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Sample records for focal areas loaded

  1. "Short-term time prediction" of large EQs by the use of "Large Scale Piezoelectricity" generated by the focal areas loaded with excess stress load

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2008-01-01

    In this work, it is demonstrated that the Earth's preseismic electric field, which is registered by a pair of electrodes in contact to the ground surface at certain distance from the epicentral area, corresponds to the gradient of the total field generated in the focal area as a function of time and distance from it. The original form of the generated preseismic field follows closely the theoretical piezoelectric potential form. The later is obtained after integration in time of the original registered potential grad data values. Consequently, the time of occurrence of the imminent earthquake (collapsing of the rock formation) is estimated by the classical laws of rock fracturing based on theoretical Rock Mechanics. The methodology has been tested on the grad potential data, registered in Greece, before four large EQs which took place in the regional area as follows: Izmit, Turkey EQ (M = 7.8R, 17th August, 1999), Milos, Greece EQ (M = 5.6R, 21st May, 2002), Kythira Greece EQ (M = 6.9R, 8th January, 2006) and...

  2. Characterization of focal muscle compression under impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. J.; Sory, D. R.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern wars over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome of the extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia. A rare disease in our area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael; Toro-Rojas, Mariano; Ceballos-Salobreña, Alejandro; Aparicio-Soria, Jose Luis; Fuentes-Vaamonde, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, asymptomatic disease, occurring with very low frequency within our population. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue, and less frequently on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. We present the clinical case of a 9-year-old Saharan girl with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to a focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  4. Isolation of speech area from focal brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, J; Regli, F; Assal, G

    1985-01-01

    A patient with atrial fibrillation and internal carotid artery occlusion developed mixed transcortical aphasia. The CT scan showed two recent distinct infarcts in the dominant hemisphere, one in the precentral artery area (pial artery infarct) and one in the borderzone area between the posterior and middle cerebral arteries territories (watershed infarct). The perisylvian speech areas were spared, but probably disconnected from other areas by the infarcts. The syndrome of isolation of speech area may be caused by vascular conditions which are able to produce simultaneous pial artery and watershed infarcts, and is not necessarily related to more extensive processes of the brain.

  5. Focal Areas for Measuring the Human Well-Being Impacts of a Conservation Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sanjayan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Within conservation, the need to measure the impacts on people from conservation initiatives such as projects and programs is growing, but understanding and measuring the multidimensional impacts on human well-being from conservation initiatives is complex. To understand the constituent components of human well-being and identify which components of well-being are most common, we analyzed 31 known indices for measuring human well-being. We found 11 focal areas shared by two or more indices for measuring human well-being, and the focal areas of living standards, health, education, social cohesion, security, environment, and governance were in at least 14 of the 31 human well-being indices. We examined each of the common focal areas and assessed its relevance to measuring the human well-being impacts of a conservation initiative. We then looked for existing indices that include the relevant focal areas and recommend the use of Stiglitz et al. (2009—a framework designed to measure economic performance and social progress—as a starting place for understanding and selecting human well-being focal areas suitable for measuring the impacts on people from a conservation initiative.

  6. Abnormal Brain Areas Common to the Focal Epilepsies: Multivariate Pattern Analysis of fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mangor; Curwood, Evan K; Vaughan, David N; Omidvarnia, Amir H; Jackson, Graeme D

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with focal epilepsy have heterogeneous sites of seizure origin. However, there may be brain regions that are common to most cases of intractable focal epilepsy. In this study, we aim to identify these using multivariate analysis of task-free functional MRI. Fourteen subjects with extratemporal focal epilepsy and 14 healthy controls were included in the study. Task-free functional MRI data were used to calculate voxel-wise regional connectivity with regional homogeneity (ReHo) and weighted degree centrality (DCw), in addition to regional activity using fraction of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Multivariate pattern analysis was applied to each of these metrics to discriminate brain areas that differed between focal epilepsy subjects and healthy controls. ReHo and DCw classified focal epilepsy subjects from healthy controls with high accuracy (89.3% and 75%, respectively). However, fALFF did not significantly classify patients from controls. Increased regional network activity in epilepsy subjects was seen in the ipsilateral piriform cortex, insula, and thalamus, in addition to the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and lateral frontal cortices. Decreased regional connectivity was observed in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as lateral temporal cortices. Patients with extratemporal focal epilepsy have common areas of abnormality (ReHo and DCw measures), including the ipsilateral piriform cortex, temporal neocortex, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. ReHo shows additional increase in the "salience network" that includes anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. DCw showed additional effects in the ipsilateral thalamus and striatum. These brain areas may represent key regional network properties underlying focal epilepsy.

  7. The design and application of large area intensive lens array focal spots measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingzhen; Yao, Shun; Yang, Guanghui; Dai, Mingchong; Wang, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) modules are getting thinner and using smaller cells now days. Correspondingly, large area intensive lens arrays with smaller unit dimension and shorter focal length are wanted. However, the size and power center of lens array focal spots usually differ from the design value and are hard to measure, especially under large area situation. It is because the machining error and deformation of material of the lens array are hard to simulate in the optical design process. Thus the alignment error between solar cells and focal spots in the module assembly process will be hard to control. Under this kind of situation, the efficiency of CPV module with thinner body and smaller cells is much lower than expected. In this paper, a design of large area lens array focal spots automatic measurement system is presented, as well as its prototype application results. In this system, a four-channel parallel light path and its corresponding image capture and process modules are designed. These modules can simulate focal spots under sunlight and have the spots image captured and processed using charge coupled devices and certain gray level algorithm. Thus the important information of focal spots such as spot size and location will be exported. Motion control module based on grating scale signal and interval measurement method are also employed in this system in order to get test results with high speed and high precision on large area lens array no less than 1m×0.8m. The repeatability of the system prototype measurement is +/-10μm with a velocity of 90 spot/min. Compared to the original module assembled using coordinates from optical design, modules assembled using data exported from the prototype is 18% higher in output power, reaching a conversion efficiency of over 31%. This system and its design can be used in the focal spot measurement of planoconvex lens array and Fresnel lens array, as well as other kinds of large area lens array application

  8. Thermography Examination of Abdominal Area Skin Temperatures in Individuals With and Without Focal-Onset Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hollis H; Cayce, Charles Thomas; Herrin, Jeph

    Early osteopathic theory and practice, and the work of the medical intuitive Edgar Cayce suggested that the abdominal areas of individuals with epilepsy would manifest "cold spots." The etiology for this phenomenon was thought to be abdominal adhesions caused by inflammation and viscero-somatic reflexes caused by adhesions or injury to visceral or musculoskeletal system structures. Indeed, until that advent of electroencephalography in the 1930s, medical practice regarding epilepsy focused on abdominal neural and visceral structures. Following two hypotheses were formulated to evaluate any abdominal temperature phenomena: (1) an abdominal quadrant division analysis would find one or more quadrants "colder" in the focal-onset epilepsy group (ICD9-CM 345.4 and 345.5) compared to controls. (2) Total abdominal areas of individuals with focal-onset epilepsy wound be colder than a control group.

  9. Power System Aggregate Load Area Modelling by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Wei; Ji-Hong Wang; Q.H.Wu; Nan Lu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for deriving a power system aggregate load area model (ALAM). In this approach, an equivalent area load model is derived to represent the load characters for a particular area load of a power system network. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is employed to identify the unknown parameters of the generalised system, ALAM, based on the system measurement directly using a one-step scheme. Simulation studies are carried out for an IEEE 14-Bus power system and an IEEE 57-Bus power system. Simulation results show that the ALAM can represent the area load characters accurately under different operational conditions and at different power system states.

  10. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  11. Changes of Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in Penumbral and Core Area during Focal Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUZhen; ZHOUJian-ping; WUWen-zhong; ZHANGYong-jie; HANQun-ying; WANGHe-ming

    2004-01-01

    Objecivee: To study the changes of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in penumbral and core area during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion, and to explore the therapeutic window of focal cerebral ischemia. Methods:The middle cerebral artery of rats was occluded for 15, 30,60,90 and 120 min by an inraluminal filament respectively,and recirculation was instituted for 24 h. The changes of NOS activity in ischemic core area(parietal cortex and caudoputamen) and penumbral area ( frontal cortex)were examined after focal cerebral ischemla and reperfusion using NADPH-d histochemistry, technique. Results. The NOS activity of the ischemic penumbral area peaked at 60 min while the ischemic core area peaked at 30 min then declined at 90-120 rain sharply. Conclusion: NOS takes part in cerebral ischemic damage during focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The NOS activity of the ischemic penmnbral area is different from the ischemic core area. The peak time of the penumbral area is delayed comparing with the core area. The data suggest that the best time to apply NOS inhibitor is within 30 min in ischemic core area, and 60 rain in penumbral area.

  12. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

  13. Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Frost, Thomas P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2016-08-19

    Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and accompanying data releases are the products of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The assessment was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of some 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The need for this assessment arose from the decision by the Secretary of the Interior to pursue the protection of large tracts of contiguous habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. One component of the Department of the Interior plan to protect the habitat areas includes withdrawing selected lands from future exploration and development of mineral and energy resources, including copper, gold, silver, rare earth elements, and other commodities used in the U.S. economy. The assessment evaluates the potential for locatable minerals such as gold, copper, and lithium and describes the nature and occurrence of leaseable and salable minerals for seven Sagebrush Focal Areas and additional lands in Nevada (“Nevada additions”) delineated by BLM. Supporting data are available in a series of USGS data releases describing mineral occurrences (the USGS Mineral Deposit Database or “USMIN”), oil and gas production and well status, previous mineral-resource assessments that covered parts of the areas studied, and a compilation of mineral-use cases based on data provided by BLM, as well as results of the locatable mineral-resource assessment in a geographic information system. The present assessment of mineral-resource potential will contribute to a better understanding of the economic and environmental trade-offs that would result from closing approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands to mineral entry.

  14. Preliminary research to determine stress districts from focal mechanism solutions in Southwest China and its adjacent area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The method of sliding direction fitting is used to determine stress districts, taking the shear stress directions and ratios of shear stress to stress on fault planes given by focal mechanism solutions as the criteria to select focal mechanism solutions of one region and sorting out the earthquakes controlled by different tectonic stress fields, and then determining the stress districts from epicenter distribution of earthquakes. We call this method as step by step convergence method. By inversion analyzing of 297 focal mechanism solutions, we consider that Southwest China and its adjacent area can be divided into 5 stress districts, and we worked out directions of the three principal stresses and values of shape factor φin 5 stress districts.

  15. Nonpoint source pollution loading from an undistributed tropic forest area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hua; Wen, Ching-Gung; Huang, Chia-Hui; Chang, Shui-Ping; Lee, Chih-Sheng

    2008-11-01

    Water quality and unit nonpoint sources (NPS) pollution load from a forest area were studied in a mountainous watershed in Taiwan. The flow rates were measured with rectangular weirs and samples taken for water quality analysis in both non-rainy and rainy days for 2 years. The subroutine of the Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN was used to simulate runoff for additional 3 years. Total annual loads of various water quality parameters were then estimated by a regression model. Most of the parameter concentrations are higher during the rainy days; their values are typically higher as compared to data from other undisturbed forest areas. Nevertheless, the concentration ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to TN or PO4(3-) -P to TP shows TN or TP no correlations with the flow rates, whereas the concentrations of SS and TP are positively correlated with the flow rate. The fluctuation of annual load from this watershed is significant. For example, six major events of the entire year, for which the total duration is merely 6.4 days, contribute 42% of the annual precipitation and at least 40% of the annual NPS loads. The management for controlling the NPS pollution from this forest watershed is discussed.

  16. Domestic Wastewater Quality and Pollutant Loadings from Urban Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are important spawning and nursery ground for fish and prawns. However, wetlands have been reported to be polluted in different parts of the world. One of the pollution sources is domestic wastewater. Therefore, in this study, domestic wastewater quality was studied at three major housing areas. Samplings were conducted in three trips. Results showed that pH ranged from 6.64 to 7.31 and temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.7 oC. DO values were low, that is, below 3.5 mg/L for all trips at all areas studied indicating that it was not suitable for aquatic life. Nutrients such as ammoniacal nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus of the housing areas ranged from 11.1 to 17.2 mg/L and 1.05 to 2.43 mg/L respectively. Biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids concentrations at all the housing areas exceeded the Standard B maximum permitted values of Effluent Discharge Standard of Environmental Quality Act 1974. Loadings of pollutants from housing areas in Kuching were computed. This study shows that domestic wastewater was low in DO, high in oxygen demand, high in solids and nutrients thus loading the rivers with pollutants. Therefore, domestic wastewater must be treated before being channeled to the adjacent water bodies to avoid eutrophication in the receiving water and to recover nutrients.

  17. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  18. Key focal areas for bridging the fields of aging and disability: findings from the growing older with a disability conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishaya Naidoo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based upon research presented at the 2011 Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology (FICCDAT-and specifically the Growing Older with a Disability (GOWD conference, this paper identifies areas where bridging building between aging and disability is needed to support older adults aging into or with disabilities. Five focal areas emerged: 1 The Need to Forward Bridging Between Aging and Disability Sectors, 2 Theoretical Frameworks of Individual Aging that Facilitate Bridging, 3 Bridging through Consumer Participation and Involvement, 4 Bridging Through Knowledge Transfer and 5 Bridging Opportunities in Long-Term Supports and Services and Assistive Technologies. Discussion of themes is provided within both international and Canadian contexts, reflecting the interests of FICCDAT and GOWD organizers in discussing how to improve bridging in Canada. Findings from this report form the basis of the Toronto Declaration on Bridging Aging and Disability Policy, Practice, and Research.

  19. Calibration of LRFD Format for Steel Jacket Offshore Platform in China Offshore Area (2): Load, Resistance and Load Combination Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dao-cheng; DUAN Zhong-dong; OU Jin-ping

    2006-01-01

    Adopting the load and resistance factor design format, the design method for steel jacket platform structures is developed. Firstly, the limit state equations and design format for steel jacket platform structures are introduced. Then, the ratio of live load effect to dead load effect is estimated. The target reliabilities for design of offshore structures in China offshore area are calibrated by past practice in API RP2A-WSD code. The load and resistance factors are optimized by minimizing the difference within the target reliability and the resulting reliability over the range of load effect ratios. Considering the concurrence of different loads, load combination factors are obtained through an optimization process, and the relation between the load combination factor and load correlation coefficient is established. Finally, the design formulae for steel jacket structures in China offshore area are recommended.

  20. Large Area Nondestructive Evaluation of a Fatigue Loaded Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2016-01-01

    Large area nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspections are required for fatigue testing of composite structures to track damage initiation and growth. Of particular interest is the progression of damage leading to ultimate failure to validate damage progression models. In this work, passive thermography and acoustic emission NDE were used to track damage growth up to failure of a composite three-stringer panel. Fourteen acoustic emission sensors were placed on the composite panel. The signals from the array were acquired simultaneously and allowed for acoustic emission location. In addition, real time thermal data of the composite structure were acquired during loading. Details are presented on the mapping of the acoustic emission locations directly onto the thermal imagery to confirm areas of damage growth leading to ultimate failure. This required synchronizing the acoustic emission and thermal data with the applied loading. In addition, processing of the thermal imagery which included contrast enhancement, removal of optical barrel distortion and correction of angular rotation before mapping the acoustic event locations are discussed.

  1. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  2. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  3. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  4. Homeostatic-like plasticity of the primary motor hand area is impaired in focal hand dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, Angelo; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Bagnato, Sergio; Morgante, Francesca; Sant'Angelo, Antonino; Romano, Marcello; Crupi, Domenica; Girlanda, Paolo; Rothwell, John C; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2005-08-01

    The excitability of inhibitory circuits in patients with writer's cramp is reduced at multiple levels within the sensorimotor system, including the primary motor hand area (M1). Although this may play a major role in the pathophysiology of writer's cramp, it is still unclear what factors may cause the imbalance between inhibition and excitation to arise. One possibility is that homeostatic mechanisms that keep cortical excitability within a normal physiological range are impaired. In eight patients with writer's cramp and eight healthy age-matched controls, we combined low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) to probe regional homeostatic plasticity of the left M1. Confirming our previous study (Siebner et al., J Neurosci 2004; 24: 3379-85), 'facilitatory' preconditioning of the M1 with anodal TDCS enhanced the inhibitory effect of subsequent 1 Hz rTMS on corticospinal excitability. Conversely, 'inhibitory' preconditioning with cathodal TDCS reversed the after effect of 1 Hz rTMS, producing an increase in corticospinal excitability. The results were quite different in patients with writer's cramp. Following preconditioning with TDCS, 1 Hz rTMS induced no consistent changes in corticospinal excitability, indicating a loss of the normal 'homeostatic' response pattern. In addition, the normal inhibitory effect of preconditioning with cathodal TDCS was absent. The present data suggest that homeostatic mechanisms that stabilize excitability levels within a useful dynamic range are impaired in patients with writer's cramp. We propose that a faulty homeostatic response to acute increases in corticospinal excitability favours maladaptive motor plasticity. The role of homeostatic-like plasticity in the pathophysiology of task-specific dystonias warrants further study.

  5. An iterative and targeted sampling design informed by habitat suitability models for detecting focal plant species over extensive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ophelia; Zachmann, Luke J; Sesnie, Steven E; Olsson, Aaryn D; Dickson, Brett G

    2014-01-01

    Prioritizing areas for management of non-native invasive plants is critical, as invasive plants can negatively impact plant community structure. Extensive and multi-jurisdictional inventories are essential to prioritize actions aimed at mitigating the impact of invasions and changes in disturbance regimes. However, previous work devoted little effort to devising sampling methods sufficient to assess the scope of multi-jurisdictional invasion over extensive areas. Here we describe a large-scale sampling design that used species occurrence data, habitat suitability models, and iterative and targeted sampling efforts to sample five species and satisfy two key management objectives: 1) detecting non-native invasive plants across previously unsampled gradients, and 2) characterizing the distribution of non-native invasive plants at landscape to regional scales. Habitat suitability models of five species were based on occurrence records and predictor variables derived from topography, precipitation, and remotely sensed data. We stratified and established field sampling locations according to predicted habitat suitability and phenological, substrate, and logistical constraints. Across previously unvisited areas, we detected at least one of our focal species on 77% of plots. In turn, we used detections from 2011 to improve habitat suitability models and sampling efforts in 2012, as well as additional spatial constraints to increase detections. These modifications resulted in a 96% detection rate at plots. The range of habitat suitability values that identified highly and less suitable habitats and their environmental conditions corresponded to field detections with mixed levels of agreement. Our study demonstrated that an iterative and targeted sampling framework can address sampling bias, reduce time costs, and increase detections. Other studies can extend the sampling framework to develop methods in other ecosystems to provide detection data. The sampling methods

  6. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  7. 3patial Load Balancing in Nide-Area Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kambiz Azarian; Ravindra Patwardhan; Chris Lott; Donna Ghosh; Radhika Gowaikar; Rashid Attar

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing is typically used in the frequency domain of cellular wireless networks to balance paging, access, and traffic load across the available bandwidth. In this paper, we extend load balancing into the spatial domain, and we develop two approaches--network load balancing and single-carrier multilink--for spatial load balancing. Although these techniques are mostly applied to cellular wireless networks and Wi-Fi networks, we show how they can be applied to EV-DO, a 3G cellular data network. When a device has more than one candidate server, these techniques can be used to determine the quality of the channel between a server and the device and to determine the Ipad on each server. The proposed techniques leverage the advantages of existing EV-DO network architecture and are fully backward compatible. Network operators can substantially increase network capacity and improve user experience by using these techniques. Combining load balancing in the frequency and spatial domains improves connectivity within a network and allows resources to be optimally allocated according to the p-fair criterion. Combined load balancing further improves performance.

  8. Earthquake focal mechanisms and stress field in Si-chuan-Yunnan area determined using P wave po-larity and short period P and S waveform data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Based on waveform data, several methods to determine focal mechanisms of small earthquakes were developed since 1980. Kisslinger (1980) and Julian, Foulger (1996) proposed an approach to determine solution by using amplitude ratio of P and S wave. Schwartz (1995) devised a method to determine solutions by the use of polarity data and amplitudes of seismogram envelopes. Amplitudes of short period seismic waves propagating in an inhomogene-ous medium are sensitive to the variation in velocity and Q structure. Nakamura, et al (1999) took medium inhomo-geneity into account in determining focal mechanisms of small earthquakes using waveform data. If the locations of small earthquakes are concentrated in a small region, we can assume that the raypaths from the events to a given station are almost the same. So P and S wave attenuations are independent of event locations. In this case it is con-venient to determine focal mechanisms of these events by using short period P and S wave dataj. Focal mechanism solutions of small earthquakes in 5 regions, i.e., Rongchang, Mabian-Muchuan, Ya¢an, Baoxing and Mianzhu, which are covered by the Chengdu Telemetered Network, are obtained by analyzing the P polarity and short body wave amplitude data recorded in the network since 1992. According to the method proposed by Gephart and Forsyth (1984), based on well determined focal mechanism solutions in 15 sub-zones of Sichuan and Yunnan area, three principal stress tensors s1, s2, and s3, instead of averages of P, B, and T axis of the solutions, are determined to represent the regional stress field distribution.

  9. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in focal adhesions decreases cell motility and proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates focal adhesion formation through tyrosine phosphorylation during cell adhesion. We investigated the role of FAK in focal adhesion structure and function. Loading cells with a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein (GST-Cterm) containing the FAK focal adhesion targeting sequence, but not the kinase domain, decreased the association of endogenous FAK with focal adhesions. This displacement of endogenous FAK in both BALB/c 3T3 ...

  10. ESTIMATION OF POLLUTANT LOAD IN DRINKING WATER PROTECTION AREAS OF SPRINGS SV. IVAN, BULAŽ, AND GRADOLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Nemarnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the estimation of pollutant load within the drinking water protection areas (DWPA of springs Sv. Ivan, Bulaž, and Gradole in Northern Istria (Croatia is presented. To estimate the pollution load, the spreadsheet tool for estimating pollutant load (STEPL model was used. STEPL calculates loads of organic pollutants, nutrients, and suspended solids. For each analyzed spring total, specific and pollutant loads by each analyzed category are calculated. The results show that the greatest loads are caused by human activities. In addition, for the purpose of the analysis, two additional future scenarios are introduced; one describes the situation after the implementation of the first phase of the Istrian water protection system project, and the other that describes a possible future state where each agglomeration of over 100 inhabitants within the protected areas has an adequate wastewater treatment plant (WWTP.

  11. Stormwater Management: Calculation of Traffic Area Runoff Loads and Traffic Related Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Huber

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Metals such as antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can be highly relevant pollutants in stormwater runoff from traffic areas because of their occurrence, toxicity, and non-degradability. Long-term measurements of their concentrations, the corresponding water volumes, the catchment areas, and the traffic volumes can be used to calculate specific emission loads and annual runoff loads that are necessary for mass balances. In the literature, the annual runoff loads are often specified by a distinct catchment area (e.g., g/ha. These loads were summarized and discussed in this paper for all seven metals and three types of traffic areas (highways, parking lots, and roads; 45 sites. For example, the calculated median annual runoff loads of all sites are 355 g/ha for copper, 110 g/ha for lead (only data of the 21st century, and 1960 g/ha for zinc. In addition, historical trends, annual variations, and site-specific factors were evaluated for the runoff loads. For Germany, mass balances of traffic related emissions and annual heavy metal runoff loads from highways and total traffic areas were calculated. The influences on the mass fluxes of the heavy metal emissions and the runoff pollution were discussed. However, a statistical analysis of the annual traffic related metal fluxes, in particular for different traffic area categories and land uses, is currently not possible because of a lack of monitoring data.

  12. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...

  13. Study Based on Bridge Health Monitoring System on Multihazard Load Combinations of Earthquake and Truck Loads for Bridge Design in the Southeast Coastal Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to American LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, the current Chinese bridge design code is fully calibrated against gravity load and live load. Earthquake load is generally considered alone and has its own methodology, however, which is not covered in the code in a consistent probability-based fashion. Earthquake load and truck load are the main loads considered in the basis of bridge design in more than 70% of seismic areas in China. They are random processes, and their combination is the main subject of this paper. Seismic characteristics of southeast coastal areas of China are discussed and an earthquake probability curve is calculated through seismic risk analysis. Using measured truck load data from a Bridge Health Monitoring System, the multimodal characteristics of truck load are analyzed and a probability model for a time interval t is obtained by fitting results and reliability theory. Then, a methodology is presented to combine earthquake load and truck load on a probabilistic basis. To illustrate this method, truck load and earthquake load combinations are used. Results conceptually illustrate that truck load and earthquake load are not dominant in southeast coastal areas of China, but the effect of their combination is. This methodology quantitatively demonstrates that the design is controlled by truck load in most ranges; that is, truck load is more important to bridge design in the region.

  14. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ijest.v4i1.4S ... To over come this Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controller, which is an advance ... δ and δ 3 = Power angles of end voltages V1 , V2 and V3 of equivalent machine of the three areas ..... Learning algorithms causes the adjustment of the weights so that the controlled system gives.

  15. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  16. Interleukin-1α expression precedes IL-1β after ischemic brain injury and is localised to areas of focal neuronal loss and penumbral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luheshi Nadia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischemia is a devastating condition in which the outcome is heavily influenced by inflammatory processes, which can augment primary injury caused by reduced blood supply. The cytokines interleukin-1α (IL-1α and IL-1β are key contributors to ischemic brain injury. However, there is very little evidence that IL-1 expression occurs at the protein level early enough (within hours to influence brain damage after stroke. In order to determine this we investigated the temporal and spatial profiles of IL-1α and IL-1β expression after cerebral ischemia. Findings We report here that in mice, as early as 4 h after reperfusion following ischemia induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, IL-1α, but not IL-1β, is expressed by microglia-like cells in the ischemic hemisphere, which parallels an upregulation of IL-1α mRNA. 24 h after ischemia IL-1α expression is closely associated with areas of focal blood brain barrier breakdown and neuronal death, mostly near the penumbra surrounding the infarct. The sub-cellular distribution of IL-1α in injured areas is not uniform suggesting that it is regulated. Conclusions The early expression of IL-1α in areas of focal neuronal injury suggests that it is the major form of IL-1 contributing to inflammation early after cerebral ischemia. This adds to the growing body of evidence that IL-1α is a key mediator of the sterile inflammatory response.

  17. Estimation of HIV-1 incidence among five focal populations in Dehong, Yunnan: a hard hit area along a major drug trafficking route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Song; Shen, Sheng; Bulterys, Marc; Jia, Yujiang; Yang, Yuecheng; Xiang, Lifeng; Tian, Fei; Lu, Lin; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Minjie; Jia, Manhong; Jiang, Huazhou; Vermund, Sten H; Jiang, Yan

    2010-04-07

    Since 1989 when the first 146 HIV positives in China were identified, Dehong Prefecture had been one of the areas hardest-hit by HIV in China. The local and national governments have put substantial financial resources into tackling the HIV epidemic in Dehong from 2004. The objective of this study was to track dynamic changes in HIV-1 prevalence and incidence among five focal populations in Dehong and to assess the impact of HIV prevention and control efforts. Consecutive cross-sectional surveys conducted in five focal populations between 2004 and 2008. Specimens seropositive for HIV were tested with the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay to identify recent seroconversions (median, 155 days) using normalized optical density of 0.8 and adjustments. From 2004 to 2008, estimated annual HIV incidence among injecting drug users (IDUs) decreased significantly [from 15.0% (95% CI = 11.4%-18.5%) in 2004 to 4.3% (95% CI = 2.4%-6.2%) in 2008; trend test P < 0.0001]. The incidence among other focal populations, such as HIV discordant couples (varying from 5.5% to 4.7%), female sex workers (varying from 1.4% to 1.3%), pregnant women (0.1%), and pre-marital couples (0.2 to 0.1%) remained stable. Overall, the proportion of recent HIV-1 infections was higher among females than males (P < 0.0001). The HIV epidemic in Dehong continued to expand during a five-year period but at a slowing rate among IDUs, and HIV incidence remains high among IDUs and discordant couples. Intensive prevention measures should target sub-groups at highest risk to further slow the epidemic and control the migration of HIV to other areas of China, and multivariate analysis is needed to explore which measures are more effective for different populations.

  18. Estimation of HIV-1 incidence among five focal populations in Dehong, Yunnan: a hard hit area along a major drug trafficking route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Manhong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1989 when the first 146 HIV positives in China were identified, Dehong Prefecture had been one of the areas hardest-hit by HIV in China. The local and national governments have put substantial financial resources into tackling the HIV epidemic in Dehong from 2004. The objective of this study was to track dynamic changes in HIV-1 prevalence and incidence among five focal populations in Dehong and to assess the impact of HIV prevention and control efforts. Methods Consecutive cross-sectional surveys conducted in five focal populations between 2004 and 2008. Specimens seropositive for HIV were tested with the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay to identify recent seroconversions (median, 155 days using normalized optical density of 0.8 and adjustments. Results From 2004 to 2008, estimated annual HIV incidence among injecting drug users (IDUs decreased significantly [from 15.0% (95% CI = 11.4%-18.5% in 2004 to 4.3% (95% CI = 2.4%-6.2% in 2008; trend test P Conclusions The HIV epidemic in Dehong continued to expand during a five-year period but at a slowing rate among IDUs, and HIV incidence remains high among IDUs and discordant couples. Intensive prevention measures should target sub-groups at highest risk to further slow the epidemic and control the migration of HIV to other areas of China, and multivariate analysis is needed to explore which measures are more effective for different populations.

  19. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  20. Evans blue staining reveals vascular leakage associated with focal areas of host-parasite interaction in brains of pigs infected with Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

  1. Total mercury loadings in sediment from gold mining and conservation areas in Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joniqua; Trotz, Maya A; Thomas, Ken; Omisca, Erlande; Chiu, Hong Ting; Halfhide, Trina; Akiwumi, Fenda; Michael, Ryan; Stuart, Amy L

    2011-08-01

    The Low Carbon Development Strategy proposed in June 2009 by the government of Guyana in response to the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries program has triggered evaluation of forest-related activities, thereby acting as a catalyst for improvements in Guyana's small- to medium-scale gold mining industry. This has also shed light on areas committed to conservation, something that has also been handled by Non Governmental Organizations. This paper compares water quality and mercury concentrations in sediment from four main areas in Guyana, two that are heavily mined for gold using mercury amalgamation methods (Arakaka and Mahdia) and two that are considered conservation areas (Iwokrama and Konashen). Fifty-three sediment and soil mercury loadings ranged from 29 to 1,200 ng/g and averaged 215 ± 187 ng/g for all sites with similar averages in conservation and mining areas. Sediment loadings are within the range seen in French Guiana and Suriname, but conservation area samples had higher loadings than the corresponding uncontaminated baselines. Type of ore and location in the mining process seemed to influence mercury loadings. Mercury sediment loadings were slightly positively correlated with pH (correlation coefficient = 0.2; p value < 0.001) whereas no significant correlations were found with dissolved oxygen or turbidity.

  2. Load frequency stabilization of four area hydro thermal system using Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ruby meena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic generation control in electric power system design is a major concern nowadays due to its rising size, varying structure, integration of renewable-energy sources and distributed generators to meet the growing demand. In this paper, automatic generation control of an interconnected four area hydro thermal system examined. Each area equipped with reheat turbine for thermal system and hydro turbine with electric governor for hydro system. Load frequency stabilization gained by including Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system (SMES in all areas. A comparative analysis made between Proportional and Integral (PI controller with Fuzzy Logic controller with and without including SMES in the four area power system. The designed Fuzzy Logic Controller can generate best dynamic performance for step load perturbations given in all areas. The system simulation realized by using MATLAB software.

  3. A new control scheme for PID load frequency controller of single-area and multi-area power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhan, Dola Gobinda; Majhi, Somanath

    2013-03-01

    A new control structure with a tuning method to design a PID load frequency controller for power systems is presented. Initially, the controller is designed for single area power system, then it is extended to multi-area case. The controller parameters are obtained by expanding controller transfer function using Laurent series. Relay based identification technique is adopted to estimate power system dynamics. Robustness studies on stability and performance are provided, with respect to uncertainties in the plant parameters. The proposed scheme ensures that overall system remains asymptotically stable for all bounded uncertainties and for system oscillations. Simulation results show the feasibility of the approach and the proposed method improves the load disturbance rejection performance significantly even in the presence of the uncertainties in plant parameters.

  4. Load area aggregation considering integration of electric vehicles to the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Rodríguez Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Current electric power systems have an increasing penetration of electric vehicles, and its effect has to be considered in different studies, such as optimal dispatch or voltage stability, among others. Additionally, considering that power system analysis becomes complex when the number of buses increase, this paper presents a methodology for aggregation of load areas that use a measurement-based load modeling approach based on an evolutionary computational technique and a classical reduction method. This aggregate load area model is proposed to reduce areas that ddconsider electric vehicle (EV load models. The proposed method provides a static equivalent load model and an equivalent network that can be used to reduce the computational effort required by power system studies. In order to validate the application of the proposed methodology, a 30-bus power system considering several disturbances and levels of penetration of the electric vehicles was used. The results show that the equivalent network model allows the reproduction of different events with an acceptable accuracy when it is compared to the original system behavior.

  5. The Challenge of Supporting Change: Elementary Student Achievement and the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative's Focal Strategy. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristin E.; Snipes, Jason C.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second and final report for MDRC's evaluation of the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative (BASRC), a grant-making and support organization in San Francisco, California. BASRC is dedicated to improving student achievement in public schools and narrowing achievement gaps among different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. BASRC…

  6. Predicted tyre-soil interface area and vertical stress distribution based on loading characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Stettler, M.; Keller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The upper boundary condition for all models simulating stress patterns throughout the soil profile is the stress distribution at the tyre–soil interface. The so-called FRIDA model (Schjønning et al., 2008. Biosyst. Eng. 99, 119–133) treats the contact area as a superellipse and has been shown...... to accurately describe a range of observed vertical stress distributions. Previous research has indicated that such distributions may be predicted from tyre and loading characteristics. The objective of this study was to establish a stepwise calculation procedure enabling accurate predictions from readily...... available data. We used multiple regression to identify equations for predicting the FRIDA model parameters from measured loading characteristics including tyre carcass volume (VT), wheel load (FW), tyre deflection (L), and an expression of tyre inflation pressure (Kr) calculated as the natural logarithm...

  7. The left occipitotemporal system in reading: disruption of focal fMRI connectivity to left inferior frontal and inferior parietal language areas in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Sanne; Klaver, Peter; Bucher, Kerstin; Maurer, Urs; Schulz, Enrico; Brem, Silvia; Martin, Ernst; Brandeis, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a severe reading disorder, which is characterized by dysfluent reading and impaired automaticity of visual word processing. Adults with dyslexia show functional deficits in several brain regions including the so-called "Visual Word Form Area" (VWFA), which is implicated in visual word processing and located within the larger left occipitotemporal VWF-System. The present study examines functional connections of the left occipitotemporal VWF-System with other major language areas in children with dyslexia. Functional connectivity MRI was used to assess connectivity of the VWF-System in 18 children with dyslexia and 24 age-matched controls (age 9.7-12.5 years) using five neighboring left occipitotemporal regions of interest (ROIs) during a continuous reading task requiring phonological and orthographic processing. First, the results revealed a focal origin of connectivity from the VWF-System, in that mainly the VWFA was functionally connected with typical left frontal and parietal language areas in control children. Adjacent posterior and anterior VWF-System ROIs did not show such connectivity, confirming the special role that the VWFA plays in word processing. Second, we detected a significant disruption of functional connectivity between the VWFA and left inferior frontal and left inferior parietal language areas in the children with dyslexia. The current findings add to our understanding of dyslexia by showing that functional disconnection of the left occipitotemporal system is limited to the small VWFA region crucial for automatic visual word processing, and emerges early during reading acquisition in children with dyslexia, along with deficits in orthographic and phonological processing of visual word forms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Cheol Bang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks(WBANs, each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor thehealth status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamictraffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation data and high-ratetraffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control(MAC protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern duringlow-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand andefficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design atraffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploitsthe superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contentionaccess period (CAP, contention free period (CFP and inactive period (IP of the superframebased on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic “wh” (whenever which is requiredapproach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation fornetwork load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to preventenergy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated throughextensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  9. ATLAS: a traffic load aware sensor MAC design for collaborative body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Bang, Young-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern during low-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand and efficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design a traffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploits the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contention access period (CAP), contention free period (CFP) and inactive period (IP) of the superframe based on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic "wh" (whenever which is required) approach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation for network load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to prevent energy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated through extensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  10. Evaluation of equivalent accumulation area of internal defects based on statistical law of yield loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhichao, E-mail: zcma@jlu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhao, Hongwei, E-mail: hwzhao@jlu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Liu, Changyi, E-mail: changyi_liu@126.com [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Ren, Luquan, E-mail: lqren@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, in order to evaluate the approximate equivalent accumulation area S{sub dmax} of initial internal defects in the dangerous cross section of structures, a series of Vickers indentations were prepared on the gage part of well polished Ti-6Al-4V specimens as emebedded defects, the indentation areas S{sub v} were compared with S{sub dmax}. With various S{sub v}, approximate Gaussian distribution of the yield loads was obtained based on mathematical expectation E(F{sub s}) and standard deviation σ(F{sub s}), and the changing rule of E(F{sub s}) as a function of S{sub v} was obtained. A decrement of E(F{sub s}) of 2.6% was obtained when S{sub v} increased from 3654.4 μm{sup 2} to 6982.8 μm{sup 2}{sub .} The approximate ratio of S{sub dmax} to the initial sectional area S{sub o} was evaluated as 3.0%. - Graphical abstract: Calculation of the equivalent accumulation area S{sub dmax} of initial internal defects in the dangerous cross section by the comparison with indentation embedded defects. Changing trend of mathematical expectation of yield loads E(F{sub s}) indicated that the approximate ratio of S{sub dmax} to S{sub o} (initial sectional area) of 3.0% was evaluated. - Highlights: • Evaluation the approximate equivalent accumulation area S{sub dmax} of initial internal defects in the dangerous cross section. • A series of Vickers indentations were prepared as emebedded defects. • The ratio of S{sub dmax} to S{sub o} (initial sectional area) was approximatively evaluated. • Allowable load F{sub m} was redefined as calculated.

  11. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Cheol Bang; Md. Obaidur Rahman; Sungwon Lee; Choong Seon Hong

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the p...

  12. Critical Loads of Heavy Metals in a Highly Polluted Catchment Area in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed A. Melegy; T. Paces

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals in different environmental compartments can be hazardous to ecosystems. Budgets of Cd, Pb and Zn in small ecosystems of the Shubra El-Kheima area in Egypt are presented. The budgets are not in steady state because they change with time. So the concentrations of the metals are a function of time. The critical loads of heavy metals to soils can be calculated from an inventory of inputs and outputs of the trace components in the catchment area. Critical time is an important parameter for critical load evaluation because it can indicate which of the heavy metals may be the most acute threat to the soils. Egyptian soil in the Shubra El-Kheima area seems to be in danger of heavy metal pollution by Zn, Cd and Pb. The calculated critical loads and their exceedances are approximate indicators of the hazards in the soil system. The critical time is a warning signal to initiate an environmental evaluation of possible pollution hazards.

  13. Electrospun Nanofibers Loaded with Quercetin Promote the Recovery of Focal Entrapment Neuropathy in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipkaew, Chonlathip

    2017-01-01

    In this study, quercetin-loaded zein-based nanofibers were developed using electrospinning technique. The therapeutic effect of these quercetin-loaded nanofibers on neuropathy in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes in rats was assessed. Diabetic condition was induced in male Wistar rats by STZ, after which a crush injury of the right sciatic nerve was performed to induce mononeuropathy. Functional recovery was assessed using walking track analysis, measurements of foot withdrawal reflex, nerve conduction velocity, and morphological analysis. The oxidative stress status and the ratio of phosphorylated extracellular recognition kinase (pERK)/extracellular recognition kinase (ERK) expression in the nerve lesion were also assessed in order to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. Results showed that quercetin-loaded zein-based nanofibers slightly enhanced functional recovery from neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats. The potential mechanism might partially involve improvements in oxidative stress status and the ratio of pERK/ERK expression in the nerve lesion. PMID:28251151

  14. The SOUTHERN PUNA Seismic Experiment: Shape of the Subducting Nazca Plate, Areas of Concentrated Mantle and Crustal Earthquakes, and Crustal Focal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, P.; Chen, C.; Kay, S. M.; Brown, L. D.; Alvarado, P. M.; Sandvol, E. A.; Heit, B.; Yuan, X.

