibrational properties. Also, studies that modify pristine graphene, aiming at finding new physics and possible new applications, have been considered. These include patterning nanoribbons and quantum dots, exposing graphene's surface to different chemical species, studying multilayer systems, and inducing strain and curvature (modifying in this way graphene's electronic properties). This focus issue includes many of the latest developments on graphene research. Focus on Graphene Contents The effect of sublattice symmetry breaking on the electronic properties of doped graphene A Qaiumzadeh and R Asgari Interfaces within graphene nanoribbons J Wurm, M Wimmer, I Adagideli, K Richter and H U Baranger Weak localization and transport gap in graphene antidot lattices J Eroms and D Weiss Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices J A Fuerst, J G Pedersen, C Flindt, N A Mortensen, M Brandbyge, T G Pedersen and A-P Jauho Splitting of critical energies in the n=0 Landau level of graphene Ana L C Pereira Double-gated graphene-based devices S Russo, M F Craciun, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha and A F Morpurgo Pinning and switching of magnetic moments in bilayer graphene Eduardo V Castro, M P Lopez-Sancho and M A H Vozmediano Electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons Katsunori Wakabayashi, Yositake Takane, Masayuki Yamamoto and Manfred Sigrist Many-body effects on out-of-plane phonons in graphene J Gonzalez and E Perfetto Graphene zigzag ribbons, square lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A

  19. Thinning, tree-growth, and resistance to multi-year drought in a mixed-conifer forest of northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Michael J.; Sherriff, Rosemary L.; van Mantgem, Phillip; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2018-01-01

    Drought is an important stressor in forest ecosystems that can influence tree vigor and survival. In the U.S., forest managers use two primary management techniques to promote resistance and resilience to drought: prescribed fire and mechanical thinning. Generally applied to reduce fuels and fire hazard, treatments may also reduce competition for resources that may improve tree-growth and reduce mortality during drought. A recent severe and prolonged drought in California provided a natural experiment to investigate tree-growth responses to fuel treatments and climatic stress. We assessed tree-growth from 299 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in treated and untreated stands during severe drought from 2012 to 2015 in the mixed-conifer forests of Whiskeytown National Recreation Area (WNRA) in northern California. The treatment implemented at WNRA removed 34% of live basal area through mechanical thinning with a subsequent pile burning of residual fuels. Tree-growth was positively associated with crown ratio and negatively associated with competition and a 1-year lag of climate water deficit, an index of drought. Douglas-fir generally had higher annual growth than ponderosa pine, although factors affecting growth were the same for both species. Drought resistance, expressed as the ratio between mean growth during drought and mean growth pre-drought, was higher in treated stands compared to untreated stands during both years of severe drought (2014 and 2015) for ponderosa pine but only one year (2014) for Douglas-fir. Thinning improved drought resistance, but tree size, competition and species influenced this response. On-going thinning treatments focused on fuels and fire hazard reduction are likely to be effective at promoting growth and greater drought resistance in dry mixed-conifer forests. Given the likelihood of future droughts, land managers may choose to implement similar treatments to reduce potential impacts.

  20. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  1. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  2. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  3. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  4. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  5. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  6. The Individually Focused Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard

    2012-01-01

    relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....

  7. Multi-year (2004–2008 record of nonmethane hydrocarbons and halocarbons in New England: seasonal variations and regional sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Russo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-year time series records of C2-C6 alkanes, C2-C4 alkenes, ethyne, isoprene, C6-C8 aromatics, trichloroethene (C2HCl3, and tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4 from canister samples collected during January 2004–February 2008 at the University of New Hampshire (UNH AIRMAP Observatory at Thompson Farm (TF in Durham, NH are presented. The objectives of this work are to identify the sources of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and halocarbons observed at TF, characterize the seasonal and interannual variability in ambient mixing ratios and sources, and estimate regional emission rates of NMHCs. Analysis of correlations and comparisons with emission ratios indicated that a ubiquitous and persistent mix of emissions from several anthropogenic sources is observed throughout the entire year. The highest C2-C8 anthropogenic NMHC mixing ratios were observed in mid to late winter. Following the springtime minimums, the C3-C6 alkanes, C7-C8 aromatics, and C2HCl3 increased in early to mid summer, presumably reflecting enhanced evaporative emissions. Mixing ratios of C2Cl4 and C2HCl3 decreased by 0.7±0.2 and 0.3±0.05 pptv/year, respectively, which is indicative of reduced usage and emissions of these halogenated solvents. Emission rates of C3-C8 NMHCs were estimated to be 109 to 1010 molecules cm−2 s−1 in winter 2006. The emission rates extrapolated to the state of New Hampshire and New England were ~2–60 Mg/day and ~12–430 Mg/day, respectively. Emission rates of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and ethyne in the 2002 and 2005 EPA National Emissions Inventories were within ±50% of the TF emission rates.

  8. Insights on nitrate sources at Dome C (East Antarctic Plateau from multi-year aerosol and snow records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Traversi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first multi-year record of nitrate in the atmospheric aerosol (2005–2008 and surface snow (2006–08 from central Antarctica. PM10 and size-segregated aerosol, together with superficial snow, have been collected all year-round at high resolution (daily for all the snow samples and for most of aerosol samples at Dome C since the 2004/05 field season and analysed for main and trace ionic markers. The suitability of the sampling location in terms of possible contamination from the base is shown in detail. In spite of the relevance of nitrate in Antarctic atmosphere, both for better understanding the chemistry of N cycle in the plateau boundary layer and for improving the interpretation of long-term nitrate records from deep ice core records, nitrate sources in Antarctica are not well constrained yet, neither in extent nor in timing. A recurring seasonal pattern was pointed out in both aerosol and snow records, showing summer maxima and winter minima, although aerosol maxima lead the snow ones of 1–2 months, possibly due to a higher acidity in the atmosphere in mid-summer, favouring the repartition of nitrate as nitric acid and thus its uptake by the surface snow layers. On the basis of a meteorological analysis of one major nitrate event, of data related to PSC I extent and of irradiance values, we propose that the high nitrate summer levels in aerosol and snow are likely due to a synergy of enhanced source of nitrate and/or its precursors (such as the stratospheric inputs, higher solar irradiance and higher oxidation rates in this season. Moreover, we show here a further evidence of the substantial contribution of HNO3/NOx re-emission from the snowpack, already shown in previous works, and which can explain a significant fraction of atmospheric nitrate, maintaining the same seasonal pattern in the snow. As concerning snow specifically, the presented data suggest that nitrate is likely to be controlled mainly by atmospheric

  9. Leading quality through the development of a multi-year corporate quality plan: sharing The Ottawa Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Linda; Myles, Joanne; Worthington, James R; Lebrun, Monique

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the background and process for developing a multi-year corporate quality plan. The Ottawa Hospital's goal is to be a top 10% performer in quality and patient safety in North America. In order to create long-term measurable and sustainable changes in the quality of patient care, The Ottawa Hospital embarked on the development of a three-year strategic corporate quality plan. This was accomplished by engaging the organization at all levels and defining quality frameworks, aligning with internal and external expectations, prioritizing strategic goals, articulating performance measurements and reporting to stakeholders while maintaining a transparent communication process. The plan was developed through an iterative process that engaged a broad base of health professionals, physicians, support staff, administration and senior management. A literature review of quality frameworks was undertaken, a Quality Plan Working Group was established, 25 key stakeholder interviews were conducted and 48 clinical and support staff consultations were held. The intent was to gather information on current quality initiatives and challenges encountered and to prioritize corporate goals and then create the quality plan. Goals were created and then prioritized through an affinity exercise. Action plans were developed for each goal and included objectives, tasks and activities, performance measures (structure, process and outcome), accountabilities and timelines. This collaborative methodology resulted in the development of a three-year quality plan. Six corporate goals were outlined by the tenets of the quality framework for The Ottawa Hospital: access to care, appropriate care (effective and efficient), safe care and satisfaction with care. Each of the six corporate goals identified objectives and supporting action plans with accountabilities outlining what would be accomplished in years one, two and three. The three-year quality plan was approved by senior

  10. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  11. Focus group report, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted two focus groups with people who live or work near DOE sites. The purpose of the focus groups was to gain a better understanding of the general community's information needs about the development of innovative technologies that are used in the cleanup of the sites. The authors wanted to better understand of what role these people want to play in the development of new technologies, how OST communication products can help facilitate that role, and the usefulness of current OST communication products. WPI held the focus groups in communities near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) because they are among the DOE sites that cannot be cleaned up before 2006. To include many facets of the communities, WPI randomly selected participants from membership lists of organized groups in each community including: elected officials, school boards, unions, chambers of commerce, economic development organizations, environmental organizations, health and human service organizations, and area clergy. While in the communities, WPI also interviewed stakeholders such as tribal representatives and a Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) member. Qualitative data gathered during the focus group sessions give some indication of general stakeholder opinions. However, the authors caution readers not to make broad assumptions about the general stakeholder audience based on the opinions of a limited number of general community stakeholders

  12. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  13. Reflectors to Focus Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC’s) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased by approximately 30......-50%. Clearly longer wave reflectors will focus more wave energy than shorter wave reflectors. Thus the draw back is the increased wave forces for the longer wave reflectors. In the paper a procedure for calculating the energy efficiency and the wave forces on the reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D...... boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benefit for different wave reflector geometries and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC’s can...

  14. The focus factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. We present a new bibliometric indicator to measure journal specialisation over time, named the focus factor. This new indicator is based on bibliographic coupling and counts the percentage of re-citations given in subsequent years. Method. The applicability of the new indicator....... To validate re-citations as caused by specialisation, other possible causes were measured and correlated (obsolescence, journal self-citations and number of references). Results. The results indicate that the focus factor is capable of distinguishing between general and specialised journals and thus...... effectively measures the intended phenomenon (i.e., journal specialisation). Only weak correlations were found between journal re-citations and obsolescence, journal self-citations, and number of references. Conclusions. The focus factor successfully measures journal specialisation over time. Measures based...

  15. Focus on topological quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachos, Jiannis K; Simon, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Topological quantum computation started as a niche area of research aimed at employing particles with exotic statistics, called anyons, for performing quantum computation. Soon it evolved to include a wide variety of disciplines. Advances in the understanding of anyon properties inspired new quantum algorithms and helped in the characterization of topological phases of matter and their experimental realization. The conceptual appeal of topological systems as well as their promise for building fault-tolerant quantum technologies fuelled the fascination in this field. This ‘focus on’ collection brings together several of the latest developments in the field and facilitates the synergy between different approaches. (editorial)

  16. Focus on astronomical predictable events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2006-01-01

    At the Steno Museum Planetarium we have for many occasions used a countdown clock to get focus om astronomical events. A countdown clock can provide actuality to predictable events, for example The Venus Transit, Opportunity landing on Mars and The Solar Eclipse. The movement of the clock attracs...... the public and makes a point of interest in a small exhibit area. A countdown clock can be simple, but it is possible to expand the concept to an eye-catching part of a museum....

  17. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  18. Plasma focus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahlin, H.L.

    1975-12-01

    The primary objective of this project is to provide a relatively simple pulsed power source for high density pulsed fusion studies with a variety of DT and other fusion microexplosion targets. The plasma focus operated on DT at 1 MJ should produce greater than or equal to 10 15 DT neutrons per pulse corresponding to 2800 J of nuclear energy release and for low pressure operation and appropriately configured high Z anode center should yield an x-ray burst of about 1000 J with a substantial fraction of this x-ray energy concentrated in the 5-100 kV range. Because of its x-ray and neutron production potential, the operation of the focus as an x-ray source is also under study and an initial design study for a repetitively pulsed 1 MJ plasma focus as a pulsed neutron materials testing source has been completed. The plasma focus seems particularly appropriate for application as a materials testing source for pulsed fusion reactors, for example, based on laser driven fusion microexplosions. The construction status of the device is described

  19. The CMEMS-Med-MFC-Biogeochemistry operational system: implementation of NRT and Multi-Year validation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salon, Stefano; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Bolzon, Giorgio; Teruzzi, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (Med-MFC) is one of the regional production centres of the EU Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Med-MFC manages a suite of numerical model systems for the operational delivery of the CMEMS products, providing continuous monitoring and forecasting of the Mediterranean marine environment. The CMEMS products of fundamental biogeochemical variables (chlorophyll, nitrate, phosphate, oxygen, phytoplankton biomass, primary productivity, pH, pCO2) are organised as gridded datasets and are available at the marine.copernicus.eu web portal. Quantitative estimates of CMEMS products accuracy are prerequisites to release reliable information to intermediate users, end users and to other downstream services. In particular, validation activities aim to deliver accuracy information of the model products and to serve as a long term monitoring of the performance of the modelling systems. The quality assessment of model output is implemented using a multiple-stages approach, basically inspired to the classic "GODAE 4 Classes" metrics and criteria (consistency, quality, performance and benefit). Firstly, pre-operational runs qualify the operational model system against historical data, also providing a verification of the improvements of the new model system release with respect to the previous version. Then, the near real time (NRT) validation aims at delivering a sustained on-line skill assessment of the model analysis and forecast, relying on the NRT available relevant observations (e.g. in situ, Bio Argo and satellite observations). NRT validation results are operated on weekly basis and published on the MEDEAF web portal (www.medeaf.inogs.it). On a quarterly basis, the integration of the NRT validation activities delivers a comprehensive view of the accuracy of model forecast through the official CMEMS validation webpage. Multi-Year production (e.g. reanalysis runs) follows a similar procedure, and the

  20. Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship (FAST-SF)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Chattoo Vijay Kumar Sharma Ahmed Hassan Zewail Sailendranath Roy Chaudhury Mangalore Vivekananda Bhatt Bahadur Chand Nakra Noshir Hormusji Wadia Charusita Chakravarty Paramasivam Natarajan Manoj Kumar Pal Chirayathumadom Venkatachalier Subramanian Deepak Kumar Subramania Ranganathan.

