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Sample records for foam casting technology

  1. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  2. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology - Phase V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanliang Sun; Harry E. Littleton; Charles E. Bates

    2004-04-29

    Previous research, conducted under DOE Contracts DE-FC07-89ID12869, DE-FC07-93ID12230 and DE-FC07-95ID113358 made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional developments were needed to improve the process and make it more functional in industrial environments. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--Computational Model for the Process and Data Base to Support the Model; Task 2--Casting Dimensional Accuracy; Task 3--Pattern Production; Task 4--Improved Pattern Materials; Task 5--Coating Control; Task 6--In-Plant Case Studies; Task 7--Energy and the Environmental Data; and Task 8--Technology Transfer. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2004. The results obtained in each task and subtask are summarized in this Executive Summary and details are provided in subsequent sections of the report.

  3. Advanced lost foam from casting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C. E.; Littleton, H. E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B. A.; Sheldon, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects Task 4: Pattern Gating Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas in the period of October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers.

  4. Status quo and development trend of lost foam casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zitian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lost foam casting (LFC technology has been widely applied to cast iron and cast steel. However, the development of LFC for Al and Mg alloys was relatively slower than that for cast iron and cast steel. The application of LFC to Al and Mg alloys needs more effort, especially in China. In this paper, the development history of LFC is reviewed, and the application situations of LFC to Al and Mg alloys are mainly discussed. Meanwhile, the key problems of LFC for Al and Mg alloys are also pointed out. Finally, the prospects for LFC technology are discussed, and some special new LFC technologies are introduced for casting Al and Mg alloys. In future, the development trends of green LFC technology mainly focus on the special new LFC methods, metal material, coating, heat treatment, new foam materials as well as purification technology of tail gas, etc.

  5. Status quo and development trend of lost foam casting technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zitian; Jiang Wenming; Liu Fuchu; Xiao Botao

    2014-01-01

    Lost foam casting (LFC) technology has been widely applied to cast iron and cast steel. However, the development of LFC for Al and Mg aloys was relatively slower than that for cast iron and cast steel. The application of LFC to Al and Mg aloys needs more effort, especially in China. In this paper, the development history of LFC is reviewed, and the application situations of LFC to Al and Mg aloys are mainly discussed. Meanwhile, the key problems of LFC for Al and Mg aloys are also pointed out. Finaly, the prospects for LFC technology are discussed, and some special new LFC technologies are introduced for casting Al and Mg alloys. In future, the development trends of green LFC technology mainly focus on the special new LFC methods, metal material, coating, heat treatment, new foam materials as wel as puriifcation technology of tail gas, etc.

  6. Recent Development of Lost Foam Casting Technology Comment on the 7th Chinese Lost Foam Casting Symposium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zi-li

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 7th Chinese Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Symposium & the 1st LFC Technology Exposition were held on May 21-23 at Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA), and the conference theme . was "Recent development of lost foam casting technology".

  7. Development,Application and Problem of Ductile Iron Lost Foam Casting Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wenhao; Ye Shengping; Han Xiaohong; Tang Suoyun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Lost-foam casting is a 21st century green casting technology.Over the past decade,there has been an extraordinary development in lost-foam casting in China;and ductile iron lost-foam casting has developed even more rapidly in foundry equipment,foundry raw materials,and casting engineers.

  8. Advanced Lost Foam Casting technology: 1997 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--pyrolysis defects and sand distortion; Task 2--bronze casting technology; Task 3--steel casting technology; Task 4--sand filling and compaction; Task 5--coating technology; Task 6--precision pattern production; Task 7--computational modeling; and Task 8--project management and technology transfer. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all eight tasks in the period of October 1, 1995 through December 31, 1997.

  9. Advanced lost foam casting technology. 1995 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B.A.; Sheldon, D.S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production; Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency; Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects; Task 4: Pattern Gating; and Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers. This report summarizes the work done in the past two years and the conclusions drawn from the work.

  10. Lost Foam Casting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Sheng-ping; WU Zhi-chao

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. Lost Foam Casting Committee of Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES) From the beginning of the 1990s, China entered a research and expansion climax in lost foam casting technology realm after the United States, Germany, and Japan etc.

  11. Two-Criteria Analysis of Casting Technologies of Metal and Composite Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawdzińska K.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The determination of potential areas of application for metal foams allows to precisely define properties these materials are expected to have. The characteristics of metal foams are strictly related to their cellular structure, which in turn depends on the manufacturing method and materials used. Obviously, metal foam producers should strive to make these materials using inexpensive, or cost-effective technologies, yielding possibly good quality and being environment-friendly. This paper briefly characterizes the manufacturing of metal and composite foams by casting methods. We determine an optimal manufacturing method based on a matrix diagram for metal and composite foams satisfying the two - criteria: “manufacturing costs” (depending on the price of production equipment and labour, cost of materials for foam manufacturing, environmental impact and “foam quality” (depending on the manufacturing precision, homogeneity of the structure, pore size, shape, and volumetric fraction.