    2010-12-01

    The SOUTHERN PUNA Seismic Experiment in the Central Andes between 25° - 28°S and 70° - 65°W recorded data in a 74-instrument array from Dec 07 to Nov 09 with the purpose of evaluating the structure and seismic character of the mantle and crust at the southern end of the Puna-Antiplano Plateau. Hypocenter locations for local and regional mantle earthquakes from 16 months of continuous recording confirm the persistence of the backarc teleseismic Antofalla Gap in intermediate depth mantle seismicity between 25.5° and 27.5°S consistent with the interpretation of a hot mantle wedge under this region. The best located Wadati Benioff Zone events agree with the subducting Nazca Plate contours of Cahill and Isacks (1992) north of 27°S, but show a more abrupt southward shallowing of contours in agreement with the Anderson et al. (2007) contours outlining the projected path of the already subducted Juan Fernandez Ridge. Another prominent feature in the data is the concentration of hypocenters in the Pipanaco nest to the south of the Antofalla Gap between 27° and 29°S. New PUNA results together with available HCMT solutions indicate NW oriented normal and strike-slip faulting in three general clusters within this nest at ~130km, 150km and 180km depth. Hypocenter locations and fault solutions for the Pipanaco Nest suggest flexure associated with steepening of the subducting slab consistent with the revised Wadati Benioff Zone contours. In an area of little to no crustal seismicity in global catalogs over the same time period, hundreds of well-located crustal earthquakes at depths less than 15km were recorded by the PUNA array. Among these earthquakes are three distinct clusters near relatively young volcanic centers. One cluster defines a nest northeast of the < 1 Ma Cerro Blanco caldera. The other two clusters are characterized by large quantities of earthquakes within 24-36 hours (swarms) near the Cerro Galan caldera that last erupted at ~2 Ma and near a ~1 Ma or

  15. {sup 11}C-PBR28 imaging in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: test-retest reproducibility and focal visualization of active white matter areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eunkyung; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Planeta, Beata; Lin, Shu-Fei; Lim, Keunpoong; Chen, Ming-Kai; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E. [Yale School of Medicine, PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, 801 Howard Avenue, PO Box 208048, New Haven, CT (United States); Delgadillo, Aracely; Liu, Shuang; O' Connor, Kevin C.; Lee, Jae-Yun; Chastre, Anne; Pelletier, Daniel [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, New Haven, CT (United States); Seneca, Nicholas; Leppert, David [Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-04-02

    Activated microglia play a key role in inflammatory demyelinating injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglial activation can be measured in vivo using a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand {sup 11}C-PBR28. We evaluated the test-retest variability (TRV) and lesion detectability of {sup 11}C-PBR28 binding in MS subjects and healthy controls (HCs) with high-resolution PET. Four clinically and radiologically stable relapsing-remitting MS subjects (age 41 ± 7 years, two men/two women) and four HCs (age 42 ± 8 years, 2 two men/two women), matched for translocator protein genotype [two high- and two medium-affinity binders according to DNA polymorphism (rs6971) in each group], were studied for TRV. Another MS subject (age 41 years, male) with clinical and radiological activity was studied for lesion detectability. Dynamic data were acquired over 120 min after injection of 634 ± 101 MBq {sup 11}C-PBR28. For the TRV study, subjects were scanned twice, on average 1.4 weeks apart. Volume of distribution (V{sub T}) derived from multilinear analysis (MA1) modeling (t* = 30 min, using arterial input data) was the main outcome measure. Mean test V{sub T} values (ml cm{sup -3}) were 3.9 ± 1.4 in the whole brain gray matter (GM), 3.6 ± 1.2 in the whole brain white matter (WM) or normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), and 3.3 ± 0.6 in MS WM lesions; mean retest V{sub T} values were 3.7 ± 1.0 in GM, 3.3 ± 0.9 in WM/NAWM, and 3.3 ± 0.7 in MS lesions. Test-retest results showed a mean absolute TRV ranging from 7 to 9 % across GM, WM/NAWM, and MS lesions. High-affinity binders demonstrated 30 % higher V{sub T} than medium-affinity binders in GM. Focal {sup 11}C-PBR28 uptake was detected in two enhancing lesions of the active MS patient. High-resolution {sup 11}C-PBR28 PET can visualize focal areas where microglial activation is known to be present and has good test-retest reproducibility in the human brain. {sup 11}C-PBR28 PET is likely to be valuable for monitoring both

  16. Focal cortical dysplasia - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults.Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed - from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized.Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe.Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes.New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life.Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias.THE MOST COMMON FINDINGS ON MRI IMAGING INCLUDE: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both types

  17. Design, fabrication and test of Load Bearing multilayer insulation to support a broad area cooled shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, S. A.; Johnson, W. L.; Plachta, D. W.; Mills, G. L.; Buchanan, L.; Kopelove, A. B.

    2014-11-01

    Improvements in cryogenic propellant storage are needed to achieve reduced or Zero Boil Off of cryopropellants, critical for long duration missions. Techniques for reducing heat leak into cryotanks include using passive multi-layer insulation (MLI) and vapor cooled or actively cooled thermal shields. Large scale shields cannot be supported by tank structural supports without heat leak through the supports. Traditional MLI also cannot support shield structural loads, and separate shield support mechanisms add significant heat leak. Quest Thermal Group and Ball Aerospace, with NASA SBIR support, have developed a novel Load Bearing multi-layer insulation (LBMLI) capable of self-supporting thermal shields and providing high thermal performance. We report on the development of LBMLI, including design, modeling and analysis, structural testing via vibe and acoustic loading, calorimeter thermal testing, and Reduced Boil-Off (RBO) testing on NASA large scale cryotanks. LBMLI uses the strength of discrete polymer spacers to control interlayer spacing and support the external load of an actively cooled shield and external MLI. Structural testing at NASA Marshall was performed to beyond maximum launch profiles without failure. LBMLI coupons were thermally tested on calorimeters, with superior performance to traditional MLI on a per layer basis. Thermal and structural tests were performed with LBMLI supporting an actively cooled shield, and comparisons are made to the performance of traditional MLI and thermal shield supports. LBMLI provided a 51% reduction in heat leak per layer over a previously tested traditional MLI with tank standoffs, a 38% reduction in mass, and was advanced to TRL5. Active thermal control using LBMLI and a broad area cooled shield offers significant advantages in total system heat flux, mass and structural robustness for future Reduced Boil-Off and Zero Boil-Off cryogenic missions with durations over a few weeks.

  18. Granulometric selectivity in Liza ramado and potential contamination resulting from heavy metal load in feeding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Sílvia; Canastreiro, Vera; Caçador, Isabel; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro

    2008-11-01

    The stomach contents of thin-lipped grey mullets Liza ramado were analysed in terms of granulometric composition and compared to the sediment of potential feeding areas in the Tagus estuary. Total organic matter (TOM) content and heavy metal content were determined in the surface sediment of three areas and eight trace elements were quantified: Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. The three sampled areas did not differ in TOM; and the heavy metal content was below Effects Range-Low level for most elements. The mean observed concentrations were present in the following sequence: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu ≈ Ni > Co > Cd > Hg. Stomach contents granulometric composition provided information about the feeding selectivity of the mullets. Sediment fractions with particle size between 20 and 50 μm are preferred, independently of the fishes' length. Smaller standard length (SL) fishes have a higher positive selection of fine grained sediments than those with a larger SL. Finer fractions usually have higher concentration of heavy metals, which makes younger specimens of the thin-lipped grey mullet potentially more exposed to heavy metal load in the estuary. Metal concentration was not independent from the sampling point, presenting higher values near the margins and the estuary tidal drainage system. This means that during the first period of each tidal cycle, the mullets will feed first on the most contaminated areas, as a consequence of their movement following the rising tide to feed on previously exposed areas.

  19. Pollutant loads of surface runoff in Wuhan City Zoo, an urban tourist area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian-wei; SHAN Bao-qing; YIN Cheng-qing

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant loads of surface runoff in an urban tourist area have been investigated for two years in the Wuhan City Zoo, China. Eight sampling sites, including two woodlands, three animal yards, two roofs and one road, were selected for sampling and study. The results indicate that pollutants ranked in a predictable order of decreasing load (e.g. animal yard>roof>woodland>road), with animal yards acting as the key pollution source in the zoo. Pollutants were transported mainly by particulate form in runoff. Particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorous (PP) accounted on average for 61%, 78% of total pollutant, respectively, over 13 monitored rainfall events. These results indicate the treatment practices should be implemented to improve particulate nutrient removal. Analysis of the M(V) curve indicated that no first flush effect existed in the surface runoff from pervious areas (e.g. woodland, animal ground yard), whereas a first flush effect was evident in runoff from impervious surfaces (e.g. animal cement yard, roof, road).

  20. Pressure load on specific body areas of gestating sows lying on rubber mats with different softness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubbert, A; Hartung, E; Schrader, L

    2014-08-01

    Rubber mats offer a possibility to increase lying comfort for sows with positive effects on sow lying behavior and health. However, until now, no information has been reported about the relationship between the softness of rubber mats and the pressure load on certain body areas of sows. We used a total of 68 (40 multiparous, 28 primiparous) German Landrace × German Landrace sows with a BW within the range of 90 to 330 kg (divided in 3 weight classes) to measure peak force and distribution of pressure during lying in the sternal and half recumbent position. Measures were done in an experimental pen that was equipped with a pressure sensor map system (5400 NTL; Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). Three rubber mats differing in softness (penetration depth: hard mat, 4.0 mm [HM]; soft mat, 14.6 mm [SM]; very soft mat, 43.0 mm [VSM]) were tested and compared to concrete floor (CF) as a reference. Pressure load was analyzed in the sternal position for the sternum, belly, and ham body regions and also in the half recumbent position for the shoulder. For each lying position we determined the body region with the highest pressure load and analyzed the peak force (PF) and the contact area (CA) using a mixed model ANOVA (MIXED procedure of SAS Enterprise, version 4.3., SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with floor type, weight class of sows, and their interaction as fixed factors. Overall, the highest values for PF in the sternal position were found on the sternum (median: 1.62 N/cm(2)) and in the half recumbent position on the shoulder (median: 2.72 N/cm(2)). In the sternal position PF on the sternum was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.001). In the half-recumbent position PF on the shoulder was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.013) and compared to HM (P = 0.011). The weight of the sows affected PF on the sternum in the sternal position, with lower values in weight class 1 compared to weight class 2 (P = 0.001) and weight class 3 (P = 0.002). Contact area under the sternum was larger on

  1. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada); Redekop, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: dredekop@tesla.cc.uottawa.ca

    2005-03-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading.

  2. Evaluation of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy: prospective studies examining projected load-bearing area, bone density, cartilage thickness and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechlenburg, Inger

    2008-06-01

    The typical dysplastic hip joint is characterised by maldirection of the acetabulum and femoral neck, insufficient coverage of the femoral head focally and globally and erosions of the limbus acetabuli (1). An unknown number of persons with hip dysplasia will suffer from pain in hip or groin, decreased hip function and development of osteoarthritis at a young age. The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is performed to prevent osteoarthritis in patients with hip dysplasia and has been carried out at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark since 1996 with more than 500 osteotomies performed. Throughout the years, research and quality improvement of the treatment has taken place and this PhD thesis is part of that process. The aims of this PhD thesis were to evaluate outcome aspects after periacetabular osteotomy in terms of I) estimating the projected loadbearing surface before and after periacetabular osteotomy, II) estimating bone density changes in the acetabulum after periacetabular osteotomy, III) developing a technique to precisely and efficiently estimate the thickness of the articular cartilage in the hip joint and IV) examining the stability of the re-orientated acetabulum after periacetabular osteotomy. In study I, we applied a stereologic method based on 3D computed tomography (CT) to estimate the projected loadbearing surface in six normal hip joints and in six dysplastic hips. The dysplastic hips were CT scanned before and after periacetabular osteotomy. We found that the average area of the projected loadbearing surface of the femoral head preoperatively was 7.4 (range 6.5-8.4) cm2 and postoperatively 11 (9.8-14.3) cm2. The area of the projected loadbearing surface was increased significantly with a mean of 49% (34-70%) postoperatively and thus comparable with the load-bearing surface in the normal control group. Double measurements were performed and the error variance of the mean was estimated to be 1.6%. The effect of overprojection, on the projected

  3. Calibration of LRFD Format for Steel Jacket Offshore Platforms in China Offshore Area (1):Statistical Parameters of Loads and Resistances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The statistical characteristics and parameters of loads and resistances are systematically studied for the development of probabilistic limit state design method for steel jacket offshore platforms in the China offshore area. The mean value, standard variance and distribution pattern of resistances and loads in different base periods are presented. The statistical parameters of structural member resistance, self-weight, deck live load, and environmental loads such as wind, wave, current and ice, which are drawn on a large amount of observation data of offshore environmental factors, and the design data of platforms in China Bohai Sea form the data set, providing a necessary basis for the calibration of load and resistance factors to realize the reliability-based design of jacket platform structures.

  4. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  5. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  6. 营口—海城地区震群的震源机制一致性特征%Focal Mechanism Consistency Features of Earthquake Swarms in Yingkou-Haicheng Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤娟; 张博; 杨牧萍; 袁超; 邵媛媛; 钱蕊

    2016-01-01

    采用P波初动方法计算1999年以来营口—海城地区5次震群序列的中小地震震源机制解,并定义震源机制一致性参数θ为中小地震震源机制解3个正交的应力主轴与华北地区构造应力场3个应力主轴在三维空间的夹角之和.计算结果显示:营口—海城地区震群中较大地震发生前 10天~2个月,θ都有一个持续低值的过程;1999年岫岩前震序列的θ变化幅度在 20°~30°之间,且大部分小于 65°.相比用震源机制P轴取向趋于一致来判定震源区应力状态,θ更有其优越性.%We solved the five focal mechanisms of moderate and small swarm earthquakes occur-ring since 1999 in Yingkou and Haicheng using the P-wave first-motion method.We defined the sum of the inclinations of three orthogonal and principal stress axes of the focal mechanisms for the moderate and small earthquakes and that of the tectonic stress field in corresponding areas in the 3D coordinate system as parameter of the consistency of the mechanisms.It is a quantitative index used to measure the release stress field of an earthquake source and the conformance degree of the regional tectonic stress field.The conformance degree of the regional stress field and the focal mechanisms increase as the value decreases.The conformance degree of the regional stress field and the focal mechanisms of moderate and small earthquakes are higher because of the en-hanced tendency of the regional tectonic stress field and higher possibility of occurrence of a stronger earthquake in the future.The result shows that the parameter of the consistency of the focal mechanisms was reduced to a minimum value of approximately 10~60 days before the occurrence of larger earthquakes for the earthquake swarms in Yingkou and Haicheng.Time and fluctuation range of the low value may be related to the characteristics of the earthquake swarm. The consistency parameter fluctuated significantly in common swarms such as the 2008 Haicheng

  7. Beamlet focal plane diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

  8. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  9. Focal neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other examples of focal loss of function include: Horner syndrome : small pupil on one side, one-sided ... 403. Read More Alertness - decreased Fine motor control Horner syndrome Hypotonia Movement - uncoordinated Muscle function loss Neurologic ...

  10. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  11. Brittle materials at high-loading rates: an open area of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Brittle materials are extensively used in many civil and military applications involving high-strain-rate loadings such as: blasting or percussive drilling of rocks, ballistic impact against ceramic armour or transparent windshields, plastic explosives used to damage or destroy concrete structures, soft or hard impacts against concrete structures and so on. With all of these applications, brittle materials are subjected to intense loadings characterized by medium to extremely high strain rates (few tens to several tens of thousands per second) leading to extreme and/or specific damage modes such as multiple fragmentation, dynamic cracking, pore collapse, shearing, mode II fracturing and/or microplasticity mechanisms in the material. Additionally, brittle materials exhibit complex features such as a strong strain-rate sensitivity and confining pressure sensitivity that justify expending greater research efforts to understand these complex features. Currently, the most popular dynamic testing techniques used for this are based on the use of split Hopkinson pressure bar methodologies and/or plate-impact testing methods. However, these methods do have some critical limitations and drawbacks when used to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. The present theme issue of Philosophical Transactions A provides an overview of the latest experimental methods and numerical tools that are currently being developed to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  12. Brittle materials at high-loading rates: an open area of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Brittle materials are extensively used in many civil and military applications involving high-strain-rate loadings such as: blasting or percussive drilling of rocks, ballistic impact against ceramic armour or transparent windshields, plastic explosives used to damage or destroy concrete structures, soft or hard impacts against concrete structures and so on. With all of these applications, brittle materials are subjected to intense loadings characterized by medium to extremely high strain rates (few tens to several tens of thousands per second) leading to extreme and/or specific damage modes such as multiple fragmentation, dynamic cracking, pore collapse, shearing, mode II fracturing and/or microplasticity mechanisms in the material. Additionally, brittle materials exhibit complex features such as a strong strain-rate sensitivity and confining pressure sensitivity that justify expending greater research efforts to understand these complex features. Currently, the most popular dynamic testing techniques used for this are based on the use of split Hopkinson pressure bar methodologies and/or plate-impact testing methods. However, these methods do have some critical limitations and drawbacks when used to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. The present theme issue of Philosophical Transactions A provides an overview of the latest experimental methods and numerical tools that are currently being developed to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials at high loading rates. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates’. PMID:27956517

  13. Numerical Analysis of the Soil Deformation Caused by Tunneling under Vehicle Loads in the Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of tunneling induced soil deformation is an important issue in the design of tunnels constructed in the densely populated urban areas. In this paper, commercial FEM software 3D ABAQUS is adopted to simulate the behavior of soil caused by tunneling under vehicle loads in the coastal reclamation area. A field case study was also carried out to verify the accuracy of the proposed model. A good agreement was achieved. It is also found from the studies that the areas affected by soil deformation can be classified into four zones: the key disturbed zone, the secondary disturbed zone, the general disturbed zone, and minor-disturbed zone. The maximum soil deformation occurs on side of the longitudinal medial axis of the tunnel. The shape of the settlement curve is almost the same as that of the normal distribution curve. The soil deformation in the action zone of vehicle load is greater than that of the nonaction zone of vehicle load.

  14. 78 FR 4788 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reporting Requirements for Barges Loaded With Certain Dangerous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This provision... follows: PART 165--REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS 0 1. The authority citation...

  15. The precursory electric signals, observed before the Izmit Turkey EQ (Mw = 7.6, August 17th, 1999), analyzed in terms of a hypothetically pre-activated, in the focal area, large scale piezoelectric mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Thanassoulas, C

    2011-01-01

    The generated, prior to the Izmit Turkey large EQ, preseismic electric signals were recorded in Greece by the VOL Earth's electric field monitoring site. In order to explain their peculiar character and their generating mechanism, a large scale piezoelectric mechanism was assumed that was initiated in the Izmit seismogenic region long before the EQ occurrence time. The theoretical analysis of the adopted physical model justifies the generation of a number of specific electric signals that can be emitted from the focal area before the rock formation failure. The processing of the registered by the VOL monitoring site raw data revealed the presence of similar signals as the expected theoretical ones. Therefore, it is concluded that long before the Izmit EQ occurrence a large scale piezoelectric mechanism was initiated that was modulated too by the tidally triggered lithospheric oscillation and therefore generated the observed preseismic electric signals. The adopted piezoelectric model provides critical informa...

  16. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  17. Spatial variation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and critical loads for aquatic ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L; McMurray, J A; Clow, D W; Saros, J E; Blett, T; Gurdak, J J

    2017-04-01

    Current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has impacted aquatic ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). Understanding the spatial variation in total atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) of N is needed to estimate air pollution deposition critical loads for sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is particularly important for areas that have an increasing contribution of ammonia dry deposition to total N (TN), such as the GYA. High resolution geostatistical models and maps of TN deposition (wet + dry) were developed using a variety of techniques including ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, to evaluate spatial variability and identify areas of elevated loading of pollutants for the GYA. TN deposition estimates in the GYA range from <1.4 to 7.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and show greater variability than wet inorganic N deposition. Critical loads of TN deposition (CLTNdep) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems range from less than 1.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) to over 4.0 ± 1.0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and variability is controlled by differences in basin characteristics. The lowest CLTNdep estimates occurred in high elevation basins within GYA Wilderness boundaries. TN deposition maps were used to identify critical load exceedances for aquatic ecosystems. Estimated CLTNdep exceedances for the GYA range from 17% to 48% depending on the surface water nitrate (NO3(-)) threshold. Based on a NO3(-) threshold of 1.0 μmol L(-1), TN deposition exceeds CLTNdep in approximately 30% of the GYA. These predictive models and maps can be used to help identify and protect sensitive ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition.

  18. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  19. SNAP focal plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  20. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  1. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also

  2. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2013 (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2013 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2013.

  3. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results for all counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  4. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  5. Delay Analysis for Wireless Local Area Networks with Multipacket Reception under Finite Load

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ying Jun; Chen, Darui

    2008-01-01

    To date, most analysis of WLANs has been focused on their operation under saturation condition. This work is an attempt to understand the fundamental performance of WLANs under unsaturated condition. In particular, we are interested in the delay performance when collisions of packets are resolved by an exponential backoff mechanism. Using a multiple-vacation queueing model, we derive an explicit expression for packet delay distribution, from which necessary conditions for finite mean delay and delay jitter are established. It is found that under some circumstances, mean delay and delay jitter may approach infinity even when the traffic load is way below the saturation throughput. Saturation throughput is therefore not a sound measure of WLAN capacity when the underlying applications are delay sensitive. To bridge the gap, we define safe-bounded-mean-delay (SBMD) throughput and safe-bounded-delay-jitter (SBDJ) throughput that reflect the actual network capacity users can enjoy when they require bounded mean de...

  6. Inner cladding influence on large mode area photonic crystal fiber properties under severe heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Poli, Federica; Dauliat, Romain; Darwich, Dia; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano; Schuster, Kay; Benoît, Aurélien; Jamier, Raphael; Roy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Constant innovations of fiber technology over the last twenty years has fueled a huge improvement of the performances of fiber lasers. Further power scaling of fiber lasers is currently hindered by the phenomenon of transverse mode instabilities, a sudden deterioration of output beam quality occurring beyond a certain power threshold due to energy transfer from the fiber fundamental mode to high-order modes. Several studies have pinpointed a thermal origin for this phenomenon. A possible solution is to implement fiber designs capable of providing a robust single-mode operation even under severe heat load, in order to prevent such coupling. In this paper the effects on the propagating modes of the change of the inner cladding size and microstructuration in double-cladding photonic crystal fibers under heating condition are discussed, and related to field confinement and single-mode regime.

  7. Focal cerebral ischemia induces increased myelin basic protein and growth-associated protein-43 gene transcription in peri-infarct areas in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, R; Christensen, Thomas; Lehrmann, E;

    2001-01-01

    , in peri-infarct areas in adult rat brain after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and correlated it to the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), a marker for axonal regeneration and sprouting, using non-radioactive in situ hybridization techniques. Within the infarct, MBP......, corresponding to the appearance of process-bearing MBP and occasional MOG-immunoreactive oligodendrocytes in parallel sections. Quantitative analysis revealed significant increases in the density of oligodendrocytes (up to 7.6-fold) and in the level of MBP mRNA expressed by individual cells. Parallel sections...... showed that increased expression of GAP-43 mRNA in neurons was concomitant to MBP mRNA upregulation in oligodendrocytes. While the mechanisms regulating oligodendrocyte survival and myelination signals are not clear at this point, axonal sprouting could putatively serve as a stimulus for the upregulation...

  8. Assessment of seismic loading on structures based on airborne LiDAR data from the Kalochori urban area (N. Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovithis, Emmanouil; Kirtas, Emmanouil; Marini, Eleftheria; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Maltezos, Evangelos; Pitilakis, Dimitris; Makra, Konstantia; Savvaidis, Alexandros

    2016-08-01

    Airborne LiDAR monitoring integrated with field data is employed to assess the fundamental period and the seismic loading of structures composing an urban area under prescribed earthquake scenarios. Α piecewise work-flow is adopted by combining geometrical data of the building stock derived from a LiDAR-based 3D city model, structural data from in-situ inspections on representative city blocks and results of soil response analyses. The procedure is implemented in the residential area of Kalochori, (west of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece). Special attention is paid to the in-situ inspection of the building stock in order to discriminate recordings between actual buildings and man-made constructions that do not conform to seismic design codes and to acquire additional building stock data on structural materials, typologies and number of stories which is not feasible by the LiDAR process. The processed LiDAR and field data are employed to compute the fundamental period of each building by means of code-defined formulas. Knowledge of soil conditions in the Kalochoti area allows for soil response analyses to obtain free-field at ground surface under earthquake scenarios with varying return period. Upon combining the computed vibrational characteristics of the structures with the free-field response spectra, the seismic loading imposed on the structures of the urban area under investigation is derived for each one of the prescribed seismic motions. Results are presented in GIS environment in the form of spatially distributed spectral accelerations with direct implications in seismic vulnerability studies of an urban area.

  9. Spectrum Load Balancing for Flexible Spectrum Usage in Local Area Deployment Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola;

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a non-contention based mechanism for allocation of the spectral resources by several interfering Home e-NodeBs (HeNBs) deployed by the same or different operators, potentially in random manner in a given geographical area. The proposed mechanism facilitates allocation...... of spectral resources from a common pool based on the individual traffic requirements of the HeNBs, thereby enabling Flexible Spectrum Usage (FSU). It ensures coexistence of several HeNBs in the given geographical area by partially or completely preventing mutual interference on the shared spectrum...

  10. Spectrum Load Balancing for Flexible Spectrum Usage in Local Area Deployment Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a non-contention based mechanism for allocation of the spectral resources by several interfering Home e-NodeBs (HeNBs) deployed by the same or different operators, potentially in random manner in a given geographical area. The proposed mechanism facilitates allocation...

  11. Prospective randomized clinical trial of hydrophilic tapered implant placement at maxillary posterior area: 6 weeks and 12 weeks loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Early loading of implant can be determined by excellent primary stability and characteristic of implant surface. The implant system with recently improved surface can have load application 4-6 weeks after installing in maxilla and mandible. This study evaluated the effect of healing period to the stability of hydrophilic tapered-type implant at maxillary posterior area. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 30 patients treated by hydrophilic tapered-type implants (total 41 implants at maxilla) and classified by two groups depending on healing period. Group 1 (11 patients, 15 implants) was a control group and the healing period was 12 weeks, and Group 2 (19 patients, 26 implants) was test group and the healing period was 6 weeks. Immediately after implant placement, at the first impression taking, implant stability was measured using Osstell Mentor. The patients also took periapical radiographs after restoration delivery, 12 months after restoration and final followup period. The marginal bone loss around the implants was measured using the periapical radiographs. RESULTS All implants were survived and success rate was 97.56%. The marginal bone loss was less than 1mm after 1 year postoperatively except the one implant. The stabilities of the implants were not correlated with age, healing period until loading, insertion torque (IT), the diameter of fixture and the location of implant. Only the quality of bone in group 2 (6 week) was correlated with the stability of implant. CONCLUSION Healing period of 6 weeks can make the similar clinical prognosis of implants to that of healing period of 12 weeks if bone quality is carefully considered in case of early loading. PMID:27826390

  12. Focal and generalized alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dair, H A; Foster, A P

    1995-07-01

    Focal or generalized alopecia is defined as hair loss affecting the ventral, lateral, perineal, and dorsal aspects of the trunk of the cat, usually in a symmetric pattern. This may be attributable to failure of hair coat production, excess loss of hair due to self trauma, or excess shedding of whole hairs. Self trauma is the most common cause of hair loss and is associated particularly with flea allergy dermatitis. Other causes of hair loss are reviewed.

  13. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contra...

  14. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  15. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

    2016-11-01

    We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

  16. Anti-Windup Load Frequency Controller Design for Multi-Area Power System with Generation Rate Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxin Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To deal with the problem of generation rate constraint (GRC during load frequency control (LFC design for a multi-area interconnected power system, this paper proposes an anti-windup controller design method. Firstly, an H ∞ dynamic controller is designed to obtain robust performance of the closed-loop control system in the absence of the GRC. Then, an anti-windup compensator (AWC is formulated to restrict the magnitude and rate of the control input (namely power increment in the prescribed ranges so that the operation of generation unit does not exceed the physical constraints. Finally, the anti-windup LFC is tested on the multi-area interconnected power systems, and the simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed LFC design method with GRC.

  17. Focal adhesions and cell-matrix interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    Focal adhesions are areas of cell surfaces where specializations of cytoskeletal, membrane and extracellular components combine to produce stable cell-matrix interactions. The morphology of these adhesions and the components identified in them are discussed together with possible mechanisms of th...

  18. Laser Dazzling of Focal Plane Array Cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Dimmeler, A.; Eberle, B; Heuvel, J.C. van den; Mieremet, A.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Mellier, B.

    2007-01-01

    Laser countermeasures against infrared focal plane array cameras aim to saturate the full camera image. In this paper we will discuss the results of dazzling experiments performed with MWIR lasers. In the “low energy” pulse regime we observe an increasing saturated area with increasing power. The si

  19. Immediate loading of postextraction implants in the esthetic area: systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Ceresoli, Valentina; Taschieri, Silvio; Ceci, Caterina; Testori, Tiziano

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the present systematic review was to estimate the survival rate of implants placed in fresh extraction sockets and immediately restored. Secondary aims were to compare it with the survival rate of implants placed in healed ridges and of implants restored according to a delayed protocol as well as to assess the influence of several other confounding factors on the clinical outcomes. An electronic search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases in order to identify prospective clinical studies published from 1990 to October 2012. A hand search was also done. Studies were selected according to specific inclusion criteria. The effect of the following parameters on 1-year implant survival (IS) was statistically evaluated: study design, risk of bias, prosthesis type, type of loading (occlusal or nonocclusal), type of incision (flap or flapless), presence of infection, and grafting material. A meta-analysis of studies comparing immediately restored implants placed in fresh postextraction sockets versus healed ridges was conducted. Seven randomized trials, three controlled trials, and 35 case series were included, accounting for 1170 patients and 1974 postextraction implants immediately restored. Twenty-eight studies had a low risk of bias. The overall 1-year IS was 97.6%. All failures occurred within 1 year of function. Meta-analysis showed a significant better outcome for implants placed in healed ridge (IS = 99.4%) as compared with postextraction implants (IS = 95.6%). No other parameter had a significant effect on clinical outcomes. Most variables, among which the esthetic aspect, could not be assessed as they were not systematically reported. Though the conventional protocol still represents the gold standard, immediate restoration of implants placed in fresh extraction sites displayed an excellent implant prognosis. Such clinical approach can be successfully adopted in order to minimize the treatment time with a relevant impact

  20. Tibia Vara due to Focal Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tavakoli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of unilateral tibia vara associated with an area of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the medial aspect of the right proximal tibia. Such a case has not been described previously. The affected child was 8 months old. Deformity resolved without aggressive treatment. The pathogenesis of the focal lesion remains controversial. The most likely explanation is that the mesenchymal anlage of the tibial metaphysis has for unknown reasons, developed abnormality at the insertion of the pes anserinus. Keywords: Tibia Vara, Pes Anserinus

  1. The feasible study of focused Ultrasound on focal epilepsy in brain functional area%聚焦超声治疗猫功能区局灶性癫痫的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左保廷; 范熙明; 张卫星; 翟宝进

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) on focal epilepsy of brain functional area in cat. Methods To establish focal epileptic models in the cats' motor cortex by penicillin. According to different transducer power and therapy time, the groups were divided as 2W/3s, 2W/5s, 3W/3s and 3W/5s. They are compared in seizure control and functional preservation by observation behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG), and the therapentic mechanism is approached by analysis of histopathology in the damaged cortex. Results In seizure control, the results indicated that it was obviously different in statistics which 2W/5s group and 3W/3s group compared with 2W/3s group and 3W/5s group (P <0. 05). The pathologic changes are showed that ischemic change and coagulative necrosis of superficial layer nerval cells. The depth of lesion correlated well with the changes of transducer power and duration of thermocoagulation. Conclusion The focused ultrasound with proper power and duration can effectively destroy and cut off the association of cortical horizontal fibre, meanwhile, the cortical function still to be reserved. Therefore, FUS is safe and available on focal epilepsy of brain functional area.%目的 探讨聚焦超声波治疗猫功能区局灶性癫痫的可行性及有效性.方法 建立青霉素诱发的猫运动区局灶性癫痫模型.根据换能器功率及治疗时间不同,分为2W/3s组,2W/5s组,3W/3s组及3W/5s组,通过行为学观察及脑电图(EEG)监测,比较各组在控制癫痫发作方面的效果;通过对治疗区脑组织进行组织病理学观察,探讨聚焦超声波治疗功能区局灶性癫痫的机制.结果 在控制癫痫发作方面,2W/5s组及3W/3s组治疗效果与2W/3s组及3W/5s组相比,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).其病理学改变均表现为皮质浅层神经细胞的缺血性改变甚至凝固性坏死,皮层损伤深度随着换能器功率和持续时

  2. 聚焦超声治疗脑功能区局灶性癫痫的实验研究%Experimental study of focused ultrasound on focal epilepsy in brain functional area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左保廷; 范熙明; 张卫星; 翟宝进

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety, efficacy and therapeutic mechanism of focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) on focal epilepsy of brain functional area in cat. Methods The focal epileptic models in the cats' motor cortex by penicillin were established. The different techniques were apphed in the animals epilepsy model. FUS, cortex thermocoagulation and multiple subpial transaction (MST) were compared in seizure control and functional preservation by observing behavior and electroencephalogram ( EEG), and the therapentic mechanism was compared by analysis of histopathology in the damaged cortex. Results In seizure control and EEG changes, three kinds of techniques were similar without prominent difference in statistics (P > 0.05). The same pathologic changes were showed in FUS group and cortex thermocoagulation group, ischemic change and coagulative necrosis of superficial layer nerval cells. The major pathologic change in MST group was an irregular crevice which was vertical with the surface of the cortex. The edema and mild gliosis were found around the crevice. Conclusions The focused ultrasound can effectively destroy and cut off the association of cortical horizontal fibre, meanwhile, the cortical function still to be reserved.Therefore, FUS is safe and effective as well as MST and cortex thermocoagulation on focal epilepsy in brain functional area.%目的 探讨聚焦超声波对猫功能区局灶性癫痫治疗的安全性、有效性及治疗机制。方法 建立青霉素诱发的猫运动区局灶性癫痫模型。给予不同的治疗方式,通过行为学观察及脑电图监测,比较聚焦超声、皮层热凝及多软膜下横纤维切断术在控制癫痫发作方面的效果及运动区功能保护方面的差异;通过对治疗区脑组织进行组织病理学观察,比较3种处理因素在治疗机制上的差别。结果 在控制癫痫发作及脑电图改变方面,聚焦超声治疗与皮层热凝及多软膜下横纤维切断术

  3. Light Particle Tracking Model for Simulating Bed Sediment Transport Load in River Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel E. Herrera-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a fast computational particles tracer model is developed based on Particle-In-Cell method to estimate the sediment transport in the access zone of a river port area. To apply the particles tracer method, first it is necessary to calculate the hydrodynamic fields of the study zone to determine the velocity fields in the three directions. The particle transport is governed mainly by the velocity fields and the turbulent dispersion. The mechanisms of dispersion and resuspension of particles are based in stochastic models, which describes the movement through a probability function. The developed code was validated using two well known cases with a discrete transformation obtaining a max relative error around 4.8% in both cases. The simulations were carried out with 350,000 particles allowing us to determine under certain circumstances different hydrodynamic scenarios where the zones are susceptible to present erosion and siltation at the entrance of the port.

  4. Task-load-dependent activation of dopaminergic midbrain areas in the absence of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Stoppel, Christian M; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Noesselt, Toemme

    2011-03-30

    Dopamine release in cortical and subcortical structures plays a central role in reward-related neural processes. Within this context, dopaminergic inputs are commonly assumed to play an activating role, facilitating behavioral and cognitive operations necessary to obtain a prospective reward. Here, we provide evidence from human fMRI that this activating role can also be mediated by task-demand-related processes and thus extends beyond situations that only entail extrinsic motivating factors. Using a visual discrimination task in which varying levels of task demands were precued, we found enhanced hemodynamic activity in the substantia nigra (SN) for high task demands in the absence of reward or similar extrinsic motivating factors. This observation thus indicates that the SN can also be activated in an endogenous fashion. In parallel to its role in reward-related processes, reward-independent activation likely serves to recruit the processing resources needed to meet enhanced task demands. Simultaneously, activity in a wide network of cortical and subcortical control regions was enhanced in response to high task demands, whereas areas of the default-mode network were deactivated more strongly. The present observations suggest that the SN represents a core node within a broader neural network that adjusts the amount of available neural and behavioral resources to changing situational opportunities and task requirements, which is often driven by extrinsic factors but can also be controlled endogenously.

  5. Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan beads with enhanced surface area for the removal of nitrate and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Appunni; Meenakshi, Sankaran

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a new method namely silica dissolution method, has been adapted to increase the surface area of the cross-linked chitosan beads. Zr(IV) was loaded in the cross-linked chitosan beads in order to make it selective for the nitrate and phosphate anions from aqueous solutions. Zr(IV) loaded cross-linked chitosan beads prepared by normal method (ZrCB) and silica dissolution method (SD-ZrCB) were characterised using N2 adsorption/desorption studies, SEM, EDAX, XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA and water regain property. The SD-ZrCB exhibited higher N2 adsorption, water regain property as well as anion adsorption capacity than ZrCB. Batch method was adapted for the adsorption studies. The nitrate and phosphate adsorbed SD-ZrCB was regenerated using 0.025M NaCl solution. There was not much drop in adsorption capacities up to 10th regeneration cycle. Freundlich adsorption isotherm was the best fit adsorption isotherm among Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms which have been used to fit the nitrate and phosphate adsorption data. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were calculated in order to understand the nature of adsorption process.

  6. Tie-Line Bias Control Applicability to Load Frequency Control for Multi-Area Interconnected Power Systems of Complex Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tie-line bias control (TBC method has been widely used in the load frequency control (LFC of multi-area interconnected systems. However, it should be questioned whether the conventional TBC can still apply to LFC when considering the complication of structures of power systems. LFC, in essence, is to stabilize system frequency/tie-line power by controlling controlled outputs’ area control error (ACE. In this paper, relations between LFC control variables and controlled outputs are expressed as a system of equations, based on which an exemplary ring network is studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for TBC applicability is presented, and a novel LFC mode is proposed for a general ring network where TBC cannot work. Finally, TBC applicability to multi-area systems with general topology is studied, and a general LFC mode is proposed for systems where TBC is not definitely applicable, thus rendering routines that may guide LFC design of future power systems with more complex topologies.

  7. Multivariable predictive control considering time delay for load-frequency control in multi-area power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniar Sabah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multivariable model based predictive control (MPC is proposed for the solution of load frequency control (LFC in a multi-area interconnected power system. The proposed controller is designed to consider time delay, generation rate constraint and multivariable nature of the LFC system, simultaneously. A new formulation of the MPC is presented to compensate time delay. The generation rate constraint is considered by employing a constrained MPC and economic allocation of the generation is further guaranteed by an innovative modification in the predictive control objective function. The effectiveness of proposed scheme is verified through time-based simulations on the standard 39-bus test system and the responses are then compared with the proportional-integral controller. The evaluation of the results reveals that the proposed control scheme offers satisfactory performance with fast responses.

  8. Permanent focal brain ischemia induces isoform-dependent changes in the pattern of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger gene expression in the ischemic core, periinfarct area, and intact brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscia, Francesca; Gala, Rosaria; Pignataro, Giuseppe; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Cicale, Maria; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2006-04-01

    Dysregulation of sodium [Na+]i and calcium [Ca2+]i homeostasis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Three gene products of the sodium-calcium exchanger family NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 couple, in a bidirectional way, the movement of these ions across the cell membrane during cerebral ischemia. Each isoform displays a selective distribution in the rat brain. To determine whether NCX gene expression can be regulated after cerebral ischemia, we used NCX isoform-specific antisense radiolabeled probes to analyze, by radioactive in situ hybridization histochemistry, the pattern of NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3 transcripts in the ischemic core, periinfarct area, as well as in nonischemic brain regions, after 6 and 24 h of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in rats. We found that in the focal region, comprising divisions of the prefrontal, somatosensory, and insular cortices, all three NCX transcripts were downregulated. In the periinfarct area, comprising part of the motor cortex and the lateral compartments of the caudate-putamen, NCX2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was downregulated, whereas NCX3 mRNA was significantly upregulated. In remote nonischemic brain regions such as the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, and tenia tecta, both NCX1 and NCX3 transcripts were upregulated, whereas in the medial caudate-putamen only NCX3 transcripts increased. In all these intact regions, NCX2 signal strongly decreased. These results indicate that NCX gene expression is regulated after pMCAO in a differential manner, depending on the exchanger isoform and region involved in the insult. These data may provide a better understanding of each NCX subtype's pathophysiologic role and may allow researchers to design appropriate pharmacological strategies to treat brain ischemia.

  9. Expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Emel Uzun; Acikgoz, Aydan; Ozan, Bora; Zengin, Ayse Zeynep; Gunhan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    To present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia and emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is categorized into three subtypes on the basis of the clinical and radiographic features: Periapical, focal and florid. The focal type exhibits a single site of involvement in any tooth-bearing or edentulous area of the jaws. These lesions are usually asymptomatic; therefore, they are frequently diagnosed incidentally during routine radiographic examinations. Lesions are usually benign, show limited growth, and do not require further surgical intervention, but periodic follow-up is recommended because occasionally, this type of dysplasia progresses into florid osseous dysplasia and simple bone cysts are formed. A 24-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for swelling in the left edentulous mandibular premolarmolar region and felt discomfort when she wore her prosthetics. She had no pain, tenderness or paresthesia. Clinical examination showed that the swelling in the posterior mandible that was firm, nonfluctuant and covered by normal mucosa. On panoramic radiography and computed tomography, a well defined lesion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter of mixed density was observed. The swelling increased slightly in size over 2 years making it difficult to use prosthetics and, therefore, the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia, and surgical specimens were submitted for histopathological examination. The histopathological diagnosis was focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. In the present case, because of the increasing size of the swelling making it difficult to use prosthetics, young age of the patient and localization of the lesion, in the initial examination, cemento-ossifying fibroma was suspected, and the lesion was excised surgically; the histopathological diagnosis confirmed it as focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. We present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Differential diagnosis

  10. Systemic focal epileptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

  11. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  12. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  13. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contrast arthrography orMagnetic Resonance Imaging is indicated when radiological features are questionable and to disclose thepresence and location of the femoral head and any cartilagenous anlage. The disorder is more commonlyunilateral and is apparent at birth. However, bilateral involvement is rarely seen. Therapy of the disorder isdirected towards satisfactory ambulation and specific treatment depending on the severity of dysplasia.

  14. Stress intensity factors and crack opening areas for axial through cracks in hollow cylinders under internal pressure loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, R.

    1986-01-01

    For a linear-elastic cylinder with an axial through crack subject to internal pressure loading, stress intensity factors and crack opening areas were calculated by the finite element method. Wall thickness and crack length were varied for constant mean radius of the cylinder, thus varying the shell parameter lambda with 2.5 areas are given and compared to an approximate analytical formula from the literature. Some general limitations of the validity of the present results, particularly the required minimum lengths of the cylinder, are discussed.