  1. Tanks Focus Area midyear review report FY00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder-Smith, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    In accordance with EM's office of Science and Technology (OST), the TFA is committed to assessing the maturity of technology development projects and ensuring their readiness for implementation and subsequent deployment. The TFA conducts an annual Midyear Review to document the status of ongoing projects, reaffirm and document user commitment to selected projects, and to improve the effective deployment of technology by determining and documenting the readiness of selected projects to move ahead. Since 1995, OST has used a linear technology maturation model that spans through seven defined stages of maturity, from basic research to implementation. Application of this Stage/Gate model to technology development resulted in prescriptive and somewhat cumbersome review procedures, resulting in limited and inconsistent use. Subsequently, in February 2000, OST issued revised guidance in an effort to streamline the technology tracking and review process. While the new OST guidance reinforces peer review requirements and the use of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for independent reviews, it also implements a simplified Gate model. The TFA is now responsible for providing auditable documentation for passing only three stages of technology maturity: ready for research (Gate 0); ready for development (Gate 2); ready for demonstration (Gate 5). The TFA Midyear Review is a key element in the overall review procedure, as the tracking evidence for all active projects is required to be available at this time. While the Midyear Report contains an overview of the status of all TFA reviews and projects, not all the reviews were conducted during the Midyear Review. The TFA used a phased approach to accomplish the Midyear Review requirements

  2. TFA Tanks Focus Area midyear review report FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LR Roeder-Smith

    2000-05-02

    In accordance with EM's office of Science and Technology (OST), the TFA is committed to assessing the maturity of technology development projects and ensuring their readiness for implementation and subsequent deployment. The TFA conducts an annual Midyear Review to document the status of ongoing projects, reaffirm and document user commitment to selected projects, and to improve the effective deployment of technology by determining and documenting the readiness of selected projects to move ahead. Since 1995, OST has used a linear technology maturation model that spans through seven defined stages of maturity, from basic research to implementation. Application of this Stage/Gate model to technology development resulted in prescriptive and somewhat cumbersome review procedures, resulting in limited and inconsistent use. Subsequently, in February 2000, OST issued revised guidance in an effort to streamline the technology tracking and review process. While the new OST guidance reinforces peer review requirements and the use of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for independent reviews, it also implements a simplified Gate model. The TFA is now responsible for providing auditable documentation for passing only three stages of technology maturity: ready for research (Gate 0); ready for development (Gate 2); ready for demonstration (Gate 5). The TFA Midyear Review is a key element in the overall review procedure, as the tracking evidence for all active projects is required to be available at this time. While the Midyear Report contains an overview of the status of all TFA reviews and projects, not all the reviews were conducted during the Midyear Review. The TFA used a phased approach to accomplish the Midyear Review requirements.

  3. Focus Area Science Technology Summer Fellowship (FAST-SF)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 1975 Section: General Biology. Moudgal, Prof. Nuggehalli Raghuveer Ph.D. (Madras), FNA. Date of birth: 4 March 1931. Date of death: 8 May 2011. Specialization: Biochemical Endocrinology, Immuno Endocrinology and Reproductive Biology Last known address: 202D, Mantri Pride Apartments, No.

  4. Fluidic Sampler. Tanks Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Problem Definition; Millions of gallons of radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored in underground tanks across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To manage this waste, tank operators need safe, cost-effective methods for mixing tank material, transferring tank waste between tanks, and collecting samples. Samples must be collected at different depths within storage tanks containing various kinds of waste including salt, sludge, and supernatant. With current or baseline methods, a grab sampler or a core sampler is inserted into the tank, waste is maneuvered into the sample chamber, and the sample is withdrawn from the tank. The mixing pumps in the tank, which are required to keep the contents homogeneous, must be shut down before and during sampling to prevent airborne releases. These methods are expensive, require substantial hands-on labor, increase the risk of worker exposure to radiation, and often produce nonrepresentative and unreproducible samples. How It Works: The Fluidic Sampler manufactured by AEA Technology Engineering Services, Inc., enables tank sampling to be done remotely with the mixing pumps in operation. Remote operation minimizes the risk of exposure to personnel and the possibility of spills, reducing associated costs. Sampling while the tank contents are being agitated yields consistently homogeneous, representative samples and facilitates more efficient feed preparation and evaluation of the tank contents. The above-tank portion of the Fluidic Sampler and the replacement plug and pipework that insert through the tank top are shown.

  5. Landscape Changes in Rural Areas: A Focus on Sardinian Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Balestrieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades the Italian rural landscape has undergone drastic alterations as a result of complex and contradictory transformation dynamics. This paper aims to investigate and evaluate these alterations in Sardinia, one of the most rural Italian regions. Land-use maps from different years were studied to identify the dominant rural landscape features of the region and the transformations they were subjected to over the course of time. The analysis investigates changes on three geographical scales: region, provinces, and “agrarian regions”. An overall economic balance of landscape changes was calculated from the value ascribed to types of land use on the basis of the allowances (compensation for expropriation provided by the local authorities (Provincial Commissions. This economic balance was considered in light of the regional policies which accompanied it. Results partially confirm the national and European general trend of loss of agricultural land when it is converted to new forms of exploitation. The analysis at different geographical scales has, in some cases, revealed data against the general trend, especially for some agricultural regions and for certain agricultural products. There is consistent with economic balance. This shows the need of a deep ex post evaluation of the effects of policies financed by regional and national community funds on the evolution of Sardinian landscapes.

  6. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned

  7. The BGC Feedbacks Scientific Focus Area 2016 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Randerson, James T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The BGC Feedbacks Project will identify and quantify the feedbacks between biogeochemical cycles and the climate system, and quantify and reduce the uncertainties in Earth System Models (ESMs) associated with those feedbacks. The BGC Feedbacks Project will contribute to the integration of the experimental and modeling science communities, providing researchers with new tools to compare measurements and models, thereby enabling DOE to contribute more effectively to future climate assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

  8. Polyethylene macroencapsulation - mixed waste focus area. OST reference No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The lead waste inventory throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has been estimated between 17 million and 24 million kilograms. Decontamination of at least a portion of the lead is viable but at a substantial cost. Because of various problems with decontamination and its limited applicability and the lack of a treatment and disposal method, the current practice is indefinite storage, which is costly and often unacceptable to regulators. Macroencapsulation is an approved immobilization technology used to treat radioactively contaminated lead solids and mixed waste debris. (Mixed waste is waste materials containing both radioactive and hazardous components). DOE has funded development of a polyethylene extrusion macroencapsulation process at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) that produces a durable, leach-resistant waste form. This innovative macroencapsulation technology uses commercially available single-crew extruders to melt, convey, and extrude molten polyethylene into a waste container in which mixed waste lead and debris are suspended or supported. After cooling to room temperature, the polyethylene forms a low-permeability barrier between the waste and the leaching media

  9. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    As part of its overall program, the MWFA uses a national mixed waste data set to develop approaches for treating mixed waste that cannot be treated using existing capabilities at DOE or commercial facilities. The current data set was originally compiled under the auspices of the 1995 Mixed Waste Inventory Report. The data set has been updated over the past two years based on Site Treatment Plan revisions and clarifications provided by individual sites. The current data set is maintained by the MWFA staff and is known as MWFA97. In 1996, the MWFA developed waste groupings, process flow diagrams, and treatment train diagrams to systematically model the treatment of all mixed waste in the DOE complex. The purpose of the modeling process was to identify treatment gaps and corresponding technology development needs for the DOE complex. Each diagram provides the general steps needed to treat a specific type of waste. The NWFA categorized each MWFA97 waste stream by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. Appendices B through F provide the complete listing of waste streams by waste group, treatment train, and process flow. The MWFA97 waste strewn information provided in the appendices is defined in Table A-1

  10. Focusing of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhayalan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The focusing of electromagnetic waves inside a slab has been examined together with two special cases in which the slab is reduced to a single interface or a single medium. To that end the exact solutions for the fields inside a layered medium have been used, given in terms of the outside current source in order to obtain the solutions for the focused electric field inside a slab. Both exact and asymptotic solutions of the problem have been considered, and the validity of the latter has been discussed. The author has developed a numerical algorithm for evaluation of the diffraction integral with special emphasis on reducing the computing time. The numerical techniques in the paper can be readily applied to evaluate similar diffraction integrals occurring e.g. in microstrip antennas. 46 refs

  11. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  12. An adiabatic focuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Oide, K.; Sessler, A.M.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical analysis is made of an intense relativistic electron beam, such as would be available from a linear collider, moving through a plasma of increasing density, but density always less than that of the beam (underdense). In this situation, the plasma electrons are expelled from the beam channel and the electrons are subject to an ever-increasing focusing force provided by the channel ions. Analysis is made on the beam radiation energy loss in the classical, the transition, and the quantum regimes. It is shown that the focuser is insensitive to the beam energy spread behaviors in the nonclassical regimes, the radiation limit on lenses (the Oide limit) can be exceeded. The sensitivity of the system to the topic mismatch and the nonlinearity is also analyzed. Examples are given with SLC-type and TLC-type parameters. 9 refs., 1 tab

  13. Line broadening by focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, A.L. de; Jabs, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that the spectral width of a quasi-monochromatic light beam broadens when the beam is focused. A quantitative formula for this broadening is derived from classical wave theory. The effect is shown to explain some experiments on laser beams done by E. Panarella which that author has explained under the ad-hoc hypothesis that the frequency of the photons changes along with the intensity of the light beam. The line broadening by focusing might also contribute to gas ionization by incident light when the ionization potential is well above the mean photon energy. Some remarks are made on some direct applications of the Heisenberg relations in comparison with our treatment. (Author) [pt

  14. Focus on Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  15. Dialogicality in Focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The phenomenon which dialogism addresses is human interaction. It enables us to conceptualise human interaction as intersubjective, symbolic, cultural, transformative and conflictual, in short, as complex. The complexity of human interaction is evident in all domains of human life, for example, i......, because rather than applying dialogism to this or that domain, the present volume focuses on dialogicality itself to interrogate the concepts and methods which are taken for granted in the burgeoning literature. (Imprint: Nova Press)...

  16. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  17. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  18. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  19. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  20. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  1. Multi-year study of the carbonate system in the Chukchi Sea with emphasizes on its western part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Pipko, I.; Pugach, S.

    2015-12-01

    Variability of the Arctic climate has affected many aspects of the Arctic environment, especially in the Pacific sector of the Arctic. The primary implication is that today's Arctic cryosphere (glaciers, frozen ground, and sea ice) and biosphere (terrestrial, lacustrine, and marine) are not at steady state; they have changed and will continue to change in response to evolving Arctic climate. Over the decade 2004-2013 environmental changes in the Pacific sector of the Arctic have been dramatic enough to suggest that a 'new normal' climate is emerging (Wood et al., 2015). Like everywhere in the Arctic, understanding of environmental change in the Chukchi Sea is hindered by sparse data. Dynamics of the carbonate system (CS) in the eastern Chukchi Sea (US EEZ) has been studied more extensively for a longer period and is better understood than in its western (Russian EEZ) part. Here we focus on the carbonate system data collected in the Russian part of the Chukchi Sea over > 10 years (2000-2011). Our data exhibit a strong mesoscale and interannual dynamics of carbonate system parameters in the surface seawater. The aragonite saturation state (WAr) was highly variable but also has generally been decreasing in the upper waters from 2000 to 2011. It was shown that despite strong sea ice loss, waters heating and storm increasing, the surface waters in this area have been consistently undersaturated by CO2 with respect to the atmosphere. Notable localized exceptions, where CO2 outgassing occurs, include the well-mixed waters near Bering Strait. Combining our long-term carbonate system data set (1996-2011) with the available literature data we felt in conclusion that the entire Chukchi Sea during ice-free season absorbs ~12-15× 1012 g C and a significant part of this carbon was transferred to the deep layers and insulated from contact with the atmosphere for a long time. Note that the CO2 invasion is a similar value with the CO2 outgassing from the shallow eastern Laptev Sea

  2. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  3. Focused detection logging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining a characteristic of the media surrounding a borehole by emitting gamma radiation in at least one tightly collimated beam toward an earth formation adjacent a borehole, by detecting from a plurality of tightly collimated paths that are focused at a zone of intersection with and aligned to intersect with each emitted beam the gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media at the zones of intersection, by misaligning the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths to prevent their intersection, by detecting gamma radiation scattered by the interaction of the emitted gamma radiation and the media with the emitted beams and the tightly collimated paths misaligned and by determining from the detected gamma radiation a media characteristic. In one embodiment, the detection collimater used is formed of a material that is essentially opaque to gamma radiation at the energies of interest and includes a plurality of passageways that are spherically focused at a zone of intersection with one of the emitted beams of gamma radiation and that are arranged in a number of surfaces that are curved to be azimuthally symmetrical about the axis of the intersected beam. 14 figures

  4. Multi-year objective analyses of warm season ground-level ozone and PM2.5 over North America using real-time observations and Canadian operational air quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, A.; Ménard, R.

    2014-02-01

    Multi-year objective analyses (OA) on a high spatiotemporal resolution for the warm season period (1 May to 31 October) for ground-level ozone and for fine particulate matter (diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5)) are presented. The OA used in this study combines model outputs from the Canadian air quality forecast suite with US and Canadian observations from various air quality surface monitoring networks. The analyses are based on an optimal interpolation (OI) with capabilities for adaptive error statistics for ozone and PM2.5 and an explicit bias correction scheme for the PM2.5 analyses. The estimation of error statistics has been computed using a modified version of the Hollingsworth-Lönnberg (H-L) method. The error statistics are "tuned" using a χ2 (chi-square) diagnostic, a semi-empirical procedure that provides significantly better verification than without tuning. Successful cross-validation experiments were performed with an OA setup using 90% of data observations to build the objective analyses and with the remainder left out as an independent set of data for verification purposes. Furthermore, comparisons with other external sources of information (global models and PM2.5 satellite surface-derived or ground-based measurements) show reasonable agreement. The multi-year analyses obtained provide relatively high precision with an absolute yearly averaged systematic error of less than 0.6 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) and 0.7 μg m-3 (micrograms per cubic meter) for ozone and PM2.5, respectively, and a random error generally less than 9 ppbv for ozone and under 12 μg m-3 for PM2.5. This paper focuses on two applications: (1) presenting long-term averages of OA and analysis increments as a form of summer climatology; and (2) analyzing long-term (decadal) trends and inter-annual fluctuations using OA outputs. The results show that high percentiles of ozone and PM2.5 were both following a general decreasing trend in North America, with the eastern

  5. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  6. Focus on Succes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Slimák

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor wishes to present the need and form of turning the focus of individuals and organisations to success, based on evaluating understanding of the situation, on complex improving the quality of work, production and life, and on awareness of accountability for consequences of one’s actions in the given environment and time. Understood by success is sustained financial and non-financial prosperity, whilst decisive is the evaluating process, the key element is loyalty of natural and physical persons, and the priority is loyalty of external customers. The address is targeted to would-be authors and readers of our Journal interested in engineering and management of quality of mutually correlate entities.

