WorldWideScience

Sample records for focal bacterial nephritis

  1. Subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis from ventriculoatrial shunting 14 years after shunt implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Gustav; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri Jr.

    2014-01-01

    of causing subacute bacterial endocarditis and subsequent shunt nephritis. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics combined with ventriculoatrial shunt removal and endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy (VCS). This case illustrates the nowadays rare, but potentially severe complication...... of subacute bacterial endocarditis and shunt nephritis. It also exemplifies the VCS as an alternative to implanting foreign shunt systems for CSF diversion....

  2. Interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    There are many causes of interstitial nephritis other than pyelonephritis. The term interstitial nephritis does not connote a single etiologic or pathogenetic mechanism; it rather arbitrarily places together a wider variety of renal diseases that have a predilection for early and major involvement of the renal interstitium. The prototype of acute interstitial nephritis is acute pyelonephritis. In addition, there is a drug-related acute interstitial disease that is probably of immunological nature and usually reverses with discontinuance of the offending drug. Chronic interstitial nephritis includes many diverse illnesses. Nonobstructive pyelonephritis occurs but its prevalence is debated. Analgesic abuse nephropathy is not rare and is potentially reversible. Papillary necrosis has many causes and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Heavy metals, such as lead, cause interstitial nephritis. Balkan nephropathy occurs in an endemic area and although not bacterial in origin is of unknown cause.

  3. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi eRashid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs target anionic lipids (e.g. phosphatidylglycerol (PG and cardiolipins (CL in the cell membrane and anionic components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g. lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1 CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2 delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3 CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction.

  4. Lupus nephritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-02

    Mar 2, 1991 ... A recent large Australian series! on lupus nephritis emphasises .... patent capillary lumina and thickened capillary walls. ... (Australia). 135. 27. 58. 15. This study (RSA). 51. 33. 63. 4 have been documented.2-5 All included patients with lupus nephritis, but while the series from Natal' gave a detailed list.

  5. Lupus nephritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-02

    Mar 2, 1991 ... will benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. Our study found hypertension, which persisted at the most recent follow-up, to be associated with a poor outcome, as was poor renal function both at biopsy and follow-up. Leaker er al. I found that survival in lupus nephritis is unaffected by age, sex, nephrotic ...

  6. [Collagen nephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, N R; Bulos, M J; Monserrat, A J

    1997-01-01

    Fibrillar collagen in the glomeruli is considered specific of the nail-patella syndrome. A new nephropathy with diffuse intraglomerular deposition of type III collagen without nail and skeletal abnormalities has been described. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented persistent proteinuria, hematuria, deafness without nail and skeletal abnormalities. The renal biopsy showed focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis by light microscopy. The electron microscopy revealed the presence of massive fibrillar collagen within the mesangial matriz and the basement membrane. This is the first patient reported in our country. We emphasize the usefulness of electron microscopy in the study of glomerular diseases.

  7. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchanov, Juri; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf; Endres, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  8. Focal parenchymal lesions in community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinico-radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katchanov, Juri [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); University Hospital Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neuroradiology, Berlin (Germany); Endres, Matthias [Campus Charite Mitte, Charite, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Here, we analyzed the frequency, morphological pattern, and imaging characteristics of focal lesions as a consequence of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We hypothesized that diffusion-weighted imaging combined with contrast-enhanced imaging, serial scanning, and multimodal vascular studies would provide further insight into the pathological basis of such parenchymal lesions in bacterial meningitis. We reviewed clinical and imaging data (i.e., magnetic resonance tomography, magnetic resonance angiography, computed tomography angiography, digital subtraction angiography) of 68 adult patients admitted to our neurological intensive care unit between March 1998 and February 2009 with the diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis. We identified seven patients with parenchymal lesions. These lesions could be attributed to four morphological patterns: (1) territorial cerebral ischemia, (2) perforating vessels ischemia, (3) ischemia of presumed cardiac origin, and (4) isolated cortical lesions. Whereas the patterns (1) and (2) were associated with vasculopathy of large- and medium-sized vessels (as shown by cerebral vascular imaging), vessel imaging in (3) and (4) did not show abnormal findings. Our study implies that parenchymal lesions in acute bacterial meningitis are mainly ischemic and due to involvement of large-, medium-, and small-sized arteries of the brain. Diffusion-weighted imaging combined with conventional, CT-, or MR-based cerebral angiography revealed the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in the majority of patients. Furthermore, we detected two patients with isolated bilateral cortical involvement and normal vessel imaging. These lesions might represent ischemia due to the involvement of small pial and intracortical arteries. (orig.)

  9. Radiation nephritis causing nephrotic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennette, J.C.; Ordonez, N.G.

    1983-12-01

    Clinical symptoms of acute radiation nephritis with nephrotic syndrome developed in a fifty-six-year-old woman after abdominal radiation therapy for an astrocytoma of the spinal cord. The diagnosis of radiation nephritis was confirmed by renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of radiation nephritis associated with nephrotic syndrome.

  10. Pro: Cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Based on efficacy and toxicity considerations, both low-dose pulse cyclophosphamide as part of the Euro-Lupus Nephritis protocol and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with corticosteroids may be considered for induction of remission in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. The long-term follow-up

  11. Prognostic factors in lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Starklint, Henrik; Halberg, Poul

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical and renal biopsy findings in an unselected cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis.......To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical and renal biopsy findings in an unselected cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis....

  12. Lupus nephritis in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, I W; Muffarij, A A; Mudawar, W A; Nasr, F W; Masri, A F

    2001-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of the clinicopathological characteristics of 50 systemic lupus erythematosus patients with nephritis who underwent a kidney biopsy and were admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center, in Lebanon, between 1979 and 1999. There were 43 females and seven males, with a median age of 24 y. Renal histology slides from these patients were assessed according to the World Health Organization classification, and were distributed as follows: class I (n = 3, 6%); class II (n = 14, 28%); class III (n = 11, 22%); class IV (n = 19, 38%); class V (n = 1, 2%); class VI (n = 2, 4%). All the patients received oral prednisone, in addition the following treatments were used: pulse intravenous (i.v.) cyclophosphamide (n = 23, 46%); azathioprine (n = 22, 44%); pulse i.v. steroids (n = 19, 38%); chloroquine sulfate (n = 17, 34%); methotrexate (n = 5, 10%); and plasmapheresis (n = 2, 4%). The median duration of follow-up was 5 y (range 1-33 y). On their last evaluation, out of 37 patients who were followed, 20 patients (54%) had controlled disease, eight patients (22%) were still on active medical treatment, four patients (11%) were on chronic hemodialysis, and five patients (13%) had died. Unlike three other Arab populations studies from Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, where the most frequent histopathologic abnormality was class III, diffuse proliferative LN (class IV) was the most common type of lupus nephritis in Lebanon, similarly to reports from USA, France, Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and Taiwan.

  13. Lupus nephritis management guidelines compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Suzanne; Bajema, Ingeborg M; Bertsias, George K; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Gordon, Caroline; Lightstone, Liz; Tesar, Vladimir; Jayne, David R

    2016-06-01

    In the past years, many (randomized) trials have been performed comparing the treatment strategies for lupus nephritis. In 2012, these data were incorporated in six different guidelines for treating lupus nephritis. These guidelines are European, American and internationally based, with one separate guideline for children. They offer information on different aspects of the management of lupus nephritis including induction and maintenance treatment of the different histological classes, adjunctive treatment, monitoring of the patient, definitions of response and relapse, indications for (repeat) renal biopsy, and additional challenges such as the presence of vascular complications, the pregnant SLE patient, treatment in children and adolescents and considerations about end-stage renal disease and transplantation. In this review, we summarize the guidelines, determine the common ground between them, highlight the differences and discuss recent literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  14. An Experimental Study for Radiation Nephritis in Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Experimental radiation nephritis was produced in 15 rabbits by X-irradiation. About 2, 000gamma(tissue doses) were given to both kidneys of a rabbit in 5 days. Other tissues and organs except both kidneys were protected with 2 mm thickened lead plates. 5 weeks after the last irradiation, blood pictures, blood pressures, B.U.N., serum creatinine, Ca, Mg, Fe levels and serum erythropoietin activity of the irradiated rabbits were studied. After finishing above studies, rabbits were sacrificed and both kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically. Same laboratory and pathological studies were performed in 6 control rabbits. In this study, the author obtained following results. 1) Both kidneys of rabbits with experimental radiation nephritis showed marked histopathological changes, i.e.: renal tubules showed diffuse cloudy swelling, impacted intraluminal hyaline casts and focal precipitations of lime salts on the tubular epithelium. Diffuse interstitial fatty necrosis and various degrees of fibrotic infiltrations on the interstitium were also seen in association with focal lymphocytic infiltrations. Hyaline degenerations were observed on the glomeruli and small vessels. 2) Experimental radiation nephritis rabbits showed marked lowering in R.B.C. counts, decreased hemoglobin levels, low hematocrit values and leucopenia in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P<0.01). (Table 1 and 2). 3) Mild proteinuria were observed in experimental radiation nephritis in rabbits. 4) The levels of B.U.N. and serum creatinine increased in experimental radiation nephritis. (P<0.01). (Table 1, 3 and 4). 5) The levels of serum Ca and Mg Showed no statistical difference in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P>0.05). (Table 3 and 4). 6) No statistical correlations were observable between the levels of B.U.N. and Hb. values. (gamma=-0. 223). No close correlations (gamma=-0.338) were noticed between the levels of B.U.N. and serum iron levels. 7) Erythropoietin activity (R

  15. The Pathogenesis of Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Lupus nephritis is an immune complex GN that develops as a frequent complication of SLE. The pathogenesis of lupus nephritis involves a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. The extrarenal etiology of systemic lupus is based on multiple combinations of genetic variants that compromise those mechanisms normally assuring immune tolerance to nuclear autoantigens. This loss of tolerance becomes clinically detectable by the presence of antinuclear antibodies. In addition, nucleic acids released from netting or apoptotic neutrophils activate innate and adaptive immunity via viral nucleic acid-specific Toll-like receptors. Therefore, many clinical manifestations of systemic lupus resemble those of viral infection. In lupus, endogenous nuclear particles trigger IFN-α signaling just like viral particles during viral infection. As such, dendritic cells, T helper cells, B cells, and plasma cells all contribute to the aberrant polyclonal autoimmunity. The intrarenal etiology of lupus nephritis involves antibody binding to multiple intrarenal autoantigens rather than the deposition of circulating immune complexes. Tertiary lymphoid tissue formation and local antibody production add to intrarenal complement activation as renal immunopathology progresses. Here we provide an update on the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to lupus nephritis and provide the rationale for the latest and novel treatment strategies. PMID:23929771

  16. Pulse cyclophospamide in severe lupus nephritis: Southern Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Uttara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the monthly pulse IV cyclophosphamide (IVC therapy in patients with severe lupus nephritis, we studied 39 patients of lupus nephritis on IVC therapy between 1998 to 2002. Single monthly cyclophosphamide (0.75-1 g/m² was infused intravenously with oral prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg per day and appropriate hydration. Of the 39 pa-tients 25 (86.2% patients were females and 4 (13.8% were males. Six (2% cases had irregular follow-up and 3 patients had expired during the initial cycles and were excluded from the study. The mean age was 25.6 + 6.72 years (range 10-40 years. The mean duration of the disease from the onset to renal biopsy was 24.2 + 18.5 months. The clinical presentations included nephrotic syndrome (34.5%, acute glomerulonephritis (31.0%, Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO (10.3%, and rapidly progressive renal failure (6.7%. Renal insufficiency was present in 47.2% cases. Twenty-two (75.9% patients had diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (class IV, 6 (20.7% focal proliferative glomerulonephritis (class III, and one (3.4% class Vd. After a mean follow-up of 15.8 months, out of 29 patients, 13 (44.8% had achieved complete remission, 7 (24.1% partial remission and 9 (31.0% cases did not respond to the therapy. Side effects of the therapy included vomiting and nausea (100% and hair loss during the first few doses of IVC. In addition, one case had dysfunctional uterine bleeding and two patients had avascular necrosis of femoral head. We conclude that our data indicate that IVC in severe lupus nephritis is effective in Indian patients though longer follow-up is required.

  17. The small G-protein MglA connects to the MreB actin cytoskeleton at bacterial focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuner-Lange, Anke; Macia, Eric; Guzzo, Mathilde; Hot, Edina; Faure, Laura M; Jakobczak, Beata; Espinosa, Leon; Alcor, Damien; Ducret, Adrien; Keilberg, Daniela; Castaing, Jean Philippe; Lacas Gervais, Sandra; Franco, Michel; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Mignot, Tâm

    2015-07-20

    In Myxococcus xanthus the gliding motility machinery is assembled at the leading cell pole to form focal adhesions, translocated rearward to propel the cell, and disassembled at the lagging pole. We show that MglA, a Ras-like small G-protein, is an integral part of this machinery. In this function, MglA stimulates the assembly of the motility complex by directly connecting it to the MreB actin cytoskeleton. Because the nucleotide state of MglA is regulated spatially and MglA only binds MreB in the guanosine triphosphate-bound form, the motility complexes are assembled at the leading pole and dispersed at the lagging pole where the guanosine triphosphatase activating protein MglB disrupts the MglA-MreB interaction. Thus, MglA acts as a nucleotide-dependent molecular switch to regulate the motility machinery spatially. The function of MreB in motility is independent of its function in peptidoglycan synthesis, representing a coopted function. Our findings highlight a new function for the MreB cytoskeleton and suggest that G-protein-cytoskeleton interactions are a universally conserved feature. © 2015 Treuner-Lange et al.

  18. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis

  19. A novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model for assessing the regeneration of focal cartilage defects with biocompatible bacterial nanocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Current therapies for articular cartilage defects fail to achieve qualitatively sufficient tissue regeneration, possibly because of a mismatch between the speed of cartilage rebuilding and the resorption of degradable implant polymers. The present study focused on the self-healing capacity of resident cartilage cells in conjunction with cell-free and biocompatible (but non-resorbable) bacterial nanocellulose (BNC). This was tested in a novel in vitro bovine cartilage punch model. Methods Standardized bovine cartilage discs with a central defect filled with BNC were cultured for up to eight weeks with/without stimulation with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. Cartilage formation and integrity were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Content, release and neosynthesis of the matrix molecules proteoglycan/aggrecan, collagen II and collagen I were also quantified. Finally, gene expression of these molecules was profiled in resident chondrocytes and chondrocytes migrated onto the cartilage surface or the implant material. Results Non-stimulated and especially TGF-β1-stimulated cartilage discs displayed a preserved structural and functional integrity of the chondrocytes and surrounding matrix, remained vital in long-term culture (eight weeks) without signs of degeneration and showed substantial synthesis of cartilage-specific molecules at the protein and mRNA level. Whereas mobilization of chondrocytes from the matrix onto the surface of cartilage and implant was pivotal for successful seeding of cell-free BNC, chondrocytes did not immigrate into the central BNC area, possibly due to the relatively small diameter of its pores (2 to 5 μm). Chondrocytes on the BNC surface showed signs of successful redifferentiation over time, including increase of aggrecan/collagen type II mRNA, decrease of collagen type I mRNA and initial deposition of proteoglycan and collagen type II in long-term high-density pellet cultures

  20. Biomarkers for Lupus Nephritis: A Critical Appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Chiu Mok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney disease is one of the most serious manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Despite the improvement in the medical care of SLE in the past two decades, the prognosis of lupus nephritis remains unsatisfactory. Besides exploring more effective but less toxic treatment modalities that will further improve the remission rate, early detection and treatment of renal activity may spare patients from intensive immunosuppressive therapies and reduce renal damage. Conventional clinical parameters such as creatinine clearance, proteinuria, urine sediments, anti-dsDNA, and complement levels are not sensitive or specific enough for detecting ongoing disease activity in the lupus kidneys and early relapse of nephritis. Thus, novel biomarkers are necessary to enhance the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of lupus renal disease, prognostic stratification, monitoring of treatment response, and detection of early renal flares. This paper reviews promising biomarkers that have recently been evaluated in longitudinal studies of lupus nephritis.

  1. Presenting A Case with Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Uveitis (TINU- Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Fotouhi Ardakani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Concurrence of interstitial nephritis and uveitis named tubulointestitioal nephritis and uveitis syndrome (TINU are unusual and uncommon presentations of interstitial nephritis. This syndrome is considered after ruling out other differential diagnoses. A-38-year old man presented with acute renal failure and uveitis. The histologic findings of renal biopsy showed acute tubulointestitioal nephritis. The patient had no clinical and paraclinical manifestations of other etiologies of interstitial nephritis and uveitis such as Wegener's granulomatosis , Sjogren's syndrome or sarcoidosis. The diagnosis of TINU-Syndrome was therefore considered. The patient was treated by oral and ophthalmic prednisolone and had a good response to treatment.

  2. Focal myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransdorf, M.J.; Temple, H.T.; Sweet, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.)

  3. The frequency and outcome of lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanly, John G; O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Su, Li

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine nephritis outcomes in a prospective multi-ethnic/racial SLE inception cohort. METHODS: Patients in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort (≤15 months of SLE diagnosis) were assessed annually for estimated glomerular filtration rate (e...

  4. Focal myositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.R.; Dahlstrom, J.E.; Bennett, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rare, benign focal inflammation of muscle. The lesion often presents as a mass that may be mistaken for a soft tissue sarcoma. This report describes the MRI and histopathological features of a case and illustrates how the diagnosis may be suspected on the basis of the MR findings. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Lupus nephritis, pregnancy and rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Dorado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available La nefritis lúpica (NL proliferativa es una de las complicaciones más graves del LES. La respuesta terapéutica con los esquemas clásicos no existe en el 20 al 70% de los casos, siendo la amplitud de dicho rango explicada por variaciones étnicas, falta de consenso en la definición de remisión, diferencias en los tiempos de tratamiento, seguimiento y en la clase de NL. En presencia de NL recidivante o refractaria los tratamientos y el nivel de evidencia sobre su eficacia son más limitados. Rituximab es un anticuerpo monoclonal quimérico (ratón-humano dirigido contra el antígeno CD 20 localizado en la superficie celular de los linfocitos B. Estos participan en la patogénesis del LES a partir de su maduración en células plasmáticas, producción de anticuerpos, secreción de citoquinas proinflamatorias, presentación de autoantígenos a las células T y en la activación de células T. La administración de rituximab genera un rápido y sostenido descenso de los linfocitos B CD 20+ circulantes y una reducción de los títulos de auto-anticuerpos. Se reportó una disminución significativa en los niveles de antiDNA a partir de la semana 14 y de los niveles de IgM, sin compromiso de IgG ni de IgA. Se detectó droga activa en sangre periférica luego de la semana 24 de la última infusión. La depleción de linfocitos B se puede mantener por 6 meses, su reconstitución es heterogénea y puede tardar más de un año. Esta linfopenia selectiva tendría un valor predictivo de respuesta terapéutica, la remisión clínica prolongada tendría asociación con repoblación incompleta de células B de memoria varios años luego del tratamiento. En estudios observacionales realizados en pacientes con NL refractaria se reportó respuesta terapéutica con rituximab entre 67-77 % luego de 6 a 12 meses de seguimiento. Sin embargo los resultados del estudio Lupus Nephritis Assesment with Rituximab (LUNAR, randomizado controlado, a doble ciego

  6. Focal myositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kransdorf, M.J. [Saint Mary`s Hospital, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Radiol.]|[Department of Radiologic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Temple, H.T. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)]|[Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States); Sweet, D.E. [Department of Orthopedic Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Focal myositis is a pseudotumor of soft tissue that typically occurs in the deep soft tissue of the extremities, and is a relatively rare lesion. There is a wide clinical spectrum, with approximately one-third of patients with focal myositis subsequently developing polymyositis, and clinical symptoms of generalized weakness, fever, myalgia, and weight loss, with elevation of creatine phosphokinase. We report the case of a patient with focal myositis who subsequently developed myositis ossificans-like features. (orig.) With 3 figs., 25 refs.

  7. Increased Granulocyte Heparanase Activity in Neutrophils from Patients with Lupus Nephritis and Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Maciej; Kuźniar, Jakub; Kopeć, Wacław; Żabińska, Marcelina; Marchewka, Zofia; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Klinger, Marian

    2017-02-01

    Heparanase is a β-glucuronidase that cleaves sugar chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. It is believed that heparanase may be involved in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of heparanase in the pathogenesis of particular glomerulonephritis types. The evaluation of heparanase activity in serum, urine, and granulocytes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis (n = 17), membranous nephropathy (n = 11), IgA nephropathy (n = 12), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (n = 18), mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (n = 12) and in 19 healthy volunteers were performed. The heparanase activity in granulocytes of patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was higher than heparanase activity in granulocytes in the control group (p = 0.02 in both cases). This is the first observation of this phenomenon. There was no difference between SOD activity in granulocytes of patients with all assessed types of glomerulonephritis and the control group. A positive correlation between heparanase activity in urine and double-strain DNA antibodies (r = 0.51; p = 0.04), and reverse correlations between heparanase in urine and hemolytic activity of the complement (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) in the lupus nephritis group, and between heparanase activity in granulocytes and serum total protein level (r = -0.69; p = 0.02) in membranous nephropathy were observed. Increase in heparanase activity without changes in superoxide dismutase activity in the granulocytes from patients with lupus nephritis and membranous nephropathy was observed. It may be used as one of the markers of these disease activities.

  8. An unusual presentation of juvenile lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleshwar Bottu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of juvenile lupus varies widely ranging between 4 and 250 per 100,000 population. Most common organ involvement in juvenile lupus is kidney. Neurological, cutaneous and hematological involvements are also involved. Skeletal muscle involvement in the form of myositis is rare. Myositis as presenting manifestation in juvenile lupus is also unusual. Herein, we report one such case wherein myositis preceded the onset of lupus nephritis

  9. Dutch guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of proliferative lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tellingen, A.; Voskuyl, A. E.; Vervloet, M. G.; Bijl, M.; de Sevaux, R. G. L.; Berger, S. P.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.; Berden, J. H. M.

    Proliferative lupus nephritis is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Despite improvements in the management of lupus nephritis, a significant number of the patients do not respond to immunosuppressive therapy and progress to end-stage renal

  10. The medical response to trench nephritis in World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenstaedt, R L

    2006-08-01

    Around the 90-year anniversary of the Battle of the Somme, it is important to remember the international effort that went into responding to the new diseases, which appeared during the First World War, such as trench nephritis. This condition arose among soldiers in spring 1915, characterized by breathlessness, swelling of the face or legs, headache, sore throat, and the presence of albumin and renal casts in urine. It was speedily investigated by the military-medical authorities. There was debate over whether it was new condition or streptococcal nephritis, and the experts agreed that it was a new condition. The major etiologies proposed were infection, exposure, and diet (including poisons). Research pointed to the origin of the disease as being infective rather than toxic, but no definite cause was discovered. A number of labels were given to the disease, including war nephritis. However, trench nephritis was the one used most widely. Trench nephritis was a serious problem for the Allies, leading to 35 000 casualties in the British and 2000 in the American forces. There were also hundreds of deaths. The condition was treated in line with pre-war regimens designed for acute nephritis. No significant preventative methods were implemented for trench nephritis, as there was no consensus regarding causation. The medical response to trench nephritis was largely ineffective, with medical commentators recognizing that there had been a lack of medical progress.

  11. Prognosis and predictors of convulsion among pediatric lupus nephritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Einollahi, Behzad; Taheri, Saeed; Panahi, Yunes; Maddani, Abbas; Esfahani, Taher; Sharifi-Bonab, Mir Mohsen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze features and outcome of convulsion in pediatric lupus nephritis patients. We retrospectively reviewed data of 14 Iranian children with lupus nephritis who developed seizures and compared them with a group of the same number of well matched pediatric lupus nephritis patients. Higher serum creatinine levels and higher frequencies of anemia and lymphopenia were observed in the convulsion group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the only risk factor for development of convulsion in pediatric lupus patients with nephritis was lymphopenia. Survival analysis showed that convulsion had no impact on patient and renal function outcomes in our pediatric lupus nephritis subjects. In conclusion, we found that lymphopenia is a predictive factor for convulsion occurrence in our patients and special attention to neurological status assessment may be needed in this situation. (author)

  12. Renal cell apoptosis in human lupus nephritis: a histological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, M; Penkowa, Milena; Andersen, C B

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear autoantigens from apoptotic cells are believed to drive the immunological response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Conflicting data exist as to the possible renal origin of apoptotic cells in SLE patients with nephritis. We assessed the level of renal cell apoptosis in kidney...... biopsies from 35 patients with lupus nephritis by means of terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Five samples of normal kidney tissue served as control specimens. We did not observe apoptotic glomerular cells in any...... cells constitute a quantitatively important source of auto-antibody-inducing nuclear auto-antigens in human lupus nephritis....

  13. Experimental anti-GBM nephritis as an analytical tool for studying spontaneous lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Fu, Yuyang; Mohan, Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that results in immune-mediated damage to multiple organs. Among these, kidney involvement is the most common and fatal. Spontaneous lupus nephritis (SLN) in mouse models has provided valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of human lupus nephritis. However, SLN in mouse models takes 6-12 months to manifest; hence there is clearly the need for a mouse model that can be used to unveil the pathogenic processes that lead to immune nephritis over a shorter time frame. In this article more than 25 different molecules are reviewed that have been studied both in the anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) model and in SLN and it was found that these molecules influence both diseases in a parallel fashion, suggesting that the two disease settings share common molecular mechanisms. Based on these observations, the authors believe the experimental anti-GBM disease model might be one of the best tools currently available for uncovering the downstream molecular mechanisms leading to SLN.

  14. Detection of avian nephritis virus and chicken astrovirus in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Avian nephritis virus (ANV) and chicken astrovirus (CAstV) are widely distributed in poultry flocks ... sheep, cats, dogs, deer, mice, turkeys, guinea fowl and ..... complex: turkey astrovirus, turkey coronavirus, and turkey reovirus.

  15. Early Prediction of Lupus Nephritis Using Advanced Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Gupta IR . Evaluation of activity, chronicity and tubulointerstitial indices for childhood lupus nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 2008;23:83–91. 34. Isenberg DA...University of Okla- homa Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City: Drs. Michael Hen- drickson and James N. Jarvis (data collection); Tracy Fuelling...Duffy CM, Bernard C, Gupta IR : Evaluation of activity, chronicity and tubulointerstitial indices for childhood lupus nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol 2008

  16. IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingchuan; Cornell, Lynn D

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Many patients with IgG4-TIN are diagnosed after IgG4-RD has been recognized in other organ systems, but the kidney may also be the first or only site involved. The presenting clinical features of IgG4-TIN are most commonly kidney insufficiency, kidney mass lesion(s), or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, increased IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and often tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits. Elevation of serum IgG4 often accompanies IgG4-RD; however, it is not specific in reaching the diagnosis. Like IgG4-RD in other organs, IgG4-TIN characteristically responds promptly to steroids, although there is a high relapse rate on discontinuation of immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is not understood. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Renal expression of polyomavirus large T antigen is associated with nephritis in human systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenton, Kristin Andreassen; Mjelle, Janne Erikke; Jacobsen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    ) that these complexes bound induced anti-nucleosome antibodies and finally (iv) that they associated with glomerular membranes as immune complexes. This process may be relevant for human lupus nephritis, since productive polyomavirus infection is associated with this organ manifestation. Here, we compare nephritis...... to the evolution of lupus nephritis in human SLE....

  18. 77 FR 38305 - Guidance for Industry on Lupus Nephritis Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Lupus Nephritis Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical... ``Lupus Nephritis Caused By Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products for Treatment... of medical products for the treatment of lupus nephritis. Dated: June 22, 2012. Leslie Kux, Assistant...

  19. Understanding lupus nephritis: diagnosis, management, and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok CC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chi Chiu MokDepartment of Medicine, Tuen Mun Hospital and Center for Assessment and Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases, Pok Oi Hospital, Hong Kong, ChinaAbstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE predominantly affects women in their reproductive years. Renal disease (glomerulonephritis is one of the most frequent and serious manifestations of SLE. Of the various histological types of lupus glomerulonephritis, diffuse proliferative nephritis carries the worst prognosis. Combined with high-dose prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF has emerged as a first-line immunosuppressive treatment, although data regarding the efficacy of MMF on the long-term preservation of renal function are forthcoming. Cyclophosphamide is reserved for more severe forms of lupus nephritis, such as crescentic glomerulonephritis with rapidly deteriorating renal function, patients with significant renal function impairment at presentation, and refractory renal disease. Evidence for the calcineurin inhibitors in the treatment of lupus nephritis is weaker, and it concerns patients who are intolerant or recalcitrant to other agents. While further controlled trials are mandatory, B cell modulation therapies, such as rituximab, belimumab and epratuzumab are confined to refractory disease. Non-immunosuppressive measures, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, vigorous blood pressure control, prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and osteoporosis, are equally important.Keywords: lupus, nephritis, nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, treatment, therapy, women

  20. Kidney disease in lupus is not always 'lupus nephritis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Anders (Hans-Joachim); J.J. Weening (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn lupus erythematosus, elevated serum creatinine levels and urinary abnormalities implicate a kidney disorder, which may not always be lupus nephritis as defined by the current classification of the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society. The signs of renal

  1. Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise From; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and SLE with concomitant or subsequent lupus nephritis (LN) in Denmark during 1995.2011, using data from the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR).  Methods. To assess the incidence of SLE, we identified all persons aged...

  2. Renal cell apoptosis in human lupus nephritis: a histological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, M; Penkowa, Milena; Andersen, C B

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear autoantigens from apoptotic cells are believed to drive the immunological response in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Conflicting data exist as to the possible renal origin of apoptotic cells in SLE patients with nephritis. We assessed the level of renal cell apoptosis in kidney...

  3. Characteristic tubulointerstitial nephritis in IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Kanetsuna, Yukiko; Honda, Kazuho; Yamanaka, Nobuaki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Nagata, Michio

    2012-04-01

    Nephropathy associated with IgG4-related disease is characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis. To better identify its pathology, the present study analyzed clinicopathologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis cases from across Japan. Sixteen cases were identified as IgG4-related nephropathy using the criterion of high serum IgG4 levels (>135 mg/dL) with abnormal kidney computed tomography or elevated serum creatinine levels. Male predominance (75%) and advanced age (average, 62.0 years) were noted. Eight cases displayed no autoimmune pancreatitis. Renal computed tomography abnormalities were found in 12 of 13 cases examined. Renal dysfunction was found in 15 of 16 cases at biopsy. Distinctive features of tubulointerstitial lesions included (1) well-demarcated borders between involved and uninvolved areas; (2) involvement of the cortex and medulla, often extending beyond the renal capsule and with occasional extension to retroperitoneal fibrosis; (3) interstitial inflammatory cells comprising predominantly plasma cells and lymphocytes, with a high prevalence of IgG4-positive cells often admixed with fibrosis; (4) peculiar features of interstitial fibrosis resembling a "bird's-eye" pattern comprising fibrosis among inter-plasma cell spaces; and (5) deposits visible by light and immunofluorescent microscopy in the tubular basement membrane, Bowman capsule, and interstitium that are restricted to the involved portion, sparing normal parts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of myofibroblasts with intracellular/pericellular collagen accompanied by plasma cell accumulation from an early stage. Histology could not discriminate between IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with and without autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the distinctive histologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis can facilitate the differential diagnosis of tubulointerstitial nephritis, even without autoimmune pancreatitis or an abnormal

  4. Decay-accelerating factor 1 deficiency exacerbates leptospiral-induced murine chronic nephritis and renal fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Ferrer

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira, which can colonize the proximal renal tubules and persist for long periods in the kidneys of infected hosts. Here, we characterized the infection of C57BL/6J wild-type and Daf1-/- mice, which have an enhanced host response, with a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain at 14 days post-infection, its persistence in the kidney, and its link to kidney fibrosis at 90 days post-infection. We found that Leptospira interrogans can induce acute moderate nephritis in wild-type mice and is able to persist in some animals, inducing fibrosis in the absence of mortality. In contrast, Daf1-/- mice showed acute mortality, with a higher bacterial burden. At the chronic stage, Daf1-/- mice showed greater inflammation and fibrosis than at 14 days post-infection and higher levels at all times than the wild-type counterpart. Compared with uninfected mice, infected wild-type mice showed higher levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13, with similar levels of α-smooth muscle actin, galectin-3, TGF-β1, IL-17, IFN-γ, and lower IL-12 levels at 90 days post-infection. In contrast, fibrosis in Daf1-/- mice was accompanied by high expression of α-smooth muscle actin, galectin-3, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ, similar levels of TGF-β1, IL-12, and IL-17 and lower IL-4 levels. This study demonstrates the link between Leptospira-induced murine chronic nephritis with renal fibrosis and shows a protective role of Daf1.

  5. Acute ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy with granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Goli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. Ciprofloxacin, a commonly used antibiotic, causes AKI secondary to immune-mediated interstitial injury. Rare mechanisms of ciprofloxacin-induced renal injury include crystalluria, rhabdomyolysis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that crystalluria and crystal nephropathy due to ciprofloxacin occur in alkaline urine. Preexisting kidney function impairment, high dose of the medication, and advanced age predispose to this complication. We report a case of ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a young patient with no other predisposing factors. The patient responded to conservative treatment without the need for glucocorticoids.

  6. Levetiracetam-induced interstitial nephritis in a patient with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with a new diagnosis of low grade glioma was started on an escalating dose of levetiracetam (Lev) for seizure management. He gradually developed intractable nausea/vomiting and a high creatinine concentration due to acute renal failure which was attributed to Lev-induced interstitial nephritis. The medication was changed and his renal function rapidly improved to his baseline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pediatric lupus nephritis presenting with terminal renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besouw, Martine T P; Vande Walle, Johan G; Ilias, Mohamad I; Raes, Ann M; Prytula, Agnieszka A; Claeys, Lieve; Dehoorne, Jo L

    2016-12-01

    A 12-year-old Congolese girl presented with acute renal failure, edema, hypertension, hemoptysis, hematuria, and proteinuria after a history of throat infection. Renal ultrasound showed kidneys of normal size, with increased echogenicity of the cortical parenchyma and decreased corticomedullary differentiation. Other additional investigations showed pancytopenia with decreased complement (low C3 and C4). Antinuclear antibodies were strongly positive, including anti-double stranded DNA. Renal biopsy confirmed severe grade IV lupus nephritis. She was treated with high-dose steroids, mycophenolate mofetil and hydroxychloroquine, in addition to hemodialysis. After one week of intensive treatment, diuresis recovered and dialysis could be stopped after six sessions. We describe an uncommon case of severe lupus nephritis, presenting with terminal renal failure. Since the rarity of this disease presentation, other more common diagnoses have to be considered. Once the diagnosis of lupus nephritis is established, a choice has to be made between the different induction treatment protocols. The patient's ethnic background and other supportive therapies, such as the need for dialysis, can help to make this choice.

  8. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating Legionnaires' disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daumas Aurélie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Legionnaires' disease is recognized as a multi-systemic illness. Afflicted patients may have pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system complications. However, renal insufficiency is uncommon. The spectrum of renal involvement may range from a mild and transient elevation of serum creatinine levels to anuric renal failure requiring dialysis and may be linked to several causes. In our present case report, we would like to draw attention to the importance of the pathological documentation of acute renal failure by reporting a case of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis complicating Legionnaires' disease. Case presentation A 55-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital for community-acquired pneumonia complicated by acute renal failure. Legionella pneumophila serogroup type 1 was diagnosed. Although the patient's respiratory illness responded to intravenous erythromycin and ofloxacin therapy, his renal failure worsened, he became anuric, and hemodialysis was started. A renal biopsy was performed, which revealed severe tubulointerstitial nephritis. After initiation of steroid therapy, his renal function improved dramatically. Conclusions This case highlights the importance of kidney biopsies in cases where acute renal failure is a complicating factor in Legionnaires' disease. If the presence of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis can be confirmed, it will likely respond favorably to steroidal treatment and thus irreversible renal damage and chronic renal failure will be avoided.

  9. Integrative medicine for managing the symptoms of lupus nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae-Young; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Integrative medicine is claimed to improve symptoms of lupus nephritis. No systematic reviews have been performed for the application of integrative medicine for lupus nephritis on patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thus, this review will aim to evaluate the current evidence on the efficacy of integrative medicine for the management of lupus nephritis in patients with SLE. Methods and analyses: The following electronic databases will be searched for studies published from their dates of inception February 2018: Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), as well as 6 Korean medical databases (Korea Med, the Oriental Medicine Advanced Search Integrated System [OASIS], DBpia, the Korean Medical Database [KM base], the Research Information Service System [RISS], and the Korean Studies Information Services System [KISS]), and 1 Chinese medical database (the China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]). Study selection, data extraction, and assessment will be performed independently by 2 researchers. The risk of bias (ROB) will be assessed using the Cochrane ROB tool. Dissemination: This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. The review will be updated to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. Trial registration number: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018085205 PMID:29595669

  10. Focal dermal hypoplasia without focal dermal hypoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras-Capetillo, Silvina N.; Lombardi, Maria Paola; Pinto-Escalante, Doris; Hennekam, Raoul C.

    2014-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH; Goltz-Gorlin syndrome) is an X-linked dominant disorder affecting mainly tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. The phenotype is characterized by hypoplastic linear skin lesions, eye malformations, hair and teeth anomalies, and multiple limbs malformations. The

  11. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome: A report on four adult cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Ben Ariba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU syndrome is a rare disease, generally presenting in children and young women. The interstitial nephritis may precede, follow, or develop concurrent to the uveitis. We report the clinical features and outcomes of four adult patients, aged 41-70 years with the TINU syndrome.

  12. Experimental anti-GBM disease as a tool for studying spontaneous lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuyang; Du, Yong; Mohan, Chandra

    2007-08-01

    Lupus nephritis is an immune-mediated disease, where antibodies and T cells both play pathogenic roles. Since spontaneous lupus nephritis in mouse models takes 6-12 months to manifest, there is an urgent need for a mouse model that can be used to delineate the pathogenic processes that lead to immune nephritis, over a quicker time frame. We propose that the experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease model might be a suitable tool for uncovering some of the molecular steps underlying lupus nephritis. This article reviews the current evidence that supports the use of the experimental anti-GBM nephritis model for studying spontaneous lupus nephritis. Importantly, out of about 25 different molecules that have been specifically examined in the experimental anti-GBM model and also spontaneous lupus nephritis, all influence both diseases concordantly, suggesting that the experimental model might be a useful tool for unraveling the molecular basis of spontaneous lupus nephritis. This has important clinical implications, both from the perspective of genetic susceptibility as well as clinical therapeutics.

  13. High risk of ischemic heart disease in patients with lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Starklint, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a cohort of 104 Danish patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN).......To investigate the occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a cohort of 104 Danish patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN)....

  14. Autoantibodies Targeting a Collecting Duct-Specific Water Channel in Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landegren, Nils; Pourmousa Lindberg, Mina; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a common cause of kidney failure and may have diverse etiologies. This form of nephritis is sometimes associated with autoimmune disease, but the role of autoimmune mechanisms in disease development is not well understood. Here, we present the cases of three patien...

  15. Crescentic glomerular nephritis associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendran, K; Senarathne, L D S U; Lanerolle, R D

    2017-07-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder where clinically significant renal involvement is relatively common. However, crescentic glomerular nephritis is a rarely described entity among the rheumatoid nephropathies. We report a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative crescentic glomerular nephritis. A 54-year-old Sri Lankan woman who had recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was being treated with methotrexate 10 mg weekly and infrequent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. She presented to our hospital with worsening generalized body swelling and oliguria of 1 month's duration. Her physical examination revealed that she had bilateral pitting leg edema and periorbital edema. She was not pale or icteric. She had evidence of mild synovitis of the small joints of the hand bilaterally with no deformities. No evidence of systemic vasculitis was seen. Her blood pressure was 170/100 mmHg, and her jugular venous pressure was elevated to 7 cm with an undisplaced cardiac apex. Her urine full report revealed 2+ proteinuria with active sediment (dysmorphic red blood cells [17%] and granular casts). Her 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 2 g. Her serum creatinine level was 388 μmol/L. Abdominal ultrasound revealed normal-sized kidneys with acute parenchymal changes and mild ascites. Her renal biopsy showed renal parenchyma containing 20 glomeruli showing diffuse proliferative glomerular nephritis, with 14 of 20 glomeruli showing cellular crescents, and the result of Congo red staining was negative. Her rheumatoid factor was positive with a high titer (120 IU/ml), but results for antinuclear antibody, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (perinuclear and cytoplasmic) were negative. Antistreptolysin O titer rheumatoid arthritis, awareness of which would facilitate early appropriate investigations and treatment.

  16. Acute radiation nephritis. Light and electron microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, S.; Chandra, R.; Antonovych, T.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to observe acute radiation nephritis. By light microscopy the changes were of fibrinoid necrosis of the arteries and arterioles with segmental necrosis of the glomerular tufts. By electron microscopy the endocapillary cells reacted by hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increase in cytoplasmic organelles. In addition, disruption of endothelial and epithelial cells from the basement membranes were seen. It is concluded that the electron microscopic changes were unique and may be helpful in differentiating the necrotizing glomerulitis seen in other conditions, especially malignant hypertension

  17. Murine nephrotoxic nephritis as a model of chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, M. K.E.; Kvist, P. H.; Jensen, H. E.

    2018-01-01

    Using the nonaccelerated murine nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) as a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could provide an easily inducible model that enables a rapid test of treatments. Originally, the NTN model was developed as an acute model of glomerulonephritis, but in this study we evaluate...... progressive mesangial expansion and significant renal fibrosis within three weeks suggesting CKD development. CD1 and C57BL/6 females showed a similar disease progression, but female mice seemed more susceptible to NTS compared to male mice. The presence of albuminuria, GFR decline, mesangial expansion...

  18. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive

  19. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Moinuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI.

  20. Association of STAT4 polymorphism with severe renal insufficiency in lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Bolin

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis is a cause of significant morbidity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and its genetic background has not been completely clarified. The aim of this investigation was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for association with lupus nephritis, its severe form proliferative nephritis and renal outcome, in two Swedish cohorts. Cohort I (n = 567 SLE cases, n = 512 controls was previously genotyped for 5676 SNPs and cohort II (n = 145 SLE cases, n = 619 controls was genotyped for SNPs in STAT4, IRF5, TNIP1 and BLK. Case-control and case-only association analyses for patients with lupus nephritis, proliferative nephritis and severe renal insufficiency were performed. In the case-control analysis of cohort I, four highly linked SNPs in STAT4 were associated with lupus nephritis with genome wide significance with p = 3.7 × 10(-9, OR 2.20 for the best SNP rs11889341. Strong signals of association between IRF5 and an HLA-DR3 SNP marker were also detected in the lupus nephritis case versus healthy control analysis (p <0.0001. An additional six genes showed an association with lupus nephritis with p <0.001 (PMS2, TNIP1, CARD11, ITGAM, BLK and IRAK1. In the case-only meta-analysis of the two cohorts, the STAT4 SNP rs7582694 was associated with severe renal insufficiency with p = 1.6 × 10(-3 and OR 2.22. We conclude that genetic variations in STAT4 predispose to lupus nephritis and a worse outcome with severe renal insufficiency.

  1. Focal retinal phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Quan V; Freund, K Bailey; Klancnik, James M; Sorenson, John A; Cunningham, Emmett T; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    To report three cases of solitary, focal retinal phlebitis. An observational case series. Three eyes in three patients were noted to have unilateral decreased vision, macular edema, and a focal retinal phlebitis, which was not at an arteriovenous crossing. All three patients developed a branch retinal vein occlusion at the site of inflammation. These patients had no other evidence of intraocular inflammation, including vitritis, retinitis, retinal vasculitis, or choroiditis, nor was there any systemic disorder associated with inflammation, infection, or coagulation identified. Focal retinal phlebitis appears to be an uncommon and unique entity that produces macular edema and ultimately branch retinal vein occlusion. In our patients, the focal phlebitis and venous occlusion did not occur at an arteriovenous crossing, which is the typical site for branch retinal venous occlusive disease. This suggests that our cases represent a distinct clinical entity, which starts with a focal abnormality in the wall of a retinal venule, resulting in surrounding exudation and, ultimately, ends with branch retinal vein occlusion.