  15. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  16. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2013-01-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

  17. FOCAL EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA: HECK’S DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease (focal epithelial hyperplasia) (FEH) is clinically characterized by multiple circumscribed, soft elevated nodules of the oral mucosa. Papules and plaques are usually the color of normal mucosa, but may be pale or, rarely, white. Disease may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Lessions may be located in the area of mucous membranes of the lips, cheeks and tongue. It is believed that the two virus types are responsible for the FEH, are: HPV 1...

  18. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Kimaro, Didas N; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Fleas associated with different rodent species are considered as the major vectors of bubonic plague, which is still rampant in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution at fine scale in the plague endemic area of north-eastern Tanzania. Data was collected in three case areas namely, Shume, Lukozi and Mwangoi, differing in plague incidence levels. Data collection was carried out during both wet and dry seasons of 2012. Analysis of Variance and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical methods were used to clarify the relationships between fleas and specific land use characteristics. There was a significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) of flea indices in different land use types. Fallow and natural forest had higher flea indices whereas plantation forest mono-crop and mixed annual crops had the lowest flea indices among the aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on flea indices was variable with fallow having a positive effect and land tillage showing a negative effect. The results also demonstrated a seasonal effect, part of which can be attributed to different land use practices such as application of pesticides, or the presence of grass strips around fields. These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on the other, in planning and implementation of plague control interventions.

  19. Prospective comparative study of tapered implants with SLA surfaces in the maxillary posterior area according to 3- and 6-month loading time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Yi, Yang-Jin; Kwon, Min-Jung; Yun, Pil-Young

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate clinical outcomes of sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA)-surfaced tapered implants when early loaded in partially edentulous spaces in the maxilla. SLA-surfaced implants were placed in participants in the maxillary posterior edentulous area. At the time of definitive restoration, participants were allocated either to group 1 (3-month loading group) or group 2 (6-month loading group). A total of 36 participants (18 people [35 implants] in group 1 and 18 [33 implants] in group 2) were analyzed. Clinical outcomes, including survival rate and peri-implant parameters such as marginal bone loss were measured 1 year after loading. The survival rate was 97.0% in group 1 and 100% in group 2. Marginal bone loss was 0.22 ± 0.34 mm in group 1 and 0.17 ± 0.25 mm in group 2 at 1 year after loading (P = .488). There were no significant differences between groups in keratinized mucosal width (P = .206), Plaque Index (P = .677), or Gingival Index (P = .558). With adequate remaining bone height and primary implant stability achieved, the 3-month early loading of SLA-surface tapered implants may be a viable choice when restoring posterior maxillary edentulous areas.

  20. Thermotolerant coliform loadings to coastal areas of Santa Catarina (Brazil) evidence the effect of growing urbanisation and insufficient provision of sewerage infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, Luis H P; Souza, Robson V; Campos, Carlos J A; Vanz, Argeu; Vianna, Luiz F N; Rupp, Guilherme S

    2017-01-01

    Thermotolerant coliform (TC) loadings were quantified for 49 catchments draining into the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina (SC, southeastern Brazil), an area known for its tourism and aquaculture. TC loadings were calculated based on flow measurements taken in 26 rivers. TC concentrations ere quantified based on surface water samples collected at 49 catchment outlets in 2012 and 2013. Median TC loads ranged from 3.7 × 10(3) to 6.8 × 10(8) MPN s(-1). TC loadings in the catchments increased in proportion to increases in resident human population, population density and percentage of urbanised area. Catchments with more than 60% of area covered by wastewater collection and treatment systems had higher TC loads per person than catchments with less than 25%. Based on the study catchments, these results indicate that current sewerage infrastructure is ineffective in reducing contamination of faecal origin to surface waters. These findings have important implications for the management of microbiological health hazards in bathing, recreational and shellfish aquaculture waters in the North and South Bays of Santa Catarina Island.

  1. Overview with methods and procedures of the U.S. Geological Survey mineral-resource assessment of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming: Chapter A in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Frost, Thomas P.

    2016-08-19

    This report, chapter A of Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089, provides an overview of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The report also describes the methods, procedures, and voluminous fundamental reference information used throughout the assessment. Data from several major publicly available databases and other published sources were used to develop an understanding of the locatable, leaseable, and salable mineral resources of this vast area. This report describes the geologic, mineral-occurrence, geochemical, geophysical, remote-sensing, and Bureau of Land Management mineral-case-status data used for the assessment, along with the methods for evaluating locatable mineral-resource potential. The report also discusses energy-resource data (oil and gas, coal, and geothermal) used in the assessment. Appendixes include summary descriptive mineral-deposit models that provide the criteria necessary to assess for the pertinent locatable minerals and market-demand commodity profiles for locatable mineral commodities relevant to the project. Datasets used in the assessment are available as USGS data releases.

  2. FOCAL MOTOR SEIZURES WITH TYPICAL AUTOMATISMS (FOCAL AUTOMOTOR SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mironov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of a group of patients with focal automotor seizures, by taking into consideration their nosological, anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions focal dermal hypoplasia focal dermal hypoplasia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Focal dermal hypoplasia is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the ...

  4. Focal Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using Irreversible Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Massimo; Ahmed, Hashim U; Emberton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Focal therapy is a novel strategy that attempts to enhance the therapeutic ratio of standard radical treatment in prostate cancer. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has some inherent characteristics that may be ideal for focal therapy. Precise confined ablation in the treatment area obtained via nonthermal damage with potential for minimal toxicity to surrounding structures may lead to optimal treatment with improved preservation of continence and erectile function. Initial data of focal IRE of the prostate are encouraging although further assessment is awaited to confirm these findings using robust methodology. In this article, we provide a comprehensive step-by-step description of our technique to deliver focal IRE in selected men with localized prostate cancer located in a discrete area of the prostate.

  5. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05 with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg. Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

  6. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  7. Application of Entropy Measures on Intrinsic Mode Functions for the Automated Identification of Focal Electroencephalogram Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a complex structure made up of interconnected neurons, and its electrical activities can be evaluated using electroencephalogram (EEG signals. The characteristics of the brain area affected by partial epilepsy can be studied using focal and non-focal EEG signals. In this work, a method for the classification of focal and non-focal EEG signals is presented using entropy measures. These entropy measures can be useful in assessing the nonlinear interrelation and complexity of focal and non-focal EEG signals. These EEG signals are first decomposed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method to extract intrinsic mode functions (IMFs. The entropy features, namely, average Shannon entropy (ShEnAvg, average Renyi’s entropy (RenEnAvg , average approximate entropy (ApEnAvg, average sample entropy (SpEnAvg and average phase entropies (S1Avg and S2Avg, are computed from different IMFs of focal and non-focal EEG signals. These entropies are used as the input feature set for the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM classifier to classify into focal and non-focal EEG signals. Experimental results show that our proposed method is able to differentiate the focal and non-focal EEG signals with an average classification accuracy of 87% correct.

  8. Exploring the formation of focal adhesions on patterned surfaces using super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Fan-Ching; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Yang, Zong-Han; Chueh, Di-Yen; Chen, Peilin

    2011-10-17

    The formation of focal adhesions on various sizes of fibronectin patterns, ranging from 200 μm to 250 nm, was systematically investigated by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and super-resolution imaging. It was found that cells adhered to and spread on these micro/nanopatterns, forming focal adhesions. On a micrometer scale the shape of the focal adhesions was elongated. However, on the nanometer scale, the shape of focal adhesions became dotlike. To further explore the distribution of focal adhesion proteins formed on surfaces, a localization-based super-resolution imaging technique was employed in order to determine the position and density of vinculin proteins. A characteristic distance of 50 nm was found between vinculin molecules in the focal adhesions, which did not depend on the size of the fibronectin nanopatterns. This distance was found to be crucial for the formation of focal adhesions. In addition, the density of vinculin at the focal adhesions formed on the nanopatterns increased as the pattern size decreased. The density of the protein was found to be 425 ± 247, 584 ± 302, and 703 ± 305 proteins μm(-2) on the 600, 400, and 250 nm fibronectin patterns respectively. Whereas 226 ± 77 proteins μm(-2) was measured for the matured focal adhesions on homogeneous fibronectin coated substrates. The increase in vinculin density implies that an increase in mechanical load was applied to the focal adhesions formed on the smaller nanopatterns.

  9. [Focal epileptic seizures ipsilateral to the tumor: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, Sebastião Silva; Mendes, Mirian Fabíola Studart; Silveira, Roberto Leal

    2002-06-01

    Focal somatosensory epileptic seizures ipsilateral to a brain tumor is reported and the literature reviewed. It is an exceptional occurrence, having been described only six cases, with several mechanisms being proposed. The proximity of the lesions with the low cerebral convexity (perisylvian) suggests the compromising of the secondary somatosensorial area, seeming to prove the experimental observation of somatosensorial crises originating in this area.

  10. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo; Pricila Oliveira Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do EC...

  11. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo; Pricila Oliveira Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do EC...

  12. FOCAL EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA: HECK’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heck's disease (focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH is clinically characterized by multiple circumscribed, soft elevated nodules of the oral mucosa. Papules and plaques are usually the color of normal mucosa, but may be pale or, rarely, white. Disease may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Lessions may be located in the area of mucous membranes of the lips, cheeks and tongue. It is believed that the two virus types are responsible for the FEH, are: HPV 13 and HPV 32. Different therapeutic procedures have been reported: surgical excision, laser ablation, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, interferon, retinoic acid, 5% immiquimod.

  13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

  14. Impairment-Based 3-D Robotic Intervention Improves Upper Extremity Work Area in Chronic Stroke: Targeting Abnormal Joint Torque Coupling With Progressive Shoulder Abduction Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa M.; Dewald, Julius P. A.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of a robotic system (ACT3D) that allowed for a quantitative measurement of abnormal joint torque coupling in chronic stroke survivors and, most importantly, a quantitative means of initiating and progressing an impairment-based intervention, is described. Individuals with chronic moderate to severe stroke (n = 8) participated in this single-group pretest-posttest design study. Subjects were trained over eight weeks by progressively increasing the level of shoulder abduction loading experienced by the participant during reaching repetitions as performance improved. Reaching work area was evaluated pre- and postintervention for ten different shoulder abduction loading levels along with isometric single-joint strength and a qualitative clinical assessment of impairment. There was a significant effect of session (pre versus post) with an increase in reaching work area, despite no change in single-joint strength. This data suggests that specifically targeting the abnormal joint torque coupling impairment through progressive shoulder abduction loading is an effective strategy for improving reaching work area following hemiparetic stroke. Application of robotics, namely, the ACT3D, allowed for quantitative control of the exercise parameters needed to directly target the synergistic coupling impairment. The targeted reduction of abnormal joint torque coupling is likely the key factor explaining the improvements in reaching range of motion achieved with this intervention. PMID:20657711

  15. Design and analysis of tilt integral derivative controller with filter for load frequency control of multi-area interconnected power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sahu, Rabindra; Panda, Sidhartha; Biswal, Ashutosh; Chandra Sekhar, G T

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel Tilt Integral Derivative controller with Filter (TIDF) is proposed for Load Frequency Control (LFC) of multi-area power systems. Initially, a two-area power system is considered and the parameters of the TIDF controller are optimized using Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm employing an Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE) criterion. The superiority of the proposed approach is demonstrated by comparing the results with some recently published heuristic approaches such as Firefly Algorithm (FA), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) optimized PID controllers for the same interconnected power system. Investigations reveal that proposed TIDF controllers provide better dynamic response compared to PID controller in terms of minimum undershoots and settling times of frequency as well as tie-line power deviations following a disturbance. The proposed approach is also extended to two widely used three area test systems considering nonlinearities such as Generation Rate Constraint (GRC) and Governor Dead Band (GDB). To improve the performance of the system, a Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) is also considered and the performance of TIDF controller in presence of TCSC is investigated. It is observed that system performance improves with the inclusion of TCSC. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out to test the robustness of the proposed controller by varying the system parameters, operating condition and load pattern. It is observed that the proposed controllers are robust and perform satisfactorily with variations in operating condition, system parameters and load pattern.

  16. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  17. Focal fits during chlorambucil therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naysmith, A.; Robson, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An elderly man receiving chlorambucil for chronic lymphatic leukaemia developed focal fits. The onset and frequency were dose related. There was no evidence of metabolic disturbance or of meningeal leukaemia. Although reported in children and well recognized in animals, chlorambucil-induced fits in an adult have not been previously recorded. PMID:118440

  18. Focal lesions of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

  19. Load frequency stabilization by coordinated control of Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifters and superconducting magnetic energy storage for three types of interconnected two-area power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, automatic generation control with interconnected two-area multi-unit all-hydro power system and two more test systems as all-thermal and thermal-hydro mixed haves been investigated. The transfer function of hydro turbine having non-minimum phase characteristics makes it different from the steam turbine. Upon application of small load perturbation to such all-hydro system, the frequency is severely disturbed and the system eventually becomes unstable. To stabilize the system for such load disturbance, comparative transient performance of two cases as (a) Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifter (TCPS) installed in series with the tie-line in coordination with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and (b) SMES located at each terminal of both areas are analyzed. It is observed that the case (b) i.e. SMES located at each terminal of both areas suppresses the frequency oscillations more effectively in integral controller assisted AGC of two-area multi-unit all-hydro system and the other two systems as well. In addition, the effectiveness of proposed frequency stabilizers is guaranteed by analyzing the transient responses of the system with different system parameters, various load patterns and in the event of temporary and permanent tie-line outage. Gains of the integral controller in AGC loop and parameters of TCPS and SMES are optimized with the help of a relatively novel particle swarm optimization, developed by the authors, called as craziness-based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO). The optimizing performance has been compared to that of real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA) to establish its superiority. (author)

  20. An adaptive set-point modulation technique to enhance the performance of load frequency controllers in a multi-area power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ketabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parameters and configuration of power systems are continuously prone to change. This might negatively affect the performance of load frequency controllers. PI controllers are widely used for load frequency control (LFC in power systems. Hence, enhancing the performance of these controllers is of great importance. In this paper, an adaptive set-point modulation (ASPM method is proposed to enhance the performance of PI controllers. Simulation studies carried out on a two-area power system with different types of generating units and HVDC link prove the superiority of the proposed adaptive set-point modulation assisted proportional integral (ASPM-PI over the conventional proportional integral (PI and proportional integral derivative (PID controllers. It has also been shown that the ASPM-PI controller is robust in case of power system parameters variations and change in the configuration.

  1. Focal rigidity of flat tori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Kwakkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ∪iΣi called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets Σi are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ∪iΣi chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos Σi estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

  2. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 23. Quantification of mass loading from mined and unmined areas along the Red River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Briant A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Runkel, Robert L.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Phillip L.

    2006-01-01

    Along the course of the Red River, between the town of Red River, New Mexico, and the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near Questa, New Mexico, there are several catchments that contain hydrothermally altered bedrock. Some of these alteration zones have been mined and others have not, presenting an opportunity to evaluate differences that may exist in the mass loading of metals from mined and unmined sections. Such differences may help to define pre-mining conditions. Spatially detailed chemical sampling at stream and inflow sites occurred during low-flow conditions in 2001 and 2002, and during the synoptic sampling, stream discharge was calculated by tracer dilution. Discharge from most catchments, particularly those with alteration scars, occurred as ground water in large debris fans, which generally traveled downstream in an alluvial aquifer until geomorphic constraints caused it to discharge at several locations along the study reach. Locations of discharge zones were indicated by the occurrence of numerous inflows as seeps and springs. Inflows were classified into four groups, based on differences in chemical character, which ranged from near-neutral water showing no influence of mining or alteration weathering to acidic water with high concentrations of metals and sulfate. Acidic, metal-rich inflows occurred from mined and unmined areas, but the most-acidic inflow water that had the highest concentrations of metals and sulfate only occurred downstream from the mine. Locations of ground-water inflow also corresponded to substantial changes in stream chemistry and mass loading of metals and sulfate. The greatest loading occurred in the Cabin Springs, Thunder Bridge, and Capulin Canyon sections, which all occur downstream from the mine. A distinct chemical character and substantially greater loading in water downstream from the mine suggest that there could be impacts from mining that can be distinguished from the water draining from unmined

  3. Stable isotope database - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  4. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J

    2004-05-01

    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  5. Load Frequency Control of a Two-Area Thermal-Hybrid Power System Using a Novel Quasi-Opposition Harmony Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahto, Tarkeshwar; Mukherjee, V.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, a two-area thermal-hybrid interconnected power system, consisting of a thermal unit in one area and a hybrid wind-diesel unit in other area is considered. Capacitive energy storage (CES) and CES with static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) are connected to the studied two-area model to compensate for varying load demand, intermittent output power and area frequency oscillation. A novel quasi-opposition harmony search (QOHS) algorithm is proposed and applied to tune the various tunable parameters of the studied power system model. Simulation study reveals that inclusion of CES unit in both the areas yields superb damping performance for frequency and tie-line power deviation. From the simulation results it is further revealed that inclusion of SSSC is not viable from both technical as well as economical point of view as no considerable improvement in transient performance is noted with its inclusion in the tie-line of the studied power system model. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the potential of the proposed QOHS algorithm and show its effectiveness and robustness for solving frequency and power drift problems of the studied power systems. Binary coded genetic algorithm is taken for sake of comparison.

  6. Association between obesity and focal nodular hyperplasia telangiectasia. 24 cases re-evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Rojas, J.¹; Guarín Corredor, M. J.; Artes Martínez, M. J.¹; Vera Sempere, F. J.¹, ²; Brisa Estelles, C.¹; Huart Peris, M. C.¹; Hernández Girón, S.¹

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Focal nodular hyperplasia is not a true neoplasm. Itis a regenerative response of hepatocytes to a vascular abnormality.24 cases were re-evaluated and diagnosed at pathologic examination confirmed as focal nodular hyperplasia.Three of the 24 cases were reclassified as inflammatory telangiectatic adenomas with imnumorreactividadagainst amyloid A.The presence of vascular and sinusoidal dilatation,congestion, peliotic areas with signs of inflammationassociated with focal or diffuse immunoreactivity compared to Amyloid are histological signs that indicatethe presence of inflammatory telangiectatic hepatocellular adenomas, formerly classified as focal nodularhyperplasia, atypical.An increased reactivity to Amyloid and associationmetabolic syndrome characterizes inflammatory telangiectatic adenomas.

  7. The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eVaughan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in humans. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  8. The piriform cortex and human focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David N; Jackson, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in focal cortical epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Oikawa, T; Sveinsdottir, E

    1976-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in ten patients with focal cortical epilepsy. The blood flow was measured by the intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 (133Xe), and the isotope clearance was recorded by a multidetector scintillation camera with 254 detectors. Three patients were....... This finding accords with earlier studies. All nine patients studied in the interictal phase showed, either spontaneously or during activation by intermittent light, focal flow increases in areas presumed to comprise the epileptic focus. These interictal hyperemic foci probably reflect subictal neuronal...

  10. Visceral fat area is associated with HbA1c but not dialysate-related glucose load in nondiabetic PD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Chun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with increased visceral fat area (VFA) have been well documented in the general population but rarely explored in nondiabetic individuals on peritoneal dialysis (PD). As glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is positively correlated with VFA in diabetic patients, we hypothesized that the same correlation would exist in nondiabetic PD patients. We enrolled 105 nondiabetic patients who had undergone chronic PD for more than 3 months. Each subject underwent an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan, and the umbilicus cut was analyzed for VFA. VFA values, corrected for body mass index and subjected to natural logarithm transformations, were examined to determine whether they were correlated with HbA1c and other parameters. PD dialysates prescribed at the time of enrollment were recorded to calculate glucose load. We found that when 105 nondiabetic PD patients were classified according to tertiles of HbA1c, higher HbA1c was associated with larger VFA. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HbA1c was an independent determinant of VFA, while glucose load and other PD-specific factors were not. In summary, HbA1c, but not PD-related glucose load, was positively correlated with VFA in nondiabetic PD patients, suggesting clinical utility of HbA1c in the PD population.

  11. Development of EMC-based empirical model for estimating spatial distribution of pollutant loads and its application in rural areas of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qitao; Li, Hui; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-09-01

    An integrated approach to easily calculate pollutant loads from agricultural watersheds is suggested and verified in this research. The basic concepts of this empirical tool were based on the assumption that variations in event mean concentrations (EMCs) of pollutants from a given agricultural watershed during rainstorms were only attributable to the rainfall pattern. Fifty one sets of EMC values were obtained from nine different watersheds located in the rural areas of Korea, and these data were used to develop predictive tools for the EMCs in rainfall runoff. The results of statistical tests of these formulas show that they are fairly good in predicting actual EMC values of some parameters, and useful in terms of calculating pollutant loads for any rainfall event time span such as daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly. This model was further checked in for its field applicability in a reservoir receiving stormwater after a cleanup of the sediments, covering 17 consecutive rainfall events from 1 July to 15 August in 2007. Overall the predicted values matched the observed values, indicating the feasibility of this empirical tool as a simple and useful solution in evaluating timely distribution of nonpoint source pollution loads from small rural watersheds of Korea.

  12. Characterization of sources and loadings of fecal pollutants using microbial source tracking assays in urban and rural areas of the Grand River Watershed, Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T; Weir, Susan C; Thomas, Janis L; Habash, Marc

    2014-04-15

    Sources of fecal water pollution were assessed in the Grand River and two of its tributaries (Ontario, Canada) using total and host-specific (human and bovine) Bacteroidales genetic markers in conjunction with reference information, such as land use and weather. In-stream levels of the markers and culturable Escherichia coli were also monitored during multiple rain events to gain information on fecal loadings to catchment from diffuse sources. Elevated human-specific marker levels were accurately identified in river water impacted by a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and at a downstream site in the Grand River. In contrast, the bovine-specific marker showed high levels of cattle fecal pollution in two tributaries, both of which are characterized as intensely farmed areas. The bovine-specific Bacteroidales marker increased with rainfall in the agricultural tributaries, indicating enhanced loading of cattle-derived fecal pollutants to river from non-point sources following rain events. However, rain-triggered fecal loading was not substantiated in urban settings, indicating continuous inputs of human-originated fecal pollutants from point sources, such as WWTP effluent. This study demonstrated that the Bacteroidales source tracking assays, in combination with land use information and hydrological data, may provide additional insight into the spatial and temporal distribution of source-specific fecal contamination in streams impacted by varying land uses. Using the approach described in this study may help to characterize impacted water sources and to design targeted land use management plans in other watersheds in the future.

  13. Strength and durability tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing under the influence of operational loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with integrated research works and tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” which is laid in the eternally frozen grounds. In order to ensure the above-ground routing method for the oil pipeline “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” and in view of the lack of construction experience in case of above-ground routing of oil pipelines, the leading research institute of JSC “Transneft” - LLC “NII TNN” over the period of August, 2011 - September, 2012 performed a research and development work on the subject “Development and production of pipeline supports and pile foundation test specimens for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe”. In the course of the works, the test specimens of fixed support, linear-sliding and free-sliding pipeline supports DN1000 and DN800 were produced and examined. For ensuring the stable structural reliability of the supports constructions and operational integrity of the pipelines the complex research works and tests were performed: 1. Cyclic tests of structural elements of the fixed support on the test bed of JSC “Diascan” by means of internal pressure and bending moment with the application of specially prepared equipment for defining the pipeline supports strength and durability. 2. Tests of the fixed support under the influence of limit operating loads and by means of internal pressure for confirming the support’s integrity. On the test bed there were simulated all the maximum loads on the support (vertical, longitudinal, side loadings, bending moment including subsidence of the neighboring sliding support and, simultaneously, internal pressure of the carried medium. 3. Cyclic tests of endurance and stability of the displacements of sliding supports under the influence of limit operating loads for confirming their operation capacity. Relocation of the pipeline on the sliding

  14. Influence of load interdependencies of flood defences on probabilities and risks at the Bovenrijn/IJssel area, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.J.; Kok, M.; de Bruijn, K.M.; Jonkman, S.N.; van Overloop, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, flood risk analysis is usually carried out for a location, without considering potential flood defence failures in upstream areas. This may result in significant over- or underestimation of flood risks. The effect of upstream failures on failure probabilities and flood risks in

  15. Influence of load interdependencies of flood defences on probabilities and risks at the Bovenrijn/IJssel area, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.J.; Kok, M.; de Bruijn, K.M.; Jonkman, S.N.; van Overloop, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, flood risk analysis is usually carried out for a location, without considering potential flood defence failures in upstream areas. This may result in significant over- or underestimation of flood risks. The effect of upstream failures on failure probabilities and flood risks in o

  16. Slow Activity in Focal Epilepsy During Sleep and Wakefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrino, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to test differences between healthy subjects and patients with respect to slow wave activity during wakefulness and sleep. Methods Fifteen patients affected by nonlesional focal epilepsy originating within temporal areas and fourteen matched controls underwent a 24-hour EEG...... recording. We studied the EEG power spectral density during wakefulness and sleep in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (5-7 Hz), alpha (8-11 Hz), sigma (12-15 Hz), and beta (16-20 Hz) bands. Results During sleep, patients with focal epilepsy showed higher power from delta to beta frequency bands compared with controls...... was the delta band during the first 2 sleep cycles (sleep cycle 1, P = .014; sleep cycle 2, P = .002). During wakefulness, patients showed higher delta/theta activity over the affected regions compared with controls. Conclusions Patients with focal epilepsy showed a pattern of power increases characterized...

  17. Influence of focal spot on characteristics of very small diameter radiosurgical beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Edwin; Seuntjens, Jan; Devic, Slobodan; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2008-07-01

    Percentage depth dose (PDD) distributions and beam profiles of very small diameter (1.5-5 mm) megavoltage radiosurgical beams calculated with Monte Carlo (MC) technique critically depend on the diameter of the circular focal spot used in the simulation: The smaller is the field diameter, the larger is the effect. Thus, in simulations of radiosurgical fields that have diameters of the order of the focal spot size, an accurate focal spot geometry should be used. We used a simplified moving slit technique in conjunction with a diode detector for evaluation of the focal spot size and shape of a megavoltage 6 MV linac as well as for determination of the equivalent focal spot diameter of the linac for use in MC simulations. The measured total diode signal contains three components: A direct focal spot signal, a background signal, and an extra-focal radiation signal. A single profile scan of the focal spot signal is Gaussian like in shape, and its full width at half maximum is used to define the focal spot dimension for this scan. The focal spot of our 6 MV linac is approximated with a Gaussian circle, and when the geometry of the effective focal spot circle is used in MC simulations, the agreement between MC-calculated and measured PDD distributions as well as beam profiles is good even for radiosurgical fields as small as 1.5 mm in diameter. Our results also confirm that matching the penumbral areas of accurately measured large-field beam profiles to the same areas of the MC-calculated beam profiles reliably leads to a realistic effective focal spot size for use in MC simulations of very small diameter beams.

  18. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  19. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    term "benign" is often used in connection with the IFEs and is increasingly being challenged. Certainly most of these disorders are not associated with the devastating cognitive and behavioural problems seen with early childhood epileptic encephalopathies, such as West or Dravet syndromes. However, it is clear that specific, and sometimes persistent, neuropsychological deficits in attention, language and literacy accompany many of the IFEs that, when multiplied by the large numbers affected, make up a significant public health problem. Understanding the nature, distribution, evolution, risk and management of these is an important area of current research. A corollary to such questions regarding comorbidities is the role of focal interictal spikes and their enduring impact on cognitive functioning. What explains the paradox that epilepsies characterised by abundant interictal epileptiform abnormalities are often associated with very few clinical seizures? This is an exciting area in both clinical and experimental arenas and will eventually have important implications for clinical management of the whole child, taking into account not just seizures, but also adaptive functioning and quality of life. For several decades, we have accepted an evidence-free approach to using or not using antiepileptic drugs in IFEs. There is huge international variation and only a handful of studies examining neurocognitive outcomes. Clearly, this is a situation ready for an overhaul in practice. Fundamental to understanding treatment is knowledge of aetiology. In recent years, there have been several significant discoveries in IFEs from studies of copy number variation, exome sequencing, and linkage that prompt reconsideration of the "unknown cause" classification and strongly suggest a genetic aetiology. The IFE are strongly age-related, both with regards to age of seizure onset and remission. Does this time window solely relate to a similar age-related gene expression, or are there

  20. Environmental Impact of Toxic Metal Load in Some Military Training Areas within the One Division of Nigerian Army, Kaduna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Nwaedozie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of six trace metals in the three military training areas in Nigeria, within Kaduna metropolis, viz:- Armed Forces Command and Staff College, Jaji, Nigeria Air Force Base, Kaduna and Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The level of lead, copper, chromium, zinc manganese and Nickel were assessed. The samples were collected in the month of September and the highest concentration of lead was found in Nigerian Air Force base shooting range (526.49mg/kg. Lead was also found to be high in the Shooting range of Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria (216.49 mg/kg while the Armed Forces Command and Staff College shooting range, Jaji has the least value (54.39mg/kg. The trend of trace metals in Nigeria Army Depot, Zaria , Shooting range is Mn > Pb > Zn> Cr>Cu >Ni while in Nigeria Armed Forces Command and Staff College Jaji, Shooting range it is Mn >Cr > Pb> Zn >Cu> Ni and at the Nigeria Air Force base, Kaduna it changes to Pb> Mn > Cu > Zn >Cr. The high value of Mn and Pb obtained in all the areas could be attributed to military activities. This result obtained indicates that military training areas are polluted with trace metals. The results are explained in terms of its health effect on the troops and the host community.

  1. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram Kayar, Nuket; Alpay, Nadir; Hamdard, Jamshid; Emegil, Sebnem; Bag Soydas, Rabia; Baysal, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet's disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon. PMID:27847659

  2. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Gheliani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck is a rare lesion caused by human papilloma virus subtype 13 or 32 and presents as multiple small white or pink papules on the mucosal surface of lips, buccal mucosa and tongue usually seen in children and adolescent of American Indian and Eskimo background. This disease has a genetic basis. The site of new lesions and recurrence are unpredictable. Continued follow up of the patient is often necessary. In this report, a 50-year-old woman is described with benign papillomatous lesions on dorsal surface of tongue for 15 years

  4. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  5. An Integrated Index for the Identification of Focal Electroencephalogram Signals Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Entropy Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Sharma

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of brain area influenced by focal epilepsy can be studied using focal and non-focal electroencephalogram (EEG signals. This paper presents a new method to detect focal and non-focal EEG signals based on an integrated index, termed the focal and non-focal index (FNFI, developed using discrete wavelet transform (DWT and entropy features. The DWT decomposes the EEG signals up to six levels, and various entropy measures are computed from approximate and detail coefficients of sub-band signals. The computed entropy measures are average wavelet, permutation, fuzzy and phase entropies. The proposed FNFI developed using permutation, fuzzy and Shannon wavelet entropies is able to clearly discriminate focal and non-focal EEG signals using a single number. Furthermore, these entropy measures are ranked using different techniques, namely the Bhattacharyya space algorithm, Student’s t-test, the Wilcoxon test, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC and entropy. These ranked features are fed to various classifiers, namely k-nearest neighbour (KNN, probabilistic neural network (PNN, fuzzy classifier and least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM, for automated classification of focal and non-focal EEG signals using the minimum number of features. The identification of the focal EEG signals can be helpful to locate the epileptogenic focus.

  6. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in experimental focal brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnagl, U; Pulsinelli, W

    1990-05-01

    The relationship between systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and neocortical microcirculatory blood-flow (CBF) in areas of focal cerebral ischemia was studied in 15 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) anesthetized with halothane (0.5%). Ischemia was induced by ipsilateral middle cerebral artery/common carotid artery occlusion and CBF was monitored continuously in the ischemic territory using laser-Doppler flowmetry during manipulation of SAP with I-norepinephrine (hypertension) or nitroprusside (hypotension). In eight SHRs not subjected to focal ischemia, we demonstrated that 0.5% halothane and the surgical manipulations did not impair autoregulation. Autoregulation was partly preserved in ischemic brain tissue with a CBF of greater than 30% of preocclusion values. In areas where ischemic CBF was less than 30% of preocclusion values, autoregulation was completely lost. Changes in SAP had a greater influence on CBF in tissue areas where CBF ranged from 15 to 30% of baseline (9% change in CBF with each 10% change in SAP) than in areas where CBF was less than 15% of baseline (6% change in CBF with each 10% change in SAP). These findings demonstrate that the relationship between CBF and SAP in areas of focal ischemia is highly dependent on the severity of ischemia. Autoregulation is lost in a gradual manner until CBF falls below 30% of normal. In areas without autoregulation, the slope of the CBF/SAP relationship is inversely related to the degree of ischemia.

  7. Influence of the modified global ocean tide model with local tides of East and South China Seas on load gravity in China and its neighbor area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiang-cun; SUN He-ping

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 global ocean tide models and tidal gauge data obtained in the East China Sea and South China Sea, the influence of the ocean loading on gravity field in China and its neighbor area is calculated in this paper. Furthermore, the differences between the results from original global models and modified models with local tides are discussed based on above calculation. The comparison shows that the differences at the position near the sea are so large that the local tides must be taken into account in the calculation. When the global ocean tide models of CSR4.0, FES02, GOT00, NAO99 and ORI96 are chosen, the local effect for M2 is less than 0.10×10-8 m·s-2 over the area far away from sea. And the local effect for O1 is less than 0.05 ×10-8 m·s-2 over that area when choosing AG95 or CSR3.0 models. This numerical result demonstrates that the choice of model is a complex problem because of the inconsistent accuracy of the models over the areas of East and South China Seas.

  8. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Jin Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.

  9. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone.

  10. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia in Adult Patients With HIV Infection: Clearance With Topical Imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Flores, Silvia; Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Saeb-Lima, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Case 1 A 41-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 diagnosed 16 years prior to his consultation was referred for an 8-month history of multiple painless lumps in his mouth. He had A2 status (CD4 cell count of 273 cells/mm(3) and viral load of 43,000 copies/L) and was taking treatment with lamivudine/zidovudine (combivir) and efavirenz. Physical examination showed multiple small mucosal-colored and lobulated papulonodules located in the palate and lower gingiva and a whitish verrucous plaque on the lower labial mucosa (Figure 1a). The lesions were diagnosed clinically as focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) and further confirmed by classical histopathological findings (Figure 1b). He had previously received unspecified treatment; thus, topical 5% imiquimod cream was initiated every night. Mild erosion and ulceration developed in the upper labial mucosa, which were managed with lubrication (petrolatum ointment). After 2 weeks, all of the small lesions disappeared and the largest plaque resolved 1 week later (Figure 1c). A small residual mass in the area of biopsy, suggesting a scar, remained on the lower lip. The area was removed surgically and corresponded to fibrosis histologically, with no evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. CD4 cell count (694 cells/mm(3)) and viral load (<40 copies/L) did not show remarkable changes after imiquimod administration. No serious side effects were observed and the patient has remained free of disease after 1 year of follow-up.

  11. The cross-sectional area of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to habitual exercise loading: Implications for activity-related and evolutionary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Sirpa; Härkönen, Laura; Nikander, Riku; Abe, Shinya; Knüsel, Christopher; Sievänen, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Greater size of the gluteus maximus muscle in humans compared to non-human primates has been considered an indication of its function in bipedal posture and gait, especially running capabilities. Our aim was to find out how the size of the gluteus maximus muscle varies according to sports while controlling for variation in muscle strength and body weight. Data on gluteus maximus muscle cross-sectional area (MCA) were acquired from magnetic resonance images of the hip region of female athletes (N=91), and physically active controls (N=20). Dynamic muscle force was measured as counter movement jump and isometric knee extension force as leg press. Five exercise loading groups were created: high impact (triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd impact (soccer and squash players), high magnitude (power-lifters), repetitive impact (endurance runners) and repetitive non-impact (swimmers) loadings. Individuals in high impact, odd impact or high-magnitude loading groups had greater MCA compared to those of controls, requiring powerful hip extension, trunk stabilization in rapid directional change and high explosive muscle force. Larger body size and greater muscle strength were associated with larger MCA. An increase in dynamic force was associated with larger MCA, but the strength of this relationship varied with body weight. Thus, gluteal adaptation in humans promotes powerful lower limb movements required in sprinting and rapid changes in direction, as well as maintenance and stabilization of an erect trunk which also provides a platform for powerful motions of the upper limbs. These movements have likely evolved to facilitate food acquisition, including hunting.

  12. Technical updates to basic proteins focalization using IPG strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dépagne Jordane

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gel-based proteomic is a popular and versatile method of global protein separation and quantification. However, separation of basic protein still represents technical challenges with recurrent problems of resolution and reproducibility. Results Three different protocols of protein loading were compared using MCF7 cells proteins. In-gel rehydration, cup-loading and paper-bridge loading were first compared using 6–11 IPG strips, as attempted, in-gel rehydration gave large horizontal steaking; paper-bridge loading displayed an interesting spot resolution, but with a predominant loss of material; cup-loading was selected as the most relevant method, but still needing improvement. Twelve cup-loading protocols were compared with various strip rehydration, and cathodic wick solutions. Destreak appeared as better than DTT for strip rehydration; the use of isopropanol gave no improvement. The best 2DE separation was observed with cathodic wicks filled with rehydration solution complemented with DTT. Paper-bridge loading was finally analyzed using non-limited samples, such as bovine milk. In this case, new spots of basic milk proteins were observed, with or without paper wicks. Conclusion According to this technical study of basic protein focalization with IPG strips, the cup-loading protocol clearly displayed the best resolution and reproducibility: strips were first rehydrated with standard solution, then proteins were cup-loaded with destreak reagent, and focalisation was performed with cathodic wicks filled with rehydration solution and DTT. Paper-bridge loading could be as well used, but preferentially with non-limited samples.

  13. Comparing linkage designs based on land facets to linkage designs based on focal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Brian M; Beier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Least-cost modeling for focal species is the most widely used method for designing conservation corridors and linkages. However, these designs depend on today's land covers, which will be altered by climate change. We recently proposed an alternative approach based on land facets (recurring landscape units of relatively uniform topography and soils). The rationale is that corridors with high continuity of individual land facets will facilitate movement of species associated with each facet today and in the future. Conservation practitioners might like to know whether a linkage design based on land facets is likely to provide continuity of modeled breeding habitat for species needing connectivity today, and whether a linkage for focal species provides continuity and interspersion of land facets. To address these questions, we compared linkages designed for focal species and land facets in three landscapes in Arizona, USA. We used two variables to measure linkage utility, namely distances between patches of modeled breeding habitat for 5-16 focal species in each linkage, and resistance profiles for focal species and land facets between patches connected by the linkage. Compared to focal species designs, linkage designs based on land facets provided as much or more modeled habitat connectivity for 25 of 28 species-landscape combinations, failing only for the three species with the most narrowly distributed habitat. Compared to land facets designs, focal species linkages provided lower connectivity for about half the land facets in two landscapes. In areas where a focal species approach to linkage design is not possible, our results suggest that conservation practitioners may be able to implement a land facets approach with some confidence that the linkage design would serve most potential focal species. In areas where focal species designs are possible, we recommend using the land facet approach to complement, rather than replace, focal species approaches.

  14. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving x-ray crystal optics

    CERN Document Server

    Stoupin, S; Butler, J E; Kolyadin, A V; Katrusha, A

    2016-01-01

    We report fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single crystal plates with a large surface area (10$\\times$10 mm$^2$) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics. The plates were fabricated by laser cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature method. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3$\\times$7~mm$^2$ crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. The wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking curve topography. The variation of the rocking curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13$\\times$13 $\\mu m^2$ over the selected region were found to be less than one microradian.

  15. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad.

  16. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  17. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Е.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  18. Discussion on super-tall structures type selection in high wind load area%谈高风载地区超高层结构选型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任军

    2016-01-01

    结合珠海某超高层建筑的结构设计参数,建立了四种结构体系,对不同的结构选型进行了分析比较,得到了不同结构形式的优缺点,为高风载地区超高层结构方案设计提供了参考依据。%Combining with the structure design parameters of a super-tall building in Zhuhai established four kinds of structure system,compared and analyzed different structure type selection,gained the advantages and disadvantages of different structure forms,provided reference basis for super-tall structures scheme design in high wind load areas.

  19. Focal properties of geodesic waveguide lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.; Wood, V. E.

    1976-01-01

    The focal properties of uncorrected geodesic lenses in ion-exchanged glass waveguides are reported. A 13.8-mm-focal-length lens resolved beams with an angular separation of 27.6 mrad, while a 28-mm-focal-length lens resolved beams with an angular separation of only 3.3 mrad. Intensity profiles of the focal region of the former lens revealed a 40-micron spot size when the input aperture was 5 mm, and a spot size of 7.7 microns when the aperture was reduced to 1 mm. This value is close to the diffraction-limited spot size of 5.7 microns.

  20. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  1. Functional connectivity and complex networks in focal epilepsy. Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pastor, Jesús; Sola, Rafael G; Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Garnes, Óscar; Ortega, Guillermo J

    2014-01-01

    ...-resistant focal epilepsy. In order to fully understand the new developments in the area of complex networks and its applications to the study of epilepsy, we will here review fundamental concepts in complex...