  7. Cosmological Final Focus Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J

    2004-01-01

    We develop the many striking parallels between the dynamics of light streams from distant galaxies and particle beams in accelerator final focus systems. Notably the deflections of light by mass clumps are identical to the kicks arising from the long-range beam-beam interactions of two counter-rotating particle beams (known as parasitic crossings). These deflections have sextupolar as well as quadrupolar components. We estimate the strength of such distortions for a variety of circumstances and argue that the sextupolar distortions from clumping within clusters may be observable. This possibility is enhanced by the facts that (1) the sextupolar distortions of background galaxies is a factor of 5 smaller than the quadrupolar distortion, (2) the angular orientation of the sextupolar and quadrupolar distortions from a mass distribution would be correlated, appearing as a slightly curved image, (3) these effects should be spatially clumped on the sky

  8. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  9. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest. A First Multiyear Assessment Based on Data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hongbin [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Chin, Mian [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Yuan, Tianle [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bian, Huisheng [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Remer, L. A. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Prospero, J. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Omar, Ali [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winker, D. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Yang, Yuekui [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Yan [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Zhibo [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8~48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8~50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006~0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7~39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input is comparable to the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  10. Focus on integrated quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Patton, Brian; Sasaki, Masahide; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of research into quantum information processing is the development of technologies that are scaleable in complexity while allowing the mass manufacture of devices that promise transformative effects on information science. The demonstration that integrated photonics circuits could be made to perform operations that exploit the quantum nature of the photon has turned them into leading candidates for practical quantum information processing technologies. To fully achieve their promise, however, requires research from diverse fields. This focus issue provides a snapshot of some of the areas in which key advances have been made. We are grateful for the contributions from leading teams based around the globe and hope that the degree of progress being made in a challenging and exciting field is apparent from the papers published here. (editorial)

  11. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  12. Multi-year assessment of soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modeling uncertainties over a Mediterranean agricultural site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.; Martin, E.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Bertrand, N.; Desfonds, V.; Renard, D.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation productivity and water balance of Mediterranean regions will be particularly affected by climate and land-use changes. In order to analyze and predict these changes through land surface models, a critical step is to quantify the uncertainties associated with these models (processes, parameters) and their implementation over a long period of time. Besides, uncertainties attached to the data used to force these models (atmospheric forcing, vegetation and soil characteristics, crop management practices...) which are generally available at coarse spatial resolution (>1-10 km) and for a limited number of plant functional types, need to be evaluated. This paper aims at assessing the uncertainties in water (evapotranspiration) and energy fluxes estimated from a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model over a Mediterranean agricultural site. While similar past studies focused on particular crop types and limited period of time, the originality of this paper consists in implementing the SVAT model and assessing its uncertainties over a long period of time (10 years), encompassing several cycles of distinct crops (wheat, sorghum, sunflower, peas). The impacts on the SVAT simulations of the following sources of uncertainties are characterized: - Uncertainties in atmospheric forcing are assessed comparing simulations forced with local meteorological measurements and simulations forced with re-analysis atmospheric dataset (SAFRAN database). - Uncertainties in key surface characteristics (soil, vegetation, crop management practises) are tested comparing simulations feeded with standard values from global database (e.g. ECOCLIMAP) and simulations based on in situ or site-calibrated values. - Uncertainties dues to the implementation of the SVAT model over a long period of time are analyzed with regards to crop rotation. The SVAT model being analyzed in this paper is ISBA in its a-gs version which simulates the photosynthesis and its coupling with the stomata

  13. Automated detection of slum area change in Hyderabad, India using multitemporal satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to automated identification of slum area change patterns in Hyderabad, India, using multi-year and multi-sensor very high resolution satellite imagery. It relies upon a lacunarity-based slum detection algorithm, combined with Canny- and LSD-based imagery pre-processing routines. This method outputs plausible and spatially explicit slum locations for the whole urban agglomeration of Hyderabad in years 2003 and 2010. The results indicate a considerable growth of area occupied by slums between these years and allow identification of trends in slum development in this urban agglomeration.

  14. Stress wave focusing transducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  15. [Focus on electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghino, Biagio; Pacifici, Roberta; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Palmi, Ilaria; Solimini, Renata; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear regulation on electronic cigarettes (e-cig); their health effects are not yet fully investigated and there is insufficient standardisation and quality control of the product. Moreover, the e-cig could be a gateway for young people to nicotine addiction and traditional cigarette smoking. In Italy, the Ministry of Health banned the sale of e-cig with nicotine firstly to adolescents aged marketing of e-cigs, to make them less attractive, to forbid their use in enclosed areas, and prevent them from being promoted. E-cigs, however, seem to be much less dangerous than traditional cigarettes, although the few studies conducted are not sufficient to demonstrate either a clear therapeutic efficacy of e-cig or their total harmlessness. If e-cig had a known content, were made according to clear rules and in certified laboratories, without toxic substances, it could be used to help heavy smokers to quit, or at least to reduce smoking habits. There is a large proportion of smokers who are unable to quit. The revision of the European Directive (the proposal is being evaluated and we are waiting for its final approval) on tobacco recommends free sale for a minority of e-cigs only, those with a nicotine content e-cig and the much more dangerous tobacco cigarettes are still sold without any restriction.

  16. The focus on radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama T, G.

    2008-12-01

    So much the national normative all the international recommendations on the subject point to the need for qualified personnel with an appropriate degree of competition. In the 1997 year specialized adviser figure was settled down for the radiodiagnosis in complete congruence with the recommendations of the safety basic standards. However, this practice can be found even personnel occupationally exposed to learning on an approximately 22%. Mexican Official Standard NOM-229-SSA1-2002, T echnical requirements for the facilities, sanitary responsibilities, technical specifications for the equipment and radiation protection in medical diagnosis X-ray facilities , and replacing the old set of standards NOM-146 (156, 157 and 158)- SSA1-1996, contains two fundamental branches: one guided towards the radiation protection and the other one guided towards the quality assurance which comes the need for courses in that discipline too. In fact, in our country there is an infrastructure of radiation safety training that can address the needs of staff who is entering and remaining in the ranks of the involved areas. The Mexican Society of Radiological Safety can participate supporting the authorities to unify and to regulate monitoring criterions of such activities with a particular emphasis on evaluation as well as with the provision and the proposed new and varied agendas diversify courses, all to become true qualified experts as establishing the safety basic standards. (Author)

  17. Family focused nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. E. Thompson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available At the present time the majority of nurse education programmes are firmly tied to the perspectives of curative medicine within hospitals - they are disease and hospital oriented. This model, which indicates a 'sickness’ concept of nursing is entirely inappropriate if contemporary and future health care needs are to be met. The shift in education should be towards a health, family and whole person centered approach. The family is the most fundamental and dynamic unit in society with a profound influence upon its members. Besides performing a variety of other functions, the family has a central role in promoting and maintaining the health of its members. Because the family unit is the microcosm of society and accurately reflects the needs of society at large it is appropriate that this should be a key area of experience. Family attachments during training provide opportunities for close and committed contact with people in their everyday world and for learning what is really important to them.

  18. Multiyear Synthesis of the Macroinvertebrate Component From 1992 to 2002 for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauer, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    ...) were added to the sampling design in 1993 and zebra mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) were added in 1995. Sampling was based on a stratified random design and conducted at approximately 125 sites per study area...

  19. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knodlseder, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Frontera, F.

    2009-01-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reach...... processes in the universe....

  20. Summary report on focusing HTGR technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program effort to focus technology development activities consists of work in three areas: the identification of Reference Plant Options; the identification of design data needs and supporting program requirements for these plants; and the development of management plans and tools consistent with the execution of candidate systems

  1. The Next Generation of Risk Assessment Multi-Year Study—Highlights of Findings, Applications to Risk Assessment, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Ila; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Barone, Stanley; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Boekelheide, Kim; Bois, Frederic Y.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Crofton, Kevin M.; DeVito, Michael; Devlin, Robert B.; Edwards, Stephen W.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Hattis, Dale; Judson, Richard S.; Knight, Derek; Krewski, Daniel; Lambert, Jason; Maull, Elizabeth Anne; Mendrick, Donna; Paoli, Gregory M.; Patel, Chirag Jagdish; Perkins, Edward J.; Poje, Gerald; Portier, Christopher J.; Rusyn, Ivan; Schulte, Paul A.; Simeonov, Anton; Smith, Martyn T.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Thomas, Russell S.; Thomas, Reuben; Tice, Raymond R.; Vandenberg, John J.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Wesselkamper, Scott; Whelan, Maurice; Whittaker, Christine; White, Ronald; Xia, Menghang; Yauk, Carole; Zeise, Lauren; Zhao, Jay; DeWoskin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Next Generation (NexGen) of Risk Assessment effort is a multi-year collaboration among several organizations evaluating new, potentially more efficient molecular, computational, and systems biology approaches to risk assessment. This article summarizes our findings, suggests applications to risk assessment, and identifies strategic research directions. Objective: Our specific objectives were to test whether advanced biological data and methods could better inform our understanding of public health risks posed by environmental exposures. Methods: New data and methods were applied and evaluated for use in hazard identification and dose–response assessment. Biomarkers of exposure and effect, and risk characterization were also examined. Consideration was given to various decision contexts with increasing regulatory and public health impacts. Data types included transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics. Methods included molecular epidemiology and clinical studies, bioinformatic knowledge mining, pathway and network analyses, short-duration in vivo and in vitro bioassays, and quantitative structure activity relationship modeling. Discussion: NexGen has advanced our ability to apply new science by more rapidly identifying chemicals and exposures of potential concern, helping characterize mechanisms of action that influence conclusions about causality, exposure–response relationships, susceptibility and cumulative risk, and by elucidating new biomarkers of exposure and effects. Additionally, NexGen has fostered extensive discussion among risk scientists and managers and improved confidence in interpreting and applying new data streams. Conclusions: While considerable uncertainties remain, thoughtful application of new knowledge to risk assessment appears reasonable for augmenting major scope assessments, forming the basis for or augmenting limited scope assessments, and for prioritization and screening of very data limited chemicals. Citation: Cote I

  2. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, C.; Beale, M.I.J.; Deshmukh, V.G.I.

    1986-04-01

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  3. Focusators for laser-branding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doskolovich, L. L.; Kazanskiy, N. L.; Kharitonov, S. I.; Uspleniev, G. V.

    A new method is investigated for synthesis of computer-generated optical elements: focusators that are able to focus the radial-symmetrical laser beam into complex focal contours, in particular into alphanumeric symbols. The method is based on decomposition of the focal contour into segments of straight lines and semi-circles, following corresponding spacing out of the focusator on elementary segments (concentric rings or sectors) and solution of the inverse task of focusing from focusator segments into corresponding elements of the focal contour. The results of numerical computing of the field from synthesized focusators into the letters are presented. The theoretical efficiency of the focusators discussed is no less than 85%. The amplitude masks and the results of operational studies of synthesized focusators are presented.

  4. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  5. Increasing URM Undergraduate Student Success through Assessment-Driven Interventions: A Multiyear Study Using Freshman-Level General Biology as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Mary C.; St. Clair, Candace; Edwards, Andrea M.; Barrett, Peter; McFerrin, Harris; Davenport, Ian; Awad, Mohamed; Kundu, Anup; Ireland, Shubha Kale

    2016-01-01

    Xavier University of Louisiana leads the nation in awarding BS degrees in the biological sciences to African-American students. In this multiyear study with ∼5500 participants, data-driven interventions were adopted to improve student academic performance in a freshman-level general biology course. The three hour-long exams were common and administered concurrently to all students. New exam questions were developed using Bloom’s taxonomy, and exam results were analyzed statistically with validated assessment tools. All but the comprehensive final exam were returned to students for self-evaluation and remediation. Among other approaches, course rigor was monitored by using an identical set of 60 questions on the final exam across 10 semesters. Analysis of the identical sets of 60 final exam questions revealed that overall averages increased from 72.9% (2010) to 83.5% (2015). Regression analysis demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between high-risk students and their averages on the 60 questions. Additional analysis demonstrated statistically significant improvements for at least one letter grade from midterm to final and a 20% increase in the course pass rates over time, also for the high-risk population. These results support the hypothesis that our data-driven interventions and assessment techniques are successful in improving student retention, particularly for our academically at-risk students. PMID:27543637

  6. Association between sporting event attendance and self-rated health: an analysis of multiyear cross-sectional national data in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuhei; Sato, Mikihiro; Nakazawa, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which sporting event attendance is associated with self-rated health. Drawing from an economic model of health production and psychological research on the health benefits of psychosocial resources, sporting event attendance was hypothesized to have a positive relationship with self-rated health. A two-level multilevel ordered logistic regression was used to analyze multiyear cross-sectional data collected from national surveys in Japan. The results demonstrate that, controlling for the effects of personal and environmental characteristics, sporting event attendance positively correlates with self-rated health over a 12-year period. Specifically, when compared to individuals who did not attend any sporting event during the past year, those who attended a sporting event were 33% more likely to indicate a higher level of self-rated health. These findings provide evidence for a positive association between sport spectatorship and the perception of general health and contribute to the literature examining the relationship between sport spectatorship and health outcomes.

  7. Site systems engineering fiscal year 1999 multi-year work plan (MYWP) update for WBS 1.8.2.2; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRYGIEL, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Manage the Site Systems Engineering process to provide a traceable integrated requirements-driven, and technically defensible baseline. Through the Site Integration Group(SIG), Systems Engineering ensures integration of technical activities across all site projects. Systems Engineering's primary interfaces are with the RL Project Managers, the Project Direction Office and with the Project Major Subcontractors, as well as with the Site Planning organization. Systems Implementation: (1) Develops, maintains, and controls the site integrated technical baseline, ensures the Systems Engineering interfaces between projects are documented, and maintain the Site Environmental Management Specification. (2) Develops and uses dynamic simulation models for verification of the baseline and analysis of alternatives. (3) Performs and documents fictional and requirements analyses. (4) Works with projects, technology management, and the SIG to identify and resolve technical issues. (5) Supports technical baseline information for the planning and budgeting of the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, Multi-Year Work Plans, Project Baseline Summaries as well as performance measure reporting. (6) Works with projects to ensure the quality of data in the technical baseline. (7) Develops, maintains and implements the site configuration management system

  8. Decision project related to the energy multi-year 2018/2023 planning (PPE). Evolution of capacities of production of power generating renewable energies: the headlong rush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that the French government, in its energy multi-year planning for 2018-2023, decided to develop wind and photovoltaic energies at a higher rate, despite their intermittency and the need for back-up nuclear and hydroelectric power plants (which do not emit carbon), and outlined that the power market is now in the torment, in France and in Europe, the author notices that such a development of renewable energies is a matter of concern in Europe, and indicates the objectives defined by the French government for onshore and offshore wind energy and for solar energy. Then, he proposes a critical analysis of the low level scenario of this development, a scenario which the author assesses as not very realistic. A table indicates the status and objectives for all the different renewable energies. The author discusses these values, notices that it is similar to a programme defined by the ADEME. He analyses the 2018/2023 low scenario (production, share, production efficiency, minimum and maximum power) by comparing it with the situation in 2015. He outlines important seasonal variations for wind and solar energy: their production level in winter requires a massive use of other sources. He briefly discusses the perspectives for 2030, and then addresses the development cost in terms of required investments. He discusses the impact of the scenario on greenhouse gas emissions. The appendix provides the official text of the decision project

  9. Self-focusing Past and Present - Fundamentals and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Self-focusing has been an area of active scientific investigation for years. From a practical point of view, self-focusing effects impose a limit on the power that can be transmitted through a material medium. This book presents a comprehensive treatment of this topic and reviews both theoretical and experimental investigations of self-focusing.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS No. 1.4.1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document describes the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project portion of the Hanford Strategic Plan for the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The SNF Project was established to evaluate and integrate the urgent risks associated with N-reactor fuel currently stored at the Hanford site in the K Basins, and to manage the transfer and disposition of other spent nuclear fuels currently stored on the Hanford site. An evaluation of alternatives for the expedited removal of spent fuels from the K Basin area was performed. Based on this study, a Recommended Path Forward for the K Basins was developed and proposed to the U.S. DOE

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS No. 1.4.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document describes the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project portion of the Hanford Strategic Plan for the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The SNF Project was established to evaluate and integrate the urgent risks associated with N-reactor fuel currently stored at the Hanford site in the K Basins, and to manage the transfer and disposition of other spent nuclear fuels currently stored on the Hanford site. An evaluation of alternatives for the expedited removal of spent fuels from the K Basin area was performed. Based on this study, a Recommended Path Forward for the K Basins was developed and proposed to the U.S. DOE.