  2. Outcome of childhood lupus nephritis in Saudi children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mohammed Al-Mayouf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim in this study is to report the long-term renal outcome of a cohort of Saudi children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. All patients with childhood lupus nephritis (cLN proved by renal biopsy seen between January 2000 and June 2015 were reviewed. The renal outcome was assessed according to serum creatinine level, protein/creatinine ratio at the last follow-up visit, and/or evidence of renal impairment during follow-up period and end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Additional outcome measures include accrual damage measured by pediatric adaptation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (pSDI, and death related to SLE was determined. A total of 84 (72 females cLN patients with follow-up duration of 9.3 years (±5.2 were included in this study. The mean current age was 19.4 years (±5.5 and mean age at onset was 9.2 years (±2.4. The most frequent histopathological class was proliferative glomerulonephritis (64.3% followed by membranous nephritis (27.4%. The mean activity and chronicity indices were 5.9 (±3.9 and 2.9 (±2.2, respectively. Renal microthrombosis was found in 9 (10.7% patients. All patients treated with immunosuppressive medications; cyclophosphamide used in 64 followed by mycophenolate mofetil in 42, then azathioprine in 19 patients, while rituximab used in 24 patients. At the last follow-up visit, the mean serum creatinine was 147 umol/L (±197 and the mean protein/ creatinine ratio was 0.8 (± 1.1 while the mean total pSDI was 1.9 (±1.9 and mean renal SDI was 0.7 (±1.1. Sixteen (19% patients had ESRD and eight of them had class IV nephritis. However, there was no significant difference in ESRD by histological class. The overall survival rates were five years: 94% and 10 years: 87%. Infection was the leading cause of mortality. Our patients had severe cLN and required intensive treatment. Despite the survival rate is comparable to other studies, ESRD is more

  3. Recurrent Bilateral Focal Myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagafuchi, Hiroko; Nakano, Hiromasa; Ooka, Seido; Takakuwa, Yukiko; Yamada, Hidehiro; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Shimojo, Sadatomo; Ozaki, Shoichi

    This report describes a rare case of recurrent bilateral focal myositis and its successful treatment via methotrexate. A 38-year-old man presented myalgia of the right gastrocnemius in May 2005. Magnetic resonance imaging showed very high signal intensity in the right gastrocnemius on short-tau inversion recovery images. A muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory CD4+ cell-dominant myogenic change. Focal myositis was diagnosed. The first steroid treatment was effective. Tapering of prednisolone, however, repeatedly induced myositis relapse, which progressed to multiple muscle lesions of both lower limbs. Initiation of methotrexate finally allowed successful tapering of prednisolone, with no relapse in the past 4 years.

  4. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  5. Parvovirus B19 induced lupus-like syndrome with nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Elodie; Rihova, Zuzana; Cmejla, Radek; Decleire, Pierre-Yves; Langen, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old man who developed an acute illness with fever, arthralgia and nephritic syndrome. Antinuclear antibodies were slightly positive and complement levels were low. Renal biopsy showed exudative diffuse proliferative endocapillary glomerulonephritis with diffuse immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement deposition (C3d, C4d, C1q) on immunofluorescence. The patient was first treated with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil for suspected lupus with WHO class IV glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis was questioned and a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated nephritis was made based on elevation of serum IgM antibodies for parvovirus B19 and detection of parvovirus B19 DNA on renal biopsy. The immunosuppressive treatment was stopped and progressive spontaneous regression of clinical and laboratory abnormalities was observed. We conclude that human parvovirus B19 infection should be considered as a cause of lupus-like symptomatology and acute glomerulonephritis.

  6. Renal Localization of {sup 67}Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam University College of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    {sup 67}Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of {sup 67}Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal {sup 67}Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of {sup 67}Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher {sup 67}Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal {sup 67}Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal {sup 67}Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, {sup 67}Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  7. Renal Localization of 67Ga Citrate in Noninfectious Nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Jeong, Min Soo; Rhee, Sunn Kgoo; Kim, Sam Yong; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1992-01-01

    67 Ga citrate scan has been requested for detection or follow-up of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. Visualization of 67 Ga citrate in the kidneys at 48 and 72 hr post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. But precise mechanisms of abnormal 67 Ga uptake in kidneys were unknown. We undertook a study to determine the clinical value of 67 Ga citrate imaging of the kidneys in 68 patients with primary or secondary nephropathy confirmed by renal biopsy and 66 control patients without renal disease. Renal uptake in 48 to 72 hr images was graded as follows: Grade 0=background activity;1=faint uptake greater than background; 2=definite uptake, but less than lumbar vertebrae;3 same uptake as lumbar vertebrae, but less than liver; 4=same or higher uptake than liver. The results were as follows. 1) 42 of 68(62%) patients with noninfectious nephritis showed grade 2 or higher 67 Ga renal uptake but only 10 percent of control patients showed similar uptake. 2) In 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 of 9 (89%) patients with lupus nephritis exhibited marked renal uptake. 3) 36 of 41 patients (88%) with combined nephrotic syndrome showed Grade 2 or higher renal uptake. 4) Renal 67 Ga uptake was correlated with clinical severity of nephrotic syndrome determined by serum albumin level, 24 hr urine protein excretion and serum lipid levels. 5) After complete remission of nephrotic syndrome, renal uptake in all 8 patients who were initially Grade 3 or 4, decreased to Grade 1 or 0. In conclusion, we think that the mechanism of renal 67 Ga uptake in nephrotic syndrome might be related to the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In systemic lupus erythematosus, 67 Ga citrate scan is useful in predicting renal involvement.

  8. Control of lupus nephritis by changes of gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qinghui; Zhang, Husen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Lin, Kaisen; Liu, Hualan; Edwards, Michael R; Ahmed, S Ansar; Yuan, Ruoxi; Li, Liwu; Cecere, Thomas E; Branson, David B; Kirby, Jay L; Goswami, Poorna; Leeth, Caroline M; Read, Kaitlin A; Oestreich, Kenneth J; Vieson, Miranda D; Reilly, Christopher M; Luo, Xin M

    2017-07-11

    Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota promotes autoimmune disorders that damage extraintestinal organs. Here we report a role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction in lupus. Using a classical model of lupus nephritis, MRL/lpr, we found a marked depletion of Lactobacillales in the gut microbiota. Increasing Lactobacillales in the gut improved renal function of these mice and prolonged their survival. We used a mixture of 5 Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gasseri), but L. reuteri and an uncultured Lactobacillus sp. accounted for most of the observed effects. Further studies revealed that MRL/lpr mice possessed a "leaky" gut, which was reversed by increased Lactobacillus colonization. Lactobacillus treatment contributed to an anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing IL-6 and increasing IL-10 production in the gut. In the circulation, Lactobacillus treatment increased IL-10 and decreased IgG2a that is considered to be a major immune deposit in the kidney of MRL/lpr mice. Inside the kidney, Lactobacillus treatment also skewed the Treg-Th17 balance towards a Treg phenotype. These beneficial effects were present in female and castrated male mice, but not in intact males, suggesting that the gut microbiota controls lupus nephritis in a sex hormone-dependent manner. This work demonstrates essential mechanisms on how changes of the gut microbiota regulate lupus-associated immune responses in mice. Future studies are warranted to determine if these results can be replicated in human subjects.

  9. Anti-Myeloperoxidase Antibodies Associate with Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Olson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The subclinical pathophysiology of proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN has not been fully elucidated. Myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA is associated with PLN, but prediagnostic levels have not been reported. Methods. We performed a retrospective case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR study comparing MPO-ANCA levels in longitudinal prediagnostic serum samples for 23 biopsy confirmed proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN patients to DoDSR identified age, sex, race, and age of serum matched healthy and SLE without LN disease controls. We also compared the temporal relationship of MPO-ANCA to anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNAab. Results. A greater proportion of PLN patients had prediagnostic MPO-ANCA levels above ≥3 U/mL and ≥6 U/mL compared to SLE without LN (91% versus 43%, p<0.001; 57% versus 5%, p<0.001, resp.. In subgroup analysis, the MPO-ANCA threshold of ≥3 U/mL was significant at <1 year (88% versus 39%, p=0.007 and 1–4 years (87% versus 38%, p=0.009 prior to diagnosis. Statistically significant subclinical MPO-ANCA levels (≥3 U/mL occurred prior to statistically significant dsDNAab ≥ 3 IU/ml (89% versus 11%, p=0.003. Conclusions. Subclinical MPO-ANCA levels could distinguish future PLN from SLE without LN. MPO-ANCA manifests prior to clinical disease and subclinical dsDNAab to suggest that it may contribute directly to PLN pathogenicity.

  10. Long-term mortality and renal outcome in a cohort of 100 patients with lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Dreyer, Lene; Kamper, Anne-Lise

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term mortality and renal outcome in a cohort of Danish patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to identify outcome predictors among findings registered at the time of the first renal biopsy.......To evaluate the long-term mortality and renal outcome in a cohort of Danish patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to identify outcome predictors among findings registered at the time of the first renal biopsy....

  11. Childhood lupus nephritis: 12 years of experience from a developing country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Moumita; Nandi, Madhumita; Mondal, Rakesh; Hazra, Avijit; Sarkar, Sumatra; Sabui, Tapas; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Biswas, Arnab

    2017-09-01

    To assess the long-term outcome of lupus nephritis in children with systemic lupus erythematosus followed up over 12 years at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India. This is a retrospective observational study of the clinicopathological presentation, management, and outcome in 46 children with lupus nephritis over a period of 12 years at a tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern India. Mortality was compared between different lupus classes and therapy groups with Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test. The incidence of lupus nephritis was 58.97% [95% confidence interval (CI) 48.06%-59.89%] with the mean age at presentation being 10.2±2.43 years (range 5.5-14.5) years. Majority belonged to class IV (30.43%), followed by class II (26.91%), class III (23.91), and class V (8.70%). Outcome analysis of children with lupus nephritis over 12 years revealed that 24 (52.17%) achieved complete remission of disease activity, 5 attained partial remission, 4 continued to have active disease, 5 developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and 8 died. Overall mortality thus observed was 17.39% with septicemia in the background of ESRD being the commonest cause. No significant difference in mortality was observed between different lupus nephritis classes or therapy arm groups. The study throws light on various aspects of lupus nephritis and their long-term outcome patterns in children from developing countries such as India.

  12. Focal myositis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devic, P; Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Petiot, P

    2016-11-01

    Amongst the heterogeneous group of inflammatory myopathies, focal myositis stands as a rare and benign dysimmune disease. Although it can be associated with root and/or nerve lesions, traumatic muscle lesions and autoimmune diseases, its triggering factors remain poorly understood. Defined as an isolated inflammatory pseudotumour usually restricted to one skeletal muscle, clinical presentation of focal myositis is that of a rapidly growing solitary mass within a single muscle, usually in the lower limbs. Electromyography shows spontaneous activity associated with a myopathic pattern. MRI reveals a contrast enhanced enlarged muscle appearing hyper-intense on FAT-SAT T2 weighted images. Adjacent structures are spared and there are no calcifications. Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels are usually moderately augmented and biological markers of systemic inflammation are absent in most cases. Pathological histological features include marked variation in fibre size, inflammatory infiltrates mostly composed of T CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages, degenerating/regenerating fibres and interstitial fibrosis. Differential diagnoses are numerous and include myositis of other origin with focal onset. Steroid treatment should be reserved for patients who present with major pain, nerve lesions, associated autoimmune disease, or elevated C reactive protein or CK. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  14. Intracranial hypertension: A rare presentation of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Praveen; Nair, Anishkumar; Cherian, Ajith; Sibi, N S; Kumar, Ashwini

    2010-07-01

    A 14-year-old male presented with bilateral papilledema, growth retardation and absent secondary sexual characters. He had a past history of fever, headache and fatigue of 6 months duration. The diagnosis of intracranial hypertension (IH) was confirmed by an increased intracranial pressure and normal neuroimaging studies of the brain, except for partial empty sella, prominent perioptic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces and buckling of optic nerves. Evaluation showed erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 150 mm/hr, positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti dsDNA and anti ribosomal P protein. Renal biopsy revealed diffuse segmental proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) class IV S (A) confirming the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Treatment of LN with intravenous pulse methyl prednisolone and cyclophosphamide was effective in normalizing the CSF pressure, resulting in express and dramatic resolution of symptomatology. In a case of IH, SLE must be considered. IH, growth retardation and absence of sexual characters may be presenting manifestations of a chronic systemic inflammatory disease like SLE. These manifestations may act as a pointer to associated advanced grades of LN, which can be totally asymptomatic and missed without a renal biopsy.

  15. Pregnancy and renal outcomes in lupus nephritis: an update and guide to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, K; Soh, M C; Nelson-Piercy, C

    2012-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) commonly affects women of child bearing-age, and advances in treatment have resulted in an increasing number of women with renal involvement becoming pregnant. Knowledge of the relationship of the condition with respect to fertility and pregnancy is important for all clinicians involved in the care of women with lupus nephritis because they have complicated pregnancies. Presentation of lupus nephritis can range from mild asymptomatic proteinuria to rapidly progressive renal failure and may occur before, during, or after pregnancy. The timing of diagnosis may influence pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy may also affect the course of lupus nephritis. All pregnancies in women with lupus nephritis should be planned, preferably after more than six-months of quiescent disease. Predictors of poor obstetric outcome include active disease at conception or early pregnancy, baseline poor renal function with Creatinine >100 μmol/L, proteinuria >0.5 g/24 hours, presence of concurrent antiphospholipid syndrome and hypertension. In this review the most recent studies of pregnancies in women with lupus nephritis are discussed and a practical approach to managing women prepregnancy, during pregnancy and post-partum is described.

  16. Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure following multiple hornet stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambery Pradeep

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hornet stings are generally associated with local and occasionally anaphylactic reactions. Rarely systemic complications like acute renal failure can occur following multiple stings. Renal failure is usually due to development of acute tubular necrosis as a result of intravascular haemolysis, rhabdomyolysis or shock. Rarely it can be following development of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Case presentation We describe a young male, who was stung on face, head, shoulders and upper limbs by multiple hornets (Vespa orientalis. He developed acute renal failure as a result of acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and responded to steroids. Conclusion Rare causes of acute renal failure like tubulo-interstitial nephritis should be considered in a patient with persistent oliguria and azotemia following multiple hornet stings. Renal biopsy should be undertaken early, as institution of steroid therapy may help in recovery of renal function

  17. [Tubulointerstitial nephritis with uveitis (TINU) syndrome. A relatively rare rheumatological differential diagnosis with unexplained uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, U; Guminski, B; Helmchen, U; Kisters, K; Heinz, C; Braun, J

    2013-05-01

    The tubulo-interstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome, first described in 1975, is a rare disease most probably of autoimmune origin that is characterized by unilateral or bilateral uveitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Most patients are adolescents and it is sometimes associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as spondyloarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and hyperthyroidosis. This article reports the case of a 43-year-old female patient who presented with refractory recurrent bilateral uveitis despite therapy with high doses of corticosteroids in combination with cyclosporin. When the patient was referred to this hospital for rheumatological examination after almost 1 year of therapy, mild renal insufficiency and proteinuria were found. The kidney biopsy revealed interstitial nephritis, partly crescent-shaped and partly chronic. A diagnosis of TINU syndrome was made and treatment with adalimumab in combination with methotrexate was started. The favorable clinical outcome indicated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TINU syndrome.

  18. Relapsing tubulointerstitial nephritis in an adolescent with inflammatory bowel disease without aminosalicylate exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahrani Muhammad, H S

    2012-01-31

    A 14-year-old boy presented with ongoing constipation as a manifestation of newly diagnosed Crohn\\'s disease (CD) and a concomitant decline in renal function with biopsy-proven interstitial nephritis. Initiation of steroid therapy and mesalazine was associated with an improvement in symptoms and renal function. We describe a rare case of a 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)-naive patient who developed interstitial nephritis in association with CD with no evidence of other primary glomerulopathy. A unique feature of the case being a profound systemic inflammatory response at the time of diagnosis and a relapse in nephritis 2 months after cessation of mesalazine in the absence of any macroscopic colitis.

  19. The renal metallothionein expression profile is altered in human lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Penkowa, Milena; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund

    2008-01-01

    of standard statistical methods. RESULTS: Proximal tubules displaying epithelial cell MT-I+II depletion in combination with luminal MT-I+II expression were observed in 31 out of 37 of the lupus nephritis specimens, but not in any of the control sections (P = 0.006). The tubular MT score, defined as the median......INTRODUCTION: Metallothionein (MT) isoforms I + II are polypeptides with potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In healthy kidneys, MT-I+II have been described as intracellular proteins of proximal tubular cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the renal MT......-I+II expression profile is altered during lupus nephritis. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on renal biopsies from 37 patients with lupus nephritis. Four specimens of healthy renal tissue served as controls. Clinicopathological correlation studies and renal survival analyses were performed by means...

  20. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with plasma cell-rich renal arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shree G; Vlase, Horia L; D'Agati, Vivette D

    2013-04-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related tubulointerstitial nephritis is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity that may occur as an isolated renal lesion or as part of a multisystem disorder. It is characterized by plasma cell-rich interstitial nephritis with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells and IgG-dominant tubulointerstitial immune deposits. We report the first case of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with multifocal plasma cell-rich renal arteritis presenting as acute kidney injury in a 72-year-old man. Seven weeks of prednisone therapy led to nearly complete recovery of kidney function. This case enlarges the morphologic spectrum of this disorder and emphasizes the need to distinguish it from other causes of renal vasculitis. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of unique microRNA signature associated with lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie L Te

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA have emerged as an important new class of modulators of gene expression. In this study we investigated miRNA that are differentially expressed in lupus nephritis. Microarray technology was used to investigate differentially expressed miRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV-transformed cell lines obtained from lupus nephritis affected patients and unaffected controls. TaqMan-based stem-loop real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for validation. Microarray analysis of miRNA expressed in both African American (AA and European American (EA derived lupus nephritis samples revealed 29 and 50 differentially expressed miRNA, respectively, of 850 tested. There were 18 miRNA that were differentially expressed in both racial groups. When samples from both racial groups and different specimen types were considered, there were 5 primary miRNA that were differentially expressed. We have identified 5 miRNA; hsa-miR-371-5P, hsa-miR-423-5P, hsa-miR-638, hsa-miR-1224-3P and hsa-miR-663 that were differentially expressed in lupus nephritis across different racial groups and all specimen types tested. Hsa-miR-371-5P, hsa-miR-1224-3P and hsa-miR-423-5P, are reported here for the first time to be associated with lupus nephritis. Our work establishes EBV-transformed B cell lines as a useful model for the discovery of miRNA as biomarkers for SLE. Based on these findings, we postulate that these differentially expressed miRNA may be potential novel biomarkers for SLE as well as help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of lupus nephritis. The investigation of miRNA profiles in SLE may lead to the discovery and development of novel methods to diagnosis, treat and prevent SLE.

  2. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Qi

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN.For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity-2000 (SLEDAI-2K scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry.Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages.Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest that it might play an

  3. Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome associated with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Itaru; Hirayama, Kouichi; Usui, Joichi; Seki, Masanori; Higuchi, Fujiko; Oteki, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Masaki; Yamagata, Kunihiro

    2006-09-01

    We report a 17-year-old male patient with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) associated with hyperthyroidism. He presented with a 2-month history of fatigue, loss of appetite, low-grade fever, and a 12-kg weight loss when he was admitted to our hospital. He had iritis, which was complicated by fibrin in the anterior chamber, diagnosed by slit-lamp examination. On laboratory examinations, deteriorated renal function (blood urea nitrogen level was 25.9 mg/dl and creatinine level was 2.82 mg/dl) and elevated urinary levels of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (33.1 U/l) and beta2-microglobulin (78,600 microg/l) were observed. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was undetectable, at less than 0.01 microIU/ml, and free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine were elevated, up to 5.23 pg/ml and 2.85 ng/dl, respectively. The titers of antithyroglobulin and antithyroid microsomal and TSH-receptor antibodies were not elevated. Abdominal and thyroidal ultrasonography showed evident bilateral enlargement of the kidneys and diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland. Iodine-123 scintigraphy showed low uptake in the thyroid gland. The biopsied renal specimen showed mild edema and severe diffuse infiltration of mononuclear cells and few eosinophils in the interstitium, without any glomerular or vascular abnormalities. Based on the clinical features and pathological findings, a diagnosis of TINU syndrome with associated hyperthyroidism was made. Treatment was started with 30 mg/day of prednisolone. The iritis disappeared, and the patient's clinical status improved remarkably. This case suggests the possibility of thyroid dysfunction in some patients with TINU syndrome, and we believe thyroid function should be measured in all TINU patients. Moreover, histopathological diagnosis of the thyroid glands before treatment is necessary for TINU patients with thyroid dysfunction.

  4. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  5. Systemic focal epileptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

  6. Focal midbrain tumors in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandertop, W. P.; Hoffman, H. J.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Rutka, J. T.; Amstrong, D. C.; Becker, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and neuroradiological features of focal midbrain tumors in 12 children are described, and the results of their surgical management are presented. Patients with a focal midbrain tumor usually exhibit either symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure caused by an obstructive

  7. Plasma ficolin levels and risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanha, Nima; Pilely, Katrine; Faurschou, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Given the scavenging properties of ficolins, we hypothesized that variation in the plasma concentrations of the three ficolins may be associated with development of lupus nephritis (LN), type of LN, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and/or mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus...

  8. Interstitial nephritis of slaughtered pigs in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João X. Oliveira Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated histological lesions in kidney samples from pigs with nephritis in two slaughterhouses in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Four hundred samples were subjected to histology, anti-porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 immunohistochemistry (IHC, anti-Leptospira sp. immunofluorescence (IF, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for PCV2, porcine parvovirus (PPV, and Torque teno virus type 1 and 2 (TTV1, TTV2 detection. Histological lesions were found in 81% of the samples, and mononuclear interstitial nephritis was the most frequent lesion (77.50%. A follicular pattern was observed in 40.97% of the interstitial nephritis lesions. PCV2, PPV, TTV1, and TTV2 were identified in the kidneys by PCR in 27.25%, 28.50%, 94%, and 87.5% of the samples, respectively. Leptospira sp. was not detected through IF. Infection by PCV2 (PCR and the presence of histological lesions (P=0.008 and giant cells (P=0.0016 were significantly associated. An association was observed between the TTV2-TTV1 co-infection (P<0.0001 and the risk for pathogenesis. These findings indicated that PCV2, PPV, TTV1, and TTV2 were widely distributed among pigs in the local farms and that the presence of these agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of kidneys with interstitial nephritis in pigs.

  9. [Therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony on lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhao-Xia; Yang, Shao-Feng; Wu, Qi-Fu; Lu, Ying; Chen, Yu-Yao; Nie, Xiao-Li; Jie, Hong-Yu; Qi, Jing-Min; Wang, Fan-Sheng

    2011-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on lupus nephritis (LN) in MRL/lpr mice. MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis were randomized into model group and TGP group. The urinary protein content was detected using Coomassie brilliant blue, and the serum levels of IgG anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in the renal pathology were examined microscopically, and the spleen and thymus were weighed to calculate the spleen and thymus indexes. At 15 and 30 days after TGP administration, the urinary protein content in the TGP group was significantly lower than that in the model group (PTGP treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA and the weight and index of spleen (PTGP treatment, the urinary protein content and the levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA decreased significantly at 15 and 30 days after TGP administration (PTGP administration, the urinary protein content was significantly lowered in the TGP group as compared to that at 15 days (PTGP can reduce urinary protein content and serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA, and lessen renal pathology in MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis, suggesting its therapeutic effect on lupus nephritis.

  10. Pregnancy complications in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Helene; Jacobsen, Søren; Tvede, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis had two pregnancies which both resulted in complications known to be associated with SLE, i.e. late abortion, preterm delivery and pre-eclampsia. We conclude that disease quiescence is important for a successful outcome...

  11. Clearing the complexity: immune complexes and their treatment in lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Toong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Toong1, Stephen Adelstein1, Tri Giang Phan21Department of Clinical Immunology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Rd, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 2Immunology Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research and St. Vincent’s Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a classic antibody-mediated systemic autoimmune disease characterised by the development of autoantibodies to ubiquitous self-antigens (such as antinuclear antibodies and antidouble-stranded DNA antibodies and widespread deposition of immune complexes in affected tissues. Deposition of immune complexes in the kidney results in glomerular damage and occurs in all forms of lupus nephritis. The development of nephritis carries a poor prognosis and high risk of developing end-stage renal failure despite recent therapeutic advances. Here we review the role of DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis and possible new treatment strategies aimed at their control.Keywords: immune complex, systemic lupus erythematosus, nephritis, therapy

  12. Nucleosomes and histones are present in glomerular deposits in human lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBruggen, MCJ; Kramers, C; Walgreen, B; Elema, JD; Kallenberg, CGM; vandenBorn, J; Smeenk, RJT; Assmann, KJM; Muller, S; Monestier, M; Berden, JHM

    Background. Recently we showed that antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulphate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane (GEM) via the histone part of the nucleosome. Histones have been identified in glomerular deposits in human and murine lupus nephritis. In

  13. High risk of ischemic heart disease in patients with lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Starklint, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a cohort of 104 Danish patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN). METHODS: Information on all hospitalizations in Denmark for IHD between 1977 and 2006 was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Regist...

  14. Serial non-invasive assessment of antibody induced nephritis in mice using positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyang Hao

    Full Text Available Mouse models of experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM nephritis provide an analytical tool for studying spontaneous lupus nephritis. The potential of Positron Emission Tomography (PET was evaluated using 2-deoxy-2-[(18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG as a probe to monitor the progression of anti-GBM induced nephritis in a mouse model. The imaging results were compared to conventional measures of renal function and pathological changes. Serum and urinary vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 levels were used as measures of endothelial cell activation and inflammation. Following a challenge with anti-glomerular antibodies, mice exhibited peak changes in serum creatinine, proteinuria, and glomerulonephritis score at 14 days post-challenge (p.c.. In contrast, VCAM levels peaked at day 7 p.c. On dynamic PET images (0-60 min of day 7, kidneys of the anti-GBM nephritis mice demonstrated a unique pattern of FDG uptake. Compared to the time activity curve (TAC prior to challenge, a rightward shift was observed after the challenge. By day 10 p.c., kidney FDG uptake was lower than baseline and remained so until the study ended at 21 days p.c. During this time frame measures of renal dysfunction remained high but VCAM-1 levels declined. These changes were accompanied by an increase in kidney volume as measured by Computed Tomography (CT and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Our results suggest that FDG-PET-CT can be used as a non-invasive imaging tool to longitudinally monitor the progression of renal disease activity in antibody mediated nephritis and the magnitude of renal FDG retention correlates better with early markers of renal inflammation than renal dysfunction.

  15. Modulation of interferon-induced genes by lipoxin analogue in anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohse, Takamoto; Ota, Tatsuru; Kieran, Niamh; Godson, Catherine; Yamada, Koei; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Fujita, Toshiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2004-04-01

    Immune complex deposition is associated with the accumulation of neutrophils, which play an important role in the various immune-mediated diseases. A novel anti-inflammatory agent, the lipoxin A (LXA) analogue (15-epi-16-(FPhO)-LXA-Me)), a stable synthetic analogue of aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATLa), was used in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody nephritis in mice. ATLa was administered before the induction of the disease, and 2 h later, the animals were killed. ATLa reduced the infiltrating neutrophils and nitrotyrosine staining in glomeruli. Subsequent changes of gene expression in the early phase were evaluated, and 5674 genes were present under the basal conditions in kidneys from normal mice; 54 upregulated genes and 25 downregulated genes were detected in anti-GBM nephritis. Eighteen of these upregulated genes were those induced by IFN-gamma. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the results of the microarrays. To investigate a role of IFN-gamma in neutrophil infiltration, anti-GBM nephritis was induced in IFN-gamma knockout mice. The number of infiltrating neutrophils in these mice did not differ from those in wild-type mice. Also examined were CD11b expression on neutrophils from mice treated with ATLa by flow cytometry, but suppression of this adhesion molecule was not observed. Neutrophil infiltration was successfully inhibited by ATLa in the early phase of murine anti-GBM nephritis. Microarray analysis detected the change of mRNA expression in anti-GBM nephritis and demonstrated amelioration of various genes by ATLa, which may provide a clue to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in immune renal injury.

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of Outcomes of Lupus Nephritis in an International Inception Cohort Using a Multistate Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanly, John G; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study bidirectional change and predictors of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria in lupus nephritis (LN) using a multistate modeling approach. METHODS: Patients in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort were classifie...

  17. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  18. [Clinical guideline for the treatment of lupus nephritis and single-centre results of mycofenolate mofetil among patients with lupus nephritis in the National Institute of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy, Budapest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Melinda Zsuzsanna; Kiss, Emese

    2016-08-01

    The authors present the latest guideline for the treatment of lupus nephritis and their own single-centre results with mycofenolate mofetil treated lupus nephritis. Lupus nephritis and mainly its proliferative form is a frequent and potentially life-threatening manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus that can lead to end-stage renal disease. The treatment of lupus nephritis greatly improved in the last decades; mycofenolate mofetil has become an alternative of cyclophosphamide both in remission induction and as a maintenance regimen as well in the treatment of Class III and IV glomerulonephritis. The authors ordered mycofenolate mofetil for 25 patients with lupus nephritis so far. Histologically most of them had Class III (A/C) or IV (A) glomerulonephritis (30-30%), and only 16% of the patients had renal impairment at that time. Mycofenolate mofetil given after glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide induction therapy reduced the daily proteinuria from 3.18 grs to 1.06 grs. Complete remission could be achieved in 24% and partial remission in 48% of the patients. The authors conclude that mycofenolate mofetil is effective in the therapy of lupus nephritis. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(35), 1385-1393.

  19. Combination Therapy With Pulse Cyclophosphamide Plus Corticosteroids Improves Renal Outcome In Patients With Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mansouri Torghabeh

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prognosis of SLE is int1uenced by the onset of glomerulonephtitis. Clinical ttials in lupus nephritis have demonstrated that cyclophosphamide therapy is the superior regimen in the management oflupus nephritis for preserving renal function.Objective:The purpose of this study is to define the outcome of renal function with bolus pu lses of cyclophosphamide and steroid according to our protocol and also to determine an appropriate pattern of treatment of lupus nephritis. Methods: In this open-label clinical triaL to evaluate the results, the short-term prognosis and the rate of complications of an immunosuppressive regimen with corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, twenty-five patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis were studied. Treatment was structured in 4 phases: I Induction with bolus methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. 2 Maintenance with oral prednisolone for 4 weeks and monthly cyclophosphamide pulses for 6 months. 3 Tapeting with reduction of prednisolone by 10% each month and continuing cyclophosphamide every other month till one year and for the second year every 3 months. 4 Discontinuation with oral prednisolone slowly tapered to the least effective daily dose and cyclophosphamide discontinued after 2 yr of therapy. We defined primary outcome measures according to these criteria: renal function return to normal limits or become stable, regression of systemic and local inflammatory symptoms. urine protein excretion h1lling below 0.3 gr/ elL or by at least SOo/c. RBC cast disappearance, C3, C4, Hb, and ESR return to notmallimits. Result: Twenty-three patients wi th lupus nephritis completed our therapeutic protocol. Renal biopsy was perfonned in 22 cases and indicated type IV in 20 patients (95.2%, and type V in 2 patients. After an average of 4+ 1.95 months 22 patients achieved remission (95.65% and only one case remained non-responsive. She became pregnant in her fourth month of therapy. Significant

  20. MBL2 gene variants coding for mannose-binding lectin deficiency are associated with increased risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanha, N; Troelsen, L; From Hermansen, M-L

    2014-01-01

    .2-5.5) higher risk of developing nephritis, and their risk of death after 10 years was 6.0 times increased (95% CI: 1.0-36). MBL serum levels below 100 ng/ml were associated with a 2.0 (95% CI: 1.2-3.4; p = 0.007) increased risk of developing nephritis. ESRD and histological class of nephritis were...

  1. Short course of cyclophosphamide therapy may reduce recurrence in patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Shahram; Taheri Diana

    2009-01-01

    We report a 43-year-old woman with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome (TINU syndrome) presented with a 5-day complaint of chills and fever, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. She had elevated BUN and creatinine and urinalysis revealed decreased concentration, proteinuria, hematuria, and pyuria. A kidney biopsy showed non-caseating granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis. She suffered from anterior uveitis one month before, which was managed with local ophthalmic steroids. She received two months of oral high dose prednisolone, which was tapered over the next two months, and two months of 2 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Her renal function recovered during the first two months. Her kidney and ocular symptoms did not recur during one year of follow-up. We suggest short course of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone for treatment of TINU syndrome to decrease the recurrence of kidney and ocular involvement. (author)

  2. Renal sarcoidosis presenting as acute kidney injury with granulomatous interstitial nephritis and vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Varun; Crisi, Giovanna M; D'Agati, Vivette D; Freda, Benjamin J

    2012-02-01

    Among the various renal manifestations of sarcoidosis, granulomatous inflammation confined to the tubulointerstitial compartment is the most commonly reported finding. We present the case of a 66-year-old man with acute kidney injury, hypercalcemia, mild restrictive pulmonary disease, and neurologic signs of parietal lobe dysfunction. Kidney biopsy showed diffuse interstitial inflammation with noncaseating granulomas that exhibited the unusual feature of infiltrating the walls of small arteries with destruction of the elastic lamina, consistent with granulomatous vasculitis. The findings of granulomatous interstitial nephritis on kidney biopsy, hypercalcemia, and possible cerebral and pulmonary involvement in the absence of other infectious, drug-induced, or autoimmune causes of granulomatous disease established the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Pulse methylprednisolone followed by maintenance prednisone therapy led to improvement in kidney function, hypercalcemia, and neurologic symptoms. Vasculocentric granulomatous interstitial nephritis with granulomatous vasculitis is a rare and under-recognized manifestation of renal sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Necrotizing suppurative nephritis in a Japanese black feedlot steer due to Proteus mirabilis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tadatsugu; Iizuka, Ayako; Kojima, Hirokazu; Kimura, Kumiko; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Haritani, Makoto

    2017-04-05

    A Japanese black feedlot steer suddenly died after exhibiting astasia and cramping of the extremities. Necropsy of the animal revealed that the right kidney was enlarged and pale with severe nephrolithiasis. The urinary bladder displayed mucosal hemorrhage. Upon bacteriological investigation, Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the liver, spleen, right kidney, lungs and urine. Histopathological examination revealed necrotizing suppurative nephritis with the presence of numerous gram-negative bacilli and fibrinous suppurative cystitis with no bacilli. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the bacteria and cytoplasm of the macrophages stained positively with P. mirabilis antiserum. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous bacteria in the renal tubules. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the histopathological aspects of nephritis caused by P. mirabilis in cattle.

  4. Lupus Nephritis in Asia: Clinical Features and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Desmond Y H; Chan, Tak Mao

    2015-09-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common and severe organ involvement manifesting itself in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There is a considerable difference in prevalence, severity, treatment response and outcomes between Asian LN patients and LN patients from other racial backgrounds. Asian SLE patients have a higher prevalence of LN than Caucasian SLE patients and often present with a more severe disease. Increasing data from genetic studies, accompanied by progress in high-throughput genotyping, have advanced our knowledge about genetic predispositions that might partly contribute to the clinical variations observed. Corticosteroids combined with either cyclophosphamide (CYC) or mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the current standard-of-care induction regimen for severe LN irrespective of race or ethnicity. However, the preference for MPA or CYC, and possibly the optimum dose for MPA, is influenced by the patient's origin. Also, there is an insufficient evidence base for reduced-dose intravenous CYC in Asian patients. Health economics and access to prompt diagnosis and treatment are still challenging issues in some Asian regions. The former represents a significant obstacle limiting the access of patients to MPA despite the proven efficacy of the drug as an induction agent and its superiority over azathioprine (AZA) in preventing disease flares when used for long-term maintenance immunosuppression. Calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus deserve further investigation in view of their additional effect on podocytes by reducing proteinuria and the promising data from Asian patients. Despite considerable advances in the clinical management of LN over the past few decades with resultant improvements in patients' outcomes, there are still knowledge gaps and unmet clinical needs. Asia has made substantial contributions to the evidence base that guides clinical management and continues to offer invaluable opportunities for research pursuits. Treatment responses and clinical

  5. End-stage Renal Failure as a Complication of Acute Tubulo-Interstitial Nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, G.; Ali, R.; Abdelrehman, M.; Sinha, A. K.; Ayman, K.

    2005-01-01

    Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis (ATIN) is an important cause of acute renal failure, where renal impairement tends to be variable but recovery is the rule. End-stage renal failure (ESRF) has been rarely reported as a complication of ATIN. We report here a case of idiopathic ATIN that resulted in severe acute renal failure. The patient developed ESRF, which required permanent renal replacement therapy. (author)

  6. Semi-quantitative evaluation of gallium-67 scintigraphy in lupus nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wanyu; Hsieh Jihfang; Tsai Shihchuan; Lan Joungliang; Cheng Kaiyuan; Wang Shyhjen

    2000-01-01

    Within nuclear medicine there is a trend towards quantitative analysis. Gallium renal scan has been reported to be useful in monitoring the disease activity of lupus nephritis. However, only visual interpretation using a four-grade scale has been performed in previous studies, and this method is not sensitive enough for follow-up. In this study, we developed a semi-quantitative method for gallium renal scintigraphy to find a potential parameter for the evaluation of lupus nephritis. Forty-eight patients with lupus nephritis underwent renal biopsy to determine World Health Organization classification, activity index (AI) and chronicity index (CI). A delayed 48-h gallium scan was also performed and interpreted by visual and semi-quantitative methods. For semi-quantitative analysis of the gallium uptake in both kidneys, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over both kidneys, the right forearm and the adjacent spine. The uptake ratios between these ROIs were calculated and expressed as the ''kidney/spine ratio (K/S ratio)'' or the ''kidney/arm ratio (K/A ratio)''. Spearman's rank correlation test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Our data showed a good correlation between the semi-quantitative gallium scan and the results of visual interpretation. K/S ratios showed a better correlation with AI than did K/A ratios. Furthermore, the left K/S ratio displayed a better correlation with AI than did the right K/S ratio. In contrast, CI did not correlate well with the results of semi-quantitative gallium scan. In conclusion, semi-quantitative gallium renal scan is easy to perform and shows a good correlation with the results of visual interpretation and renal biopsy. The left K/S ratio from semi-quantitative renal gallium scintigraphy displays the best correlation with AI and is a useful parameter in evaluating the disease activity in lupus nephritis. (orig.)

  7. Acute interstitial nephritis induced by intermittent use of Rifampicin in patient with Brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, S. Bin; Kharal, M.; Qahtani, M.; Dahneem, L.; Nohair, S.

    2008-01-01

    Acute oliguric renal failure (ARF) developed in a patient 2 days after she was started on intermittent anti-Brucella therapy including rifampicin. The clinical picture was compatible with acute allergic interstitial nephritis. Renal histology revealed mainly acute tubular necrosis with mild tubulo-intertitial mononuclear cellular infiltrate. Intermittent therapy, as in our patient, has been the major factor in the development of rifampicin induced ARF in cases reviewed in literature. (author)

  8. The serum levels of connective tissue growth factor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F-M; Yu, F; Tan, Y; Liu, G; Zhao, M-H

    2014-06-01

    The expression of connective tissue growth factor mRNA in human kidneys may serve as an early marker for lupus nephritis progression. Therefore, we speculated that connective tissue growth factor may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. In this study, we set out to investigate the associations between serum connective tissue growth factor levels and clinicopathological features of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. Serum samples from patients with non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus, renal biopsy-proven lupus nephritis and healthy control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serum connective tissue growth factor levels. The associations between connective tissue growth factor levels and clinicopathological features of the patients were further analysed. The levels of serum connective tissue growth factor in patients with non-renal systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis were both significantly higher than those in the normal control group (34.14 ± 12.17 ng/ml vs. 22.8 ± 3.0 ng/ml, plupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis group (34.14 ± 12.17 ng/ml vs. 44.1 ± 46.8 ng/ml, p = 0.183). Serum connective tissue growth factor levels were significantly higher in lupus nephritis patients with the following clinical manifestations, including anaemia (51.3 ± 51.4 ng/ml vs. 23.4 ± 9.7 ng/ml, plupus nephritis (63.3 ± 63.4 ng/ml vs. 38.3 ± 37.9 ng/ml, p = 0.035, respectively). Serum connective tissue growth factor levels were negatively associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.46, plupus nephritis (plupus and correlated with chronic renal interstitial injury and doubling of serum creatinine in patients with lupus nephritis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Cell death in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pragnesh; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2017-12-01

    Nephritis is one of the most severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One key characteristic of lupus nephritis (LN) is the deposition of immune complexes containing nucleic acids and/or proteins binding to nucleic acids and autoantibodies recognizing these molecules. A variety of cell death processes are implicated in the generation and externalization of modified nuclear autoantigens and in the development of LN. Among these processes, apoptosis, primary and secondary necrosis, NETosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy have been proposed to play roles in tissue damage and immune dysregulation. Cell death occurs in healthy individuals during conditions of homeostasis yet autoimmunity does not develop, at least in part, because of rapid clearance of dying cells. In SLE, accelerated cell death combined with a clearance deficiency may lead to the accumulation and externalization of nuclear autoantigens and to autoantibody production. In addition, specific types of cell death may modify autoantigens and alter their immunogenicity. These modified molecules may then become novel targets of the immune system and promote autoimmune responses in predisposed hosts. In this review, we examine various cell death pathways and discuss how enhanced cell death, impaired clearance, and post-translational modifications of proteins could contribute to the development of lupus nephritis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Impact of the ALMS and MAINTAIN trials on the management of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather K; Canetta, Pietro A; Appel, Gerald B

    2013-06-01

    Current treatment of lupus nephritis consists of both induction and maintenance therapy, with the latter being designed to consolidate remissions and prevent relapses. Long-term maintenance treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide was effective but associated with considerable toxicity. A small but well-designed controlled trial found that for post-induction maintenance therapy, both oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and oral azathioprine were superior in efficacy and had reduced toxicity than a regimen of continued every third month intravenous cyclophosphamide. Although these oral agents were rapidly accepted and utilized as maintenance medications, their usage was based on scant evidence and there were no comparisons between the two. Recently, two relatively large, randomized, well-controlled, multicenter trials dealing with maintenance therapy for severe lupus nephritis have been completed. The Aspreva Lupus Management Study (ALMS) maintenance and MAINTAIN nephritis trials provide important information regarding the comparative efficacy and safety of MMF and azathioprine as maintenance therapies, as well as information on the effect of dosage and duration of treatment with these agents.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Control Complement C5 Activation by Factor H in Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Ma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is one of the most severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE caused by uncontrolled activation of the complement system. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs exhibit clinical efficacy for severe LN in our previous studies, but the underlying mechanisms of MSCs regulating complement activation remain largely unknown. Here we show that significantly elevated C5a and C5b-9 were found in patients with LN, which were notably correlated with proteinuria and different renal pathological indexes of LN. MSCs suppressed systemic and intrarenal activation of C5, increased the plasma levels of factor H (FH, and ameliorated renal disease in lupus mice. Importantly, MSCs transplantation up-regulated the decreased FH in patients with LN. Mechanistically, interferon-α enhanced the secretion of FH by MSCs. These data demonstrate that MSCs inhibit the activation of pathogenic C5 via up-regulation of FH, which improves our understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of MSCs in the treatment of lupus nephritis. Keywords: Lupus nephritis, C5, MSCs, FH

  12. Continuously variable focal length lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  13. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  14. Galectin-3 binding protein links circulating microparticles with electron dense glomerular deposits in lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C T; Østergaard, O; Rekvig, O P; Sturfelt, G; Jacobsen, S; Heegaard, N H H

    2015-10-01

    A high level of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) appears to distinguish circulating cell-derived microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study is to characterize the population of G3BP-positive microparticles from SLE patients compared to healthy controls, explore putative clinical correlates, and examine if G3BP is present in immune complex deposits in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. Numbers of annexin V-binding and G3BP-exposing plasma microparticles from 56 SLE patients and 36 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. Quantitation of microparticle-associated G3BP, C1q and immunoglobulins was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Correlations between microparticle-G3BP data and clinical parameters were analyzed. Co-localization of G3BP with in vivo-bound IgG was examined in kidney biopsies from one non-SLE control and from patients with class IV (n = 2) and class V (n = 1) lupus nephritis using co-localization immune electron microscopy. Microparticle-G3BP, microparticle-C1q and microparticle-immunoglobulins were significantly (P microparticle populations could be discerned by flow cytometry, including two subpopulations that were significantly increased in SLE samples (P = 0.01 and P = 0.0002, respectively). No associations of G3BP-positive microparticles with clinical manifestations or disease activity were found. Immune electron microscopy showed co-localization of G3BP with in vivo-bound IgG in glomerular electron dense immune complex deposits in all lupus nephritis biopsies. Both circulating microparticle-G3BP numbers as well as G3BP expression are increased in SLE patients corroborating G3BP being a feature of SLE microparticles. By demonstrating G3BP co-localized with deposited immune complexes in lupus nephritis, the study supports cell-derived microparticles as a major autoantigen source and provides a new understanding of the origin of

  15. Focal therapy in prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.

    2016-01-01

    Interesting developments took place in the treatment of prostate cancer including focal therapy for less aggressive organ-confined prostate cancer. Fortunately, curative treatment is often still an option for patients suffering from the lower staged tumors. In carefully selected patients, the

  16. Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, S; Matei, E; Petrisor, P; Luca, L; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    The majority of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterolosis pseudopolyps. True neoplastic GB polyps are represented mainly by adenomas. The case of a 52-year old male patient with an adenomatous polyp of the GB with focal adenocarcinoma is presented.