  2. 利用sPn震相对宁夏地区近年有感地震震源深度重定位%Using sPn Phase to Relocate Focal Depths of Felt Earthquakes of Recent Years in Ningxia Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕俊强; 李青梅; 赵卫东; 蔡新华; 陈春梅

    2016-01-01

    宁夏十五数字地震观测台网自投入使用以来,积累了大量的地震数字波形.利用宁夏台网中震中距在 1 000 km范围内不同台站记录的 9次M≥3.0 地震的 sPn 与 Pn 震相进行分析、计算这些地震的震源深度.研究表明,利用 sPn与Pn震相的到时差计算地壳内近震深度的方法简捷、准确.%Focal depth,the vertical distance from an earthquake source to the ground (the epicen-ter),is one of the basic earthquake parameters and is one of the most difficult of the seismic pa-rameters to accurately determine.The accurate determination of the focal depth involves a series of important problems including a correct understanding of the earthquake preparation process, the earthquake mechanism,its geological structure,and the stress field.Since the fifteen stations of the Ningxia digital seismic observation network were officially established in 2009,a large vol-ume of digital seismic waveform data has accumulated,and much research work has been possi-ble.On the basis of previous studies,using the lag of the sPn and Pn phases,in this study,we calculated the focal depth of nine earthquakes with M≥3.0,which occurred in the area surround-ing Ningxia in recent years.The results of the sPn method are mainly dependent on the velocity model selection and precision of the seismic phase.We selected the approved and widely used Ningxia local velocity model.The Pn and sPn phases and reading accuracy are particularly impor-tant,because the initial amplitude of this type of wave phase is generally weak.As such,if there is an arrival time difference of 0.5~1 s,it may result in a calculation error of 1.5~3 km in the fo-cal depth.With the availability of multiple records of the sPn phase,using the averages of each calculation depth,it is possible reduce the error caused by the reading.Research shows that it is a relatively simple matter to accurately calculate the near-earthquake depth within the crust using the lag of the s

  3. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  4. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  5. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  6. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Taira

    Full Text Available Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  7. Loads and yields of deicing compounds and total phosphorus in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2009–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2017-09-12

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of the large amount of roadway in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply is affected by the usage of deicing compounds and by other constituents that are flushed from such impervious areas. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1998) through continuous monitoring and the collection of stream-flow samples.In a study conducted by the USGS, in cooperation with the City of Cambridge Water Department, concentrations and loads of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of specific conductance and streamflow for streams and tributaries at 10 continuous water-quality monitoring stations. These data were used to characterize current (2015) water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir Basins. These data also were used to describe how stream-water quality is related to various basin characteristics and provide information to guide future management of the drinking-water source area.Water samples from 2009–15 were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, potassium (K), SO4, and total phosphorus (TP). Values of physical properties and constituent concentrations varied widely, particularly in composite samples of stormflow from tributaries that have high percentages of constructed impervious areas. Median concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, and K in samples collected from the tributaries in the Cambridge Reservoir Basin (27.2, 273, 4.7, 154

  8. Focal fatty infiltra- tion and focal fatty sparing of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is caused by focal ... has also been described in children.1. The most common cause is alcohol abuse, although diabetes, obesity, cer- tain drugs, toxins ... infiltration was not initially consid- ered are reported.

  9. Focal osteoporosis defects play a key role in hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Kenneth E S; Skingle, Linda; Gee, Andrew H; Turmezei, Thomas D; Johannesdottir, Fjola; Blesic, Karen; Rose, Collette; Vindlacheruvu, Madhavi; Donell, Simon; Vaculik, Jan; Dungl, Pavel; Horak, Martin; Stepan, Jan J; Reeve, Jonathan; Treece, Graham M

    2017-01-01

    Hip fractures are mainly caused by accidental falls and trips, which magnify forces in well-defined areas of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, the same areas are at risk of rapid bone loss with ageing, since they are relatively stress-shielded during walking and sitting. Focal osteoporosis in those areas may contribute to fracture, and targeted 3D measurements might enhance hip fracture prediction. In the FEMCO case-control clinical study, Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) was applied to clinical computed tomography (CT) scans to define 3D cortical and trabecular bone defects in patients with acute hip fracture compared to controls. Direct measurements of trabecular bone volume were then made in biopsies of target regions removed at operation. The sample consisted of CT scans from 313 female and 40 male volunteers (158 with proximal femoral fracture, 145 age-matched controls and 50 fallers without hip fracture). Detailed Cortical Bone Maps (c.5580 measurement points on the unfractured hip) were created before registering each hip to an average femur shape to facilitate statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Areas where cortical and trabecular bone differed from controls were visualised in 3D for location, magnitude and statistical significance. Measures from the novel regions created by the SPM process were then tested for their ability to classify fracture versus control by comparison with traditional CT measures of areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD). In women we used the surgical classification of fracture location ('femoral neck' or 'trochanteric') to discover whether focal osteoporosis was specific to fracture type. To explore whether the focal areas were osteoporotic by histological criteria, we used micro CT to measure trabecular bone parameters in targeted biopsies taken from the femoral heads of 14 cases. Hip fracture patients had distinct patterns of focal osteoporosis that determined fracture type, and CBM measures classified fracture type better than a

  10. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  11. Modeling the effect of land use/land cover on nitrogen, phosphorous and dissolved oxygen loads in the Velhas River using the concept of exclusive contribution area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lília Maria; Maillard, Philippe; de Andrade Pinto, Éber José

    2016-06-01

    Non-point source water pollution is a major problem in most parts of the world, but is also very difficult to quantify and control since it is not easily separated from point sources and can theoretically originate from the whole watershed. In this article, we evaluate the relationship between land use and land cover and four water pollution parameters in a watershed in Southeast Brazil. The four parameters are nitrate, total ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved oxygen. To help concentrate on non-point source pollution, only data from the wet seasons of the time period (2001-2013) were analysed, based on the fact that precipitation causes runoff which is the main cause of diffuse pollution. The parameters measured were transformed into loads, which were in turn associated with an exclusive contribution area, so that every measuring station could be considered independent. Analyses were also performed on riparian zones of different widths to verify if the effect of the land cover on the water quality of the stream decreases with the increased distance. Pearson correlation coefficients indicate that urban areas and agriculture/pasture tend to worsen water quality (source). Conversely, forest and riparian areas have a reducing effect on pollution (sink). The best results were obtained for total ammonia nitrogen and dissolved oxygen using the whole exclusive contribution areas with determination coefficients better than R (2)≈0.8. Nitrate and total phosphorous did not produce valid models. We suspect that the transformation delay from total ammonia nitrogen to nitrate might be an important factor for the poor result for this parameter. For phosphorous, we think that the phosphorous sink in the bottom sediment might be the most limiting factor explaining the failure of our models.

  12. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkiakoski, V.A.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.; Kenworthy, M.; Otten, G.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high-spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast &

  13. Focal-plane sensor-processor chips

    CERN Document Server

    Zarándy, Ákos

    2011-01-01

    Focal-Plane Sensor-Processor Chips explores both the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips. Presenting an overview of focal plane chip technology, the text discusses smart imagers and cellular wave computers, along with numerous examples of current vision chips.

  14. Remediation of the Old Ecological Load in the Protected Area of the Morava River – Re-abandonment of the Oil and Gas Production Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Bujok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the former oil and gas producing wells that are or can be improperly abandoned creates a possible environmental hazard in terms of contamination of the groundwater and soil in the present. In the area of the Czech Republic, specifically in South Moravia part, which has a long oil and gas production history, plenty of such wells can be found. Finding out the information about their abandonment in archives is often very demanding (sometimes even impossible. During various survey works and re-abandonment attempts it was found out that many wells are originally abandoned improperly, insufficiently or not at all. The occurrence of such wells is not just potential but also very actual hazard for the cultural landscape of the South Moravia, especially for aquifers, agriculture and natural protected areas of national significance. This paper is focused on the possibility of the definitive abandonment of this particular ecological load. The proposed method was verified in laboratory conditions and in the field. It is now a standard form of the re abandonment of oil and gas wells without precise localization in the South Moravian oil fields.

  15. Hypereosinophilia with Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarcts and Focal Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Hyun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We report a case of hypereosinophilia causing multiple areas of cerebral infarcts. A 52-year-old Korean man presented with dysarthria and weakness in both arms. A brain MRI revealed multiple acute infarcts in the distal border zone with focal intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas a cerebral angiogram was not remarkable. The eosinophil count was 5,500/{mu}L and was accompanied by elevated cardiac enzyme levels. The pattern of cerebral infarcts and laboratory results suggest a thromboembolic infarction associated with hypereosinophilia.

  16. Water-quality characteristics, trends, and nutrient and sediment loads of streams in the Treyburn development area, North Carolina, 1988–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jason M.; Harned, Douglas A.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data, including concentrations of nutrients, metals, and pesticides, were collected from October 1988 through September 2009 at six sites in the Treyburn development study area. A review of water-quality data for streams in and near a 5,400-acre planned, mixed-use development in the Falls Lake watershed in the upper Neuse River Basin of North Carolina indicated only small-scale changes in water quality since the previous assessment of data collected from 1988 to 1998. Loads and yields were estimated for sediment and nutrients, and temporal trends were assessed for specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, and nutrients. Water-quality conditions for the Little River tributary and Mountain Creek may reflect development within these basins. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations at the Treyburn sites are low compared to sites nationally. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected frequently at Mountain Creek and Little River tributary but concentrations are low compared to sites nationally. Little River tributary had the lowest median suspended-sediment yield over the 1988–2009 study period, whereas Flat River tributary had the largest median yield. The yields estimated for suspended sediment and nutrients were low compared to yields estimated for other basins in the Southeastern United States. Recent increasing trends were detected in total nitrogen concentration and suspended-sediment concentrations for Mountain Creek, and an increasing trend was detected in specific conductance for Little River tributary. Decreasing trends were detected in dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, sediment, and specific conductance for Flat River tributary. Water chemical concentrations, loads, yields, and trends for the Treyburn study sites reflect some effects of upstream development. These measures of water quality are generally low

  17. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  18. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

  19. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  20. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah; A; Algarni; Abdullah; H; Alshuhri; Majed; M; Alonazi; Moustafa; Mabrouk; Mourad; Simon; R; Bramhal

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a commonfinding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service.They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis,colorectal cancer,incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting.Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis;hepatitis,alcohol consumption,substance exposure or use of oral con-traceptive pills and metabolic syndromes.Full blood count,liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease.Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound.If available,contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible,safe,cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis.Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next.It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation.Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity.If doubt still remains,the options are biopsy or surgical excision.

  1. METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF FOCAL PLANE LOCATION OF FOCUSING COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ivashko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass-production of different laser systems often requires utilization of the focal spot size method for determination of output laser beam spatial characteristics. The main challenge of this method is high accuracy maintenance of a CCD camera beam profiler in the collecting lens focal plane. The aim of our work is development of new method for placing of photodetector array in the collecting lens focal plane with high accuracy.Proposed technique is based on focusing of several parallel laser beams. Determination of the focal plane position requires only longitudinal translation of the CCD-camera to find a point of laser beams intersection. Continuous-wave (CW diode-pumped laser emitting in the spectral region near 1μm was created to satisfy the requirements of the developed technique. Designed microchip laser generates two stigmatic Gaussian beams with automatically parallel beam axes due to independent pumping of different areas of the one microchip crystal having the same cavity mirrors.It was theoretically demonstrated that developed method provides possibility of the lenses focal plane determination with 1 % accuracy. The microchip laser generates two parallel Gaussian beams with divergence of about 10 mrad. Laser output power can be varied in the range of 0.1–1.5 W by changing the pumping laser diode electrical current. The distance between two beam axes can be changed in the range of 0.5–5.0 mm.We have proposed method for determination of positive lens focal plane location by using of CCDcamera and two laser beams with parallel axes without utilization of additional optical devices. We have developed CW longitudinally diode pumped microchip laser emitting in the 1-μm spectral region that can be used in the measuring instrument that doesn’t require precision mechanical components for determination of focal plane location with 1 % accuracy. The overall dimensions of laser head was 70 × 40 × 40 mm3 and maximum power consumption was

  2. Multiple assessment of the soil cover in the area of natural monuments Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau monadnocks under conditions of technogenic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbasova, I. M.; Suleymanov, R. R.; Khabirov, I. K.; Komissarov, M. A.; Garipov, T. T.; Sidorova, L. V.; Nazyrova, F. I.

    2014-02-01

    The soil cover of Tra-Tau and Yurak-Tau shikhans (monadnocks) has been examined. Leached and typical medium-deep chernozems are developed on colluvial fans on the footslopes and on the lower parts of slopes, whereas typical calcareous thin slightly and moderately gravelly chernozems are developed on the upper and medium parts of slopes. The leached and typical chernozems of the footslopes correspond to zonal soils of the adjacent plain areas, though they have some specific features related to the local topographic conditions. These soils are somewhat thinner than plain chernozems and are characterized by the perfect granular water-stable structure, the high content of humus of the humate type, the high content of exchangeable cations, strong acid-base buffering, and high enzymatic activity. These features predetermine their high tolerance towards technogenic impacts. The concentrations of highly hazardous substances of the first toxicity class (mercury, arsenic, lead, and cadmium) and of moderately hazardous substances of the second toxicity class (copper, zinc, and nickel), as well as the concentrations of low-hazardous elements (manganese and iron) in these soils do not exceed provisional maximum permissible concentrations of these substances in soils irrespectively of the slope aspect. No changes in the physicochemical and biological properties of the soils under the impact of technogenic loads from Sterlitamak industrial center have been identified.

  3. Ultrastructure of focal cerebral cortex tissue from rats with focal cortical dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Developing a model of focal cortical dysplasia in microgyrus and observing the ultrastructure of focal tissue is of important significance for analyzing the pathology of cortical developmental disorder and the factors of structural changes. OBJECTIVE:This study was to observe the pathological characteristics of focal tissue around the microgyrus of rats with cortical developmental disorder using an electron microscope,so as to analyze the causes associated with cerebral cortical developmental disorder. DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING:The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. MATERIALS:This study was carried out in the Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology,Room for Electron Microscope of Chongqing Medical University,and Laboratory Animal Center,Research Institute of Surgery,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January 2004 and August 2006.Eighteen healthy newborn male Wistar rats,weighing 3.0 - 6.0 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA,were involved in this study.The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals.Probes (Chongqing Wire & Cable Factory,China) were made of copper core wire with diameter of 1 mm.METHODS:The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 in each:normal control group,liquid nitrogen injured group and sham-operation group.①In the liquid nitrogen injured group,a blunt probe frozen by liquid nitrogen was placed on fronto-parietal crinial bone of rats for 8 s.A 3 - 5 cm of microgyrus was induced in the unilateral cerebral sensory cortical area.In the sham-operation group,probe was placed at the room temperature.In the normal control group,rats were untouched.② The conscious state and electrical activity of brain of rats in each group were observed.③ 2-3 mm thickness of hippocampal tissue with coronary section was taken

  4. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  5. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine; Sempoux; Charles; Balabaud; Paulette; Bioulac-Sage

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pa-thologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocel-lular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for par-affin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glu-tamine synthase and according to the above results ad-ditional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocel-lular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated.

  6. Focal fat deposition developed in the segment IV of the liver following gastrectomy mimicking a hepatic metastasis: Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Beom Seok; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang; Hyung, Woo Jin [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    We present two cases of focal fat deposition developed at the posterior area of the segment IV in the liver, following gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. There was no focal lesion in this area of the liver at preoperative computed tomography (CT) in both cases, and the aberrant right gastric vein (ARGV) was found on the retrospective review of this CT. After gastrectomy, a focal, low attenuating lesion was developed in this area on a follow up CT in both cases, which was confirmed as a focal fat deposition, by other imaging studies. In addition to its typical imaging findings, confirmation of the presence of the ARGV also supported this lesion to be a focal fat deposition. Furthermore, understanding of our cases may be of help to prevent us from unnecessary invasive procedures, such as liver biopsy.

  7. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  8. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  9. Snake beam: a paraxial arbitrary focal line

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Joseph; Yariv, Amnon

    1995-01-01

    The creation of paraxial arbitrary focal lines by a Fourier computer-generated hologram is demonstrated. The desired focal line is represented by a series of connected straight line segments, each of which is implemented by a radial harmonic function located on a different radial portion of the entire hologram. Each subhologram is multiplied by appropriate linear and quadratic phase functions and is shifted by some distance from the center. The two phase factors determine the location of each...

  10. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  11. Changes in Joint Contact Mechanics in a Large Quadrupedal Animal Model After Partial Meniscectomy and a Focal Cartilage Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckelsmiller, David J; James Rudert, M; Baer, Thomas E; Pedersen, Douglas R; Fredericks, Douglas C; Goetz, Jessica E

    2017-05-01

    Acute mechanical damage and the resulting joint contact abnormalities are central to the initiation and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Study of PTOA is typically performed in vivo with replicate animals using artificially induced injury features. The goal of this work was to measure changes in a joint contact stress in the knee of a large quadruped after creation of a clinically realistic overload injury and a focal cartilage defect. Whole-joint overload was achieved by excising a 5-mm wedge of the anterior medial meniscus. Focal cartilage defects were created using a custom pneumatic impact gun specifically developed and mechanically characterized for this work. To evaluate the effect of these injuries on joint contact mechanics, Tekscan (Tekscan, Inc., South Boston, MA) measurements were obtained pre-operatively, postmeniscectomy, and postimpact (1.2-J) in a nonrandomized group of axially loaded cadaveric sheep knees. Postmeniscectomy, peak contact stress in the medial compartment is increased by 71% (p = 0.03) and contact area is decreased by 35% (p = 0.001); the center of pressure (CoP) shifted toward the cruciate ligaments in both the medial (p = 0.004) and lateral (p = 0.03) compartments. The creation of a cartilage defect did not significantly change any aspect of contact mechanics measured in the meniscectomized knee. This work characterizes the mechanical environment present in a quadrupedal animal knee joint after two methods to reproducibly induce joint injury features that lead to PTOA.

  12. Vacuum packaging of InGaAs focal plane array with four-stage thermoelectric cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, De-feng; Liu, Da-fu; Yang, Li-yi; Xu, Qin-fei; Li, Xue

    2013-09-01

    The InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) detectors, covering the near-infrared 1~2.4 μm wavelength range, have been developed for application in space-based spectroscopy of the Earth atmosphere. This paper shows an all-metal vacuum package design for area array InGaAs detector of 1024×64 pixels, and its architecture will be given. Four-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is used to cool down the FPA chip. To acquire high heat dissipation for TEC's Joule-heat, tungsten copper (CuW80) and kovar (4J29) is used as motherboard and cavity material respectively which joined by brazing. The heat loss including conduction, convection and radiation is analyzed. Finite element model is established to analyze the temperature uniformity of the chip substrate which is made of aluminum nitride (AlN). The performance of The TEC with and without heat load in vacuum condition is tested. The results show that the heat load has little influence to current-voltage relationship of TEC. The temperature difference (ΔT) increases as the input current increases. A linear relationship exists between heat load and ΔT of the TEC. Theoretical analysis and calculation show that the heat loss of radiation and conduction is about 187 mW and 82 mW respectively. Considering the Joule-heat of readout circuit and the heat loss of radiation and conduction, the FPA for a 220 K operation at room temperature can be achieved. As the thickness of AlN chip substrate is thicker than 1 millimeter, the temperature difference can be less than 0.3 K.

  13. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  14. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  15. Crise epiléptica focal ipsilateral a tumor cerebral: relato de caso Focal epileptic seizures ipsilateral to the tumor: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Silva Gusmão

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de crise focal somatosensorial ipsilateral a tumor cerebral e revê-se a literatura. Trata-se de ocorrência excepcional, tendo sido descritos apenas seis casos. Vários mecanismos fisiopatológicos foram propostos para explicar a crise focal somatosensorial ipsilateral. A proximidade das lesões da convexidade cerebral baixa (perisilviana sugere o comprometimento da área somatosensorial secundária e parece comprovar os achados experimentais de crises somatosensoriais originadas desta área.Focal somatosensory epileptic seizures ipsilateral to a brain tumor is reported and the literature reviewed. It is an exceptional occurrence, having been described only six cases, with several mechanisms being proposed. The proximity of the lesions with the low cerebral convexity (perisylvian suggests the compromising of the secondary somatosensorial area, seeming to prove the experimental observation of somatosensorial crises originating in this area.

  16. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Autonomic Disorders: Focal Hyperhidrosis and Sialorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, Christine; Naumann, Markus K; Hamm, Henning

    2016-02-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common autonomic disorder that significantly impacts quality of life. It is characterized by excessive sweating confined to circumscribed areas, such as the axillae, palms, soles, and face. Less frequent types of focal hyperhidrosis secondary to underlying causes include gustatory sweating in Frey's syndrome and compensatory sweating in Ross' syndrome and after sympathectomy. Approval of onabotulinumtoxinA for severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis in 2004 has revolutionized the treatment of this indication. Meanwhile further type A botulinum neurotoxins like abobotulinumtoxinA and incobotulinumtoxinA, as well as the type B botulinum neurotoxin rimabotulinumtoxinB are successfully used off-label for axillary and various other types of focal hyperhidrosis. For unexplained reasons, the duration of effect differs considerably at different sites. Beside hyperhidrosis, botulinum neurotoxin is also highly valued for the treatment of sialorrhea affecting patients with Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, and other neurologic conditions. With correct dosing and application, side effects are manageable and transient.

  17. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast with focal rhabdoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Hiroya; Iwaba, Akiko; Kato, Tomoya; Ohe, Rintaro; Maeda, Kunihiko; Matsuda, Mikio; Izuru, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Shigeru; Yamakawa, Mitsunori

    2013-01-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast is extremely rare and only 33 cases have been reported in the English literature. Herein, we report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast with focal rhabdoid features. The patient was a 67-year-old woman, who presented with a lump of the left breast that rapidly grew to 3 cm in diameter within 3 months. Lumpectomy revealed a solid and whitish colored tumor, which was composed mainly of elongated spindle-shaped cells with mild atypia, focal necrosis, and infiltrative margin. In a small area of the lesion, ovoid tumor cells exhibited eccentric nuclei with centrally located nucleoli and plump cytoplasm including round eosinophilic inclusions, resembling a rhabdoid tumor. Immunohistochemically, both types of tumor cells exhibited a myoepithelial phenotype. MIB-1 index was 30%. The cytoplasmic inclusion of the ovoid cells exhibited immunopositivity for both vimentin and cytokeratin. From these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a myoepithelial carcinoma with focal rhabdoid features. Although rhabdoid features have been reported in some types of malignant and benign tumors, this is the first report of such features in myoepithelial carcinoma of the breast.

  18. "Focal thyroid inferno" on color Doppler ultrasonography: a specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using "focal thyroid inferno" as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. The vascularity type of "focal thyroid inferno" is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transparent meta-analysis: does aging spare prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (ProM is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE. The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? METHODS AND FINDINGS: A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with Craik's (1983 proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging.

  20. Focal electroencephalography rhythm asymmetry due to focal skull fibrous dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Meyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An unusual pervasive and persistent asymmetry in background rhythm was found on surface electroencephalography (EEG recordings in a 22 year old with new onset of generalized seizure activity. Radiographic correlation with computed tomography, positron emission tomography and bone scan imaging uncovered that the higher amplitude left frontal-parietal background activity was related to a circumscribed area of left frontal-parietal fibrous dysplasia affecting the skull. This case report emphasizes that the presumed higher electrical conductance of fibrous dysplasia lead to a greater transparency of normal background rhythms, and must be taken into account as a form of breach rhythm for accurate EEG interpretation.

  1. 7 tesla T2*-weighted MRI as a tool to improve detection of focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veersema, Tim J; van Eijsden, Pieter; Gosselaar, Peter H; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Spliet, Wim G M; Aronica, Eleonora; Braun, Kees P J; Ferrier, Cyrille H

    2016-09-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is one of the most common underlying pathologies in patients who undergo surgery for refractory epilepsy. Absence of a MRI-visible lesion necessitates additional diagnostic tests and is a predictor of poor surgical outcome. We describe a series of six patients with refractory epilepsy due to histopathologically-confirmed focal cortical dysplasia, for whom pre-surgical 7 tesla T2*-weighted MRI was acquired. In four of six patients, T2* sequences showed areas of marked superficial hypointensity, co-localizing with the epileptogenic lesion. 7 tesla T2* hypointensities overlying focal cortical dysplasia may represent leptomeningeal venous vascular abnormalities associated with the underlying dysplastic cortex. Adding T2* sequences to the MRI protocol may aid in the detection of focal cortical dysplasias.

  2. High frequency oscillations mirror disease activity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Karolin; LeVan, Pierre; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Fauser, Susanne; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2013-08-01

    The study analyzes the occurrence of high frequency oscillations in different types of focal cortical dysplasia in 22 patients with refractory epilepsy. High frequency oscillations are biomarkers for epileptic tissue, but it is unknown whether they can reflect increasingly dysplastic tissue changes as well as epileptic disease activity. High frequency oscillations (80-450 Hz) were visually marked by two independent reviewers in all channels of intracranial implanted grid, strips, and depth electrodes in patients with focal cortical dysplasia and refractory epilepsy. Rates of high frequency oscillations in patients with pathologically confirmed focal cortical dysplasia of Palmini type 1a and b were compared with those in type 2a and b. Patients with focal cortical dysplasia type 2 had significantly more seizures than those with type 1 (p high frequency oscillations were significantly higher in patients with focal cortical dysplasia type 2 versus type 1 (p high frequency oscillations were significantly higher in presumed epileptogenic areas than outside (p high frequency oscillations mirrors the higher epileptogenicity of focal cortical dysplasia type 2 lesions compared to type 1 lesions. Therefore, rates of high frequency oscillations can reflect disease activity of a lesion. This has implications for the use of high frequency oscillations as biomarkers for epileptogenic areas, because a detailed analysis of their rates may be necessary to use high frequency oscillations as a predictive tool in epilepsy surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Comparison of Photopic Negative Response of Full-Field and Focal Electroretinograms in Detecting Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Machida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the photopic negative response (PhNR of the full-field electroretinogram (ERG to the PhNR of the focal ERGs in detecting glaucoma. Methods. One hundred and three eyes with glaucoma and 42 normal eyes were studied. Full-field ERGs were elicited by red stimuli on a blue background. The focal ERGs were elicited by a 15∘ white stimulus spot centered on the macula, the superotemporal or the inferotemporal areas of the macula. Results. In early glaucoma, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs were significantly larger for the focal PhNR (0.863–0.924 than those for the full-field PhNR (0.666–0.748 (P<.05. The sensitivity was significantly higher for the focal PhNR than for the full-field PhNR in early (P<.01 and intermediate glaucoma (P<.05. In advanced glaucoma, there was no difference in the AUCs and sensitivities between the focal and full-field PhNRs. Conclusions. The focal ERG has the diagnostic ability with higher sensitivity in detecting early and intermediate glaucoma than the full-field ERG.

  4. The sonographic appearance of acute focal pyelonephritis 8 years experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Kim D.; Gellett, Laura R.; Dubbins, Paul A

    2002-06-01

    AIM: Acute focal pyelonephritis (AFP) is a variant of pyelonephritis in which single or multiple discrete areas show changes of inflammation. The reported sonographic appearances of AFP are varied but are typically described as being echopoor. The purpose of this study was to review the sonographic appearances of AFP and attempt to explain the range of findings by correlation with clinical details. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the sonographic findings and medical records of 17 cases of AFP. The study group consisted of 13 women and four men (mean age 20 years). Lesions were designated as echogenic, echopoor or of mixed echogenicity as compared to the adjacent renal cortex, and to the liver or spleen. RESULTS: The abnormal areas were echogenic in 12 patients, echopoor in three and of mixed echogenicity in two. An attempt was made to explain the variation in appearances by correlation with clinical details including the patient's age, the duration of symptoms, the length of antibiotic treatment and the presence of haematuria. CONCLUSION: Areas of acute focal pyelonephritis may be echogenic, echopoor or of mixed echogenicity. Our data would suggest that areas of increased echogenicity are more common. There is no discernible correlation with clinical findings. Farmer, K.D. et al. (2002)

  5. I Focalize, You Focalize, We All Focalize Together: Audience Participation in Persepolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie Nixon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: This article combines theories of cognition and empathy with focalization theory to examine how and why different forms of audience engagement in fictional worlds are cued. The article argues that critics should examine the differences between engagement that encourages audiences to apply their own frames to the world presented and type engagement cued by means of point-of-view shots and close-ups of facial expressions.

    Abstract (F: Cet article combine les théories de la cognition et de l’empathie avec la théorie de la focalisation afin d’analyser comment et pourquoi certaines œuvres construisent la manière dont le public est invité à s’investir dans des mondes fictionnels. Il défend l

  6. Simulation study for multi-area economic load dispatching control with spot pricing and economic power interchange; Spot ryokin to denryoku yuzu wo kumiawaseta jukyu un`yo hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K.; Asano, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a multi-area economic load dispatching control scheme with a combination of spot pricing as a demand-side option and economic power interchange as a supply-side option to keep demand and supply balance. In this study, the dynamic economic load dispatching control (ELD) technique is used with some modifications such as the introduction of a multi-area power interchange and regional spot pricing. To keep demand and supply balance, the region (buyer) that has larger load demand than its maximum generation capacity must control its demand by spot pricing and purchase of interchange power from other regions (sellers) that have excess capacities. We assume that the purchase cost of interchange power is covered by the additional revenue of spot pricing in the buyer. Distribution of interchange power among sellers is determined by the modified economic dispatching rule. Feasibility of the proposed method is shown numerically through simulation studies using a three-area power system model. The following findings are identified: (1) a buyer that has not enough capacity in the peak period can be suppressed its load demand by increasing spot price and then purchases power from some sellers that have excess capacities. This buyer can achieve power balance with this proposed supply and demand measures; (2) the average price of interchange power is lower than regional spot pricing rate under the modified economic dispatching rule for distribution of interchange power among sellers; (3) the regional spot price rate is reduced by the introduction of multi-area power interchange; (4) levels of regional spot price and purchased power price depend heavily on the seller`s generating cost and the level of load demand. 11 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  8. Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

    2016-10-06

    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

  9. Focal Cryoablation of Prostate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke K. Bahn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment options for men with early localized prostate cancer are either some form of radical therapy or active surveillance. Radical therapy is usually associated with significant adverse effects that might jeopardize a man's quality of life. Some observers believe that PSA screening has resulted in the over diagnosis and over treatment of prostate cancer. Many men are being diagnosed with an early stage, small volume, unifocal or unilateral prostate cancer but are reluctant to accept watchful waiting or active surveillance. Focal cryoablation is the less than complete ablation of the gland with ice. Based on review of the limited amount of material available in the current literature, focal cryoablation can provide acceptable cancer control while preserving sexual potency and urinary continence. Focal cryoablation may fill a void in the therapeutic options available to patients with unifocal or unilateral prostate cancer who have a strong desire to maintain their quality of life.

  10. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  11. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  12. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  13. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions.

  14. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. O'Rourke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and discuss the literature on this topic.

  15. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient.

  16. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and his...

  17. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  18. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruedee Phasukthaworn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies.

  19. A simple method for focal length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Ren, Huan; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Zhengdong; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.

  20. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  1. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  2. Second harmonic generation analysis of early Achilles tendinosis in response to in vivo mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tenocytes have been implicated in the development of tendinosis, a chronic condition commonly seen in musculoskeletal overuse syndromes. However, the relation between abnormal tenocyte morphology and early changes in the fibrillar collagen matrix has not been closely examined in vivo. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is a recently developed technique which allows examination of fibrillar collagen structures with a high degree of specificity and resolution. The goal of this study was to examine the potential utility of SHG and multiphoton excitation fluorescence (MPEF) microscopy in understanding the relation between tenocytes and their surrounding collagenous matrix in early tendon overuse lesions. Methods Histological preparations of tendon were prepared from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to an Achilles tendon loading protocol for 12 weeks (Rat-A-PED), or from sedentary age-matched cage controls. Second harmonic generation and multiphoton excitation fluorescence were performed simultaneously on these tissue sections in at least three different areas. Results SHG microscopy revealed an association between abnormal tenocyte morphology and morphological changes in the fibrillar collagen matrix of mechanically loaded Achilles tendons. Collagen density and organization was significantly reduced in focal micro-regions of mechanically loaded tendons. These pathological changes occurred specifically in association with altered tenocyte morphology. Normal tendons displayed a regular distribution of fibre bundles, and the average size of these bundles as determined by Gaussian analysis was 0.47 μm ± 0.02. In comparison, fibre bundle measures from tendon regions in the vicinity of abnormal tenocytes could not be quantified due to a reduction in their regularity of distribution and orientation. Conclusions SHG microscopy allowed high resolution detection of focal tendon abnormalities affecting the fibrillar collagen matrix. With ongoing

  3. Second harmonic generation analysis of early Achilles tendinosis in response to in vivo mechanical loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tenocytes have been implicated in the development of tendinosis, a chronic condition commonly seen in musculoskeletal overuse syndromes. However, the relation between abnormal tenocyte morphology and early changes in the fibrillar collagen matrix has not been closely examined in vivo. Second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy is a recently developed technique which allows examination of fibrillar collagen structures with a high degree of specificity and resolution. The goal of this study was to examine the potential utility of SHG and multiphoton excitation fluorescence (MPEF microscopy in understanding the relation between tenocytes and their surrounding collagenous matrix in early tendon overuse lesions. Methods Histological preparations of tendon were prepared from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to an Achilles tendon loading protocol for 12 weeks (Rat-A-PED, or from sedentary age-matched cage controls. Second harmonic generation and multiphoton excitation fluorescence were performed simultaneously on these tissue sections in at least three different areas. Results SHG microscopy revealed an association between abnormal tenocyte morphology and morphological changes in the fibrillar collagen matrix of mechanically loaded Achilles tendons. Collagen density and organization was significantly reduced in focal micro-regions of mechanically loaded tendons. These pathological changes occurred specifically in association with altered tenocyte morphology. Normal tendons displayed a regular distribution of fibre bundles, and the average size of these bundles as determined by Gaussian analysis was 0.47 μm ± 0.02. In comparison, fibre bundle measures from tendon regions in the vicinity of abnormal tenocytes could not be quantified due to a reduction in their regularity of distribution and orientation. Conclusions SHG microscopy allowed high resolution detection of focal tendon abnormalities affecting the fibrillar collagen

  4. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-01-01

    overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence...

  5. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  6. Ketogenic Diet for Epilepsy and Focal Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and long-term treatment outcome of a classic ketogenic diet (KD addon treatment (4:1 lipid/nonlipid ratio, without initial fasting and fluid restriction were evaluated retrospectively in 47 children with intractable epilepsy and focal malformation of cortical development, in a study at Severance Children’s and Sanggye Park Hospitals, Seoul, Korea.

  7. Focal adhesions and assessment of cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, TG; Klein, CL; Wagner, M; Kirkpatrick, CJ

    1999-01-01

    Focal adhesions are highly ordered assemblies of transmembrane receptors, extracellular matrix proteins, and a large number of cytoplasmic proteins, including structural proteins, as well as tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates. They are now accepted as a prime component of signal tr

  8. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  9. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia. An unusual clinical aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodokh, I; Lacour, J P; Rainero, C; Orth, G; Perrin, C; Hoffman, P; Santini, J; Ortonne, J P

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a child born in France of Algerian parents. The clinical appearance was unusual in that certain lesions were verrucous and pediculate. A virological study revealed the presence of papillomavirus 32, one of the two types of HPV specifically associated with this entity.

  10. Atypical focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Rizwan Khan; Taimur Saleem; Tanveer Ul Haq; Kanwal Aftab

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Focal nodular hyperplasia, a benign hepatic tumor, is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely the entity can cause symptoms, mandating intervention. METHOD: We present a case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, which caused a considerable diagnostic dilemma due to its atypical presentation. RESULTS: A 29-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a progressively increasing mass in the right upper quadrant which was associated with pain and emesis. Examination showed a firm, mobile mass palpable below the right subcostal margin. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed an exophytic mass arising from hepatic segments III and IVb. Trucut biopsy of the hepatic mass was equivocal. Angiography showed a vascular tumor that was supplied by a tortuous branch of the proper hepatic artery. Surgical intervention for removal of the mass was undertaken. Intra-operatively, two large discrete tumors were found and completely resected. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: This description of an unusual case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver highlights the point that the diagnosis of otherwise benign hepatic tumors may be difficult despite extensive work-up in some cases.

  11. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

    1983-01-01

    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  12. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-coil design with improved focality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, P.; Lee, E. G.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a technique for neuromodulation that can be used as a non-invasive therapy for various neurological disorders. In TMS, a time varying magnetic field generated from an electromagnetic coil placed on the scalp is used to induce an electric field inside the brain. TMS coil geometry plays an important role in determining the focality and depth of penetration of the induced electric field responsible for stimulation. Clinicians and basic scientists are interested in stimulating a localized area of the brain, while minimizing the stimulation of surrounding neural networks. In this paper, a novel coil has been proposed, namely Quadruple Butterfly Coil (QBC) with an improved focality over the commercial Figure-8 coil. Finite element simulations were conducted with both the QBC and the conventional Figure-8 coil. The two coil's stimulation profiles were assessed with 50 anatomically realistic MRI derived head models. The coils were positioned on the vertex and the scalp over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to stimulate the brain. Computer modeling of the coils has been done to determine the parameters of interest-volume of stimulation, maximum electric field, location of maximum electric field and area of stimulation across all 50 head models for both coils.

  13. Scintigraphic assessment of focal platelet accumulations following infrainguinal bypass surgery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Hesse, B; Eiberg, J;

    1997-01-01

    of flow in the graft. Platelet deposition was assessed by gamma-camera images of thigh and crus obtained 4 and/or 24 h after surgery. Areas of focally increased activity were recorded and graded as moderate or intense. In the 24 vein bypasses, a median of two (range 0-5) areas of focally increased....... In 28 patients undergoing in situ vein (n = 24), composite vein-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (n = 1) or PTFE (n = 3) bypass surgery, assumed vascular injuries were recorded intraoperatively. Autologous indium-111-labelled platelets were injected into the inflow artery immediately after restoration...... radioactivity were seen at the proximal anastomosis (n = 21), in the body of the graft (n = 20) or at the distal anastomosis (n = 9). The activity was moderate in 27 cases and intense in 23 cases. Scintigraphic evidence of focal platelet aggregation in vein grafts was not correlated with preoperative...

  14. The effects of illumination and focal distance on light-induced fluorescence images in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, I A; Ellwood, P G; Davies, R M; Worthington, H W; Ellwood, R P

    2006-01-01

    When using quantitative light-induced fluorescence a number of factors can influence illumination level. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using a high-resolution camera and fibre-optic light source, the impact of illumination level and focal distance on common quantitative light-induced fluorescence outcomes. Twenty-four extracted teeth were examined using 6 illumination levels and 4 focal distances. Analysis was conducted using multiple linear regression models fitted to log DeltaQ, log DeltaF and log area with clustering of teeth and robust standard errors. Separate models were used for the different light and focal levels. The regression coefficients were significant for both DeltaQ and DeltaF but not area. Despite the significant regressions the actual effect was very small, and unlikely to confound clinical trial or practice results.

  15. [Non-point loads of soluble cadmium by in situ field experiment with different landuses, in central Hunan province mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Ye, Chang-cheng

    2013-09-01

    Non-point source loads of heavy metals from contaminated soil has increasingly become the major cause of heavy metal concentrations of rivers and lakes surpassed the limitation value, while only few studies had focused on quantitative monitoring of soil heavy metal transportation to water, in situ field conditions. As reported, agricultural farmland heavy metal contamination was the major contamination problem, especially for cadmium (Cd) pollution in middle and downstream of Xiangjiang River. This study selected the typical Cd polluted agricultural watershed for a case study, three typical landuse types of rice, dry farmland and unused grassland with three replicate quadrates were carried out for natural rainfall runoff hydrology processes monitoring, from 2011-2012. Results showed that, precipitation pH value increased from spring to summer, soluble Cd concentration of spring runoff was significantly higher than that of summer rainfall runoff, which presented an obviously seasonal heterogeneity and had a negative correlation with rainfall pH value, and rainfall pH value can obviously impact soil soluble Cd transportation into surface runoff charge. In the same rainfall event, soluble Cd concentration and non-point load of rice were significantly lower than those of dry land and unused grassland, while no obviously seasonal trend was found for non-point load of Cd from three typical landuse types because of the rainfall depth variance, which needs more researches and concerns in the future. These results can provide valuable data and scientific supports for watershed scale's heavy metal non-point source load quantitative estimation and water environment management and water quality diagnosis and early warning.

  16. Focal hemodynamic patterns of status epilepticus detected by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aellen, Jerome; Kottke, Raimund; Springer, Elisabeth; Weisstanner, Christian; El-Koussy, Marwan; Schroth, Gerhard; Wiest, Roland; Gralla, Jan; Verma, Rajeev K. [University of Bern, University Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Bern and Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Abela, Eugenio; Schindler, Kaspar [University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Buerki, Sarah E. [Inselspital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, University Children' s Hospital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    To investigate pathological findings in the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) of patients experiencing convulsive (CSE) or non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with focal hyperperfusion in the acute setting. Twelve patients (six with NCSE confirmed by electroencephalogram (EEG) and six patients with CSE with seizure event clinically diagnosed) underwent MRI in this acute setting (mean time between onset of symptoms and MRI was 3 h 8 min), including SWI, dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MRI sequences were retrospectively evaluated and compared with EEG findings (10/12 patients), and clinical symptoms. Twelve out of 12 (100 %) patients showed a focal parenchymal area with pseudo-narrowed cortical veins on SWI, associated with focal hyperperfused areas (increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) shortening), and cortical DWI restriction in 6/12 patients (50 %). Additionally, these areas were associated with ictal or postical EEG patterns in 8/10 patients (80 %). Most frequent acute clinical findings were aphasia and/or hemiparesis in eight patients, and all of them showed pseudo-narrowed veins in those parenchymal areas responsible for these symptoms. In this study series with CSE and NCSE patients, SWI showed focally pseudo-narrowed cortical veins in hyperperfused and ictal parenchymal areas. Therefore, SWI might have the potential to identify an ictal region in CSE/NCSE. (orig.)

  17. Runoff characteristics and washoff loads from rainfall-simulation experiments on a street surface and a native pasture in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Martha H.; Ellis, Sherman R.; Gibbs, Johnnie W.