  12. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  13. [The effect of the multiyear agricultural use of animal husbandry wastes on the infectious morbidity of the local population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Tarabarova, S B; Dan'ko, O P; Kikot', V I

    1995-01-01

    The report presents results of study of relationship between the longterm practice of utilization of waste matter from livestock industry (solid, liquid portions of manure, redundant active silt) in the crop-growing of the steppe, forest-steppe zones as well as of those of woodlands in Ukraine, on the incidence of acute infective diseases of the intestine in the community. The soil of farm lands was found out to be affected by an extensive bacterial contamination due to the above wastes being utilized on a wide scale. The degrees of risk of acute intestinal infection morbility in population areas located in those zones having utilization fields, are significantly higher than beyond their bounderies. Significant direct relationship between the size of the utilization fields and the incidence of acute intestinal infection in the community was established.

  14. Production costs of the new French nuclear. SFEN contributions to Energy multi-year programming. Synthesis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-03-01

    This publication reports an analysis of the different parameters which make the nuclear option available for France by 2050. It aims at identifying the production cost of new nuclear production means, at identifying levers for action regarding building and financing to reach a sustainable competitiveness of the sector. This note is based on returns on experience from other industries and also on current EPR constructions in France, Finland and China. Thus, it focuses on third generation EPR. It discusses difficulties met during the first projects, states that managing the production is possible through the development of an industrial program, outlines the role of the State. The second part proposes a technical note which discusses building costs and delays of third generation reactors, outlines the importance of the building cost in the total electric power generation cost, shows that (based on an analysis of past building costs for second generation reactors) building costs can be mastered, discusses the expected evolution of EPR costs, evokes other factors influencing the kWh price, discusses the burden of investment financing in front of risks, discusses how to reduce market risks in order to attract investors (reform of carbon price, long term contracts for low carbon projects), and finally comments the consequences for the future nuclear investment which is required to renew the fleet

  15. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  16. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  17. Focus on quantum Einstein gravity Focus on quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank

    2012-09-01

    time cosmology and the big bang, as well as TeV-scale gravity models testable at the Large Hadron Collider. On different grounds, Monte-Carlo studies of the gravitational partition function based on the discrete causal dynamical triangulations approach provide an a priori independent avenue towards unveiling the non-perturbative features of gravity. As a highlight, detailed simulations established that the phase diagram underlying causal dynamical triangulations contains a phase where the triangulations naturally give rise to four-dimensional, macroscopic universes. Moreover, there are indications for a second-order phase transition that naturally forms the discrete analog of the non-Gaussian fixed point seen in the continuum computations. Thus there is a good chance that the discrete and continuum computations will converge to the same fundamental physics. This focus issue collects a series of papers that outline the current frontiers of the gravitational asymptotic safety program. We hope that readers get an impression of the depth and variety of this research area as well as our excitement about the new and ongoing developments. References [1] Weinberg S 1979 General Relativity, an Einstein Centenary Survey ed S W Hawking and W Israel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

  18. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J C Hincke

    Full Text Available The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1 the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2 the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400-450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data.

  19. Dynamic patterns and ecological impacts of declining ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, J Timothy; Pfister, Catherine A; Forester, James D

    2008-12-02

    Increasing global concentrations of atmospheric CO(2) are predicted to decrease ocean pH, with potentially severe impacts on marine food webs, but empirical data documenting ocean pH over time are limited. In a high-resolution dataset spanning 8 years, pH at a north-temperate coastal site declined with increasing atmospheric CO(2) levels and varied substantially in response to biological processes and physical conditions that fluctuate over multiple time scales. Applying a method to link environmental change to species dynamics via multispecies Markov chain models reveals strong links between in situ benthic species dynamics and variation in ocean pH, with calcareous species generally performing more poorly than noncalcareous species in years with low pH. The models project the long-term consequences of these dynamic changes, which predict substantial shifts in the species dominating the habitat as a consequence of both direct effects of reduced calcification and indirect effects arising from the web of species interactions. Our results indicate that pH decline is proceeding at a more rapid rate than previously predicted in some areas, and that this decline has ecological consequences for near shore benthic ecosystems.

  20. Multi-year record of atmospheric mercury at Dumont d'Urville, East Antarctic coast: continental outflow and oceanic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Angot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the framework of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a 3.5-year record of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0 has been gathered at Dumont d'Urville (DDU, 66°40′ S, 140°01′ E, 43 m above sea level on the East Antarctic coast. Additionally, surface snow samples were collected in February 2009 during a traverse between Concordia Station located on the East Antarctic plateau and DDU. The record of atmospheric Hg(0 at DDU reveals particularities that are not seen at other coastal sites: a gradual decrease of concentrations over the course of winter, and a daily maximum concentration around midday in summer. Additionally, total mercury concentrations in surface snow samples were particularly elevated near DDU (up to 194.4 ng L−1 as compared to measurements at other coastal Antarctic sites. These differences can be explained by the more frequent arrival of inland air masses at DDU than at other coastal sites. This confirms the influence of processes observed on the Antarctic plateau on the cycle of atmospheric mercury at a continental scale, especially in areas subject to recurrent katabatic winds. DDU is also influenced by oceanic air masses and our data suggest that the ocean plays a dual role on Hg(0 concentrations. The open ocean may represent a source of atmospheric Hg(0 in summer whereas the sea-ice surface may provide reactive halogens in spring that can oxidize Hg(0. This paper also discusses implications for coastal Antarctic ecosystems and for the cycle of atmospheric mercury in high southern latitudes.

  1. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  2. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  3. CTE's Focus on Continuous Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Kelley, Patricia; Pritz, Sandy; Hodes, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Just one of the ways career and technical education (CTE) is revamping its image is through increased attention to data-driven instructional techniques as a means of improving and focusing instruction on what matters most. Accountability and data have increasingly become a core focus of research, news, and commentary about education in recent…

  4. On the Semantics of Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kess, Joseph F.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the semantics of the notion of focus, insofar as it relates to Filipino languages. The evolution of this notion is reviewed, and an alternative explanation of it is given, stressing the fact that grammar and semantics should be kept separate in a discussion of focus. (CLK)

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end

  6. A multi-year longitudinal study of water quality parameters in four salmon-bearing and recreational streams on mount hood, Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Wasowski

    Full Text Available Four streams-Clear Fork, Lost Creek, Camp Creek and Still Creek-in northwestern Oregon's Sandy River Basin were monitored for temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, and fecal bacterial concentrations in a multi-year analysis examining stream health for recreational users and anchor habitat for Pacific Salmon. Temperatures were recorded using micro -T temperature loggers at 15 locations, during 22 July - 5 September 2006, 2 July - 4 September 2007, 20 June - 7 September 2008, 23 June - 9 September 2009, and 2 July -9 September 2010. The Seven-Day Average Maximum water temperature (7-DAM of 13°C was used as a reference value for the biological limit governing suitable salmonid spawning and egg incubation conditions. The maximum 7-DAM temperatures occurred on different dates and all streams neared or exceeded the 13°C standard at least once each summer. Dissolved oxygen levels were measured at weekly or longer intervals in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. Dissolved oxygen levels fell below the 9.0 ppm standard for Clear Fork on almost half the sampling dates in 2006, 2007, and 2009. Concentrations of the bacterial genus Enterococcus were measured as an indicator of fecal contamination. Samples were collected at 15 sites along the four streams. Weekly samples were collected during a 9 week period from July - September 2007, an 11 week period from June - September 2008, and an 11 week period from June - September 2009. Enterococcus counts exceeded the federal recommended national criterion value of 61 colony forming units (CFU per 100 mL every year in Camp Creek and occasionally elsewhere, with exceedances trending towards late summer.

  7. How often are patients harmed when they visit the computed tomography suite? A multi-year experience, in incident reporting, in a large academic medical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Shaqdan, Khalid W.; Abujudeh, Hani H.

    2016-01-01

    Our goal is to present our multi-year experience in incident reporting in CT in a large medical centre. This is an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived for this study. The electronic safety incident reporting system of our hospital was searched for the variables from April 2006 to September 2012. Incident classifications were diagnostic test orders, ID/documentation, safety/security/conduct, service coordination, surgery/procedure, line/tube, fall, medication/IV safety, employee general incident, environment/equipment, adverse drug reaction, skin/tissue and diagnosis/treatment. A total of 1918 incident reports occurred in the study period and 843,902 CT examinations were performed. The rate of safety incident was 0.22 % (1918/843,902). The highest incident rates were due to adverse drug reactions (652/843,902 = 0.077 %) followed by medication/IV safety (573/843,902 = 0.068 %) and diagnostic test orders (206/843,902 = 0.024 %). Overall 45 % of incidents (869/1918) caused no harm and did not affect the patient, 33 % (637/1918) caused no harm but affected the patient, 22 % (420/1918) caused temporary or minor harm/damage and less than 1 % (10/1918) caused permanent or major harm/damage or death. Our study shows a total safety incident report rate of 0.22 % in CT. The most common incidents are adverse drug reaction, medication/IV safety and diagnostic test orders. (orig.)

  8. Multiyear Plan for Validation of EnergyPlus Multi-Zone HVAC System Modeling using ORNL's Flexible Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bhandari, Mahabir S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This document describes the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) multiyear experimental plan for validation and uncertainty characterization of whole-building energy simulation for a multi-zone research facility using a traditional rooftop unit (RTU) as a baseline heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The project’s overarching objective is to increase the accuracy of energy simulation tools by enabling empirical validation of key inputs and algorithms. Doing so is required to inform the design of increasingly integrated building systems and to enable accountability for performance gaps between design and operation of a building. The project will produce documented data sets that can be used to validate key functionality in different energy simulation tools and to identify errors and inadequate assumptions in simulation engines so that developers can correct them. ASHRAE Standard 140, Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs (ASHRAE 2004), currently consists primarily of tests to compare different simulation programs with one another. This project will generate sets of measured data to enable empirical validation, incorporate these test data sets in an extended version of Standard 140, and apply these tests to the Department of Energy’s (DOE) EnergyPlus software (EnergyPlus 2016) to initiate the correction of any significant deficiencies. The fitness-for-purpose of the key algorithms in EnergyPlus will be established and demonstrated, and vendors of other simulation programs will be able to demonstrate the validity of their products. The data set will be equally applicable to validation of other simulation engines as well.

  9. Efficient Maize and Sunflower Multi-year Mapping with NDVI Time Series of HJ-1A/1B in Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Shang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Food shortage is one of the major challenges that human beings are facing. It is urgent to improve the monitoring of the plantation and distribution of the main crops to solve the following economic and social issues. Recently, with the extensive use of remote sensing satellite data, it has provided favorable conditions for crop identification in large irrigation district with complex planting structure. Difference of different crop phenology is the main basis for crop identification, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series could better delineate crop phenology cycle. Therefore, the key of crop identification is to obtain high quality NDVI time-series. MODIS and Landsat TM satellite images are the most frequently used, however, neither of them could guarantee high temporal and spatial resolutions at once. Accordingly, this paper makes use of NDVI time-series extracted from China Environment Satellites data, which has two-day-repeat temporal and 30m spatial resolutions. The NDVI time-series are fitted with an asymmetric logistic curve, the fitting effect is good and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.9. The phonological parameters are derived from NDVI fitting curves, and crop identification is carried out by different relation ellipses between NDVI and its phonological parameters of different crops. This paper takes Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia as an example, to identify multi-year maize and sunflower in the district, and the identification result is good. Compared with the official statistics, the relative errors are both lower than 5%. The results show that the NDVI time-series dataset derived from HJ-1A/1B CCD could delineate the crop phenology cycle accurately and demonstrate its application in crop identification in irrigated district.

  10. Effects of a temporary HDPE cover on landfill gas emissions: multiyear evaluation with the static chamber approach at an Italian landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Caramiello, Cristina; Tatàno, Fabio; Viscione, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    According to the European Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and the related Italian Legislation ("D. Lgs. No. 36/2003"), monitoring and control procedures of landfill gas emissions, migration and external dispersions are clearly requested. These procedures could be particularly interesting in the operational circumstance of implementing a temporary cover, as for instance permitted by the Italian legislation over worked-out landfill sections, awaiting the evaluation of expected waste settlements. A possible quantitative approach for field measurement and consequential evaluation of landfill CO(2), CH(4) emission rates in pairs consists of the static, non-stationary accumulation chamber technique. At the Italian level, a significant and recent situation of periodical landfill gas emission monitoring is represented by the sanitary landfill for non-hazardous waste of the "Fano" town district, where monitoring campaigns with the static chamber have been annually conducted during the last 5 years (2005-2009). For the entire multiyear monitoring period, the resulting CO(2), CH(4) emission rates varied on the whole up to about 13,100g CO(2) m(-2)d(-1) and 3800 g CH(4) m(-2)d(-1), respectively. The elaboration of these landfill gas emission data collected at the "Fano" case-study site during the monitoring campaigns, presented and discussed in the paper, gives rise to a certain scientific evidence of the possible negative effects derivable from the implementation of a temporary HDPE cover over a worked-out landfill section, notably: the lateral migration and concentration of landfill gas emissions through adjacent, active landfill sections when hydraulically connected; and consequently, the increase of landfill gas flux velocities throughout the reduced overall soil cover surface, giving rise to a flowing through of CH(4) emissions without a significant oxidation. Thus, these circumstances are expected to cause a certain increase of the overall GHG emissions from the given

  11. Advancing approaches for multi-year high-frequency monitoring of temporal and spatial variability in carbon cycle fluxes and drivers in freshwater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, A. R.; Reed, D. E.; Dugan, H. A.; Loken, L. C.; Schramm, P.; Golub, M.; Huerd, H.; Baldocchi, A. K.; Roberts, R.; Taebel, Z.; Hart, J.; Hanson, P. C.; Stanley, E. H.; Cartwright, E.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are hotspots of regional to global carbon cycling. However, significant sample biases limit our ability to quantify and predict these fluxes. For lakes, scaled flux estimates suffer biased sampling toward 1) low-nutrient pristine lakes, 2) infrequent temporal sampling, 3) field campaigns limited to the growing season, and 4) replicates limited to near the center of the lake. While these biases partly reflect the realities of ecological sampling, there is a need to extend observations towards the large fraction of freshwater systems worldwide that are impaired by human activities and those facing significant interannual variability owing to climatic change. Also, for seasonally ice-covered lakes, much of the annual budget of carbon fluxes is thought to be explained by variation in the shoulder seasons of spring ice melt and fall turnover. Recent advances in automated, continuous multi-year temporal sampling coupled with rapid methods for spatial mapping of CO2 fluxes has strong potential to rectify these sampling biases. Here, we demonstrate these advances in an eutrophic seasonally-ice covered lake with an urban shoreline and agricultural watershed. Multiple years of half-hourly eddy covariance flux tower observations from two locations are coupled with frequent spatial samples of these fluxes and drivers by speedboat, floating chamber fluxes, automated buoy-based monitoring of lake nutrient and physical profiles, and ensemble of physical-ecosystem models. High primary productivity in the water column leads to an average net carbon sink during the growing season in much of the lake, but annual net carbon fluxes show the lake can act as an annual source or a sink of carbon depending the timing of spring and fall turnover. Trophic interactions and internal waves drive shorter-term variation while nutrients and biology drive seasonal variation. However, discrepancies remain among methods to quantify fluxes, requiring further investigation.