  17. Charging as a Focal Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads

    This position paper reflects on Borgmann’s notion of ‘focal things’ and its applicability in the discourse about interaction with technologies in nature. Using the example of a combined cooking burner and thermoelectric 5W smartphone charger (a BioLite cook stove), this position paper gives...

  18. [Focal myositis: An unknown disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Benveniste, O; Allenbach, Y

    2017-10-01

    Focal myositis are inflammatory muscle diseases of unknown origin. At the opposite from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, they are restricted to a single muscle or to a muscle group. They are not associated with extramuscular manifestations, and they have a good prognosis without any treatment. They are characterized by a localized swelling affecting mostly lower limbs. The pseudo-tumor can be painful, but is not associated with a muscle weakness. Creatine kinase level is normal. Muscle MRI shows an inflammation restricted to a muscle or a muscle group. Muscle biopsy and pathological analysis remain necessary for the diagnosis, showing inflammatory infiltrates composed by macrophages and lymphocytes without any specific distribution within the muscle. Focal overexpression of HLA-1 by the muscle fibers is frequently observed. The muscle biopsy permits to rule out differential diagnosis such a malignancy (sarcoma). Spontaneous remission occurs within weeks or months after the first symptoms, relapse is unusual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Anti-pentraxin 3 auto-antibodies might be protective in lupus nephritis: a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mo; Tan, Ying; Pang, Yun; Li, Yong-Zhe; Song, Yan; Yu, Feng; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-11-01

    Anti-pentraxin 3 (PTX3) auto-antibodies were found to be associated with the absence of renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study is to investigate the prevalence of anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and their clinical significance based on a large Chinese lupus nephritis cohort. One hundred and ninety-six active lupus nephritis patients, 150 SLE patients without clinical renal involvement, and 100 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and PTX3 levels were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The associations between anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies and clinicopathological parameters in lupus nephritis were further analyzed. Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement (19.4% (38/196) versus 40.7% (61/150), p auto-antibodies were negatively correlated with proteinuria in lupus nephritis (r = -.143, p = .047). The levels of proteinuria, serum creatinine, and the prevalence of thrombotic microangiopathy were significantly higher in patients with higher PTX3 levels (≥3.207 ng/ml) and without anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies compared with patients with lower PTX3 levels (auto-antibodies (4.79 (3.39-8.28) versus 3.95 (1.78-7.0), p = .03; 168.84 ± 153.63 versus 101.44 ± 47.36, p = .01; 34.1% (14/41) versus 0% (0/9), p = .04; respectively). Anti-PTX3 auto-antibodies were less prevalent in active lupus nephritis patients compared with SLE without renal involvement and associated with less severe renal damage, especially with the combined evaluation of serum PTX3 levels.

  20. Induction of passive Heymann nephritis in complement component 6-deficient PVG rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, S Timothy; Tran, Giang T; Killingsworth, Murray C; Carter, Nicole; Power, David A; Paizis, Kathy; Boyd, Rochelle; Hodgkinson, Suzanne J; Hall, Bruce M

    2007-07-01

    Passive Heymann nephritis (PHN), a model of human membranous nephritis, is induced in susceptible rat strains by injection of heterologous antisera to rat renal tubular Ag extract. PHN is currently considered the archetypal complement-dependent form of nephritis, with the proteinuria resulting from sublytic glomerular epithelial cell injury induced by the complement membrane attack complex (MAC) of C5b-9. This study examined whether C6 and MAC are essential to the development of proteinuria in PHN by comparing the effect of injection of anti-Fx1A antisera into PVG rats deficient in C6 (PVG/C6(-)) and normal PVG rats (PVG/c). PVG/c and PVG/C6(-) rats developed similar levels of proteinuria at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days following injection of antisera. Isolated whole glomeruli showed similar deposition of rat Ig and C3 staining in PVG/c and PVG/C6(-) rats. C9 deposition was abundant in PVG/c but was not detected in PVG/C6(-) glomeruli, indicating C5b-9/MAC had not formed in PVG/C6(-) rats. There was also no difference in the glomerular cellular infiltrate of T cells and macrophages nor the size of glomerular basement membrane deposits measured on electron micrographs. To examine whether T cells effect injury, rats were depleted of CD8+ T cells which did not affect proteinuria in the early heterologous phase but prevented the increase in proteinuria associated with the later autologous phase. These studies showed proteinuria in PHN occurs without MAC and that other mechanisms, such as immune complex size, early complement components, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, disrupt glomerular integrity and lead to proteinuria.

  1. IRF4 Deficiency Abrogates Lupus Nephritis Despite Enhancing Systemic Cytokine Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Maciej; Weidenbusch, Marc; Kulkarni, Onkar P.; Ryu, Mi; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Susanti, Heni Eka; Mittruecker, Hans-Willi; Mak, Tak W.

    2011-01-01

    The IFN-regulatory factors IRF1, IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7 modulate processes involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus and lupus nephritis, but the contribution of IRF4, which has multiple roles in innate and adaptive immunity, is unknown. To determine a putative pathogenic role of IRF4 in lupus, we crossed Irf4-deficient mice with autoimmune C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice. IRF4 deficiency associated with increased activation of antigen-presenting cells in C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice, resulting in a massive increase in plasma levels of TNF and IL-12p40, suggesting that IRF4 suppresses cytokine release in these mice. Nevertheless, IRF4 deficiency completely protected these mice from glomerulonephritis and lung disease. The mice were hypogammaglobulinemic and lacked antinuclear and anti-dsDNA autoantibodies, revealing the requirement of IRF4 for the maturation of plasma cells. As a consequence, Irf4-deficient C57BL/6-(Fas)lpr mice neither developed immune complex disease nor glomerular activation of complement. In addition, lack of IRF4 impaired the maturation of Th17 effector T cells and reduced plasma levels of IL-17 and IL-21, which are cytokines known to contribute to autoimmune tissue injury. In summary, IRF4 deficiency enhances systemic inflammation and the activation of antigen-presenting cells but also prevents the maturation of plasma cells and effector T cells. Because these adaptive immune effectors are essential for the evolution of lupus nephritis, we conclude that IRF4 promotes the development of lupus nephritis despite suppressing antigen-presenting cells. PMID:21742731

  2. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  3. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole induced acute interstitial nephritis in renal allografts; clinical course and outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, J P

    2009-11-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is well documented as a cause of acute renal failure in native kidneys. TMP-SMX is the standard prophylactic agent against pneumocystis carinii (PCP) used in the early post-transplant period, however, it has to date only been indirectly associated with AIN in renal allografts. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We describe eleven renal transplant patients with acute allograft dysfunction in whom a transplant biopsy demonstrated primary histopathologic features of allergic AIN, all of whom were receiving TMP-SMX in addition to other medications known to cause AIN.

  4. Semi-quantitative evaluation of gallium-67 scintigraphy in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Dept. of Radiological Technology, Chung-Tai College of Medical Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Hsieh Jihfang [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Yunk Kang City, Tainan (Taiwan); Tsai Shihchuan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lan Joungliang [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Cheng Kaiyuan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Chung-Tai College of Medical Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2000-11-01

    Within nuclear medicine there is a trend towards quantitative analysis. Gallium renal scan has been reported to be useful in monitoring the disease activity of lupus nephritis. However, only visual interpretation using a four-grade scale has been performed in previous studies, and this method is not sensitive enough for follow-up. In this study, we developed a semi-quantitative method for gallium renal scintigraphy to find a potential parameter for the evaluation of lupus nephritis. Forty-eight patients with lupus nephritis underwent renal biopsy to determine World Health Organization classification, activity index (AI) and chronicity index (CI). A delayed 48-h gallium scan was also performed and interpreted by visual and semi-quantitative methods. For semi-quantitative analysis of the gallium uptake in both kidneys, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn over both kidneys, the right forearm and the adjacent spine. The uptake ratios between these ROIs were calculated and expressed as the ''kidney/spine ratio (K/S ratio)'' or the ''kidney/arm ratio (K/A ratio)''. Spearman's rank correlation test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Our data showed a good correlation between the semi-quantitative gallium scan and the results of visual interpretation. K/S ratios showed a better correlation with AI than did K/A ratios. Furthermore, the left K/S ratio displayed a better correlation with AI than did the right K/S ratio. In contrast, CI did not correlate well with the results of semi-quantitative gallium scan. In conclusion, semi-quantitative gallium renal scan is easy to perform and shows a good correlation with the results of visual interpretation and renal biopsy. The left K/S ratio from semi-quantitative renal gallium scintigraphy displays the best correlation with AI and is a useful parameter in evaluating the disease activity in lupus nephritis. (orig.)

  5. Transverse myelitis in a patient with severe Lupus Nephritis: A casereport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitwalli, Ahmad H.; Memon, Nawaz Ali; Abu-Aisha, H.; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S.; Tarif, N.; Askar, A.; Hammad, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report here a case of severe lupus nephritis, Raynaud's phenomenon,digital gangrene and optic neuritis who, developed acute transverse myelitis(ATM). SLE can present virtually with any complication in the central nervoussystem (CNS) and ATM is a rare but serious manifestation. It is noteworthythat ATM developed in this patient while she was on intravenouscyclophosphamide (IVC) therapy having already finished six doses of monthlyinfusions of 10 mg/kg body weight. The patient responded well tomethyl-prednisolone pulse therapy, IVC and plasmapheresis. She recoveredfully and doing well after nine months of follow-up. (author)

  6. Radiation nephritis following total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide in preparation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstein, J.; Andreoli, S.P.; Provisor, A.J.; Yum, M.

    1986-01-01

    Two children prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide developed hypertension, microscopic hematuria, proteinuria, diminished renal function, and anemia six months after transplantation. Light microscopy of the kidneys revealed mesangial expansion, glomerular capillary wall thickening, and lumenal thrombosis. Electron microscopy demonstrated widening of the subendothelial space due to the deposition of amorphous fluffy material. In one patient, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed glomerular capillary wall deposition of fibrin and immunoglobulins. The clinical and histologic findings support the diagnosis of radiation nephritis. Patients prepared for bone marrow transplantation with total-body irradiation and cyclophosphamide should be followed closely after transplantation for the development of hypertension, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency

  7. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  8. Clinical profile of patients with biopsy proven lupus nephritis at a tertiary care hospital from Northern Pakistan, 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar; Mehmood, Anjum; Ali, Muhammad Usman

    2017-01-01

    TTo highlight the clinical spectrum of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis by analysing any variations in its histological subtypes across gender, varying age groups, serum creatinine levels and anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid levels. This retrospective, observational study was conducted at the Lady Reading Hospital in collaboration with the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised patient records of biopsy-proven lupus nephritis from 1995 to 2012. The cases were analysed according to clinical presentations and histological pattern of systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis. EpiData 3.1 and SPSS 17 were used for data analyses. Of the 2,000 renal biopsies performed, lupus nephritis was found in 74(3.7%) cases. Of them, 63(85.1%) were females and 11(14.9%) males. The mean age of the cases was 23.88±9.73 years (range: 10-55 years). Class IV lupus nephritis was seen in 38(51.4%) patients, followed by Class II in 15(20.3%), Class III in 10(13.5%), Class V and VI in 4(5.4%) each and Class I in 3(4.1%). Out of the combined Class III and IV cases, 25(52.08%) had serum creatinine levels of >1.2 mg/dL, whereas positive anti-double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid titers up to 50 IU/L were seen in all of the 48(100%) such patients. Overall, microscopic haematuria was found in 52(70.3%) cases, followed by arthralgia in 40(54.1%). Moreover, 32(50.8%) females and 6(54.5%) males had Type IV nephritis. Class VI lupus nephritis, in particular, were significantly more prominent in 31-40 years of age group when compared to other histological subtypes and age groups (p=0.0096, odds ratio: 23.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.15-251.21). Female predominance was observed in all histological sub-types of lupus nephritis. Class IV lupus was the most common histological pattern. Microscopic haematuria was the most common clinical presentation.

  9. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both

  10. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. P., III

    1983-08-01

    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  11. TRIM15 is a focal adhesion protein that regulates focal adhesion disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Pradeep D.; Pawliczek, Tobias; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Ding, Siyuan; Hinz, Angelika; Munro, James B.; Huang, Fang; Floyd, Robert W.; Yang, Haitao; Hamilton, William L.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Xiong, Yong; Calderwood, David A.; Mothes, Walther

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Focal adhesions are macromolecular complexes that connect the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Dynamic turnover of focal adhesions is crucial for cell migration. Paxillin is a multi-adaptor protein that plays an important role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Here, we identify TRIM15, a member of the tripartite motif protein family, as a paxillin-interacting factor and a component of focal adhesions. TRIM15 localizes to focal contacts in a myosin-II-independent manner by an interaction between its coiled-coil domain and the LD2 motif of paxillin. Unlike other focal adhesion proteins, TRIM15 is a stable focal adhesion component with restricted mobility due to its ability to form oligomers. TRIM15-depleted cells display impaired cell migration and reduced focal adhesion disassembly rates, in addition to enlarged focal adhesions. Thus, our studies demonstrate a cellular function for TRIM15 as a regulatory component of focal adhesion turnover and cell migration. PMID:25015296

  12. Heterogeneity of Focal Adhesions and Focal Contacts in Motile Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, Aleena; Kovaleva, Anastasia; Tvorogova, Anna; Vorobjev, Ivan A

    2018-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion is an important property of virtually all cells in multicellular organisms. Cell-ECM adhesion studies, therefore, are very significant both for biology and medicine. Over the last three decades, biomedical studies resulted in a tremendous advance in our understanding of the molecular basis and functions of cell-ECM adhesion. Based on morphological and molecular criteria, several different types of model cell-ECM adhesion structures including focal adhesions, focal complexes, fibrillar adhesions, podosomes, and three-dimensional matrix adhesions have been described. All the subcellular structures that mediate cell-ECM adhesion are quite heterogeneous, often varying in size, shape, distribution, dynamics, and, to a certain extent, molecular constituents. The morphological "plasticity" of cell-ECM adhesion perhaps reflects the needs of cells to sense, adapt, and respond to a variety of extracellular environments. In addition, cell type (e.g., differentiation status, oncogenic transformation, etc.) often exerts marked influence on the structure of cell-ECM adhesions. Although molecular, genetic, biochemical, and structural studies provide important maps or "snapshots" of cell-ECM adhesions, the area of research that is equally valuable is to study the heterogeneity of FA subpopulations within cells. Recently time-lapse observations on the FA dynamics become feasible, and behavior of individual FA gives additional information on cell-ECM interactions. Here we describe a robust method of labeling of FA using plasmids with fluorescent markers for paxillin and vinculin and quantifying the morphological and dynamical parameters of FA.

  13. Toward a Comprehensive Hypothesis of Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orantes-Navarro, Carlos Manuel; Herrera-Valdés, Raúl; Almaguer-López, Miguel; López-Marín, Laura; Vela-Parada, Xavier Fernando; Hernandez-Cuchillas, Marcelo; Barba, Lilly M

    2017-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been an increase in chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC) not associated with traditional risk factors. This disease has become an important public health problem and is observed in several countries in Central America and Asia. CINAC predominantly affects young male farmers between the third and fifth decades of life with women, children, and adolescents less often affected. Clinically, CINAC behaves like a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy but with systemic manifestations not attributable to kidney disease. Kidney biopsy reveals chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with variable glomerulosclerosis and mild chronic vascular damage, with the severity depending on sex, occupation, and CKD stage. The presence of toxicological, occupational, and environmental risk factors within these communities suggests a multifactorial etiology for CINAC. This may include exposure to agrochemicals, a contaminated environment, repeated episodes of dehydration with heat stress, and an underlying genetic predisposition. An understanding of these interacting factors using a multidisciplinary approach with international cooperation and the formulation of a comprehensive hypothesis are essential for the development of public health programs to prevent this devastating epidemic. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kayar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet’s disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon.

  15. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    2001-02-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Focal nodular hyperplasia: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Antoniou, A.; Hatziioannou, A.; Smyrniotis, V.; Trakadas, S.; Lahanis, S.; Vlahos, L.

    2001-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign hepatic tumor that continues to pose diagnostic dilemmas. Imaging techniques are of great value in diagnosis of this tumor. In this article we present the US, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, and angiography findings. The demonstration of a central vascular scar is very helpful. Although the radiologic features may be diagnostic, many atypical cases must be differentiated from other benign or malignant hepatic tumors. In these cases excisional biopsy and histopathologic examination are necessary to determine a definite diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  18. MRI of focal cortical dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.C.P.; Hatfield, G.A.; Bourgeois, B.; Park, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    We studied nine cases of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) by MRI, with surface-rendered 3D reconstructions. One case was also examined using single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS). The histological features were reviewed and correlated with the MRI findings. The gyri affected by FCD were enlarged and the signal of the cortex was slightly increased on T1-weighted images. The gray-white junction was indistinct. Signal from the subcortical white matter was decreased on T1- and increased on T2-weighted images in most cases. Contrast enhancement was seen in two cases. Proton MRS showed a spectrum identical to that of normal brain. (orig.) (orig.)

  19. Mechanisms involved in the p62-73 idiopeptide-modulated delay of lupus nephritis in SNF(1) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, J F; Stoll, M L; Jiang, F; Feng, F; Gavalchin, J

    2012-12-01

    The F(1) progeny of the (SWR × NZB) cross develop a lupus-like disease with high serum titers of autoantibodies, and increased frequency and severity of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in females. In previous work, we found that an idiotypic peptide corresponding to aa62-73 (p62-73) of the heavy chain variable region of autoantibody 540 (Id(LN)F(1)) induced the proliferation of p62-73 idiotype-reactive T cell clones. Further, monthly immunization of pre-nephritic SNF(1) female mice with p62-73 resulted in decreased nephritis and prolonged life spans. Here we show that this treatment modulated proliferative responses to Id(LN)F(1) antigen, including a reduction in the population of idiopeptide-presenting antigen-presenting cells (APCs), as early as two weeks after immunization (10 weeks of age). Th1-type cytokine production was increased at 12 weeks of age. The incidence and severity of nephritis was reduced by 14 weeks compared to controls. Clinical indicators of nephritis, specifically histological evidence of glomerulonephritis and urine protein levels, were reduced by 20 weeks. Together these data suggest that events involved in the mechanism(s) whereby p62-73 immunization delayed nephritis occurred early after immunization, and involved modulation of APCs, B and T cell populations.

  20. Economic evaluation of lupus nephritis in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort using a multistate model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, Megan R W; Hanly, John G; Su, Li

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term costs of lupus nephritis (LN). These were compared between patients with and without LN based on multistate modelling. METHODS: Patients from 32 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC...

  1. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Jin Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.

  2. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum ferritin, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with chronic nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Haitao; Li Xinhua; He Haoming

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum Ferritin, MMP-2 and MMP-9 contents after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with chronic nephritis. Methods: Serum Ferritin (with RIA) and serum MMP-2, MMP-9 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 32 patients with chronic nephritis both before and after a course of transfusion of red blood cells and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion, the serum Ferritin, MMP-9 levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum Ferritin, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels is clinically useful for management of patients with chronic nephritis. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of estimation of changes in serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with chronic nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Peidong; He Haoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with chronic nephritis. Methods: Serum SF (with RIA) and serum VEGF, HGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 30 patients with chronic nephritis both before and after a course of transfusion of RBC and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion the serum SF levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels were clinically useful for the progress, prognosis and judgement of chronic nephritis. (authors)

  4. Comparative transcriptional profiling of 3 murine models of SLE nephritis reveals both unique and shared regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Bethunaickan

    Full Text Available To define shared and unique features of SLE nephritis in mouse models of proliferative and glomerulosclerotic renal disease.Perfused kidneys from NZB/W F1, NZW/BXSB and NZM2410 mice were harvested before and after nephritis onset. Affymetrix based gene expression profiles of kidney RNA were analyzed using Genomatix Pathway Systems and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Gene expression patterns were confirmed using real-time PCR.955, 1168 and 755 genes were regulated in the kidneys of nephritic NZB/W F1, NZM2410 and NZW/BXSB mice respectively. 263 genes were regulated concordantly in all three strains reflecting immune cell infiltration, endothelial cell activation, complement activation, cytokine signaling, tissue remodeling and hypoxia. STAT3 was the top associated transcription factor, having a binding site in the gene promoter of 60/263 regulated genes. The two strains with proliferative nephritis shared a macrophage/DC infiltration and activation signature. NZB/W and NZM2410 mice shared a mitochondrial dysfunction signature. Dominant T cell and plasma cell signatures in NZB/W mice reflected lymphoid aggregates; this was the only strain with regulatory T cell infiltrates. NZW/BXSB mice manifested tubular regeneration and NZM2410 mice had the most metabolic stress and manifested loss of nephrin, indicating podocyte loss.These findings identify shared inflammatory mechanisms of SLE nephritis that can be therapeutically targeted. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of effector mechanisms suggests that individualized therapy might need to be based on biopsy findings. Some common mechanisms are shared with non-immune-mediated renal diseases, suggesting that strategies to prevent tissue hypoxia and remodeling may be useful in SLE nephritis.

  5. RTG diagnostics of dental focal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrasova, A.; Ondrasovicova, J.; Cecctkova, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of focal infection has always been and still is a controversial issue for many dentists and scientists. Even though the focal infection does not occupy the first place in modern medicine, its understanding is imperative. The authors summarized the knowledge about dental focal infection and its relationship to systemic the diseases of the whole body in their publication and they also focused on the radiodiagnostics of this disease. (authors)

  6. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Е.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  7. Flux dynamics in ultrasensitive superconducting focal planes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance of superconducting focal planes will drive the achievable specifications of ultrasensitive instruments for NASA astrophysics missions, yet they have...

  8. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  9. Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in men and most often strikes during the child-bearing years. Nine out of 10 people who have lupus are women. Lupus is also more common in people of African or Asian background. African Americans and Asian Americans ...

  10. Interstitial nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lungs (pulmonary edema) Common tests include: Arterial blood gases Blood chemistry BUN and blood creatinine levels Complete ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  11. Interstitial Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A reaction to a medicine, such as certain antibiotics. Too much of certain medicines. These include diuretics (water pills) or pain relievers, such as acetaminophen, aspirin, or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Unbalanced levels of certain nutrients in ...

  12. Reduced Incidence of Slowly Progressive Heymann Nephritis in Rats Immunized With a Modified Vaccination Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Z. Barabas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A slowly progressive Heymann nephritis (SPHN was induced in three groups of rats by weekly injections of a chemically modified renal tubular antigen in an aqueous medium. A control group of rats received the chemically unmodified version of the antigen in an aqueous solution. One group of SPHN rats were pre- and post-treated with weekly injections of IC made up of rKF3 and rarKF3 IgM antibody at antigen excess (MIC (immune complexes [ICs] containing sonicated ultracentrifuged [u/c] rat kidney fraction 3 [rKF3] antigen and IgM antibodies specific against the antigen, at slight antigen excess. One group of SPHN rats were post-treated with MIC 3 weeks after the induction of the disease and one group of SPHN animals received no treatment. The control group of rats received pre- and post-treatment with sonicated u/c rKF3.

  13. DRESS with delayed onset acute interstitial nephritis and profound refractory eosinophilia secondary to Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Meara Paloma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS is a relatively rare clinical entity; even more so in response to vancomycin. Methods Case report. Results We present a severe case of vancomycin-induced DRESS syndrome, which on presentation included only skin, hematological and mild liver involvement. The patient further developed severe acute interstitial nephritis, eosinophilic pneumonitis, central nervous system (CNS involvement and worsening hematological abnormalities despite immediate discontinuation of vancomycin and parenteral corticosteroids. High-dose corticosteroids for a prolonged period were necessary and tapering of steroids a challenge due to rebound-eosinophilia and skin involvement. Conclusion Patients with DRESS who are relatively resistant to corticosteroids with delayed onset of certain organ involvement should be treated with a more prolonged corticosteroid tapering schedule. Vancomycin is increasingly being recognized as a culprit agent in this syndrome.

  14. Immunoglobulin G4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis: A not to be missed diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mary Matthai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN is a newly recognized clinicopathological entity characterized by a dense interstitial infiltrate of IgG4-positive plasma cells accompanied by fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis causing acute or chronic renal dysfunction amenable to corticosteroid therapy. IgG4-TIN is the dominant manifestation of renal involvement in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD which is a novel, immune-mediated, fibroinflammatory and multiorgan disorder. We describe a case of IgG4-TIN with isolated renal involvement in an elderly male patient with poor response to corticosteroid therapy. The distinctive serological, histopathological, and ultrastructural features of this condition which can facilitate differential diagnosis of TIN are highlighted to emphasize the need for early diagnosis and preservation of kidney function.

  15. Quaternary epitopes of α345(IV) collagen initiate Alport post-transplant anti-GBM nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of α5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including...... of alloantibodies against allogeneic collagen IV. Some alloantibodies targeted alloepitopes within α5NC1 monomers, shared by α345NC1 and α1256NC1 hexamers. Other alloantibodies specifically targeted alloepitopes that depended on the quaternary structure of α345NC1 hexamers. In Col4a5-null mice, immunization...... with native forms of allogeneic collagen IV exclusively elicited antibodies to quaternary α345NC1 alloepitopes, whereas alloimmunogens lacking native quaternary structure elicited antibodies to shared α5NC1 alloepitopes. These results imply that quaternary epitopes within α345NC1 hexamers may initiate...

  16. Acute kidney injury with granulomatous interstitial nephritis and vasculitis revealing sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Harzallah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects mostly the lungs and lymph glands. Renal involvement is rare and especially vasculitis. We report a case who presented an acute kidney failure and had sarcoidosis with vasculitis and nodular splenic involvement. A 35-year-old woman presenting a Lofgren syndrome was hospitalized for acute renal failure with cervical lymphadenopathy without other clinical findings. Laboratory data disclosed elevated angiotensin converting enzyme serum level. Abdominal ultrasound showed a multinodular spleen. Renal histology revealed granulomatous interstitial nephritis with necrotizing vasculitis. Outcome was favorable after the institution of high dose corticosteroids along with cyclophosphamide. Renal involvement is rare in sarcoidosis. However, the diagnostic delay should be avoided to improve the outcome.

  17. Acute kidney injury with granulomatous interstitial nephritis and vasculitis revealing sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, Amel; Kaaroud, Hayet; Boubaker, Karima; Barbouch, Samia; Goucha, Rim; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Abdallah, Taieb Ben

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects mostly the lungs and lymph glands. Renal involvement is rare and especially vasculitis. We report a case who presented an acute kidney failure and had sarcoidosis with vasculitis and nodular splenic involvement. A 35-year-old woman presenting a Lofgren syndrome was hospitalized for acute renal failure with cervical lymphadenopathy without other clinical findings. Laboratory data disclosed elevated angiotensin converting enzyme serum level. Abdominal ultrasound showed a multinodular spleen. Renal histology revealed granulomatous interstitial nephritis with necrotizing vasculitis. Outcome was favorable after the institution of high dose corticosteroids along with cyclophosphamide. Renal involvement is rare in sarcoidosis. However, the diagnostic delay should be avoided to improve the outcome.

  18. Interdisciplinary care for adequate adherence totreatment in patients with lupus nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Gaviria-García

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review is based on the contribution that each discipline should provide the patient for a holistic care, which include medical assessment, monitoring and counselling as emotional support, assessment and nutritional monitoring as a key element in core requirements, physical activity that optimize the quality of life, social activities that can enter the individual in active groups, follow-up by nurses to the fulfillment of the ordered drug treatment, car care and orientation education to the family. The novelty of this proposal is to basically carry out care of the interdisciplinary team for treatment adherence. This review concluded that patients with lupus nephritis (NL treated after assessment and follow-up holistic, such as system monitoring and adherence to the treatment of comprehensive care, provides better quality of life, and minimizes the risks of complication of the patient, avoiding recurrent hospitalizations.

  19. Toll-like receptor activation in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Georg; Lech, Maciej; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-12-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis is complex but no longer enigmatic. Much progress has been made to on the polygenetic origin of lupus in identifying gene variants that permit the loss of tolerance against nuclear autoantigens. Along the same line in about 50% of lupus patients additional genetic weaknesses promote immune complex glomerulonephritis and filtration barrier dysfunction. Here we briefly summarize the pathogenesis of SLE with a focus on loss of tolerance and the role of toll-like receptors in the "pseudo"-antiviral immunity concept of systemic lupus. In addition, we discuss the local role of Toll-like receptors in intrarenal inflammation and kidney remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical outcomes in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis without crescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbet, Jean Daniel; Hogan, Julien; Aoun, Bilal; Stoica, Iulia; Salomon, Rémi; Decramer, Stéphane; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Deschênes, Georges; Ulinski, Tim

    2017-07-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the most common vasculitis in children. Its long-term prognosis depends on renal involvement. The management of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) remains controversial. This study reports the prognosis of children with HSPN presenting with class 2 International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) nephritis. All children with HSPN class 2 diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 in four pediatric nephrology centers were included, and clinical and biological data were collected from the medical files. The primary endpoint was proteinuria remission defined as a proteinuria 3 g/L, 52% proteinuria between 1 and 3 g/L, and 18% proteinuria <1 g/L. Forty-seven percent of patients received orally treatment with steroids alone, 37% received methylprednisolone pulses followed by steroids orally, 18% received no steroids. Although 85% reached remission during follow-up, 12% did not maintain complete remission over time so that only 75% remained in complete remission by the end of the follow-up. Univariate analysis found a higher likelihood of remission in patients with higher proteinuria at disease onset (p = 0.009). This trend was not found in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for treatments, as patients with higher proteinuria were most often treated with steroids. Our study shows that one fourth of patients with HSPN class 2 remain proteinuric and thus carry the risk of developing chronic kidney disease over the long term. This finding, together with the better outcome of patients treated with steroids, is in favor of using high-dose steroids orally or IV in these patients.

  1. The Steroids in the Maintenance of Remission of Proliferative Lupus Nephritis (SIMPL Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Galbraith

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with proliferative lupus nephritis are at risk of frequent relapses. Whether low- dose prednisone prevents relapses is uncertain. Objectives: We undertook a pilot RCT to determine the feasibility of a larger trial. Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting: Single center Canadian outpatient nephrology clinic. Patients: Participants with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and a history of class III or IV lupus nephritis that achieved at least partial remission and remained on prednisone were eligible. Measurements: Feasibility: proportion of eligible patients randomized and adherence to tapering regimen. Clinical: occurrence of renal or major non-renal flare of SLE. Methods: We conducted a blinded, two-parallel-group randomized controlled trial of prednisone 7.5 mg/day (continuation compared to a matching placebo (withdrawal. Results: Of nineteen eligible patients screened, 15 (79% were recruited and randomized; 8 to prednisone continuation and seven to withdrawal. All participants adhered to the tapering protocol to their assigned withdrawal or low-dose maintenance target. Over 36 months, the primary outcome occurred in four (50% patients in the continuation group (three renal and one major non-renal flare, compared with one patient (14% in the withdrawal group (one renal flare. Three participants (38% in the continuation group had minor flares, while no patients in the withdrawal group did. Limitations: This pilot RCT was small and not designed to assess the efficacy or safety of maintenance with low-dose prednisone. Conclusions: The high proportion of eligible patients recruited, and success of protocol adherence suggest a large trial of prednisone maintenance therapy compared to withdrawal is feasible. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31327267.

  2. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin as biomarkers of proteinuria in lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Diaz-Rizo

    Full Text Available There are controversial results about the role of serum leptin and adiponectin levels as biomarkers of the severity of proteinuria in lupus nephritis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum leptin and adiponectin levels with severity of proteinuria secondary to lupus nephritis (LN.In a cross-sectional study, 103 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE were evaluated for kidney involvement. We compared 30 SLE patients with LN, all of them with proteinuria, versus 73 SLE patients without renal involvement (no LN. A comprehensive set of clinical and laboratory variables was assessed, including serum levels of leptin and adiponectin by ELISA. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for potential confounders associated with proteinuria in LN.We found higher adiponectin levels in the LN group compared with the no LN group (20.4 ± 10.3 vs 15.6 ± 7.8 μg/mL; p = 0.02, whereas no differences were observed in leptin levels (33.3 ± 31.4 vs 22.5 ± 25.5 ng/mL; p = 0.07. Severity of proteinuria correlated with an increase in adiponectin levels (r = 0.31; p = 0.001, but no correlation was observed with leptin. Adiponectin levels were not related to anti-dsDNA or anti-nucleosome antibodies. In the logistic regression, adiponectin levels were associated with a high risk of proteinuria in SLE (OR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12; p = 0.02. Instead, leptin was not associated with LN.These findings indicate that adiponectin levels are useful markers associated with proteinuria in LN. Further longitudinal studies are required to identify if these levels are predictive of renal relapse.

  3. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  4. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  5. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  6. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus: a possible relation to proliferative nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A; Yahia, S; Laimon, W; Hamed, S M; Shouma, A; Shalaby, N M; Abdel-Hady, D; Ghanem, R; El-Farahaty, R M; El-Bassiony, S R; Hammad, E M

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is crucial in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus through angiotensin II which regulates vascular tone and endothelial functions. Objectives To study the frequency of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus and its possible relation to the renal pathology in cases with lupus nephritis. Subjects and methods The frequency of ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism genotypes was determined in 78 Egyptian children with systemic lupus erythematosus and compared to a matched group of 140 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction. Results The DD genotype of the ACE gene was higher in systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( Plupus erythematosus patients in comparison to controls ( P lupus nephritis group, the DD genotype was significantly higher in those with proliferative lupus nephritis when compared to those with non-proliferative lupus nephritis ( P = 0.02; OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.4-1.6). Also, patients with proliferative lupus nephritis showed a higher frequency of the D allele ( P lupus erythematosus and occurrence of proliferative nephritis in Egyptian children.

  7. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  8. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  9. Barriers to Medication Decision Making in Women with Lupus Nephritis: A Formative Study using Nominal Group Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Qu, Haiyan; Yazdany, Jinoos; Chatham, Winn; Dall'era, Maria; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    To assess the perspectives of women with lupus nephritis on barriers to medication decision making. We used the nominal group technique (NGT), a structured process to elicit ideas from participants, for a formative assessment. Eight NGT meetings were conducted in English and moderated by an expert NGT researcher at 2 medical centers. Participants responded to the question: "What sorts of things make it hard for people to decide to take the medicines that doctors prescribe for treating their lupus kidney disease?" Patients nominated, discussed, and prioritized barriers to decisional processes involving medications for treating lupus nephritis. Fifty-one women with lupus nephritis with a mean age of 40.6 ± 13.3 years and disease duration of 11.8 ± 8.3 years participated in 8 NGT meetings: 26 African Americans (4 panels), 13 Hispanics (2 panels), and 12 whites (2 panels). Of the participants, 36.5% had obtained at least a college degree and 55.8% needed some help in reading health materials. Of the 248 responses generated (range 19-37 responses/panel), 100 responses (40%) were perceived by patients as having relatively greater importance than other barriers in their own decision-making processes. The most salient perceived barriers, as indicated by percent-weighted votes assigned, were known/anticipated side effects (15.6%), medication expense/ability to afford medications (8.2%), and the fear that the medication could cause other diseases (7.8%). Women with lupus nephritis identified specific barriers to decisions related to medications. Information relevant to known/anticipated medication side effects and medication cost will form the basis of a patient guide for women with systemic lupus erythematosus, currently under development.

  10. Value of HLA-DR genotype in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhili; Zhang, Pingan; Tong, Yongqing

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 allele polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, but the results of these previous studies have been inconsistent. The purpose of the present study was to systematically summarize and explore whether specific HLA-DRB1 alleles confer susceptibility or resistance to SLE and lupus nephritis. This review was guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach. A comprehensive search was made for articles from PubMed, Medline, Elsevier Science, Springer Link and Cochrane Library database. A total of 25 case-control studies on the relationship between gene polymorphism of HLA-DRB l and SLE were performed and data were analyzed and processed using Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 11.0. At the allelic level, HLA-DR4, DR11 and DR14 were identified as protective factors for SLE (0.79 [0.69,0.91], P  0.05). DR4 and 11 (OR, 0.55 [0.39, 0.79], P  0.05; 0.90 [0.64, 1.27], P > 0.05; 0.61 [0.36, 1.03], P > 0.05, respectively) were not statistically significant between the lupus nephritis and control groups. The HLA-DR4, DR11, DR14 alleles might be protective factors for SLE and HLA-DR3, DR9, DR15 were potent risk factors. In addition, HLA-DR4 and DR11 alleles might be protective factors for lupus nephritis and DR3 and DR15 suggest a risk role. These results proved that HLA-DR3, DR15, DR4 and DR11 might be identified as predictors for lupus nephritis and SLE. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Immune profile and Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute interstitial nephritis: an immunohistochemical study in 78 patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mansur, Abdurrezagh

    2011-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.

  12. Characterization of Novel PI3Kδ Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutics for SLE and Lupus Nephritis in Pre-Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmayer, Philipp; Camps, Montserrat; Muzerelle, Mathilde; El Bawab, Samer; Waltzinger, Caroline; Bruns, Lisa; Abla, Nada; Polokoff, Mark A; Jond-Necand, Carole; Gaudet, Marilène; Benoit, Audrey; Bertschy Meier, Dominique; Martin, Catherine; Gretener, Denise; Lombardi, Maria Stella; Grenningloh, Roland; Ladel, Christoph; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Gaillard, Pascale; Ji, Hong

    2014-01-01

    SLE is a complex autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by pathogenic autoantibody production as a consequence of uncontrolled T-B cell activity and immune-complex deposition in various organs, including kidney, leading to tissue damage and function loss. There is a high unmet need for better treatment options other than corticosteroids and immunosuppressants. Phosphoinositol-3 kinase δ (PI3Kδ) is a promising target in this respect as it is essential in mediating B- and T-cell function in mouse and human. We report the identification of selective PI3Kδ inhibitors that blocked B-, T-, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activities in human peripheral blood and in primary cell co-cultures (BioMAP(®)) without detecting signs of undesired toxicity. In an IFNα-accelerated mouse SLE model, our PI3Kδ inhibitors blocked nephritis development, whether administered at the onset of autoantibody appearance or the onset of proteinuria. Disease amelioration correlated with normalized immune cell numbers in the spleen, reduced immune-complex deposition as well as reduced inflammation, fibrosis, and tissue damage in the kidney. Improvements were similar to those achieved with a frequently prescribed drug for lupus nephritis, the potent immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil. Finally, we established a pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic/efficacy model that revealed that a sustained PI3Kδ inhibition of 50% is sufficient to achieve full efficacy in our disease model. These data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PI3Kδ inhibitors in SLE and lupus nephritis.

  13. A Study on Clinical and Pathologic Features in Lupus Nephritis with Mainly IgA Deposits and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the clinical and pathologic features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE that has atypical lupus nephritis (LN with mainly IgA deposits. Methods. We searched the SLE patients who had nephritis with mainly IgA deposits in our hospital and selected the information including clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments, and prognosis. Results. From January 2009 to June 2012, 5 patients were definitely diagnosed as SLE according to both 1982 and 2009 ACR classification criteria. But renal biopsy showed that all cases had mainly IgA deposits and were free of IgG, C1q, and fibrinogen-related antigen deposits under immunofluorescent microscopy, which did not match with typical LN. There were 2 males and 3 females, aging from 31 to 64 years and with an average of years. The 5 cases had multiple-system involvements, mainly the renal system. Compared to primary IgAN, the atypical LN showed some differences: older than primary IgAN, more women than men, no previous infection history, lower incidence of serum IgA elevation, and ACL positive rate as high as 100%. Conclusion. Nephritis with mainly IgAN deposits, as an atypical LN, may be a special subtype of SLE.

  14. Integrative medicine for managing the symptoms of lupus nephritis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae-Young; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2018-03-01

    Integrative medicine is claimed to improve symptoms of lupus nephritis. No systematic reviews have been performed for the application of integrative medicine for lupus nephritis on patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thus, this review will aim to evaluate the current evidence on the efficacy of integrative medicine for the management of lupus nephritis in patients with SLE. The following electronic databases will be searched for studies published from their dates of inception February 2018: Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), as well as 6 Korean medical databases (Korea Med, the Oriental Medicine Advanced Search Integrated System [OASIS], DBpia, the Korean Medical Database [KM base], the Research Information Service System [RISS], and the Korean Studies Information Services System [KISS]), and 1 Chinese medical database (the China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]). Study selection, data extraction, and assessment will be performed independently by 2 researchers. The risk of bias (ROB) will be assessed using the Cochrane ROB tool. This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. The review will be updated to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018085205.

  15. Tubulointerstitial nephritis accompanying gamma-heavy chain deposition and gamma-heavy chain restricted plasma cells in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayer, Ali; Green, Dollie F; Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Sujoy, Victoria; Ikpatt, Offiong F; Thomas, David B

    2014-09-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (HC) diseases are rare proliferative disorders of B lymphocytes or plasma cells characterized by the presence of monoclonal α-, µ-, or γ-HC without associated light chains in the blood, urine, or both. We report a 59-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin disease who developed hypercalcemia, proteinuria, and impaired kidney function. Protein electrophoresis and immunofixation displayed γ-HC without associated light chains in the serum and urine. Pathologic examination demonstrated severe tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse and strong linear staining of the glomerular and tubular basement membranes as well as Bowman capsules for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. Immunohistochemical examination of the kidney and bone marrow demonstrated numerous CD138+ plasma cells immunoreactive for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. This is the first report of tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with γ-HC deposition and γ-HC restricted plasma cells in the kidney. This report heightens awareness about tubulointerstitial nephritis as a possible manifestation of γ-HC deposition in the kidney.