  12. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littleton, Harry; Griffin, John

    2011-07-31

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU's/year and 6.46 trillion BTU's/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  13. New Approaches to Aluminum Integral Foam Production with Casting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Güner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral foam has been used in the production of polymer materials for a long time. Metal integral foam casting systems are obtained by transferring and adapting polymer injection technology. Metal integral foam produced by casting has a solid skin at the surface and a foam core. Producing near-net shape reduces production expenses. Insurance companies nowadays want the automotive industry to use metallic foam parts because of their higher impact energy absorption properties. In this paper, manufacturing processes of aluminum integral foam with casting methods will be discussed.

  14. Comparison of Lost Foam Casting of AM60B Alloy and A356 Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval; Nedkova, Teodora [Kaiser Aluminum

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings in order to compare the difference in castability between magnesium alloys and aluminum alloy using the lost foam casting process. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  15. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (≤ 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  16. Gel cast foam diesel particulate filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binner, J.G.P.; Hughes, S. [IPTME, Loughborough Univ., Loughborough (United Kingdom); Sambrook, R.M. [Dytech Corp. Ltd., Dronfield (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    A new manufacturing route for foam ceramics based on gel casting has been developed and is being commercialised. Gel casting employs an organic monomer that is polymerised to cause the in-situ gelation of a foamed aqueous ceramic slurry. The primary advantage is the inherent flexibility of the process; the foams can be near net shape manufactured in a variety of shapes and sizes and after production are simply dried and fired. In addition, the porosity and pore size distribution can be varied to suit the application and a wide range of ceramics can be foamed with densities ranging from 5-40% of theoretical. Applications are diverse and include the potential to be used as diesel particulate filters (DPF). The present work examines this and concludes that filtration efficiencies of {>=}90% are achievable without generating a significant backpressure for the engine. (orig.)

  17. Technology & Simulation of Lost Foam Casting for Tailstock%尾座的消失模铸造工艺及其模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文凤; 申荣华; 张玉波; 吴彦文

    2011-01-01

    The lost foam casting process for tailstock was designed through the analysis of the structure, service conditions and technical requirements. The filling and solidification process of lost foam casting process was simulated and discussed by ProCast respectively. The results show that the lost foam casting process for tailstock is reasonable and practicable.%通过分析尾座的结构、使用条件及技术要求,对该件进行了消失模铸造工艺设计;利用ProCaSt软件进行消失模铸造充型过程模拟,并对模拟结果进行了分析讨论。结果表明,尾座铸件的消失模铸造工艺方案是合理可行的。

  18. Manufacturing of Cast Metal Foams with Irregular Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive industry, building industry, medicine, etc.. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology (infiltration method, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors.

  19. Freeze Drying Technology of Lost Foam Casting Pattern%消失模模样的冷冻干燥技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨先锋

    2011-01-01

    The drying mechanism of lost foam casting pattern was discussed, and a freeze drying technology was presented, which is different with the traditional drying method, and is suitable for use in the drying room of medium-small foundry. Comparing with the traditional drying method, this technology not only has advantages of less investment, safety, automatic control and simple maintenance, but also gets a breakthrough in both of labor protection and energy saving, which is the most .important. The production practices show that the freeze drying technology can be applied to the foundry industry.%论述了消失模铸造生产中模样干燥的机理,介绍了一种不同于传统烘干干燥,适合用在中小铸造车间干燥室的冷冻干燥技术.生产实践结果表明,冷冻除湿干燥技术与传统的干燥技术相比,不仅具备投资少、生产安全、自动控制和维护简单的特点,更重要的是在劳动保护和节能降耗两方面取得了突破性的进步,具有在在铸造行业推广应用的价值.

  20. LLNL casting technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. B.; Comfort, W. J., III

    1994-01-01

    Competition to produce cast parts of higher quality, lower rejection rate, and lower cost is a fundamental factor in the global economy. To gain an edge on foreign competitors, the US casting industry must cut manufacturing costs and reduce the time from design to market. Casting research and development (R&D) are the key to increasing US competiveness in the casting arena. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the home of a wide range of R&D projects that push the boundaries of state-of-the art casting. LLNL casting expertise and technology include: casting modeling research and development, including numerical simulation of fluid flow, heat transfer, reaction/solidification kinetics, and part distortion with residual stresses; special facilities to cast toxic material; extensive experience casting metals and nonmetals; advanced measurement and instrumentation systems. Department of Energy (DOE) funding provides the leverage for LLNL to collaborate with industrial partners to share this advanced casting expertise and technology. At the same time, collaboration with industrial partners provides LLNL technologists with broader insights into casting industry issues, casting process data, and the collective experience of industry experts. Casting R&D is also an excellent example of dual-use technology; it is the cornerstone for increasing US industrial competitiveness and minimizing waste nuclear material in weapon component production. Annual funding for casting projects at LLNL is $10M, which represents 1% of the total LLNL budget. Metal casting accounts for about 80% of the funding. Funding is nearly equally divided between development directed toward US industrial competitiveness and weapon component casting.