  12. Perennial water stratification and the role of freshwater in the mass balance of Arctic ice shelves and multiyear landfast sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the ice shelves of northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic owe their origin to multiyear landfast sea ice (MLSI) growth during the post-Hypsithermal cooling ca. 3,000-4,000 BP. Since they grew in response to an arctic-wide climatic deterioration and contain evidence of occasional post-4,000 BP climatic ameliorations, they may be expected to be sensitive to future global climate changes manifested in the High Arctic. The purpose of this paper is to examine ice-ocean interactions and feedbacks, and the response of the ice shelves and the MLSI to the improved summer climate of the last ca. 100 years, and implications for the future. There is good evidence that there has been a negative surface mass balance since the turn of the century. Mass balance measurements on the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf between 1966 and 1985 indicate a total ice loss of 1.371 m at a mean annual rate of 68.5 mm. The interannual pattern of accumulation and ablation and the long-term losses on the ice shelf are similar to other Canadian High Arctic glacier mass balance records. It is evident from water and ice core records of salinity, δ 18 0 and tritium, that perennial water stratification is common below and behind the ice shelves and MLSI. The coastal waters are highly stratified, with anything from 0.5 m to 41.0 m of freshwater interposed between the overlying ice and underlying seawater. The primary source of the freshwater is summer run-off of snow-meltwater from the adjacent land and from the ice itself. There is minimal mixing between the influent freshwater and seawater, and the freshwater is either dammed behind the ice shelves and the MLSI, with subsequent under-ice freshwater outflows, or pooled in under-ice depressions

  13. En Face Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for the Monitoring of Lesion Area Progression in Stargardt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Testa, Francesco; Rossi, Settimio; Di Iorio, Valentina; Orrico, Ada; Auricchio, Alberto; Simonelli, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the progression of Stargardt disease (STGD1) over a multiyear follow-up by evaluating the macular lesion area as computed by an automatic algorithm from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We reviewed medical records of STGD1 patients, with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of STGD1 at a single institution, who underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, SD-OCT, full-field electroretinography, and, when available, fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Regression models were fitted on the selected clinical parameters; in particular, on the macular lesion area computed by SD-OCT, to evaluate the disease progression over a multiyear follow-up. The comparison between SD-OCT and FAF, available for 22 patients, showed that macular lesion area, assessed by SD-OCT, significantly correlated with the area of absent FAF (P disease, showing a significant progression over the follow-up. Our findings suggest that the evaluation of macular lesion area by en face SD-OCT, together with FAF, could drive the choice of the most amenable candidates and the most suitable area to be treated in gene therapy clinical trials.

  14. En Face Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for the Monitoring of Lesion Area Progression in Stargardt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Testa, Francesco; Rossi, Settimio; Di Iorio, Valentina; Orrico, Ada; Auricchio, Alberto; Simonelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the progression of Stargardt disease (STGD1) over a multiyear follow-up by evaluating the macular lesion area as computed by an automatic algorithm from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods We reviewed medical records of STGD1 patients, with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of STGD1 at a single institution, who underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), fundus photography, SD-OCT, full-field electroretinography, and, when available, fundus autofluorescence (FAF). Regression models were fitted on the selected clinical parameters; in particular, on the macular lesion area computed by SD-OCT, to evaluate the disease progression over a multiyear follow-up. Results The comparison between SD-OCT and FAF, available for 22 patients, showed that macular lesion area, assessed by SD-OCT, significantly correlated with the area of absent FAF (P disease, showing a significant progression over the follow-up. Our findings suggest that the evaluation of macular lesion area by en face SD-OCT, together with FAF, could drive the choice of the most amenable candidates and the most suitable area to be treated in gene therapy clinical trials. PMID:27409479

  15. Evaluation of Multi-Year Continuous Measurements of Ultrafine Particles at Two Near-Road Stations in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Sofowote, U.; Debosz, J.; Munoz, T.; Whitelaw, C.

    2013-12-01

    Particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 100 nanometre (nm) are referred to as ultrafine particles (UFPs). Relative to fine and course particles, UFPs have greater potential to be suspended in air for a longer time and absorb toxic chemicals due to their larger surface areas per unit mass. UFPs could penetrate deep into the respiratory or cardiovascular systems and pose adverse health effects. In urban environments, primary sources of UFPs are from road traffic emissions and account for most of the total particle numbers. Controls on UPFs rely on better understanding of their emission sources and environmental behaviour. Ontario Ministry of the Environment have monitored UFPs since 2010 at two near-road stations in Toronto by using TSI 3031 UFP monitors. The two monitoring stations are approximately 20-30 meters adjacent to major arterial roads with over 20,000 vehicles per day. UFPs concentrations were monitored using six size channels: 20-30nm, 30-50nm, 50-70nm, 70-100nm, 100-200nm, and 200-450nm. Data are collected at time intervals of 11 or 15 minutes and averaged hourly. Concurrent measurements include wind speeds, wind directions, and concentrations of other air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and black carbon. Data influenced by road-side traffic emissions were filtered by wind direction within 45° of normal to the road and wind speed greater than 1 m/s. Number concentrations were found higher for particles with sizes of 20-30nm and 30-50nm than for other sizes of UFPs. The observed particle number distributions are generally consistent with the theoretical understanding of particle nuclei mode and accumulation mode. During the day, for UFPs with sizes of 20-30nm and 30-50nm, elevated number concentrations were observed in morning traffic hours and to a less extent in the late afternoon. The elevated UFPs number concentrations coincided with nitrogen oxides and black carbon. Moreover, higher number concentrations were found on weekdays than

  16. Electric motors in the focus; Elektroantrieb im Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2013-05-15

    In August 2013, the first electric series production model of Ford comes to the market: the Focus Electric. A 23-kWh lithium-ion battery supplies the 107 kilowatts (145 hp) electric motor of the Focus Electric with energy. This battery enables a range of 162 kilometers and a limited top speed of 136 kilometers per hour. However, with 40,000 Euro this electric-powered vehicles is too expensive.

  17. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  18. Probability of acoustic transmitter detections by receiver lines in Lake Huron: results of multi-year field tests and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Binder, Thomas; Dettmers, John M.; Cooke, Steven J.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdvances in acoustic telemetry technology have led to an improved understanding of the spatial ecology of many freshwater and marine fish species. Understanding the performance of acoustic receivers is necessary to distinguish between tagged fish that may have been present but not detected and from those fish that were absent from the area. In this study, two stationary acoustic transmitters were deployed 250 m apart within each of four acoustic receiver lines each containing at least 10 receivers (i.e., eight acoustic transmitters) located in Saginaw Bay and central Lake Huron for nearly 2 years to determine whether the probability of detecting an acoustic transmission varied as a function of time (i.e., season), location, and distance between acoustic transmitter and receiver. Distances between acoustic transmitters and receivers ranged from 200 m to >10 km in each line. The daily observed probability of detecting an acoustic transmission was used in simulation models to estimate the probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a line of receivers.ResultsThe probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter on a receiver 1000 m away differed by month for different receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay but was similar for paired acoustic transmitters deployed 250 m apart within the same line. Mean probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter at 1000 m calculated over the study period varied among acoustic transmitters 250 m apart within a line and differed among receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. The simulated probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a receiver line was characterized by short periods of time with decreased detection. Although increased receiver spacing and higher fish movement rates decreased simulated detection probability, the location of the simulated receiver line in Lake Huron had the strongest effect on simulated detection probability.ConclusionsPerformance of receiver

  19. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    'Plasma Healthcare' is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic wound treatment and plasma-mediated cancer therapy. Current research ranges from basic physical processes, plasma chemical design, to the interaction of plasmas with (i) eukaryotic (mammalian) cells; (ii) prokaryotic (bacteria) cells, viruses, spores and fungi; (iii) DNA, lipids, proteins and cell membranes; and (iv) living human, animal and plant tissues in the presence of biofluids. Of diverse interests in this new field is the need for hospital disinfection, in particular with respect to the alarming increase in bacterial resistance to antibiotics, the concomitant needs in private practices, nursing homes etc, the applications in personal hygiene—and the enticing possibility to 'design' plasmas as possible pharmaceutical products, employing ionic as well as molecular agents for medical treatment. The 'delivery' of the reactive plasma agents occurs at the gaseous level, which means that there is no need for a carrier medium and access to the treatment surface is optimal. This focus issue provides a close look at the current state of the art in Plasma Medicine with a number of forefront research articles as well as an introductory review. Focus on Plasma Medicine Contents Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination Helen C Baxter, Patricia R Richardson, Gaynor A Campbell, Valeri I Kovalev, Robert Maier, James S Barton, Anita C Jones, Greg DeLarge, Mark Casey and Robert L Baxter Inactivation factors of spore-forming bacteria using low

  1. Wayside Teaching: Focusing on Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sara Davis

    2011-01-01

    Wayside teaching focuses on building and maintaining positive relationships with students. Teachers can implement certain wayside teaching practices to end the year in a positive way and begin preparing for the next school year.

  2. A study of plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Katsumi; Majima, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of the plasma acceleration between electrodes, the phenomena due to the pinch effect at the top of the electrodes and the neutron emission mechanism were experimentally studied. The plasma focus device was a Mather type coaxial discharge device, and the instruments used for the present purpose were a Rogoski coil, an image converter camera, a scintillation detector and a silver foil activation counter. The results of the present experiment were as follows. Plasma focus was not definitely made under the same condition. When the focus was seen, a dip was observed in the discharge wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were detected. The angular anisotropy of neutron emission was observed, and corresponds to a beam target model. The phenomena showing the occurrence of focus were seen, when the current sheet was produced at a delayed time after discharge, and arrived at the muzzle with large velocity. The relation between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of the current sheet was obtained, whereas no systematic relation exists between the number of emitted neutrons and the velocity of pinch. When the focus was not observed, no dip was seen in current wave form, and the emissions of X-ray and neutrons were not detected. The reason of no focus was considered. (Kato, T.)

  3. Mirror focus in a patient with intractable occipital lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae Kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-06-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy. We have observed occipital lobe epilepsy with mirror focus. Before epilepsy surgery, the subject's seizure onset zone was observed in the left occipital area by ictal studies. Her seizures abated for 10 months after the resection of left occipital epileptogenic focus, but recurred then. The recurred seizures were originated from the right occipital area which was in the homotopic contralateral area. This case can be an evidence that occipital lobe epilepsy may have mirror foci, even though each occipital lobe has any direct interhemispheric callosal connections between them.

  4. Recent results on medium-size plasma-focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklaszewski, R.; Kasperczuk, A.; Paduch, M.; Tomaszewaski, K.; Wereszczynski, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A brief history of investigation carried out on the PF-150 plasma-focus device is presented. Essential results concerning the dynamics of plasma sheath are summarized. The present state of investigation and main areas of interest are shown. (author)

  5. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  6. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  7. Accelerating and focusing structures for PIGMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.A.; Bush, E.D. Jr.; Holsinger, R.F.; Manca, J.J.; Saito, N.; Stovall, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute is supporting a program of accelerator development at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory aimed at the extension of proton linac technologies to produce the most suitable Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI). An optimized design of a pion generator suitable for a radiotherapy program at a major medical center has been established, consisting of a 250-keV injector, followed by a 35-meter-long drift-tube linac that accelerates the proton beam to 150 MeV, and an 85-meter-long coupled-cavity linac that accelerates the beam to its final energy of 650 MeV, where the average beam current of 100 microamperes impinges on one or more targets producing abundant quantities of π - mesons for radiotherapeutic applications. A number of extensions to proton linac technology are being pursued under the PIGMI program at LASL. A discussion is given of recent developments in three areas relevant to the acceleration and focusing of proton beams, namely, the alternating phase focused (APF) linac structure, the disk and washer linac structure, and small permanent magnet quadrupole lenses. The APF linac structure is being developed for the acceleration and focusing role from the injection energy of 250 keV to a few MeV, where a transition is made to a permanent magnet quadrupole focused linac structure. The disk and washer linac structure is under consideration for the high velocity portion of the design

  8. Synthesis of focusing-and-deflection columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, M.; Mui, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that focusing lenses of high performances can be constructed from a column of circular plate electrodes. Later, Szilagyi modified that system to include dipole, quadrupole, and octupole components by partitioning each plate into eight equal sectors. It has already been shown that the additional quadrupole components can indeed bring about substantial improvements in the focusing of charged particle beams. In this article, that design procedure is expanded to construct columns capable of both focusing and deflecting particle beams by just introducing additional dipole components. In this new design, the geometry of the system remains unchanged. The only extra complication is the demand for more individual controls of the sector voltages. Two sample designs, one for negative ions and one for electrons, are presented showing that in both cases a ±2.3 mrad diverging beam can be focused down to a spot of less than 50 nm in radius over a scanning circular area of radius 0.25 mm. The details of the two systems are given in Sec. IV along with the source conditions. The performance of the negative ion system is found to be comparable to the published data. For the relativistic electron system, the interaction of individual components to reduce various aberrations is investigated. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  9. Stability of expanded plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the stabilization of the expanded plasma focus formed by 4.5 kJ plasma focus device of Mather type by magnetic field is presented. The experimental results of the induced axial magnetic field and electric probe measurements of the expanded plasma focus show that, the plasma consists of three plasmoids, electron temperature measurements off the plasmoids at a point close to the muzzle are 26 eV, 30 eV and 27 eV respectively and the electron densities are 6.6 x 10 14 , 6.1 x 10 14 / cm 3 respectively. The presence of external axial magnetic field (B 2 = 1.6 kg) at the mid distance between the breech and the muzzle has a less effect on the stability of expanded focus and it causes a restriction for the plasma motion. the electron temperature of the three plasmoids are found to increase in that case by 23%, 18.5% respectively. When this axial magnetic field is applied at the muzzle end, it leads to a more stable expanded plasma focus which consists mainly of one plasmoid with electron temperature of 39 eV and density of 3.4 x 10 14 / cm 3 . 5 figs

  10. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  11. Compression Models for Plasma Focus Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Jose; Calusse, Alejandro; Ramos, Ruben; Rodriguez Palomino, Luis

    2003-01-01

    Using a numerical model that calculates the dynamics of Plasma Focus devices, we compared the results of three different compression models of the plasma pinch.One of the main objectives in this area is to develop a simplified model to calculate the neutron production of Plasma Focus devices, to study the influence of the main parameters in this neutron yield.The dynamics is thoroughly studied, and the model predicts fairly well values such as maximum currents and times for pinch collapse.Therefore, we evaluate here different models of pinch compression, to try to predict the neutron production with good agreement with the rest of the variables involved.To fulfill this requirement, we have experimental results of neutron production as a function of deuterium filling pressure in the chamber, and typical values of other main variables in the dynamics of the current sheet

  12. Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to

  13. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  14. McKenzie River Focus Watershed Coordination: Fiscal Year 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John; Davis-Born, Renee

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments made by the McKenzie River Focus Watershed Council in the areas of coordination and administration during Fiscal Year 1998. Coordination and administration consists of tasks associated with Focus Watershed Council staffing, project management, and public outreach.