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall simulation studies were conducted in conjunction with the Denver Regional Urban Runoff Program to: (1) Compare runoff quantity and quality from two different intensities of rainfall on impervious plots having identical antecedent conditions, (2) document a first flush of constituent loads in runoff from l,000-square-foot street-surface plots, (3) compare runoff characteristics from a street surface subjected to simulated rainfall with those from a 69-acre urban basin of mixed land use subjected to natural rainfall, (4) perform statistical analysis of constituent loads in the runoff with several independent variables, and (5) compare the quantity and quality of runoff from 400-square-foot plots of native grasses used for pasture and subjected to simulated rainfall with that from a 405-acre basin covered with native grasses used for pasture and subjected to natural rainfall. The rainfall simulations conducted on the street surface showed that higher intensity simulated rainfall produced a higher percentage of runoff than lower intensity rainfall. A first flush of constituent loads occurred for most constituents in the runoff from most rainfall simulations on the street surface; however, a first flush did not occur in the runoff from simulated rainfall on the pasture. The event mean concentrations of constituents in the runoff from simulated storms on the street surface were generally much smaller than the event mean concentrations of constituents in the runoff from an adjacent urban basin. Analysis of the data from the rainfall simulations on a street surface indicates that intensity of rainfall and total rainfall are important variables determining constituent loads. The design of the experiment was such that intensity of rainfall and total rainfall were highly correlated, thus precluding the development of useful regression equations to predict washoff loads. The quality of runoff from the simulated rainfall on the pasture was influenced by the disturbed

  18. Regulation of cell adhesion strength by peripheral focal adhesion distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elineni, Kranthi Kumar; Gallant, Nathan D

    2011-12-21

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrices is a tightly regulated process that involves the complex interplay between biochemical and mechanical events at the cell-adhesive interface. Previous work established the spatiotemporal contributions of adhesive components to adhesion strength and identified a nonlinear dependence on cell spreading. This study was designed to investigate the regulation of cell-adhesion strength by the size and position of focal adhesions (FA). The cell-adhesive interface was engineered to direct FA assembly to the periphery of the cell-spreading area to delineate the cell-adhesive area from the cell-spreading area. It was observed that redistributing the same adhesive area over a larger cell-spreading area significantly enhanced cell-adhesion strength, but only up to a threshold area. Moreover, the size of the peripheral FAs, which was interpreted as an adhesive patch, did not directly govern the adhesion strength. Interestingly, this is in contrast to the previously reported functional role of FAs in regulating cellular traction where sizes of the peripheral FAs play a critical role. These findings demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that two spatial regimes in cell-spreading area exist that uniquely govern the structure-function role of FAs in regulating cell-adhesion strength.

  19. Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

  20. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Daniela E.; Bae, Chilman; Peter J Butler

    2011-01-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surfa...

  1. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

  2. Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinghua Ding

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disor-ders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar for-mation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke.

  3. Membership Functions for Fuzzy Focal Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porębski Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on data-driven diagnostic rules, which are easy to interpret by human experts. To this end, the Dempster-Shafer theory extended for fuzzy focal elements is used. Premises of the rules (fuzzy focal elements are provided by membership functions which shapes are changing according to input symptoms. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate common membership function shapes and to introduce a rule elimination algorithm. Proposed methods are first illustrated with the popular Iris data set. Next experiments with five medical benchmark databases are performed. Results of the experiments show that various membership function shapes provide different inference efficiency but the extracted rule sets are close to each other. Thus indications for determining rules with possible heuristic interpretation can be formulated.

  4. Focal Plane Image Assembly of Subpixel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scanning assembly principle and construction of scanning assembly sample.The factors that affect assembly accuracy are analyzed.There are two steps in CCD focal plane scanning assembly.The first is rough assembly,and the second is accurate assembly.In this paper,the moiré fringe is introduced in judging assembly accuracy directly and accurately.The equation for optical transmission characteristics of CCD Moiré fringes is presented.The measurement of Moiré fringes can be completed when some conditions are satisfied.2D-assembly error can be obtained by using digital correlation filtering technique.Finally,the result of focal plane scanning assembly is presented.The result is in good accordance with theory.

  5. Focal epileptic seizures mimicking sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Ossola, Maria; Colnaghi, Silvia; Arbasino, Carla

    2009-03-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common parasomnia. The diagnostic criteria for SP, as reported in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, are essentially clinical, as electroencephalography (EEG)-polysomnography (PSG) is not mandatory. We describe a subject whose sleep-related events fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SP, even though her visual hallucinations were elementary, repetitive and stereotyped, thus differing from those usually reported by patients with SP. Video/EEG-PSG documented the focal epileptic nature of the SP-like episodes.

  6. Syndecan-4 and focal adhesion function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Two groups have now reported the viability of mice that lack syndecan-4. These mice have wound healing/angiogenesis problems, and fibroblasts from these animals differ in adhesion and migration from normal. This is consistent with recent in vitro data indicating a need for signaling via syndecan-4...... for focal adhesion formation, and reports that overexpression of proteins that bind syndecan-4 can modify cell adhesion and migration....

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Mechanosensitivity in Focal Adhesions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Physical environment guides tissue regeneration and morphology in both health and disease. In the past three decades, several experiments illustrated that mechanical cues are captured and transduced to biochemical signals in the cellular level (mechanotransduction) mediated by cell adhesion. Cells adhere to their microenvironment through large protein assemblies known as focal adhesions that directly couple intra- and extra-cellular matrices and play a critical role in many vital cell functio...

  8. Staring Focal Plane Array System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    mod- eling. This chapter presents background material needed to understand basic Focal Plane Array technology, the linear systems theory commonly... Linear systems theory is commonly used to assess the performance of imaging systems by describing the system’s response to different spatial frequencies...account for the nonlinearities (edge enhancement, adaptive spatial filtering) intro- duced by the eye/brain is not clear. How far can linear systems theory and

  9. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C. [CEA - Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, CESTA/DLP, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-06-15

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3{omega} high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3{omega} (a 3{omega} laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 {+-} 45) {mu}m.

  10. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2005-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

  11. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

  12. Determinación de la configuración geométrica óptima de la zona de carga de un remolque cañero // Determination of the dimensions of the load area of cane troiler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Álvarez-Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presenta la modelación matemática y el procedimiento de optimización de lasdimensiones de la zona de carga de un remolque cañero como parte componente de su diseño.Como criterio de optimización se selecciona la masa de los conjuntos que conforman dicha zona. Elmodelo matemático del área desarrollada de los conjuntos que conforman la zona de carga, sesupone que la masa de los conjuntos es proporcional a su área. Como restricciones del modelo seestablecen: el ancho máximo de la zona de carga, la altura máxima de la misma y el ancho delbastidor.Palabras claves: Optimización de remolques cañeros, diseño óptimo, equipos de cosecha, modelaciónmatemática.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the present work the mathematical model and the optimization procedure of the task ofdetermination of the dimensions of the load area of CANE TROILER as component part of it designare shown. As optimization criteria the mass of the sets that conform this area is selected. In themathematical model it is supposed that the mass of the sets it is proportional to its area. Asrestrictions of the model the maximum width and the maximum height of the load area and thewidth of the wing are settled down.Key words: cane troiler optimization, crop teams, mathematical modelling

  13. Dynamics of Focal Fibrillation Waves during Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanters, Eva A H; Allessie, Maurits A; DE Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and appearance of focal fibrillation waves on the right and left atrial epicardial surface were visualized during 10 seconds of persistent atrial fibrillation in a 71-year-old woman with valvular heart disease. The frequent, nonrepetitive, widespread, and capricious distribution of focal waves suggests that transmural conduction of fibrillation waves is most likely the mechanism underlying focal fibrillation waves.

  14. Sonographic features of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-shui; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Hua-bin; Wang, Jin-rui

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic values of gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (FHT). The gray-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound data of 120 patients with histopathologically confirmed FHT were retrospectively studied. The background of thyroid parenchyma was subjectively evaluated as absence or presence of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The vascular types of thyroid nodules were determined as follows: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow, and focal thyroid inferno. Among all 120 nodules, 71 (59.2%) were located in normal thyroid parenchyma, 49 (40.8%) in the background of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In the normal thyroid background, hypoechoic nodules accounted for 85.9% (61/71), and only 14.1% (10/71)nodules were isoechoic or hyperechoic. However, in the background of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 40.8% were hypoechoic and 59.2% were isoechoic or hyperechoic. The difference was statistically significant (Pinferno accounted for 45 %, 25.9%, 20.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. The "focal inferno" is a relative specific color Doppler feature of FHT.

  15. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.

  16. Smart focal plane technologies for ELT instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin R.; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Garzon, Francisco; Parry, Ian R.; Prieto, Eric; Robertson, David J.; Zamkotsian, Frederic

    2004-07-01

    Smart Focal Planes are devices that enable the efficient sampling of a telescope's focal plane to feed spectroscopic and imaging instruments. Examples are integral field units (fiber and image slicers), cryogenic beam manipulators, and MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) such as miniature slit shutters. These technologies are critical in making best use of the current 8m class telescopes for key science goals such as spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, and will be even more important for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) instruments. In fact, the density of pixels in an ELT focal plane with several milliarcsecond resolution will mean that sub-sampling of the field will be needed even for imaging. We have proposed a joint European project to develop these technologies, building on expertise from partners in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany and others, and led by the UK. We describe the current status of these technologies, showing how they will contribute to the feasibility and performance of proposed instruments for ELTs, and concentrating on capabilities within Europe. We then outline the proposed future developments, highlighting the technical challenges, such as the difficulties of manufacturing and verifying complex image slicers with thousands of optical surfaces, and building highly reliable cryogenic mechanisms such as pick-off arms, beam steering mirrors and reconfigurble slit mechanisms.

  17. Left hippocampal pathology is associated with atypical language lateralization in patients with focal epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Wellmer, J.; Reuber, M.; Mormann, F.; Weis, S.; Urbach, H.; Ruhlmann, J.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.

    2006-01-01

    It is well recognized that the incidence of atypical language lateralization is increased in patients with focal epilepsy. The hypothesis that shifts in language dominance are particularly likely when epileptic lesions are located in close vicinity to the so-called language-eloquent areas rather

  18. Immigration and health: the Italian National Focal Point experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camoni, L; Colucci, A; Covre, P; D'Agostini, A; Frati, A R; Gallo, P; Geraci, S; Latini, O; Luzi, A M; Mayer, R; Morrone, A; Petrosillo, N; Pino, D; Rezza, G; Rosa, E; Spizzichino, L; Volpicelli, S; Schinaia, N

    2000-01-01

    This report is a description of the situation of migrant populations in Italy. It was written by a committed team of experts from public institutions, non-governmental organisations (NGO) and volunteer associations that for three years have been part of the Italian National Focal Point (NFP) within the European Project "AIDS & Mobility", which is being co-ordinated by the Netherlands Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention (the Netherlands) and financed by the European Commission DG/V. This year the Italian National Focal Point, co-ordinated by the Telefono Verde AIDS of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, has produced a second report (the first one was published in 1998) on health issues related to migrant populations. Besides providing an updated picture on the presence of foreigners in Italy, such report illustrates the present legislative situation within the sanitary area and some interventions regarding prevention, treatment and rehabilitation provided by each structure in the Italian NFP to foreign citizens. The initiatives carried out during the year 1999 by public institutions, NGO and volunteer associations are also reported in order to detect the psycho-social-sanitary needs of immigrants and target prevention programmes to their particular and specific needs.

  19. Entropy analyses of spatiotemporal synchronizations in brain signals from patients with focal epilepsies

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) data intracerebrally recorded from 20 epileptic humans with different brain origins of focal epilepsies or types of seizures, ages and sexes are investigated (nearly 700 million data). Multi channel univariate amplitude analyses are performed and it is shown that time dependent Shannon entropies can be used to predict focal epileptic seizure onsets in different epileptogenic brain zones of different patients. Formations or time evolutions of the synchronizations in the brain signals from epileptogenic or non epileptogenic areas of the patients in ictal interval or inter-ictal interval are further investigated employing spatial or temporal differences of the entropies.

  20. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  1. Historical nutrient and pathogen database - Transport and fate of nutrient and pathogen loadings into nearshore Puget Sound: consequences for shellfish growing areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project seeks to develop and apply an assessment of shellfish growing area (SGA) vulnerability to closures caused by watershed- and marine-derived pathogens....

  2. [Functional connectivity and complex networks in focal epilepsy. Pathophysiology and therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Jesús; Sola, Rafael G; Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Garnes, Óscar; Ortega, Guillermo J

    2014-05-01

    Introduccion. El modelo tradicional de cirugia de la epilepsia focal consiste en la localizacion y reseccion de la zona epileptogena. Sin embargo, una minoria significativa de pacientes epilepticos sigue teniendo crisis tras la reseccion, lo que muestra el nivel de conocimiento incompleto que actualmente se tiene sobre esta materia. Objetivo. Introducir algunos conceptos de conectividad funcional y redes complejas y su aplicacion al estudio de registros neurofisiologicos de pacientes con epilepsia focal farmacorresistente, principalmente del lobulo temporal. Desarrollo. Con el objeto de entender con plenitud los nuevos desarrollos en el area de redes complejas y sus aplicaciones al estudio de la epilepsia, se revisaran los conceptos fundamentales de la metodologia de redes complejas, sincronizacion y conectividad funcional. Asimismo, se revisaran algunos de los trabajos mas recientes en los que se analizan registros neurofisiologicos y resonancias funcionales de pacientes con epilepsia focal bajo esta nueva perspectiva. Conclusiones. Una vision mas amplia en la perspectiva para el entendimiento de la epilepsia focal, como la tratada en este trabajo, permitira tambien plantear nuevas alternativas al tratamiento quirurgico de la epilepsia focal, tanto con el desarrollo de nuevos metodos no invasivos como con la mejora y optimizacion de algunos de los metodos invasivos ya existentes.

  3. Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biton, Y. Y.; Safran, S. A.

    2010-05-01

    The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.

  4. Theory of the mechanical response of focal adhesions to shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biton, Y Y; Safran, S A, E-mail: yoav.biton@weizmann.ac.i, E-mail: sam.safran@weizmann.ac.i [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-05-19

    The response of cells to shear flow is primarily determined by the asymmetry of the external forces and moments that are sensed by each member of a focal adhesion pair connected by a contractile stress fiber. In the theory presented here, we suggest a physical model in which each member of such a pair of focal adhesions is treated as an elastic body subject to both a myosin-activated contractile force and the shear stress induced by the external flow. The elastic response of a focal adhesion complex is much faster than the active cellular processes that determine the size of the associated focal adhesions and the direction of the complex relative to the imposed flow. Therefore, the complex attains its mechanical equilibrium configuration which may change because of the cellular activity. Our theory is based on the experimental observation that focal adhesions modulate their cross-sectional area in order to attain an optimal shear. Using this assumption, our elastic model shows that such a complex can passively change its orientation to align parallel to the direction of the flow.

  5. Increased segregation of brain networks in focal epilepsy: An fMRI graph theory finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mangor; Omidvarnia, Amir H; Walz, Jennifer M; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    Focal epilepsy is conceived of as activating local areas of the brain as well as engaging regional brain networks. Graph theory represents a powerful quantitative framework for investigation of brain networks. Here we investigate whether functional network changes are present in extratemporal focal epilepsy. Task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 15 subjects with extratemporal epilepsy and 26 age and gender matched healthy controls were used for analysis. Local network properties were calculated using local efficiency, clustering coefficient and modularity metrics. Global network properties were assessed with global efficiency and betweenness centrality metrics. Cost-efficiency of the networks at both local and global levels was evaluated by estimating the physical distance between functionally connected nodes, in addition to the overall numbers of connections in the network. Clustering coefficient, local efficiency and modularity were significantly higher in individuals with focal epilepsy than healthy control subjects, while global efficiency and betweenness centrality were not significantly different between the two groups. Local network properties were also highly efficient, at low cost, in focal epilepsy subjects compared to healthy controls. Our results show that functional networks in focal epilepsy are altered in a way that the nodes of the network are more isolated. We postulate that network regularity, or segregation of the nodes of the networks, may be an adaptation that inhibits the conversion of the interictal state to seizures. It remains possible that this may be part of the epileptogenic process or an effect of medications.

  6. In vivo evidence of global and focal brain alterations in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghi, Andrea; Sterpone, Sara; Sales, Stefano; D'Agata, Federico; Bradac, Gianni Boris; Zullo, Giuseppina; Munno, Donato

    2011-06-30

    Brain alterations are known to be associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and tend to be distributed across brain structures, with only a few reports describing focal damage. Magnetic resonance images of 21 anorexic patients with different disease duration and 27 control subjects were acquired and compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Patients had a significant reduction of total white matter (WM) volume and focal gray matter (GM) atrophy in cerebellum, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus and frontal, parietal and temporal areas. The cerebellum was more affected in patients with longer disease duration, whereas the hypothalamic alterations were more pronounced in patients with shorter food restriction. A correlation with body mass index (BMI) and GM was found in the hypothalamus. Our data demonstrate a diffuse reduction of WM together with focal areas of GM atrophy in AN. The finding of a hypothalamic focal atrophy points to hormonal dysfunction and opens the possibility for a central dysregulation of homeostasis. The involvement of temporoparietal areas could account for body image distortion. Finally, the cerebellar GM atrophy confirms previous findings and seems to be a late consequence of AN that could play a role in the chronic phase of the disease.

  7. Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Rob F. A.; van den Akker, Jan J. A.

    2017-04-01

    Effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing subsidence of peat soils in agricultural use, and their effects on water management and nutrient loading of surface water: modelling of a case study in the western peat soil area of The Netherlands In the Netherlands, about 8% of the area is covered by peat soils. Most of these soils are in use for dairy farming and, consequently, are drained. Drainage causes decomposition of peat by oxidation and accordingly leads to surface subsidence and greenhouse gas emission. Submerged drains that enhance submerged infiltration of water from ditches during the dry and warm summer half year were, and are still, studied in The Netherlands as a promising tool for reducing peat decomposition by raising groundwater levels. For this purpose, several pilot field studies in the Western part of the Dutch peat area were conducted. Besides the effectiveness of submerged drains in reducing peat decomposition and subsidence by raising groundwater tables, some other relevant or expected effects of these drains were studied. Most important of these are water management and loading of surface water with nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphate. Because most of these parameters are not easy to assess and all of them are strongly depending on the meteorological conditions during the field studies some of these studies were modelled. The SWAP model was used for evaluating the hydrological results on groundwater table and water discharge and recharge. Effects of submerged drains were assessed by comparing the results of fields with and without drains. An empirical relation between deepest groundwater table and subsidence was used to convert effects on groundwater table to effects on subsidence. With the SWAP-ANIMO model nutrient loading of surface water was modelled on the basis of field results on nutrient concentrations . Calibrated models were used to assess effects in the present situation, as thirty-year averages, under extreme weather

  8. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in sheep Encefalomalacia focal simétrica em ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Pimentel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia by Clostridium perfringens type D. This paper reports FSE in sheep in Brazil. Six deaths occurred within a seven days period in a flock of 70, four to 30-month-old Santa Inês sheep in the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid. The flock was grazing a paddock of irrigated sprouting Cynodon dactylon (Tifton grass, and supplemented, ad libitum, with a concentrate of soybean, corn and wheat. Nervous signs included blindness and recumbence. A 19 month-old sheep was examined clinically and necropsied after a clinical course of three days. Gross lesions were herniation of the cerebellar vermis and multifocal, bilateral, symmetric brownish areas in the internal capsule, thalamus and cerebellar peduncles. Histologic lesions were multifocal, bilateral malacia with some neutrophils, swelling of blood vessels endothelium, perivascular edema, and hemorrhages. The flock was vaccinated, before the outbreak, with only one dose of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine. Two factors are suggested to be important for the occurrence of the disease: insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination; and high nutritional levels by the supplementation with highly fermentable carbohydrates.Encefalomalacia focal simétrica (EFS é a lesão mais proeminente vista nas formas subaguda ou crônica da enterotoxemia por Clostridium perfringens tipo D. Este trabalho relata EFS em ovinos no semiárido do estado da Paraíba. Seis ovinos morreram, em um período de sete dias, dentro de um rebanho de 70 animais, da raça Santa Inês, entre 4-30 meses de idade, que pastavam em piquete de Cynodon dactylon (capim Tifton, que estava rebrotando. Os ovinos eram suplementados com um concentrado de soja, trigo e milho. Os sinais nervosos incluíam cegueira e decúbito lateral. Um ovino de 19 meses de idade foi examinado clinicamente e necropsiado, depois de um curso

  9. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  10. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment.

  11. Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

  12. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  13. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  14. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  15. Kartagener syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Ali; Doroushi, Behzad; Taheri, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is characterized by congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia which is involved in situs inversus associated with chronic respiratory infections. In addition, glomerular disease in KS syndrome is rare and reported cases are limited. We had a 27-year-old female patient with KS who presented with proteinuria, hematuria, normal kidney function, and a family history of systemic lupus erythematosus. Kidney biopsy showed segmental scar with adhesion to Bowman capsule, which was indicative of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Gheliani; Atefe Tavangar; Nakissa Torabinia; Laleh Maleki; Tahereh Nosratzehi

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck) is a rare lesion caused by human papilloma virus subtype 13 or 32 and presents as multiple small white or pink papules on the mucosal surface of lips, buccal mucosa and tongue usually seen in children and adolescent of American Indian and Eskimo background. This disease has a genetic basis. The site of new lesions and recurrence are unpredictable. Continued follow up of the patient is often necessary. In this report, a 50-year-old woman is described with be...

  17. Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: reports of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Hee; Jeong, Young Ki; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic inflammatory condition which in most cases involves either an entire non-duplicated kidney or a moiety of a duplicated kidney. These cases present with quite characteristic radiologic findings including an enlarged nonfunctioning kidney and renal stones. However, when the condition involves only a part of a non-duplicated kidney and especially where there is an absence of the specific findings described above, differentiation from cystic neoplasm may be difficult. We report the radiologic findings of two such cases of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

  18. Focal dermal hypoplasia: ultrastructural abnormalities of the connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Boente, María; Asial, Raúl A; Winik, Beatriz C

    2007-02-01

    We followed over 10 years three girls with focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome. The histopathological changes demonstrated at the optical level an hypoplastic dermis with thin and scarce collagen bundles and a marked diminution of elastic fibers. Mature adipose tissue was found scattered within the papillary and reticular dermis. No alterations in the basal membrane were observed by immunocytochemical or ultrastructural techniques. Ultrastructurally, in the skin-affected areas, loosely arranged collagen bundles composed of few fibrils were seen scattered in the extracellular matrix. Scarce elastic fibers of normal morphology were also observed. Fibroblasts were smaller, oval-shaped, and diminished in number with a poorly developed cytoplasm. In these fibroblasts, the most conspicuous feature was a remarkable and irregular thickening of the nuclear fibrous lamina. Taking into account that a common link between all laminopaties may be a failure of stem cells to regenerate mesenchymal tissue, this failure would induce the dermal hypoplasia observed in our patients presenting Goltz syndrome.

  19. 层粘连蛋白及基质金属蛋白酶-9在大鼠局灶性脑缺血梗死区周围的表达及意义%Expression of Laminin and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 around the Infarct Area Following Focal Ischemia in Rat Brains and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓松; 周东; 唐瑜; 刘静; 李娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and laminin around the infarct area following focal ischemia in adult rat brains.Methods Using a random number table,45 four-month-old male SD rats were divided into two groups:sham operation group and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group.The model of acute reperfusion injury after cerebral ischemia in rats was made by MCAO.The MCAO group was further divided into four subgroups according to different durations of reperfusion,including 6 hours,24 hours,3 days and 7 days.The expression of MMP-9 and Laminin was detected using an imrnunohistochemical approach.Results The number of MMP-9 immunoreactive cells at hour 6 after reperfusion in ischemic side in MCAO group started to increase markedly and presented significant difference compared with the sham group.It peaked at hour 24 and then decreased gradually at day 3 but was still higher than that of the sham group at day 7 after reperfusion.The expression of laminin began to decrease at hour 6 and reached to the minimum.It started to increase slowly 3 days later.Conclusion In the cerebral ischemiareperfusion injury,the change of MMP-9 and laminin expressions may reflect the impaired cerebral blood wall and has close relationship with the cerebral ischemic injury and repair process.[Key words] Laminin; MMP-9; Cerebral ischemia; Rat%目的 观察局灶性脑缺血梗死区周围层粘连蛋白(Laminin)及基质金属蛋白酶(MMP)-9表达,探讨其在脑缺血再灌注损伤发病机制中的作用.方法 将45只体重250~300 g、4个月龄的Sprague Dawley(SD)雄性大鼠随机分为假手术(Sham)组与局灶性缺血再灌注(MCAO)组.MCAO组又分6、24、72 h及7d组,每组各9只.光学显微镜下观察脑组织病理改变,免疫组织化学染色检测各组Laminin及MMP-9的表达情况.结果 再灌注后6h,即有MMP-9表达明显增高,表达高峰出现在再灌注后24 h,3d时有所下降,至7d时

  20. Probabilistic Load Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the probabilistic load flow (PLF) techniques. Applications of the PLF techniques in different areas of power system steady-state analysis are also discussed. The purpose of the review is to identify different available PLF techniques and their corresponding...

  1. Focal liver lesions: Practical magnetic resonance imagingapproach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread of cross-sectional imaging, a growthof incidentally detected focal liver lesions (FLL) hasbeen observed. A reliable detection and characterizationof FLL is critical for optimal patient management.Maximizing accuracy of imaging in the context ofFLL is paramount in avoiding unnecessary biopsies,which may result in post-procedural complications. Atremendous development of new imaging techniqueshas taken place during these last years. Nowadays,Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key rolein management of liver lesions, using a radiation-freetechnique and a safe contrast agent profile. MRI playsa key role in the non-invasive correct characterizationof FLL. MRI is capable of providing comprehensiveand highly accurate diagnostic information, withthe additional advantage of lack of harmful ionizingradiation. These properties make MRI the mainstay forthe noninvasive evaluation of focal liver lesions. In thispaper we review the state-of-the-art MRI liver protocol,briefly discussing different sequence types, the uniquecharacteristics of imaging non-cooperative patients anddiscuss the role of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents.A review of the imaging features of the most commonbenign and malignant FLL is presented, supplementedby a schematic representation of a simplistic practicalapproach on MRI.

  2. Musical anhedonia after focal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Evans, Erin; Heskje, Jonah; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    People listen to music because it is pleasurable. However, there are individual differences in the reward value of music. At the extreme low end of this continuum, individuals who derive no pleasure from music are said to have 'musical anhedonia.' Cases of acquired musical anhedonia following focal brain damage are rare, with only a handful having been reported in the scientific literature. Here, we surveyed a large sample of patients with focal brain damage to identify the frequency, specificity, and neural correlates of acquired musical anhedonia. Participants completed the Musical anhedonia Questionnaire and the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (Mas-Herrero et al., 2013) to assess changes in musical enjoyment and reward following brain injury. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps. No clear or consistent neuroanatomical correlates of musical anhedonia were identified. One patient with damage to the right-hemisphere putamen and internal capsule displayed specific and severe acquired musical anhedonia. These findings indicate that acquired musical anhedonia is very uncommon, a result which is consistent with the fact that only a small number of such cases have been reported in the literature. This rarity could have positive implications for the therapeutic potentialities of music in patients with severe neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  4. Clinical and Morphological Features of Focal Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya B. Kurashvili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenomyosis is a very real problem encountered in modern gynecology due to the increase in the incidence, severity of the disease, and absence of effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and morphological features of the focal and diffuse forms of adenomyosis. Methods and Results: The study involved 70 women who applied to the Center with the diagnosis of ‘adenomyosis’. Examination included transvaginal sonography (TVS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and morphological study of the adenomyotic foci. With a probability of 99%, one can argue that focal adenomyosis (FA in its clinical features is different from diffuse adenomyosis (DA in all its major manifestations. Conclusion: FA has unique morphological characteristics and clinical features. The diagnosis of FA should be based on a complex of clinical and instrumental data in conjunction with morphological process verification. Besides, there are difficulties in the diagnosis of FA, which is a major reason for the incorrect determination of the treatment tactic for patients. However, the application of MRS allows the preoperative identification of the biochemical structure of the focus and determination of its borders, and in the postoperative period, selection of optimal treatment tactics based on the identified morphological features of the removed adenomyotic foci.

  5. 基于改进输出系数法的矿区重金属面源污染负荷核算模型%Research on Heavy Metal Load Accounting in Mining Areas Using Improved Export Coefficient Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茆峰; 苏馈足; 康加廷; 冯宇; 江鸿; 甄宏

    2012-01-01

    Based on research on load accounting of agricultural non-point source pollution, a pollution load accounting model for mining areas was presented using an improved export coefficient method. Taking the sources and characteristics of heavy metal pollution into account, the mining area was divided into four districts: tailing district, polluted air dust district, ore transport district and naturally contaminated soil district. Export coefficients for each district were calculated separately. Considering the effect of dissolution rate of heavy metals on the results, dissolution rate was introduced into the improved model, which makes the model appropriate for the load accounting of non-point source pollution of heavy metals in mining areas. The developed model was used in non-point source pollution load accounting in the mining area in the Hunhe watershed. The simulation results showed that about 77% of the heavy metal pollution was from the ore transport and naturally contaminated soil districts. It could be found from the model calculation and the results that this model requires little original data and calculation, but is a reliable method for non-point source pollution load accounting in mining areas.%借鉴农业面源污染负荷核算研究成果,结合我国实际情况,以输出系数法为基础,提出矿区面源污染负荷核算模型.考虑重金属污染的来源和特点,将矿山地区的土地类型分为尾矿库区、降尘污染区、运输污染区和自然土地4类,分别计算各类型土地的输出系数.考虑到重金属在水中的溶出率影响,在模型中引入了溶出率因子,以构建适应矿区流域的重金属非点源污染负荷核算模型,并用该模型对浑河流域重金属面源负荷进行了估算.结果表明:矿山地区重金属污染主要来自运输污染区和自然土地,占总污染负荷的77%左右.从模拟过程和模拟结果可知,面源污染负荷核算模型所需原始资料较少,参数计算

  6. The regulation of traction force in relation to cell shape and focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rape, Andrew D; Guo, Wei-Hui; Wang, Yu-Li

    2011-03-01

    Mechanical forces provide critical inputs for proper cellular functions. The interplay between the generation of, and response to, mechanical forces regulate such cellular processes as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. We postulate that adherent cells respond to a number of physical and topographical factors, including cell size and shape, by detecting the magnitude and/or distribution of traction forces under different conditions. To address this possibility we introduce a new simple method for precise micropatterning of hydrogels, and then apply the technique to systematically investigate the relationship between cell geometry, focal adhesions, and traction forces in cells with a series of spread areas and aspect ratios. Contrary to previous findings, we find that traction force is not determined primarily by the cell spreading area but by the distance from cell center to the perimeter. This distance in turn controls traction forces by regulating the size of focal adhesions, such that constraining the size of focal adhesions by micropatterning can override the effect of geometry. We propose that the responses of traction forces to center-periphery distance, possibly through a positive feedback mechanism that regulates focal adhesions, provide the cell with the information on its own shape and size. A similar positive feedback control may allow cells to respond to a variety of physical or topographical signals via a unified mechanism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Focal Mechanism Analysis for Determination of Potential Source Zones in South China and Its Adjacent Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yuejun; Zhang Shimin; Cui Xiaofeng; Huang Zhongxian

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of focal mechanism solutions in southeastern areas of China (south of 34°N and east of 105°E), this article analyzes the correlation of focal mechanism solutions with seismogenic structures of moderate strong earthquakes and the direction of potential source zones. The data show that the nodal planes of focal mechanism solutions and the principle stresses in southern China are of predominantly similar directions, most of the solutions for M ≥4.0 earthquakes correspond to the main structure directions as well as the directions of potential source zones. The statistical results of multiple small earthquakes concerning nodal planes and main stress axes are also reliable for determining the direction of potential source zones. According to the analysis of focal mechanism solutions, long-axis direction of isoseismais distribution of aftershocks, geologic structures, and seismic activity in two areas of the Ms6.1earthquake in the south Yellow Sea in 1996 and the Ms5.2 earthquake in Fujian in 1997, the potential source zone division is discussed.

  8. Calculation and discussion of non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area%丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷的计算与讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳霞; 程超; 辛小康

    2015-01-01

    正确估算丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷对于水源区水环境保护具有重要意义. 根据丹江口库区6条主要入库河流汉江、天河、堵河、丹江、老灌河、淇河控制水文站2013年逐日流量数据,采用数字滤波法对基流进行了分割. 以逐日流量、河川基流量和代表污染物(CODMn和TP)2013年逐月浓度监测值为基础,采用通量法计算了背景污染负荷和点源污染负荷、非点源污染负荷. 结果表明:(1) 6条河流入库流量占总入库流量的95. 9%,非点源污染已成为丹江口水库水质变化的主导因素. (2) 汉江是入库污染负荷的最大来源,其次是堵河. (3) 由于非点源污染伴随降雨汇入河道,水库污染负荷主要集中于丰水期,2013年度丰水期CODMn和TP的比例分别达到了80. 8%和90. 9%.%Correctly estimating the non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area is important to the envi-ronmental protection of the water source area. The Digital Filter method is used to separate the base flows of Hanjiang River, Tianhe River, Duhe River, Danjiang River, Laoguan River and Qihe River in the reservoir basin according to the daily discharge data. Based on the daily flow, the base flow and monthly typical pollutant concentration in 2013, a flux model is set up to calcu-late the background pollution loads, point-source pollution loads and non-point source pollution loads respectively. The calcu-lation results show that in 2013, the inflow discharge of the 6 rivers accounted for 95. 9% of the total inflow, and the total pollu-tion loads of CODMn and TP from the 6 rivers are 58. 2 thousand t and 1. 86 thousand t, while the non-point source pollution loads are 39. 82 thousand t and 1. 544 thousand t, so the non-point source pollution is the decisive factor;Hanjiang River is the largest pollutants contributor to Danjiangkou Reservoir and followed by Duhe River; the non-point source pollution enters into the river channel

  9. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchenbüchler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgeßner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  10. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  11. MRI-guided focal therapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Melvy Sarah; Oto, Aytekin

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of focal therapy as a recognized treatment option for men with prostate cancer, there are a host of emerging interventions that take advantage of MRI for image guidance. Focal therapy affords a middleground option for patients with low- to intermediate-grade prostate cancer by providing a means of keeping their cancer at bay while avoiding the negative consequences of radical therapies. However, the practice of focal treatment is far from straightforward, with some believing focal treatment errs on the side of overtreatment among patients with low-grade cancer; others worry it is undertreatment in potentially significant multifocal disease. Further research is necessary, both relating to focal therapy in general and to the utility of each MRI-guided focal treatment discussed.

  12. Literature Review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Uvalde County Kerr County Gillespie County Bandera County Mason County Menard County 100°30’W 100°0’W 99°30’W 29°30’N 30°0’N 30°30’N TEXAS So uth Llan o R...semiarid area, New Mexico : U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 352–G, p. 193–253. • The authors investigate sediment supply mechanisms to a...Jr., 1963, A preliminary study of sediment trans- port parameters, Rio Puerco near Bernardo, New Mexico : U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper

  13. Helminths infection patterns in a lizard (Tropidurus hispidus) population from a semiarid neotropical area: associations between female reproductive allocation and parasite loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Conrado A B; Ávila, Robson W; Bezerra, Castiele H; Passos, Daniel C; Melo, Gabriela C; Zanchi-Silva, Djan

    2014-12-01

    This study reports helminth infection patterns of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus from an area of semiarid caatinga in northeastern Brazil (Ceará state). The lizard population was parasitized by 8 helminth species, and the species composition of the component community resembles that found for other Neotropical lizards. The prevalence of parasites was higher for males compared with females, whereas no relation was found between intensity of infection of 2 parasites (Parapharyngodon alvarengai and Physaloptera lutzi) and the lizards body size. For reproductive females, parasite infection intensity was negatively correlated to reproductive investment.

  14. Cytokine profile and proviral load among Japanese immigrants and non-Japanese infected with HTLV-1 in a non-endemic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, João Américo; Soares, Luana Silva; Bandeira, Larissa M; Bonin, Camila Mareti; Vicente, Ana C P; Zanella, Louise; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tozetti, Inês Aparecida; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio

    2017-01-01

    The lifetime risk of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) development differs among ethnic groups. To better understand these differences, this prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the cytokine profile and the HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) in Japanese and non-Japanese populations with HAM/TSP and asymptomatic carriers (ACs). The serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels were quantified using the Cytometric Bead Array in 40 HTLV-1-infected patients (11 HAM/TSP and 29 ACs) and 18 healthy controls (HCs) in Brazil. Among ACs, 15 were Japanese descendants and 14 were non-Japanese. Of 11 patients with HAM/TSP, only one was a Japanese descendant. The HTLV-1 PVL was quantified by real-time PCR. The HTLV-1 PVL was 2.7-fold higher in HAM/TSP patients than ACs. Regardless of the clinical outcome, the PVL was significantly higher in patients younger than 60 years than older patients. The HAM/TSP and ACs had higher IL-10 serum concentrations than that of HCs. The ACs also showed higher IL-6 serum levels than those of HCs. According to age, the IL-10 and IL-6 levels were higher in ACs non-Japanese patients older than 60 years. HAM/TSP patients showed a positive correlation between IL-6 and IL-17 and a negative correlation between the PVL and IL-17 and IFN-γ. In the all ACs, a significant positive correlation was observed between IL-2 and IL-17 and a negative correlation was detected between IL-10 and TNF-α. Only 6.25% of the Japanese patients were symptomatic carriers, compared with 41.67% of the non-Japanese patients. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of HTLV-1 PVL was intrinsicaly associated with the development of HAM/TSP. A higher HTLV-1 PVL and IL10 levels found in non-Japanese ACs over 60 years old, which compared with the Japanese group depicts that the ethnic background may interfere in the host immune status. More researches also need to be undertaken regarding the host genetic

  15. Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

  16. Simultaneous use of several monitoring techniques to measure visitor load, spatio-temporal distribution and social characteristics of tourists - a case study of a cable car area in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowska, Karolina; Zięba, Antoni; Brandenburg, Christiane; Muhar, Andreas; Preisel, Hemma; Hibner, Joanna; Latosinska, Barbara; Benítez, Rafael; Bolós, Vicente; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Ziobrowski, Szymon

    2017-04-01

    Visitor monitoring is an integrate part of the effective management of recreational and protected areas. Comprehensive information concerning volume of tourist traffic, spatial-temporal distribution of visitors in a leisure setting as well as visitor socio-demographic characteristics may support understanding human behaviour and the ongoing natural processes (trail deterioration, erosion, impact on flora and fauna). Especially, vulnerable areas that in the same time serve as tourist attractions need to be carefully investigated. One of such areas is Kasprowy Wierch (1987 m.a.s.l.) - a popular cable car destination located in the Carpathian Mountains, Tatra National Park, Poland / Slovakia. The aim of this study was to define the overall visitor load and to understand visitor behaviour in the proximity of the upper cable car station at Kasprowy Wierch. The main focus of this presentation is the comparison of the used monitoring techniques and exposing the benefit of their simultaneous application. Visitor monitoring campaign was carried out in the study area in the summer season 2014. The following data collection techniques were simultaneously applied: 1) automatic counting (Eco-Counter pyroelectric sensors), 2) manual counting; 3) on-site interviews combined with trip diaries and visitor observation 4) GPS-tracking 5) registry of cable car tickets 6) registry of entries to the national park (TPN). Between 26.06.2014 and 30.09.2014 at 7 locations a continuous automatic counting of visitors was done using pyroelectric sensors (Eco-Counter). Additionally, on 18 sampling days at 12 locations direct observations (manual counting) of visitor flows was carried out. During the sampling days tourists were interviewed in the field using structured questionnaires (PAPI survey technique, N = 2639). Survey was combined with a documentation of visitors' trip itineraries via GPS-loggers and map sketches. Totally 1250 GPS-tracks of visitors and 1351 map sketches have been

  17. Diagnostic performance of fluorine-18-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography in diagnosing and localizing the focal form of congenital hyperinsulinism: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Giordano, Alessandro; Rufini, Vittoria [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mirk, Paoletta [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    We performed a meta-analysis on published data on the diagnostic performance of fluorine-18 dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) in diagnosing and localizing focal congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published up to 31 January 2012 regarding {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or PET/CT in patients with CHI was performed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, area under the ROC curve and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or PET/CT in diagnosing focal CHI were calculated. The localization accuracy of focal CHI was also estimated. Seven studies comprising 195 CHI patients were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or PET/CT in differentiating between focal and diffuse CHI were 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]:81-95%) and 98% (95% CI:89-100%), respectively. The DOR was 74.5 (95% CI:18-307). The area under the ROC curve was 0.95. The pooled accuracy of these functional imaging methods in localizing focal CHI was 80% (95% CI:71-88%). In CHI patients, {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between focal and diffuse CHI. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or PET/CT are accurate methods of localizing focal CHI. Nevertheless, possible sources of false-negative results for focal CHI should be kept in mind. (orig.)

  18. A CMOS Imager with Focal Plane Compression using Predictive Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Balkir, Sina; Sayood, Khalid; Schemm, Nathan; Hoffman, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with focal-plane compression. The design has a column-level architecture and it is based on predictive coding techniques for image decorrelation. The prediction operations are performed in the analog domain to avoid quantization noise and to decrease the area complexity of the circuit, The prediction residuals are quantized and encoded by a joint quantizer/coder circuit. To save area resources, the joint quantizerlcoder circuit exploits common circuitry between a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a Golomb-Rice entropy coder. This combination of ADC and encoder allows the integration of the entropy coder at the column level. A prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35 pm CMOS process. The output of the chip is a compressed bit stream. The test chip occupies a silicon area of 2.60 mm x 5.96 mm which includes an 80 X 44 APS array. Tests of the fabricated chip demonstrate the validity of the design.

  19. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  20. Prevalence and Clinical Features of Focal Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ken; Kitahara, Hideki; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishibashi, Iwao; Himi, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-07-25

    Because it is difficult to distinguish between focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and aborted myocardial infarction, there is little information about the prevalence and clinical features of focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Our cardiac catheterization databases were queried to identify patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We defined focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy as hypo-, a- or dyskinesis in both anterolateral and septal segments without obstructive coronary artery disease explaining the wall motion abnormality. A total of 10 patients were diagnosed with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The control group comprised patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with apical, mid-ventricular, or basal ballooning. Clinical features and in-hospital outcomes were compared between patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and those with other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Among the 144 patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, the apical, mid-ventricular, basal, and focal types occurred in 85 (59.0%), 49 (34.0%), 0 (0%), and 10 patients (6.9%), respectively. The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in the focal group compared with the apical and mid-ventricular group (56±13 vs. 45±13 vs. 46±12%, P=0.03). In-hospital outcome was not significantly different among the 3 groups. Focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy is not rare. Biplane left ventriculography is useful for its diagnosis. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1824-1829).