  16. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  17. Focal pancreatic enlargement: differentiation between pancreatic adenocarcinoma and focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Hee Soo; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Yu, Jeong Sik; Yoon, Sang Wook

    1995-01-01

    To differentiate the pancreatic adenocarcinoma from focal pancreatitis on CT and ERCP in cases of focal pancreatic enlargement. We analysed CT findings of 66 patients of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 45) or focal pancreatitis (n = 21) with respect to size, density, calcification, pancreatic or biliary duct dilatation, fat plane obliteration around the vessels, direction of retroperitoneal extension, lymphadenopathy, pseudocyst formation and atrophy of pancreas. ERCP available in 48 patients were analysed in respect to morphologic appearance of CBD and pancreatic duct, and distance between the two ducts. The patients in focal pancreatitis were younger with more common history of alcohol drinking. There was no statistical difference in calcifications of the mass (18% in the adenocarcinoma, 33% in the focal pancreatitis), but a tendency of denser, larger number of calcifications was noted in focal pancreatitis. The finding of fat plane obliteration around the vessels were more common in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and fascial thickenings were more prominent in focal pancreatitis, although not statistically significant. On ERCP, there were no differential points of CBD, pancreatic duct morphology, but distance between the two ducts at the lesion center was more wider in focal pancreatitis. Differentiating focal pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is difficult. However, we should consider the possibility of focal pancreatitis in cases of patients with young age, having alcoholic history in association with CT findings of large numbers of and dense calcifications, and ERCP findings of prominent separation of two duct at the lesion center

  18. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  19. Focal adhesions and cell-matrix interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    Focal adhesions are areas of cell surfaces where specializations of cytoskeletal, membrane and extracellular components combine to produce stable cell-matrix interactions. The morphology of these adhesions and the components identified in them are discussed together with possible mechanisms...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in people with focal dermal hypoplasia is an omphalocele , which is an opening in the wall of ... Dermal Hypoplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Ectodermal dysplasia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Omphalocele General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism is not a risk factor for hypertension in SLE nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Vir S; Devaraju, Panneer; Gulati, Reena

    2015-09-01

    SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease with high prevalence of hypertension. Around 40-75 % of SLE patients develop nephritis, a major cause of hypertension and mortality. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) maintains the blood pressure and blood volume homeostasis. An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron 16 of ACE gene was reported to influence the development of hypertension, nephritis, and cardiovascular diseases in different ethnic populations. Despite compelling evidence for the high prevalence of hypertension in individuals with SLE, underlying factors for its development are not well studied. With this background, we analyzed the influence of ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism on susceptibility to SLE, development of nephritis and hypertension, other clinical features and autoantibody phenotype in South Indian SLE patients. Three hundred patients with SLE and 460 age and sex similar ethnicity matched individuals were included as patients and healthy controls, respectively. The ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism was analyzed by PCR. Insertion (I) and deletion (D) alleles were observed to be equally distributed among patients (57 and 43 %) and controls (59 and 41 %), respectively. The mutant (D) allele did not confer significant risk for SLE (II vs. ID: p = 0.4, OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.8-1.6; II vs. DD: p = 0.34, OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.8-1.85). There was no association of the ACE genotype or the allele with development of lupus nephritis (II vs. ID: p = 0.19, OR 1.41, 95 % CI 0.84-2.36; II vs. DD: p = 0.41, OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.38-1.41) or hypertension (II vs. ID: p = 0.85, OR 0.9, 95 % CI 0.43-1.8; II vs. DD: p = 0.66, OR 1.217, 95 % CI 0.5-2.8). The presence of mutant allele (D) was not found to influence any clinical features or autoantibody phenotype. The insertion/deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene is not a genetic risk factor for SLE and does not influence development of hypertension or lupus nephritis in South Indian

  2. Urinary Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 as a marker of response to immunosuppressive treatment, in patients with crescentic nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotsiou Florentia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crescentic nephritis is characterized by formation of cellular crescents that soon become fibrotic and result in irreversible damage, unless an effective immunosuppressive therapy is rapidly commenced. TGF-β1 is involved in the development of crescents through various pathways. The aim of this study was to identify whether the determination of urinary TGF-β1 levels in patients with crescentic nephritis could be used as a marker of response to treatment. Methods Fifteen patients with crescentic nephritis were included in the study. The renal expression of TGF-β1 was estimated in biopsy sections by immunohistochemistry and urinary TGF-β1 levels were determined by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA. TGF-β1 levels were determined at the time of renal biopsy, before the initiation of immunosuppressive treatment (corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange. Twelve patients with other types of proliferative glomerulonephritis and ten healthy subjects were used as controls. Results Improvement of renal function with immunosuppressive therapy was observed in 6 and stabilization in 4 patients (serum creatinine from 3.2 ± 1.5 to 1.4 ± 0.1 mg/dl and from 4.4 ± 1.2 to 4.1 ± 0.6 mg/dl, respectively. In 5 patients, with severe impairment of renal function who started on dialysis, no improvement was noted. The main histological feature differentiating these 5 patients from others with improved or stabilized renal function was the percentage patients with poor response to treatment were the percentage of glomeruli with crescents and the presence of ruptured Bowman's capsule and glomerular necrosis. Urinary TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in patients who showed no improvement of renal function with immunosuppressive therapy (930 ± 126 ng/24 h vs. 376 ± 84 ng/24 h, p 1 was identified in crescents and tubular epithelial cells, whereas a significant correlation of TGF-β1 immunostaining with the presence

  3. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  4. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.F.; Tobias, C.A.; Born, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  5. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  6. Dentistry and internal medicine: from the focal infection theory to the periodontal medicine concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Guiglia, Rosario; Lo Russo, Lucio; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2010-12-01

    During past decades the relationship between dentistry and internal medicine and especially the concept of the so-called focal infection theory have long been a matter of debate. The pathogenesis of focal diseases has been classically attributed to dental pulp pathologies and periapical infections. Nonetheless, in recent years, their role is being dismissed while increasing interest is being devoted to the possible associations between periodontal infection and systemic diseases. In fact, periodontal pathogens and their products, as well as inflammatory mediators produced in periodontal tissues, might enter the bloodstream, causing systemic effects and/or contributing to systemic diseases. On the basis of this mechanism, chronic periodontitis has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases associated with atherosclerosis, bacterial endocarditis, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, preterm delivery, rheumatoid arthritis, and, recently, osteoporosis, pancreatic cancer, metabolic syndrome, renal diseases and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Various hypotheses, including common susceptibility, systemic inflammation, direct bacterial infection and cross-reactivity, or molecular mimicry, between bacterial antigens and self-antigens, have been postulated to explain these relationships. In this scenario, the association of periodontal disease with systemic diseases has set the stage for introducing the concept of periodontal medicine. This narrative review summarizes the evolution of focal infection theory up to the current pathophysiology of periodontal disease, and presents an update on the relationships between chronic periodontitis and systemic diseases. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. iRhom2 promotes lupus nephritis through TNF-α and EGFR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiaoping; Chinenov, Yurii; Redecha, Patricia; Madaio, Michael; Roelofs, Joris Jth; Farber, Gregory; Issuree, Priya D; Donlin, Laura; Mcllwain, David R; Mak, Tak W; Blobel, Carl P; Salmon, Jane E

    2018-04-02

    Lupus nephritis (LN) often results in progressive renal dysfunction. The inactive rhomboid 2 (iRhom2) is a newly identified key regulator of A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), whose substrates, such as TNF-α and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases. Here, we demonstrate that deficiency of iRhom2 protects the lupus-prone Fcgr2b-/- mice from developing severe kidney damage without altering anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) Ab production by simultaneously blocking HB-EGF/EGFR and TNF-α signaling in the kidney tissues. Unbiased transcriptome profiling of kidneys and kidney macrophages revealed that TNF-α and HB-EGF/EGFR signaling pathways are highly upregulated in Fcgr2b-/- mice, alterations that were diminished in the absence of iRhom2. Pharmacological blockade of either TNF-α or EGFR signaling protected Fcgr2b-/- mice from severe renal damage. Finally, kidneys from LN patients showed increased iRhom2 and HB-EGF expression, with interstitial HB-EGF expression significantly associated with chronicity indices. Our data suggest that activation of iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent TNF-α and EGFR signaling plays a crucial role in mediating irreversible kidney damage in LN, thereby uncovering a target for selective and simultaneous dual inhibition of 2 major pathological pathways in the effector arm of the disease.

  8. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe renal impairment associated with multisystem IgG4-related disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Coimbra Ferreira Beltrame

    Full Text Available Abstract The IgG4-related disease has a wide clinical spectrum where multiple organs can be affected, and the diagnosis depends on typical histopathological findings and an elevated IgG4 expression in plasma cells in the affected tissue. We describe the clinical presentation and evolution of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, severe kidney failure and systemic manifestations such as lymphadenomegaly and chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical picture and kidney and lymph node histopathology, in which immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissue showed policlonality and increased expression of IgG4, with a IgG4/total IgG ratio > 80%. The patient was treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/day, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, and showed clinical and renal function improvement at 6 months of follow-up. The high index of suspicion of IgG4-related disease with multisystem involvement and the early treatment of this condition are essential to improve the prognosis of affected patients.

  9. Mechanisms and kinetics for platelet and neutrophil localization in immune complex nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.J.; Alpers, C.E.; Pruchno, C.; Schulze, M.; Baker, P.J.; Pritzl, P.; Couser, W.G. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-11-01

    We have previously reported that both neutrophils (PMNs) and platelets mediate proteinuria in a model of subendothelial immune complex (IC) nephritis (GN) in the rat. In order to understand the interaction of PMNs and platelets in this model, we quantitated the uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled platelets in glomeruli and correlated this with the number of PMNs observed histologically at 10 and 30 minutes, 1, 4 and 24 hours following induction of GN. Platelet accumulation was biphasic with a major peak at 10 minutes and a minor peak at four hours. Early platelet accumulation was complement dependent, and PMN-independent. PMN accumulation occurred after the initial platelet influx, peaking at one and four hours, was complement dependent, but was not affected by platelet depletion. Complement depletion significantly reduced proteinuria. This is the first documentation that platelet accumulation in glomeruli in IC GN is complement dependent. In addition, the enhancement of PMN-mediated injury by the platelet in this model does not involve effects of platelets on PMN localization, thus implying a functional interaction between these cells within the glomerulus.

  10. The contribution of the programmed cell death machinery in innate immune cells to lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, FuNien; Perlman, Harris; Cuda, Carla M

    2017-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-factorial autoimmune disease initiated by genetic and environmental factors, which in combination trigger disease onset in susceptible individuals. Damage to the kidney as a consequence of lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most prevalent and severe outcomes, as LN affects up to 60% of SLE patients and accounts for much of SLE-associated morbidity and mortality. As remarkable strides have been made in unlocking new inflammatory mechanisms associated with signaling molecules of programmed cell death pathways, this review explores the available evidence implicating the action of these pathways specifically within dendritic cells and macrophages in the control of kidney disease. Although advancements into the underlying mechanisms responsible for inducing cell death inflammatory pathways have been made, there still exist areas of unmet need. By understanding the molecular mechanisms by which dendritic cells and macrophages contribute to LN pathogenesis, we can improve their viability as potential therapeutic targets to promote remission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overview of IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Its Mimickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Joo Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN is the most common form of renal involvement in IgG4-related disease. It is characterized by a dominant infiltrate of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the interstitium and storiform fibrosis. Demonstration of IgG4-positive plasma cells is essential for diagnosis, but the number of IgG4-positive cells and the ratio of IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells may vary from case to case and depending on the methods of tissue sampling even in the same case. IgG4-positive plasma cells can be seen in TIN associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitis, which further add diagnostic confusion and difficulties. To have a more clear view of IgG4-TIN and to delineate differential points from other TIN with IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltrates, clinical and histological features of IgG4-TIN and its mimickers were reviewed. In the rear part, cases suggesting overlap of IgG4-TIN and its mimickers and glomerulonephritis associated with IgG4-TIN were briefly described.

  12. Protocol renal biopsy in patients with lupus nephritis: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ametashver; Ghosh, Rabindranath; Kaur, Prabhjeet; Golay, Vishal; Pandey, Rajendra; Roychowdhury, Arpita

    2014-07-01

    Renal biopsy plays an indispensable role in the diagnosis and management of patients with lupus nephritis (LN). A number of studies have evaluated the role of a repeat biopsy in case of disease relapse or treatment unresponsiveness. We studied 40 patients with LN with renal biopsies performed at baseline and after six months of therapy. The baseline and protocol biopsies were compared with respect to histological class transformation, crescents, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. We also compared serum creatinine, hemoglobin, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores, 24-h urine protein excretion and C3levels as well as activity index (AI) and chronicity index (CI) at baseline and at six months. Comparison of means was made by paired t test, McNemar test and marginal homogeneity test (multinomial data). Histological class transformation was seen in 10 patients (25%). Intra-class progression to greater chronicity was seen in 10 other patients (25%).There was an increase in glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and a reduction in cellularity, crescent formation and wire loop lesions in the protocol biopsy. A decline in AI (6.05 vs. 2.50, P protocol biopsy. Our study shows a trend toward greater chronicity in protocol biopsies in LN.

  13. Mechanisms underlying the ameliorative property of lisinopril in progressive mesangioproliferative nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinosaki, Toshihiro; Miyai, Ikuko; Nomura, Yasuharu; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sunagawa, Norio; Kurihara, Hidetake

    2002-08-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of lisinopril on chronic glomerulonephritis. Chronic glomerulonephritis was induced by a single injection of E30 monoclonal antibody (E30) recognizing Thy-1.1 antigen to unilaterally nephrectomized rats. E30 injection resulted in persistent massive proteinuria with a decrease in anionic charge sites on the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) at 8 weeks. Also, renal tissue from rats treated with E30 showed typical glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Lisinopril exerted a potent antiproteinuric effect and suppressed the progression of both glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Lisinopril recovered the reduced number of anionic charge sites on GBM, accounting for the positive action against massive proteinuria. Immunostaining for desmin revealed that lisinopril treatment prevented the injury of glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) occurring in the chronic nephritic stage. Also, the level of gene expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the renal cortex were reduced, suggesting that lisinopril improved extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism. These results indicated that proteinuria in Thy-1.1 antibody-induced chronic nephritis is associated with a decrease in anionic charge sites on GBM, and that the antiproteinuric effect of lisinopril is attributable to protection against GEC damage. Suppression of TGF-beta and PAI-1 expression contributed to the preventive effect of lisinopril on ECM deposition in renal tissue. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Clozapine-induced interstitial nephritis - a rare but important complication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Robert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Given the limited range of effective drug treatments for patients with schizophrenia, increasing numbers of patients, often termed 'treatment-resistant' are prescribed clozapine. While the induction of neutropenia or agranulocytosis by clozapine is well appreciated, other rare potentially fatal adverse reactions may also occur including acute interstitial nephritis as reported in this case. Case presentation A 57-year-old Caucasian woman with treatment-resistant chronic schizophrenia developed acute renal failure following initiation of treatment with clozapine. The adverse reaction occurred after only four doses of the drug had been administered (titrated from 12.5 to 25 mg per day. After clozapine had been withdrawn, the patient's renal function returned to normal with no other changes to medication. The patient had been exposed to clozapine about 4 years previously when she had developed a similar reaction. Conclusion Renal reactions to clozapine are extremely rare but, if not recognized promptly, may prove fatal. Psychiatrists need to be aware of this possible complication when clozapine is initiated.

  15. Retracted Association of STAT4 gene polymorphism with systemic lupus erythematosus / lupus nephritis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Qin, Yuan-Han; Zhou, Jia-Fan

    2014-04-16

    The association of STAT4 gene polymorphism with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) / lupus nephritis (LN) results from the published studies is still conflicting. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between STAT4 rs7574865, rs16833431, rs11889341, rs8179673, rs10168266, rs7582694, rs3821236, rs7601754 gene polymorphism and SLE / LN, and to explore whether STAT4 gene polymorphism could become a predictive marker for SLE / LN risk. Association studies were identified from the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and CBM-disc (China Biological Medicine Database) as of September 1, 2013, and eligible investigations were synthesized using meta-analysis method. 24 investigations were identified for the analysis of association between STAT4 gene polymorphism and SLE, consisting of 31190 patients with SLE and 43940 controls. In STAT4 rs7574865, there was a marked association between T allele or TT genotype and SLE susceptibility (T: OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.30-1.79, Prs7574865 gene polymorphism was not associated with the LN risk. Our results indicate that T allele or TT homozygous is a significant risk genetic molecular marker to predict the SLE susceptibility and GG genotype is a valuable marker to against the SLE risk, but the association was not found for LN. However, more investigations are required to further clarify the association of the T allele or TT homozygous with SLE / LN susceptibility. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  17. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  18. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  19. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  20. Transparent meta-analysis: does aging spare prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (ProM is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE. The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? METHODS AND FINDINGS: A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with Craik's (1983 proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging.

  1. Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ 2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  2. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  3. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  4. Seven tesla MRI improves detection of focal cortical dysplasia in patients with refractory focal epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veersema, Tim J; Ferrier, Cyrille H; van Eijsden, Pieter; Gosselaar, Peter H; Aronica, Eleonora; Visser, Fredy; Zwanenburg, Jaco M; de Kort, Gerard A P; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Luijten, Peter R; Braun, Kees P J

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of 7 tesla (T) MRI in clinical practice leads to higher detection rates of focal cortical dysplasias in possible candidates for epilepsy surgery. Methods: In our center patients are referred for 7 T MRI if lesional focal epilepsy is

  5. Clinical evaluation of determination the changes on serum IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels after treatment in pediatric patients with acute nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hong; Hu Yan; Wei Guoyu; Liu Ya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical evaluation of the changes of determination of serum IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels after treatment in pediatric patients with acute nephritis. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA), IL-4, IFN-γ (with ELISA) levels were determined both before and after treatment in 32 pediatric patients with acute nephritis and 35 normal controls. Results: The serum IL-4, IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls before treatment (P 0.05). Serum IL-2 levels were negatively correlated with IL-4, IFN-γ levels (r=-0.5536, -0.6012, P<0.01). Conclusion: Interaction of the serum IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ also participated in the pathogenesis of acute nephritis in pediatric patients, monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the diseases and provider important clinical value. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels after treatment in children with acute nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoyan; Zhou Hong; Xu Weiqin; Li Xinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF- α levels after treatment in children with acute nephritis. Methods: Serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels (with RIA) were measured in 31 pediatric patients with acute nephritis and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P< O.01). After treatment for 3 months, the serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α levels, though markedly corrected, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of changes of serum IGF-II, GM-CSF and TNF-α contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in pediatric patients with acute nephritis. (authors)

  7. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF-α and plasma VEGF contents after treatment in pediatric patients with acute nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guomin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum TNF-α and plasma VEGF levels after treatment in pediatric patients with acute nephritis. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA) and plasma VEGF levels (with ELISA) were determined in 32 pediatric patients with acute nephritis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum TNF-α and plasma VEGF levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). After one month of treatment with combined traditional Chinese and western medicine, the levels though dropped markedly, still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of acute nephritis in pediatric patients was closely related to the serum TNF-α and plasma VEGF levels. (authors)

  8. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Endogenous interleukin (IL)-17A promotes pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity and lupus nephritis induced by pristane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, S A; Odobasic, D; Khouri, M B; Steinmetz, O M; Yang, Y; Holdsworth, S R; Kitching, A R

    2014-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17A is increased both in serum and in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis, but direct evidence of pathogenicity is less well established. Administration of pristane to genetically intact mice results in the production of autoantibodies and proliferative glomerulonephritis, resembling human lupus nephritis. These studies sought to define the role of IL-17A in experimental lupus induced by pristane administration. Pristane was administered to wild-type (WT) and IL-17A(-/-) mice. Local and systemic immune responses were assessed after 6 days and 8 weeks, and autoimmunity, glomerular inflammation and renal injury were measured at 7 months. IL-17A production increased significantly 6 days after pristane injection, with innate immune cells, neutrophils (Ly6G(+)) and macrophages (F4/80(+)) being the predominant source of IL-17A. After 8 weeks, while systemic IL-17A was still readily detected in WT mice, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were diminished in the absence of endogenous IL-17A. Seven months after pristane treatment humoral autoimmunity was diminished in the absence of IL-17A, with decreased levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Renal inflammation and injury was less in the absence of IL-17A. Compared to WT mice, glomerular IgG, complement deposition, glomerular CD4(+) T cells and intrarenal expression of T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated proinflammatory mediators were decreased in IL-17A(-/-) mice. WT mice developed progressive proteinuria, but functional and histological renal injury was attenuated in the absence of IL-17A. Therefore, IL-17A is required for the full development of autoimmunity and lupus nephritis in experimental SLE, and early in the development of autoimmunity, innate immune cells produce IL-17A. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Emel Uzun; Acikgoz, Aydan; Ozan, Bora; Zengin, Ayse Zeynep; Gunhan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    To present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia and emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is categorized into three subtypes on the basis of the clinical and radiographic features: Periapical, focal and florid. The focal type exhibits a single site of involvement in any tooth-bearing or edentulous area of the jaws. These lesions are usually asymptomatic; therefore, they are frequently diagnosed incidentally during routine radiographic examinations. Lesions are usually benign, show limited growth, and do not require further surgical intervention, but periodic follow-up is recommended because occasionally, this type of dysplasia progresses into florid osseous dysplasia and simple bone cysts are formed. A 24-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for swelling in the left edentulous mandibular premolarmolar region and felt discomfort when she wore her prosthetics. She had no pain, tenderness or paresthesia. Clinical examination showed that the swelling in the posterior mandible that was firm, nonfluctuant and covered by normal mucosa. On panoramic radiography and computed tomography, a well defined lesion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter of mixed density was observed. The swelling increased slightly in size over 2 years making it difficult to use prosthetics and, therefore, the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia, and surgical specimens were submitted for histopathological examination. The histopathological diagnosis was focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. In the present case, because of the increasing size of the swelling making it difficult to use prosthetics, young age of the patient and localization of the lesion, in the initial examination, cemento-ossifying fibroma was suspected, and the lesion was excised surgically; the histopathological diagnosis confirmed it as focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. We present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Differential diagnosis

  11. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  12. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. O'Rourke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and discuss the literature on this topic.

  13. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, D.J.; Bergin, A.; Rotenberg, A.; Peters, J.; Gorman, M.; Poduri, A.; Cryan, J.; Lidov, H.; Madsen, J.; Harini, C.

    2014-01-01

    Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and discuss the literature on this topic. PMID:25667877

  14. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruedee Phasukthaworn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies.

  15. Focal splenic masses of the extramedullary hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incedayi, M.; Sivrioglu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Extramedullary hematopoiesis arises from pleuripotential stem cells distributed throughout the body. It is most common in patients with congenital hemolytic anemia, such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and hereditary spherocytosis as a response to ineffective red blood cell formation. Although microscopic foci of Extramedullary hematopoiesis are commonly seen in the spleen and liver parenchyma, focal mass-like lesion of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and spleen are rare. We report a case of intrasplenic focal extramedullary hematopoiesis lesions and the imaging features of extramedullary hematopoiesis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should always be considered as a diagnosis in a patient with a known hematological disorder

  16. Glutathione S Transferases Polymorphisms Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Lupus Nephritis Treated with Cyclophosphamide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Audemard-Verger

    Full Text Available To investigate association between genetic polymorphisms of GST, CYP and renal outcome or occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in lupus nephritis (LN treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC. CYC, as a pro-drug, requires bioactivation through multiple hepatic cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases (GST.We carried out a multicentric retrospective study including 70 patients with proliferative LN treated with CYC. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of the CYP2B6, CYP2C19, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Complete remission (CR was defined as proteinuria ≤0.33g/day and serum creatinine ≤124 µmol/l. Partial remission (PR was defined as proteinuria ≤1.5g/day with a 50% decrease of the baseline proteinuria value and serum creatinine no greater than 25% above baseline.Most patients were women (84% and 77% were Caucasian. The mean age at LN diagnosis was 41 ± 10 years. The frequency of patients carrying the GST null genotype GSTT1-, GSTM1-, and the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype were respectively 38%, 60% and 44%. In multivariate analysis, the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype was an independent factor of poor renal outcome (achievement of CR or PR (OR = 5.01 95% CI [1.02-24.51] and the sole factor that influenced occurrence of ADRs was the GSTM1 null genotype (OR = 3.34 95% CI [1.064-10.58]. No association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450s gene and efficacy or ADRs was observed.This study suggests that GST polymorphisms highly impact renal outcome and occurrence of ADRs related to CYC in LN patients.

  17. Chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities: a worldwide epidemic with social, occupational and environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasumana, Channa; Orantes, Carlos; Herrera, Raul; Almaguer, Miguel; Lopez, Laura; Silva, Luis Carlos; Ordunez, Pedro; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; De Broe, Marc E

    2017-02-01

    Increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed in Central America, Sri Lanka and other tropical countries. It is named chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC). CINAC is defined as a form of CKD that affects mainly young men, occasionally women. Its aetiology is not linked to diabetes, hypertension, glomerulopathies or other known causes. CINAC patients live and work in poor agricultural communities located in CINAC endemic areas with a hot tropical climate, and are exposed to toxic agrochemicals through work, by ingestion of contaminated food and water, or by inhalation. The disease is characterized by low or absent proteinuria, small kidneys with irregular contours in CKD stages 3–4 presenting tubulo-interstitial lesions and glomerulosclerosis at renal biopsy. Although the aetiology of CINAC is unclear, it appears to be multifactorial. Two hypotheses emphasizing different primary triggers have been proposed: one related to toxic exposures in the agricultural communities, the other related to heat stress with repeated episodes of dehydration heath stress and dehydration. Existing evidence supports occupational and environmental toxins as the primary trigger. The heat stress and dehydration hypothesis, however, cannot explain: why the incidence of CINAC went up along with increasing mechanization of paddy farming in the 1990s; the non-existence of CINAC in hotter northern Sri Lanka, Cuba and Myanmar where agrochemicals are sparsely used; the mosaic geographical pattern in CINAC endemic areas; the presence of CINAC among women, children and adolescents who are not exposed to the harsh working conditions; and the observed extra renal manifestations of CINAC. This indicates that heat stress and dehydration may be a contributory or even a necessary risk factor, but which is not able to cause CINAC by itself.

  18. Inhibition of sphingosine kinase-2 in a murine model of lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J Snider

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, a potent bioactive lipid, is emerging as a central mediator in inflammation and immune responses. We have previously implicated S1P and its synthetic enzyme sphingosine kinase (SK in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Generation of S1P requires phosphorylation of sphingosine by SK, of which there are two isoforms. Numerous studies have implicated SK1 in immune cell trafficking, inflammation and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we set out to determine the role of SK and S1P in lupus nephritis (LN. To this end, we examined S1P and dihydro-S1P (dh-S1P levels in serum and kidney tissues from a mouse model of LN. Interestingly dh-S1P was significantly elevated in serum and kidney tissue from LN mice, which is more readily phosphorylated by SK2. Therefore, we employed the use of the specific SK2 inhibitor, ABC294640 in our murine model of LN. Treatment with ABC294640 did not improve vascular or interstitial pathology associated with LN. However, mice treated with the SK2 inhibitor did demonstrate decreases in glomerular pathology and accumulation of B and T cells in the spleen these were not statistically different from lpr mice treated with vehicle. LN mice treated with ABC294640 did not have improved urine thromboxane levels or urine proteinuria measurements. Both S1P and dh-S1P levels in circulation were significantly reduced with ABC294640 treatment; however, dh-S1P was actually elevated in kidneys from LN mice treated with ABC294640. Together these data demonstrate a role for SKs in LN; however, they suggest that inhibition of SK1 or perhaps both SK isoforms would better prevent elevations in S1P and dh-S1P and potentially better protect against LN.

  19. Serious Infections among Adult Medicaid Beneficiaries with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Candace H.; Hiraki, Linda T.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Marty, Francisco M.; Franklin, Jessica M.; Kim, Seoyoung C.; Costenbader, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective While serious infections are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the epidemiology in a nationwide cohort of SLE and lupus nephritis (LN) patients has not been examined. Methods Using the Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) database, 2000-2006, we identified patients 18-64 years with SLE and a subset with LN. We ascertained hospitalized serious infections using validated algorithms, and 30-day mortality rates. We used Poisson regression to calculate infection incidence rates (IR), and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for first infection, adjusted for sociodemographics, medication use, and a SLE-specific risk adjustment index. Results We identified 33,565 patients with SLE and 7,113 with LN. There were 9,078 serious infections in 5,078 SLE patients and 3,494 infections in 1,825 LN patients. The infection IR per 100 person-years was 10.8 in SLE and 23.9 in LN. In adjusted models, in SLE, we observed increased risks of infection among males compared to females (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.47), in Blacks compared to Whites (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.21), and glucocorticoid users (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.43-1.61) and immunosuppressive users (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20) compared with non-users. Hydroxychloroquine users had a reduced risk of infection compared to non-users (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.68-0.77). The 30-day mortality rate per 1,000 person-years among those hospitalized with infections was 21.4 in SLE and 38.7 in LN. Conclusion In this diverse, nationwide cohort of SLE patients, we observed a substantial burden of serious infections with many subsequent deaths. PMID:25772621

  20. Elevated Subclinical Double-Stranded DNA Antibodies and Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J.; Prince, Lisa K.; Baker, Thomas P.; Papadopoulos, Patricia; Edison, Jess; Abbott, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Elevated anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody and C-reactive protein are associated with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN). Progression of quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody in patients with PLN has not been compared with that in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN before diagnosis. The temporal relationship between anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein elevation has also not been evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (established in 1985) study compared longitudinal prediagnostic quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein levels in 23 patients with biopsy-proven PLN (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1993–2009) with levels in 21 controls with SLE but without LN matched for patient age, sex, race, and age of serum sample. The oldest (median, 2601 days; 25%, 1245 days, 75%, 3075 days), the second to last (368; 212, 635 days), and the last (180; 135, 477 days) serum sample before diagnosis were analyzed. Results More patients with PLN had an elevated anti-dsDNA antibody level than did the matched controls at any point (78% versus 5%; P4 years (33% versus 0%; P=0.04) before diagnosis. A rate of increase >1 IU/ml per year (70% versus 0%; P<0.001) was most specific for PLN. The anti-dsDNA antibody levels increased before C-reactive protein did in most patients with an antecedent elevation (92% versus 8%; P<0.001). Conclusions Elevated anti-dsDNA antibody usually precedes both clinical and subclinical evidence of proliferative LN, which suggests direct pathogenicity. Absolute anti-dsDNA antibody level and rate of increase could better establish risk of future PLN in patients with SLE. PMID:23833315

  1. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis: A clinicopathological study and comparative trial of steroid regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are used in the management of drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN. The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of pulse methyl prednisolone with oral prednisolone in the treatment of drug-induced AIN. Patients with biopsy-proven AIN with a history of drug intake were randomized to oral prednisolone (Group 1 1 mg/kg for 3 weeks or a pulse methyl prednisolone (Group II 30 mg/kg for 3 days followed by oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg for 2 weeks, tapered over 3 weeks. Kidney biopsy scoring was done for interstitial edema, infiltration and tubular damage. The response was reported as complete remission (CR (improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] to ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , partial remission (PR (improvement but eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or resistance (no CR/PR. A total of 29 patients, Group I: 16 and Group II: 13 were studied. Offending drugs included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, herbal drugs, antibiotics, diuretic, rifampicin and omeprazole. There was no difference in the baseline parameters between the two groups. The biopsy score in Groups I and II was 5.9 ΁ 1.1 and 5.1 ΁ 1.2, respectively. At 3 months in Group I, eight patients each (50% achieved CR and PR. In Group II, 8 (61% achieved CR and 5 (39% PR. This was not significantly different. Percentage fall in serum creatinine at 1 week (56% was higher in CR as compared to (42% those with PR. ( P = 0.14. Patients with neutrophil infiltration had higher CR compared to patients with no neutrophil infiltration ( P = 0.01. Early steroid therapy, both oral and pulse steroid, is equally effective in achieving remission in drug-induced AIN.

  2. Profiling analysis of circulating microRNA in peripheral blood of patients with class IV lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Navarro-Quiroz

    Full Text Available Renal involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE patients is one of the leading causes of morbidity and a significant contributor to mortality. It's estimated that nearly 50% of SLE individuals develop kidney disease in the first year of the diagnosis. Class IV lupus nephritis (LN-IV is the class of lupus nephritis most common in Colombian patients with SLE. Altered miRNAs expression levels have been reported in human autoimmune diseases including lupus. Variations in the expression pattern of peripheral blood circulating miRNAs specific for this class of lupus nephritis could be correlated with the pathophysiological status of this group of individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative abundance of circulating microRNAs in peripheral blood from Colombian patients with LN-IV. Circulating miRNAs in plasma of patients with diagnosis of LN-IV were compared with individuals without renal involvement (LNN group and healthy individuals (CTL group. Total RNA was extracted from 10 ml of venous blood and subsequently sequenced using Illumina. The sequences were processed and these were analyzed using miRBase and Ensembl databases. Differential gene expression analysis was carried out with edgeR and functional analysis were done with DIANA-miRPath. Analysis was carried out using as variables of selection fold change (≥2 o ≤-2 and false discovery rate (0.05. We identified 24 circulating microRNAs with differential abundance between LN-IV and CTL groups, fourteen of these microRNAs are described for the first time to lupus nephritis (hsa-miR-589-3p, hsa-miR-1260b, hsa-miR-4511, hsa-miR-485-5p, hsa-miR-584-5p, hsa-miR-543, hsa-miR-153-3p, hsa-miR-6087, hsa-miR-3942-5p, hsa-miR-7977, hsa-miR-323b-3p, hsa-miR-4732-3p and hsa-miR-6741-3p. These changes in the abundance of miRNAs could be interpreted as alterations in the miRNAs-mRNA regulatory network in the pathogenesis of LN, preceding the clinical onset of the disease. The findings

  3. IgA nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein nephritis in adults : with special reference to factors affecting outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Rauta, Virpi

    2006-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis. In one third of the patients the disease progresses, and they eventually need renal replacement therapy. IgAN is in most cases a slowly progressing disease, and the prediction of progression has been difficult, and the results of studies have been conflicting. Henoch-Schönlein nephritis (HSN) is rare in adults, and prediction of the outcome is even more difficult than in IgAN. This study was conducted to evaluate the c...

  4. Effects of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for the Treatment of Lupus Nephritis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Heng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After a thorough search through the database as CNKI database, VIP database, Wanfang database, PubMed, and Cochrane Library, the clinical experimental articles have been selected out on the effects of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine on the treatment of lupus nephritis. A meta-analysis was carried out in terms of clinical efficacy criteria and safety criteria by RevMan 5.3 software. Based on the results, we cautiously conclude that Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine used for lupus nephritis could improve the clinical efficacy while at same time lower the 24-hour urine protein, serum creatinine, and adverse drug reactions.

  5. Assessment of urinary TWEAK levels in Mexican patients with untreated lupus nephritis: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Reyes-Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinary levels of TWEAK (uTWEAK may be correlated with the degree of lupus nephritis (LN activity. Our objective was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of uTWEAK in Mexican patients with untreated active lupus nephritis. Methods: An exploratory study was performed; four groups of patients were analyzed as follows: 1 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE without renal activity (SLE-LN, 2 patients with SLE with renal activity (SLE + LN, 3 patients with other types of glomerulopathy (glomerulonephritis, GMN, 4 and healthy patients (controls. Results: In all, 44 patients, with an average age of 35.9 ± 11.5 years, were evaluated. uTWEAK levels were higher in patients with SLE + LN compared with patients in the other groups: SLE + LN 12.88 ± 8.33, SLE-LN 3.12 ± 2.31, GMN 4.36 ± 2.31 and controls 2.41 ± 1.94 pg/mg Cr (p = 0.007. A total of 72.7% of the cases had renal activity index scores above 12, and 90.9% of the cases had scores of chronicity below 6 points. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis revealed that uTWEAK levels above 4.91 pg/mg Cr had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 75% for the diagnosis of renal activity due to lupus, with an area under the curve of 0.876 (95% CI: 0.75–0.99. However, no significant correlation was observed between the levels of uTWEAK and the histological findings specific to the activity and chronicity associated with SLE. Conclusions: Our study revealed that uTWEAK can adequately distinguish renal activity due to lupus, but cannot predict the degree of histological activity in Mexican patients with active lupus nephropathy. Resumen: Objetivos: Los niveles urinarios de TWEAK (uTWEAK pueden correlacionarse con el grado de actividad de nefritis lúpica (NL. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la sensibilidad y especificidad de los uTWEAK en pacientes mexicanos con NL activa sin

  6. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  7. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, C.R.; Sommese, A.; Johnston, D.; Landau, H.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  8. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  9. Acute Kidney Injury, Recurrent Seizures, and Thrombocytopenia in a Young Patient with Lupus Nephritis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Alvarado Verduzco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a constellation of clinical and radiologic findings. Fluctuations in blood pressure, seizures, and reversible brain MRI findings mainly in posterior cerebral white matter are the main manifestations. PRES has been associated with multiple conditions such as autoimmune disorders, pregnancy, organ transplant, and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old woman with history of Systemic Lupus Erythematous complicated with chronic kidney disease secondary to lupus nephritis class IV presented with recurrent seizures and uncontrolled hypertension. She was found to have acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. Repeat kidney biopsy showed diffuse endocapillary and extracapillary proliferative and membranous lupus nephritis (ISN-RPS class IV-G+V and endothelial swelling secondary to severe hypertension but no evidence of TMA. Brain MRI showed reversible left frontal and parietal lesions that resolved after controlling the blood pressure, making PRES the diagnosis. Conclusion. PRES is an important entity that must be recognized and treated early due to the potential reversibility in the early stages. Physicians must have high suspicion for these unusual presentations. We present a case where performing kidney biopsy clinched the diagnosis in our patient with multiple confounding factors.

  10. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-10-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous globular domain (NC1) of type IV collagen from normal human GBM, while FNS identified only the 26,000-mol wt monomer. FNS reacted with EBM of 12 controls and nine unaffected male kindred members but not EBM of eight affected males. Five affected females exhibited interrupted reactivity of FNS with EBM. GPS showed variable reactivity with EBM and was not discriminating with respect to Alport-type FN. FNS did not stain renal basement members of five affected males. However, the EBM, tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsules of affected males contained antigens reactive with GPS. These immunochemical studies suggest that the FNS antigen is distinct from Goodpasture antigen(s). The expression of FNS antigen located on the NC1 domain of type IV collagen is altered in basement membranes of patients with Alport-type FN, and the distribution of this antigenic anomaly within kindreds suggests X-linked dominant transmission of a defective gene.

  11. Successful Prednisolone Therapy in Elderly Patients with Severe Forms of Henoch–Schönlein Purpura Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiko Kato-Okada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recently, Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP has been observed in elderly people, although it was believed to be uncommon in these subjects. The increased risks of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD in adults in comparison with children were highlighted by different studies; however, limited data are available on the treatment of HSP nephritis in adults. Methods Between 2002 and 2008, five elderly Japanese patients (>65 years old (mean age, 68 years, ranging from 65 to 72 with severe forms of HSP nephritis were entered into a prospective study to evaluate prednisolone therapy on the outcome of nephropathy in terms of clinical symptoms and histopathological changes. The patients were considered at risk of developing chronic renal failure when they presented with a nephrotic syndrome and crescentic glomeruli. Results At the last follow-up, 4–10 years after initiation of the therapy, four patients had clinically recovered and one died of lung cancer. No patients developed ESRD. The clinical outcome seemed to be correlated with glomerular activity (massive proteinuria and crescent formation. In spite of a relatively large dose of prednisolone, a few adverse effects, such as insomnia and skin lesions, were observed. Discussion Our preliminary small study suggests that renal outcome as well as survival of elderly patients with severe forms of HSP might be altered by aggressive prednisolone therapy.

  12. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  13. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis with severe renal impairment associated with multisystem IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Rafael Coimbra Ferreira; Friderichs, Maurício; Fior, Bárbara Rayanne; Schaefer, Pedro Guilherme; Thomé, Gustavo Gomes; Silva, Dirceu Reis da; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Seligman, Renato; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo

    2016-01-01

    The IgG4-related disease has a wide clinical spectrum where multiple organs can be affected, and the diagnosis depends on typical histopathological findings and an elevated IgG4 expression in plasma cells in the affected tissue. We describe the clinical presentation and evolution of a patient with acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, severe kidney failure and systemic manifestations such as lymphadenomegaly and chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the clinical picture and kidney and lymph node histopathology, in which immunohistochemistry of the lymphoid tissue showed policlonality and increased expression of IgG4, with a IgG4/total IgG ratio > 80%. The patient was treated with prednisone at a dose of 60 mg/day, followed by mycophenolate mofetil, and showed clinical and renal function improvement at 6 months of follow-up. The high index of suspicion of IgG4-related disease with multisystem involvement and the early treatment of this condition are essential to improve the prognosis of affected patients. Resumo A doença relacionada à IgG4 tem um espectro clínico amplo em que múltiplos órgãos podem ser afetados, e o diagnóstico depende de achados histopatológicos típicos e elevada expressão de IgG4 em plasmócitos no tecido afetado. Descrevemos o quadro clínico e a evolução de um paciente com nefrite túbulo-intersticial aguda, insuficiência renal grave e manifestações sistêmicas como linfoadenomegalias e pancreatite crônica. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelas características clínicas e pela histopatologia renal e de linfonodo, na qual a imunohistoquímica mostrou tecido linfoide com policlonalidade e expressão aumentada de IgG4, com uma relação IgG4/IgG total > 80%. O paciente foi tratado com prednisona na dose de 60 mg/dia, seguido de micofenolato mofetil, e apresentou melhora clínica e da função renal depois de 6 meses de tratamento. O alto índice de suspeição da doença relacionada ao IgG4 com comprometimento multissist

  14. ESRD from lupus nephritis in the United States, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Donal J; Reule, Scott; Solid, Craig; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Collins, Allan J; Foley, Robert N

    2015-02-06

    While ESRD from lupus nephritis (ESLN) increased in the United States after the mid-1990s and racial disparities were apparent, current trends are unknown. Retrospective US Renal Data System data (n=1,557,117) were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (standardized to 1995-1996) and outcomes of ESLN (n=16,649). For events occurring after initiation of RRT, follow-up ended on June 30, 2011. Overall ESLN rates (95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) in 1995-1996 were 3.1 (2.9 to 3.2) cases per million per year. Rates were higher for subgroups characterized by African-American race (11.1 [95% CI, 10.3 to 11.9]); other race (4.9 [95% CI, 4.0 to 5.8]); female sex (4.9 [95% CI, 4.6 to 5.2]); and ages 20-29 years (4.9 [95% CI, 4.4 to 5.4]), 30-44 years (4.6 [95% CI, 4.2 to 5.0]), and 45-64 years (4.0 [95% CI, 3.7 to 4.4]). Standardized incidence ratios for the overall population in subsequent biennia were 1.19 (1.14 to 1.24) in 1997-1998, 1.17 (1.12 to 1.22) in 1999-2000, 1.17 (1.12 to 1.22) in 2001-2002, 1.21 (1.16 to 1.26) in 2003-2004, 1.18 (1.13 to 1.23) in 2005-2006, 1.16 (1.11 to 1.21) in 2007-2008, and 1.05 (1.01 to 1.09) in 2009-2010, respectively. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 4.4 (6.3) years, 42.6% of patients with ESLN died, 45.3% were listed for renal transplant, and 28.7% underwent transplantation. Patients with ESLN were more likely than matched controls to be listed for and to undergo transplantation, and mortality rates were similar. Among patients with ESLN, African Americans were less likely to undergo transplantation (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.54 [0.51 to 0.58]) and more likely to die prematurely (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23 [1.17 to 1.30]). While ESLN appears to have stopped increasing in the last decade, racial disparities in outcomes persist. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  16. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  17. Prevalence, incidence, and demographics of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis from 2000 to 2004 among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Linda T; Feldman, Candace H; Liu, Jun; Alarcón, Graciela S; Fischer, Michael A; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Costenbader, Karen H

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the nationwide prevalence, incidence, and sociodemographics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population. Children ages 3 years to Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code of 710.0 for SLE, each >30 days apart) were identified from the US Medicaid Analytic eXtract database from 2000 to 2004. This database contains all inpatient and outpatient Medicaid claims for 47 US states and the District of Columbia. Lupus nephritis was identified from ≥2 ICD-9 billing codes for glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, or renal failure, each recorded >30 days apart. The prevalence and incidence of SLE and lupus nephritis were calculated among Medicaid-enrolled children overall and within sociodemographic groups. Of the 30,420,597 Medicaid-enrolled children during these years, 2,959 were identified as having SLE. The prevalence of SLE was 9.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 9.38-10.08) per 100,000 Medicaid-enrolled children. Among the children with SLE, 84% were female, 40% were African American, 25% were Hispanic, 21% were White, and 42% resided in the South region of the US. Moreover, of the children with SLE, 1,106 (37%) had lupus nephritis, representing a prevalence of 3.64 (95% CI 3.43-3.86) per 100,000 children. The average annual incidence of SLE was 2.22 cases (95% CI 2.05-2.40) and that of lupus nephritis was 0.72 cases (95% CI 0.63-0.83) per 100,000 Medicaid enrollees per year. The prevalence and incidence rates of SLE and lupus nephritis increased with age, were higher in girls than in boys, and were higher in all non-White racial/ethnic groups. In the current study, the prevalence and incidence rates of SLE among Medicaid-enrolled children in the US are high compared to studies in other populations. In addition, these data represent the first population-based estimates of the prevalence and incidence of lupus nephritis in the US to date. Copyright © 2012 by the American

  18. Radiopneumographic characteristics of focal pneumonia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Zonal ventilation and blood flow were studied by the radiopneumography method in 50 children of school age with lower-lobe-of-the lung focal pneumonia (26 with left-side and 24 with right-side). It is established that during right-side localization of pneumonic focus preserved was the predomination of ventilation of right lung relative to left. Complete normalization of common and regional indexes of ventilation and blood flow was established by the 21st day from the beginning of treatment during right-side focal pneumonias. In case of left-side localization of pneumonic focus only partial reduction of external respiration and perfusion comes. Therefore, compensatory and reducing capabilities of right lung are preferrable

  19. Membership Functions for Fuzzy Focal Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porębski Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on data-driven diagnostic rules, which are easy to interpret by human experts. To this end, the Dempster-Shafer theory extended for fuzzy focal elements is used. Premises of the rules (fuzzy focal elements are provided by membership functions which shapes are changing according to input symptoms. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate common membership function shapes and to introduce a rule elimination algorithm. Proposed methods are first illustrated with the popular Iris data set. Next experiments with five medical benchmark databases are performed. Results of the experiments show that various membership function shapes provide different inference efficiency but the extracted rule sets are close to each other. Thus indications for determining rules with possible heuristic interpretation can be formulated.

  20. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have...

  1. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-01-01

    overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence......The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several...... arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice....

  2. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C.

    2006-01-01

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3ω high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3ω (a 3ω laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 μm and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 ± 45) μm

  3. Proximal focal femoral deficiency: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a rare congenital anomaly resulting in limb shortening and disability in young. The exact cause of the disease is not known and it may present as varying grades of affection involving the proximal femur and the acetabulum. Recognition of this rare abnormality on radiographs can help manage these cases better since early institution of therapy may help in achieving adequate growth of the femur.

  4. Syndecan-4 and focal adhesion function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Two groups have now reported the viability of mice that lack syndecan-4. These mice have wound healing/angiogenesis problems, and fibroblasts from these animals differ in adhesion and migration from normal. This is consistent with recent in vitro data indicating a need for signaling via syndecan-4...... for focal adhesion formation, and reports that overexpression of proteins that bind syndecan-4 can modify cell adhesion and migration....