  15. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  16. The combination of electrospray and flow focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M.; López-Herrera, José M.; Riesco-Chueca, Pascual

    2006-11-01

    An ultra-fine liquid atomization procedure combining the advantages of electrospray and flow focusing is presented. Both techniques are known to produce strikingly small and steady liquid micro-jets issuing from menisci held by capillary forces. Such menisci take the form of a cusp-like drop attached to the feeding tube (flow focusing: FF) or a Taylor cone (electrospray: ES). The issuing micro-jets are forced or ‘sucked’ from the parent meniscus either by pressure or electrohydrodynamic forces. Subsequent capillary breakup of the jet leads to fine sprays of remarkable quality. Here we describe the joint effect of pressurization and electrification in a flow focusing device, and the subsequent coupling of both ES and FF phenomena. For any given liquid and flow rate, the combined procedure gives rise to significantly smaller droplet sizes than observed in any of the source techniques. The co-flowing gas stream removes space charges; in addition, the perforated plate facing the feed tube provides an electric barrier, shielding the jet-meniscus or ‘production’ area from the spray or ‘product’ area. As a result, space charges and electrified droplets are removed from the production area, thus avoiding the ambient electric saturation which becomes a limiting factor in ES-spraying: a significantly enhanced spraying stability ensues, with a much wider operation range than FF or ES. Other unexpected outcomes from the combination are also shown. A theoretical model is developed to predict the emitted droplet size: a first integral of the momentum equation yielding a generalized Bernoulli equation, and an explicit approximation for the jet diameter and droplet size, accurate within a broad parametrical band.

  17. Orbiter radiator panel solar focusing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, H. R.; Rankin, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Test data are presented which define the area around the Orbiter radiator panels for which the solar reflections are concentrated to one-sun or more. The concave shape of the panels and their specular silver/Teflon coating causes focusing of the reflected solar energy which could have adverse heating effects on equipment or astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) in the vicinity of the radiator panels. A room ambient test method was utilized with a one-tenth scale model of the radiator panels.

  18. O foco brasileiro de oncocercose: novas observações feitas nas áreas dos rios Mucajaí e Catrimâni, Território de Roraima The brazilian focus of onchocerciasis: new observations in areas of the Mucajaí and Catrimâni, Territory of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Augusto Pinto de Moraes

    1986-03-01

    âni Rivers (Territory of Roraima has failed to show any alteration in the local pattern of the disease. Infact, after a decade from the first surveys in these areas located at the periphery of the Yanomami focus, the prevalence and the intensity of infection have not experienced a significant change. Considering only the residents in the villages inside the surveyed areas, the prevalence varied from zero in the neighbourhood of the Catrimâni mission to 3.1 per cent near the Mucajai mission. Had there been a competent vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the region higher rates might be expected due to the Yanomami custom of periodic visits among the groups of the tribe. In some of these visits, numbers of highly infected Indians from the central and mountainous part of the Yanomami territory - where more than 90 per cent of the adults have onchocerciasis - come to the villages in the lowland area, attracted by the facilities offered by the mission posts. As the visitors stay in the host villages for several days or weeks, the residents could become exposed to the disease. Simulium oyapockense s.l., a man-biting species of black fly, widely distributed in Northern Brazil, is the only possible vector of O. volvulus in the investigated areas, on the grounds of its local abundance. However, it must be a poor vector (as has already been demonstrated for Mansonella ozzardi, since the prevalence rates in the lower part of the Yanomami territory have not changed for the past ten years, in spite of the constant presence of infected Indians visiting the villages. In order to explain the much higher prevalence in the central part of the Indian territory, we have to admit the presence there of another vector, extremely efficient, whose habits would be linked to the montainous region of the border between Brazil and Venezuela.

  19. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  20. Instabilities in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1975-03-01

    The plasma focus was studied by many research teams in view of a possible approach to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Though it is questionable whether the plasma focus will ever lead to a fusion reactor, it nevertheless constitutes a strong source of neutron, X- and gamma radiation for simulating fusion reactor conditions. Furthermore, the plasma focus yields very high temperatures (10 7 K) and densities (> 10 19 cm -3 ) and thus provides interesting conditions for the study of high density plasmas. This review paper starts with a description of the compression stage of the focussing plasma, using a snow-plough model. It is shown that sophisticated MHD calculations substantiate the snowplough theory, but are not suited to describe the phenomena in the final compressed stage. For this purpose, a particle-in-cell calculation is employed, yielding a beam-beam collision model for the neutron production. Experimental evidence indicates that neutron production is associated with the appearence of m = O instabilities and is the direct result of collisions between anomalously accelerated ions. One of the mechanisms of ion acceleration are strong local electric fields. Another possible mechanism can bee seen in beam-plasma instabilities caused by runaway electrons. The analytical derivation of the dispersion relation for plasma focus conditions including runaway effect is discussed (orig.) [de

  1. Technology for Education. IDRA Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue includes five articles that focus on technology for education to benefit all students, including limited-English-proficient, minority, economically disadvantaged, and at-risk students. "Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program Students Meet Peers Via Video Conference" (Linda Cantu, Leticia Lopez-De La Garza) describes how at-risk…

  2. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  3. Verum focus and polar questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  4. Work and Family. Special Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on issues concerning families with both parents employed outside the home and describes several employer programs designed to help employees balance their work and family life. The newsletter includes the following articles: (1) "Work and Family: 1992"; (2) "Levi Strauss and Co.--A Work/Family Program…

  5. FOREWORD: Focus on Advanced Ceramics Focus on Advanced Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Much research has been devoted recently to developing technologies for renewable energy and improving the efficiency of the processes and devices used in industry and everyday life. Efficient solutions have been found using novel materials such as platinum and palladium-based catalysts for car exhaust systems, samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets for electrical motors, and so on. However, their realization has resulted in an increasing demand for rare elements and in their deficit, the development of new materials based on more abundant elements and new functionalities of traditional materials. Moreover, increasing environmental and health concerns demand substitution of toxic or hazardous substances with nature-friendly alternatives. In this context, this focus issue on advanced ceramics aims to review current trends in ceramics science and technology. It is related to the International Conference on Science and Technology of Advanced Ceramics (STAC) held annually to discuss the emerging issues in the field of ceramics. An important direction of ceramic science is the collaboration between experimental and theoretical sciences. Recent developments in density functional theory and computer technology have enabled the prediction of physical and chemical properties of ceramics, thereby assisting the design of new materials. Therefore, this focus issue includes articles devoted to theory and advanced characterization techniques. As mentioned above, the potential shortage of rare elements is becoming critical to the industry and has resulted in a Japanese government initiative called the 'Ubiquitous Element Strategy'. This focus issue also includes articles related to this strategy and to the associated topics of energy conversion, such as phosphors for high-efficiency lighting and photocatalysts for solar-energy harvesting. We hope that this focus issue will provide a timely overview of current trends and problems in ceramics science and

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Attosecond Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Krausz, Ferenc; Starace, Anthony F.

    2008-02-01

    future involve using overdense plasmas. Electronic processes on sub-atomic spatio-temporal scales are the basis of chemical physics, atomic, molecular, and optical physics, materials science, and even some life science processes. Research in these areas using the new attosecond tools will advance together with the ability to control electrons themselves. Indeed, we expect that developments will advance in a way that is similar to advances that have occurred on the femtosecond time scale, in which much previous experimental and theoretical work on the interaction of coherent light sources has led to the development of means for 'coherent control' of nuclear motion in molecules. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is centered on experimental and theoretical advances in the development of new methodologies and tools for electron control on the attosecond time scale. Topics such as the efficient generation of harmonics; the generation of attosecond pulses, including those having only a few cycles and those produced from overdense plasmas; the description of various nonlinear, nonperturbative laser-matter interactions, including many-electron effects and few-cycle pulse effects; the analysis of ultrashort propagation effects in atomic and molecular media; and the development of inversion methods for electron tomography, as well as many other topics, are addressed in the current focus issue dedicated to the new field of 'Attosecond Physics'. Focus on Attosecond Physics Contents Observing the attosecond dynamics of nuclear wavepackets in molecules by using high harmonic generation in mixed gases Tsuneto Kanai, Eiji J Takahashi, Yasuo Nabekawa and Katsumi Midorikawa Core-polarization effects in molecular high harmonic generation G Jordan and A Scrinzi Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train calculated using feasible formulae Y Nabekawa and K Midorikawa Attosecond pulse generation from aligned molecules—dynamics and propagation in H2+ E Lorin, S

  7. Physical, chemical, biological, geophysical, and meteorological data collected in the Arctic Ocean and Chukchi Sea in support of the Chukchi Sea Environmental Studies Program (CSESP) from 2007 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0124308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was collected as part of the Chukchi Sea Environmental Studies Program (CSESP), a multi-year, interdisciplinary ecological study focused on areas in...

  8. Plasma focusing in coaxial gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; El-Khalafawy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A capacitor bank has been discharged between two coaxial electrodes of 6.6 cm outer diameter, 3.2 cm inner diameter and length of 31.5 cm. filled with hydrogen gas at pressure of 310 μHg. Results show that, the axial and radial plasma current reach a maximum value at a position adjacent to the gun muzzle, at which the plasma focus occurs. The measurement of the electron temperature and density and azimuthal electric field along the axis of the expansion chamber, gives a maximum value at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, while the axial plasma current and velocity has a minimum value at that position. These results indicate that a second point of a plasma focus has been formed at z∼18 cm from the gun muzzle, along the axis of the expansion chamber

  9. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  10. Ion beam generation and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Mendel, C.W.; Swain, D.W.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations have shown that efficiently generated and focused ion beams could have significant advantages over electron beams in achieving ignition of inertially-confined thermonuclear fuel. Efficient ion beam generation implies use of a good ion source and suppression of net electron current. Net electron flow can be reduced by allowing electrons to reflex through a highly transparent anode or by use of transverse magnetic fields (either beam self-fields or externally applied fields). Geometric focusing can be achieved if the beam is generated by appropriately shaped electrodes. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate ion beam generation in both reflexing and pinched-flow diodes. Spherically shaped electrodes are used to concentrate a proton beam, and target response to proton deposition is studied

  11. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using RF breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  12. Optimum Design of Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Ruben; Gonzalez, Jose; Clausse, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    The optimum design of Plasma Focus devices is presented based in a lumped parameter model of the MHD equations.Maps in the design parameters space are obtained, which determine the length and deuterium pressure required to produce a given neutron yield.Sensitivity analyses of the main effective numbers (sweeping efficiencies) was performed, and lately the optimum values were determined in order to set a basis for the conceptual design

  13. Focus On Photoshop Elements Focus on the Fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Asch, David

    2011-01-01

    Are you bewildered by the advanced editing options available in Photoshop Elements? Do you want to get the most out of your image without going bleary-eyed in front of a computer screen? This handy guide will explain the ins and outs of using Photoshop Elements, without having to spend hours staring at the screen. Using a fabulous combination of easy-to-follow advice and step-by-step instructions, Focus On Photoshop Elements gives great advice on setting up, storing and sharing your image library and teaches you the basics of RAW image processing and color correction, plus shows you how to edi

  14. Focusing of Shear Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarinaro, Bruno; Espíndola, David; Coulouvrat, François; Pinton, Gianmarco

    2018-01-01

    Focusing is a ubiquitous way to transform waves. Recently, a new type of shock wave has been observed experimentally with high-frame-rate ultrasound: shear shock waves in soft solids. These strongly nonlinear waves are characterized by a high Mach number, because the shear wave velocity is much slower, by 3 orders of magnitude, than the longitudinal wave velocity. Furthermore, these waves have a unique cubic nonlinearity which generates only odd harmonics. Unlike longitudinal waves for which only compressional shocks are possible, shear waves exhibit cubic nonlinearities which can generate positive and negative shocks. Here we present the experimental observation of shear shock wave focusing, generated by the vertical motion of a solid cylinder section embedded in a soft gelatin-graphite phantom to induce linearly vertically polarized motion. Raw ultrasound data from high-frame-rate (7692 images per second) acquisitions in combination with algorithms that are tuned to detect small displacements (approximately 1 μ m ) are used to generate quantitative movies of gel motion. The features of shear shock wave focusing are analyzed by comparing experimental observations with numerical simulations of a retarded-time elastodynamic equation with cubic nonlinearities and empirical attenuation laws for soft solids.