  1. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Barbara Illowsky

    2012-11-20

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  2. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Illowsky Karp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  3. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  4. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  5. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  6. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  7. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  8. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pila Pérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia, also known as Heck's disease, is relatively rare, occurring mostly in children and adolescents. A case of a 20 year-old female patient treated at the Manuel Ascunce Domenech University Hospital in Camagüey due to papular lesions, which had evolved for ten months, is presented. Other viral diseases were ruled out; however based on histological studies, it was concluded that she suffered from Heck disease, which is frequently treated by dentists, but little known among pediatricians, internists and dermatologists. Because of its etiology, many cases are related to human papilloma virus infection. When the disease evolves, treatment can involve excision, laser surgery or cryotherapy. The latter method was used in this patient with satisfactory results, as she is completely asymptomatic.

  9. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living...... and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...

  10. Tunable focalizers: axicons, lenses, and axilenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Castañeda, Jorge; Gómez-Sarabia, Cristina M.; Ledesma, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    We propose the use of a pair of phase masks, which have both radial and angular variations, for implementing several varifocal devices. One mask of the proposed pair has a complex amplitude transmittance that is the complex conjugate of the other member of the pair. We show that the overall complex amplitude transmittance has only a radial variation after introducing an in-plane rotation, say by an angle β, between the members of the pair. However, we note that the optical power is proportional to the rotation angle β. As examples of the proposed method, we show that the refractive pair is useful for implementing varifocal lenses, tunable axicons, controllable axilenses, as well as annularly distributed focalizers.

  11. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  12. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  13. Focal cerebral hyperemia in postconcussive amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariai, T; Suzuki, R; Ohta, Y; Ohno, K; Hirakawa, K

    2001-12-01

    Transient amnesia caused by minor head injury is commonly encountered in daily neurosurgical practice, but the mechanism of such amnesia has not been extensively studied. We measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of patients with postconcussive amnesia with Xe/CT CBF to examine whether a focal disturbance of CBF exists. The Xe/CT CBF study was performed in eight patients with closed head injury without organic cerebral lesion while they were suffering from posttraumatic amnesia (concussion group). The time interval between accident and CBF measurement was less than 2 h in three patients, 5-6 h in two, 8-9 h in two, and 18 in one. The results were compared with those of nine normal volunteers and eight other age-matched patients who recovered without any neurological deficit despite the presence of hemorrhagic regions (mild hemorrhage group). The rCBF of the concussion group was significantly elevated in the bilateral mesial temporal cortex in comparison to the normal group. The rCBF in the mild hemorrhage group was lower than that of normal controls in all regions. The analysis of right-left difference in CBF indicated that there was significant asymmetry (right > left) in the frontal and temporal cortex in the concussion group, but not in the normal and mild hemorrhage group. This Xe/CT CBF study in acute stages of cerebral concussion, in which patients were amnestic, detected focal cerebral hyperemia. Such hyperemia in regions closely related to human memory function may be the result of vasoparalysis or the compensatory activation of memory circuits after denervation injury.

  14. Pneumatic release of focal vitreomacular traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, M G; Feron, E; Veckeneer, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of expansile gas as a valuable alternative to current treatment options (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical) in patients with symptomatic, focal vitreomacular traction (VMT).Patients and methodsThis study comprises a retrospective, interventional case series of patients. Twenty eyes in seventeen patients with symptomatic and persisting focal VMT were treated in an outpatient setting with an intravitreal gas injection of 0.2 ml. In 19 eyes, 100% hexafluoroethane (C2F6) was used. One eye received sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). To all but three patients posturing advice was given. Patients were reviewed with a full-eye examination and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) after 14 days and later. The primary outcome measure was the release of VMT on OCT.ResultsIn 17 of the 20 (85.0%) treated eyes, a release of VMT was achieved as documented on OCT. The release of VMT was diagnosed during the first month after injection in 11 eyes of 11 patients and within 3 months in 16 eyes of 15 patients. In all but five of our patients, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) remained stable or improved. In four patients, the progression or development of cataract was the probable cause of the decrease in BCVA. One patient developed a stage II macular hole after injection and needed vitrectomy. None of the treated patients developed retinal breaks.ConclusionIntravitreal expansile gas injection could offer a minimally invasive, low-cost alternative treatment in patients with symptomatic, persisting VMT. Additional studies on a larger number of patients are required.

  15. FOCAL EPILEPTIC MYOCLONUS: DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Kvaskova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG, and neuroimaging features of focal epileptic myoclonus (FEM and the results of therapy in patients with this type of seizure. The latter was identified in 2.5 % of the cases of epilepsy with onset beyond the age of 18 years (n = 1261. The age of onset of FЕМ was from 5 months to 23 years (mean 8.1 ± 1.6 years. The addition of secondary generalized seizures was stated in 90.3% of cases; that of focal motor seizures, epileptic aura, and negative FЕМ was seen in 64.5, 25.8, and 12.8 %, respectively. FЕМ was most commonly located in the flexor muscles of the upper extremities (22.6 % and facial and upper limb muscles (25.6 %. The regional epileptoformactivity maximally located in the frontocentroparietal leads is a typical EEG pattern of FЕМ in all the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging most frequently revealed diffuse cortical and subcortical atrophy (29 % and total cortical hemiatrophy (32 %. There was no case of complete remission of FЕМ. Monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs resulted in reduction of FЕМ in only 6.4 % of cases. During duo therapy, there was more than a 50 % reduction in FЕМ in 67.7 %. Our investigation has indicated that active FЕМ is a seizure type resistant to AEDs. This fact necessitates the detection of FЕМ at its early stages in order to predict the course of the disease and search for new therapies for epileptic syndromes associated with this type of seizures.

  16. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  17. Focal cortical dysplasia and hemimegalencephaly: histological and neuroimaging correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamsbaum, C.; Cohen, P.A.; Kalifa, G. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital St Vincent de Paul, Paris (France); Robain, O. [INSERM U29, Hopital St Vincent de Paul, Paris (France); Delalande, O. [Service de Neuro-chirurgie, Fondation Rotschild, Paris (France); Fohlen, M. [Service de Neurologie, Hopital St Vincent de Paul, Paris (France)

    1998-08-01

    Background. The classification of cerebral cortical dysplasia is difficult and there are histological similarities between focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and hemimegalencephaly. Objectives. To correlate the MR features and histological data of cortical dysplasias. Materials and methods. The MR appearances of 17 brains were examined. According to the signal intensity within the pathological area on T2-weighted (T2-W) sequences we selected two groups. Results. Group 1 comprised ten patients with high signal in the dysplastic area on T2-W images. This group included five hemimegalencephalies, three frontal quadramegalencephalies, and one gyral dysplasia. The pathological hemisphere was reduced in size in one case. The cortex was thickened in all cases on T1-weighted (T1-W) images. There was loss of delineation between white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) in all cases on both T1-W and T2-W sequences. The differential diagnosis with tumour, neoplastic-like malformation or polymicrogyria was questionable. Group 2 comprised seven patients presenting without increased signal within the dysplastic area on T2-W images. WM and GM were of similar signal intensity in six cases, and delineation between white and grey matter was absent in all cases. There were mild abnormalities on T1-W sequences in all cases. The dysplasias were limited to a lobe in five cases and a gyrus in two cases. In all cases, depiction of the malformation was a greater diagnostic problem than the differential diagnosis. Conclusions. A constant MR sign in our series was the loss of delineation between WM and GM in the dysplastic area. This correlated well with the observed histological disorganisation. Markedly high signal within the dysplastic area seems to be related to myelin abnormalities rather than glial cell abnormalities. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 21 refs.

  18. Focal epilepsies: HM-PAO SPECT compared with CT, MR, and EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, M; Christe, W; Henkes, H; Delavier, U; Eichstädt, H; Schörner, W; Langer, R; Felix, R

    1990-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated quantitatively by 99mTc hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime and single photon emission CT (SPECT) during the interictal phase in 52 patients with focal epilepsy. The results were compared with those obtained by electroencephalography (EEG), CT, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Twenty-four of the 52 patients had one area of local hypoperfusion whereas 7 patients showed an area of local hyperperfusion. In 20 of the 52 patients, both reduced and elevated rCBF values were found. One patient had a normal perfusion pattern. The SPECT findings correlated well with the foci shown by EEG, both with regard to the sides affected and the locations of the regions of altered perfusion. The MR images showed focal lesions in only approximately one-half of the patients examined, and CT in even fewer.

  19. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  20. Focal sampling of cow lying behaviour for automated welfare assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattachini, G.; Riva, E.; Bisaglia, C.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Provolo, G.

    2013-01-01

    the objective of the current study was to determine the number of focal animals required to represent the daily lying behaviour of a herd of lactating dairy cows. the study was carried out at 3 commercial dairy farms. the lying time (h/d) and number of lying bouts (n/d) of 15 ± 3 focal dairy cows,

  1. Focal epithelial hyperplasia caused by human papillomavirus 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Natasha R; Scolnik, Dennis; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Koelink, Eric; Craw, Lindsey; Roth, Sherryn; Aronson, Leya; Perusini, Stephen; Silverman, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, papulo-nodular disease of the oral cavity. It is rare, affecting primarily Native American populations during childhood. It is closely associated with human papillomavirus 13 and 32. This report describes the diagnosis of 2 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in children from southern Guyana. The diagnosis was made using clinical criteria, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing.

  2. Focal decompositions for linear differential equations of the second order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Birbrair

    2003-01-01

    two-points problems to itself such that the image of the focal decomposition associated to the first equation is a focal decomposition associated to the second one. In this paper, we present a complete classification for linear second-order equations with respect to this equivalence relation.

  3. Laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiqian; Sun, Ruoduan; Qiu, Lirong; Sha, Dingguo

    2009-10-26

    A new laser differential confocal focal-length measurement method is proposed for the measurement of an ultra-long focal-length. The approach proposed uses the property of an axial intensity curve that the absolute zero precisely corresponds to the focus of the objective in a differential confocal focusing system (DCFS) to measure the variation in position of DCFS focus with and without a measured ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL), uses the distance between the two focuses to obtain the UFL focal-length, and thereby achieving the precise measurement of ultra-long focal-length. The method has a high focusing precision, a strong anti-interference capability and a short measurement light-path. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that the relative measurement error is about 0.01% when the method is used for the measurement of back-focus-distance (BFD).

  4. Stress Field in Brazil with Focal Mechanism: Regional and Local Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    The knowledge of stress field is fundamental not only to understand driving forces and plate deformation but also in the study of intraplate seismicity. The stress field in Brazil has been determined mainly using focal mechanisms and a few breakout data and in-situ measurements. However the stress field still is poorly known in Brazil. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes (magnitude lower than 5 mb) were studied using waveform modeling. We stacked the record of several teleseismic stations ( delta > 30°) stacked groups of stations separated according to distance and azimuth. Every record was visually inspected and those with a good signal/noise ratio (SNR) were grouped in windows of ten degrees distance and stacked. The teleseismic P-wave of the stacked signals was modeled using the hudson96 program of Herrmann seismology package (Herrmann, 2002) and the consistency of focal mechanism with the first-motion was checked. Some events in central Brazil were recorded by closer stations (~ 1000 km) and the moment tensor was determined with the ISOLA code (Sokos & Zahradnik, 2008). With the focal mechanisms available in literature and those obtained in this work, we were able to identify some patterns: the central region shows a purely compressional pattern (E-W SHmax), which is predicted by regional theoretical models (Richardson & Coblentz, 1996 and the TD0 model of Lithgow & Bertelloni, 2004). Meanwhile in the Amazon we find an indication of SHmax oriented in the SE-NW direction, probably caused by the Caribbean plate interaction (Meijer, 1995). In northern coastal region, the compression rotates following the coastline, which indicates an important local component related to spreading effects at the continental/oceanic transition (Assumpção, 1998) and flexural stresses caused by sedimentary load in Amazon Fan. We determine the focal mechanism of several events in Brazil using different techniques according to the available data. The major difficulty is to

  5. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Spatial relationship of organized rotational and focal sources in human atrial fibrillation to autonomic ganglionated plexi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykaner, Tina; Zografos, Theodoros A; Zaman, Junaid A B; Pantos, Ioannis; Alhusseini, Mahmood; Navara, Rachita; Krummen, David E; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Katritsis, Demosthenes G

    2017-08-01

    One approach to improve ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is to focus on physiological targets including focal or rotational sources or ganglionic plexi (GP). However, the spatial relationship between these potential mechanisms has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that rotors and focal sources for AF may co-localize with ganglionated plexi (GP). We prospectively identified locations of AF rotors and focal sources, and correlated these to GP sites in 97 consecutive patients (age 59.9±11.4, 73% persistent AF). AF was recorded with 64-pole catheters with activation/phase mapping, and related to anatomic GP sites on electroanatomic maps. AF sources arose in 96/97 (99%) patients for 2.6±1.4 sources per patient (left atrium: 1.7±0.9 right atrium: 1.1±0.8), each with an area of 2-3cm(2). On area analyses, the probability of an AF source randomly overlapping a GP area was 26%. Left atrial sources were seen in 94 (97%) patients, in whom ≥1 source co-localized with GP in 75 patients (80%; psources were more likely to colocalize with left vs right GPs (p65, diabetes; psources in the left atrium often colocalize with regions of autonomic innervation. Studies should define if the role of AF sources differs by their anatomical location. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Focal Points on Constructing News Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yuryevna Ilyinova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues stated in the article line with the current interest to pragmatic value of news releases in modern media. The news is thought to be a verbalized focal reflection of some event that was chosen by media professionals for setting the current information agenda. Having generated the opinions on the newsworthiness the authors present a set of values that may be used for measurement of relevance and clarity of an event reflection in the news content with frequency, clarity, predictability, unexpectedness, amplitude, cultural proximity, elite nations, elite people, personification, negativity among them. The novelty of the research is that the newsworthiness is checked with the focus to lexical (thematic representation of the news in a diachronic approach: the empirical base of the research was taken from the archives of UK national and local media sources (18–20th cent. and implied comparison of lexical means that reflected an event itself and some values of human interest potential in the news stories written in defined periods. The article states the trend for dynamics in the way the event is reflected in the news stories – the information core of the story is merged with detailed reporting parts, and their content is conditioned by social and moral values.

  8. Focal adhesion kinase - the reversible molecular mechanosensor

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are the first element of the pathways that control the response of cells to their environment. After chemical, the next most important cue is mechanical, and protein complexes that produce or enable a chemical signal in response to a mechanical stimulus are called mechanosensors. There is a sharp distinction between sensing an external force or pressure/tension applied to the cell, and sensing the mechanical stiffness of the environment. We call the first mechanosensitivity of the 1st kind, and the latter mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind. There are two variants of protein complexes that act as mechanosensors of the 2nd kind: producing the one-off or a reversible action. The latent complex of TGF-beta is an example of the one-off action: on the release of active TGF-beta signal, the complex is discarded and needs to be replaced. In contrast, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in a complex with integrin is a reversible mechanosensor, which initiates the chemical signal in its active phosphorylated confor...

  9. Visual agnosia and focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, O

    Visual agnosia encompasses all disorders of visual recognition within a selective visual modality not due to an impairment of elementary visual processing or other cognitive deficit. Based on a sequential dichotomy between the perceptual and memory systems, two different categories of visual object agnosia are usually considered: 'apperceptive agnosia' and 'associative agnosia'. Impaired visual recognition within a single category of stimuli is also reported in: (i) visual object agnosia of the ventral pathway, such as prosopagnosia (for faces), pure alexia (for words), or topographagnosia (for landmarks); (ii) visual spatial agnosia of the dorsal pathway, such as cerebral akinetopsia (for movement), or orientation agnosia (for the placement of objects in space). Focal brain injuries provide a unique opportunity to better understand regional brain function, particularly with the use of effective statistical approaches such as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). The aim of the present work was twofold: (i) to review the various agnosia categories according to the traditional visual dual-pathway model; and (ii) to better assess the anatomical network underlying visual recognition through lesion-mapping studies correlating neuroanatomical and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Acquired agraphia caused by focal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S W; Saver, J; Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1993-03-01

    Motor and linguistic aspects of writing were evaluated in 31 subjects with focal damage in 1 of 3 regions of the left hemisphere: (1) dorsolateral frontal lobe sparing primary motor cortex (group FL), (2) parietal lobe (group PL), or (3) temporal lobe (group TL). A standard procedure was used to evaluate writing for grapheme formation, spatial arrangement, spelling, word selection, grammar, and perseveration. It was predicted that agraphia would be observed in all 3 groups, and that the most severe impairments would be associated with frontal lobe damage, particularly in aspects of writing dependent on sequencing (grapheme formation, spelling, and grammar). It was found that agraphia was common in all groups, particularly in the acute epoch, and that all groups showed considerable recovery of writing by the chronic epoch. Few differences were found between groups. However, the FL group was impaired on spelling and grammar relative to the PL group in the acute epoch and impaired on grammar relative to the TL group in the chronic epoch. The findings are consistent with the notion that writing relies on a distributed neuroanatomical network, which acts in concert to link fragments of visuomotor activity with component linguistic elements.

  11. Medical image of the week: focal myopericaditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshisundaram C

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 44-year-old man with no significant past medical history was admitted with a history of two episodes of substernal chest pain unrelated to exertion which had resolved spontaneously. Admission vital signs were within normal limits and physical examination was unremarkable. Basic lab tests were normal and urine toxicology was negative. Electrocardiogram was unremarkable with no ST/T changes. Troponin I was elevated at 4.19 which trended up to 6.57. An urgent cardiac angiogram was done which revealed normal patent coronaries. His transthoracic echocardiogram was also reported to be normal. He continued to have intermittent episodes of chest pain that was partially relieved by morphine. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated. Work up for autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, myocarditis panel were insignificant. Later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with gadolinium enhanced contrast (Figure 1 was obtained which showed abnormal epicardial/subepicardial myocardial enhancement within the inferolateral wall and cardiac apex consistent with focal ...

  12. Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyen, G; Govaerts, K; Van Esch, H; Verbeeck, J; Tuomi, M-L; Heikkilä, H; Torniainen, S; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J-P; Marynen, P; Järvelä, I; Ala-Mello, S

    2009-12-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.

  13. Pathogenetic mechanisms of focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Guerrini, Renzo; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2014-07-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) constitute a prevalent cause of intractable epilepsy in children, and is one of the leading conditions requiring epilepsy surgery. Despite recent advances in the cellular and molecular biology of these conditions, the pathogenetic mechanisms of FCDs remain largely unknown. The purpose if this work is to review the molecular underpinnings of FCDs and to highlight potential therapeutic targets. A systematic review of the literature regarding the histologic, molecular, and electrophysiologic aspects of FCDs was conducted. Disruption of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling comprises a common pathway underlying the structural and electrical disturbances of some FCDs. Other mechanisms such as viral infections, prematurity, head trauma, and brain tumors are also posited. mTOR inhibitors (i.e., rapamycin) have shown positive results on seizure management in animal models and in a small cohort of patients with FCD. Encouraging progress has been achieved on the molecular and electrophysiologic basis of constitutive cells in the dysplastic tissue. Despite the promising results of mTOR inhibitors, large-scale randomized trials are in need to evaluate their efficacy and side effects, along with additional mechanistic studies for the development of novel, molecular-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Global and regional functional connectivity maps of neural oscillations in focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englot, Dario J; Hinkley, Leighton B; Kort, Naomi S; Imber, Brandon S; Mizuiri, Danielle; Honma, Susanne M; Findlay, Anne M; Garrett, Coleman; Cheung, Paige L; Mantle, Mary; Tarapore, Phiroz E; Knowlton, Robert C; Chang, Edward F; Kirsch, Heidi E; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2015-08-01

    Intractable focal epilepsy is a devastating disorder with profound effects on cognition and quality of life. Epilepsy surgery can lead to seizure freedom in patients with focal epilepsy; however, sometimes it fails due to an incomplete delineation of the epileptogenic zone. Brain networks in epilepsy can be studied with resting-state functional connectivity analysis, yet previous investigations using functional magnetic resonance imaging or electrocorticography have produced inconsistent results. Magnetoencephalography allows non-invasive whole-brain recordings, and can be used to study both long-range network disturbances in focal epilepsy and regional connectivity at the epileptogenic zone. In magnetoencephalography recordings from presurgical epilepsy patients, we examined: (i) global functional connectivity maps in patients versus controls; and (ii) regional functional connectivity maps at the region of resection, compared to the homotopic non-epileptogenic region in the contralateral hemisphere. Sixty-one patients were studied, including 30 with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and 31 with focal neocortical epilepsy. Compared with a group of 31 controls, patients with epilepsy had decreased resting-state functional connectivity in widespread regions, including perisylvian, posterior temporo-parietal, and orbitofrontal cortices (P regional connectivity within the resection site (n = 24) were more likely to achieve seizure postoperative seizure freedom (87.5% with Engel I outcome) than those with neutral (n = 15, 64.3% seizure free) or decreased (n = 23, 47.8% seizure free) regional connectivity (P < 0.02, chi-square). Widespread global decreases in functional connectivity are observed in patients with focal epilepsy, and may reflect deleterious long-term effects of recurrent seizures. Furthermore, enhanced regional functional connectivity at the area of resection may help predict seizure outcome and aid surgical planning.

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  16. Tractography delineates microstructural changes in the trigeminal nerve after focal radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Hodaie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Focal radiosurgery is a common treatment modality for trigeminal neuralgia (TN, a neuropathic facial pain condition. Assessment of treatment effectiveness is primarily clinical, given the paucity of investigational tools to assess trigeminal nerve changes. Since diffusion tensor imaging (DTI provides information on white matter microstructure, we explored the feasibility of trigeminal nerve tractography and assessment of DTI parameters to study microstructural changes after treatment. We hypothesized that trigeminal tractography provides more information than 2D-MR imaging, allowing detection of unique, focal changes in the target area after radiosurgery. Changes in specific diffusivities may provide insight into the mechanism of action of radiosurgery on the trigeminal nerve. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Five TN patients (4 females, 1 male, average age 67 years treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, 80 Gy/100% isodose line underwent 3Tesla MR trigeminal nerve tractography before and sequentially up to fourteen months after treatment. Fractional anisotropy (FA, radial (RD and axial (AD diffusivities were calculated for the radiosurgical target area defined as the region-of-interest. Areas outside target and the contralateral nerve served as controls. RESULTS: Trigeminal tractography accurately detected the radiosurgical target. Radiosurgery resulted in 47% drop in FA values at the target with no significant change in FA outside the target, demonstrating highly focal changes after treatment. RD but not AD changed markedly, suggesting that radiosurgery primarily affects myelin. Tractography was more sensitive than conventional gadolinium-enhanced post-treatment MR, since FA changes were detected regardless of trigeminal nerve enhancement. In subjects with long term follow-up, recovery of FA/RD correlated with pain recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: DTI parameters accurately detect the effects of focal radiosurgery on the trigeminal nerve, serving as an

  17. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Daniela E; Bae, Chilman; Butler, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surface by a nanoelectrode whose position was controlled with a resolution of 10s of nanometers using changes in electrode current to monitor distance from the cell surface. Since this probe was functionalized with fibronectin, a focal contact formed at the contact location. Nascent focal adhesion assembly was confirmed using time-lapse confocal fluorescent images of red fluorescent protein (RFP) - tagged talin, an adapter protein that binds to activated integrins. Binding to the cell was verified by noting a lack of change of electrode current upon retraction of the electrode. This study demonstrates that functionalized nanoelectrodes can enable precisely-timed induction and 3-D mechanical manipulation of focal adhesions and the assay of the detailed molecular kinetics of their assembly.

  18. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dermatologic findings of focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Alanna F; Grange, Dorothy K; Hicks, M John; Goltz, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Goltz syndrome, caused by mutations in PORCN, is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia which is also known as focal dermal hypoplasia. This name is derived from the predominant pathologic skin findings of the syndrome. Nineteen Goltz-affected participants attended a multidisciplinary scientific and clinical conference convened by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia which allowed further characterization of the features of this very rare condition. At birth, the affected areas of skin are typically erythematous and fragile. The hallmark cutaneous features, which vary widely due to mosacism and X-inactivation, include the previously described skin changes of asymmetric Blaschko-linear and reticulated atrophy, pigmentary changes, and telangectasias. Lipomatous changes and papillomas as characteristically defined were reported in the majority of patients. A newly recognized skin finding was progressive hyperpigmented freckling that occurred within the hypopigmented areas which were noted to be photosensitive. Many patients also had a pebbly texture to the central face, dorsal hands and feet. Punctate erosions within the atrophic areas and hypohidrosis were also common. Most had patchy alopecia and many had diffusely thin hair. Scanning electron microscopy of the hair shafts revealed abnormalities in the majority of participants with several different features identified, including atrophic hairs with reduced diameters, markedly flattened hairs as noted in cross-sectional views, trichorrhexis nodosa, pili torti, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Nail changes included V-nicking and longitudinal ridging of the nail plate, in addition to micronychia. Early recognition of the dermatologic features, in addition to the variable but universal limb anomalies, of Goltz syndrome will allow early and accurate diagnosis without the need for extensive diagnostic studies, while also allowing for accurate prognosis and appropriate genetic counseling.

  20. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The twodimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  1. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  2. 江川灌区旱田改水田加剧水体氮磷污染%Changing from dry field to paddy field intensifying water pollution by nitrogen and phosphorus loads in Jiangchuan irrigation area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊庆锌; 孟婷婷; 李金梦; 邱微

    2014-01-01

    After changing from upland farming to paddy field in Jiangchuan irrigation area, the grain production continues to increase, but problem of the non-point source pollution occurs predominantly with total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Both paddy fields and upland fields can experience surface runoff of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but which land use can cause more surface runoff remains largely unknown. There are many point source pollution researches in water systems in China, and the technology and methods are relatively mature. But for agricultural non-point source pollution, most research is done in the south, and less in the northeast of China. Therefore, it is needed for research on surface nutrient or pesticide runoff when changing from upland farming to paddy fields. With the use of GIS and SWAT model, the spatial database and attribute database of the model for the research area were established. The spatial database included digital elevation map (DEM), land use map and soil map. The attribute database basically included the meteorological, soil property, and agricultural management data. Based on the feature of natural rivers distribution on the edge of the irrigation area, we used“burn-in”algorithm to make the artificial canal system network as the water system, and set up the threshold watershed area to delimit sub basin in the river basin. Next, we used LH-OAT method of SWAT model to analyze parameter sensitivity, and selected the important factors for the model output. We then used the measured data of runoff, total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the years of 2008 to 2009 as the calibration period, and years of 2010 to 2013 as validation period to explore the model applicability in the research area. Finally, the nitrogen and phosphorus pollution load in the study area under different scenarios were simulated. These scenarios were: no change of the existing farmland area, 70%, or 50% of land converted to paddy field. The results showed

  3. Differences between diffuse and focal autoimmune pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taku Tabata; Terumi Kamisawa; Kensuke Takuma; Seiichi Hara; Sawako Kuruma; Yoshihiko Inaba

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate differences in clinical features between diffuse-and focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).METHODS:Based on radiological findings by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging,we divided 67 AIP patients into diffuse type (D type)and focal type (F type).We further divided F type into head type (H type) and body and/or tail type (B/T type)according to the location of enlargement.Finally,we classified the 67 AIP patients into three groups:D type,H type and B/F type.We compared the three types of AIP in terms of clinical,laboratory,radiological,functional and histological findings and clinical course.RESULTS:There were 34 patients with D-type,19 with H-type and 14 with B/T-type AIP.Although obstructive jaundice was frequently detected in D-type patients (88%) and H-type patients (68%),no B/T-type patients showed jaundice as an initial symptom (P < 0.001).There were no differences in frequency of abdominal pain,but acute pancreatitis was associated more frequently in B/T-type patients (36%) than in D-type patients (3%) (P =0.017).Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG)4 levels were significantly higher in D-type patients (median 309 mg/dL) than in B/T-type patients (133.5 mg/dL) (P =0.042).Serum amylase levels in B/T-type patients (median:114 IU/L) were significantly greater than in H-type patients (72 IU/L) (P =0.049).Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) was histologically confirmed in 6 D-type,7 H-type and 4 B/T-type patients; idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis was observed in no patients.Marked fibrosis and abundant infiltration of CD20-positive B lymphocytes with few IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in 2 B/T-type patients.Steroid therapy was effective in all 50 patients (31 D type,13 H type and 6 B/T type).Although AIP relapsed during tapering or after stopping steroids in 3 D-type and 3 H-type patients,no patients relapsed in B/T type.During follow-up,radiological features of 6 B/T-type patients were not changed

  4. Recovery of Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Deep moonquakes are clustered not only in space but also in time: their recurrence times correspond to the durations of the anomalistic and draconic months, with some clusters preferring one of the two periods, while others are active with both periods. A key constraint for the understanding of the connection between the orbital motion of the Moon and its seismic activity is the focal mechanism: the orientation of the fault surface on which failure occurs during the quake. Due to the small aperture of the Apollo seismic network and the strong scattering of seismic waves within the lunar crust, the evaluation of P wave first motions to constrain the strike and dip of the fault planes is not feasible. Instead we evaluate the amplitude ratios of P and S waves. Seismograms are rotated into the P-SV-SH coordinate frame and amplitudes are determined as averages over short time windows after the arrival to reduce the impact of the scattering coda, which is independent of the source orientation. We allow for reversals of the fault motion, as observed for some clusters in previous studies, by taking into account the absolute amplitude only, without sign. An empirical site correction factor is applied to correct for amplitude distortions in the crust. We construct ensembles of fault plane solutions using an exhaustive grid search by accepting all orientations that reproduce the measured amplitude ratios within the observed standard deviations. Since all events of a given cluster are supposed to share the same fault plane, the combination of the individual inversion results further constrains the orientation. We evaluate 106 events from 25 different moonquake clusters. The most active cluster A001 contributes 37 events, while others contribute 1 to 9 events per cluster. Comparison of fault orientations with the variation of the tidal stress results in preferred orientations.

  5. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  6. Performance overview of the Euclid infrared focal plane detector subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waczynski, A.; Barbier, R.; Cagiano, S.; Chen, J.; Cheung, S.; Cho, H.; Cillis, A.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawson, O.; Delo, G.; Farris, M.; Feizi, A.; Foltz, R.; Hickey, M.; Holmes, W.; Hwang, T.; Israelsson, U.; Jhabvala, M.; Kahle, D.; Kan, Em.; Kan, Er.; Loose, M.; Lotkin, G.; Miko, L.; Nguyen, L.; Piquette, E.; Powers, T.; Pravdo, S.; Runkle, A.; Seiffert, M.; Strada, P.; Tucker, C.; Turck, K.; Wang, F.; Weber, C.; Williams, J.

    2016-07-01

    In support of the European space agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne imaging systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the detector characterization laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard space flight center (GSFC) in close collaboration with engineers and scientists from the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) and the Euclid project. The Euclid near infrared spectrometer and imaging photometer (NISP) will perform large area optical and spectroscopic sky surveys in the 0.9-2.02 μm infrared (IR) region. The NISP instrument will contain sixteen detector arrays each coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The focal plane will operate at 100K and the SIDECAR ASIC will be in close proximity operating at a slightly higher temperature of 137K. This paper will describe the test configuration, performance tests and results of the latest engineering run, also known as pilot run 3 (PR3), consisting of four H2RG detectors operating simultaneously. Performance data will be presented on; noise, spectral quantum efficiency, dark current, persistence, pixel yield, pixel to pixel uniformity, linearity, inter pixel crosstalk, full well and dynamic range, power dissipation, thermal response and unit cell input sensitivity.

  7. Spatio-temporal variation and focal mechanism of the Wenchuan Afs8.0 earthquake sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzheng Cheng; Zhiwei Zhang; Xiang Ruan

    2009-01-01

    Based on abundant aftershock sequence data of the Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake on May 12, 2008, we studied the spatio-temporal variation process and segmentation rupture characteristic. Dense aftershocks distribute along Longmen-shan central fault zone of NE direction and form a narrow strip with the length of 325 km and the depth between several and 40 km. The depth profile (section of NW direction) vertical to the strike of aftershock zone (NE direction) shows anisomer-ous wedgy distribution characteristic of aftershock concentrated regions; it is related to the force form of the Longmenshan nappe tectonic belt. The stronger aftershocks could be divided into northern segment and southern segment apparently and the focal depths of strong aftershocks in the 50 km area between northern segment and southern segment are shallower. It seems like 'to be going to rupture' segment. We also study focal mechanisms and segmentation of strong aftershocks. The principal compressive stress azimuth of aftershock area is WNW direction and the faulting types of aftershocks at southern and northern segment have the same proportion. Because aftershocks distribute on different secondary faults, their focal mechanisms present complex local tectonic stress field. The faulting of seven strong earthquakes on the Longmenshan central fault is mainly characterized by thrust with the component of right-lateral strike-slip. Meantime six strong aftershocks on the Longmenshan back-range fault and Qingchuan fault present strike-slip faulting. At last we discuss the complex segmentation rupture mechanism of the Wenchuan earthquake.

  8. Fluorescence enhancement and focal volume reduction observed in c-shaped nano-apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Yin; Fore, Samantha; Huser, Thomas; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2008-02-01

    We evaluate the potential ability of c-shaped apertures milled in aluminum thin films to reduce the effective measurement volume and to enhance the fluorescence signal for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of ATTO655 dye dissolved in a HEPES buffer solution. Previous studies have shown that by morphing a square aperture into a rectangular aperture while holding the cross-sectional area constant will yield strong polarization dependence in the reduction of the effective volume and about a factor of 2-3 enhancement in the fluorescence count rate per molecule. By morphing the rectangular aperture into a c-shaped aperture we gain further reduction in focal volume while maintaining the count rate enhancements. In particular, we compare c-shaped apertures to squares with the same cross-sectional area and show that one can achieve one molecule per focal volume at ~3µM (about a 1000 times reduction in effective volume compared to confocal FCS) while maintaining a fluorescence count rate per molecule of about an order of magnitude higher than for bulk diffusing dyes. Two orthogonal polarizations for the incident field have been studied to explore the effects on the focal volume reduction and fluorescence count rate enhancements.

  9. Model of learning for practitioners in dementia care with music therapy as the joint focal point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    Abstract to the 21st Nordic Congress of Gerontology in June 10th - 13th, 2012 Title Model of learning for practitioners in dementia care with music therapy as the joint focal point The project is a PhD research in progress, which aims to develop a model of learning for practitioners in dementia...... of tangible tools from the musical activities? And further: What impact does the emphasis on development of the care provider’s musical and interpersonal competencies have on quality of life and well-being among persons suffering from dementia? The model of learning includes using the Dementia Care Mapping...... care, which has music therapy as the joint focal point and focus on the relational meeting.Through development of a cross-disciplinary cooperation between the music therapist and the care providers in connection with a course of music therapy, will following areas be elucidated: How can the musical...

  10. Model of learning for practitioners in dementia care with music therapy as the joint focal point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    Abstract to the 21st Nordic Congress of Gerontology in June 10th - 13th, 2012 Title Model of learning for practitioners in dementia care with music therapy as the joint focal point The project is a PhD research in progress, which aims to develop a model of learning for practitioners in dementia...... of tangible tools from the musical activities? And further: What impact does the emphasis on development of the care provider’s musical and interpersonal competencies have on quality of life and well-being among persons suffering from dementia? The model of learning includes using the Dementia Care Mapping...... care, which has music therapy as the joint focal point and focus on the relational meeting.Through development of a cross-disciplinary cooperation between the music therapist and the care providers in connection with a course of music therapy, will following areas be elucidated: How can the musical...

  11. Charge integration successive approximation analog-to-digital converter for focal plane applications using a single amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter for on-chip focal-plane image sensor applications. The analog-to-digital converter utilizes a single charge integrating amplifier in a charge balancing architecture to implement successive approximation analog-to-digital conversion. This design requires minimal chip area and has high speed and low power dissipation for operation in the 2-10 bit range. The invention is particularly well suited to CMOS on-chip applications requiring many analog-to-digital converters, such as column-parallel focal-plane architectures.

  12. Real-time focal stack compositing for handheld mobile cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solh, Mashhour

    2013-03-01

    Extending the depth of field using a single lens camera on a mobile device can be achieved by capturing a set of images each focused at a different depth or focal stack then combine these samples of the focal stack to form a single all-in-focus image or an image refocused at a desired depth of field. Focal stack compositing in real time for a handheld mobile camera has many challenges including capturing, processing power, handshaking, rolling shutter artifacts, occlusion, and lens zoom effect. In this paper, we describe a system for a real time focal stack compositing system for handheld mobile device with an alignment and compositing algorithms. We will also show all-in-focus images captured and processed by a cell phone camera running on Android OS.

  13. Focal MRI and Learning Disability with Reduced Automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-09-01

    Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA, performed a retrospective analysis of 1,587 children referred for a learning disability, and 127 had a focal deficit demonstrated on either a neurologic or neuropsychological evaluation.

  14. [Familial Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, a vademecum for clinical nephrologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Gianluca; Lugani, Francesca; Bonanni, Elisa; Rossi, Roberta; Carrea, Alba; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    The new genomic technologies (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) are opening a new era in Genomic Medicine. This simple guide gives a state-of-the-art description of the genes that cause Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome.

  15. Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type IIB and Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA tested the hypothesis that human papillomavirus type 16 oncoprotein E6 (HPV16 E6 is present in human focal cortical dysplasia type IIB (FCDIIB specimens.

  16. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in association with Gitelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceri, Mevlut; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Mustafa; Unverdi, Hatice; Kurultak, Ilhan; Yılmaz, Rahmi; Ensari, Arzu; Duranay, Murat

    2011-09-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. Glomerulonephritis associated with GS is rarely documented in the literature. We present an adult patient with GS whose renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

  17. Focal Intracranial Suppuration: Clinical Features and Outcome of 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Page 06. Type of Article: Original ... Focal intracranial suppurations are localised infections of .... Streptococcus species were the commonest organisms isolated. ... Facial skin infections 1. 7.7 ... Adeloye A. Intracranial pyogenic abscess. In:.

  18. A practical approach to management of focal hand dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia can be focal, segmental, multifocal, generalized, or hemidystonia. Focal dystonia is localized to a specific part of the body. Overall upper limb is more commonly involved in focal dystonia than lower limb and since it starts from hand, focal hand dystonia (FHD is a more accepted terminology. Writer′s cramp and musician dystonia are commonest types of FHD. Typically this dystonia is task specific, but in some patients this specificity may be lost over a period of time. Segmental or generalized dystonia may also start as FHD, so a detailed clinical assessment is required, which should be supplemented by relevant investigations. Treatment includes oral medications, injection botulinum toxin, neurosurgery including neurostimulation, and rehabilitation. Role of injection botulinum toxin has been extensively studied in writer′s cramp patients and found to be effective; however, selection of muscles and techniques of injection are crucial in getting best results.

  19. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  20. 山区高速铁路隧道高陡偏压洞口设计与实践%Design and Practice of High and Steep Portals with Unsymmetrical Load of High -speed Railway Tunnels in Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩华轩; 马志富

    2015-01-01

    Research purposes:High and steep portals with unsymmetrical load of high speed railway in mountain area were prone to instability and collapse.How to safety into the tunnel was the focus and difficulty of the whole tunnel design.Taking design and practice of Hunan section tunnel on Shanghai -Kunming Passenger Dedicated Line as the background,this paper systematically studied the design concept and design principles in high and steep portals of unsymmetrical load.Meanwhile,this paper pointed out the integrated strengthening structural measures such as stay piles,protecting arch,ear -wall,prestressed anchor cable and frame beam,portal -structure and retaining structure, to ensure the safety of the bad tunnel portal. Research conclusions:(1)Using the integrated strengthening structure -measures,such as stay piles,protecting arch, ear -wall,prestressed anchor cable and frame beam,portal - structure,retaining structure,strong supporting,can effectively solve the problems of the stability and safety of the high and steep portals with unsymmetrical load.(2)Using the design with inducing slope excavation and weak blasting and structural measures of organic combination such as portal,heading slope protection,retaining structure and local terrain and geological conditions,has been successfully applied to Hunan section tunnel portals on Shanghai -Kunming Passenger Dedicated Line and achieved the good effect. (3)The research results can be promoted and used when building the high and steep portals with unsymmetrical load of high -speed railway tunnels.%研究目的:山区高速铁路隧道高陡偏压洞口易发生失稳滑塌,如何安全进洞和做好洞口防护加固设计是全隧设计的重点和难点。本文以沪昆客专湖南段隧道洞口的设计与施工实践为背景,系统地研究高陡偏压洞口的设计理念及设计原则,提出确保不良洞口安全的锚固桩、护拱、耳墙、锚索格梁、洞门、支挡等综合加固的结

  1. White matter integrity and cerebral network topology in focal epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Otte, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide more than fifty million people suffer from recurrent spontaneous seizures. Seizures are considered to be harmful to the brain and may have adverse long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in particular in people with focal epilepsies that do not respond to pharmacotherapy. Characterization of seizure related brain damage may provide knowledge to better comprehend the mechanisms underlying the poorly understood comorbidities often encountered in patients with focal epilepsy. I...

  2. Recurrent focal myositis in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Focal myositis is a benign inflammatory process involving a single group of muscles. It may resolve with conservative measures or may be a harbinger for polymyositis. Very few focal myosites are recurrent, and recurrence in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis is extremely rare. Clinical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging help in identifying this entity. Muscle biopsy and histopathological evaluation are mandatory in diagnosis. It often responds to ...

  3. Traceability of high focal length cameras with diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages Martins, L.; Silva Ribeiro, A.; Sousa, J. Alves e.

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the use of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) for metrological traceable geometrical testing of high focal length cameras applied in the observation of large- scale structures. DOEs and related mathematical models are briefly explained. Laboratorial activities and results are described for the case of a high focal length camera used for longdistance displacement measurement of a long-span (2278 m) suspension bridge.