  5. Focal adhesions, stress fibers and mechanical tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, Keith, E-mail: Keith_Burridge@med.unc.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, 12-016 Lineberger, CB#7295, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Guilluy, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.guilluy@univ-nantes.fr [Inserm UMR-S1087, CNRS UMR-C6291, L' institut du Thorax, and Université de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2016-04-10

    Stress fibers and focal adhesions are complex protein arrays that produce, transmit and sense mechanical tension. Evidence accumulated over many years led to the conclusion that mechanical tension generated within stress fibers contributes to the assembly of both stress fibers themselves and their associated focal adhesions. However, several lines of evidence have recently been presented against this model. Here we discuss the evidence for and against the role of mechanical tension in driving the assembly of these structures. We also consider how their assembly is influenced by the rigidity of the substratum to which cells are adhering. Finally, we discuss the recently identified connections between stress fibers and the nucleus, and the roles that these may play, both in cell migration and regulating nuclear function. - Highlights: • The different types of stress fiber and focal adhesion are described. • We discuss the controversy about tension and assembly of these structures. • We describe the different models used to investigate assembly of these structures. • The influence of substratum rigidity is discussed. • Stress fiber connections to the nucleus are reviewed.

  6. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  7. Classification of Focal and Non Focal Epileptic Seizures Using Multi-Features and SVM Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraam, N; Raghu, S

    2017-09-02

    Identifying epileptogenic zones prior to surgery is an essential and crucial step in treating patients having pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a significant measurement benchmark to assess patients suffering from epilepsy. This paper investigates the application of multi-features derived from different domains to recognize the focal and non focal epileptic seizures obtained from pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy patients from Bern Barcelona database. From the dataset, five different classification tasks were formed. Total 26 features were extracted from focal and non focal EEG. Significant features were selected using Wilcoxon rank sum test by setting p-value (p z > 1.96) at 95% significance interval. Hypothesis was made that the effect of removing outliers improves the classification accuracy. Turkey's range test was adopted for pruning outliers from feature set. Finally, 21 features were classified using optimized support vector machine (SVM) classifier with 10-fold cross validation. Bayesian optimization technique was adopted to minimize the cross-validation loss. From the simulation results, it was inferred that the highest sensitivity, specificity, and classification accuracy of 94.56%, 89.74%, and 92.15% achieved respectively and found to be better than the state-of-the-art approaches. Further, it was observed that the classification accuracy improved from 80.2% with outliers to 92.15% without outliers. The classifier performance metrics ensures the suitability of the proposed multi-features with optimized SVM classifier. It can be concluded that the proposed approach can be applied for recognition of focal EEG signals to localize epileptogenic zones.

  8. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  9. The incidence of IgG4-positive plasma cells staining TIN in patients with biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac, Kathy; Wu, Xiao Juan; Mai, Jun; Howlin, Kenneth; Suranyi, Michael; Yong, Jim; Makris, Angela

    2017-06-01

    IgG4 disease is rare. However, IgG4 tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common renal manifestation. IgG4 disease is usually associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels and other organ involvement, low-density renal lesions on enhanced CT imaging and immune activation. The incidence of IgG4-TIN may be underestimated, as staining for IgG4 is not routine. This study sought to describe the prevalence of previously undiagnosed IgG4-TIN. Due to the complexity of the diagnosis, we only attempt to look at IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN as a potential indication for IgG4 renal disease. A retrospective review of native renal biopsies performed between 2002 and 2012 with a primary diagnosis of TIN was selected. Samples for which interstitial nephritis was secondary to a glomerular disease were excluded. The tissues were stained for IgG4 and scored by two blinded observers. Demographic and follow-up details were collected. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. 82 cases of interstitial nephritis from a total of 1238 renal biopsies (2002-2012) were available after staining for further assessment. 12 samples demonstrated staining consistent with the criteria for IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN, of which 3 had mildly positive staining, 7 moderately positive staining and 2 had markedly positive staining. There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the positive and negative staining groups. A number of cases of IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN were observed histologically that had been previously diagnosed as non-specific chronic TIN. IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN made up 1% of all renal biopsies performed over 10 years and 13% of all biopsies demonstrating TIN not related to glomerular disease. IgG4 staining should be considered routinely in biopsies demonstrating primary TIN. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The safety of isotretinoin in patients with lupus nephritis: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziołek, Bartosz; Bergler-Czop, Beata; Stańkowska, Anna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2017-03-01

    Oral isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoinc acid) is a derivative of vitamin A and belongs to the first generation of retinoids, which act as synthetic isomers of retinoic acid (RA). It is a very effective agent in a treatment of acne vulgaris; however, multiple side effects related to therapy with retinoids preclude the use of isotretinoin in less severe acne vulgaris. A significant limitation for the administration of isotretinoin appears in case of concomitant kidney disease with a special attention regarding the safety of the agent in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). The aim of this review is an assessment of the safety of isotretinoin for the treatment of acne vulgaris in patients with LN. We searched both MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases, as well as several dermatological textbooks, to present all limitations and benefits of therapy with isotretinoin or its isomer (ATRA) for patients with kidney diseases. Several mouse models of SLE revealed a significant modulatory influence of retinoids on autoimmune injury of the glomerular unit. Retinoids were demonstrated to affect mononuclear cell infiltrations of renal tissue allowing for a reduction in the overall glomerular damage. Presumptively, they can affect a synthesis of autoantibodies significantly limiting their deposition in the glomerular unit. Moreover, retinoids were also shown to affect the synthesis of different cytokines specific both for lymphocytes Th1 (IL-2, IL-12, INFγ) ant Th2 (IL-4, IL-10). The influence of retinoids on the course of LN seems to be more multidimensional than only restricted to immune aspects and these synthetic RA isomers manifest also antiproteinuric activity in comparable extent to steroidal agents. The agents were demonstrated to counteract a loss of podocytes after the injury of the glomerular unit. They can promote a differentiation of renal progenitor cells (RPCs) within the Bowman capsule into mature podocytes leading to regeneration of podocyte number. Additionally, retinoids can

  11. Role of MYH9 and APOL1 in African and non-African populations with lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, C P; Adrianto, I; Lessard, C J

    2012-01-01

    ) and African-Americans (AAs) (N = 407). Multiple peaks of association exceeding a Bonferroni corrected P-value of P ...Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production and organ damage. Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most severe manifestations of SLE. Multiple studies reported associations between renal diseases and variants in the non-muscle myosin...... heavy chain 9 (MYH9) and the neighboring apolipoprotein L 1 (APOL1) genes. We evaluated 167 variants spanning MYH9 for association with LN in a multiethnic sample. The two previously identified risk variants in APOL1 were also tested for association with LN in European-Americans (EAs) (N = 579...

  12. Ultraviolet light-denatured DNA/anti-ultraviolet light-denatured DNA immune-complex nephritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweny, P.

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of preimmunized rabbits were studied during a 3-month course of daily intravenous injections of uv DNA in amounts sufficient to neuralize circulating antibody. One group was given high-molecular-weight uv DNA, and the other group, US uv DNA. Rabbits receiving US uv DNA formed potentially more damaging immune complexes, since this group of animals developed greater rises in blood urea and greater falls in C3. Both groups of animals developed evidence of immune complex-mediated glomerular nephritis as evidenced by heavy granular deposits of IgG and C3 in the glomeruli. The results suggest that immune complexes formed with US uv DNA may be more nephrotoxic

  13. Chronic liver disease and subchronic nephritis in a male warty chameleon (Furcifer verrucosus with transient hyperglycaemia – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Knotek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year old male warty chameleon (Furcifer verrucosus weighing 160 g was presented for veterinary examination following 4 weeks of decreased ability to catch insects with the tongue and difficulty in swallowing the prey. Non-invasive endoscopy did not reveal any macroscopic changes of the oral cavity mucosa or the cranial part of the esophagus. Dorsoventral and laterolateral plain and contrast radiographs revealed enlargement of the medial part of the liver without any visible abnormalities in the regions of the esophagus, stomach or small intestine. Abnormalities in the plasma chemistry profile included transient hyperglycaemia (52.68–57.18 mmol/l and hyperuricaemia (452.70–622.20 μmol/l. The chameleon was examined at 7, 20 and 22 weeks after initial examination. Its body weight decreased to 120 g. A blood profile revealed normoglycaemia (16.37–10.22 mmol/l and hyperphosphataemia (2.92–3.06 mmol/l at the last three examinations. The chameleon died suddenly 33 days after the final examination. Necropsy revealed the presence of a large liver cyst, filled with fluid. The liver had lost all of its normal structure. The kidneys showed a large area with fibrosis and multiple uric acid tophi. The post mortem findings were defined as liver with fatty degeneration and moderate fibrotic changes with large cyst, subchronic nephritis with uric acid tophi, and mineralization in the myocardium. This paper describes the first documented case of transient hyperglycaemia in a warty chameleon (Furcifer verrucosus associated with chronic liver disease and subchronic nephritis.

  14. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

  15. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

  16. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  17. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  18. Inducible nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms are associated with a risk of nephritis in Henoch-Schönlein purpura children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jue; Duan, Wuqiong; Shang, Xu; Wang, Hua; Gao, Ya; Tian, Peijun; Zhou, Qi

    2017-08-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common form of systemic small-vessel vasculitis in children, and HSP nephritis (HSPN) is a major complication of HSP and is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSP. In this study, we performed a detailed analysis to investigate the potential association between iNOS polymorphisms and the risk of HSP and the tendency for children with HSP to develop HSPN in a Chinese Han population. A promoter pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT)n and 10 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 532 healthy controls and 513 children with HSP were genotyped using the MassARRAY system and GeneScan. The results suggested that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the rs3729508 polymorphism were nominally associated with susceptibility to HSP. In addition, there was a significant difference in the allelic distribution of the (CCTTT)12 repeats and rs2297518 between the HSP children with and without nephritis; the HSP children with nephritis exhibited a significantly higher frequency of the (CCTTT)12 repeats and A allele of rs2297518 than the HSP children without nephritis (P FDR  = 0.033, OR = 1.624, 95% CI = 1.177-2.241 and P FDR  = 0.030, OR = 1.660, 95% CI = 1.187-2.321, respectively). Our results support that iNOS polymorphisms are associated with the risk of HSP and may strongly contribute to the genetic basis of individual differences in the progression to nephritis among children with HSP in the Chinese Han population. What is Known: • The etiology of HSP is unknown, but the genetic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HSP. • iNOS could contribute to the development and clinical manifestations of HSP, and this has not been studied extensively so far. What is New: • Our results support that iNOS polymorphisms not only are associated with HSP risk but also

  19. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  20. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sakata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver lesion incidentally discovered with increasing frequency because of the proliferation of imaging studies. Radiographic characterization can diagnose this pathologic lesion and nonoperative therapy is the standard of care. However, surgical resection may be required for diagnostic reasons or symptomatic patients. Depending on the anatomic location of the lesion, biopsy and/or resection can be performed laparoscopically. We herein report the case of a 26-year-old Japanese woman with a hepatic tumor who required a medical examination. Her medical history was negative for alcohol abuse, oral contraceptive administration and trauma. Clinical examination showed no significant symptoms. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the left lateral segment of the liver with a diameter of about 40 mm. It was difficult to diagnose the tumor definitively from these imaging studies, so we performed laparoscopic partial hepatectomy with successive firing of endoscopic staplers. The histopathological diagnosis was focal nodular hyperplasia. Surgical procedures and postoperative course were uneventful and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5.

  1. CT scan findings in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Eiki; Mihara, Tadahiro; Yamamoto, Kunimitsu; Yamashita, Kenji; Asakura, Tetsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    In 80 cases of focal epilepsy, excluding such cases as late onset after the age of 30 and traumatic or expansive lesions, the epileptogenic foci have been studied by comparing the CT findings with the seizure types and the EEG findings. The results were as follows: (1) Abnormal CT findings were observed in 36% of the patients. (2) These findings were classified into 4 large groups: localized cerebral atrophy, localized low density, localized high density with contrast enhancement and diffuse cerebral atrophy. (3) The incidence of CT abnormality was higher in the cases with continuous and localized EEG abnormality than in the cases with other types of EEG abnormality. In 48% of the cases, the location of the abnormal CT findings coincided with their EEG foci. (4) In the cases of temporal lobe epilepsy without abnormal CT images, the print-out data compared with the bilateral promised temporal regions, before and after contrast enhancement. The EMI-No. of the medial temporal focus increased more than that of the contralateral side in 3 cases out of 4 after contrast-media injection. (5) Moreover, for the purpose of comparing the CT findings on general seizures with those in focal seizures, we have studied 80 cases of general seizures. In the cases of the general seizures, abnormal CT findings were observed in only 16%. These abnormal findings were diffuse in 5 cases, localized in 6 cases, and combined in 3 cases. (author)

  2. The Sentinel-4 UVN focal plane assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinger, Jürgen; Hohn, Rüdiger; Gebhardt, Eyk; Reichardt, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-4 UVN Instrument is a dispersive imaging spectrometer covering the UV-VIS and the NIR wavelength. It is developed and built under an ESA contract by an industrial consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space. It will be accommodated on board of the MTG-S (Meteosat Third Generation - Sounder) satellite that will be placed in a geostationary orbit over Europe sampling data for generating two-dimensional maps of a number of atmospheric trace gases. The incoming light is dispersed by reflective gratings and detected by the two (UVVIS and NIR) CCDs mounted inside the focal plane assemblies. Both CCD detectors acquire spectral channels and spatial sampling in two orthogonal directions and will be operated at about 215 K mainly to minimize random telegraph signal effects and to reduce dark current. Stringent detector temperature as well as alignment stability requirements of less than +/-0.1 K per day respectively of less than 2 micrometers/2 arcseconds from ground to orbit are driving the FPA thermo-mechanical design. A specific FPA design feature is the redundant LED-calibration system for bad pixel detection as well as pixel gain and linearity monitoring. This paper reports on the design and qualification of the Focal Plane Assemblies with emphasis on thermo-mechanical as well as alignment stability verification.

  3. The Sentinel 4 focal plane subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Rüdiger; Skegg, Michael P.; Hermsen, Markus; Hinger, Jürgen; Williges, Christian; Reulke, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel 4 instrument is an imaging spectrometer, developed by Airbus under ESA contract in the frame of the joint European Union (EU)/ESA COPERNICUS program with the objective of monitoring trace gas concentrations. Sentinel 4 will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, as well as aerosol and cloud properties. Sentinel 4 is unique in being the first geostationary UVN mission. The SENTINEL 4 space segment will be integrated on EUMETSAT's Meteosat Third Generation Sounder satellite (MTG-S). Sentinel 4 will provide coverage of Europe and adjacent regions. The Sentinel 4 instrument comprises as a major element two Focal Plane Subsystems (FPS) covering the wavelength ranges 305 nm to 500 nm (UVVIS) and 750 nm to 775 nm (NIR) respectively. The paper describes the Focal Plane Subsystems, comprising the detectors, the optical bench and the control electronics. Further the design and development approach will be presented as well as first measurement results of FPS Qualification Model.

  4. Focal CT abnormality and epileptogenic focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kazuichi; Mihara, Tadahiro; Tottori, Takayasu; Matsuda, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Seino, Masakazu

    1989-01-01

    In 31 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, the precise site of epileptogenic focus was determined by means of a depth EEG recording as one of the presurgical evaluations. In 13 patients, a CT scan revealed focal lesions; 7 in the left temporal lobe and 6 in the right temporal lobe. In 5 of the 7 patients and in 5 of the 6 patients the epileptogenic foci were determined in the temporal lobe on the side of a CT lesion. However, in 2 of the patients with a CT lesion in the left temporal lobe, independent epileptogenic foci were found in both the temporal lobes, and in the other patient with a CT lesion in the right temporal lobe, they were found in the right frontal and left temporal lobes. Thus, the CT lesions agreed in lateralization and focality with the epileptogenic foci in 10 of the 13 patients (77%), but they disagreed in 3 (23%). A CT lesion disclosed in the temporal lobe does not necessarily indicate the side and/or site where the epileptogenic focus may be localized. Although exceptions may be made, spatial disagreement was exemplified between the CT lesion and epileptogenic focus. Therefore, extreme caution has to be taken on the side and/or site of the epileptogenic focus when functional surgical indication is to be made. (author)

  5. Serial neuroradiological studies in focal cerebritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, S.; Mochizuki, H.; Kuru, Y.; Miwa, H.; Kondo, T.; Mori, H.; Mizuno, Y.

    1994-01-01

    We report serial neuroradiological studies in a patient with focal cerebritis in the head of the left caudate nucleus. On the day after the onset of symptoms, CT showed an ill-defined low density lesion. The lack of contrast enhancement appeared to be the most important finding for differentiating focal cerebritis from an encapsulated brain abscess or a tumour. MRI two days later revealed the centre of the lesion to be of slightly low intensity on T1-weighted inversion recovery (IR) images and very low intensity on T2-weighted spin echo images, which appeared to correspond to the early cerebritis stage of experimentally induced cerebritis and brain abscess. Ten days after the onset of symptoms, CT revealed a thin ring of enhancement in the head of the caudate nucleus, and a similar small ring was seen in the hypothalamus 16 days after the onset, corresponding to the late cerebritis stage. MRI nine days later revealed ill-defined high signal lesions within the involved area on the T1-weighted IR images. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI documentation of the early cerebritis stage developing into an encapsulated brain abscess. The mechanisms underlying of these radiographic changes are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Structural and effective connectivity in focal epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Parker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with medically-refractory focal epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery and some may require placement of intracranial EEG electrodes to localise seizure onset. Assessing cerebral responses to single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES may give diagnostically useful data. SPES produces cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs, which infer effective brain connectivity. Diffusion-weighted images and tractography may be used to estimate structural brain connectivity. This combination provides the opportunity to observe seizure onset and its propagation throughout the brain, spreading contiguously along the cortex explored with electrodes, or non-contiguously. We analysed CCEPs and diffusion tractography in seven focal epilepsy patients and reconstructed the effective and structural brain networks. We aimed to assess the inter-modal similarity of the networks at a large scale across the cortex, the effective and structural connectivity of the ictal-onset zone, and investigate potential mechanisms of non-contiguous seizure spread. We found a significant overlap between structural and effective networks. Effective network CCEP amplitude, baseline variation, and outward connectivity was higher at ictal-onset zones, while structural connection strength within the ictal-onset zone tended to be higher. These findings support the concept of hyperexcitable cortex being associated with seizure generation. The high prevalence of structural and effective connections from the ictal-onset zone to sites of non-contiguous spread suggests that macroscopic structural and effective connections are plausible routes for non-contiguous seizure spread.

  7. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-03-07

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses.

  8. Focal fatty infiltra- tion and focal fatty sparing of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Department of Radiology. Nelson Mandela School of Health Sciences. Durban. Fig. 1a. Unenhanced CT of the liver in case 1 demonstrates multiple focal low density regions in both lobes of the liver. Region of interest 1 over the fatty left lobe measured 10 HU while region of interest 2 over the right lobe measure 40 HU in.

  9. Small cardiac lesions: fibrosis of papillary muscles and focal cardiac myocytolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, A [Hijiyanna Park, Hiroshima JP; Nakashima, N; Kawashima, T; Lee, K K; Danzig, M D; Robertson, T L; Dock, D S

    1977-11-01

    Three types of small cardiac lesions were described and illustrated: (1) focal type of papillary muscle fibrosis, evidently a healed infarct of the papillary muscle present in 13% of the autopsies, is a histologically characteristic lesion associated with coronary artery disease and healed myocardial infarction; (2) diffuse type of papillary muscle fibrosis, probably an aging change present in almost half of the autopsies, is associated with sclerosis of the arteries in the papillary muscle, is identifiable histologically; and apparently is not associated with any cardiac abnormality; and (3) focal cardiac myocytolysis, a unique histologic lesion, usually multifocal without predilection for any area of the heart, is associated with ischemic heart disease, death due to cancer complicated by non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and microthrombi in small cardiac arteries as well as with other diseases. Differentiation of the 2 types of papillary muscle fibrosis is important in the study of papillary muscle and mitral valve dysfunction. Focal cardiac myocytolysis may contribute to the fatal extension of myocardial infarcts.

  10. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  11. The study of the focal trough in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. S.; Kim, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    In the study of the focal trough of panoramic radiograph, using the Moritta company Panex EC a series of 48 exposures were taken with the 6-18 brass pins placed in the holes of the plastic model plate, then evaluated by 4 observers. The author analyzed the focal trough defined by the sharpness criteria and calculated the vertical and horizontal magnification range in the corrected focal trough. The results were as follows; 1. Continuous focal trough was not defined in the anterior region using a very high degree of sharpness. 2. As degree of sharpness used in the analysis became less, focal trough was continuous in the anterior and posterior regions, symmetrized bilaterally, and the widths of the focal trough increased more in the posterior region. 3. As sharpness criteria were reduced, the percentage range of image magnification increased in both vertical and horizontal magnification, and especially the percentage range of horizontal magnification was greater than that of vertical magnification.

  12. Multi-focal Vision and Gaze Control Improve Navigation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolja Kuehnlenz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-focal vision systems comprise cameras with various fields of view and measurement accuracies. This article presents a multi-focal approach to localization and mapping of mobile robots with active vision. An implementation of the novel concept is done considering a humanoid robot navigation scenario where the robot is visually guided through a structured environment with several landmarks. Various embodiments of multi-focal vision systems are investigated and the impact on navigation performance is evaluated in comparison to a conventional mono-focal stereo set-up. The comparative studies clearly show the benefits of multi-focal vision for mobile robot navigation: flexibility to assign the different available sensors optimally in each situation, enhancement of the visible field, higher localization accuracy, and, thus, better task performance, i.e. path following behavior of the mobile robot. It is shown that multi-focal vision may strongly improve navigation performance.

  13. Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis occurring postpartum in a patient with anti-PL-7 anti-synthetase syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kojiro; Kishi, Jun; Morizumi, Shun; Minakuchi, Jun; Bando, Yoshimi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Doi, Toshio

    2017-09-01

    A 37-year-old pregnant woman developed purpura which was subsequently diagnosed as Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). After childbirth, the patient developed proteinuria and hematuria. Further examination revealed that the HSP nephritis (HSPN) was associated with anti-threonyl-tRNA synthetase anti-synthetase syndrome. The onset of HSPN during pregnancy or after childbirth is rare. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first case to describe renal involvement in anti-synthetase syndrome.

  14. The Leptospira outer membrane protein LipL32 induces tubulointerstitial nephritis-mediated gene expression in mouse proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Wu, Mai-Szu; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Hsieh, Wang-Ju; Vandewalle, Alain; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a main renal manifestation caused by pathogenic leptospira that accumulate mostly in the proximal tubules, thereby inducing tubular injury and tubulointerstitial nephritis. To elucidate the role of leptospira outer membrane proteins in tubulointerstitial nephritis, outer membrane proteins from pathogenic Leptospira shermani and nonpathogenic Leptospira patoc extracted by Triton X-114 were administered to cultured mouse proximal tubule cells. A dose-dependent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, nitrite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the culture supernatant was observed 48 h after incubating Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins with mouse proximal tubule cells. RT competitive-PCR experiments showed that Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins (0.2 microg/ml) increased the expression of MCP-1, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), RANTES, and TNF-alpha mRNA by 3.0-, 9.4-, 2.5-, and 2.5-fold, respectively, when compared with untreated cells. Outer membrane proteins extract from avirulent Leptospira patoc did not induce significant effects. The pathogenic outer membrane proteins extract contain a major component of a 32-kD lipoprotein (LipL32), which is absent in the nonpathogenic leptospira outer membrane. An antibody raised against LipL32 prevented the stimulatory effect of Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins extract on MCP-1 and iNOS mRNA expression in cultured proximal tubule cells, whereas recombinant LipL32 significantly stimulated the expression of MCP-1 and iNOS mRNAs and augmented nuclear binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1 transcription factors in proximal tubule cells. An antibody raised against LipL32 also blunted the effects induced by the recombinant LipL32. This study demonstrates that LipL32 is a major component of pathogenic leptospira outer membrane proteins involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  15. Concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive crescentic glomerulonephritis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Yang, Li; Cui, Zhao; Wang, Su-Xia; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-05-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic disease. The typical pathological finding in the kidney is abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration with characteristic storiform fibrosis in the interstitium. Antibodies of the IgG4 subclass have been linked to certain autoimmune diseases including antiproteinase 3 (PR3) anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) of the IgG4 subclass. Here, we report a rare case of kidney injury with concurrent typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 subclass of myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. A 42-year-old Chinese man presented with repeated epigastric pain, sausage-shaped pancreas observed morphologically in computed tomography, effectiveness of prednisone therapy and was diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. He subsequently developed acute kidney injury. The patient had an elevated serum IgG4, eosinophilia, and positive MPO-ANCA of IgG4-dominant subclass. Renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic nephritis and typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. The patient was treated with a combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and a course of rituximab was later added to deplete peripheral B cells. The patient responded well and his renal function improved. This is the first case report of an IgG4-RD with concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 MPO-ANCA-associated necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. It raises the difficulty in differentiation diagnosis of the two separate diseases that is worthy of further study.

  16. Circulating chromatin-anti-chromatin antibody complexes bind with high affinity to dermo-epidermal structures in murine and human lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fismen, S; Hedberg, A; Fenton, K A

    2009-01-01

    Murine and human lupus nephritis are characterized by glomerular deposits of electron-dense structures (EDS). Dominant components of EDS are chromatin fragments and IgG antibodies. Whether glomerular EDS predispose for similar deposits in skin is unknown. We analysed (i) whether dermo-epidermal i......Murine and human lupus nephritis are characterized by glomerular deposits of electron-dense structures (EDS). Dominant components of EDS are chromatin fragments and IgG antibodies. Whether glomerular EDS predispose for similar deposits in skin is unknown. We analysed (i) whether dermo......-epidermal immune complex deposits have similar molecular composition as glomerular deposits, (ii) whether chromatin fragments bind dermo-epidermal structures, and (iii) whether deposits in nephritic glomeruli predispose for accumulation of similar deposits in skin. Paired skin and kidney biopsies from nephritic...... (NZBxNZW)F1 and MRL-lpr/lpr mice and from five patients with lupus nephritis were analysed by immunofluorescence, immune electron microscopy (IEM) and co-localization TUNEL IEM. Affinity of chromatin fragments for membrane structures was determined by surface plasmon resonance. Results demonstrated (i...

  17. Preeclampsia in pregnancies complicated by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis: prophylactic treatment with multidisciplinary approach are important keys to prevent adverse obstetric outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Federico; Simeone, Serena; Cirami, Calogero Lino; Cozzolino, Mauro; Serena, Caterina; Rambaldi, Marianna Pina; Gallo, Pamela; Emmi, Lorenzo; Cammelli, Daniele; Mello, Giorgio; Matucci Cerinic, Marco

    2017-11-27

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) commonly affects women of childbearing age. Hypertension, antiphospholipid syndrome, and lupus nephritis are risk factors for adverse maternal/fetal outcome. The aim of this retrospective cohort study is to compare pregnancy outcomes in patients with and without SLE nephritis, using a multidisciplinary approach and a broad prophylaxis protocol. Data were collected from 86 pregnancies complicated by SLE. Twenty-seven women with nephropathy before pregnancy stated as the study group and 59 formed the control group. Each group received a prophylactic treatment based on their clinical characteristics. Results were expressed as mean ± SD, percentage and χ 2 -test (significant values when p 1.2 mg/dL, which was related to a risk 1.25 times higher than the risk observed in patients with serum creatinine approach in a tertiary care center and a broad prophylactic treatment protocol to patients affected by SLE and complicated by nephritis may definitively foster a successful pregnancy.

  18. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  19. Strong reducing of the laser focal volume

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godin, T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available equal to -1 or +1 modeled on the p light rings of the incident TEMp0 beam. The transformation quality of a 30TEM beam into a single-lobed pattern in the focal plane is shown in Fig. 3. It is clear that the intensity pattern of the rectified beam... DOE (blue solid line), rectified 30TEM (red solid line) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 z=0 z=f DOE Fig. 2 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 TEM30 without DOE "rectified" TEM30 TEM00 In te ns...

  20. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  1. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  2. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  3. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome in adults: A national retrospective strobe-compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Mathieu; Devilliers, Hervé; Perard, Laurent; Groh, Matthieu; Nefti, Habdelamid; Dussol, Bertrand; Trad, Salim; Touré, Fatouma; Abad, Sébastien; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Frimat, Luc; Torner, Stéphane; Seidowsky, Alexandre; Massy, Ziad André; Saadoun, David; Rieu, Virginie; Schoindre, Yoland; Heron, Emmanuel; Frouget, Thierry; Lionet, Arnaud; Glowacki, François; Arnaud, Laurent; Mousson, Christiane; Besancenot, Jean-François; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Bielefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome is a rare disease, defined by the association of idiopathic acute TINU. The aim of our work was to determine the characteristics of adult TINU syndrome in France, and to assess factors (including treatment) influencing medium-term prognosis.We conducted a nationwide study including 20 French hospitals. Clinical, laboratory, and renal histopathologic data of 41 biopsy-proven TINU syndromes were retrospectively collected. The patients were diagnosed between January 1, 1999 and December 1, 2015.Twenty-five females and 16 males were included (F/M ratio: 1.6:1). The median age at disease onset was 46.8 years (range 16.8-77.4) with a median serum creatinine level at 207 μmol/L (range 100-1687) and a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 27 mL/min per 1.73 m (range 2-73). Twenty-nine patients (71%) had a bilateral anterior uveitis and 24 (59%) had deterioration in general health at presentation. Moderate proteinuria was found in 32 patients (78%) (median proteinuria 0.52 g/24 h; range 0.10-2.10), aseptic leukocyturia in 25/36 patients (70%). The evaluation of renal biopsies revealed 41 patients (100%) with an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, 19/39 patients (49%) with light to moderate fibrosis and 5 patients (12%) with an acute tubular necrosis. Thirty-six patients (88%) were treated with oral corticosteroids. After 1 year of follow-up, the median eGFR was 76 mL/min per 1.73 m (range 17-119) and 32% of the patients suffered from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Serum creatinine (P uveitis relapses. The use of oral corticosteroids was not associated with a better kidney function but was associated with fewer uveitis relapses (P = 0.44 and 0.02, respectively).In our study, 32% of patients were suffering from moderate to severe chronic kidney disease after 1 year of follow-up, and 40% had uveitis relapses during this follow-up. This work also suggests that oral

  4. Association of anti C1q and ds-DNA levels with the pathogenesis of Lupus Nephritis among SLE patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Sohail

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lupus nephritis (LN is the most common and serious complication associated with SLE and it results in significant morbidity and mortality. It is known by several studies that patients of LN have higher levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q compared with SLE patients without renal involvement. The current study was designed to determine and compare the level of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q in patients of SLE with and without lupus nephritis in the Pakistani population. This current study was also aimed at providing proof that anti-C1q levels are more prominent in LN/non-LN SLE as compared to anti-dsDNA. This project may help in the determination of results in Pakistan and contribute to the further confirmation of the sensitivity of anti-C1q. Method: The patient samples were collected from Sheikh Zayed hospital, Lahore. These patients were clinically diagnosed by the Rheumatologists as SLE and LN positive on the basis of ACR and SLEDAI scoring criteria. This study was performed and samples were analyzed in the Department of Medical and Laboratory Sciences, Imperial College of Business Study, Lahore on the patient’s serum by ELISA technique. Result: About 38% (12 patients with LN were positive for anti-dsDNA and 31% (9 SLE patients without LN were positive whereas about 38.7% (12 were anti-dsDNA negative in LN cases and 58.6% (17 in SLE without LN. In case of anti-C1q 100% (31 of these LN patients were positive and 93.1% (27 patients SLE without LN showed positive anti C1q results. Only 6.9% (2 patients showed negative results for anti-C1q in LN negative patients Conclusion: The higher levels of anti-C1q suggest that it may be a better diagnostic marker for LN than that of anti-dsDNA and that it can be helpful in the prognosis of SLE patients.

  5. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  6. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  7. Focal decompositions for linear differential equations of the second order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Birbrair

    2003-01-01

    two-points problems to itself such that the image of the focal decomposition associated to the first equation is a focal decomposition associated to the second one. In this paper, we present a complete classification for linear second-order equations with respect to this equivalence relation.

  8. Focal necrotizing pneumonia is a distinct entity from lung abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyewon; Cha, Seung-Ick; Shin, Kyung-Min; Lim, Jaekwang; Yoo, Seung-Soo; Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Shin-Yup; Kim, Chang-Ho; Park, Jae-Yong

    2013-10-01

    'Focal necrotizing pneumonia' was defined as a localized type of necrotizing pneumonia characterized by a single or few cavities of low density without rim enhancement on computed tomography (CT) scan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features and course of patients with focal necrotizing pneumonia, thereby elucidating its clinical relevance. The present study was conducted retrospectively in patients who had been interpreted as having lung abscess or necrotizing pneumonia on CT scan. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between the focal necrotizing pneumonia and lung abscess groups. Overall, 68 patients with focal necrotizing pneumonia (n = 35) or lung abscess (n = 33) were included in the present study. The frequency of risk factors for aspiration was significantly lower in the focal necrotizing group, compared with the lung abscess group (14.3% vs 45.5%, P = 0.005). Compared with lung abscess, focal necrotizing pneumonia was observed more commonly in non-gravity-dependent segments (66% vs 36%, P lung abscess group (31% vs 12%, P = 0.08). However, in terms of treatment outcomes, a similar high rate of success was observed in both groups: 97%, respectively. Compared to lung abscess, focal necrotizing pneumonia occurs more commonly in non-gravity-dependent segments with lower incidence of risk factors for aspiration. Similar to lung abscess, the rate of success for treatment of focal necrotizing pneumonia was high. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency in Ibadan a Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultural aversion to amputation in our environment makes it difficult to employ that option of treatment. Proximal focal femoral deficiency in Ibadan a developing country's perspective and a review of the literature. Keywords: Proximal focal femoral deficiency , congenital malformations , limb malformations , lower limb ...

  10. Concordance of MRI and EEG Focal Slowing in Nonsyndromic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the Kangwon National University, Korea, and The Epilepsy Center, Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, USA studied the correlation and significance of EEG focal slowing and focal MRI abnormalities in 253 children with nonsyndromic epilepsy.

  11. Do classic blood biomarkers of JSLE identify active lupus nephritis? Evidence from the UK JSLE Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M D; Jorgensen, A L; Beresford, M W

    2017-10-01

    Background Lupus nephritis (LN) affects up to 80% of juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients. The value of commonly available biomarkers, such as anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement (C3/C4), ESR and full blood count parameters in the identification of active LN remains uncertain. Methods Participants from the UK JSLE Cohort Study, aged modeling, with stepAIC function applied to select a final model. Receiver-operating curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy. Results A total of 370 patients were recruited; 191 (52%) had active LN and 179 (48%) had inactive LN. Binary logistic regression modeling demonstrated a combination of ESR, C3, white cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes and IgG to be best for the identification of active LN (area under the curve 0.724). Conclusions At best, combining common classic blood biomarkers of lupus activity using multivariate analysis provides a 'fair' ability to identify active LN. Urine biomarkers were not included in these analyses. These results add to the concern that classic blood biomarkers are limited in monitoring discrete JSLE manifestations such as LN.

  12. Outcome of lupus nephritis in childhood onset SLE in North and Central India: single-centre experience over 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P; Abujam, B; Misra, R; Lawrence, A; Agarwal, V; Aggarwal, A

    2016-04-01

    Childhood SLE (cSLE) has a higher prevalence of lupus nephritis (LN), and there are ethnic variations in response to treatment as well as outcome of LN. There are limited data on long-term outcome of LN in cSLE from the Indian subcontinent. Retrospective analysis of case records of patients with cSLE (satisfying revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria for diagnosis) and age of onset Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/ACR damage score was 0.79 ± 1.13. Actuarial ESRD-free survival at five, 10 and 15 years was 91.1%, 79% and 76.2%, and five-, 10- and 15-year renal survival was 93.8%, 87.1% and 84%, respectively. Although multiple factors individually predicted poor outcome (death/ESRD), only raised serum creatinine at onset (R square = 0.65, p ≤ 0.0001) and damage accrual (R square = 0.62, p ≤ 0.0001) remained significant on multivariate analysis. Eleven (8.2%) children died during the follow-up period, and infections were the leading cause of mortality. Long-term outcome of LN in cSLE in our cohort was better than previous reports from India. However, a high rate of major infection still remains the leading cause of mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The Involvement of MicroRNAs in Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Paulina; von Rauchhaupt, Ekaterina

    2018-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), represent a family of RNA molecules that do not translate into protein. Nevertheless, they have the ability to regulate gene expression and play an essential role in immune cell differentiation and function. MicroRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in various tissues, and changes in their expression have been associated with several pathological processes. Yet, their roles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN) remain to be elucidated. Both SLE and LN are characterized by a complex dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Recently, significant findings have been made in understanding SLE through the use of genetic variant identification and expression pattern analysis and mouse models, as well as epigenetic analyses. Abnormalities in immune cell responses, cytokine and chemokine production, cell activation, and apoptosis have been linked to a unique expression pattern of a number of miRNAs that have been implicated in the immune pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. The recent evidence that significantly increased the understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE drives a renewed interest in efficient therapy targets. This review aims at providing an overview of the current state of research on the expression and role of miRNAs in the immune pathogenesis of SLE and LN. PMID:29854836

  14. Warfarin-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis in combination therapy of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Katsuaki; Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Kuroyanagi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, China

    2017-07-14

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare life-threatening condition almost exclusively attributed to drugs. The main etiologic factors for TEN are sulphonamides, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics; however, there are no published reports of warfarin causing TEN. We present the case of a 3-year-old patient who developed TEN while receiving treatment for Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). With multiple-drug therapy comprising prednisolone, mizoribine, dipyridamole, and warfarin, it is difficult to detect which drug is the causative agent. While in most cases, diagnosis of the causative drug is based on clinical history without a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), we performed the test three times and identified the causative drug as warfarin at the late phase. We continued HSPN treatment without warfarin, and results showed good renal function without life-threatening complications. To our knowledge, this is the first report about TEN caused by warfarin. Repeated LTTs could be useful for identifying TEN-causative drugs even in the late phase.

  15. The Involvement of MicroRNAs in Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpisheh, Mohsen; Köhler, Paulina; von Rauchhaupt, Ekaterina; Lech, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), represent a family of RNA molecules that do not translate into protein. Nevertheless, they have the ability to regulate gene expression and play an essential role in immune cell differentiation and function. MicroRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in various tissues, and changes in their expression have been associated with several pathological processes. Yet, their roles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN) remain to be elucidated. Both SLE and LN are characterized by a complex dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Recently, significant findings have been made in understanding SLE through the use of genetic variant identification and expression pattern analysis and mouse models, as well as epigenetic analyses. Abnormalities in immune cell responses, cytokine and chemokine production, cell activation, and apoptosis have been linked to a unique expression pattern of a number of miRNAs that have been implicated in the immune pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. The recent evidence that significantly increased the understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE drives a renewed interest in efficient therapy targets. This review aims at providing an overview of the current state of research on the expression and role of miRNAs in the immune pathogenesis of SLE and LN.

  16. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. [Sotos syndrome associated with focal dystonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, M; Chacón, J; Bautista, E; Pérez-Camacho, I; Trujillo, A; Grande, M A

    Sotos syndrome is a form of infantile gigantism characterized by excessive body size from the time of birth, particular facies, acromegalic changes and signs of non-progressive cerebral involvement. The etiology is unknown. Diagnosis is based on somatometric data and the particular phenotype traits. Biochemical and endocrine studies are normal. Torticollis is a focal dystonia and therefore more common in adults. A 20 year old woman with macrosomic features since birth presented with: weight 104 kg, height 182 cm; prognathism, hypertelorism, a broad over hanging forehead with a high hair line; large ears, hands and feet; torticollis towards the right with elevation and anteroversion of the right shoulder which caused symptomatic scoliosis. She was bradypsychic and rather slow in speech. The complementary tests done (cerebral and cervical CT and MR, bone gammography, evoked potentials, EMG-ENG, sural nerve biopsy, biopsy of skin and muscle, EEG and hormone and biochemistry studies) were normal. The torticollis was treated with botulinus toxin and improved considerably, as did the scoliosis. To date, dystonia has not been described in association with Sotos syndrome. This may be a causal association, or even perhaps hereditary, since the patient's mother had dystonia (in the form of blepharospasm).

  18. Depression in focal, segmental and generalized dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L; Butler, A; Jahanshahi, M

    2008-11-01

    Dystonia causes body disfigurement in the majority of those affected. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that low self-esteem resulting from the sense of disfigurement is an important component of self-reported depression in focal, segmental and generalized dystonia. Questionnaires to assess self-reported depression, self-esteem, body concept, disfigurement, disability and quality of life were completed by 329 community based dystonia patients. Moderate to severe depression was reported by 30 %. Self-reported depression had a strong somatic component, but patients also showed a specific concern with self-image. Extent of dystonia, body parts affected and marital status influenced self-reported depression in dystonia. Self esteem, body concept, disfigurement and quality of life emerged as factors which accounted for the variance of self-reported depression in dystonia. These results suggest that in dystonia, disfigurement, negative body concept, low self-esteem, and the impact of the disease on quality of life make important contributions to depression. However, longitudinal followup is required to firmly establish the direction of causality between depression and these psychosocial variables in dystonia.

  19. Visual agnosia and focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, O

    Visual agnosia encompasses all disorders of visual recognition within a selective visual modality not due to an impairment of elementary visual processing or other cognitive deficit. Based on a sequential dichotomy between the perceptual and memory systems, two different categories of visual object agnosia are usually considered: 'apperceptive agnosia' and 'associative agnosia'. Impaired visual recognition within a single category of stimuli is also reported in: (i) visual object agnosia of the ventral pathway, such as prosopagnosia (for faces), pure alexia (for words), or topographagnosia (for landmarks); (ii) visual spatial agnosia of the dorsal pathway, such as cerebral akinetopsia (for movement), or orientation agnosia (for the placement of objects in space). Focal brain injuries provide a unique opportunity to better understand regional brain function, particularly with the use of effective statistical approaches such as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). The aim of the present work was twofold: (i) to review the various agnosia categories according to the traditional visual dual-pathway model; and (ii) to better assess the anatomical network underlying visual recognition through lesion-mapping studies correlating neuroanatomical and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rodents have been widely used in the production of cerebral ischemia models. However, successful therapies have been proven on experimental rodent stroke model, and they have often failed to be effective when tested clinically. Therefore, nonhuman primates were recommended as the ideal alternatives, owing to their similarities with the human cerebrovascular system, brain metabolism, grey to white matter ratio and even their rich behavioral repertoire. The present review is a thorough summary of ten methods that establish nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia; electrocoagulation, endothelin-1-induced occlusion, microvascular clip occlusion, autologous blood clot embolization, balloon inflation, microcatheter embolization, coil embolization, surgical suture embolization, suture, and photochemical induction methods. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as precautions for each model, compared nonhuman primates with rodents, different species of nonhuman primates and different modeling methods. Finally it discusses various factors that need to be considered when modelling and the method of evaluation after modelling. These are critical for understanding their respective strengths and weaknesses and underlie the selection of the optimum model.

  1. Evaluation of Hemodynamics in Focal Steatosis and Focal Spared Lesion of the Liver Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with Sonazoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, K.; Watanabe, M.; Ikehara, T.; Kogame, M.; Shinohara, M.; Shinohara, M.; Ishii, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Sumino, Y.; Shiozawa, K.; Makino, H.

    2014-01-01

    We aim to investigate the hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesion of the liver using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with Sonazoid. The subjects were 47 patients with focal steatosis and focal spared lesion. We evaluated enhancement patterns (hyper enhancement, iso enhancement, and hypo enhancement) in the vascular phase and the presence or absence of a hypoechoic area in the post vascular phase for these lesions using CEUS. Of the 24 patients with focal steatosis, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 19 and hypo enhancement in 5. Hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in 3 patients. Of the 23 patients with focal spared lesions, the enhancement pattern was iso enhancement in 18 and hyper enhancement in 5. No hypoechoic areas were noted in the post vascular phase in any patient. The hemodynamics in focal steatosis and focal spared lesions in non diffuse fatty liver can be observed using low-invasive procedures in real-time by CEUS. It was suggested that differences in the dynamics of enhancement in the vascular phase of CEUS were influenced by the fat deposits in the target lesion, the surrounding liver parenchyma, and the third inflow.