  15. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  16. Focus group report - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Policy Institute, through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST) conducted a focus group with members of the Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), interviews with tribal government representatives, and a survey of Oak Ridge Local Oversight Committee (LOC) and Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) members. The purpose was to understand what members of the interested and involved public want to know about technology development and ways to get that information to them. These data collection activities were used as a follow-up to two previously held focus groups with the general public near Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Most participants from the first two focus groups said they did not have time and/or were not interested in participating in technology decision-making. They said they would prefer to defer to members of their communities who are interested and want to be involved in technology decision-making

  17. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  18. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  19. Bite without bark: How the socioeconomic context of the 1950s U.S. drought minimized responses to a multiyear extreme climate event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Wiener

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The drought of the 1950s was among the most widespread, severe and sustained ever experienced in the United States. For several states, the severity of the 1950s drought exceeded that of the 1930s “Dust Bowl”. The 1950s were characterized by low rainfall amounts and by excessively high temperatures. The climatological aspects of the drought subsided in most areas with the spring rains of 1957. A careful review of official reports over this period reveals limited acknowledgment of the drought of the 1950s. The drought was no secret, but it did not receive a great deal of news coverage; later droughts of lower severity and shorter duration, such as 1976–77, 1988, 2002–2004, 2011–2012 and the ongoing drought in California (2011–2015, garnered much greater national focus. In this paper, the question why such a major geophysical variation appears to have elicited little major national policy response, including the apparent lack of significant media concern is addressed. In framing the discussion this study assesses, the evolution of drought during the 1950s to establish its national and regional policy contexts, technological improvements and financial changes prior to and during the event, and on and off-farm responses in terms of the socioeconomic impacts. The study provides an overview of key developments and concerns in agriculture since the early 20th Century sets the context for the 1950s, then moves to the farm itself as a unit of analysis. This approach shows not only how the situation may have appeared to those outside the afflicted areas, but also how decisions were guided by agricultural economics affecting farmers at the time, and the strong influence of broader historical trends in which the 1950s were embedded. The paper provides the relevant agricultural statistics and uncovers the political and public perceptions moving through the drought years. Overproduction was the fundamental, almost paradoxical problem facing

  20. A Method for the Selection of Exploration Areas for Unconformity Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, DeVerle P.; Zaluski, Gerard; Marlatt, James

    2009-01-01

    The method we propose employs two analyses: (1) exploration simulation and risk valuation and (2) portfolio optimization. The first analysis, implemented by the investment worth system (IWS), uses Monte Carlo simulation to integrate a wide spectrum of uncertain and varied components to a relative frequency histogram for net present value of the exploration investment, which is converted to a risk-adjusted value (RAV). Iterative rerunning of the IWS enables the mapping of the relationship of RAV to magnitude of exploration expenditure, X. The second major analysis uses RAV vs. X maps to identify that subset (portfolio) of areas that maximizes the RAV of the firm's multiyear exploration budget. The IWS, which is demonstrated numerically, consists of six components based on the geologic description of a hypothetical basin and project area (PA) and a mix of hypothetical and actual conditions of an unidentified area. The geology is quantified and processed by Bayesian belief networks to produce the geology-based inputs required by the IWS. An exploration investment of $60 M produced a highly skewed distribution of net present value (NPV), having mean and median values of $4,160 M and $139 M, respectively. For hypothetical mining firm Minex, the RAV of the exploration investment of $60 M is only $110.7 M. An RAV that is less than 3% of mean NPV reflects the aversion by Minex to risk as well as the magnitude of risk implicit to the highly skewed NPV distribution and the probability of 0.45 for capital loss. Potential benefits of initiating exploration of a portfolio of areas, as contrasted with one area, include increased marginal productivity of exploration as well as reduced probability for nondiscovery. For an exogenously determined multiyear exploration budget, a conceptual framework for portfolio optimization is developed based on marginal RAV exploration products for candidate PAs. PORTFOLIO, a software developed to implement optimization, allocates exploration to

  1. The quest for customer focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ranjay; Oldroyd, James B

    2005-04-01

    Companies have poured enormous amounts of money into customer relationship management, but in many cases the investment hasn't really paid off. That's because getting closer to customers isn't about building an information technology system. It's a learning journey-one that unfolds over four stages, requiring people and business units to coordinate in progressively more sophisticated ways. The journey begins with the creation of a companywide repository containing each interaction a customer has with the company, organized not by product, purchase, or location, but by customer. Communal coordination is what's called for at this stage, as each group contributes its information to the data pool separately from the others and then taps into it as needed. In the second stage, one-way serial coordination from centralized IT through analytical units and out to the operating units allows companies to go beyond just assembling data to drawing inferences. In stage three, companies shift their focus from past relationships to future behavior. Through symbiotic coordination, information flows back and forth between central analytic units and various organizational units like marketing, sales, and operations, as together they seek answers to questions like "How can we prevent customers from switching to a competitor?" and "Who would be most likely to buy a new product in the future"? In stage four, firms begin to move past discrete, formal initiatives and, through integral coordination, bring an increasingly sophisticated understanding oftheir customers to bear in all day-to-day operations. Skipping stages denies organizations the sure foundation they need to build a lasting customer-focused mind-set. Those that recognize this will invest their customer relationship dollars much more wisely-and will see their customer-focusing efforts pay offon the bottom line.

  2. A focused bibliography on robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, H. W.

    1983-08-01

    The present bibliography focuses on eight robotics-related topics believed by the author to be of special interest to researchers in the field of industrial electronics: robots, sensors, kinematics, dynamics, control systems, actuators, vision, economics, and robot applications. This literature search was conducted through the 1970-present COMPENDEX data base, which provides world-wide coverage of nearly 3500 journals, conference proceedings and reports, and the 1969-1981 INSPEC data base, which is the largest for the English language in the fields of physics, electrotechnology, computers, and control.

  3. Catastrophe in plasma focus evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1984-07-01

    A theory of generating strong electric field in a dense plasma column in plasma focus is established by applying the formula for the electron thermal conductivity in destroyed magnetic surfaces like those in tokamaks. The origin of the electric field may be from abrupt rise of plasma resistivity when the irregularity of magnetic field is weak. However, the electric field can be from the inductive origin in case the irregularity attains a certain level. Both origin should be mixed up depending on the magnitude of the irregularity. (author)

  4. Final focus system for TLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal β function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Assessing Locally Focused Stability Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    interest to other organizations within the Army, as well as to organizations within the Air Force, the Navy, the Marines, and the Intelligence Community...activities that lead to progress in the short term from a military standpoint (e.g., rewarding intelligence sources with food) may be at odds with...the aims and objectives of an aid organization working in the same area (e.g., preventing malnutrition for all), and both may impede the long-term

  6. Nanobiotechnology today: focus on nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloviev Mikhail

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years the nanobiotechnology field and the Journal of Nanobiotechnology readership have witnessed an increase in interest towards the nanoparticles and their biological effects and applications. These include bottom-up and molecular self-assembly, biological effects of naked nanoparticles and nano-safety, drug encapsulation and nanotherapeutics, and novel nanoparticles for use in microscopy, imaging and diagnostics. This review highlights recent Journal of Nanobiotechnology publications in some of these areas http://www.jnanobiotechnology.com.

  7. Sustainability and corporate environmental focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Sinding, Knud; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1997-01-01

    has ranged widely, including different aspects of corporate environmental management, dedicated "green accounting" and "green auditing" and consumer behaviour and "green marketing". Furthermore, this growth has taken place against a background of generally increasing environmental awareness. The paper...... environmental perceptions, driving forces, and corporate responses. The final section discusses the possibility that corporate environmental management, and the many people involved in this area, are less deeply concerned with environmental imperatives than is usually expressed....

  8. Focus on the Rashba effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihlmayer, G.; Rader, O.; Winkler, R.

    2015-05-01

    The Rashba effect, discovered in 1959, continues to supply fertile ground for fundamental research and applications. It provided the basis for the proposal of the spin transistor by Datta and Das in 1990, which has largely inspired the broad and dynamic field of spintronics. More recent developments include new materials for the Rashba effect such as metal surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. It has also given rise to new phenomena such as spin currents and the spin Hall effect, including its quantized version, which has led to the very active field of topological insulators. The Rashba effect plays a crucial role in yet more exotic fields of physics such as the search for Majorana fermions at semiconductor-superconductor interfaces and the interaction of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases. Advances in our understanding of Rashba-type spin-orbit couplings, both qualitatively and quantitatively, can be obtained in many different ways. This focus issue brings together the wide range of research activities on Rashba physics to further promote the development of our physical pictures and concepts in this field. The present Editorial gives a brief account on the history of the Rashba effect including material that was previously not easily accessible before summarizing the key results of the present focus issue as a guidance to the reader.

  9. Plasma-focused cyclic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, A.A.; Chernin, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ambient plasma to neutralize the transverse forces of an intense particle beam has been known for many years. Most recently, the so-called ion-focused regime (IFR) for beam propagation has been used as a means of focusing intense electron beams in linear accelerators and suggested for injecting an electron beam across magnetic field lines into a high-current cyclic accelerator. One technique for generating the required background plasma for IFR propagation is to use a laser to ionize ambient gas in the accelerator chamber. For cyclic accelerators a technique is required for carrying the plasma channel and the beam around a bend. Multiple laser-generated channels with dipole magnetic fields to switch the beam from one channel to the next have been tested at Sandia. This paper discusses an alternative means of plasma production for IFR, viz. by using rf breakdown. For this approach the accelerator chamber acts as a waveguide. With a suitable driving frequency, a waveguide mode can be driven which has its peak field intensity on the axis with negligible fields at the chamber walls. The plasma production and hence the beam propagation is thereby isolated from the walls. This technique is not limited to toroidal accelerators. It may be applied to any accelerator or recirculator geometry as well as for beam steering and for injection or extraction of beams in closed accelerator configurations

  10. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations

  11. Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Ballmoos, P; Knodlseder, R; Sazonov, S; Griffiths, R; Bastie, P; Halloin, H; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Jensen, C; Buis, E J; Ulmer, M; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Comastri, A; Barret, D; Leising, M; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Abrosimov, N; Smither, B; Ubertini, P; Olive, J F; Lund, N; Pisa, A; Courtois, P; Roa, D; Harrison, F; Pareschi, G; Frontera, F; Von Ballmoos, P; Barriere, N; Rando, N; Borde, J; Hinglais, E; Cledassou, R; Duchon, P; Sghedoni, M; Huet, B; Takahashi, T; Caroli, E; Quadrinin, L; Buis, E J; Skinner, G; Krizmanic, J; Pareschi, G; Loffredo, G; Wunderer, C; Weidenspointner, G; Wunderer, C; Koechlin, L; Bignami, G; Von Ballmoos, P; Tueller, J; Andritschke, T; Laurens, A; Evrard, J

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.

  12. Focus: Asian migration to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A

    1988-01-01

    This collection of 5 short essays on Asian migration to Canada focuses on the relationships between individual migrants and their social contexts, both Asian and Canadian. Papers by Anderson and Kobayashi adopt research perspectives of outsider and insider, respectively. Vibert provides a historical overview against which the substantive issues introduced in the other 3 papers can be understood, and he illustrates the links between circumstances of migration and the larger issues by which the course of Canadian social progress has been steered. Mercer provides an introduction to issues that dominate the agenda of contemporary research, to show that Canadian communities of Asian heritage continue to grow in size, diversity, and complexity, as they become more established on the Canadian landscape. This collection is as much about the geography of racism as it is about migration.

  13. Through past towards future: The return of Turkey to the area of former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miloš B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After multiyear 'treating' Middle East, Turkish Ministry of foreign affairs schedule reached West Balkans. Unlike 90's Turkish officials lead by the minister of foreign affairs Ahmet Dovutoglou, do not pass Belgrade, and they are trying, regardless to Turkish recognition of Kosovo, to set as closer as possible relations with Belgrade. Dynamic foreign policy of Turkey on the ex-Yugoslavian area, was not, however, gladly accepted among everyone. Although Turkish officials in their public appearances deny any imperial aspirations of Turkey, unhappily formed statements that from time to time come up, as well as some published works, like the current Turkish minister of foreign affairs' book 'Strategic depth', guide to thinking and provoke more serious watch of Turkish diplomatic activities and complete political-economic engagement of Turkey in this area.

  14. The IAEA Focuses on Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  15. The IAEA Focuses On Global Nutritional Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    For over fifty years, the IAEA has been helping its Member States to harness peaceful nuclear science and technology to bring demonstrable benefits to their people. Nutrition is one area in which the IAEA’s partnership with Member States has steadily deepened. This issue of the IAEA Bulletin focuses on the IAEA’s work in nutrition. Topics include our initiatives to measure human milk intake in breastfed infants, lean body mass (muscle mass) in lactating mothers, and the bioavailability of iron in infants and young children. We also look at the paradox of the simultaneous occurrence of both undernutrition and overnutrition that is often found within communities, and even households, across the globe. The IAEA is committed to doing everything it can to make peaceful nuclear technology available to help give all the children of the world a brighter future

  16. Focus on uranium research in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanoute, M.

    2014-01-01

    Two periods stand out in the history of mining exploration for uranium in Senegal: • 1957 - 1965 in the context of a general inventory of the uranium potential of Africa, which is also the time that the large deposits of Niger and Gabon were discovered; • 1973 to the present, is characterized by surveys more focused on specific topics such as Birrimian Superior Precambrian Sedimentary, Secondary and Tertiary Phosphates. The collapse of uranium price that began since 1980 calls into question the validity of these surveys on areas away from the coast that lack infrastructure and forces the elimination of targets where there is little hope of finding high enough concentrations of uranium for possible mining.

  17. Using multi-year reanalysis-derived recharge rates to drive a groundwater model for the Lake Tana region of Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokou, Z.; Kheirabadi, M.; Nikolopoulos, E. I.; Moges, S. A.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    Ethiopia's high inter-annual variability in local precipitation has resulted in droughts and floods that stress local communities and lead to economic and food insecurity. Better predictions of water availability can supply farmers and water management authorities with critical guidance, enabling informed water resource allocation and management decisions that will in turn ensure food and water security in the region. The work presented here focuses on the development and calibration of a groundwater model of the Lake Tana region, one of the most important sub-basins of the Blue Nile River Basin. Groundwater recharge, which is the major groundwater source in the area, depends mainly on the seasonality of precipitation and the spatial variation in geology. Given that land based precipitation data are sparse in the region, two approaches for estimating groundwater recharge were used and compared that both utilize global atmospheric reanalysis driven by remote sensing datasets. In the first approach, the reanalysis precipitation dataset (ECMWF reanalysis adjusted based on GPCC) together with evapotranspiration and surface run-off estimates are used to calculate the groundwater recharge component using water budget equations. In the second approach, groundwater recharge estimates (subsurface runoff) are taken directly from a Land Surface model (FLDAS Noah), provided at a monthly time scale and 0.1˚ x 0.1˚ spatial resolution. The reanalysis derived recharge rates in both cases are incorporated into the groundwater model MODFLOW, which in combination with a Lake module that simulates the Lake water budget, offers a unique capability of improving the predictability of groundwater and lake levels in the Lake Tana basin. Model simulations using the two approaches are compared against in-situ observations of groundwater and lake levels. This modeling effort can be further used to explore climate variability effects on groundwater and lake levels and provide guidance to

  18. Characterization of a focusing parabolic guide using neutron radiography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardjilov, Nikolay; Boeni, Peter; Hilger, Andre; Strobl, Markus; Treimer, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to test the focusing properties of a new type of focusing neutron guide (trumpet) with parabolically shaped walls. The guide has a length of 431mm with an entrance area of 16x16mm 2 and an output area of 4x4mm 2 . The interior surfaces were coated with a supermirror-surface m=3 and due to their parabolic shape it was expected that an incident parallel beam can be focused in the focal point of the parabolas. To prove this statement the neutron intensity distribution at different distances behind the guide was recorded by means of a standard, high-resolution radiography detector. The experiments were performed at the V12b instrument at HMI with different levels of beam monochromatization demonstrating maximum intensity gains of about 25. The consideration for using the focusing guide for the purposes of cold neutron radiography will be presented

  19. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  20. Focusing on reproductive health for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    JOICFP is producing a still photo video consisting of three segments from photos shot in Bangladesh (April 22 - May 2), Thailand (May 2-15), and Mexico (June 29 - July 7) in 1995. The first segment highlights the daily life of a husband, aged 20, and his wife, Moni, aged 14. Moni married at age 13, before the onset of menstruation, and now serves and feeds her husband's large extended family. The Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), the local implementing agent of the Sustainable Community-based Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project with Special Focus on Women, which is supported by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and executed by JOICFP, introduced Moni to the concept of reproductive health and encouraged her to join other women in activities designed to improve their health and raise their economic status. The second segment depicts the life of a former commercial sex worker who is undergoing occupational skill development training promoted by the Population and Community Development Association. The girl is now a leader of teenagers in her village; she works to change attitudes that sent her to work as a prostitute with an estimated 150,000 other poor rural teenage women. The third segment focuses on teen pregnancy and the efforts of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) in the areas of health care and education for adolescents.