  4. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of five cases

    OpenAIRE

    Borborema-Santos,Cristina Maria; Castro,Maria Marta de; Santos,Paulo José Benevides dos; Talhari,Sinésio; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2006-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is a rare contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, initially described among Native American populations. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple small papules or nodules in oral cavity, especially on labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. This report describes the diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia in five Central Amazonian Indians who sought treatment at the Amazonas State Foundation of Tropic...

  5. Eletrorretinografia focal em adultos jovens normais Focal electroretinography in normal young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Punaro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer valores normativos para o exame de eletrorretinograma focal em adultos jovens normais, segundo protocolo recomendado pela sociedade Internacional de Eletrofisiologia Visual Clínica (IsCEV. MÉTODOS: Participaram 33 indivíduos de idades variando entre 14 a 38 anos (média 22,96±5,73, 14 homens e 19 mulheres. O eletrorretinograma focal foi registrado a partir de um eletrodo corneano bipolar, e oftalmoscópio estimulador com luz branca intermitente em freqüências temporais de 42 Hz e 31,25 Hz na mácula. Os parâmetros, amplitude (em nanovolts e latência (em milissegundos, foram analisados pela transformada de Fourier. Para análise estatística de ambas as freqüências, foram calculados a mediana, mínimo, máximo, percentis e teste t entre as amplitudes e as latências. RESULTADOS: Para 42 Hz. Amplitude: mediana 614nV; 1º quartil 529nV; 3º quartil 650nV; mínimo 370nV; máximo 794nV; percentil 2,5 378,8nV; percentil 97,5 779,6nV. Latência: mediana 26,4ms; 1º quartil 25,4ms; 3º quartil 26,8ms; mínimo 23,4ms; máximo 28,2ms; percentil 2,5 23,8ms; percentil 97,5 27,88ms. Para 31,25Hz. Amplitude: mediana 632nV; 1º quartil 429nV; 3º quartil 750nV; mínimo 364nV; máximo 1036nV; percentil2,5 364,8nV; percentil 97,5 1018,4nV. Latência: mediana 30,1ms; 1º quartil 29,3ms; 3º quartil 31,2ms; mínimo 25,9ms; máximo 33,9ms; percentil 2,5 27,18ms; percentil 97,5 27,88ms. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo estabelece limites de normalidade para o exame de eletrorretinografia focal em adultos jovens para freqüências temporais de 42Hz e 31,25 Hz. Os resultados encontrados mostram valores similares de amplitude para ambas as freqüências temporais e latência significantemente mais rápida para a freqüência de 42 Hz.PURPOSE: To determine normative values for focal electroretinography in normal young adults, according to the standard protocol recommended by the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision

  6. Optimal load shedding and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ding

    Load shedding is an emergency control action in power systems that can save systems from a wide-area blackout. Underfrequency load shedding, steady state load shedding, and voltage load shedding are widely used in power systems. These methods utilize either the steady state model or a simplified dynamic model to represent a power systems. In this dissertation, a general optimal load shedding method that considers both the dynamic process and load distribution is proposed. The unfavorable load shedding is then formulated as an optimization problem with the objective function of cost minimization. This objective function is subjected to system, security, and operation constraints. The entire problem becomes a question of optimization with differential and nonlinear equations as constraints. To solve this problem, discretization is used to change the differential equations into algebraic equations. The original problem is thus reformulated as an optimization problem and can be solved by a standard mathematical program. The general idea is then applied to traditional power systems, deregulated power systems, power systems with distributed generation, and load restoration. In the traditional power system, the method shows that governor action, generation dynamic, disturbance location, and economic factors can be taken into consideration. In the deregulated power system, two power market models are developed and incorporated into the load shedding scheme. In power systems with multiple distributed generations, the different cases of disturbances are analyzed and models of different distributed generation developed. The general idea is then applied. Finally, the load restoration problem is studied, and it is proposed that an optimization method be applied to it. This dissertation provides a comprehensive solution for load shedding problem in power systems. The models developed in this research can also be used to study other power system problems.

  7. Temporal and spatial variation of trace elements in atmospheric deposition around the industrial area of Puchuncaví-Ventanas (Chile) and its influence on exceedances of lead and cadmium critical loads in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Holgado, F; Calvo-Blázquez, L; Cereceda-Balic, F; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2016-02-01

    Fractionation of elemental contents in atmospheric samples is useful to evaluate pollution levels for risk assessment and pollution sources assignment. We present here the main results of long-term characterization of atmospheric deposition by using a recently developed atmospheric elemental fractionation sampler (AEFS) for major and trace elements monitoring around an important industrial complex located in Puchuncaví region (Chile). Atmospheric deposition samples were collected during two sampling campaigns (2010 and 2011) at four sampling locations: La Greda (LG), Los Maitenes (LM), Puchuncaví (PU) and Valle Alegre (VA). Sample digestion and ICP-MS gave elements deposition values (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn) in the insoluble fraction of the total atmospheric deposition. Results showed that LG location, the closest location to the industrial complex, was the more polluted sampling site having the highest values for the analyzed elements. PU and LM were the next more polluted and, finally, the lowest elements concentrations were registered at VA. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis identified industrial, traffic and mineral-crustal factors. We found critical loads exceedances for Pb at all sampling locations in the area affected by the industrial emissions, more significant in LG close to the industrial complex, with a trend to decrease in 2011, whereas no exceedances due to atmospheric deposition were detected for Cd.

  8. UnLoadC3: Ensembles of climate change projections for two river catchment areas in Austria - Contributions to an overall uncertainty assessment framework for the modelling of water quantity and nutrient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulla, Christoph; Hollosi, Brigitta; Schulz, Karsten; Schürz, Christoph; Mehdi, Bano; Ertl, Thomas; Pressl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The objective of UnLoadC3 is to examine the impacts of uncertainty - inherent in data and modelling - on projections of water flow and nutrient transport within two selected river catchment areas (Schwechat and Raab in Austria) under climate change conditions. To access future climate change, ensembles of climate projections from the EURO-CORDEX initiative - given on grids with a 12 km spacing - have been used. These ensembles have been driven by two RCPs (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) used within the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC. In order to provide climate change projections on the required impact scales, statistical downscaling techniques as well as bias correction methods have been applied. Climate variables, such as minimum, maximum, mean temperature and precipitation totals given on a daily base were analyzed. This local scale daily information is entered into the water quality model SWAT, which simulates water balance, pertaining sediment- and nutrient-transport processes across the two considered river watersheds.

  9. In vivo inhibition of incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)glucose into proteins in experimental focal epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutinho-Netto, J.; Boyar, M.M.; Abdul-Ghani, A.S.; Bradford, H.F.

    1982-08-01

    The in vivo incorporation of (/sup 14/C) from (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose into rat brain proteins from different cortical areas was examined in three different experimental focal epilepsies: cobalt, freeze-lesions, and tityustoxin. When (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose was injected intraperitoneally into awake and unrestrained animals with marked signs of epileptic hyperactivity, the inhibition of incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-amino acids into trichloracetic acid (TCA)-insoluble proteins was highest in the focal (sensorimotor) area when compared with distant regions (approx. 60%), but less when compared with the contralateral (sensorimotor) region (approx. 23%). Greatly decreased incorporation caused by both cobalt and freeze-lesion-induced epilepsies was also observed in the contralateral area when a comparison was made with distant regions (approx. 50%), but there were no significant differences in protein-specific radioactivity between the different distant areas.

  10. Focal mechanism determination for voIcanic microearthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Natale

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical methods to infer focal mechanisms from first P wave motions are of limited use for the analysis of small magnitude events occurring in volcanic areas, due to structure complexity. This work presents an alternative way to compute focal mechanisms of earthquakes in volcanic areas, based on a Bayesian approach. The probability density on the whole space spanned by source parameters is graphically represented, by a method originally due to Bernard and Zollo (1989. The data used to infer the probability density function can be of various kinds, like P wave polarities, S wave polarizations and S/P direct wave amplitude ratios. S wave polarizations are left practically unchanged by smooth variations of velocity, and are only sensitive to strong discontinuities and/or seismic anisotropy. S/P amplitude ratios of direct waves are also good observables, not very sensitive to frequency independent amplification effects. They are still affected by differential S-P anelastic attenuation, although to a much lesser extent than absolute S and P amplitudes. In fact, the use of complete waveforms is not desiderable in volcanic areas because wave amplitudes may be strongly biased by not well known path and site effects, mainly for non direct waves which are most affected by medium heterogeneities. Such unmodeled elastic and anelastic features of the medium can be traded off for source characteristics, leading to bad results. The use of the probabilistic approach, and the seloction of robust observables, allow us to solve many problems of classical methods. The determination of the whole probability density on the parameter space visualizes all the information contained in the data set, checking completely the goodness of the solution, and its univoqueness. Furthermore, the use of different kinds of robust data sets helps to constrain the solution, and to minimize the influence of unmodeled medium heterogeneities. In the present method, it is possible to

  11. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gysin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  12. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  13. CD38 exacerbates focal cytokine production, postischemic inflammation and brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-un Choe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that inflammatory processes significantly influence brain injury and clinical impairment in ischemic stroke. Although early studies suggested a key role of lymphocytes, recent data has emphasized the orchestrating function of innate immunity, i.e., macrophages and microglia. The bifunctional receptor and ectoenzyme CD38 synthesizes calcium-mobilizing second messengers (e.g., cyclic ADP-ribose, which have been shown to be necessary for activation and migration of myeloid immune cells. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of CD38 in stroke and the impact of CD38-deficiency on cytokine production, inflammation and cerebral damage in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the local expression of the chemokine MCP-1 was attenuated in CD38-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. In contrast, no significant induction of MCP-1 expression was observed in peripheral blood after 6 hours. Flow cytometry analysis revealed less infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes in the ischemic hemisphere of CD38-deficient mice, whereas the amount of resident microglia was unaltered. An up-regulation of CD38 expression was observed in macrophages and CD8(+ cells after focal cerebral ischemia in wildtype mice, whereas CD38 expression was unchanged in microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that CD38-deficiency decreases the cerebral ischemic injury and the persistent neurological deficit after three days of reperfusion in this murine temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO model. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CD38 is differentially regulated following stroke and its deficiency attenuates the postischemic chemokine production, the immune cell infiltration and the cerebral injury after temporary ischemia and reperfusion. Therefore CD38 might prove a therapeutic target in ischemic stroke.

  14. Immediate Versus Early Loading and Conventional Loading in Implant Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Maghaireh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the risk of implant failures after their placement, dental implants are traditionally kept load-free for 3 to 8 months to establish osseointegration before connecting the prosthetic super-structure (conventional loading. However, implant dentists are under continuous pressure from the media and patients to speed up the treatment and reduce number of visits during the implant therapy. Immediate implant loading can also reduce the cost and might also improve aesthetics as claimed by some surgeons. This pressure from the media, patients and dentists was behind introducing changes into the loading protocols and nowadays implants are loaded early and even immediately and it would be useful to know whether there is a difference in success rates between immediately and early loaded implants compared with conventionally loaded implants. It is well known that whenever a clinician is faced with a clinical question, the answer(s should be evidence based to avoid the risk of bias as opinion based answers can be misleading and can cause more failures in the dental practice. This mini-review aims to evaluate the effects of (1 immediate (within 1 week, (2 early (between 1 week and 2 months, and (3 conventional (after 2 months loading of osseointegrated dental implants. The review found no evidence that attaching artificial teeth either immediately, after 6 weeks (early or after at least 3 months (conventional led to any important differences in the failure of the implant or the artificial tooth, or to the amount of bone which surrounded the implant (any bone loss would be an undesirable consequence. However, we found a trend of more failures and complications with early loading when compared to immediate or conventional loading. More research is needed in this area. - See more at: http://smiledentaljournal.com/article.php?id=59#sthash.mniQLIcf.dpuf

  15. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely with the in......In this paper, we tackle the load balancing problem in Integrated Optical Wireless Networks, where cell breathing technique is used to solve congestion by changing the coverage area of a fully loaded cell tower. Our objective is to design a load balancing mechanism which works closely...... issues are outlined and a cost function based optimization model is developed for power management. In particularly, two alternative feedback schemes are proposed to report wireless network status. Simulation results show that our proposed load balancing mechanism improves network performances....

  16. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  17. Application of SWMM in the Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution Load in Urban Residential Area%SWMM模型应用于城市住宅区非点源污染负荷模拟计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓宇; 朱元励; 梅琨; 张艳军; 张明华

    2012-01-01

    This study was focused on the non-point source pollution loading in a typical urban residential area in Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Based on the SWMM principle, parameters from the literature and field experiments were integrated, and a non-point source pollution calibration model was constructed. Four different rainfall scenarios were designed to analyze the pollution loads and the accumulation process of total suspended solids (TSS) , chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) , total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus ( TP). The results showed that the simulated data matched the field-monitored data satisfactorily. The relative errors between the simulated and the true values of all the four parameters were less than 10%. Under' the four rainfall conditions: 1) the highest concentrations of the pollutants were observed within 30-40 minutes; the heavier the rain, the earlier their highest concentrations appeared; 2) higher-intensity rainfall caused more serious pollution to the receiving water bodies than the low-intensity rainfall did.%以温州市典型住宅区非点源污染为对象,基于SWMM(storm water management model)模型的模拟机理,借鉴国内外相关研究的模型参数,结合降雨径流实测数据率定模型参数,将模型“本地化”,构建了基于SWMM模型的研究区非点源污染负荷计算模型,并设计了4种不同降雨情景,分析在不同降雨条件下研究区非点源污染固体悬浮物(TSS)、CODCr、TN和TP的污染负荷量及其累积变化过程.结果表明,构建的SWMM模型的模拟值可以较好地与实测值相吻合,4种污染物模拟的相对误差均小于10%.在设计的4种降雨情景下:①污染物浓度峰值出现在降雨30~40 min内,降雨强度越大,出现浓度峰值的时间越早;②高强度降雨较低强度降雨可对受纳水体造成更大的污染.

  18. Mechanical stimulation of C2C12 cells increases m-calpain expression, focal adhesion plaque protein degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2008-01-01

    reorganization due to the activity of the ubiquitous proteolytic enzymes, calpains, has been reported. Whether there is a link between stretch- or load-induced signaling and calpain expression and activation is not known. Using a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have...... demonstrated that mechanical stimulation via laminin receptors leads to an increase in m-calpain expression, but no increase in the expression of other calpain isoforms. Our study revealed that after a short period of stimulation, m-calpain relocates into focal adhesion complexes and is followed by a breakdown...... of specific focal adhesion proteins previously identified as substrates for this enzyme. We show that stimulation also leads to an increase in calpain activity in these cells. These data support the pivotal role for m-calpain in the control of muscle precursor cell differentiation and thus strengthen the idea...

  19. Spatial segmentation characteristic of focal mechanism of aftershock sequence of Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG QinCai; CHEN ZhangLi; ZHENG SiHua

    2009-01-01

    Moment tensor solutions of 88 earthquakes were determined by using the broadband waveform data recorded in six stations within 450 km around the Wenchuan Earthquake sequence by means of the time domain moment tensor inversion method.It was found that the type of the focal mechanism solution is characteristic of obvious spatial segmentation.There are six segments along the main rupture zone from southwest to northeast,where initially the focal mechanism is of main thrust type,finally of main right-lateral strike-slip type and between these two areas there is a transition zone characterized in multiple types of focal mechanisms appearing in turn.Earthquakes of left-lateral strike-slip type perpendicular to the main rupture zone occurred near Xiaoyudong Town.The stress field of each segment is inversed by means of the FMSI program,and it was found that,along the main rupture zone from southwest to northeast,the direction of the maximum principal stress is gradually changing from near EW to NW-SE,and finally changing back to near EW.

  20. Global and regional functional connectivity maps of neural oscillations in focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englot, Dario J.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Kort, Naomi S.; Imber, Brandon S.; Mizuiri, Danielle; Honma, Susanne M.; Findlay, Anne M.; Garrett, Coleman; Cheung, Paige L.; Mantle, Mary; Tarapore, Phiroz E.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Chang, Edward F.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.

    2015-01-01

    Intractable focal epilepsy is a devastating disorder with profound effects on cognition and quality of life. Epilepsy surgery can lead to seizure freedom in patients with focal epilepsy; however, sometimes it fails due to an incomplete delineation of the epileptogenic zone. Brain networks in epilepsy can be studied with resting-state functional connectivity analysis, yet previous investigations using functional magnetic resonance imaging or electrocorticography have produced inconsistent results. Magnetoencephalography allows non-invasive whole-brain recordings, and can be used to study both long-range network disturbances in focal epilepsy and regional connectivity at the epileptogenic zone. In magnetoencephalography recordings from presurgical epilepsy patients, we examined: (i) global functional connectivity maps in patients versus controls; and (ii) regional functional connectivity maps at the region of resection, compared to the homotopic non-epileptogenic region in the contralateral hemisphere. Sixty-one patients were studied, including 30 with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and 31 with focal neocortical epilepsy. Compared with a group of 31 controls, patients with epilepsy had decreased resting-state functional connectivity in widespread regions, including perisylvian, posterior temporo-parietal, and orbitofrontal cortices (P epilepsy and higher frequency of consciousness-impairing seizures (P seizure postoperative seizure freedom (87.5% with Engel I outcome) than those with neutral (n = 15, 64.3% seizure free) or decreased (n = 23, 47.8% seizure free) regional connectivity (P epilepsy, and may reflect deleterious long-term effects of recurrent seizures. Furthermore, enhanced regional functional connectivity at the area of resection may help predict seizure outcome and aid surgical planning. PMID:25981965

  1. Composite resin's adhesive resistance to dentin: influence of Er:YAG laser focal distance variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Atoui, Juliana Abdallah; Chimello, Daniela Thomazatti; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Dibb, Regina Guenka Palma

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze in vitro the influence of Er:YAG laser focal distance variation on tensile bond strength of a composite resin to dentin. Although there are several studies using the Er:YAG laser for dentin treatment, there is a lack of available literature related to the Er:YAG laser focal distance variation. Sixty vestibular and lingual dentin surfaces from extracted human third molars, kept in a 0.4% azide sodium solution, were ground and assigned to six groups. The control group was conditioned with 35% phosphoric acid (CA). In the lased groups, the dentin surface treatment was performed by irradiation with Er:YAG laser (80 mJ/2 Hz), varying the focal distance (11, 12, 14, 16, and 17 mm), followed by acid etching. The Single Bond/Filtek Z250 (3M) resinous system was used for the specimen manufacture. The tensile bond strength tests were performed in a Universal Testing Machine with 50 kgf load cell and 0.5 mm/min cross head speed. The averages in MPa were: CA: 18.03 (+/-2.09); 11 mm; 9.92 (+/-3.34); 12 mm: 9.49 (+/-2.29); 14 mm: 10.99 (+/-3.45); 16 mm: 10.56 (+/-1.93); and 17 mm: 17.05 (+/-2.31). It was concluded that the application of Er:YAG laser in a defocused mode (17 mm) associated with acid etching was similar to the treatment of acid solely. Er:YAG laser irradiation in a focused (12 mm) and a defocused (11, 14, and 16 mm) mode coupled with acid conditioning produced the lowest values of adhesion.

  2. Parietal lobe epilepsy: the great imitator among focal epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Aleksandar J; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; So, Norman; Wong, Chong; Najm, Imad M

    2012-03-01

    Comprising large areas of association cortex, the parietal lobe is part of an extensive synaptic network elaborately intertwined with other brain regions. We hypothesize that such widespread projections are responsible for producing inaccurate localisation readings on scalp EEG and clinical semiology in patients with parietal lobe epilepsies, as opposed to frontal or temporal lobe epilepsies. Our study included 50 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, who were subsequently rendered seizure-free for ≥12 months (median: 23 months) following resections limited to the frontal (n=17), temporal (n=17), or parietal (n=16) lobes. Interictal and ictal EEG data with accompanying seizure video recordings were extracted from archived files of scalp video-EEG monitoring. Two blinded raters independently reviewed the EEG according to predetermined criteria. Videos of seizures were then observed, as raters formulated their final electroclinical impression (ECI), identifying patients' abnormal neuronal activities with parietal, temporal, and frontal lobe epilepsy, or unspecified localisation. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, age at epilepsy onset, or presence of MRI abnormalities. Interictal discharges in parietal lobe epilepsy showed the greatest magnitude of scatter outside the lobe of origin; the majority of patients with parietal lobe epilepsy had more than one spike population (pparietal lobe epilepsy cases (p=0.024). Whenever raters confidently limited their ECI to one lobar subtype, overall accuracy was excellent. Lobar classifications by ECI were highly accurate for temporal lobe epilepsy, vacillating in frontal lobe epilepsy, and least accurate in parietal lobe epilepsy subjects. Scalp EEG readings of parietal lobe epilepsy patients showed a more variable scatter of interictal discharges and a lower localisation value of ictal recordings compared to temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy subjects, suggesting an increased likelihood of

  3. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  4. Focal organizing pneumonia mimicking lung cancer: a surgeon's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Pan, Youmin; Song, Chaoguo; Wei, Hao; Wu, Shimin; Wei, Xiang; Pan, Tiecheng; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Focal organizing pneumonia is a unique form of organizing pneumonia. Little is known regarding its clinical and radiological feature, diagnosis, management, and outcome. Twenty patients with focal organizing pneumonia were investigated and compared with 40 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. There were 38 men (63.3%) and 22 women (36.7%). The mean age was 55 ± 9.9 years. No specific feature in clinical and radiological manifestation was found to distinguish between focal organizing pneumonia and bronchogenic carcinoma. In patients with focal organizing pneumonia, wedge resection was performed in 12 cases and lobectomy in eight cases. Follow-up was complete with a median period of 26 months (range, 6 to 104 months). All patients were free from recurrence of organizing pneumonia. Clinical and radiologic findings of focal organizing pneumonia are nonspecific, and this unique form of organizing pneumonia is difficult to differentiate from lung cancer. Surgical resection allows both diagnosis and cure. However, considering the benign nature of this disease, major pulmonary resections should be avoided.

  5. MR imaging features of focal liver lesions in Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Anthony; Vargas, Ottavia; Dautry, Raphael; Guerrache, Youcef; Woimant, France; Hamzi, Lounis; Boudiaf, Mourad; Poujois, Aurelia; Faraoun, Sid Ahmed; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic involvement in Wilson disease (WD) manifests as a diffuse chronic disease in the majority of patients. However, in a subset of patients focal liver lesions may develop, presenting with a wide range of imaging features. The majority of focal liver lesions in patients with WD are benign nodules, but there are reports that have described malignant liver tumors or dysplastic nodules in these patients. Because of the possibility of malignant transformation of liver nodules, major concerns have been raised with respect to the management and follow-up of patients with WD in whom focal liver lesions have been identified. The assessment of liver involvement in patients with WD is generally performed with ultrasonography. However, ultrasonography conveys limited specificity so that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is often performed to improve lesion characterization. This review was performed to illustrate the spectrum of MR imaging features of focal liver lesions that develop in patients with WD. It is assumed that familiarity with the MR imaging presentation of focal liver lesions in WD may help clarify the actual nature of hepatic nodules in patients with this condition.

  6. [Neurophysiological markers of generalized and focal epileptic seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, E Yu; Shulakova, K V

    To identify neurophysiological markers of focal and generalized epileptic seizures in the inter-epileptic period. Sixty-four patients, including 36 with isolated generalized tonic-clonic seizures and 28 with focal seizures, were examined. The control group consisted of 27 healthy people. EEG-video monitoring and bioelectric activity analysis of the brain during wakefulness and day sleep, spectral EEG analysis, quantitative and quality indicators of sleep were used. In generalized epileptic seizures, alpha rhythm is predominantly recorded in the left hemisphere. In wakefulness, the focal epileptiform activity develops during the first two stages of day sleep. In focal epileptic seizures, delta and beta-2 rhythms were recorded in the left hemisphere, regional epileptiform changes are aggravated during the 1st and 2nd stages of slow sleep initiated in the frontal regions. A focal component of the epileptiform activity in the inter-epileptic period in patients with different types of seizures should be taken into account in examination and treatment planning of patients who had difficulties with the diagnosis of epilepsy type.

  7. [Focal surgery in testis cancer: current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Giuseppe; Antonucci, Michele; Recupero, Salvatore Marco; Fiorillo, Alessandro; Vittori, Matteo; Bassi, Pier Francesco; Gulino, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Radical orchiectomy is the standard treatment of testicular neoplasia causing androgen insufficiency, infertility and psychological stress. Focal surgery allows the preservation of fertility, endocrine function and integrity of the genital anatomy, with preservation of the image of the male body. The EAU guidelines suggest focal surgery in case of synchronous bilateral tumors, metachronous contralateral tumours, tumour in solitary testis with normal pre-operative testosterone levels, when the tumor volume less than 30% of the testicular volume. There are two focal surgical techniques: tumorectomy and polar resection, followed by biopsies and frozen section of the resection bed. In case of benign tumours, the treatment is often curative. In case of malignancy, carcinoma in situ is frequently found in the surrounding tissues. Adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy is performed with a fair success rate. These adjuvant treatments reduce or delete the functional benefits achieved by conservative surgery. The evidence of the literature suggests that focal surgery is a valid option for all patients with testicular tumours that are not palpable and small sized, with the advantage of avoiding unnecessary radical orchiectomy in most cases. Therefore, the selection criteria for focal surgery are the mass size (less than 25 mm) and a safety distance of the tumor from the rete testis, in order to preserve testicular vascularization. A close follow-up with ultrasound, testicular markers and radiological examinations is mandatory in case of germ cell neoplasia treated conservatively in patients with indications for conservative surgery.

  8. Significance of incidental focal uptake in prostate on 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E J; H O, J; Choi, W H; Yoo, I R; Chung, S K

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of incidental focal prostate fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, we reviewed 18-F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scans from 2003 to 2007 and selected cases with focal FDG uptake in prostate. Cases of known prostate cancer were excluded. The maximum standardised uptake value (SUV(max)), site (central or peripheral) and pattern (discrete or ill-defined) of FDG uptake, calcification (present or absent) and prostate volume (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, imaging studies, clinical follow-up and biopsy. Of a total of 5119 cases, 63 (1.2%) demonstrated focal FDG uptake in prostate. Eight cases were lost to follow-up. Among the 55 cases with follow-up, malignancy was confirmed by biopsy in 3 (5.4%). The three malignant cases had SUV(max) values of 3.3, 3.6 and 2.3, and all were noted in the peripheral portion of prostate; two of these cases had a discrete FDG uptake pattern, none had calcification corresponding to the FDG uptake area and one had a prostatic volume greater than 30 cc. The mean SUV(max) of 52 benign cases was 3.2 ± 1.7 and focal FDG uptake was noted in the peripheral portion in 34 (65%), 20 (38%) cases showed a discrete FDG uptake pattern, 35 (67%) were accompanied by calcification and 32 (62%) had a prostatic volume greater than 30 cc. The majority of cases demonstrating focal FDG uptake in prostate were benign and no PET/CT finding could reliably differentiate benign from malignant lesions; however, when discrete focal FDG uptake without coincidental calcification is seen, particularly in the peripheral zone of the prostate, further clinical evaluation is recommended.

  9. Terapia Interpessoal: um modelo breve e focal Interpersonal Therapy: a brief and focal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Feijó de Mello

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A psicoterapia é uma forma particular de tratamento em psiquiatria. Seu uso é amplamente difundido e conta com várias linhas de abordagem. OBJETIVO: Neste trabalho, o autor faz considerações a respeito da terapia interpessoal (TIP, uma forma breve e focal de psicoterapia. Inicialmente usada para o tratamento da depressão, teve seu espectro de ação ampliado para outros transtornos. A TIP pode ser dividida em 3 fases: inicial, quando é feito um diagnóstico do transtorno nomeando os sintomas ao paciente e diagnosticando o foco interpessoal a ser trabalhado; fase intermediária, onde se trabalha o foco; e fase final, quando o paciente é encorajado a reconhecer e consolidar seus ganhos para usá-los no futuro. MÉTODOS: O autor faz uma revisão das evidências científicas da eficácia da TIP no tratamento da depressão. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que a TIP é uma forma terapêutica eficaz e bem tolerada de tratamento para a depressão.Psychotherapy is a particular form of treatment in Psychiatry. Its use is widespread and has many different approaches. OBJECTIVE: In this article, the author makes some considerations about Interpersonal Therapy (IPT, a brief and focal psychotherapy. Initially created to treat depression, other researchers had successfully increase its spectrum. It could be divided in three phases. Initial, when the therapist makes the diagnosis of the disorder and also the interpersonal problematic is pointed out; the patient received a sick role. Intermediary when the focus is treated, and the final phase when the therapist encourages the patient to recognize and consolidate gains and prepare the patient to use it in the future. METHODS: It is stressed that IPT is a testable form of psychotherapy and the scientific evidences of its efficacy are showed. CONCLUSIONS: The results assure that IPT is an efficient form of psychotherapy for depression with a great acceptability from the patients.

  10. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  11. Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-12-09

    Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominal pain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed us to make a diagnosis of focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain. This is a rare epileptic phenomenon that should be suspected in patients with unexplained paroxysmal abdominal pain and migraine-like symptoms. We suggest that, after the exclusion of more common etiologies, focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain should be considered in patients with paroxysmal abdominal pain and ictal EEG abnormalities.

  12. Bilaterally symmetric focal cortical dysplasia in a golden retriever dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K M; Bollen, A W; Winger, K M; Vernau, K M; Dickinson, P J; Higgins, R J; Sisó, S

    2014-11-01

    A 10-year-old golden retriever dog was referred with a 24-h history of generalized seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain found no abnormalities on 3 mm transverse sections and the dog was subsequently humanely destroyed. Microscopically there was bilaterally symmetrical focal disorganization of cortical grey matter within the tips of the right and left suprasylvian gyri of the temporal cortex. The focal abnormal cortical lamination was characterized by loss of pyramidal neurons with abnormal, irregular, angular, remaining neurons occasionally forming clusters, surrounded by fibrillary astrogliosis and microgliosis and vascular proliferation. These histological findings are consistent with focal cortical dysplasia, a cerebral cortical malformation that causes seizures in people, but not reported previously in the dog.

  13. MRI of a family with focal abnormalities of gyration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntaner, L. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]|[Avda Alejandro Rossello 27, E-07002 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Perez-Ferron, J.J. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Herrera, M. [Department of Radiology, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Rosell, J. [Department of Genetics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Taboada, D. [Clinica Femenia, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Climent, S. [Department of Pediatrics, Son Dureta University Hospital, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    1997-08-01

    Focal abnormalities of gyration (FAG) are developmental disorders that may occur in isolated patients or, as in the case being reported, as part of a familial disorder. Analysis of individuals in a family spanning three generations was carried out using MRI. Abnormalities, present in all members of generations II and III, included focal cortical dysplasia (three patients), focal cortical infolding (two patients) and schizencephaly (one patient); associated minor anomalies, such as white matter abnormalities, were seen in the remaining three members of generations II and III. MRI recognition of FAG in the family being reported proved useful in defining their phenotypical expression and providing proper counselling for individual family members. (orig.). With 6 figs.

  14. Protein kinase C involvement in focal adhesion formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    Matrix molecules such as fibronectin can promote cell attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation. Although some interactions of fibronectin with cell surface receptors have now been identified, the consequent activation of intracellular messenger systems by cell/matrix interactions have...... still to be elucidated. We show here that the kinase inhibitors H7 and HA1004 reduce focal adhesion and stress fiber formation in response to fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner, and that activators of protein kinase C can promote their formation under conditions where they do not normally form....... Fibroblasts spread within 1h on substrata composed of fibronectin and formed focal adhesions by 3h, as monitored by interference reflection microscopy (IRM) and by labeling for talin, vinculin and integrin beta 1 subunits. In addition, stress fibers were visible. When cells were allowed to spread for 1h...

  15. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-08-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

  16. An innovative concept for the AsteroidFinder/SSB focal plane assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Karsten; Koncz, Alexander; Solbrig, Michael; Michaelis, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a summary on the system concept and design of the focal plane assembly of AsteroidFinder/SSB, a small satellite mission which is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). An athermal design concept has been developed in accordance to the requirements of the instrument and spacecraft. Key aspects leading to this approach have been a trade-off study of the mechanical telescope interface, the definition of electrical and thermal interfaces and a material selection which minimizes thermally induced stresses. As a novelty, the structure will be manufactured from a machinable AlN-BN composite ceramic. To enable rapid design iterations and development, an integrated modeling approach has been used to conduct a thermo-mechanical analysis of the proposed concept in order to prove its feasibility. The steady-state temperature distribution for various load cases and the resulting stress and strain within the assembly have both been computed using a finite element simulation.

  17. An innovative concept for the AsteroidFinder/SSB focal plane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Karsten; Tschentscher, Matthias; Koncz, Alexander; Solbrig, Michael; Michaelis, Harald

    2012-06-01

    This paper gives a summary on the system concept and design of the focal plane assembly of AsteroidFinder/SSB, a small satellite mission which is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). An athermal design concept has been developed in accordance to the requirements of the instrument and spacecraft. Key aspects leading to this approach have been a trade-off study of the mechanical telescope interface, the definition of electrical and thermal interfaces and a material selection which minimizes thermally induced stresses. As a novelty, the structure will be manufactured from a machinable AlN-BN composite ceramic. To enable rapid design iterations and development, an integrated modeling approach has been used to conduct a thermo-mechanical analysis of the proposed concept in order to proof its feasibility. The steady-state temperature distribution for various load cases and the resulting stress and strain within the assembly have both been computed using a finite element simulation.

  18. Scintigraphic assessment of focal platelet accumulations following infrainguinal bypass surgery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; Hesse, B; Eiberg, J

    1997-01-01

    . In 28 patients undergoing in situ vein (n = 24), composite vein-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (n = 1) or PTFE (n = 3) bypass surgery, assumed vascular injuries were recorded intraoperatively. Autologous indium-111-labelled platelets were injected into the inflow artery immediately after restoration...... antiplatelet therapy or vein graft diameter. Only 2 of the 20 intragraft platelet depositions occurred in areas where intra-operative vascular injury was suspected. In the composite graft and the PTFE grafts, diffuse activity was observed throughout the entire bypass. In conclusion, focal activity...

  19. Development status of the AIRS IR focal plane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonate, G. Scott; Denley, Brian; Krueger, Eric E.; Rutter, James H., Jr.; Stobie, James A.; Terzis, C. L.

    1997-10-01

    The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) is a high resolution IR spectrometer (lambda/(Delta) (lambda) congruent 1200) which will map global temperatures and identify atmospheric aerosols from orbit by monitoring key atmospheric absorption lines. The focal plane consists of ten bilinear photovoltaic (PV) and two photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detector arrays (modules) sampling a 3.7 to 15.4 micrometer spectral window in 15 bands. To attain the desired temperature accuracy, tight constraints on focal plane performance parameters such as linearity better than 0.1%, quantum efficiency (QE) on the order of 70%, low noise or noise equivalent quantum flux density (NEQFD), and no outages at key spectral lines have been imposed. Assessment of focal plane performance begins at the detector and readout levels where flight candidate detector arrays and CMOS readouts are selected. PV detector arrays and their readouts are hybridized (PC modules are wire-bonded directly) into modules which are then individually tested under simulated flight conditions. Five of the twelve module types are incorporated into an engineering-level (EM) focal plane upon which the module level tests are repeated as a prelude to the fabrication and testing of a separate, fully populated, flight-level (PFM) focal plane. Module testing has demonstrated that many difficult system requirements have been met, and work continues to optimize module performance. Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems' (LMIRIS) overall design of the infrared (IR) detector/Dewar assembly and focal plane development program is given, followed by a summary of PV and PC module data.

  20. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  1. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  2. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  3. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Moura Lima; Mario B. Aragão

    1987-01-01

    Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de im...

  4. Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    AD-A276 963 1111111111 I NAWCWPNS TP 8185 Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays OTIC by ELECTE Dr. Gary Hewer MAR 151994 and...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1994 Final; 199 ,L TTLE ND SBTILE LFUNDNG UBER Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays...nonlinearity 71,(w) = sgn(w)(IwI-t). with threshold t to each empirical sample value w in the wavelet transform d scales. After thresholding the wavelet

  5. Recurrent focal myositis in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Yadla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focal myositis is a benign inflammatory process involving a single group of muscles. It may resolve with conservative measures or may be a harbinger for polymyositis. Very few focal myosites are recurrent, and recurrence in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis is extremely rare. Clinical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging help in identifying this entity. Muscle biopsy and histopathological evaluation are mandatory in diagnosis. It often responds to conservative treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and physiotherapy, but occasionally it requires therapy with steroids.

  6. The bolometric focal plane array of the Polarbear CMB experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, K; Anthony, A E; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M A; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Flanigan, D; Fuller, G; Ghribi, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Kisner, T; Jeune, M Le; Lee, A T; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Miller, N J; Meng, X; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Quealy, E; Reichardt, C; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Sholl, M; Siritanasak, P; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Tomaru, T; Tucker, C; Zahn, O

    2012-01-01

    The Polarbear Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization experiment is currently observing from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile. It will characterize the expected B-mode polarization due to gravitational lensing of the CMB, and search for the possible B-mode signature of inflationary gravitational waves. Its 250 mK focal plane detector array consists of 1,274 polarization-sensitive antenna-coupled bolometers, each with an associated lithographed band-defining filter. Each detector's planar antenna structure is coupled to the telescope's optical system through a contacting dielectric lenslet, an architecture unique in current CMB experiments. We present the initial characterization of this focal plane.

  7. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borborema-Santos, Cristina Maria; Castro, Maria Marta de; Santos, Paulo José Benevides dos; Talhari, Sinésio; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco

    2006-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is a rare contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, initially described among Native American populations. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple small papules or nodules in oral cavity, especially on labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. This report describes the diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia in five Central Amazonian Indians who sought treatment at the Amazonas State Foundation of Tropical Medicine (FMT-AM), using clinical criteria, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.

  8. Magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ethan A. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Grove, Jason J. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Der Spek, Abraham F.L.V. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Anesthesiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jarboe, Marcus D. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Surgery, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Image-guided biopsy techniques are widely used in clinical practice. Commonly used methods employ either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) for image guidance. In certain patients, US or CT guidance may be suboptimal, or even impossible, because of artifacts, suboptimal lesion visualization, or both. We recently began performing magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions in select pediatric patients with lesions that are not well visualized by US or CT. This report describes our experience performing MR-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions, with case examples to illustrate innovative techniques and novel aspects of these procedures. (orig.)

  9. HAb18G/CD147 regulates vinculin-mediated focal adhesion and cytoskeleton organization in cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liang

    Full Text Available Focal adhesions (FAs, integrin-mediated macromolecular complexes located at the cell membrane extracellular interface, have been shown to regulate cell adhesion and migration. Our previous studies have indicated that HAb18G/CD147 (CD147 is involved in cytoskeleton reorganization and FA formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. In the current study, we determined that CD147 was involved in vinculin-mediated FA focal adhesion formation in HCC cells. We also found that deletion of CD147 led to reduced vinculin-mediated FA areas (P<0.0001, length/width ratios (P<0.0001, and mean intensities (P<0.0001. CD147 promoted lamellipodia formation by localizing Arp2/3 to the leading edge of the cell. Deletion of CD147 significantly reduced the fluorescence (t1/2 recovery times (22.7±3.3 s of vinculin-mediated focal adhesions (P<0.0001. In cell-spreading assays, CD147 was found to be essential for dynamic focal adhesion enlargement and disassembly. Furthermore, the current data showed that CD147 reduced tyrosine phosphorylation in vinculin-mediated focal adhesions, and enhanced the accumulation of the acidic phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2. Together, these results revealed that CD147 is involved in vinculin-mediated focal adhesion formation, which subsequently promotes cytoskeleton reorganization to facilitate invasion and migration of human HCC cells.

  10. WE-G-204-04: Focal Spot Deblurring For High Resolution Amorphous Selenium (aSe) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) X-Ray Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagesh, S Setlur; Rana, R; Russ, M; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, SUNY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: CMOS-based aSe detectors compared to CsI-TFT-based flat panels have the advantages of higher spatial sampling due to smaller pixel size and decreased blurring characteristic of direct rather than indirect detection. For systems with such detectors, the limiting factor degrading image resolution then becomes the focal-spot geometric unsharpness. This effect can seriously limit the use of such detectors in areas such as cone beam computed tomography, clinical fluoroscopy and angiography. In this work a technique to remove the effect of focal-spot blur is presented for a simulated aSe detector. Method: To simulate images from an aSe detector affected with focal-spot blur, first a set of high-resolution images of a stent (FRED from Microvention, Inc.) were acquired using a 75µm pixel size Dexela-Perkin-Elmer detector and averaged to reduce quantum noise. Then the averaged image was blurred with a known Gaussian blur at two different magnifications to simulate an idealized focal spot. The blurred images were then deconvolved with a set of different Gaussian blurs to remove the effect of focal-spot blurring using a threshold-based, inverse-filtering method. Results: The blur was removed by deconvolving the images using a set of Gaussian functions for both magnifications. Selecting the correct function resulted in an image close to the original; however, selection of too wide a function would cause severe artifacts. Conclusion: Experimentally, focal-spot blur at different magnifications can be measured using a pin hole with a high resolution detector. This spread function can be used to deblur the input images that are acquired at corresponding magnifications to correct for the focal spot blur. For CBCT applications, the magnification of specific objects can be obtained using initial reconstructions then corrected for focal-spot blurring to improve resolution. Similarly, if object magnification can be determined such correction may be applied in fluoroscopy and

  11. Lung contusion from focal low-moderate chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, G M; Massie, J

    2006-10-01

    Apparently minor chest trauma may result in localized pulmonary contusion. Complications of the contusion, particularly infection, may be delayed. The association between the infection and initial injury may not be appreciated due to the time frame between the injury and clinical presentation. We report two cases of low-moderate impact pulmonary trauma resulting in focal pulmonary contusion, complicated by infection.