  2. Focal Atrichia: A Diagnostic Clue in Female Pattern Hair Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A

    2017-10-07

    Focal atrichia is a common clinical finding in female pattern hair loss whose specificity and histologic findings need further clarification. To determine the frequency of focal atrichia in various types of hair loss and its histologic characteristics in female pattern hair loss. Part 1: Review of 250 consecutive female patients seen with hair loss for the presence of focal atrichia and Part 2: paired biopsies of haired areas vs focal atrichia in 18 subjects with female pattern hair loss RESULTS: Focal atrichia was seen in 46/104 (44%) of women with female pattern hair loss, including 67% of late onset vs 15% of early onset, compared to 3/146 (2%) of those with other hair disorders Biopsy findings of focal atrichia in female pattern hair loss showed primarily a more progressive miniaturization process than that of haired areas of the scalp. Some women with female pattern hair loss may have had concomitant chronic telogen effluvium CONCLUSIONS: When present, focal atrichia is a clinical clue to the diagnosis of female pattern hair loss, particularly late onset subtype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The dispersion-focalization theory of sound systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Abry, Christian; Boë, Louis-Jean; Vallée, Nathalie; Ménard, Lucie

    2005-04-01

    The Dispersion-Focalization Theory states that sound systems in human languages are shaped by two major perceptual constraints: dispersion driving auditory contrast towards maximal or sufficient values [B. Lindblom, J. Phonetics 18, 135-152 (1990)] and focalization driving auditory spectra towards patterns with close neighboring formants. Dispersion is computed from the sum of the inverse squared inter-spectra distances in the (F1, F2, F3, F4) space, using a non-linear process based on the 3.5 Bark critical distance to estimate F2'. Focalization is based on the idea that close neighboring formants produce vowel spectra with marked peaks, easier to process and memorize in the auditory system. Evidence for increased stability of focal vowels in short-term memory was provided in a discrimination experiment on adult French subjects [J. L. Schwartz and P. Escudier, Speech Comm. 8, 235-259 (1989)]. A reanalysis of infant discrimination data shows that focalization could well be the responsible for recurrent discrimination asymmetries [J. L. Schwartz et al., Speech Comm. (in press)]. Recent data about children vowel production indicate that focalization seems to be part of the perceptual templates driving speech development. The Dispersion-Focalization Theory produces valid predictions for both vowel and consonant systems, in relation with available databases of human languages inventories.

  5. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  6. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is one of the most common glomerulonephritis (GNP worldwide. Despite treatment, it may progress to end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we compared clinical and histopathological data on FSGS with primary and secondary GNP retrospectively. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data on clinical and laboratory findings, treatment response, and risk factors associated with mortality in patients, who had been diagnosed with FSGS and other GNP via renal biopsy between January 2009 and December 2014. The average follow-up time was 22 (8-76 months. Results: FSGS and primary GNP were more frequently seen in males than in females (55.9% vs. 65.3%, p=0.033. Nephrotic syndrome was more common in patients with FSGS (41.2% and primary GNP (57.7%, while chronic renal disease was more frequent in patients with secondary GNP (35%. In FSGS, the complete remission rate was 54.4%. 63.2% of patients had continued to receive treatment. According to the biopsy findings, interstitial inflammation and fibrosis were observed in 100% and 98.5% of patients with FSGS, respectively (p=0.010 and p<0.001, respectively. Serum albumin level was found to be increased and proteinuria, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL levels to be decreased after treatment (p<0.001. Serum creatinine levels and type of GNP (secondary GNP were detected to be 1.48 and 8.14 fold increased in mortality analysis, respectively. Conclusion: Renal biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glomerular diseases. Renal function at the time of diagnosis, follow-up and appropriate immunosuppressive therapy have effects on mortality and clinical progress in FSGS as is the case in all GNPs.

  7. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  8. The design of LMJ focal spots for indirect drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Garrec, B J; Sajer, J M

    2008-01-01

    LMJ is a 240 high power laser beam facility for achieving laser matter interaction experiments, high energy density science, including the demonstration of fusion ignition through Inertial Confinement. The Laser Integration Line (LIL) facility is currently a 4-beam prototype for LMJ. The intensity I 0 at the focal spot centre drives hydrodynamic and plasma instabilities and the intensity in the wings must be low to go through the laser entrance Hohlraum. A simple model has been developed to compute the LMJ focal spot. The model gives the intensity at the centre as a function of the focal spot area at 3% of the maximum

  9. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  10. Benign focal liver lesions: discrimination from malignant mimickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Mohammad; Shirkhoda, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Focal lesions of the liver often have various imaging characteristics which may be interpreted as either benign or malignant. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of these liver lesions may lead to characteristic imaging manifestations, which direct the radiologist to the diagnosis. Benign lesions include congenital hepatic cyst, autosomal dominant polycystic disease, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), hepatic adenoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, peliosis hepatis, focal fatty infiltration, hamartoma, and infectious processes such as hepatic abscess, echinococcal cyst, and candidiasis. Characteristic imaging features, clinical symptoms, and treatment/prognosis will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on key reliable features of each disease to develop a method of discriminating these lesions from other benign and malignant disorders.

  11. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  12. Dual-layer electrode-driven liquid crystal lens with electrically tunable focal length and focal plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Lin, C. F.; Lin, J. P.; Zeng, X. Y.; Yan, Q.; Zhou, X. T.; Guo, T. L.

    2018-04-01

    Electric-field-driven liquid crystal (ELC) lens with tunable focal length and their depth of field has been extensively applied in 3D display and imaging systems. In this work, a dual-layer electrode-driven liquid crystal (DELC) lens with electrically tunable focal length and controllable focal plane is demonstrated. ITO-SiO2-AZO electrodes with the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate are used as driven electrodes within a LC cell, which permits the establishment of an alternative controllability. The focal length of the DELC lens can be adjusted from 1.41 cm to 0.29 cm when the operating voltage changes from 15 V to 40 V. Furthermore, the focal plane of the DELC lens can selectively move by changing the driving method of the applied voltage to the next driven electrodes. This work demonstrates that the DELC lens has potential applications in imaging systems because of electrically tunable focal length and controllable focal plane.

  13. Blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging for detecting pathological patterns in lupus nephritis patients: a preliminary study using a decision tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huilan; Jia, Junya; Li, Dong; Wei, Li; Shang, Wenya; Zheng, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-09

    Precise renal histopathological diagnosis will guide therapy strategy in patients with lupus nephritis. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applicable noninvasive technique in renal disease. This current study was performed to explore whether BOLD MRI could contribute to diagnose renal pathological pattern. Adult patients with lupus nephritis renal pathological diagnosis were recruited for this study. Renal biopsy tissues were assessed based on the lupus nephritis ISN/RPS 2003 classification. The Blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) was used to obtain functional magnetic resonance parameter, R2* values. Several functions of R2* values were calculated and used to construct algorithmic models for renal pathological patterns. In addition, the algorithmic models were compared as to their diagnostic capability. Both Histopathology and BOLD MRI were used to examine a total of twelve patients. Renal pathological patterns included five classes III (including 3 as class III + V) and seven classes IV (including 4 as class IV + V). Three algorithmic models, including decision tree, line discriminant, and logistic regression, were constructed to distinguish the renal pathological pattern of class III and class IV. The sensitivity of the decision tree model was better than that of the line discriminant model (71.87% vs 59.48%, P decision tree model was equivalent to that of the line discriminant model (63.87% vs 63.73%, P = 0.939) and higher than that of the logistic regression model (63.87% vs 38.0%, P decision tree model was greater than that of the line discriminant model (0.765 vs 0.629, P Decision tree models constructed using functions of R2* values may facilitate the prediction of renal pathological patterns.

  14. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  15. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for diagnosis and estimating activity in lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y G; Chen, N N; Cheng, Y B; Sun, S J; Li, H X; Sun, F; Xiang, Y

    2015-12-01

    Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is relatively specific in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. However, its diagnostic value has not been evaluated. The aim of this review was to determine the value of uNGAL for diagnosis and estimating activity in LN. A comprehensive search was performed on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane electronic databases through December 2014. Meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity was performed with a random-effects model. Additionally, summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Fourteen studies were selected for this review. With respect to diagnosing LN, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 73.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 61.9-83.3) and 78.1% (95% CI, 69.0-85.6), respectively. The SROC-AUC value was 0.8632. Regarding estimating LN activity, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 66.2% (95% CI, 60.4-71.7) and 62.1% (95% CI, 57.9-66.3), respectively. The SROC-AUC value was 0.7583. In predicting renal flares, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 77.5% (95% CI, 68.1-85.1) and 65.3% (95% CI, 60.0-70.3), respectively. The SROC-AUC value was 0.7756. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that uNGAL has relatively fair sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing LN, estimating LN activity and predicting renal flares, suggesting that uNGAL is a potential biomarker in diagnosing LN and monitoring LN activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Economic evaluation of lupus nephritis in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics inception cohort using a multistate model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Megan R W; Hanly, John G; Su, Li; Urowitz, Murray B; Pierre, Yvan St; Romero-Diaz, Juanita; Gordon, Caroline; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Bernatsky, Sasha; Wallace, Daniel J; Isenberg, David A; Rahman, Anisur; Ginzler, Ellen M; Petri, Michelle; Bruce, Ian N; Fortin, Paul R; Gladman, Dafna D; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Khamashta, Munther A; Aranow, Cynthia; Mackay, Meggan; Alarcón, Graciela S; Manzi, Susan; Nived, Ola; Jönsen, Andreas; Zoma, Asad A; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Sam Lim, S; Kalunian, Kenneth C; Inanc, Murat; Kamen, Diane L; Peschken, Christine A; Jacobsen, Soren; Askanase, Anca; Theriault, Chris; Farewell, Vernon; Clarke, Ann E

    2017-11-28

    Little is known about the long-term costs of lupus nephritis (LN). These were compared between patients with and without LN based on multistate modelling. Patients from 32 centres in 11 countries were enrolled in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) inception cohort within 15 months of diagnosis and provided annual data on renal function, hospitalizations, medications, dialysis, and selected procedures. LN was diagnosed by renal biopsy or the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Renal function was assessed annually using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or proteinuria (ePrU). A multistate model was used to predict 10-year cumulative costs by multiplying annual costs associated with each renal state by the expected state duration. 1,545 patients participated, 89.3% female, mean age at diagnosis 35.2 years (SD 13.4), 49.0% Caucasian, and mean follow up 6.3 years (SD 3.3). LN developed in 39.4% by the end of follow up. Ten-year cumulative costs were greater in those with LN and an eGFR 60 ml/min) or with LN and ePrU > 3 g/d ($84 040 versus $20 499 if no LN and ePrU < 0.25 g/d). Patients with eGFR < 30 ml/min incurred 10-year costs 15-fold higher than those with normal eGFR. By estimating the expected duration in each renal state and incorporating associated annual costs, disease severity at presentation can be used to anticipate future healthcare costs. This is critical knowledge for cost-effectiveness evaluations of novel therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. A case of severe osteomalacia caused by Tubulointerstitial nephritis with Fanconi syndrome in asymptomotic primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Maruyama, Tatsuya; Wakino, Shu; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Tada, Shinichiro; Homma, Koichiro; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Thomas, James; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Kurihara, Isao; Yoshida, Tadashi; Konishi, Konosuke; Hayashi, Koichi; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2015-11-11

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an immune-mediated chronic cholestatic liver disease, characterized by increased concentrations of serum IgM and the presence of circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Although bone diseases such as osteoporosis or osteodystrophy are commonly associated with PBC, osteomalacia which is caused by abnormal vitamin D metabolism, mineralization defects, and phosphate deficiency has not been recognized as a complication of PBC. We report the case of a 49-year-old Japanese woman who complained of multiple fractures. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia was diagnosed from a low serum phosphorus level, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 level, high levels of bone specific alkaline phosphatase and the findings of bone scintigraphy, although a bone biopsy was not performed. Twenty four hour urine demonstrated a low renal fractional tubular reabsorption of phosphate, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and generalized aminoaciduria. An intravenous bicarbonate loading test suggested the presence of proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). These biochemical data indicated Fanconi syndrome with proximal RTA. A kidney biopsy demonstrated the features of tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN). The patient was also suspected as having primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) because of high levels of alkaline phosphatase, IgM and the presence of anti-mitochondrial M2 antibody, though biochemical liver function was normal. Sequential liver biopsy was compatible with PBC and the diagnosis of PBC was definite. After administration of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3, neutral potassium phosphate, sodium bicarbonate for osteomalacia and subsequent predonizolone for TIN, symptoms of fractures were relieved and renal function including Fanconi syndrome was ameliorated. In this case, asymptomatic PBC was shown to induce TIN with Fanconi syndrome with dysregulation of electrolytes and vitamin D metabolism, which in turn led to osteomalacia with multiple fractures. Osteomalacia has not

  18. Re-recognition of Age-dependent Reference Range for the Serum Creatinine Level in Teenagers - A Case of Slowly Progressive Tubulointerstitial Nephritis which Occurred in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Kojiro; Shibata, Eriko; Matsuura, Motokazu; Kishi, Seiji; Inagaki, Taizo; Minato, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ueda, Sayo; Obata, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Tamaki, Masanori; Kishi, Fumi; Murakami, Taichi; Abe, Hideharu; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji; Doi, Toshio

    2017-08-15

    For the first time, a 15-year-old boy was found to have a slight degree of proteinuria and microscopic hematuria during annual school urinalysis screening. His kidney function had already severely deteriorated. A kidney biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration. His medical records showed his serum creatinine level to be 0.98 mg/dL two years ago, which was abnormally high considering his age. Although the etiology of slowly progressive TIN was unclear, glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy improved his kidney function. This case report suggests that all doctors should recognize the reference range for the serum creatinine level in teenagers.

  19. Efficacy of Intravenous Cyclophosphamide Pulse Therapy for P-Glycoprotein-expressing B Cell-associated Active True Renal Lupus Vasculitis in Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Akio; Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    True renal lupus vasculitis (TRLV), a vascular lesion usually associated with proliferative lupus nephritis (LN), is resistant to conventional treatments. The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on activated lymphocytes causes drug resistance. We herein report a patient with TRLV, minimal change LN, overexpression of P-gp on peripheral B cells, and accumulation of P-gp+ B cells at the site of TRLV. High-dose corticosteroids combined with intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy resulted in clinical remission and the long-term normal renal function. PMID:28626187

  20. DEPDC5 takes a second hit in familial focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew P

    2018-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in a single allele of the gene encoding DEP domain-containing 5 protein (DEPDC5) are commonly linked to familial focal epilepsy with variable foci; however, a subset of patients presents with focal cortical dysplasia that is proposed to result from a second-hit somatic mutation. In this issue of the JCI, Ribierre and colleagues provide several lines of evidence to support second-hit DEPDC5 mutations in this disorder. Moreover, the authors use in vivo, in utero electroporation combined with CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate a murine model of the disease that recapitulates human manifestations, including cortical dysplasia-like changes, focal seizures, and sudden unexpected death. This study provides important insights into familial focal epilepsy and provides a preclinical model for evaluating potential therapies.

  1. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  2. Focal myositis of lower extremity responsive to botulinum A toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Josko; Prka, Zeljko; Zic, Rado; Marusic, Srecko; Morovic-Vergles, Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rare, mostly benign disease (pseudotumor) of skeletal muscle, histopathologically characterized by interstitial myositis and tumorous enlargement of a single muscle. The etiology of focal myositis remains unknown; however, localized myopathy has been postulated to be caused by denervation lesions. This case report describes a patient that presented with clinical, laboratory, electromyoneurography, and magnetic resonance imaging features of focal myositis complicated with intervertebral disk protrusion in the lumbosacral spine affected with radicular distress. In most cases, focal myositic lesions show spontaneous regression, relapses are rare, and long-term prognosis is good. There is a wide spectrum of therapeutic options, from no therapy at all through nonsteroidal antirheumatics and glucocorticoids to radiotherapy, surgical excision, and immunosuppressants. In the patient presented, treatment with glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and surgical excision failed to produce satisfactory results. Clinical improvement, pain relief, and reduction in lower leg volume were only achieved by local infiltration of botulinum A toxin.

  3. Mechanical design and analysis of focal plate for gravity deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Chu, Jiaru; Hu, Hongzhuan; Li, Kexuan; Zhou, Zengxiang

    2014-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. To conduct accurate deformation measurement for focal plate in different status, a 6-DOF hexapod platform was used for attitude adjustment. For the small adjustment range of a classic 6-DOF hexapod platform, an improved structural arrangement method was proposed in the paper to achieve ultimate adjustment of the focal plate in horizontal and vertical direction. To validate the feasibility of this method, an angle change model which used ball hinge was set up for the movement and base plate. Simulation results in MATLAB suggested that the ball hinge angle change of movement and base plate is within the range of the limiting angle in the process of the platform plate adjusting to ultimate attitude. The proposed method has some guiding significance for accurate surface measurement of focal plate.

  4. FOCAL CORTICAL DYSPLASIAS: CLINICAL AND ELECTRO-NEUROIMAGING CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a notable advance made in epileptology, resistant epilepsies account for approximately 30 % of all forms of epilepsy particularly in patients with focal seizures. One of the main causes of therapy-resistant focal epilepsies is focal cortical dysplasias (FCD. This term was first introduced by D. Taylor et al. in 1971. FCD belongs to abnormal cortical development. Among all abnormalities of cortical development, FCD in surgically treated children amounts to 75 %. FCD is the most common cause of resistant epilepsy in children and the most frequent reason for diagnosing cryptogenic focal epilepsy with intractable seizures. The author gives a detailed literature review dedicated to FCD as a cause of resistant epilepsy, including the classification and histologic characteristics of FCD, its clinical manifestations and prognosis, and approaches to medical and surgical treatments. 

  5. Electrocorticographic discharge patterns in glioneuronal tumors and focal cortical dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrier, Cyrille H.; Aronica, Eleanora; Leijten, Frans S. S.; Spliet, Wim G. M.; van Huffelen, Alexander C.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Binnie, Colin D.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether highly epileptiform electrocorticographical discharge patterns occur in patients with glioneuronal tumors (GNTs) and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and whether specific histopathological features are related to such patterns. METHODS: The series consists of operated

  6. Adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis associated with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbichler, Katharina; Lelotte, Julie; Lhommel, Renaud; Tahry, Riëm El; Vrielynck, Pascal; Santos, Susana Ferrao

    2017-12-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis is a rare, devastating condition, typically presenting in childhood. Cases of adult-onset Rasmussen have also been described, but the clinical picture is less defined, rendering final diagnosis difficult. We present a case of adult-onset Rasmussen encephalitis with dual pathology, associated with focal cortical dysplasia and encephalitis. We interpreted the Rasmussen encephalitis to be caused by severe and continuous epileptic activity due to focal cortical dysplasia. The best therapeutic approach for such cases remains unclear.

  7. Focal plane for the next generation of earth observation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranyies, P.; Toubhans, I.; Badoil, B.; Tanguy, F.; Descours, Francis

    2017-09-01

    Sodern is the French focal plane provider for Earth Observation (EO) satellites. Since the 1980's, Sodern has played an active role first in the SPOT program. Within the two-spacecraft constellation Pleiades 1A/1B over the next years, Sodern introduced advanced technologies as Silicon Carbide (SiC) focal plane structure and multispectral strip filters dedicated to multiple-lines detectors.

  8. Inverse-designed stretchable metalens with tunable focal distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Francois; Velev, Vesselin; Jiang, Shizhou; Sahakian, Alan Varteres; Kumar, Prem; Aydin, Koray

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present an inverse-designed 3D-printed all-dielectric stretchable millimeter wave metalens with a tunable focal distance. A computational inverse-design method is used to design a flat metalens made of disconnected polymer building blocks with complex shapes, as opposed to conventional monolithic lenses. The proposed metalens provides better performance than a conventional Fresnel lens, using lesser amount of material and enabling larger focal distance tunability. The metalens is fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer and attached to a stretchable platform. Measurements and simulations show that the focal distance can be tuned by a factor of 4 with a stretching factor of only 75%, a nearly diffraction-limited focal spot, and with a 70% relative focusing efficiency, defined as the ratio between power focused in the focal spot and power going through the focal plane. The proposed platform can be extended for design and fabrication of multiple electromagnetic devices working from visible to microwave radiation depending on scaling of the devices.

  9. Thermomechanical architecture of the VIS focal plane for Euclid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, Jerome; Carty, Michael; Tourette, Thierry; Bachet, Damien; Berthe, Michel; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Amiaux, Jerome; Fontignie, Jean; Horeau, Benoit; Renaud, Diana

    2014-01-01

    One of the main challenges for current and near future space experiments is the increase of focal plane complexity in terms of amount of pixels. In the frame work of the ESA Euclid mission to be launched in 2020, the Euclid Consortium is developing an extremely large and stable focal plane for the VIS instrument. CEA has developed the thermomechanical architecture of that Focal Plane taking into account all the very stringent performance and mission related requirements. The VIS Focal Plane Assembly integrates 36 CCDs (operated at 150 K) connected to their front end electronics (operated at 280 K) as to obtain one of the largest focal plane (0.6 billion pixels) ever built for space application after the GAIA one. The CCDs are CCD273 type specially designed and provided by the e2v company under ESA contract, front end electronics is studied and provided by MSSL. In this paper we first recall the specific requirements that have driven the overall architecture of the VIS-FPA and especially the solutions proposed to cope with the scientific needs of an extremely stable focal plane, both mechanically and thermally. The mechanical structure based on SiC material used for the cold sub assembly supporting the CCDs is detailed. We describe also the modular architecture concept that we have selected taking into account AIT-AIV and programmatic constraints. (authors)

  10. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  11. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gysin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  12. Co-Positivity for Anti-dsDNA, -Nucleosome and -Histone Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis Is Indicative of High Serum Levels and Severe Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Yang

    Full Text Available To characterize the significance of correlated autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and its complication lupus nephritis (LN in a large cohort of patients.Clinical data were statistically analyzed in 1699 SLE patients with or without nephritis who were diagnosed and treated during 2002-2013 in the northeast region of China. Reactivity to a list of 16 autoantibodies was detected by the serum test Euroline ANA profile (IgG. Serum titers of the anti-nucleosome autoantibodies were measured by ELISA assays. Kidney biopsies were examined by pathologists. Immune complex deposition was identified by immunohistochemistry stain.Simultaneous positivity of anti-dsDNA, -nucleosome and -histone antibodies (3-pos was prevalent in SLE patients with LN compared to Non-renal SLE patients (41% vs 11%, p< 0.001. Significant correlations were found between any two of the above three anti-nucleosome antibodies in LN patients. In comparison to non-3-pos cohorts, 3-pos patients with LN had significantly higher serum levels of the three antibodies and more active disease; was associated with type IV disease; suffered from more severe renal damages; received more intensive treatment and had worse disease outcome. The serum levels of these three autoantibodies in 3-pos LN patients were significantly decreased when they underwent clinical recovery.Simultaneous reactivity to anti-dsDNA, -nucleosome and -histone antibodies by Euroline ANA profile (IgG may indicate severe nephropathy in patients with SLE.

  13. Long-term post-marketing surveillance of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: Safety and efficacy during a 3-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Yagi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of long-term use of mizoribine by undertaking a 3-year post-marketing surveillance study. Methods: Subjects were all lupus nephritis patients newly treated with mizoribine between 1 October 2003 and 30 September 2005 at contracted study sites. Results: Mizoribine was administered to 881 lupus nephritis patients in the safety analysis set consisting of 946 patients recruited from 281 contracted study sites after satisfying the eligibility criteria. There were 301 events of adverse drug reactions that were observed in 196 (20.7% of the 946 subjects. There were 34 events of serious adverse drug reactions in 31 patients (3.2%. No deterioration in hematological and biochemical test values was observed, but immunological testing showed significant improvements in C3, CH50, and anti-DNA antibody titers. The negative rate of proteinuria also increased over time. The median steroid dosage was 15 mg/day at the commencement of treatment, but was reduced to 10 mg/day at 12 months and 8 mg/day at 36 months. Conclusion: The findings of the 3-year long-term drug use surveillance study indicated that mizoribine can be used over the long term with relatively few adverse drug reactions, suggesting its suitability for use in maintenance drug therapy.

  14. Association of polymorphic variants of PTPN22, TNF and VDR genes in children with lupus nephritis: A study in Colombian family triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito, Gloria; Egea, Eduardo; Fang, Luis; Malagón, Clara; Olmos, Carlos; González, Luz; Guarnizo, Pilar; Aroca, Gustavo; López, Guillermo; Iglesias, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which the severity varies according to race, sex and age of onset. This variation is also observed in the genetic markers associated with the disease, including PTPN22, VDR and TNF genes. The genetic stratification in different populations worldwide can influence the variability. To analyze the heritability of PTPN22, VDR and TNF genetic variants and their association with pediatric lupus nephritis in Colombian families. We conducted a family-based study including 46 triads (case, father and mother). The variants rs2476601 of PTPN22; rs361525 and rs1800629 of TNF, and TaqI [rs731236], ApaI [rs7975232], BsmI [rs1544410] and FokI [rs2228570] of VDR were genotyped by qPCR. The effects of overtransmission of the risk allele from parents to children and linkage disequilibrium at the VDR and TNF loci were estimated. We found that allele A of rs2476601 in PTPN22 was distributed among 8.69 % (n=16) of the parents and 19.5 % (n=18) of the cases; this allele was overtransmitted from parents to children 17 times more often than the G allele (p=0.028). TNF and VDR polymorphisms did not exhibit transmission disequilibrium. VDR TaqI, ApaI and BsmI variants exhibited linkage disequilibrium. These findings showed an association between the PTPN22 rs2476601 polymorphism and pediatric lupus nephritis due to its overtransmission in the group of families studied.

  15. A large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Norihiro; Miura, Naoto; Uemura, Yuko; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Morita, Hiroyuki; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    We report an unusual pathological finding, a large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis. The first renal biopsy specimen from 10 years ago, when systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed, demonstrated mild mesangial proliferation and subepithelial deposits (WHO classification: III + V). Light microscopy of the current biopsy using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAMS) stain demonstrated a large-sized bubbling appearance of the GBM; however, very weak immunoglobulin and complement deposition was observed in immunofluorescence studies. Routine electron microscopy demonstrated partial subendothelial expansion with electron-lucent materials, but no electron-dense deposits or amyloid fibrils. Electron microscopy with PAMS stain revealed electron-lucent endothelial scalloping, including some cellular components and microspheres in the GBM; however, it is not clear if these materials are derived from endothelial cells. One possibility is that these unique findings represent a recovery phase of lupus membranous nephritis; another is that these findings correspond to a new disease entity.

  16. Cardiovascular risk in lupus nephritis: Do renal disease-related and other traditional risk factors play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoshi Atukorala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT in a Sri Lankan cohort of lupus nephritis (LN patients and to identify associations between traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD and LN-related risk factors with increased CIMT. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LN were evaluated for conventional CVD risk factors, renal parameters and extent of organ involvement in this cross-sectional study. Current disease activity and damage were assessed by the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR damage index, respectively. CIMT was assessed by B Mode grey scale ultrasonography. Increased CIMT was defined as CIMT more than the 75th percentile based on cutoffs from the "Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study." Forty patients (98% female, with a mean age of 38 years (age range of 20-50 and of South Asian descent, were evaluated. The mean duration of disease of 6.15 years (SD = 4.66. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular events was low and included previous acute coronary syndromes in 7.5%, stable angina in 5%, cerebrovascular accidents in 7.5% and transient ischemic attacks in 2.5% of the patients; 72.5% had hypertension (HTN [mean blood pressure (BP 140/80 mm Hg]; 32.5% had dyslipidemias (mean serum cholesterol 5.9; SD = 5.6 and 25% had diabetes (mean blood sugar 103.7; SD = 15.6. Forty percent were obese and 20% were overweight (Asian cutoffs. Increased CIMT (57.5% and atherosclerotic plaques (15.36% indicated a high CVD risk in this cohort. Diabetes (P = 0.016, HTN (P = 0.002, dyslipidemia (P = 0.002 and obesity (P = 0.048 were associated with thickened CIMT. The only LN-related risk factor associated with thickened CIMT (P <0.05 was the SLICC/ACR damage index. The independent predictors of thickened CIMT determined by logistic regression analysis were HTN and dyslipidemia.

  17. Epidemiology and sociodemographics of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis among US adults with Medicaid coverage, 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Candace H; Hiraki, Linda T; Liu, Jun; Fischer, Michael A; Solomon, Daniel H; Alarcón, Graciela S; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Costenbader, Karen H

    2013-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN) disproportionately affect individuals who are members of racial/ethnic minority groups and individuals of lower socioeconomic status (SES). This study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology and sociodemographics of SLE and LN in the low-income US Medicaid population. We utilized Medicaid Analytic eXtract data, with billing claims from 47 states and Washington, DC, for 23.9 million individuals ages 18-65 years who were enrolled in Medicaid for >3 months in 2000-2004. Individuals with SLE (≥3 visits >30 days apart with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code of 710.0) and with LN (≥2 visits with an ICD-9 code for glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, or renal failure) were identified. We calculated SLE and LN prevalence and incidence, stratified by sociodemographic category, and adjusted for number of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) member rheumatologists in the state and SES using a validated composite of US Census variables. We identified 34,339 individuals with SLE (prevalence 143.7 per 100,000) and 7,388 (21.5%) with LN (prevalence 30.9 per 100,000). SLE prevalence was 6 times higher among women, nearly double in African American compared to white women, and highest in the US South. LN prevalence was higher among all racial/ethnic minority groups compared to whites. The areas with lowest SES had the highest prevalence; areas with the fewest ACR rheumatologists had the lowest prevalence. SLE incidence was 23.2 per 100,000 person-years and LN incidence was 6.9 per 100,000 person-years, with similar sociodemographic trends. In this nationwide Medicaid population, there was sociodemographic variation in SLE and LN prevalence and incidence. Understanding the increased burden of SLE and its complications in this low-income population has implications for resource allocation and access to subspecialty care. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  18. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. IgA Nephropathy and Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura Nephritis: Aberrant Glycosylation of IgA1, Formation of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes, and Activation of Mesangial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Renfrow, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposits of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is aberrantly glycosylated; the hinge-region O-linked glycans are galactose-deficient. The circulating IgA1 of patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) has a similar defect. This aberrancy...

  20. CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia: correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Park, Un Sup [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings to help differentiating from lung cancer. We evaluated radiologic and pathologic findings of five patients with solitary pulmonary nodule which were confirmed as focal organizing pneumonia pathologically. On CT scan, focal organizing pneumonia had irregular margin contacting the pleura in all five cases. The shape of the nodules were spherical to wedge or elliptical and the size from 3.5cm to 5.5cm(average 4.2 cm) in largest diameter. On postcontrast CT scan, all nodules showed enhancement and four cases showed central low density components. Two nodules contained air within the nodule. In four cases, pleural changes such as effusion and/or focal thickening were noted. No lymphadenopathy was found in all cases. Pathologically, the enhancing portion on CT showed findings of organizing pneumonia such as granulation tissue with fibroblast proliferation in alveolar space and interstitial thickening. The central low density areas on CT were due to ischemic necrosis, abscess and exudate, transudate and infiltration of foamy histiocyte. The possibility of focal organizing pneumonia should be considered when peripherally located solitary pulmonary nodule had enhancing component with no combined lymphadenopathy on CT scan.

  1. CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia: correlation with pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Young Goo; Park, Un Sup

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of focal organizing pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings to help differentiating from lung cancer. We evaluated radiologic and pathologic findings of five patients with solitary pulmonary nodule which were confirmed as focal organizing pneumonia pathologically. On CT scan, focal organizing pneumonia had irregular margin contacting the pleura in all five cases. The shape of the nodules were spherical to wedge or elliptical and the size from 3.5cm to 5.5cm(average 4.2 cm) in largest diameter. On postcontrast CT scan, all nodules showed enhancement and four cases showed central low density components. Two nodules contained air within the nodule. In four cases, pleural changes such as effusion and/or focal thickening were noted. No lymphadenopathy was found in all cases. Pathologically, the enhancing portion on CT showed findings of organizing pneumonia such as granulation tissue with fibroblast proliferation in alveolar space and interstitial thickening. The central low density areas on CT were due to ischemic necrosis, abscess and exudate, transudate and infiltration of foamy histiocyte. The possibility of focal organizing pneumonia should be considered when peripherally located solitary pulmonary nodule had enhancing component with no combined lymphadenopathy on CT scan

  2. Detection is unaffected by the deployment of focal attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff eMoher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been much debate regarding how much information humans can extract from their environment without the use of limited attentional resources. In a recent study, Theeuwes, Van der Burg, and Belopolsky (2008 argued that even detection of simple feature targets is not possible without selection by focal attention. Supporting this claim, they found response time benefits in a simple feature (color detection task when a target letter’s identity was repeated on consecutive trials, suggesting that the letter was selected by focal attention and identified prior to detection. This intertrial repetition benefit remained even when observers were required to simultaneously identify a central digit. However, we found that intertrial repetition benefits disappeared when a simple color target was presented among a heterogeneously (rather than homogeneously colored set of distractors, thus reducing its bottom-up salience. Still, detection performance remained high. Thus, detection performance was unaffected by whether a letter was focally attended and identified prior to detection or not. Intertrial identity repetition benefits also disappeared when observers were required to perform a simultaneous, attention-demanding central task (Experiment 2, or when unfamiliar Chinese characters were used (Experiment 3. Together, these results suggest that while shifts of focal attention can be affected by target salience, by the availability of excess cognitive resources, and by target familiarity, detection performance itself is unaffected by these manipulations and is thus unaffected by the deployment of focal attention.

  3. EEG dynamical correlates of focal and diffuse causes of coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafashan, MohammadMehdi; Ryu, Shoko; Hargis, Mitchell J; Laurido-Soto, Osvaldo; Roberts, Debra E; Thontakudi, Akshay; Eisenman, Lawrence; Kummer, Terrance T; Ching, ShiNung

    2017-11-15

    Rapidly determining the causes of a depressed level of consciousness (DLOC) including coma is a common clinical challenge. Quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has the potential to improve DLOC assessment by providing readily deployable, temporally detailed characterization of brain activity in such patients. While used commonly for seizure detection, EEG-based assessment of DLOC etiology is less well-established. As a first step towards etiological diagnosis, we sought to distinguish focal and diffuse causes of DLOC through assessment of temporal dynamics within EEG signals. We retrospectively analyzed EEG recordings from 40 patients with DLOC with consensus focal or diffuse culprit pathology. For each recording, we performed a suite of time-series analyses, then used a statistical framework to identify which analyses (features) could be used to distinguish between focal and diffuse cases. Using cross-validation approaches, we identified several spectral and non-spectral EEG features that were significantly different between DLOC patients with focal vs. diffuse etiologies, enabling EEG-based classification with an accuracy of 76%. Our findings suggest that DLOC due to focal vs. diffuse injuries differ along several electrophysiological parameters. These results may form the basis of future classification strategies for DLOC and coma that are more etiologically-specific and therefore therapeutically-relevant.

  4. A targeted resequencing gene panel for focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Myers, Candace T; Carvill, Gemma L; Regan, Brigid M; Damiano, John A; Mullen, Saul A; Newton, Mark R; Nair, Umesh; Gazina, Elena V; Milligan, Carol J; Reid, Christopher A; Petrou, Steven; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Berkovic, Samuel F; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-04-26

    We report development of a targeted resequencing gene panel for focal epilepsy, the most prevalent phenotypic group of the epilepsies. The targeted resequencing gene panel was designed using molecular inversion probe (MIP) capture technology and sequenced using massively parallel Illumina sequencing. We demonstrated proof of principle that mutations can be detected in 4 previously genotyped focal epilepsy cases. We searched for both germline and somatic mutations in 251 patients with unsolved sporadic or familial focal epilepsy and identified 11 novel or very rare missense variants in 5 different genes: CHRNA4, GRIN2B, KCNT1, PCDH19, and SCN1A. Of these, 2 were predicted to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, explaining ∼0.8% of the cohort, and 8 were of uncertain significance based on available data. We have developed and validated a targeted resequencing panel for focal epilepsies, the most important clinical class of epilepsies, accounting for about 60% of all cases. Our application of MIP technology is an innovative approach that will be advantageous in the clinical setting because it is highly sensitive, efficient, and cost-effective for screening large patient cohorts. Our findings indicate that mutations in known genes likely explain only a small proportion of focal epilepsy cases. This is not surprising given the established clinical and genetic heterogeneity of these disorders and underscores the importance of further gene discovery studies in this complex syndrome. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Terapia Interpessoal: um modelo breve e focal Interpersonal Therapy: a brief and focal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Feijó de Mello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A psicoterapia é uma forma particular de tratamento em psiquiatria. Seu uso é amplamente difundido e conta com várias linhas de abordagem. OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, o autor faz considerações a respeito da terapia interpessoal (TIP, uma forma breve e focal de psicoterapia. Inicialmente usada para o tratamento da depressão, teve seu espectro de ação ampliado para outros transtornos. A TIP pode ser dividida em 3 fases: inicial, quando é feito um diagnóstico do transtorno nomeando os sintomas ao paciente e diagnosticando o foco interpessoal a ser trabalhado; fase intermediária, onde se trabalha o foco; e fase final, quando o paciente é encorajado a reconhecer e consolidar seus ganhos para usá-los no futuro. MÉTODOS: O autor faz uma revisão das evidências científicas da eficácia da TIP no tratamento da depressão. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que a TIP é uma forma terapêutica eficaz e bem tolerada de tratamento para a depressão.Psychotherapy is a particular form of treatment in Psychiatry. Its use is widespread and has many different approaches. OBJECTIVE: In this article, the author makes some considerations about Interpersonal Therapy (IPT, a brief and focal psychotherapy. Initially created to treat depression, other researchers had successfully increase its spectrum. It could be divided in three phases. Initial, when the therapist makes the diagnosis of the disorder and also the interpersonal problematic is pointed out; the patient received a sick role. Intermediary when the focus is treated, and the final phase when the therapist encourages the patient to recognize and consolidate gains and prepare the patient to use it in the future. METHODS: It is stressed that IPT is a testable form of psychotherapy and the scientific evidences of its efficacy are showed. CONCLUSIONS: The results assure that IPT is an efficient form of psychotherapy for depression with a great acceptability from the patients.

  6. Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a type of vaginal infection. The vagina normally contains both healthy bacteria and unhealthy bacteria. BV occurs when more unhealthy bacteria grow than healthy bacteria. No one knows ...

  7. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  8. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  9. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    direct or indirect evidence of a compatible bacterial pathogen. Inflammation may be .... cardinal features (fever, confusion, headache and neck stiffness). .... specificity, inappropriate indications or poor sampling technique may diminish this ...

  10. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-01-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with 133 Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, [/sup 99m/Tc]RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis

  11. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-06-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, (/sup 99m/Tc)RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis.

  12. US and CT findings in splenic focal lesions in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinina, V.; Rizzi, E.B.; Mazzuoli, G.; Bibbolilno, C.; David, V.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the role of US and CT in focal splenic lesions in AIDS patients in relation to etiology. Material and Methods: A total of 66 patients with AIDS and focal splenic lesions were examined with sonography. CT with administration of contrast medium was performed in 12 cases. Results: Of the focal splenic lesions, 67% were correlated with an infective pathology with prevalence of Mycobacteria tuberculosis (75%), 26% were neoplastic and 6% splenic infarcts. The lesions were hypoechoic in 60% of the cases, while 10% were hypoanechoic and 1% anechoic. At CT, all lesions appeared hypodense, even after i.v. administration of contrast medium. Conclusion: The combination of echographic reports and clinical and laboratory data allows for a diagnosis that can be confirmed, and making a decision for effective therapy of AIDS is possible. CT does not provide any additional information

  13. Simulation of the Focal Spot of the Accelerator Bremsstrahlung Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, V.; Bespalov, V.

    2016-06-01

    Testing of thick-walled objects by bremsstrahlung radiation (BR) is primarily performed via high-energy quanta. The testing parameters are specified by the focal spot size of the high-energy bremsstrahlung radiation. In determining the focal spot size, the high- energy BR portion cannot be experimentally separated from the low-energy BR to use high- energy quanta only. The patterns of BR focal spot formation have been investigated via statistical modeling of the radiation transfer in the target material. The distributions of BR quanta emitted by the target for different energies and emission angles under normal distribution of the accelerated electrons bombarding the target have been obtained, and the ratio of the distribution parameters has been determined.

  14. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntaner, L.; Perez-Ferron, J.J.; Herrera, M.; Rosell, J.; Taboada, D.; Climent, S.

    1997-01-01

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs

  15. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    Matrix molecules such as fibronectin can promote cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation. Although some interactions of fibronectin with cell surface receptors have now been identified, the consequent activation of intracellular messenger systems by cell/matrix interactions have...... still to be elucidated. We show here that the kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 reduce focal adhesion and stress fiber formation in response to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner, and that activators of protein kinase C can promote their formation under conditions where they do not normally form....... Fibroblasts spread within 1h on substrata composed of fibronectin and formed focal adhesions by 3h, as monitored by interference reflection microscopy (IRM) and by labeling for talin, vinculin and integrin beta 1 subunits. In addition, stress fibers were visible. When cells were allowed to spread for 1h...

  16. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongxuan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  17. Earthquake focal mechanism forecasting in Italy for PSHA purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Pamela; Marzocchi, Warner; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we put forward a procedure that aims to forecast focal mechanism of future earthquakes. One of the primary uses of such forecasts is in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA); in fact, aiming at reducing the epistemic uncertainty, most of the newer ground motion prediction equations consider, besides the seismicity rates, the forecast of the focal mechanism of the next large earthquakes as input data. The data set used to this purpose is relative to focal mechanisms taken from the latest stress map release for Italy containing 392 well-constrained solutions of events, from 1908 to 2015, with Mw ≥ 4 and depths from 0 down to 40 km. The data set considers polarity focal mechanism solutions until to 1975 (23 events), whereas for 1976-2015, it takes into account only the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT)-like earthquake focal solutions for data homogeneity. The forecasting model is rooted in the Total Weighted Moment Tensor concept that weighs information of past focal mechanisms evenly distributed in space, according to their distance from the spatial cells and magnitude. Specifically, for each cell of a regular 0.1° × 0.1° spatial grid, the model estimates the probability to observe a normal, reverse, or strike-slip fault plane solution for the next large earthquakes, the expected moment tensor and the related maximum horizontal stress orientation. These results will be available for the new PSHA model for Italy under development. Finally, to evaluate the reliability of the forecasts, we test them with an independent data set that consists of some of the strongest earthquakes with Mw ≥ 3.9 occurred during 2016 in different Italian tectonic provinces.

  18. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  19. The radiological features of Goltz syndrome: Focal dermal hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothyrod, A.E.; Hall, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two female infants with Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia) were recently investigated for severe feeding problems and failure to thrive. Both demonstrated severe skeletal malformations and marked gastrooesophageal reflux with laxity of the hiatus. One child (case 1) exhibited nasal regurgitation during feeding. Interestingly, both children had undergone surgery; Case 1 or a right parasagittal abdominal hernia associated with focal dermal hypoplasia of the abdominal wall and Case 2 for an exomphalos also associated with dermal hypoplasia. This observation suggests more widespread mesodermal abnormality. (orig./GDG)

  20. Focal myositis of the thigh: unusual MR pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llauger, Jaume; Palmer, Jaume; San Roman, Luis; Bague, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Doncel, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Focal myositis is a commonly referenced, infrequently reported and poorly documented benign inflammatory pseudotumor which may be misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant tumor. We report the clinicopathologic features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of focal myositis in the thigh of a 55-year-old woman. A different radiologic presentation of this disorder is described. The gross appearance of the lesion, previously undescribed, appears to be rather specific for such a pseudoneoplastic disorder, and correlates very well with the magnetic resonance imaging features. (orig.)