  1. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems. © 2011 IEEE

  2. Targeted therapy using nanotechnology: focus on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology have contributed to the development of engineered nanoscale materials as innovative prototypes to be used for biomedical applications and optimized therapy. Due to their unique features, including a large surface area, structural properties, and a long circulation time in blood compared with small molecules, a plethora of nanomaterials has been developed, with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, in particular by improving the sensitivity and recognition ability of imaging contrast agents and by selectively directing bioactive agents to biological targets. Focusing on cancer, promising nanoprototypes have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, as well as for early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. However, several obstacles, including difficulty in achieving the optimal combination of physicochemical parameters for tumor targeting, evading particle clearance mechanisms, and controlling drug release, prevent the translation of nanomedicines into therapy. In spite of this, recent efforts have been focused on developing functionalized nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to specific molecular targets overexpressed on different cancer cells. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has resulted in a new programmable nanotherapeutic formulation of docetaxel, namely BIND-014, which recently entered Phase II clinical testing for patients with solid tumors. BIND-014 has been developed to overcome the limitations facing delivery of nanoparticles to many neoplasms, and represents a validated example of targeted nanosystems with the optimal biophysicochemical properties needed for successful tumor eradication.

  3. GRI: focusing on the evolving violent universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; von Ballmoos, Peter; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2009-03-01

    The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ˜10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10 - 7 ph cm - 2s - 1keV - 1 for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 × 10 - 6 ph cm - 2s - 1 for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin—an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector will be placed on two separate spacecrafts flying in formation in a high elliptical orbit. R&D work to enable the lens focusing technology and to develop the required focal plane detector is currently underway, financed by ASI, CNES, ESA, and the Spanish Ministery of Education and Science. The GRI mission has been proposed as class M mission for ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. GRI will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the universe.

  4. Parenting classes: focus on discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J M

    1992-01-01

    Nurses in community settings have an opportunity to provide instruction related to health and life-style needs. An important consideration is the parental role. A particularly controversial and opinion-laden aspect of parenting is disciplining children. Discipline provides children with the security of clearly enforced rules to help them learn self-control and social standards. Parenting classes are worthwhile for people who have little formal or informal preparation. A survey of middle-class elementary school district parents' and childrens' attitudes toward discipline was conducted to develop meaningful parenting classes. Parents' feelings about being a mother or father were surprisingly negative. A parent educational program was developed to cover child growth and development and disciplinary practices. Parent evaluations led to continuation and an expansion of this program to other schools within the area.

  5. Mirror Focus in a Patient with Intractable Occipital Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy....

  6. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  7. Magnetic tearing in plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawy, W.

    1994-01-01

    A plasma focus device used is Mather type filled with hydrogen gas at pressure between 0.1 and 1 torr. When connected to a large capacitor ≤10 KV a discharge is started with peak current 100 KA. Under the influence of the radial electric field E r , due to the potential between electrodes, and B φ the plasma will drift in the axial direction with velocity cE r /B φ . An induced axial magnetic field B z has been detected which due to sheath velocity. A propagation of magnetosonic wave has been observed with velocity ≅10 3 m sec -1 . Such a wave might be excited when the magnetic pressure is much greater than the plasma kinetic pressure B 2 /8π>nKT. Assuming (MHD) to be stable, Tearing model was driven which generally has smaller growth rates than (MHD) modes. Using the designed theoretical model and the plasma parameters the electron energy dΦ/dt=Ba 2 /τ R was calculated to be 2.22 KeV, which is comparable with that detected from X-ray measurements. (author)

  8. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, Nail; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-11-19

    It is now 23 years since the first Topical Meeting "Nonlinear Guided Wave Phenomena" (Houston, TX, February 2-4, 1989) has been organised by George Stegeman and Allan Boardman with support of the Optical Society of America. These series of the OSA conferences known as NLGW, continued under the name "Nonlinear Photonics" starting from 2007. The latest one, in Colorado Springs in June 17-21, 2012 has been a great success despite the fierce fires advancing around the city at the time of the conference. This Focus issue is a collection of several papers presented at the conference with extended content submitted to Optics Express. Although this collection is small in comparison to the total number of papers presented at the conference, it gives a flavor of the topics considered at the meeting. It is also worthy to mention here that the next meeting "Nonlinear Photonics" is planned to be held in Barcelona - one of the main European centers on this subject.

  9. Workshop on crystals and focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berreman, D. W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop on crystals and focusing was to exchange and pool the experience and information that the participants could contribute on the design and construction of monochromators for EXAFS with optimum speed, resolution and versatility. The panel was chaired by D.W. Berreman of BTL and included G. G. Cohen of NBS, S. Heald of Brookhaven National Labs and Lu Kun-quan of U. of Washington. Written contributions for the workshop were made by R. J. Emrich and J. R. Katzer of U. of Delaware, R. C. Gamble of Cal. Tech., J. Crane of Cal. Tech., and T. Matsushita of S. S. R. L. G. Bunker of U. of Washington was recording secretary, G. G. Cohen and S. Heald gave invited papers on the main program that were relevant to the workshop. Other contributors were R. Hänsel of U. of Kiel, W. Germany, G. Christoff of Ohio State and D. Hempstead of Rigaku/USA Inc., J. Holben of Marconi Avionics, Hertfordshire, England and J. Hastings of Brookhaven N. L.

  10. Focused conformational sampling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.

  11. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency: Plausible mechanisms linking early family adversity to health problems in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sulamunn R M; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Heron, Kristin E; Vartanian, Lenny R; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Participants completed self-report measures of early family adversity, self-focused (self-esteem, personal growth initiative) and other-focused (perceived social support, gratitude) resiliency, stress, subjective health, and health behaviors. Using structural equation modeling, self-focused resiliency associated with less stress, better subjective health, more sleep, less smoking, and less weekend alcohol consumption. Other-focused resiliency associated with more exercise, greater stress, and more weekend alcohol consumption. Early family adversity was indirectly related to all health outcomes, except smoking, via self-focused and other-focused resiliency. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency represent plausible mechanisms through which early family adversity relates to stress and health in college women. This highlights areas for future research in disease prevention and management.

  12. Energy transition and green growth. Segolene Royal accelerates the development of solar energy in France in order to reach the objectives of the Energy Multi-year Program (PPE) - Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    After a brief recall of the characteristics of the first public tender for the development of high power ground-based photovoltaic plants, and of some average characteristics of the retained projects, this document proposes a table containing the number of project and the global power level per region, and some key data regarding annual production, investments, the average efficiency, and average price for the different types of installation. The second part presents the same information for the second public tender which concerned renewable installations in situation of self-consumption. The third part briefly presents the third multi-year public tender which also concerns renewable installations in self-consumption. The fourth part briefly presents the first public tender on innovating solar installations (innovation must relate to components, to the electric system, to the optimisation and electric operation of the photovoltaic plant, and to the possibility of coupling a secondary photovoltaic production to a primary farm production)

  13. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    ), Staffanstorp municipality (Sweden) and Werv-area (the Netherlands). All three areas belong to the rurban zone and are selected to exemplify pro-active planning. The analysis focuses on how the concept of compact city is perceived and implemented, how rurban areas are managed in order to avoid further urban...... encroachment, and how resilient green landscapes are ensured. The results reveal significant differences in approaches, reflecting variations in the public involvement in rurban areas development, the role of different administrative levels and the use of zonation. Variation in the use of zonation encapsulates...

  14. KEY FACTORS IN MARKETING FOCUSED SERVICES BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Yohanna Martínez Castrillón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the key success factors in the marketing area and describe them as managerial allies for companies that wish to position themselves in the market under a good sustainable performance , for it has been consulted theoretical references of Marketing as a management partner with collection and integration of data. Methodologically, it is located within the type of descriptive research field, with a design of transactional non-experimental, with an intentional non-probabilistic stratified sample of four reporting units. The findings established fifteen (15 points of influence called "key success factors (FCE in the area of marketing, and managerial allies of service companies in the security, surveillance and protection sector in industrial, commercial and residential sectors. Finally, it is intended that the actions of marketing service companies should focus to the welfare of both the organization, such as users, both in the environment, and economic, social and technological, characterized by ethics, sustainable development and transparency to respond appropriately.

  15. Focusing on Cause or Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren C.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomedical research is influenced by many factors, including the involvement of stakeholder groups invested in research outcomes. Stakeholder involvement in research efforts raise questions of justice as their specific interests and motivations play a role in directing research resources that ultimately produce knowledge shaping how different conditions (and affected individuals) are understood and treated by society. This issue is highly relevant to child psychiatry research where diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies are often controversial. Biological similarities and stakeholder differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide an opportunity to explore this issue by comparing research foci and stakeholder involvement in these conditions. Methods A subset of ADHD and ASD research articles published between 1970-2010 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and coded for research focus, funding source(s), and author-reported conflicts of interest (COIs). Chi-square analyses were performed to identify differences between and within ADHD and ASD research across time. Results The proportion of ADHD research dedicated to basic, description, and treatment research was roughly similar and remained stable over time, while ASD research showed a significant increase in basic research over the past decade. Government was the primary research funder for both conditions, but for-profit funders were a notable presence in ADHD research, while joint-funding efforts between non-profit and government funders were a notable presence in ASD research. Lastly, COIs were noted more frequently in ADHD than in ASD research. Conclusions Our study shows significant differences in research foci and funding sources between the conditions, and identifies the specific involvement of for-profit and non-profit groups in ADHD and ASD, respectively. Our findings highlight the relationship between stakeholders

  16. Identificação de áreas de estratificação epidemiológica no foco de oncocercose na região Yanomami, Roraima, Brasil Identifying areas of epidemiological stratification in an onchocerciasis focus in Yanomami territory, Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanini Evelim Coelho

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, visando a um adequado planejamento, análise e acompanhamento do Programa de Tratamento, Controle e Eliminação da Oncocercose Humana no Brasil, foram estudadas 27 áreas geográficas e examinados 3.974 indivíduos. Assim, foram identificadas e estratificadas quatro áreas epidemiológicas, tendo por base as prevalências diferenciadas em cada uma delas.In this paper, aimed at suitable planning, analysis, and follow-up of treatment, control, and eradication in a human onchocerciasis program, were studied 27 geographic areas and examined 3,974 inhabitants. Four epidemiological areas with different prevalences were identified and stratified.

  17. Development of focused ion beam systems with various ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing; Leung, K.-N.; King, Tsu-Jae; Jiang Ximan; Appleton, Bill R.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional focused ion beam systems employ a liquid-metal ion source (LMIS) to generate high-brightness beams, such as Ga + beams. Recently there has been an increased need for focused ion beams in areas like biological studies, advanced magnetic-film manufacturing and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In this article, status of development on focused ion beam systems with ion species such as O 2 + , P + , and B + will be reviewed. Compact columns for forming focused ion beams from low energy (∼3keV), to intermediate energy (∼35keV) are discussed. By using focused ion beams, a SOI MOSFET is fabricated entirely without any masks or resist

  18. The 1998 annual: Focusing on asset quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Operational and financial activities of Newport Petroleum Corporation during fiscal year 1998 are reviewed. Despite the low oil prices, and the consequent reduction in industry activity and financial results, the Company continued to focus on high quality assets. The Company improved its proved and probable reserves by 21.3 million barrels of oil equivalent, increasing its reserve life index to over 10 years. Reserve addition costs in 1998 were a competitive $ 7.08 per barrel of oil equivalent. The Company produced more than 20,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day, generating revenue of $ 141 million. The Company acquired an interest in the Caroline Gas Unit for $ 165 million late in 1998 and experienced success with the drilling of two wells. At year end, reserves of approx. 575 bcf of raw gas in place were attributed to this area. New light oil discoveries were made in the Rigel area of northern British Columbia and the Shiningbank area of west-central Alberta. Both properties have significant development potential. While share price performance was essentially flat for the year, the target remains to add value on a per share basis over the long term. The outlook for natural gas appears to be positive, with markets expected to be robust with prices tracking supply/demand fundamentals. The completion of additional pipeline capacity from Alberta into U.S. markets has resulted in a lowering of the differential to U.S. prices, and as a result, it appears that pricing in western Canada will improve in the next several years. Although the outlook for oil prices remains uncertain, with recent OPEC commitments to curtail volumes, there is reason for cautious optimism. Overall, the Company is confident that it has the financial strength to not only weather an extended period of oil price weakness, but to continue to expand its activity levels and prosper

  19. Keep the focus on emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; Benson, S. M.; Peterson, P.; Long, J. C. S.

    2016-12-01

    Most think that the major battle over climate is between those that want to solve the climate problem and the climate deniers. But there is another conflict, perhaps equally significant between people who all agree climate is a problem but who disagree radically about what they think the solution is. The imperative for stopping further climate change is to stop GHG emissions and the first energy sector of importance is electricity. Every major plan to eliminate emmissions from energy requires a carbon-free electricity system. The most popular idea about how to do this is to use all renewable energy, i.e. solar and wind power. But no one has ever built a large scale 100% renewable energy system and the few examples we have about regions that have tried are not encouraging. As the percentage of renewable energy goes up, ensuring a reliable supply often requires a fossil-based back-up system, so emissions can actually increase. Also, 100% renewable systems rely on massive deployment rates, far beyond any historical precident and often assume that adequate energy storage will "happen" through a combination of currently unavailable technologies. This approach is about adding renewable capacity, not about reducing emissions. Sweden provides a counter example that relies entirely on nuclear power and hydro and has an emission-free, reliable energy system. Likewise, biofuel is often cited as a climate-friendly substitute for petroleum-based fuels. Life-cycle analsyis indicates biofuels are often worse than petroleum-based fuels. We focus efficiency measures on buildings, but efficiency in transportation is even more important because we don't really have the fuel that is carbon neutral. Vehicle efficiency and reductions in vehicle miles traveled does better to address emissions. As mitigation is so important, climate advocates used to think discussion of adaptation was a distraction that should be avoided. But losing track of the need to eliminate emissions is the real

  20. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-10-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale data sets to describe the climate, the soil properties, the vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the uncertainties in these drivers and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing data sets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN (Système d'Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie) high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the leaf area index (LAI) time courses derived from the ECOCLIMAP-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional data sets which include the ERA-Interim (ERA-I) low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data set (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The evaluation of the drivers indicates very low bias in daily downwelling shortwave radiation for ERA-I (2.5 W m-2) compared to the negative biases found for SAFRAN (-10 W m-2) and the MSG satellite (-12 W m-2). Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate downwelling longwave radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC rainfall are slightly biased at daily and longer timescales (1 and 0.5 % of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall is more precise than the ERA-I/GPCC estimate which shows larger inter-annual variability in yearly rainfall error (up to 100 mm). The ECOCLIMAP-II LAI climatology does not properly resolve Mediterranean crop phenology and underestimates the bare soil period which leads to an overall overestimation of LAI over the crop succession. The