  12. Tratamento focal e perifocal contra Aëdes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Moura Lima

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Em quatro bairros da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram feitos ensaios de tratamento focal com abate granulado a 1 ppm e perifocal com pó molhável de Sumition a 2,5%. Esses tratamentos foram feitos tanto isoladamente quanto em conjunto e, também, associados à aplicação de inseticida a ultrabaixo volume. Os índices prediais, levantados um mês depois de terminado o trabalho, mostraram que o tratamento focal dispensa qualquer medida auxiliar. O tratamento perifocal mostrou-se inócuo e incapaz de impedir o aparecimento de larvas de Aëdes aegypti e de outros insetos, em pneus pintados, na face externa, com Sumition e com Malation.In four districts of the city of Rio dc Janeiro focal treatment essays with granulated Abate at 1 ppm and perifocal treatment essays with wettable powder of Sumithion at 2,5% were performed. These were made either alone or in combination as well as associated to insecticides applied at ultra low volume. The premise indices obtained one month after the treatments indicates that the focal treatment alone is effective, no other addicional methods being necessary. The perifocal treatment is not effective and did not prevent the development of Aedes aegypti larvae and other insects in tires which had their external surface painted with Sumithion and Malathion.

  13. Cryogenic mechatronic design of the HIFI Focal Plane Chopper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, R.; Aalders, J. W. G.; Eggens, M. J.; Evers, J.; Jacobs, H. M.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.; Ploeger, G. R.; Wildeman, K. J.; Jayawardhana, B.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the cryogenic mechatronic development of the Focal Plane Chopper (FPC) mechanism in the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) which is one of the science instruments on board the Herschel space telescope. The extreme cryogenic environment, in which the mechanism has

  14. Neurophysiological evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in primary focal dystonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, J.T.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Schneider, S.A.; Rothwell, J.C.; Bhatia, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that there may be functional and structural changes in the cerebellum of patients with adult onset primary focal dystonia. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is any neurophysiological indicator of abnormal cerebellar function, using the classic eyeblin

  15. Dense Focal Plane Arrays for Pushbroom Satellite Radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iupikov, O. A.; Ivashina, M. V.; Pontoppidan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a dense focal plane array feeding an offset toroidal reflector antenna system is studied and discussed in the context of a potential application in multi-beam radiometers for ocean surveillance. We present a preliminary design of the array feed for the 5-m diameter antenna at X...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: task-specific focal dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and speech. Task-specific focal dystonia can affect people who play sports and engage in other occupations involving repetitive, highly ... and other activities. Severe cases can cause professional disability. Related ... dystonia affects an estimated 7 to 69 per million people in the general population. Musician's dystonia that is ...

  17. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associated w...

  18. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...... for measuring the beam profiles of focused high power CO2-lasers....

  19. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in CT-undetermined focal liver lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrose, Sebastian; Karstrup, S.; Gerke, Oke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions, which were undetermined at CT scan. Materials and Methods: From January 2010 to December 2010, patients with CT-undetermined focal liver lesions were included in this study......, surgical resection, PET/CT and clinical follow-up. Results: The 78 included patients had 163 undetermined focal liver lesions, mean size 1.1 cm, range 0.1–5.3 cm. There were 18 malignant and 145 benign liver lesions, as defined by the standard of reference. In differentiating between benign vs. malignant......, then sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy would be 95.8% (95% CI: 66.4–99.6%), 98.6% (95% CI: 94.4–99.7%), 92.0% (95CI: 65.1–98.6%), 99.3% (95% CI: 95.0–99.9%), 98.2% (95% CI: 94.4–99.5%). Conclusion: The results of this study showed a high diagnostic accuracy for CEUS in undetermined focal liver...

  20. Measuring Refractive Index Using the Focal Displacement Method (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Dayton, Ohio 45431 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Measuring refractive index using the focal...Corp., Dayton, Ohio 45431 , USA 3Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433, USA Received 25 March 2014; accepted 22 April 2014

  1. Benign focal liver lesions-from diagnosis to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Terkivatan (Türkan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractFocal liver lesions in a noncirrhotic liver often present as incidental finding during routine abdominal imaging as part of a general check-up, or during work-up in case of a known malignancy. Only in some cases, liver tumors may be symptomatic. The most important diagnostic challenge

  2. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) associated with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viraben, R; Aquilina, C; Brousset, P; Bazex, J

    1996-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa occurring in a HIV-infected man is described. Molecular biology disclosed an HPV-32 type in oral lesions. The association of FEH and AIDS is uncommon although many HPV subtypes may manifest during HIV infection.

  4. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in a Turkish family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, F

    1996-12-01

    A 31-year-old Turkish patient and some family members suffered from multiple hyperplastic oral mucosal papules. Intralesional papilloma virus was not found but the patient had elevated levels of CD8 lymphocytes in his peripheral blood. We diagnosed focal epithelial hyperplasia of Heck.

  5. An unusual cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: psoriasis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceri, Mevlut; Kurultak, Ilhan; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Mustafa; Duranay, Murat

    2010-06-01

    Psoriasis, being limited to the skin, is generally a chronic inflammatory disorder. Several glomerular diseases have been distinguished due to renal histological findings of psoriatic patients to date. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of these associations remain unclear because of the limited number of cases. We report a second case of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in a psoriatic patient.

  6. Focality, stochasticity and neuroanatomic propagation in ALS pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravits, John

    2014-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) phenotypes such as limb ALS, bulbar ALS, primary lateral sclerosis and primary muscular atrophy are highly heterogeneous and exist on a continuum. These are largely determined by the neuroanatomy of the underlying pathological changes, which can be clinically imputed. Deconstructing these early in disease, before temporal-spatial summation induces complexity, shows that ALS begins focally at a seemingly random location and progresses contiguously. This suggests that focality and anatomic propagation of pathology are significant parts of pathogenesis-disease propagates over space as well as progresses over time. Focality and neuroanatomic propagation can explain how dominant genetic traits manifest with heterogeneous phenotypes, since the anatomic site of outbreak is a prime determinant of phenotype. Focality and neuroanatomic propagation can also explain why frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegeneration closely related to ALS, has heterogeneous phenotypes, since here too the anatomic site of the outbreak is a prime determinant of phenotype. There are two distinct types of neuroanatomic propagation: contiguous propagation, which occurs side-to-side regionally through the extracellular matrix independent of synaptic connection; and network propagation, which occurs end-to-end dependent on synaptic connections and axonal transmission in connected neuronal networks. The molecular basis of neuroanatomic propagation is unknown, although prion-like misfolding and templating of pathogenic proteins is a compelling unifying hypothesis.

  7. Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

  8. Mutations in KCNT1 cause a spectrum of focal epilepsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, Rikke S.; Heron, Sarah E.; Larsen, Line H G; Lim, Chiao Xin; Ricos, Michael G.; Bayly, Marta A.; Van Kempen, Marjan J A; Klinkenberg, Sylvia; Andrews, Ian; Kelley, Kent; Ronen, Gabriel M.; Callen, David; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Yendle, Simone C.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Nabbout, Rima; Poduri, Annapurna; Striano, Pasquale; Baglietto, Maria G.; Zara, Federico; Smith, Nicholas J.; Pridmore, Clair; Gardella, Elena; Nikanorova, Marina; Dahl, Hans Atli; Gellert, Pia; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Gunning, Boudewijn; Kragh-Olsen, Bente; Dibbens, Leanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Autosomal dominant mutations in the sodium-gated potassium channel subunit gene KCNT1 have been associated with two distinct seizure syndromes, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) and malignant migrating focal seizures of infancy (MMFSI). To further explore the phenotypic spectrum associa

  9. Regional cerebral blood flow in focal cortical epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristina Dupont; Oikawa, T; Sveinsdottir, E

    1976-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in ten patients with focal cortical epilepsy. The blood flow was measured by the intra-arterial injection of xenon 133 (133Xe), and the isotope clearance was recorded by a multidetector scintillation camera with 254 detectors. Three patients were st...

  10. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Mason, Josh, E-mail: joshua.mason@nhs.net [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Louise [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Northwick Park Hospital, London North West NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Hashim U. [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Emberton, Mark [University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Langley, Stephen [St Luke' s Cancer Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  11. [Expressive language disorder and focal paroxysmal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán, José R; Rodríguez-Mena, Diego; Díaz-Sardi, Mauricio

    2011-03-01

    In cases of expressive language disorder (ELD), the child is unable to put his or her thoughts into words. Comorbidity is present with difficulties in repeating, imitating or naming. There are no problems with pronunciation, as occurs in phonological disorder, it may present before the age of three years and is crucial between four and seven years of age. Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have been carried out not only in ELD, but also in clinical pictures where the language disorder was the main symptom or was associated to another neurodevelopmental pathology. We conducted a retrospective study involving a review of 100 patient records, with patients (25 girls and 75 boys) aged between two and six years old who had been diagnosed with ELD (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revised) and were free of seizures and not receiving treatment. They were submitted to an EEG and received treatment with valproic acid if EEG findings were positive. Only six patients (males) presented localised spike-wave paroxysmal EEG activity in the frontotemporal region. This 6% is a percentage that is higher than the one found in the normal children's population (2%), but lower than the value indicated in the literature for language disorders, which ranges between 20% and 50%. These patients responded positively to the treatment and both expressive language and EEG findings improved. It is possible that in ELD without paroxysms there may be a dysfunction in the circuit made up of the motor cortex-neostriatum prior to grammatical learning, whereas if there are paroxysms then this would point to neuronal hyperactivity, perhaps associated to this dysfunction or not, in cortical areas. In our cases valproic acid, together with speech therapy, helped the children to recover their language abilities.

  12. Static load testing of a heliostat drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    The drive designed and built by the Solar Power Engineering Company (SPECO) for its large area heliostat failed under high wind loads during a winter storm. This report details the testing and analysis done to verify the load capabilities of the rebuilt heliostat drive. Changes in design and improvements in fabrication resulted in a usable drive. 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Long Focal Length Large Mirror Fabrication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, H. E.

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this ambitious program are (1) to develop systems to make large superpolished optical mirrors, (2) to develop low scatter polishing techniques using centrifugal elutriation, (3) to develop a means of measuring scatter at any point on the mirror, (4) to polish a Hindle sphere to measure the optical figure of a one meter diameter convex mandrel, and (5) to fabricate low scatter, large adaptive optic graphite filled, cyanate ester replica transfer mirrors using these mandrels. Deliverables are a 30 cm diameter superpolished composite AO mirror. We fabricated a 1/3rd meter superpolished zerodur flat mandrel and with the support of our major subcontractor, Composite Mirror Applications Inc (CMA) we have demonstrated a 30 cm lightweight cyanate ester mirror with an rms microroughness between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and 8 faceplate influence function of 5 cm. The influence function was chosen to be comparable to the atmospheric correlation coefficient r(sub 0) which is about 5 cm at sea level. There was no print-thru of the graphite fibers in the cyanate ester surface (the bane of many previous efforts to use cyanate ester mirrors). Our subcontractor has devised a means for developing a 30-50 nm thick layer of graphite free pure ester resin on the surface of the mirrors. This graphite fiber filled material has a thermal expansion coefficient in the 10(exp -8) centimeter per Kelvin range (the same range of expansion coefficient as Zerodur and ULE glasses) and does not take up water and swell, so it is a nearly ideal mirror material in these areas. Unfortunately for these 0.8mm thick faceplates, the number of plies is not enough to result in isometric coverage. Isolated figure irregularities can appear, making it necessary to go to thicker faceplates. The influence function will then only approximate the length of r(sub 0), at higher altitudes or longer wavelengths. The influence function goes as the cube of the thickness, so we are now making a faceplate optimized for

  14. The impact of static stress change, dynamic stress change, and the background stress on aftershock focal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    The focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Southern California before and after four M ≥ 6.7 main shocks provide insight into how fault systems respond to stress and changes in stress. The main shock static stress changes have two observed impacts on the seismicity: changing the focal mechanisms in a given location to favor those aligned with the static stress change and changing the spatial distribution of seismicity to favor locations where the static stress change aligns with the background stress. The aftershock focal mechanisms are significantly aligned with the static stress changes for absolute stress changes of ≥ 0.02 MPa, for up to ~20 years following the main shock. The dynamic stress changes have similar, although smaller, effects on the local focal mechanisms and the spatial seismicity distribution. Dynamic stress effects are best observed at long periods (30–60 s) and for metrics based on repeated stress cycling in the same direction. This implies that dynamic triggering operates, at least in part, through cyclic shear stress loading in the direction of fault slip. The background stress also strongly controls both the preshock and aftershock mechanisms. While most aftershock mechanisms are well oriented in the background stress field, 10% of aftershocks are identified as poorly oriented outliers, which may indicate limited heterogeneity in the postmain shock stress field. The fault plane orientations of the outliers are well oriented in the background stress, while their slip directions are not, implying that the background stress restricts the distribution of available fault planes.

  15. High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  16. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with focal findings: caveats to current diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is largely based on the 1998 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Unfortunately, rigid compliance with these criteria may result in failure to recognize sporadic CJD (sCJD, especially early in its course when focal findings predominate and traditional red flags are not yet present. A 61-year-old man presented with a 3-week history of epilepsia partialis continua (jerking of the left upper extremity and a 2-week history of forgetfulness and left hemiparesis; left hemisensory neglect was also detected on admission. Repeated brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed areas of restricted diffusion in the cerebral cortex, initially on the right but later spreading to the left. Electroencephalography (EEG on hospital days 7, 10, and 14 showed right-sided periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. On day 20, the EEG showed periodic sharp wave complexes leading to a diagnosis of probable sCJD and subsequently to definite sCJD with brain biopsy. Neurological decline was relatively fast with generalized myoclonus and akinetic mutism developing within 7 weeks from the onset of illness. CJD was not immediately recognized because of the patient’s focal/lateralized manifestations. Focal/lateralized clinical, EEG, and MRI findings are not uncommon in sCJD and EEG/MRI results may not be diagnostic in the early stages of sCJD. Familiarity with these caveats and with the most current criteria for diagnosing probable sCJD (University of California San Francisco 2007, MRI-CJD Consortium 2009 will enhance the ability to recognize sCJD and implement early safety measures.

  17. Focal mechanisms and stress variations in the Caucasus and Northeast Turkey from constraints of regional waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tai-Lin; Hsu, Hsin-Chih; Jian, Pei-Ru; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia created large strike-slip faults in Turkey as well as mountains in the Caucasus and the volcanic plateau between them. In this study, we use regional waveforms of a new seismic array deployed between 2008 and 2012 to constrain the focal mechanisms and depths of small to moderate sized earthquakes occurring in the western part of the Central Caucasus and northeast Turkey. The distribution of aftershocks and the twelve focal mechanisms involved in the sequence of the 2009 earthquake in Racha are clearly a reactivation of a deeper segment of the 1991 M7 Racha rupture zone. The deeper segment is not well connected to the shallower décollement separating the basement and sedimentary basin. The earthquakes we determined in northeastern Turkey and southern Georgia are related to the strike-slip fault system. We further combined all of the reliably determined focal mechanisms over the last 30 years to investigate the current stress status of the crust in three areas: Racha in the western Greater Caucasus, Javakheti near the Lesser Caucasus and in Northeast Turkey. Our results show that the directions of maximum compressional stress consistently fall within - 2 to 14°N throughout the entire study region. This appears to be controlled by the continental collision. Nonetheless, the minimum compression switches from vertical (in the Greater Caucasus) to the east-west direction (in northeastern Turkey), due to the westward extrusion of the Anatolia block, which is driven partly by the Hellenic subduction. The transition of the stress field is close to the Javakheti volcanic plateau in the Lesser Caucasus, where the relative magnitude between the principal stresses appears to be strongly variable.

  18. Relative Motion between the Rivera and North American Plates: Constraints from Focal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Gerardo; Jaramillo, Said H.; Bandy, William

    2010-05-01

    The direction and velocity of the Rivera Plate in western Mexico relative to the North American plate has been a source of controversy. The southeastern segment of this plate boundary has been the site of one of the largest subduction events observed in Mexico during the last 100 years: the 3 June 1932 earthquake (Mw 8.2). To the northwest of the rupture zone of the 1932 event, however, there are no other known large subduction events, either from the historical or instrumental record. We analyze all focal mechanisms in this northern segment of the plate boundary to define the direction of relative motion between these two plates. The largest event occurred beneath the Tres Marias Escarpment, the earthquake of 4 December 1948. The recomputed magnitude yields Mw 6.4. This event caused widespread damage in a penal colony on the Tres Marias Islands. Although the focal mechanism of the 1948 event is not well constrained, the first arrival data collected shows reverse faulting with P axes oriented in a NE-SW direction. This mechanism coincides with other two fault plane solutions of more recent events. These mechanisms indicate reverse faulting beneath the Tres Marias Escarpment. To the northwest of the Islas Marias, in area where no clear physiographic feature defines the plate limits, we identify a group of strike-slip events, where the E-W trending nodal plane indicates right-lateral motion. These mechanisms suggest that the relative motion between Rivera and North America may be taken up by right-lateral strike slip motion. The accuracy of the locations does not allow to define in detail the geometry of this plate boundary. The slip vectors determined from these focal mechanisms are compared with the flow lines resulting from the various poles of relative motion between Rivera and North America to constrain its location.

  19. Sensorimotor skills and focal dystonia are linked to putaminal grey-matter volume in pianists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granert, Oliver; Peller, Martin; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Focal hand dystonia has been associated with morphometric changes and distorted somatotopic representations in the putamen.......Focal hand dystonia has been associated with morphometric changes and distorted somatotopic representations in the putamen....

  20. Focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke. Incidence, pathophysiology and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Larsen, B; Skriver, E B

    1981-01-01

    In a consecutive study comprising 41 patients with completed stroke of less than 72 hours duration, cerebral angiography and measurements of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed within 24 hours after admission. The rCBF study was done using the 133-Xenon intracarotid injection...... method and a 254 multi-detector camera. CT scan was done 24 hours after the rCBF study. Focal cerebral hyperemia was found in 16 patients. The study revealed 3 different types of hyperemia: Border-zone hyperemia, surrounding ischemic areas, was seen in patients with occluded arteries on angiography......, presumably resulting from accumulation of acid metabolites in the border-zone of acute infarcts. Postischemic hyperemia was seen in patients without occlusion, presumably due to recanalization of a prior occluded artery. Remote hyperemia was found distant from the infarcted area, presumably due to local...

  1. New CMOS readout circuit with background suppression and CDS for infrared focal plane array applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-yi; ZHAO Yi-qiang; YAO Su-ying

    2009-01-01

    A high injection, large dynamic range, stable detector bias, small area and low power consumption CMOS readout circuit with background current suppression and correlated double sampling (CDS) for a high-resolution infrared focal plane array applications is proposed. The detector bias error in this structure is less than 0.1 mV. The input resistance is ideally zero, which is important to obtain high injection efficiency. Unit-cell occupies 10 μm × 15 μm area and consumes less than 0.4 mW power. Charge storage capacity is 3 × 108 electrons. The function and performance of the proposed readout circuit have been verified by experimental results.

  2. Modelos de alerta para o controle da ferrugem-do-cafeeiro em lavouras com alta carga pendente Warning models for coffee rust control in growing areas with large fruit load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Alves Meira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver árvores de decisão como modelos de alerta da ferrugem-do-cafeeiro em lavouras de café (Coffea arabica L. com alta carga pendente de frutos. Dados de incidência mensal da doença no campo coletados durante oito anos foram transformados em valores binários considerando limites de 5 e 10 pontos percentuais na taxa de infecção. Foi gerado um modelo para cada taxa de infecção binária a partir de dados meteorológicos e do espaçamento entre plantas. O alerta é indicado quando a taxa de infecção, prevista para o prazo de um mês, atingir ou ultrapassar o respectivo limite. A acurácia do modelo para o limite de 5 pontos percentuais foi de 81%, por validação cruzada, chegando até 89% segundo estimativa otimista. Esse modelo apresentou bons resultados para outras medidas de avaliação importantes, como sensitividade (80%, especificidade (83% e confiabilidades positiva (79% e negativa (84%. O modelo para o limite de 10 pontos percentuais teve acurácia de 79%, e não apresentou o mesmo equilíbrio entre as demais medidas. Em conjunto, esses modelos podem auxiliar na tomada de decisão referente ao controle da ferrugem-do-cafeeiro no campo. A indução de árvores de decisão é alternativa viável às técnicas convencionais de modelagem e facilita a compreensão dos modelos.The objective of this work was to develop decision trees as warning models of coffee (Coffea arabica L. rust in growing areas with large fruit load. Monthly data of disease incidence in the field collected during eight years were transformed into binary values considering limits of 5 and 10 percentage points in the infection rate. Models were generated from meteorological data and space between plants for each binary infection rate. The warning is indicated when the infection rate is expected to reach or exceed the respective limit in a month. The accuracy obtained by cross-validating the model to the limit of 5 percentage

  3. Ancillary-service details: regulation, load following, and generator response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine empirically these intrahour and interhour load changes and the responses of a utility`s generating resources to those load changes. We analyze data, primarily from one control area, to see how it maintains ACE close to zero in an effort to meet the A1 and A2 criteria. Overall, we estimate that load following costs US electric utilities over one billion dollars a year. We first test alternative ways to identify trends over multihour periods using both regression analysis and rolling averages. Then, we consider several metrics for intrahour load following. Next we examine characteristics of load following for different time-averaging periods and compare the dynamics of loads and load following generation across these time periods. Finally, we consider the contribution of each load to the total load following requirements of the control area.

  4. Structural Insight into the Mechanisms of Targeting and Signaling of Focal Adhesion Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase whose focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain interacts with other focal adhesion molecules in integrin-mediated signaling. Localization of activated FAK to focal adhesions is indispensable for its function. Here we describe a solution structure of the FAT domain bound to a peptide derived from paxillin, a FAK-binding partner. The FAT domain is composed of four helices that form a “right-turn” elongated bundle; the globular fold is ma...

  5. Mapping 3D focal intensity exposes the stable trapping positions of single nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyrsting, A.; Bendix, P.M.; Oddershede, L.B.

    2013-01-01

    The photonic interactions between a focused Gaussian laser beam and a nanoscopic particle are highly dependent on exact particle location and focal intensity distribution. So far, the 3D focal intensity distribution and the preferred position of a nanoparticle confined within the focal region were...... only theoretically predicted. Here, we directly map the three-dimensional focal intensity distribution, quantify stable trapping positions, and prove that certain sizes of nanoparticles stably trap in front of the focus. © 2012 American Chemical Society....

  6. Corrugated attachment membrane in WI-38 fibroblasts: alternating fibronectin fibers and actin-containing focal contacts.

    OpenAIRE

    Birchmeier, C.; Kreis, T E; Eppenberger, H M; Winterhalter, K H; Birchmeier, W

    1980-01-01

    The distributions of both fibronectin (LETS, CSP) fibers and focal contacts to the substratum, as viewed by fluorescence and reflection contrast microscopy, respectively, have been compared in freshly plated WI-38 human fibroblasts. Most frequently, the actual focal attachment plaques did not contain fibronectin fluorescence and, furthermore, fibronectin spots and fibers often alternated with focal contacts. Overlap, however, was observed between focal contacts and the endings of actin-contai...

  7. Method of determining the focal distance of digital non-metric camera

    OpenAIRE

    ??????, ?.; ???????, ?.

    2016-01-01

    ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ????? ? ??????????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????, ?? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????. ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????, ???????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ????????????????? ????????, ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???????. The method of determining the focal distance nonmetric digital camera, a feature of which is the pr...

  8. Focal Adhesion Kinases in Adhesion Structures and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre P. Eleniste

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and embryonic development. Cells can contact the ECM through a wide range of matrix contact structures such as focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia. Although they are different in structural design and basic function, they share common remodeling proteins such as integrins, talin, paxillin, and the tyrosine kinases FAK, Pyk2, and Src. In this paper, we compare and contrast the basic organization and role of focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia in different cells. In addition, we discuss the role of the tyrosine kinases, FAK, Pyk2, and Src, which are critical for the function of the different adhesion structures. Finally, we discuss the essential role of these tyrosine kinases from the perspective of human diseases.

  9. Hyperphosphorylated FAK Delocalizes from Focal Adhesions to Membrane Ruffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Hamadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion and migration are key determinants in tumor metastasis. Adherence of tumor cell to the extracellular matrix is mediated via integrin containing focal adhesions (FAs. Binding of integrins to ECM triggers phosphorylation of two major components of FAs, focal adhesion kinase (FAK and Src, activating downstream signaling pathway which leads to FA disassembly and cell migration. In this paper, we analyze how phosphorylation of FAK regulates its trafficking at FAs in living human astrocytoma cells. Upon pervanadate-induced FAK phosphorylation, phosphorylated FAK appeared highly expressed at newly formed membrane ruffles. This effect was abolished in presence of the specific Src inhibitor PP2. Our findings demonstrate that upon phosphorylation, FAK delocalizes from FAs to membrane ruffles.

  10. Focal adhesion kinases in adhesion structures and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleniste, Pierre P; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and embryonic development. Cells can contact the ECM through a wide range of matrix contact structures such as focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia. Although they are different in structural design and basic function, they share common remodeling proteins such as integrins, talin, paxillin, and the tyrosine kinases FAK, Pyk2, and Src. In this paper, we compare and contrast the basic organization and role of focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia in different cells. In addition, we discuss the role of the tyrosine kinases, FAK, Pyk2, and Src, which are critical for the function of the different adhesion structures. Finally, we discuss the essential role of these tyrosine kinases from the perspective of human diseases.

  11. Focal shifts in diffracted converging electromagnetic waves. I. Kirchhoff theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the vector formulation of the Kirchhoff diffraction theory, expressions for the total energy density distribution along the axis are presented without using any of the usual assumptions except the assumption made by Kirchhoff for the boundary conditions of a black screen. To make the Kirchhoff integral compatible with Maxwell's equations, a line integral around the edge of the aperture is added in the analysis. The consequence of ignoring the contribution of this line integral to the axial field distribution is examined numerically. The focal shift effect is investigated for both aplanatic systems and parabolic mirrors having an arbitrary numerical aperture (NA) and finite value of the Fresnel number. The combined effects of the Fresnel number and NA on the focal shift are evaluated, and the validity of the results is carefully checked by comparing the wavelength with the system dimensions.

  12. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalayani, Parichehr; Tavakoli, Payam; Eftekhari, Mehdi; Haghighi, Mohammad Akhondzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease is an infrequent asymptomatic condition caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32 affecting the mucous membrane of the mouth and is commonly seen in young individuals. Firstly, it was described in Indians and Eskimos, but it exists in various populations. We present three cases of Heck's disease in an Afghan immigrant family group living in Iran that seem to have familial predominance. The disease was identified as oral focal epithelial hyperplasia on the basis of histopathologic and clinical findings. The lesions were reduced significantly after 4 months of good oral hygiene. Dentists should be familiar with the clinical manifestations of these types of lesions that affect the oral cavity. In fact, histopathologic assessment and clinical observation are necessary to establish the diagnosis.

  13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

    2012-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  14. Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Harris Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disease caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cartagena University with a diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia. Clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the patients were recorded. We also describe the properties and advantages of trichloroacetic acid as a therapeutic method.

  15. How electrodiagnosis predicts clinical outcome of focal peripheral nerve lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lawrence R

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the electrodiagnostic (EDX) prognostic factors for focal traumatic and nontraumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Referring physicians and patients often benefit from general and nerve-specific prognostic information from the EDX consultant. Knowing the probable outcome from a nerve injury allows the referring physician to choose the best treatment options for his/her patients. Nerve injuries are variable in their mechanism, location, and pathophysiology. The general effects of the injuries on nerve and muscle are well known, but more research is needed for nerve-specific information. Several factors currently known to influence prognosis include: nature of the nerve trauma, amount of axon loss, recruitment in muscles supplied by the nerve, the extent of demyelination, and the distance to reinnervate functional muscles. This article reviews these general concepts and also nerve-specific EDX measures that predict outcome after focal neuropathies.

  16. Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    J. Harris Ricardo; M. Carmona Lorduy; A. Díaz Caballero

    2012-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disease caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentis...

  17. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  18. Regulation of Cell Adhesion Strength by Peripheral Focal Adhesion Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrices is a tightly regulated process that involves the complex interplay between biochemical and mechanical events at the cell-adhesive interface. Previous work established the spatiotemporal contributions of adhesive components to adhesion strength and identified a nonlinear dependence on cell spreading. This study was designed to investigate the regulation of cell-adhesion strength by the size and position of focal adhesions (FA). The cell-adhesive interfac...

  19. Seizure ending signs in patients with dyscognitive focal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvala, Jay R; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Macken, Mícheál; Schuele, Stephan U

    2015-09-01

    Signs indicating the end of a focal seizure with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness but without progression to focal or generalized motor symptoms are poorly defined and can be difficult to determine. Not recognizing the transition from ictal to postictal behaviour can affect seizure reporting accuracy by family members and may lead to delayed or a lack of examination during EEG monitoring, erroneous seizure localization and inadequate medical intervention for prolonged seizure duration. Our epilepsy monitoring unit database was searched for focal seizures without secondary generalization for the period from 2007 to 2011. The first focal seizure in a patient with loss of awareness and/or responsiveness and/or behavioural arrest, with or without automatisms, was included. Seizures without objective symptoms or inadequate video-EEG quality were excluded. A total of 67 patients were included, with an average age of 41.7 years. Thirty-six of the patients had seizures from the left hemisphere and 29 from the right. All patients showed an abrupt change in motor activity and resumed contact with the environment as a sign of clinical seizure ending. Specific ending signs (nose wiping, coughing, sighing, throat clearing, or laughter) were seen in 23 of 47 of temporal lobe seizures and 7 of 20 extra-temporal seizures. Seizure ending signs are often subtle and the most common finding is a sudden change in motor activity and resumption of contact with the environment. More distinct signs, such as nose wiping, coughing or throat clearing, are not specific to temporal lobe onset. A higher proportion of seizures during sleep went unexamined, compared to those during wakefulness. This demonstrates that seizure semiology can be very subtle and arousals from sleep during monitoring should alert staff. Patient accounts of seizure frequency appear to be unreliable and witness reports need to be taken into account. [Published with video sequences].

  20. Stress tensor and focal mechanisms in the Dead Sea basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, A.; Dorbath, C.; Dorbath, L.; Braeuer, B.; Weber, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use the recorded seismicity, confined to the Dead Sea basin and its boundaries, by the Dead Sea Integrated Research (DESIRE) portable seismic network and the Israel and Jordan permanent seismic networks for studying the mechanisms of earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin. The observed seismicity in the Dead Sea basin is divided into nine regions according to the spatial distribution of the earthquakes and the known tectonic features. The large number of recording stations and the adequate station distribution allowed the reliable determinations of 494 earthquake focal mechanisms. For each region, based on the inversion of the observed polarities of the earthquakes, we determine the focal mechanisms and the associated stress tensor. For 159 earthquakes, out of the 494 focal mechanisms, we could determine compatible fault planes. On the eastern side, the focal mechanisms are mainly strike-slip mechanism with nodal planes in the N-S and E-W directions. The azimuths of the stress axes are well constrained presenting minimal variability in the inversion of the data, which is in agreement with the Eastern Boundary fault on the east side of the Dead Sea basin and what we had expected from the regional geodynamics. However, larger variabilities of the azimuthal and dip angles are observed on the western side of the basin. Due to the wider range of azimuths of the fault planes, we observe the switching of σ1 and σ2 or the switching of σ2 and σ3 as major horizontal stress directions. This observed switching of stress axes allows having dip-slip and normal mechanisms in a region that is dominated by strike-slip motion.

  1. Regional Seismic Focal Depth Estimation in Complex Tectonic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    seismicity in Iran region, Geophys. J. Int. 167: 761–778. Hatzfeld, D., M. Tatar, K. Priestley, and M. Ghafory-Ashtiany (2003). Seismological constraints...receiver functions and crustal structure. In Computer programs in seismology . Kennett B. L. N., and E. R. Engdahl (1991), Travel times for global...estimation. Proc. RADC Spectral Estimation Workshop, 243–258, Rome, Italy . Stroujkova, A. and D. Reiter (2006). Regional Depth Phase Detection and Focal

  2. Focal Adhesion Kinases in Adhesion Structures and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and embryonic development. Cells can contact the ECM through a wide range of matrix contact structures such as focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia. Although they are different in structural design and basic function, they share common remodeling proteins such as integrins, talin, paxillin, and the tyrosine kinases FAK, Pyk2, and Src. In this paper, we compare and contrast the basic organiza...

  3. Postsynthetic functionalization of glycodendrons at the focal point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thisbe K. Lindhorst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycodendrons are multivalent glycoconjugates bearing an orthogonal functional group at the focal point of the molecule. This allows for their postsynthetic elaboration to achieve amphiphilic glycolipid mimetics, for example, which eventually can be applied in biology, biophysics, or material science. Here, postsynthetic modification of di- and tetravalent polyether glycodendrons has been explored using etherification, thiol-ene reaction and in particular olefin cross metathesis.

  4. Focal dermal hypoplasia: Unusual presentation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadh Alamri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem characterized by multiple abnormalities of ectodermal and mesodermal origin. It is found predominantly in females. We report a case of a two month-old baby girl who had dermal hypoplasia, atrophic skin lesions with telangiectasia in a linear pattern, fat herniations, papillomas and cleft of the upper lip, ectrodactyly, claw hands, microphthalmia and unusual association of gastrointestinal omphalocele.

  5. Quantitative MRI analysis of dynamic enhancement of focal liver lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Bagnenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study 45 patients with different focal liver lesions (110 nodules were examined using high field MR-system (1,5 T. During this investigation quantitative MRI analysis of dynamic enhancement of various hepatic lesions and parenchymatous organs of abdomen were performed. It was shown that quantitative evaluation of enhanced MRI improves understanding of vascular transformation processes in pathologic hepatic focuses and in liver itself that is important for differential diagnoses of these diseases.

  6. Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    J. Harris Ricardo; M. Carmona Lorduy; A. Díaz Caballero

    2012-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disease caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentis...

  7. Epithelial Focal Hyperplasia or Heck Disease. Case presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Valdés González; Urbano Solis Cartas; Marian Muñoz Balbín; Elda María Valdés González

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial Focal Hyperplasia or Heck disease is an infrequent disease of the oral mucosa. It mainly affects children, without distinguishing sex or ethnic group. It is clinically characterized by the presence of white papules or of similar colour of the oral mucosa, small size, asymptomatic and with the tendency to converge and form papillomatous lesions. This disease has been associated with infection by human papilloma virus and genetic factors. A case of an eight year old girl is presented...

  8. BICEP3 focal plane design and detector performance

    CERN Document Server

    Hui, H; Ahmed, Z; Alexander, K D; Amiri, M; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Boenish, H; Bowens-Rubin, R; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Grayson, J A; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hilton, G C; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Kang, J; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Monticue, V; Namikawa, T; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Pryke, C; Reintsema, C D; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sorensen, C; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Wandui, A; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W

    2016-01-01

    BICEP3, the latest telescope in the BICEP/Keck program, started science observations in March 2016. It is a 550mm aperture refractive telescope observing the polarization of the cosmic microwave background at 95 GHz. We show the focal plane design and detector performance, including spectral response, optical efficiency and preliminary sensitivity of the upgraded BICEP3. We demonstrate 9.72$\\mu$K$\\sqrt{\\textrm{s}}$ noise performance of the BICEP3 receiver.

  9. Fast multifrequency focal beam analysis for 3D seismic acquisition geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, W.; Fu, L.; Blacquiere, G.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the efficient computation of multifrequency focal beams for 3D seismic acquisition geometry analysis has been developed. By computing them for all the frequency components of seismic data, single-frequency focal beams can be extended to multifrequency focal beams. However, this

  10. Rituximab in adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbichler, Andreas; Bruchfeld, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis remains a challenge since steroid dependence, steroid resistance and a relapsing disease course exhibits a high cumulative steroid dosage. The necessity of using alternative steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents with potential toxic side effects also restricts their long-term use. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20, has been increasingly used in the therapy of difficult-to-treat nephrotic syndrome. A clinical response has been shown for patients with steroid-dependent or frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome, whereas the benefit seems to be limited in steroid-resistant patients, especially those with underlying focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. No potentially life-threatening adverse events have been observed in the treatment of adult minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis following rituximab administration. Since most reports are retrospective and evidence of efficacy is derived from small case series, more prospective trials in a controlled, randomized manner are highly desirable to delineate the use of rituximab or other B cell-depleting agents in steroid-dependent, frequently relapsing or steroid-resistant patients.

  11. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli. He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient’s urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors’ knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis.

  12. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  13. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  14. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

  15. Lacosamide: A Review in Focal Seizures in Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-12-01

    Lacosamide (Vimpat(®)) is a functionalized amino acid available orally (as a solution or tablets) and as an intravenous infusion for use as monotherapy (only in the USA) or adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal seizures in adult and adolescent (aged ≥17 years in the USA) patients with epilepsy. As adjunctive therapy to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), lacosamide provided effective seizure control and was generally well tolerated in adults and adolescents (aged ≥16 years) in randomized clinical trials and in the real-world setting. In clinical trials, adjunctive lacosamide provided significantly greater reductions in 28-day seizure rates than adjunctive placebo, with these benefits maintained after up to 8 years of therapy in open-label extension studies. Moreover, patients were effectively switched from oral to short-term intravenous adjunctive therapy at the same dosage, which may be particularly beneficial in situations where oral therapy is not suitable. Conversion to lacosamide monotherapy was superior to a historical-control cohort in patients with focal seizures converting from previous AED therapy. In the absence of head-to-head comparisons with other AEDs, the exact position of lacosamide relative to other AEDs remains to be fully determined. In the meantime, oral and intravenous lacosamide provides a useful option as monotherapy (only in the USA) or adjunctive therapy for the treatment of focal seizures in adult and adolescent (aged ≥17 years in the USA) patients with epilepsy.

  16. Evaluation of murine models of permanent focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席刚明; 汪华侨; 何国厚; 黄朝芬; 魏国耀

    2004-01-01

    Background To date murine models of permanent focal cerebral ischemia have not been well characterized. The purposes of this paper were to compare three different permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) models with or without craniectomy, and to identify an ideal mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia.Methods Experiments were performed on 45 healthy adult male Kunming mice, weighing 28 to 42 g. The animals were randomly assigned to three groups (n=15 in every group) based on surgical procedure: MCAo via the external carotid artery (ECA), MCAo via the common carotid artery (CCA), and direct ligation of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Each day post-ischemia, the animals were scored using an eight-grade neurological function scale, and mortality was also recorded. Seven days post-ischemia, the brains were removed for lesion size determination using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Correlation analysis of lesion volume and neurological score was carried out. Results Mortality in the group receiving direct MCA ligation was lowest among the three groups, and there was a significant difference between the direct MCA ligation group and the two intraluminal occlusion groups (P0.7, P<0.05), suggesting good reproducibility of lesion volume in the three groups, but the infarct volume was more constant in the direct MCA ligation group. Conclusion The direct ligation model of MCAo provides an optimal means of studying permanent focal cerebral ischemia, and is preferable to the models using intraluminal sutures.

  17. Stability of focal adhesion enhanced by its inner force fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhi-Xiu; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Cells actively sense and respond to mechanical signals from the extracellular matrix through focal adhesions. By representing a single focal adhesion as a cluster of slip bonds, it has been demonstrated that the cluster often became unstable under fluctuated forces. However, an unusual case was also reported, where the stability of the cluster might be substantially enhanced by a fluctuated force with a relatively low fluctuation frequency and high fluctuation amplitude. Such an observation cannot be explained by the conventional fracture theory of fatigue. Here, we intensively investigate this intriguing observation by carrying out systematic parametric studies. Our intensive simulation results indicate that stability enhancement of this kind is in fact quite robust, which can be affected by the stochastic features of a single bond and the profile of the fluctuated forces such as the average value of bond force. We then suggest that the fluctuation of traction force within a focal adhesion might enhance its stability in a certain way. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.*11372279).

  18. The nanoscale architecture of force-bearing focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoorn, Hedde; Harkes, Rolf; Spiesz, Ewa M; Storm, Cornelis; van Noort, Danny; Ladoux, Benoit; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-08-13

    The combination of micropillar array technology to measure cellular traction forces with super-resolution imaging allowed us to obtain cellular traction force maps and simultaneously zoom in on individual focal adhesions with single-molecule accuracy. We achieved a force detection precision of 500 pN simultaneously with a mean single-molecule localization precision of 30 nm. Key to the achievement was a two-step etching process that provided an integrated spacer next to the micropillar array that permitted stable and reproducible observation of cells on micropillars within the short working distance of a high-magnification, high numerical aperture objective. In turn, we used the technology to characterize the super-resolved structure of focal adhesions during force exertion. Live-cell imaging on MCF-7 cells demonstrated the applicability of the inverted configuration of the micropillar arrays to dynamics measurements. Forces emanated from a molecular base that was localized on top of the micropillars. What appeared as a single adhesion in conventional microscopy were in fact multiple elongated adhesions emanating from only a small fraction of the adhesion on the micropillar surface. Focal adhesions were elongated in the direction of local cellular force exertion with structural features of 100-280 nm in 3T3 Fibroblasts and MCF-7 cells. The combined measure of nanoscale architecture and force exerted shows a high level of stress accumulation at a single site of adhesion.

  19. Focal non granulomatous orchitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piton, Nicolas; Roquet, Marie-Laurence; Sibert, Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-28

    Crohn's disease is a systemic disease and sometimes involves the testicle, usually leading to granulomatous lesions. We report herein a case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis in a 21-year-old patient with active Crohn's disease treated by an anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody. This circumscribed testicular lesion mimicked a tumor, leading to orchiectomy. Pre-operative blood tests (i.e. alpha-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotrophin) were strictly normal Pathological examination of the testicle revealed a focal inflammatory infiltrate predominantly composed of lymphocytes accompanied by few plasma cells, lacking giant cells or granulomas. Importantly, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, atrophy or lithiasis were not observed.After discussing and excluding other plausible causes (burnt-out /regressed germ cell tumor, infection, vascular or traumatic lesions, iatrogenic effects), we concluded that this particular case of orchitis was most likely an extra-digestive manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis associated with Crohn's disease. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2117747284160112.

  20. Lightening the Load

    OpenAIRE

    Remington, Anna M.; Swettenham, John G.; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enh...