  1. Focal myositis of the thigh: unusual MR pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llauger, Jaume; Palmer, Jaume; San Roman, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bague, Silvia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier [Department of Pathology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Doncel, Antonio [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-05-01

    Focal myositis is a commonly referenced, infrequently reported and poorly documented benign inflammatory pseudotumor which may be misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant tumor. We report the clinicopathologic features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of focal myositis in the thigh of a 55-year-old woman. A different radiologic presentation of this disorder is described. The gross appearance of the lesion, previously undescribed, appears to be rather specific for such a pseudoneoplastic disorder, and correlates very well with the magnetic resonance imaging features. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ethan A. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Grove, Jason J. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Der Spek, Abraham F.L.V. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Anesthesiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jarboe, Marcus D. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Image-guided biopsy techniques are widely used in clinical practice. Commonly used methods employ either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) for image guidance. In certain patients, US or CT guidance may be suboptimal, or even impossible, because of artifacts, suboptimal lesion visualization, or both. We recently began performing magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions in select pediatric patients with lesions that are not well visualized by US or CT. This report describes our experience performing MR-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions, with case examples to illustrate innovative techniques and novel aspects of these procedures. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic electroanatomical mapping for ablation of focal atrial tachycardias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlinski, F; Callans, D; Gottlieb, C; Rodriguez, E; Coyne, R; Kleinman, D

    1998-08-01

    Uniform success for ablation of focal atrial tachycardias has been difficult to achieve using standard catheter mapping and ablation techniques. In addition, our understanding of the complex relationship between atrial anatomy, electrophysiology, and surface ECG P wave morphology remains primitive. The magnetic electroanatomical mapping and display system (CARTO) offers an on-line display of electrical activation and/or signal amplitude related to the anatomical location of the recorded sites in the mapped chamber. A window of electrical interest is established based on signals timed from an electrical reference that usually represents a fixed electrogram recording from the coronary sinus or the atrial appendage. This window of electrical interest is established to include atrial activation prior to the onset of the P wave activity associated with the site of origin of a focal atrial tachycardia. Anatomical and electrical landmarks are defined with limited fluoroscopic imaging support and more detailed global chamber and more focal atrial mapping can be performed with minimal fluoroscopic guidance. A three-dimensional color map representing atrial activation or voltage amplitude at the magnetically defined anatomical sites is displayed with on-line data acquisition. This display can be manipulated to facilitate viewing from any angle. Altering the zoom control, triangle fill threshold, clipping plane, or color range can all enhance the display of a more focal area of interest. We documented the feasibility of using this single mapping catheter technique for localizing and ablating focal atrial tachycardias. In a consecutive series of 8 patients with 9 focal atrial tachycardias, the use of the single catheter CARTO mapping system was associated with ablation success in all but one patient who had a left atrial tachycardia localized to the medial aspect of the orifice of the left atrial appendage. Only low power energy delivery was used in this patient because of the

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in focal cortical epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Oikawa, T; Sveinsdottir, E

    1976-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in ten patients with focal cortical epilepsy. The blood flow was measured by the intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 (133Xe), and the isotope clearance was recorded by a multidetector scintillation camera with 254 detectors. Three patients were....... This finding accords with earlier studies. All nine patients studied in the interictal phase showed, either spontaneously or during activation by intermittent light, focal flow increases in areas presumed to comprise the epileptic focus. These interictal hyperemic foci probably reflect subictal neuronal...

  5. Incidental Detection of Temporary Focal FDG Retention in the Spleen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youn Joon; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in discriminating malignancy from benign lesion. But because various false positive results reduce the diagnostic specificity, nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with possible false positive cases. Although many cases of high FDG uptake mimicking malignancy have been reported, temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen has not been reported previously. We report herein a phenomenon of temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen without evidence of metastasis in a 46 year old woman with a history of anal cancer.

  6. Expansion characteristics of coronary stents in focal stenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented experimental in vitro approach was designed to assess the expansion behavior of stent systems in a resistant focal stenosis model with respect to a potential dog-boning effect. Five different stent systems (nominal diameter 3.0 mm were investigated. The focal stenosis was simulated by a stainless steel tube (ID ≤ 1.20 mm. Stent expansion was performed using a proprietary test device consisting of a test chamber with 37 °C water, 2-axis laser scanner and a pressure controller.

  7. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass, and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton, que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso

  8. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: a favourable prognosis in untreated patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deegens, J.K.J.; Assmann, K.J.M.; Steenbergen, E.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Gerlag, P.G.G.; Jansen, J.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are considered to have a poor prognosis and spontaneous remissions are seldom reported. However, FSGS is not a single disease entity. Our aim was to describe the clinical course in initially untreated patients with recently

  9. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...

  10. Mass Equivalent Pantographs for Synthesis of Balanced Focal Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Lenarcic, Jadran; Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Force balance is an important property in the design of high-speed high precision machinery to reduce base vibrations and also for the design of inherently safe large movable structures. This paper presents the synthesis of inherently balanced overconstrained focal mechanisms with mass equivalent

  11. A 1.3 giga pixels focal plane for GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborie, Anouk; Pouny, Pierre; Vetel, Cyril; Collados, Emmanuel; Rougier, Gilles; Davancens, Robert; Zayer, Igor; Perryman, Michael; Pace, Oscar

    2004-06-01

    The astrometric mission GAIA is a cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency, due for launch in the 2010 time frame. Requiring extremely demanding performance GAIA calls for the development of an unprecedented large focal plane featuring innovative technologies. For securing the very challenging GAIA development, a significant number of technology activities have been initiated by ESA through a competitive selection process. In this context, an industrial consortium led by EADS-Astrium (France) with e2v technologies (UK) as major subcontractor was selected for the GAIA CCD and Focal Plane Technology Demonstrators programme, which is by far the most significant and the most critical GAIA pre-development for all aspects: science performance, development schedule and cost. This programme has started since August 2002 and will end early 2005 prior to commencement of the GAIA Phase B. While the GAIA payload will host three instruments and related focal planes, the major mission objectives are assigned to the Astrometric (ASTRO) Focal Plane, which is the subject of this presentation.

  12. A case of pathological rib fractures: focal osteolysis or osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbanić, T S L; Novak, S; Sestan, B; Tudor, A; Gulan, G

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports on a unique, previously unreported, successful outcome in the case of a patient with focal osteolytic lesions of the ribs as a first sign of osteoporosis. The lesions were detected by chance after acute cough-induced rib fractures were seen on plain chest radiographs. The diagnosis had to be approached as a diagnosis of exclusion since known causes of the osteolytic process had to be eliminated. The authors describe multiple focal osteolytic lesions with rib fractures appearing in a pattern that could be confused with metastases. Laboratory results were normal. Final diagnosis was based on plain radiography, bone scan and bone densitometry. Pharmacomedical treatments for osteoporosis were applied. The patient was observed between the year 2000 and 2005. Five years later radiological and bone scintigraphy revealed resolution of the lesion. We conclude that osteoporosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of asymptomatic focal osteolysis of the ribs with rib fractures as a complication of acute cough. The case suggests that focal osteolytic lesions of the ribs may regress over time and become scintigraphically inactive.

  13. Shared Focal Plane Investigation for Serial Frame Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    capability will be restored. 41. -.. TrABLE 1-1 SYSTEM LEADING P) ARTICULARS Lens Focal Length (inches) Range (ft) Contrast 12 18 24 Coverage 22.1...can be expected that signature bands will be apparent in the imagery. Such bands are at best distracting and at worst hindrances to image interpretation

  14. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Moura Lima

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de impedir o aparecimento de larvas de Aëdes aegypti e de outros insetos, em pneus pintados, na face externa, com Sumition e com Malation.In four districts of the city of Rio dc Janeiro focal treatment essays with granulated Abate at 1 ppm and perifocal treatment essays with wettable powder of Sumithion at 2,5% were performed. These were made either alone or in combination as well as associated to insecticides applied at ultra low volume. The premise indices obtained one month after the treatments indicates that the focal treatment alone is effective, no other addicional methods being necessary. The perifocal treatment is not effective and did not prevent the development of Aedes aegypti larvae and other insects in tires which had their external surface painted with Sumithion and Malathion.

  15. Axial and focal-plane diffraction catastrophe integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M V; Howls, C J

    2010-01-01

    Exact expressions in terms of Bessel functions are found for some of the diffraction catastrophe integrals that decorate caustics in optics and mechanics. These are the axial and focal-plane sections of the elliptic and hyperbolic umbilic diffraction catastrophes, and symmetric elliptic and hyperbolic unfoldings of the X 9 diffraction catastrophes. These representations reveal unexpected relations between the integrals.

  16. Neurophysiological evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in primary focal dystonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, J.T.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Schneider, S.A.; Rothwell, J.C.; Bhatia, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that there may be functional and structural changes in the cerebellum of patients with adult onset primary focal dystonia. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is any neurophysiological indicator of abnormal cerebellar function, using the classic

  17. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  18. Management of HIV-associated focal brain lesions in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. HIV-associated focal brain lesions (FBLs) are caused by opportunistic infections, neoplasms, or cerebrovascular diseases. In developed countries toxoplasma encephalitis (TE) is the most frequent cause followed by primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Guidelines based on these causes have been proposed ...

  19. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  20. [Primary focal dystonia: descriptive study of 205 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, F M; Fanjul, S; Cantarero, S; Hernández, J; García Ruiz, P J

    2003-03-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of different types of focal dystonia. A total of 205 patients with primary focal dystonia were studied retrospectively and the following variables were analyzed: gender, age of onset, age at examination, evolution time, history of trauma, association with other movement disorders, fluctuations of dystonic symptoms as well as a family history of dystonia, Parkinson's disease, tremor, and lefthandedness or stuttering. We compared these variables among the different clinical categories of focal dystonia. Those patients with cranial and laryngeal dystonia were significantly older at the onset of symptoms compared with patients with writer's cramp. Males were more prevalent than females in all categories of focal dystonia except for cranial dystonia. Prior history of trauma and association with tremor were more frequent in patients with cervical dystonia than in those with others dystonic categories. Most patients with cranial, cervical and laryngeal dystonia had fluctuations in the intensity of dystonic symptoms, unlike the patients with writer's cramp. There is a caudo-cranial gradient in age of onset and the age of onset increases as the cranial presentation becomes greater. Females are more prevalent in cranial dystonia and there is a preponderance of males in the dystonias with a lower location. The dystonias with cranial distribution frequently present fluctuations of symptoms during the day. Association with other movement disorders, such as tremor, and prior history of trauma, is common in patients with cervical dystonia.

  1. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia and tibia vara: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockshott, W.P.; Martin, R.; Friedman, L.; Yuen, M.

    1994-01-01

    A 2-year-old black boy with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia is described with illustrations of the typical radiographic appearances supplemented by computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. Since this rare condition is self-correcting, diagnosis is important so that surgical intervention and biopsy can be avoided and conservative management instituted. (orig.)

  2. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia and tibia vara: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockshott, W P; Martin, R; Friedman, L; Yuen, M

    1994-07-01

    A 2-year-old black boy with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia is described with illustrations of the typical radiographic appearances supplemented by computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. Since this rare condition is self-correcting, diagnosis is important so that surgical intervention and biopsy can be avoided and conservative management instituted.

  3. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia and tibia vara: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, W.P. (Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Martin, R. (Dept. of Orthopedics, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Friedman, L. (Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)); Yuen, M. (Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada))

    1994-07-01

    A 2-year-old black boy with focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia is described with illustrations of the typical radiographic appearances supplemented by computed tomographic and magnetic resonance images. Since this rare condition is self-correcting, diagnosis is important so that surgical intervention and biopsy can be avoided and conservative management instituted. (orig.)

  4. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in CT-undetermined focal liver lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrose, Sebastian; Karstrup, S.; Gerke, Oke

    2016-01-01

    , surgical resection, PET/CT and clinical follow-up. Results: The 78 included patients had 163 undetermined focal liver lesions, mean size 1.1 cm, range 0.1–5.3 cm. There were 18 malignant and 145 benign liver lesions, as defined by the standard of reference. In differentiating between benign vs. malignant...

  5. Automatic test comes to focal plane array production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Frank L.; Barton, T. D.

    1992-08-01

    To meet the needs of military and commercial markets, the infrared focal plane array industry must develop new, effective and low cost methods of fabricating and testing imaging detectors. This paper describes Texas Instruments new concepts in automated testing and cold probe technology as they apply to volume production.

  6. Focal irreversible electroporation as primary treatment for localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Willemien; Scheltema, Matthijs J.; Siriwardana, Amila R.; Kalsbeek, Anton M. F.; Thompson, James E.; Ting, Francis; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Shnier, Ron; Delprado, Warick; Stricker, Phillip D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the safety, quality of life (QoL) and short-term oncological outcomes of primary focal IRE for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. To identify potential risk factors for oncological failure. Patients that met both the consensus guidelines on patient criteria and selection

  7. Position sensitive proportional counters as focal plane detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.L.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The rise time and charge division techniques for position decoding with RC-line proportional counters are reviewed. The advantages that these detectors offer as focal plane counters for nuclear spectroscopy performed with magnetic spectrographs are discussed. The theory of operation of proportional counters as position sensing devices is summarized, as well as practical aspects affecting their application. Factors limiting the position and energy resolutions obtainable with a focal plane proportional counter are evaluated and measured position and energy loss values are presented for comparison. Detector systems capable of the multiparameter measurements required for particle identification, background suppression and ray-tracing are described in order to illustrate the wide applicability of proportional counters within complex focal plane systems. Examples of the use of these counters other than with magnetic spectrographs are given in order to demonstrate their usefulness in not only nuclear physics but also in fields such as solid state physics, biology, and medicine. The influence of the new focal plane detector systems on future magnetic spectrograph designs is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. White matter integrity and cerebral network topology in focal epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide more than fifty million people suffer from recurrent spontaneous seizures. Seizures are considered to be harmful to the brain and may have adverse long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in particular in people with focal epilepsies that do not respond to pharmacotherapy.

  9. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Rikke S.; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H. G.; Lim, Chiao Xin; Ricos, Michael G.; Bayly, Marta A.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Andrews, Ian; Kelley, Kent; Ronen, Gabriel M.; Callen, David; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Yendle, Simone C.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nabbout, Rima; Poduri, Annapurna; Striano, Pasquale; Baglietto, Maria G.; Zara, Federico; Smith, Nicholas J.; Pridmore, Clair; Gardella, Elena; Nikanorova, Marina; Dahl, Hans Atli; Gellert, Pia; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Gunning, Boudewijn; Kragh-Olsen, Bente; Dibbens, Leanne M.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated with KCNT1, we examined individuals affected with focal epilepsy or an epileptic encephalopathy for mutations in the gene. We identified KCNT1 mutations in 12 previously unreported patients with focal epilepsy, multifocal epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and in a family with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), in addition to patients with NFLE and MMFSI. In contrast to the 100% penetrance so far reported for KCNT1 mutations, we observed incomplete penetrance. It is notable that we report that the one KCNT1 mutation, p.Arg398Gln, can lead to either of the two distinct phenotypes, ADNFLE or MMFSI, even within the same family. This indicates that genotype–phenotype relationships for KCNT1 mutations are not straightforward. We demonstrate that KCNT1 mutations are highly pleiotropic and are associated with phenotypes other than ADNFLE and MMFSI. KCNT1 mutations are now associated with Ohtahara syndrome, MMFSI, and nocturnal focal epilepsy. They may also be associated with multifocal epilepsy and cardiac disturbances. PMID:26122718

  10. Differential diagnosis of focal pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, T. M.; Moojen, T. M.; van Geenen, R.; Rauws, E. A.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiation of focal, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PAC) poses a diagnostic dilemma. Both conditions may present with the same symptoms and signs. The complexity of differential diagnosis is enhanced because PAC is frequently associated with secondary inflammatory changes

  11. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated w...

  12. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  13. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  14. Pulmonary haemorrhage and nephritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-30

    Apr 30, 1983 ... trachea was central, the chest was dull to percussion anteriorly and there were bronchial ... The venous pressure was normal. Heart sounds were ... A catheter urine specimen showed scanty red cells, occasional pus cells and ..... ces in penetration. Professor G.R. Keeton: The natural history of GPS is va-.

  15. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Mason, Josh, E-mail: joshua.mason@nhs.net [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Louise [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Northwick Park Hospital, London North West NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Hashim U. [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Emberton, Mark [University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Langley, Stephen [St Luke' s Cancer Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  16. METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF FOCAL PLANE LOCATION OF FOCUSING COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ivashko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass-production of different laser systems often requires utilization of the focal spot size method for determination of output laser beam spatial characteristics. The main challenge of this method is high accuracy maintenance of a CCD camera beam profiler in the collecting lens focal plane. The aim of our work is development of new method for placing of photodetector array in the collecting lens focal plane with high accuracy.Proposed technique is based on focusing of several parallel laser beams. Determination of the focal plane position requires only longitudinal translation of the CCD-camera to find a point of laser beams intersection. Continuous-wave (CW diode-pumped laser emitting in the spectral region near 1μm was created to satisfy the requirements of the developed technique. Designed microchip laser generates two stigmatic Gaussian beams with automatically parallel beam axes due to independent pumping of different areas of the one microchip crystal having the same cavity mirrors.It was theoretically demonstrated that developed method provides possibility of the lenses focal plane determination with 1 % accuracy. The microchip laser generates two parallel Gaussian beams with divergence of about 10 mrad. Laser output power can be varied in the range of 0.1–1.5 W by changing the pumping laser diode electrical current. The distance between two beam axes can be changed in the range of 0.5–5.0 mm.We have proposed method for determination of positive lens focal plane location by using of CCDcamera and two laser beams with parallel axes without utilization of additional optical devices. We have developed CW longitudinally diode pumped microchip laser emitting in the 1-μm spectral region that can be used in the measuring instrument that doesn’t require precision mechanical components for determination of focal plane location with 1 % accuracy. The overall dimensions of laser head was 70 × 40 × 40 mm3 and maximum power consumption was

  17. Context cue focality influences strategic prospective memory monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Ball, B; Bugg, Julie M

    2018-02-12

    Monitoring the environment for the occurrence of prospective memory (PM) targets is a resource-demanding process that produces cost (e.g., slower responding) to ongoing activities. However, research suggests that individuals are able to monitor strategically by using contextual cues to reduce monitoring in contexts in which PM targets are not expected to occur. In the current study, we investigated the processes supporting context identification (i.e., determining whether or not the context is appropriate for monitoring) by testing the context cue focality hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts that the ability to monitor strategically depends on whether the ongoing task orients attention to the contextual cues that are available to guide monitoring. In Experiment 1, participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task and were told that PM targets (TOR syllable) would only occur in word trials (focal context cue condition) or in items starting with consonants (nonfocal context cue condition). In Experiment 2, participants performed an ongoing first letter judgment (consonant/vowel) task and were told that PM targets would only occur in items starting with consonants (focal context cue condition) or in word trials (nonfocal context cue condition). Consistent with the context cue focality hypothesis, strategic monitoring was only observed during focal context cue conditions in which the type of ongoing task processing automatically oriented attention to the relevant features of the contextual cue. These findings suggest that strategic monitoring is dependent on limited-capacity processing resources and may be relatively limited when the attentional demands of context identification are sufficiently high.

  18. A benzenediamine derivate FC-99 attenuates lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice via inhibiting myeloid dendritic cell-secreted BAFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianjian; Xu, Jingjing; Li, Fanlin; Li, Xiaojing; Gong, Wei; Song, Yuxian; Dou, Huan; Hou, Yayi

    2016-05-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) can produce B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) that modulates survival and differentiation of B cells and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has important functions in the process of BAFF production. Our previous study showed that a benzenediamine derivate FC-99 possesses anti-inflammation activity and directly interacts with interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), which was a pivotal molecule in TLR4 signaling. In this study, we demonstrated that FC-99 attenuated lupus nephritis in the MRL/lpr mice. FC-99 also decreased the levels of total immunoglobulin G (IgG), total IgG2a and IgM in sera, as well as the activation of B cells in the spleens of MRL/lpr mice. Moreover, FC-99 inhibited abnormal activation of myeloid DCs in spleens and reduced the levels of BAFF in sera, spleens, and kidneys of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, upon TLR4 stimulation with lipopolysaccharide in vitro, FC-99 inhibited IRAK4 phosphorylation, as well as the activation and BAFF production in murine bone marrow-derived DCs. These data indicate that FC-99 attenuates lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice via inhibiting DC-secreted BAFF, suggesting that FC-99 may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of SLE. © The Author 2016. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Protective Effect of Hydroxychloroquine on Renal Damage in Patients with Lupus Nephritis: Data from LUMINA, a Multiethnic U.S. Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; McGwin, Gerald; Danila, Maria I.; Zhang, Jie; Bastian, Holly M.; Reveille, John D.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess if hydroxychloroquine can delay renal damage development in lupus nephritis patients. Methods Lupus nephritis patients (n=256) from LUMINA (n=635), a multiethnic cohort of African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians, age ≥16 years, disease duration ≤5 years at baseline (T0) were studied. Renal damage was defined per the SLICC Damage Index (≥1 of the following lasting at least six months: estimated/measured glomerular filtration rate hydroxychloroquine use and renal damage (as defined, or omitting proteinuria) was estimated using Cox proportional regression analyses adjusting for potentially confounders. Kaplan-Meier survival curves based on hydroxychloroquine intake or World Health Organization (WHO) Class glomerulonephritis were also derived. Results Sixty-three (31.0%) of 203 patients developed renal damage over a mean (standard deviation) disease duration of 5.2 (3.5) years. The most frequent renal damage domain item was proteinuria. Hydroxychloroquine-takers (79.3%) exhibited a lower frequency of WHO Class IV glomerulonephritis, lower disease activity and received lower glucocorticoid doses than non-takers. After adjusting for confounders, hydroxychloroquine was protective of renal damage occurrence in full (HR=0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.97; p=0.0464) and reduced (HR=0.29; 95%CI 0.13-0.68; p=0.0043) models. Omitting proteinuria provided comparable results. The cumulative probability of renal damage occurrence was higher in hydroxychloroquine non-takers and in WHO Class IV glomerulonephritis (phydroxychloroquine in retarding renal damage occurrence in SLE is still evident. PMID:19479701

  20. Sialylated Autoantigen-Reactive IgG Antibodies Attenuate Disease Development in Autoimmune Mouse Models of Lupus Nephritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannic C. Bartsch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pro- and anti-inflammatory effector functions of IgG antibodies (Abs depend on their subclass and Fc glycosylation pattern. Accumulation of non-galactosylated (agalactosylated; G0 IgG Abs in the serum of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients reflects severity of the diseases. In contrast, sialylated IgG Abs are responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of the intravenous immunoglobulin (pooled human serum IgG from healthy donors, administered in high doses (2 g/kg to treat autoimmune patients. However, whether low amounts of sialylated autoantigen-reactive IgG Abs can also inhibit autoimmune diseases is hardly investigated. Here, we explore whether sialylated autoantigen-reactive IgG Abs can inhibit autoimmune pathology in different mouse models. We found that sialylated IgG auto-Abs fail to induce inflammation and lupus nephritis in a B cell receptor (BCR transgenic lupus model, but instead are associated with lower frequencies of pathogenic Th1, Th17 and B cell responses. In accordance, the transfer of small amounts of immune complexes containing sialylated IgG Abs was sufficient to attenuate the development of nephritis. We further showed that administration of sialylated collagen type II (Col II-specific IgG Abs attenuated the disease symptoms in a model of Col II-induced arthritis and reduced pathogenic Th17 cell and autoantigen-specific IgG Ab responses. We conclude that sialylated autoantigen-specific IgG Abs may represent a promising tool for treating pathogenic T and B cell immune responses in autoimmune diseases.

  1. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  2. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  3. Flotillins Regulate Focal Adhesions by Interacting with α-Actinin and by Influencing the Activation of Focal Adhesion Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Banning

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell–matrix adhesion and cell migration are physiologically important processes that also play a major role in cancer spreading. In cultured cells, matrix adhesion depends on integrin-containing contacts such as focal adhesions. Flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 are frequently overexpressed in cancers and are associated with poor survival. Our previous studies have revealed a role for flotillin-2 in cell–matrix adhesion and in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We here show that flotillins are important for cell migration in a wound healing assay and influence the morphology and dynamics of focal adhesions. Furthermore, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar is enhanced by flotillins. In the absence of flotillins, especially flotillin-2, phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and extracellularly regulated kinase is diminished. Flotillins interact with α-actinin, a major regulator of focal adhesion dynamics. These findings are important for understanding the molecular mechanisms of how flotillin overexpression in cancers may affect cell migration and, especially, enhance metastasis formation.

  4. The flexible engagement of monitoring processes in non-focal and focal prospective memory tasks with salient cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Carmen; Cohen, Anna-Lisa; Jaudas, Alexander; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2017-09-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform a delayed intention. Here, we aimed to investigate the ability to suspend such an intention and thus to confirm previous findings (Cohen, Gordon, Jaudas, Hefer, & Dreisbach, 2016) demonstrating the ability to flexibly engage in monitoring processes. In the current study, we presented a perceptually salient PM cue (bold and red) to rule out that previous findings were limited to non-salient and, thus, easy to ignore PM cues. Moreover, we used both a non-focal (Experiment 1) and a focal PM (Experiment 2) cue. In both Experiments, three groups of participants performed an Eriksen flanker task as an ongoing task with an embedded PM task (they had to remember to press the F1 key if a pre-specified cue appeared). Participants were assigned to either a control condition (performed solely the flanker task), a standard PM condition (performed the flanker task along with the PM task), or a PM delayed condition (performed the flanker task but were instructed to postpone their PM task intention). The results of Experiment 1 with the non-focal PM cue closely replicated those of Cohen et al. (2016) and confirmed that participants were able to successfully postpone the PM cue intention without additional costs even when the PM cue was a perceptually salient one. However, when the PM cue was focal (Experiment 2), it was much more difficult for participants to ignore it as evidenced by commission errors and slower latencies on PM cue trials. In sum, results showed that the focality of the PM cue plays a more crucial role in the flexibility of the monitoring process whereas the saliency of the PM cue does not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow during mechanical hyperventilation in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Høgh, Peter; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical hyperventilation is often instituted in patients with acute bacterial meningitis when increased intracranial pressure is suspected. However, the effect on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unknown. In this study, we measured regional CBF (rCBF) in patients with acute bacterial...... meningitis before and during short-term hyperventilation. In 17 patients with acute bacterial meningitis, absolute rCBF (in ml/100 g min-1) was measured during baseline ventilation and hyperventilation by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using intravenous 133Xe bolus injection. Intravenous...... in the frontal and parietal cortex as well as in the basal ganglia. Focal perfusion abnormalities were present in 10 of 12 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities are frequent in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. Short-term hyperventilation does not enhance these abnormalities....

  6. Natural-focal diseases: mapping experience in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhazova, Svetlana M; Mironova, Varvara A; Kotova, Tatiana V; Shartova, Natalia V; Orlov, Dmitry S

    2014-06-14

    Natural-focal diseases constitute a serious hazard for human health. Agents and vectors of such diseases belong to natural landscapes. The aim of this study is to identify the diversity and geography of natural-focal diseases in Russia and to develop cartographic approaches for their mapping, including mathematical-cartographical modeling. Russian medico-geographical mapping of natural-focal diseases is highly developed regionally and locally but extremely limited at the national level. To solve this problem, a scientific team of the Faculty of Geography at Lomonosov Moscow State University has developed and implemented a project of a medico-geographical Atlas of Russia "Natural-Focal Diseases". The mapping is based on medical statistics data. The Atlas contains a series of maps on disease incidence, long-term dynamics of disease morbidity, etc. In addition, other materials available to the authors were used: mapping of the natural environment, field data, archival materials, analyzed satellite images, etc. The maps are processed using ArcGIS (ESRI) software application. Different methods of rendering of mapped phenomena are used (geographical ranges, diagrams, choropleth maps etc.). A series of analytical, integrated, and synthetic maps shows disease incidence in the population at both the national and regional levels for the last 15 years. Maps of the mean annual morbidity of certain infections and maps of morbidity dynamics and nosological profiles allow for a detailed analysis of the situation for each of 83 administrative units of the Russian Federation. The degree of epidemic hazard in Russia by natural-focal diseases is reflected in a synthetic medico-geographical map that shows the degree of epidemic risks due to such diseases in Russia and allows one to estimate the risk of disease manifestation in a given region. This is the first attempt at aggregation and public presentation of diverse and multifaceted information about natural-focal diseases in Russia

  7. CT and ERCP findings of chronic focal pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Eun Kyeong [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the major radiologic features of chronic focal pancreatitis in various imaging studies, with special emphasis on CT and ERCP findings. From 1991 to 1995, twelve patients were pathologically proved to be suffering from focal chronic pancreatitis after pancreatico-duodenectomy;for retrospective evaluation, imaging studies were available for eight(seven men, one woman;mean age 58.9{+-}6.6, range 47 to 67). Clinical, surgical, and radiological findings, including CT(n=8), ultrasound(n=7), ERCP(n=8) and UGI(n=3) were analysed. Seven male patients had suffered from chronic alcoholism for between 20 and 50 years. Serum bilirubin levels were normal in eight patients and alkaline phosphatase levels were normal in seven patients. Serum CA 19-9 levels were normal in all five patients who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Seven patients(87.5%) showed focal enlargement without definable margin on CT, and five of the six lesions detectable on ultrasound(83.3%) were ill defined hypoechoic nodules. Dilated side branches within lesions were seen in five of eight patients(83.3%) on CT and ERCP. Double duct signs were observed in siven(87.5%) patients, and dilated intrahepatic ducts in six(75%), with diameters ranging from 5 to 8mm(average:5.42{+-}1.96mm). The average ratio of pancreatic duct caliber to gland width was 0.33{+-}0.19. None of the patients had calcification within the lesion and one case showed intraductal calcification. None showed perivascular fat obliteration around the superior mesenteric artery or celiac axis. The average biductal distance between abnormal common bile duct and the immediately adjacent pancreatic duct was 4.0{+-}1.15mm. One of three cases who under went a UGI examination showed severe luminal narrowing and mucosal thickening in the second protion of the duodenum, another showed double contour, and the other merely showed widening of the C-loop of the duodenum. Chronic focal pancreatitis mostly demonstrated ill defined focal

  8. CT and ERCP findings of chronic focal pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Soo; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Eun Kyeong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the major radiologic features of chronic focal pancreatitis in various imaging studies, with special emphasis on CT and ERCP findings. From 1991 to 1995, twelve patients were pathologically proved to be suffering from focal chronic pancreatitis after pancreatico-duodenectomy;for retrospective evaluation, imaging studies were available for eight(seven men, one woman;mean age 58.9±6.6, range 47 to 67). Clinical, surgical, and radiological findings, including CT(n=8), ultrasound(n=7), ERCP(n=8) and UGI(n=3) were analysed. Seven male patients had suffered from chronic alcoholism for between 20 and 50 years. Serum bilirubin levels were normal in eight patients and alkaline phosphatase levels were normal in seven patients. Serum CA 19-9 levels were normal in all five patients who had undergone preoperative evaluation. Seven patients(87.5%) showed focal enlargement without definable margin on CT, and five of the six lesions detectable on ultrasound(83.3%) were ill defined hypoechoic nodules. Dilated side branches within lesions were seen in five of eight patients(83.3%) on CT and ERCP. Double duct signs were observed in siven(87.5%) patients, and dilated intrahepatic ducts in six(75%), with diameters ranging from 5 to 8mm(average:5.42±1.96mm). The average ratio of pancreatic duct caliber to gland width was 0.33±0.19. None of the patients had calcification within the lesion and one case showed intraductal calcification. None showed perivascular fat obliteration around the superior mesenteric artery or celiac axis. The average biductal distance between abnormal common bile duct and the immediately adjacent pancreatic duct was 4.0±1.15mm. One of three cases who under went a UGI examination showed severe luminal narrowing and mucosal thickening in the second protion of the duodenum, another showed double contour, and the other merely showed widening of the C-loop of the duodenum. Chronic focal pancreatitis mostly demonstrated ill defined focal enlargement and

  9. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  10. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  11. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  12. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  13. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  14. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation. Results Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (−0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, −0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, −0.31 to −0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (−0.37 to −0.04; P = .02). Conclusions We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Application to Clinical Practice Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers. PMID:21987582

  15. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

  16. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  17. Focal points and principal solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepitka, Peter; Šimon Hilscher, Roman

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present a novel view on the principal (and antiprincipal) solutions of linear Hamiltonian systems, as well as on the focal points of their conjoined bases. We present a new and unified theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions at a finite point and at infinity, and apply it to obtain new representation of the multiplicities of right and left proper focal points of conjoined bases. We show that these multiplicities can be characterized by the abnormality of the system in a neighborhood of the given point and by the rank of the associated T-matrix from the theory of principal (and antiprincipal) solutions. We also derive some additional important results concerning the representation of T-matrices and associated normalized conjoined bases. The results in this paper are new even for completely controllable linear Hamiltonian systems. We also discuss other potential applications of our main results, in particular in the singular Sturmian theory.

  18. Focal sparing around the gallbladder in fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kemin; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Yunoki, Masanori; Hirano, Yoko

    1989-01-01

    In evaluating fatty liver with CT, the residual normal liver tissues without fat deposits are occasionally detected on CT as high attenuation regions, especially surrounding the gallbladder. This study examined the incidence of this phenomenon in terms of the diagnostic value of CT in fatty liver. Fifty-seven patients with fatty liver were examined with CT. The incidence of focal sparing area was the highest in the gallbladder bed (42/57, 74%), followed by the interlobar fissure or subcapsular area (13, 23%), quadrate lobe (8, 14%), caudate lobe (2, 4%), and right lobe (one, 1.8%). These CT appearances were of spot, band, ring, and the mixed type. In 38 patients, fatty liver was too moderate to be detected without CT attenuation numbers. Among them, 27 patients (71%) had focal sparing area surrounding the gallbladder. This CT appearance seemed to be of significance in preventing the missing of moderate fatty liver. (Namekawa, K)

  19. Segmented focal plane detector for light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfs, F.L.H.; Bryan, D.C.; Kurz, K.L.; Herrick, D.M.; Perera, P.A.A.; White, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A segmented focal plane detector for an Enge split-pole spectrograph has been developed for the study of breakup reactions at very low relative energies. It consists of a 61 cm long segmented position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter backed by a large Bragg curve detector. A segmented plastic scintillator is mounted behind the anode of the Bragg curve detector and is used for particle identification of low-ionizing particles. The dead space between the two sections of the focal plane detector is 2.5 mm. The intrinsic position resolution of the detector is 1 mm. The intrinsic energy resolution depends on the energy of the incident ion and can be as good as 0.55%. The nuclear charge and mass resolutions are 0.3 e and 0.3 u, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Bacterial infec tions in travellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely bacterial causes of travellers' diarrhoea and skin infections, as well as .... Vaccination: protective efficacy against typhoid may be overcome by ingesting a high bacterial load. Vaccine ..... preparation such as cream sauce. Only after ...

  1. Focal adhesion kinase-dependent focal adhesion recruitment of SH2 domains directs SRC into focal adhesions to regulate cell adhesion and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jui-Chung; Chen, Yu-Chen; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Wenshin Yu, Helen; Chen, Yin-Quan; Chiou, Arthur; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-12-18

    Directed cell migration requires dynamical control of the protein complex within focal adhesions (FAs) and this control is regulated by signaling events involving tyrosine phosphorylation. We screened the SH2 domains present in tyrosine-specific kinases and phosphatases found within FAs, including SRC, SHP1 and SHP2, and examined whether these enzymes transiently target FAs via their SH2 domains. We found that the SRC_SH2 domain and the SHP2_N-SH2 domain are associated with FAs, but only the SRC_SH2 domain is able to be regulated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK). The FAK-dependent association of the SRC_SH2 domain is necessary and sufficient for SRC FA targeting. When the targeting of SRC into FAs is inhibited, there is significant suppression of SRC-mediated phosphorylation of paxillin and FAK; this results in an inhibition of FA formation and maturation and a reduction in cell migration. This study reveals an association between FAs and the SRC_SH2 domain as well as between FAs and the SHP2_N-SH2 domains. This supports the hypothesis that the FAK-regulated SRC_SH2 domain plays an important role in directing SRC into FAs and that this SRC-mediated FA signaling drives cell migration.

  2. A focal plane detector for both light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophel, T.R.; Johnston, A.

    1978-05-01

    The characteristics of a multi-element, ionization-type focal plane detector with an effective length of 53 cm have been evaluated for various ions ranging between protons and 32 S. The position resolution obtained is typically 1 mm. Excellent energy (0.49% for 16 O) and angular resolution (0.2 degrees with respect to beam direction for 7 Li) have been obtained enabling clean separation of ion species at essentially full angular acceptance of a split-pole spectrograph

  3. Perampanel for focal epilepsy: insights from early clinical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Trinka, E.; Steinhoff, B. J.; Nikanorova, M.; Brodie, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Perampanel is approved for adjunctive therapy of focal epilepsy with or without secondarily generalized seizures in patients aged >12 years. This narrative review uses real-world and clinical trial data to elucidate perampanel's role in the clinic. Audit data show good tolerability with perampanel and higher freedom-from-seizure rates in elderly vs younger patients. When using perampanel in elderly patients, special attention should be given to comorbidities and co-medication to avoid potenti...

  4. Primary Focal Dystonia: Evidence for Distinct Neuropsychiatric and Personality Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Primary focal dystonia (PFD) is characterized by motor symptoms. Frequent co-occurrence of abnormal mental conditions has been mentioned for decades but is less well defined. We evaluated prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, personality disorders and traits in a large cohort of PFD patients. Methods: Prevalence rates of clinical psychiatric diagnoses in 86 PFD patients were compared to a population-based sample (N=3943) using a multiple regress...

  5. The extracellular matrix and altered diffusion in focal cortical dysplasia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homola, Aleš; Vargová, Lýdia; Cicanič, Michal; Zámečník, J.; Marusič, P.; Kršek, P.; Syková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, S1 (2011), S106-S106 ISSN 0894-1491. [European meeting on Glia l Cells in Health and Disease /10./. 13.09.2011-17.09.2011, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA ČR GA309/09/1597 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : focal cortical dysplasia * diffusion * extracellular matrix Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  6. Atypical Focal Osteomyelitis as Initial Manifestation of AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Akiki; Y. Bilde

    2011-01-01

    Persistent pain development after a skeletal contusion rarely poses the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. We report the case of a fibular head contusion as an initial manifestation of a focal abscess development in a healthy young patient. The traditional treatment of surgical drainage revealed the presence of an atypical Mycobacterium haemophilum isolates in the abscess. This lead to further investigations that concluded and established the diagnosis of AIDS. Conclusion. Isolation of an atypical M...

  7. Explaining focal points: Cognitive hierarchy theory versus team reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Bardsley, Nicholas; Mehta, Judith; Starmer, Chris; Sugden, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports experimental tests of two alternative explanations of how players use focal points to select equilibria in one-shot coordination games. Cognitive hierarchy theory explains coordination as the result of common beliefs about players’ pre-reflective inclinations towards the relevant strategies; the theory of team reasoning explains it as the result of the players’ using a non-standard form of reasoning. We report two experiments. One finds strong support for team reasoning; th...

  8. Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominal pain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed...

  9. Seizure ending signs in patients with dyscognitive focal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Macken, Mícheál; Schuele, Stephan U

    2015-09-01

    Signs indicating the end of a focal seizure with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness but without progression to focal or generalized motor symptoms are poorly defined and can be difficult to determine. Not recognizing the transition from ictal to postictal behaviour can affect seizure reporting accuracy by family members and may lead to delayed or a lack of examination during EEG monitoring, erroneous seizure localization and inadequate medical intervention for prolonged seizure duration. Our epilepsy monitoring unit database was searched for focal seizures without secondary generalization for the period from 2007 to 2011. The first focal seizure in a patient with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness and/or behavioural arrest, with or without automatisms, was included. Seizures without objective symptoms or inadequate video-EEG quality were excluded. A total of 67 patients were included, with an average age of 41.7 years. Thirty-six of the patients had seizures from the left hemisphere and 29 from the right. All patients showed an abrupt change in motor activity and resumed contact with the environment as a sign of clinical seizure ending. Specific ending signs (nose wiping, coughing, sighing, throat clearing, or laughter) were seen in 23 of 47 of temporal lobe seizures and 7 of 20 extra-temporal seizures. Seizure ending signs are often subtle and the most common finding is a sudden change in motor activity and resumption of contact with the environment. More distinct signs, such as nose wiping, coughing or throat clearing, are not specific to temporal lobe onset. A higher proportion of seizures during sleep went unexamined, compared to those during wakefulness. This demonstrates that seizure semiology can be very subtle and arousals from sleep during monitoring should alert staff. Patient accounts of seizure frequency appear to be unreliable and witness reports need to be taken into account. [Published with video sequences].

  10. Intracoronary infusion of catecholamines causes focal arrhythmias in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Harish; Jin, Qi; Dosdall, Derek J; Qin, Hao; Walcott, Gregory P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Huang, Jian

    2008-09-01

    Acute ischemia causes myriad changes including increased catecholamines. We tested the hypothesis that elevated catecholamines alone are arrhythmogenic. A 504 electrode sock was placed over both ventricles in six open-chest pigs. During control infusion of saline through a catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), no sustained arrhythmias occurred, and the refractory period estimated by the activation recovery interval (ARI) was 175 +/- 14 ms in the LAD bed below the catheter. After infusion of isoproterenol at 0.1 microg/kg/min through the catheter, the ARI in this bed was significantly reduced to 109 +/- 10 ms. A sharp gradient of refractoriness of 43 +/- 10 ms was at the border of the perfused bed. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia occurred after drug infusion in the perfused bed or near its boundary in all animals with a cycle length of 329 +/- 26 ms and a focal origin. The maximum slope of the ARI restitution curve at the focal origins of the tachyarrhythmias was always <1 (0.62 +/- 0.15). Similar results with a focal arrhythmia origin occurred in two additional pigs in which intramural mapping was performed with 36 plunge needle electrodes in the left ventricular perfused bed. Regional elevation of a catecholamine, which is one of the alterations produced by acute ischemia, can by itself cause tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias are closely associated with a shortened refractory period and a large gradient of the spatial distribution of refractoriness but not with a steep restitution curve.

  11. [A case of focal epilepsy manifesting multiple psychiatric auras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezura, Michinori; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jin, Kazutaka; Kato, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Masaki; Fujikawa, Mayu; Aoki, Masashi; Nakasato, Nobukazu

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of epilepsy with multiple types of focal seizures that were misdiagnosed as psychiatric disorders. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a variety of episodes, including loss of consciousness, deja vu, fear, delusion of possession, violent movements, and generalized convulsions. Each of these symptoms appeared in a stereotypic manner. She was initially diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder and treated with psychoactive medications, which had no effect. Long-term video electroencephalography revealed that her episodes of violent movement with impaired consciousness and secondarily generalized seizure were epileptic events originating in the right hemisphere. High-field brain magnetic resonance imaging for detecting subtle lesions revealed bilateral lesions from periventricular nodular heterotopia. Her final diagnosis was right hemispheric focal epilepsy. Carbamazepine administration was started, which successfully controlled all seizures. The present case demonstrates the pitfall of diagnosing focal epilepsy when it presents with multiple types of psychiatric aura. Epilepsy should thus be included in differential diagnoses, considering the stereotypic nature of symptoms, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  12. How to diagnose and treat focal therapy failure and recurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Eric; Harvey-Bryan, Kadi-Ann; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Rozet, Francois; Galiano, Marc; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Focal therapy presents an alternative option for disease-targeted therapy while preserving erectile and urinary function without compromising oncological outcome. Such treatment, which preserves normal prostate parenchyma, presents a clinical challenge to the urologist, as typical disease surveillance parameters are not as reliable in post-ablation follow-up. We propose an integrated approach to post-ablation surveillance to identify treatment failure as well as recurrence. Post-ablation prostate-specific antigen kinetics, imaging based on multiparametric MRI and control biopsies are the tools currently used to follow patients after focal therapy. Good treatment response is indicated by a negative control biopsy, absence of persistent lesion on post-treatment imaging and a reduction in prostate-specific antigen of at least 50%. When histological evidence of therapeutic failure or recurrence is present, different options of management may be proposed to the patient including active surveillance, focal salvage therapy or radical salvage treatment, depending on the characteristics of the lesion found. A recommended post-ablation surveillance protocol is presented as well as a discussion of management strategies based on the data currently available.

  13. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  14. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Budinger, T.f.; Hosobuchi, Y.; Born, J.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  15. A Micro-Thermal Sensor for Focal Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Harishankar; Hodges, Wyatt; Choi, Jeunghwan; Lubner, Sean; Dames, Chris; Bischof, John

    2016-02-01

    There is an urgent need for sensors deployed during focal therapies to inform treatment planning and in vivo monitoring in thin tissues. Specifically, the measurement of thermal properties, cooling surface contact, tissue thickness, blood flow and phase change with mm to sub mm accuracy are needed. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that a micro-thermal sensor based on the supported “3ω” technique can achieve this in vitro under idealized conditions in 0.5 to 2 mm thick tissues relevant to cryoablation of the pulmonary vein (PV). To begin with “3ω” sensors were microfabricated onto flat glass as an idealization of a focal probe surface. The sensor was then used to make new measurements of ‘k’ (W/m.K) of porcine PV, esophagus, and phrenic nerve, all needed for PV cryoabalation treatment planning. Further, by modifying the sensor use from traditional to dynamic mode new measurements related to tissue vs. fluid (i.e. water) contact, fluid flow conditions, tissue thickness, and phase change were made. In summary, the in vitro idealized system data presented is promising and warrants future work to integrate and test supported “3ω” sensors on in vivo deployed focal therapy probe surfaces (i.e. balloons or catheters).

  16. Fast multifrequency focal beam analysis for 3D seismic acquisition geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, W.; Fu, L.; Blacquiere, G.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the efficient computation of multifrequency focal beams for 3D seismic acquisition geometry analysis has been developed. By computing them for all the frequency components of seismic data, single-frequency focal beams can be extended to multifrequency focal beams. However, this

  17. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  18. Electrophysiological and pathological study of focal cortical dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodozuka, Akira; Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Tanaka, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies on focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) were carried out. For the experimental study, an experimental FCD model of rats was developed. Twenty Wistar rats at 0-2 days after birth were used for the study. Kainic acid (KA) solution was injected stereotaxically into medial and lateral sites of the sensori-motor cortex. Bipolar electrodes were inserted. The behavior of the rats and electroencephalography (EEG) were recorded using a digital video-EEG monitoring system. After observation periods of 1, 2 and 6 months, the rats were perfused for pathological study. FCD was observed adjacent to the site of KA injection in all rats more than one month after the injection. EEG recording demonstrated focal spike discharges in and around the site of injection. However, clinical seizure was not observed. Pathological studies showed decrease in gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptors and increase in GABA-B receptors not only in the lesion but also in perilesional areas. Fifteen surgical cases of FCD with intractable epilepsy were included in the clinical study. Neuro-imaging studies including high-resolution MRI and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. Conventional EEG studies demonstrated focal EEG abnormalities with epileptic phenomena. At surgery, intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) was performed in order to localize epileptic foci under neuroleptanalgesia. Fourteen patients showed epileptiform discharges on preresection ECoG. All foci in non-eloquent areas were resected. Pathological studies including immunohistochemical staining were performed, and characteristics of the FCD in relation to EEG findings were analyzed. Electrophysiological examination revealed epileptogenecity not only in the lesions but also in perilesional areas. In the lesions, immunohistochemical studies showed decrease in GABA-A receptors and increase in GABA-B receptors in both the lesions and perilesional areas, but N

  19. Structure of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Martine; Karibian, Doris

    2003-11-14

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides are the major components of the outer surface of Gram-negative bacteria They are often of interest in medicine for their immunomodulatory properties. In small amounts they can be beneficial, but in larger amounts they may cause endotoxic shock. Although they share a common architecture, their structural details exert a strong influence on their activity. These molecules comprise: a lipid moiety, called lipid A, which is considered to be the endotoxic component, a glycosidic part consisting of a core of approximately 10 monosaccharides and, in "smooth-type" lipopolysaccharides, a third region, named O-chain, consisting of repetitive subunits of one to eight monosaccharides responsible for much of the immunospecificity of the bacterial cell.

  20. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  1. Bacterial control of cyanobacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available of biological control appears to be direct contact. • Ndlela, L. L. et al. (2016) ‘An overview of cyanobacterial bloom occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade’, Harmful Algae, 60 • Gumbo, J.R. et al. (2010) The Isolation and identification... of Predatory Bacteria from a Microcystis algal Bloom.. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9. *Special acknowledgement goes to the National Research foundation for funding this presentation Bacterial control of cyanobacteria Luyanda...

  2. Bacterial growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth may be made using a radioassay technique. This method measures, by scintillation counting, the 14 CO 2 derived from the bacterial metabolism of a 14 C-labeled substrate. Mathematical growth models may serve as reliable tools for estimation of the generation rate constant (or slope of the growth curve) and provide a basis for evaluating assay performance. Two models, i.e., exponential and logistic, are proposed. Both models yielded an accurate fit to the data from radioactive measurement of bacterial growth. The exponential model yielded high precision values of the generation rate constant, with an average relative standard deviation of 1.2%. Under most conditions the assay demonstrated no changes in the slopes of growth curves when the number of bacteria per inoculation was changed. However, the radiometric assay by scintillation method had a growth-inhibiting effect on a few strains of bacteria. The source of this problem was thought to be hypersensitivity to trace amounts of toluene remaining on the detector

  3. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  4. Glomerulonefrite lúpica: estudo da evolução a longo prazo Lupus nephritis: a long term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Martins

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a apresentação clínica e a evolução de pacientes portadores de glomerulonefrite lúpica. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 37 pacientes portadores de glomerulonefrite lúpica, atendidos pela Disciplina de Nefrologia - Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, com seguimento médio de 52,4 ± 13,3 meses. Os dados foram obtidos através do levantamento retrospectivo dos prontuários. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 26,05 ± 11,12 anos, com predomínio do sexo feminino (84% sendo que a glomerulonefrite classe IV foi a mais freqüente (80%. No início do seguimento a média da creatinina sérica foi de 1,74 ± 1,15 mg/dl, e a da proteinúria de 24h foi de 2,62 ± 2.89 g. Cinqüenta e um porcento dos pacientes com creatinina sérica elevada apresentaram, durante o seguimento, diminuição desses valores. Dentre diferentes variáveis estudadas, à época da biopsia renal, (idade, sexo, proteinúria, presença de hipertensão arterial e creatinina sérica a única que se associou com pior prognóstico foi a elevação da creatinina sérica. Remissão da síndrome nefrótica ocorreu em 65% das vezes. A sobrevida atuarial foi de 96%, 82%, 70% e 70% em 1, 5, 10 e 12 anos. Cinco pacientes desenvolveram insuficiência renal crônica terminal e sete morreram, sendo infecção a principal causa de óbito (57% CONCLUSÃO: Em pacientes com nefropatia lúpica, o aumento da creatinina sérica, à época da biópsia, se associou com o desenvolvimento de insuficiência renal crônica ao fim do seguimento e a principal causa de óbito foi processo infeccioso.PURPOSE: To evaluate and the long term course of patients with lupus nephritis, METHOD: Thirty seven patients with lupus nephritis followed in a referral, tertiary care center of a developing country (Brazil were studied. The length of follow up was 52.4 + 13.3 months and mean age was 26.05 +11.12 years. 84% of the patients were females and class IV nephritis was found to be the most

  5. Formation of multiple focal spots using a high NA lens with a complex spiral phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, K.; Anbarasan, P. M.; Rajesh, K. B.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of a transversally polarized beam by transmitting a tightly focused double-ring-shaped azimuthally polarized beam through a complex spiral phase mask and high numerical aperture lens is presented based on vector diffraction theory. The generation of transversally polarized focal spot segment splitting and multiple focal spots is illustrated numerically. Moreover, we found that a properly designed complex spiral phase mask can move the focal spots along the optical axis in the z direction. Therefore, one can achieve a focal segment of two, three or multiple completely transversely polarized focal spots, which finds applications in optical trapping and in material processing technologies.

  6. 'Focal thyroid inferno' on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xianshui, E-mail: fuxs1968@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Limei, E-mail: guolimei@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Huabin, E-mail: huabinzhang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ran, Weiqiang, E-mail: ranwq-sina@vip.sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Peng, E-mail: fupeng01@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lizhq126@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: wendy7989@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Ling, E-mail: papayaling@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Jianwen, E-mail: drjia88@sohu.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The {chi}{sup 2} test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using 'focal thyroid inferno' as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of 'focal thyroid inferno' is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  7. Differences of serum procalcitonin levels between bacterial infection and flare in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J.; Marpaung, B.; Ginting, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Differentiate bacterial infections from flare in SLE patients is difficult to do because clinical symptoms of infection is similar to flare. SLE patients with infection require antibiotic therapy with decreased doses of immunosuppressant while in flare diseases require increased immunosuppressant. Procalcitonin (PCT), a biological marker, increased in serum patients with bacterial infections and expected to be a solution of problem. The aim of this study was to examine the function of PCT serum as marker to differentiate bacterial infection and flare in SLE patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital from January-July 2017. We examined 80 patients SLE flare (MEX-SLEDAI>5), screen PCT and culture according to focal infection. Data were statistically analyzed. 80 SLE patients divided into 2 groups: bacterial infection group (31 patients) and non-infection/flare group (49 patients). Median PCT levels of bacterial infection group was 1.66 (0.04-8.45)ng/ml while flare group was 0.12 (0.02-0.81)ng/ml. There was significant difference of serum Procalcitonin level between bacterial infection and flare group in SLE patients (p=0.001). Procalcitonin serum levels can be used as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial infections and flare in SLE patients.

  8. FOCAL EPILEPTIC MYOCLONUS IN KOZHEVNIKOV–RASMUSSEN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Kvaskova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG and neuroimaging features, as well as the results of treatment of patients with focal epileptic myoclonus (FEM with the Kozhevnikov–Rasmussen syndrome (KRS. FEM in KRS-patients was identified in 11 cases, accounting for 0.9 % of all the cases of epilepsy with the onset of seizures up to 18 years (n = 1261. The age at onset of KRS ranged from 3 to 21 years (average – 9.2 ± 5.7 years. In the active period of the disease of all patients in the clinical picture the active FEM appeared and increasing frequency of the secondary generalized seizures (SGS. In addition SGS and FEM, the clinical picture of the disease in most patients (91 % the focal motor (clonic and the somatosensory focal seizures were observed. As the disease progressed, the FEM became more pronounced in frequency and intensity, seized more muscle groups, localizing mainly in the muscles of the trunk and limbs. The typical EEG pattern of FEM patients with KRS was regional epileptiform activity that occurs in the structure of the continued regional slowing localizing maximum of the fronto-central-temporal region. During the magnetic resonance tomography of the brain in dynamics all the patients observed the increase in total cortical hemiatrophy. In all the cases, the appointment of antiepileptic therapy resulted in a slowing of the FEM, however, a complete remission was reached at none of the patients. Two patients were made surgical treatment of epilepsy. In one case remission of epileptic seizures was observed after right-side hemispherotomy. Our study showed that FEM is very resistant type of epileptic seizures. This fact calls for the identification of the FEM at the early stages of the disease with the purpose to improve the prognosis, as well as for an earlier surgical treatment.

  9. Temperament and character properties of primary focal hyperhidrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a health problem, which has negative effects on the patient's quality of life and significantly affects the patients’ daily activities, social and business life. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperament and character properties of patients diagnosed with primary focal hyperhidrosis. Methods Fifty-six primary focal hyperhidrosis (22.42 ± 7.80 and 49 control subjects (24.48 ± 5.17 participated in the study. Patients who met the diagnostic criteria for PFH were referred to psychiatry clinic where the subjects were evaluated through Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-I and Temperament and Character Inventory. Results In order to examine the difference between the PFH and control group in terms of temperament and character properties, one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was conducted. In terms of temperament properties, PFH group took significantly higher scores than control group in Fatigability and asthenia dimension. In terms of character properties, PFH group scored significantly lower than control group in Purposefulness , Resourcefulness , Self-Directedness and scored significantly higher than control group in Self-forgetfulness and Self-Transcendence. Conclusion Temperament and character features of PFH patients were different from healthy group and it was considered that these features were affected by many factors including genetic, biological, environmental, socio-cultural elements. During the follow-up of PFH cases, psychiatric evaluation is important and interventions, especially psychotherapeutic interventions can increase the chances of success of the dermatological treatments and can have a positive impact on the quality of life and social cohesion of chronic cases.

  10. Reperfusion promotes mitochondrial dysfunction following focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the cell death observed after cerebral ischemia, and several mechanisms for this dysfunction have been proposed. Reperfusion after transient cerebral ischemia may cause continued and even more severe damage to the brain. Many lines of evidence have shown that mitochondria suffer severe damage in response to ischemic injury. The purpose of this study was to observe the features of mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated mitochondria during the reperfusion period following focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. Mitochondria were isolated using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The isolated mitochondria were fixed for electron microscopic examination; calcium-induced mitochondrial swelling was quantified using spectrophotometry. Cyclophilin D was detected by Western blotting. Fluorescent probes were used to selectively stain mitochondria to measure their membrane potential and to measure reactive oxidative species production using flow cytometric analysis. RESULTS: Signs of damage were observed in the mitochondrial morphology after exposure to reperfusion. The mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca(2+ increased gradually with the increasing calcium concentration, and this tendency was exacerbated as the reperfusion time was extended. Cyclophilin D protein expression peaked after 24 hours of reperfusion. The mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased significantly during the reperfusion period, with the greatest decrease observed after 24 hours of reperfusion. The surge in mitochondrial reactive oxidative species occurred after 2 hours of reperfusion and was maintained at a high level during the reperfusion period. CONCLUSIONS: Reperfusion following focal cerebral ischemia induced significant mitochondrial morphological damage and Ca(2+-induced mitochondrial swelling. The mechanism of this swelling may be mediated by

  11. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  12. Brivaracetam: a novel antiepileptic drug for focal-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Linda J; Brodie, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Brivaracetam (BRV), the n -propyl analogue of levetiracetam (LEV), is the latest antiepileptic drug (AED) to be licensed in Europe and the USA for the adjunctive treatment of focal-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization in patients aged 16 years or older. Like LEV, BRV binds to synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), but BRV has more selective binding and a 15- to 30-fold higher binding affinity than LEV. BRV is more effective than LEV in slowing synaptic vesicle mobilization and the two AEDs may act at different binding sites or interact with different conformational states of the SV2A protein. In animal models, BRV provides protection against focal and secondary generalized seizures and has significant anticonvulsant effects in genetic models of epilepsy. The drug undergoes first-order pharmacokinetics with an elimination half-life of 7-8 h. Although BRV is metabolized extensively, the main circulating compound is unchanged BRV. Around 95% of metabolites undergo renal elimination. No dose reduction is required in renal impairment, but it is recommended that the daily dose is reduced by one-third in hepatic dysfunction that may prolong half-life. BRV has a low potential for drug interactions. The efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive BRV in adults with focal-onset seizures have been explored in six randomized, placebo-controlled studies. These showed significant efficacy outcomes for doses of 50-200 mg/day. The most common adverse events reported were headache, somnolence, dizziness, fatigue and nausea. Patients who develop psychiatric symptoms with LEV appear to be at risk of similar side effects with BRV, although preliminary data suggest that these issues are likely to be less frequent and perhaps less severe. As with all AEDs, a low starting dose and slow titration schedule help to minimize side effects and optimize seizure control and thereby quality of life.

  13. Near infrared focal plane for the ISOCAM camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, G.; Stefanovitch, D.; Tiphene, D.; Carpentier, Y.; Lorans, D.

    1988-01-01

    ISOCAM is one of the science instruments in the Infrared Space Observatory. It is a 2-channel IR Astronomical Imager intended to observe at very low flux levels, thanks to the use of a liquid helium cooled telescope. This paper describes the Focal Plane Assembly design of the short wavelength channel. The operation of a 32 x 32 InSb CID-SAT array detector has been demonstrated. The problems encountered in the design of the cooled electronics and the component selection process are discussed in the light of specific ISO constraints, such as thermal control and radiation shielding. 6 references

  14. Modeling characterization of the National Ignition Facility focal spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The predicted focal spot size of the National Ignition Facility laser is parameterized against the finish quality of the optics in the system. Results are reported from simulations which include static optics aberrations, as well as pump-induced distortions, beam self-focusing, and the effect of an adaptive optic. The simulations do not include contributions from optics mounting errors, residual thermal noise in laser slabs from previous shots, air turbulence, a kinoform phase plate, or smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Consequently, these results represent ''first shot of the day'', without-SSD, predictions

  15. Difficulties in the interpretation of focal changes on liver scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derimanov, S.G. (Oblastnoj Onkologicheskij Dispanser, Veliko-Tyrnovo (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    A series of cases are presented in which erroneous conclusions were arrived at by liver scans. The analysis of these errors has shown that they are determined by the similarity of a scanographic picture of focal changes in various diseases of the liver (cancer, cirrhosis, echinococcus, etc.) and the adjacent organs (bronchogenic cyst, renal tumor, etc.). In this connection all attempts to determine the etiology of a pathological process by liver scans without correlation with the results of multidimensional examination frequently result in errors.

  16. Focal dystonia in musicians: From phenomenology to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christian Jabusch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected.Etiology and Pathophysiology: The pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear. Findings include (a reduced inhibition in different levels of the central nervous system, (b maladaptive plasticity, e.g. in the somatosensory cortex and in the basal ganglia, and (c alterations in sensorimotor processing. Epidemiological data demon-strated a higher risk for those musicians who play instruments requiring maximal fine-motorskills. For instruments where workload differs across hands, focal dystonia appears more often in the more intensely used hand. In psychological studies, musicians with dystonia had more perfectionist tendencies than healthy musicians. These findings streng then the assumption that behavioral factors may be involved in the etiology of musician's dystonia. Hereditary factors may play a greater role than previously assumed. Preliminary findings suggest a genetic contributiont o focal task-specific dystonia with phenotypic variations including musician's dystonia.Treatment: Treatment options for musician's dystonia include pharmacological interventions such as administration of Trihexyphenidyl or Botulinum Toxin-A as well as retraining programs and ergonomic changes in the instrument. A long-term follow-up study was performed in 144 patients with musician's dystonia. The outcome was revealed on average 8.4 years after onset of symptoms. Outcome was assessed by patients' subjective rating of cumulative treatmentresponse and response to individual therapies. Seventy-seven patients (54% reported an alleviation of symptoms: 33% of the patients with Trihexyphenidyl, 49% with Botulinum Toxin, 50% with pedagogical retraining, 56% with unmonitored

  17. Immunogenic hyperthyroidism following radioiodine ablation of focal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boddenberg, B.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1993-01-01

    Immunogenic hyperthyroidism rarely develops after radioiodine elimination of focal autonomous thyroid tissue. We observed this phenomenon in 8 patients between 1989 and 1992. The occurrence of immunogenic hyperthyroidism shortly after elimination of autonomous nodules has not been studied nor is it properly understood. Most studies known today describe the development of autonomous nodules in the course of immunogenic hyperthyroidism or ignore the chronologic order of occurrence. The possibility that immunogenic hyperthyroidism may occur after radioiodine therapy of autonomous nodules, makes a consequent follow-up within the first year following radioiodine therapy mandatory. (orig.) [de

  18. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60

  19. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Rajat; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Behl, Rashi; Bhullar, Ramanpreet Kaur

    2012-04-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  20. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia masquerading as a residual cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD is a benign fibroosseous condition that can be seen in dentulous and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however, follow-up is essential due to the possibility that it can progress to a condition called florid cemento-osseous dysplasia. We report a case of FCOD of mandible in a 25-year-old female. Clinically, the lesion resembled periapical pathosis of odontogenic origin. An attempt has been made to discuss the clinical and histopathologic features along with differential diagnosis of cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  1. Slow Activity in Focal Epilepsy During Sleep and Wakefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrino, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to test differences between healthy subjects and patients with respect to slow wave activity during wakefulness and sleep. Methods Fifteen patients affected by nonlesional focal epilepsy originating within temporal areas and fourteen matched controls underwent a 24-hour EEG....... The effect was widespread for alpha band and above, while localized over the affected hemisphere for delta (sleep cycle 1, P = .006; sleep cycle 2, P = .008; sleep cycle 3, P = .017). The analysis of interhemispheric differences showed that the only frequency band stronger over the affected regions...

  2. Caso severo de manifestaciones bucales de la hiperplasia epitelial focal

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Harris Ricardo; Natalia Fortich Mesa

    2012-01-01

    La hiperplasia epitelial focal, conocida también como enfermedad de Heck, es una patología benigna que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples pápulas en la mucosa de la cavidad bucal; es producida por los subtipos 13 y 32 del virus del papiloma humano, aunque también se le relaciona con factores genéticos, inmunosupresión e higiene bucal deficiente pero con poco sustento científico; afecta principalmente a niños y adolescentes. Se reporta caso clínico de paciente femenina de 7 años de e...

  3. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  4. Subdural Empyema Presenting with Seizure, Confusion, and Focal Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Bruner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While sinusitis is a common ailment, intracranial suppurative complications of sinusitis are rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. The morbidity and mortality of intracranial complications of sinusitis have decreased significantly since the advent of antibiotics, but diseases such as subdural empyemas and intracranial abscesses still occur, and they require prompt diagnosis, treatment, and often surgical drainage to prevent death or long-term neurologic sequelae. We present a case of an immunocompetent adolescent male with a subdural empyema who presented with seizures,confusion, and focal arm weakness after a bout of sinusitis.

  5. Subdural Empyema Presenting with Seizure, Confusion, and Focal Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David I.; Littlejohn, Lanny; Pritchard, Amy

    2012-01-01

    While sinusitis is a common ailment, intracranial suppurative complications of sinusitis are rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. The morbidity and mortality of intracranial complications of sinusitis have decreased significantly since the advent of antibiotics, but diseases such as subdural empyemas and intracranial abscesses still occur, and they require prompt diagnosis, treatment, and often surgical drainage to prevent death or long-term neurologic sequelae. We present a case of an immunocompetent adolescent male with a subdural empyema who presented with seizures, confusion, and focal arm weakness after a bout of sinusitis. PMID:23358438

  6. Electrodiagnosis in the management of focal neuropathies: the "WOG" syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W F; Dellon, A L; Campbell, W W

    1994-11-01

    The role of electrodiagnosis in managing patients with focal neuropathies is discussed from the differing perspectives of a peripheral nerve surgeon and a practitioner of electrodiagnostic medicine. Both clinical evaluation and electrodiagnosis are useful methodologies, each having limitations. Dr. Dellon labels the overreliance on electrodiagnosis and the "WOG" (Word of God) syndrome, and describes its signs, symptoms, and treatment. Dr. Brown contends Dr. Dellon's crusade is misdirected. The exchange is an eloquent polemic on the virtues and foibles of these different approaches to evaluating peripheral nerve function and the imperative to practice them in a complementary rather than a contentious manner.

  7. Past Tense in Children with Focal Brain Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinopoulou, P.; Stavrakaki, S.; Manouilidou, C.; Zafeiriou, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 22 children with early left hemisphere (LHD) or right hemisphere (RHD) focal brain lesions (FL, n ¼ 14 LHD,\\ud n ¼ 8 RHD) were administered an English past tense elicitation test (M ¼ 6:5 years). Proportion correct and frequency of overregularization\\ud and zero-marking errors were compared to age-matched samples of children with specific language impairment (SLI,\\ud n ¼ 27) and with typical language development (TD, n ¼ 27). Similar rates of correct production and error patter...

  8. The immunological synapse: a focal point for endocytosis and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gillian M; Tsun, Andy; Stinchcombe, Jane C

    2010-05-03

    There are many different cells in the immune system. To mount an effective immune response, they need to communicate with each other. One way in which this is done is by the formation of immunological synapses between cells. Recent developments show that the immune synapse serves as a focal point for exocytosis and endocytosis, directed by centrosomal docking at the plasma membrane. In this respect, formation of the immunological synapse bears striking similarities to cilia formation and cytokinesis. These intriguing observations suggest that the centrosome may play a conserved role in designating a specialized area of membrane for localized endocytosis and exocytosis.

  9. Cosmetic Effect of Botulinum Toxin In Focal Hyperhydrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydrosis of axillae, palm and sole is not a very uncommon problem. It leads to great embarrassment and considerable emotional stress to the individuals. Botulinum toxins prevent the release of acetylcholine at nerve terminals, therefore, reduces sweat secretion. Six patients of axillary and 4 patients of palmer and planter hyperhydrosis were treated with botulinum toxin. All patients experienced relatively satisfactory reduction of hyperhydrosis for period ranging between 4-7 months. No adverse effects were observed. Botulinum toxin therefore can be considered as an effective treatment in focal hyperhydrosis.

  10. Radiofrequency Ablation Effectively Treated Focal Recurrence of Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Takuwa, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Masaki; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2018-02-01

    A 55-year-old man with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent multimodality treatment comprising induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and radiation therapy. After 2.5 years, focal recurrence occurred, with computed tomography revealing a tumor in the left cardiophrenic angle. Surgery was considered a problem for the patient because of the previous extrapleural pneumonectomy and difficult tumor location. Radiofrequency ablation was thus performed; the course was uneventful, and there was no recurrence. Radiofrequency ablation should be considered an option to treat recurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings

  12. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  13. Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with the risk of Henoch-Schönlein purpura/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiqiang; Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zongpei

    2015-04-01

    Association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP)/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) risk is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between eNOS gene polymorphism and HSP/HSPN susceptibility. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic database. Three articles were identified for the analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphism and HSPN/HSP risk. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was not associated with HSPN susceptibility and the risk of patients with HSP developing into HSPN. Interestingly, eNOS G894T T allele and GG genotype were associated with HSP susceptibility, but not the TT genotype. eNOS T786C TT genotype was associated with HSPN susceptibility, but not C allele and CC genotype. Furthermore, eNOS T786C gene polymorphism was not associated with HSP risk and the risk of patients with HSP developing into HSPN. In conclusion, eNOS T786C TT genotype was associated with and eNOS G894T T allele and GG genotype were associated with HSP susceptibility. However, more studies should be performed in the future.

  14. A clinico-pathological study of lupus nephritis based on the International Society of Nephrology-Renal Pathology Society 2003 classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Suchitha; Deka, Pallavi; Shetty, Manjunath Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a major complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal involvement is a major determinant of the prognosis of SLE. The histological classification of LN is a key factor in determining the renal survival of patients with LN. Prompt recognition and treatment of renal disease are important, as early response to therapy is correlated with better outcome and renal biopsy plays an important role in achieving this. The objective of this study was to correlate the clinical and laboratory findings with histopathological classes of LN as per the 2003 International Society of Nephrology-Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification system. Fifty-six patients with SLE, undergoing a renal biopsy for renal dysfunction were studied. The comparison of data from multiple groups was made by Pearson's Chi-square test and between two groups by independent samples t -test. The values of P renal biopsy. Since renal morphology may predict long-term prognosis, and no clinical or laboratory feature uniformly predicts prognosis, it is important to study the constellation of features in LN for better patient management.

  15. Changing patterns in clinical-histological presentation and renal outcome over the last five decades in a cohort of 499 patients with lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Gabriella; Vercelloni, Paolo Gilles; Quaglini, Silvana; Gatto, Mariele; Gianfreda, Davide; Sacchi, Lucia; Raffiotta, Francesca; Zen, Margherita; Costantini, Gloria; Urban, Maria Letizia; Pieruzzi, Federico; Messa, Piergiorgio; Vaglio, Augusto; Sinico, Renato Alberto; Doria, Andrea

    2018-05-05

    To evaluate changes in demographic, clinical and histological presentation, and prognosis of lupus nephritis (LN) over time. We studied a multicentre cohort of 499 patients diagnosed with LN from 1970 to 2016. The 46-year follow-up was subdivided into three periods (P): P1 1970-1985, P2 1986-2001 and P3 2002-2016, and patients accordingly grouped based on the year of LN diagnosis. Predictors of patient and renal survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate proportional hazards Cox regression analyses. Survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. A progressive increase in patient age at the time of LN diagnosis (ppresentation progressively decreased (pClinical presentation of LN has become less severe in the last years, leading to a better long-term renal survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis in children: A prospective cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Lv, Jing; Pang, Shuang; Bai, Xiaohong; Yuan, Fang; Wu, Yubin; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Guanqi; Zhang, Shaoqing

    2018-06-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) involves the renal impairment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and can easily relapse into life-threatening late nephropathy in severe cases. Although there is a lack of validated evidence for its effectiveness, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is one of the most commonly used methods in China to treat HSPN. It is thus need to report the protocol of a prospective cohort trial using CHM to investigate the effectiveness, safety and advantages for children with HSPN. This large, prospective, multicenter cohort study started in May 2015 in Shenyang. Six hundred children diagnosed with HSPN were recruited from 3 institutions and are followed-up every 2 to 4 weeks till May 2020. Detailed information of participants includes general information, history of treatment, physical examination, and symptoms of TCM is taken face-to-face at baseline. This study has received ethical approval from the ethics committee of institutional review board of the Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (No.2016CS(KT)-002-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02878018.

  17. Significance of changes of the plasma levels of nitricoxide, endothelin and atrial natriuretic peptide in patients with lupus nephritis complicated with renal failure and receiving hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Shen Dongbo; Li Yijin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of plasma levels of nitricoxide(NO), endothelin (ET) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) before and after hemodialysis in lupus nephritis(LN) patients with renal failure. Methods: Plasma NO (with biochemistry) and ET, ANP(with RIA) levels were measured in 32 lupus patients with renal failure both before and after a course of hemodialysis and 32 controls. Results: The plasma levels of NO, ET and ANP in the 32 LN patients with renal failure were significant higher than those in controls (P<0.05) before hemodialysis, the NO, ET and ANP levels were positively correlated with the BUN and creatinine levels. After a course of hemodialysis, plasma NO and ANP decreased significantly (P<0.05), but no significant changes were observed in plasma ET levels. Conclusion: The plasma level of NO, ET and ANP could help to assess the damage of renal function and hemodialysis could lower the level of NO and ANP in LN patients with renal failure. (authors)

  18. Post-marketing surveillance study of the long-term use of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: 2-Year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Okada, Kenya; Yoshida, Hisao; Yagi, Nobuyuki

    2018-01-01

    To understand the status of mizoribine use in patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to collect safety- and efficacy-related data on 2-year treatment with mizoribine. A continuous survey was conducted between March 2010 and July 2015. The analysis set included 559 patients (mean age 39.5 years, females 82.6%, mean duration of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 8.4 years, mean duration of LN 5.9 years). Renal function was satisfactory for 6 months, but worsened from 12 months, with significant worsening at 24 months. By the ACR 2006 remission criteria (eGFR >60), at 24 months, 26.5% of patients achieved complete remission, and 63.3% achieved complete or partial remission. The urine protein to creatinine ratio decreased significantly. The SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 score decreased significantly at 12 and 24 months. Overall, 98 (17.5%) patients experienced 124 adverse drug reactions (ADRs); 3.6% experienced serious ADRs. Mizoribine was used with a steroid in 99.3% and an immunosuppressant in 51.2%; tacrolimus was used in 43.8%. The oral steroid dosage decreased from baseline to 24 months. The incidence of ADRs was not significantly different with concomitant tacrolimus use. The results suggest that long-term mizoribine is safe and effective, even when used with tacrolimus.

  19. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  20. VERIFICATION OF THE SENTINEL-4 FOCAL PLANE SUBSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Williges

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system which is designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe. The German Aerospace Center (DLR in Berlin, Germany conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS on behalf of Airbus Defense and Space GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany. The FPS consists, inter alia, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs, one for the UV-VIS spectral range (305 nm … 500 nm, the second for NIR (750 nm … 775 nm. In this publication, we will present in detail the opto-mechanical laboratory set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM which will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM verification. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests performed with an integrating sphere as homogenous light source. The FPAs have mainly to be operated at 215 K ± 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC for the test accomplishment. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Furthermore selected test analyses and results will be presented, showing that the Sentinel-4 FPS meets specifications.

  1. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

    2015-01-01

    Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

  2. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-coil design with improved focality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, P.; Lee, E. G.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique for neuromodulation that can be used as a non-invasive therapy for various neurological disorders. In TMS, a time varying magnetic field generated from an electromagnetic coil placed on the scalp is used to induce an electric field inside the brain. TMS coil geometry plays an important role in determining the focality and depth of penetration of the induced electric field responsible for stimulation. Clinicians and basic scientists are interested in stimulating a localized area of the brain, while minimizing the stimulation of surrounding neural networks. In this paper, a novel coil has been proposed, namely Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) with an improved focality over the commercial Figure-8 coil. Finite element simulations were conducted with both the QBC and the conventional Figure-8 coil. The two coil's stimulation profiles were assessed with 50 anatomically realistic MRI derived head models. The coils were positioned on the vertex and the scalp over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to stimulate the brain. Computer modeling of the coils has been done to determine the parameters of interest-volume of stimulation, maximum electric field, location of maximum electric field and area of stimulation across all 50 head models for both coils.

  3. Caso severo de manifestaciones bucales de la hiperplasia epitelial focal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Harris Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La hiperplasia epitelial focal, conocida también como enfermedad de Heck, es una patología benigna que se caracteriza por la presencia de múltiples pápulas en la mucosa de la cavidad bucal; es producida por los subtipos 13 y 32 del virus del papiloma humano, aunque también se le relaciona con factores genéticos, inmunosupresión e higiene bucal deficiente pero con poco sustento científico; afecta principalmente a niños y adolescentes. Se reporta caso clínico de paciente femenina de 7 años de edad, remitida al servicio de Estomatología y Cirugía Oral de la Corporación Universitaria Rafael Núñez por presentar múltiples pápulas en mucosa bucal, de tamaño variable, asintomáticas, 8 meses de evolución, relacionadas clínicas e histológicamente con hiperplasia epitelial focal.

  4. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10{sup −7} A/cm{sup 2} at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications.

  5. High operating temperature interband cascade focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Z.-B.; Godoy, S. E.; Kim, H. S.; Schuler-Sandy, T.; Montoya, J. A.; Krishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the initial demonstration of mid-infrared interband cascade (IC) photodetector focal plane arrays with multiple-stage/junction design. The merits of IC photodetectors include low noise and efficient photocarrier extraction, even for zero-bias operation. By adopting enhanced electron barrier design and a total absorber thickness of 0.7 μm, the 5-stage IC detectors show very low dark current (1.10 × 10 −7 A/cm 2 at −5 mV and 150 K). Even with un-optimized fabrication and standard commercial (mis-matched) read-out circuit technology, infrared images are obtained by the 320 × 256 IC focal plane array up to 180 K with f/2.3 optics. The minimum noise equivalent temperature difference of 28 mK is obtained at 120 K. These initial results indicate great potential of IC photodetectors, particularly for high operating temperature applications

  6. Multivariate analysis of magnetic resonance imaging of focal hepatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Suemitsu, Ichizou; Sei, Tetsurou; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    A total of 124 lesions from 1 to 6 cm in diameter, including 31 cavernous hemangiomas, 32 metastases and 61 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were analyzed to study the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.5 Tesla to differentiate focal hepatic lesions on the basis of qualitative criteria. Each focal hepatic lesion was assessed for shape, internal architecture and signal intensity relative to normal liver parenchyma. While all cavernous hemangiomas and metastases except one lesion could be detected, detection rate of HCC was significantly inferior to that of the other two diseases. A tumor capsule and a hyperintense focus on T 1 -weighted images were demonstrated in only HCC lesions in strong contrast with the other two diseases; however, metastases with slow-growing characteristics or subacute hematoma may appear as similar images. Cavernous hemangiomas appeared markedly hyperintense on T 2 -weighted images in 23 of 31 lesions, but one metastasis and one HCC had similar images. A multivariate analysis of several MRI resulted in the following mean discriminant scores: cavernous hemangioma, -1.2652; metastasis, 0.1830; and HCC, 0.7138. It appeared to be possible to differentiate the three diseases with 84.4 percent accuracy. (author)

  7. Verification of the Sentinel-4 focal plane subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williges, Christian; Uhlig, Mathias; Hilbert, Stefan; Rossmann, Hannes; Buchwinkler, Kevin; Babben, Steffen; Sebastian, Ilse; Hohn, Rüdiger; Reulke, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel-4 payload is a multi-spectral camera system, designed to monitor atmospheric conditions over Europe from a geostationary orbit. The German Aerospace Center, DLR Berlin, conducted the verification campaign of the Focal Plane Subsystem (FPS) during the second half of 2016. The FPS consists, of two Focal Plane Assemblies (FPAs), two Front End Electronics (FEEs), one Front End Support Electronic (FSE) and one Instrument Control Unit (ICU). The FPAs are designed for two spectral ranges: UV-VIS (305 nm - 500 nm) and NIR (750 nm - 775 nm). In this publication, we will present in detail the set-up of the verification campaign of the Sentinel-4 Qualification Model (QM). This set up will also be used for the upcoming Flight Model (FM) verification, planned for early 2018. The FPAs have to be operated at 215 K +/- 5 K, making it necessary to exploit a thermal vacuum chamber (TVC) for the test accomplishment. The test campaign consists mainly of radiometric tests. This publication focuses on the challenge to remotely illuminate both Sentinel-4 detectors as well as a reference detector homogeneously over a distance of approximately 1 m from outside the TVC. Selected test analyses and results will be presented.

  8. O uso do grupo focal em pesquisa qualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Beatriz Ressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar el uso del grupo focal como técnica de recolección de datos en una tesis de doctorado, resultado de una investigación cualitativa. El grupo focal utiliza sesiones grupales de discusión, teniendo como foco central un tópico específico a ser debatido por los participantes. La investigación focalizó la temática de la sexualidad en la asistencia de enfermería, bajo una perspectiva cultural, siendo desarrollada con dos grupos de enfermeras: docentes y asistenciales. Comprendió ocho encuentros, y cada uno fue planeado por separado. La evaluación del proceso se realizó por medio de entrevistas con las enfermeras, destacando como puntos positivos la conducción hacia el pensamiento crítico y al proceso de desalineación; y la posibilidad de que esta técnica revele significados singulares y a que ellos se relacionen desde el punto de vista de los sujetos investigados. Esa técnica facilitó el abordaje de la sexualidad, desconstruyendo y reconstruyendo conceptos y buscando respuestas para las inquietudes del tema.

  9. Differentiation of focal liver lesions by contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, P.; Ehrenheim, C.

    1989-01-01

    47 patients with liver tumours (haemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular carcinoma) underwent MRI of the liver before and after i.v. injection of 0.2 ml./kg. gadolinium-DTPA in addition to other imaging methods. The demarcation of focal nodular hyperplasia is not influenced by use of the contrast agent as it almost behaves like surrounding normal liver tissue, thus only indirectly facilitating its identification. With regard to liver haemangiomas that show the most intensive uptake of gadolinium-DTPA, the contrast enhanced image does not reach to contrast and sensitivity of a native T 2 -weighted SE image, especially in cases of small haemangiomas. The contrast agent is helpful, however, in the recognition of large cavernous haemangiomas that are partially fibrotic or thrombotic. Emphasis is given to the contrast agent in hepatomas: gadolinium-DTPA presents a pattern of uptake and distribution frequently found in hepatocellular carcinoma providing additional information on the delineation of internal tumour details. (orig.) [de

  10. Zinc translocation accelerates infarction after mild transient focal ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-M; Zipfel, G J; Park, K H; He, Y Y; Hsu, C Y; Choi, D W

    2002-01-01

    Excess release of chelatable zinc (Zn(2+)) from central synaptic vesicles may contribute to the pathogenesis of selective neuronal cell death following transient forebrain ischemia, but a role in neurodegeneration after focal ischemia has not been defined. Adult male Long-Evans rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min followed by reperfusion developed delayed cerebral infarction reaching completion 3 days after the insult. One day after the insult, many degenerating cerebral neurons exhibited increased intracellular Zn(2+), and some labeled with the antibody against activated caspase-3. I.c.v. administration of the Zn(2+) chelator, EDTA saturated with equimolar Ca(2+) (CaEDTA), 15 min prior to ischemia attenuated subsequent Zn(2+) translocation into cortical neurons, and reduced infarct volume measured 3 days after ischemia. Although the protective effect of CaEDTA at this endpoint was substantial (about 70% infarct reduction), it was lost when insult severity was increased (from 30 to 60 min MCAO), or when infarct volume was measured at a much later time point (14 days instead of 3 days after ischemia). These data suggest that toxic Zn(2+) translocation, from presynaptic terminals to post-synaptic cell bodies, may accelerate the development of cerebral infarction following mild transient focal ischemia.

  11. Focal neuronal loss, reversible subcortical focal T2 hypointensity in seizures with a nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavendra, S.; Ashalatha, R.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.; Kesavadas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging in seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) is considered normal. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in four patients with NKH and seizures. We prospectively evaluated clinical and radiological abnormalities in four patients with NKH during the period March 2004 to December 2005. All patients presented with seizures, either simple or complex partial seizures or epilepsia partialis continua. Two of them had transient hemianopia. MRI showed subcortical T2 hypointensity in the occipital white matter and in or around the central sulcus (two patients each), T2 hyperintensity of the overlying cortex (two patients), focal overlying cortical enhancement (three patients) and bilateral striatal hyperintensity (one patient). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed in three patients showed restricted diffusion. The ictal semiology and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings correlated with the MRI abnormalities. On clinical recovery, the subcortical T2 hypointensity and striatal hyperintensity reversed in all patients. The initial cortical change evolved to FLAIR hyperintensity suggestive of focal cortical gliosis. The radiological differential diagnosis considered initially included encephalitis, malignancy and hemorrhagic infarct rendering a diagnostic dilemma. We identified subcortical T2 hypointensity rather than hyperintensity as a characteristic feature of seizures associated with NKH. Only very few similar reports exist in literature. Reversible bilateral striatal T2 hyperintensity in NKH has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. (orig.)

  12. Focal neuronal loss, reversible subcortical focal T2 hypointensity in seizures with a nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavendra, S.; Ashalatha, R.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, C. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-04-15

    Neuroimaging in seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH) is considered normal. We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in four patients with NKH and seizures. We prospectively evaluated clinical and radiological abnormalities in four patients with NKH during the period March 2004 to December 2005. All patients presented with seizures, either simple or complex partial seizures or epilepsia partialis continua. Two of them had transient hemianopia. MRI showed subcortical T2 hypointensity in the occipital white matter and in or around the central sulcus (two patients each), T2 hyperintensity of the overlying cortex (two patients), focal overlying cortical enhancement (three patients) and bilateral striatal hyperintensity (one patient). Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed in three patients showed restricted diffusion. The ictal semiology and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings correlated with the MRI abnormalities. On clinical recovery, the subcortical T2 hypointensity and striatal hyperintensity reversed in all patients. The initial cortical change evolved to FLAIR hyperintensity suggestive of focal cortical gliosis. The radiological differential diagnosis considered initially included encephalitis, malignancy and hemorrhagic infarct rendering a diagnostic dilemma. We identified subcortical T2 hypointensity rather than hyperintensity as a characteristic feature of seizures associated with NKH. Only very few similar reports exist in literature. Reversible bilateral striatal T2 hyperintensity in NKH has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. (orig.)

  13. Hiperceratose focal acral associada à hipocromia de dermatóglifos Focal acral hyperkeratosis with hypochromic dermatoglyphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rheingantz da Cunha Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hiperceratose focal acral é dermatose rara caracterizada por pápulas ceratóticas acrais que afetam preferencialmente as superfícies marginais das mãos e dos pés, pertencendo ao grupo das hiperceratoses marginais. Apresentamos variante inédita de mulher de 45 anos de idade, branca, dona-de-casa, sem história familiar, com lesões ceratóticas papulosas localizadas nos pés e hipocromia de dermatóglifos na região afetada. Histologicamente apresentou hiperortoceratose, desnível da epiderme (degrau, acantose e hipergranulose. Os tratamentos com ceratolíticos tópicos foram ineficientes, de forma semelhante aos casos descritos na literatura atual.Focal acral hyperkeratosis is a rare condition, characterized by acral keratotic papules that preferably affect hand and foot surfaces, and are included in the spectrum of marginal papular keratodermas. We report an unpublished variant of this condition, the case of a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with acral keratotic papular lesions and hypochromic dermatoglyphics in the feet. Histological examination revealed orthohyperkeratosis, depression of the epidermis, acanthosis and hypergranulosis. Topical treatments with keratolytics were ineffective, similarly to previously described cases.

  14. 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaishi, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Fujino, Osamu; Kamayachi, Satoshi; Fujita, Takehisa; Enokido, Hisashi; Komatsuzaki, Hideki; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Hirayama, Tsunenori

    1995-01-01

    The usefulness of 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.)

  15. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates: Still fabulous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Możejko-Ciesielska, Justyna; Kiewisz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated as carbon and energy storage materials under limited growth conditions in the presence of excess carbon sources. They have been developed as biomaterials with unique properties for the past many years being considered as a potential substitute for conventional non-degradable plastics. Due to the increasing concern towards global climate change, depleting petroleum resource and problems with an utilization of a growing number of synthetic plastics, PHAs have gained much more attention from industry and research. These environmentally friendly microbial polymers have great potential in biomedical, agricultural, and industrial applications. However, their production on a large scale is still limited. This paper describes the backgrounds of PHAs and discussed the current state of knowledge on the polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ability of bacteria to convert different carbon sources to PHAs, the opportunities and challenges of their introduction to global market as valuable renewable products have been also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Energetics of bacterial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Zehnder, A.J.B.

    1990-01-01

    For the description of bacterial adhesion phenomena two different physico-chemical approaches are available. The first one, based on a surface Gibbs energy balance, assumes intimate contact between the interacting surfaces. The second approach, based on colloid chemical theories (DLVO theory), allows for two types of adhesion: 1) secondary minimum adhesion, which is often weak and reversible, and 2) irreversible primary minimum adhesion. In the secondary minimum adhesion a thin water film remains present between the interacting surface. The merits of both approaches are discussed in this paper. In addition, the methods available to measure the physico-chemical surface characteristics of bacteria and the influence of adsorbing (in)organic compounds, extracellular polymers and cell surface appendages on adhesion are summarized. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 50 refs

  17. Biosensors of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlage, Robert S; Tillmann, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Biosensors are devices which utilize both an electrical component (transducer) and a biological component to study an environment. They are typically used to examine biological structures, organisms and processes. The field of biosensors has now become so large and varied that the technology can often seem impenetrable. Yet the principles which underlie the technology are uncomplicated, even if the details of the mechanisms are elusive. In this review we confine our analysis to relatively current advancements in biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells. This includes biosensors which rely on an added labeled component and biosensors which do not have a labeled component and instead detect the binding event or bound structure on the transducer. Methods to concentrate the bacteria prior to biosensor analysis are also described. The variety of biosensor types and their actual and potential uses are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome.......Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par...

  19. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...... the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits...... and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions. Recent technological advances have enabled total diversity analysis of highly complex and diverse microbial communities...