  1. 电机机座铸件的消失模铸造%Lost Foam Casting for Motor Block Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志超; 叶升平; 胡国良; 常湫生

    2001-01-01

    针对出口电机机座铸件,简要介绍了其消失模模具设计、成型发泡及铸件的浇注试验情况,确定了合适的铸造工艺参数,生产出了合格的铸件,证实了消失模铸造工艺生产电机机座铸件的可行性。%The design of lost foam die, pattern molding process, and pouring experiment of exported motor block casting were studied. The pertient casting technological parameters were determined. Qualified casting was made successfully, which testified the feasibility using lost foam casting to manufacture motor block casting.

  2. Modeling of Mold Filling and Solidification in Lost Foam Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjun LI; Houfa SHEN; Baicheng LIU

    2003-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the lost foam casting (LFC) and the artificial neural network technique, a mathematicalmodel for the simulation of the melt-pattern interface movement during the mold filling of LFC has been proposed andexperimentally verified. The simulation results are consistent with the experiments in both the shapes of melt frontand filling sequences. According to the calculated interface locations, the fluid flow and the temperature distributionsduring the mold filling and solidification processes were calculated, and the shrinkage defect of a lost foam ductileiron casting was predicted by considering the mold wall movement in LFC. The simulation method was applied tooptimize the casting design of lost foam ductile iron castings. It is shown that the model can be used for the defectsprediction and for casting design optimization in the practical LFC production.

  3. Aluminium Foam and Magnesium Compound Casting Produced by High-Pressure Die Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iban Vicario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are two of the main focal points in vehicle design, promoting the reduction in the weight of vehicles by using lighter materials. The aim of the work is to evaluate the influence of different aluminium foams and injection parameters in order to obtain compound castings with a compromise between the obtained properties and weight by high-pressure die cast (HPDC using aluminium foams as cores into a magnesium cast part. To evaluate the influence of the different aluminium foams and injection parameters on the final casting products quality, the type and density of the aluminium foam, metal temperature, plunger speed, and multiplication pressure have been varied within a range of suitable values. The obtained compound HPDC castings have been studied by performing visual and RX inspections, obtaining sound composite castings with aluminium foam cores. The presence of an external continuous layer on the foam surface and the correct placement of the foam to support injection conditions permit obtaining good quality parts. A HPDC processed magnesium-aluminium foam composite has been developed for a bicycle application obtaining a suitable combination of mechanical properties and, especially, a reduced weight in the demonstration part.

  4. Preparation of big size open-cell aluminum foam board using infiltration casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lucai; Chen Yuyong; Wang Fang; Wu Jianguo; You Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an infiltration casting technique for manufacturing big size open-cell aluminum foam boards. The principle and key technologies of infiltration casting are also analyzed. Based on the previous practice of the small size aluminum foam production, the die for preparing big size aluminum foam boards is designed and manufactured. The experiments on aluminum boards of 300 mm×300 mm×(20-75) mm, with the pore size ranging from 1.0 to 3.2 mm and average porosity of 60%, have been performed. The experimental results show that a reliable infiltration process depends critically on the pouring temperature of the molten AI-alloy, the preheated temperature of the mould and salt particles and vacuum. Current research explores the possibility of large-scale manufacturing and application of the aluminum foams.

  5. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures,called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described.Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  7. Preparation of open-cell metal foams by investment cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucai WANG

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal foams are a new kind of materials with low densities and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. They can be divided into closed and open cell structures. In this paper the open cell structures, called sponges, were treated. A new technique to manufacture sponges by plaster investment casting was described. Experimental results show that it is essential to make a sound plaster mould by casting plaster slurry into the polyurethane foams and infiltrate the open channels of the baked plaster mold by molten metal. The optimal processes include plaster slurry preparation, plaster mold baking, and molten metal infiltration. The sponge sample with porosity of 97% is presented.

  8. The lost-foam casting of aluminum alloy components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkumar, S.; Wang, L.; Apelian, D.

    1990-11-01

    In the lost-foam casting process, liquid metal is poured directly onto a refractory-coated, foamed polymer pattern which is buried in loose sand. The polymer pattern undergoes thermal degradation and is gradually replaced by the molten metal, which solidifies and produces the casting. The inherent operating advantages of this innovative technique have generated considerable interest among casting manufacturers. Currently, the process is being utilized to manufacture a wide variety of ferrous and nonferrous components catering primarily to the automotive industry. Because the process is relatively new, there is a compelling need to quantify the influence of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the interaction of the thermal degradation products with the solidifying metal may produce several unique defects in the casting.

  9. Ductile cast iron obtaining by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of manufacturing of ductile cast iron castings by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process was presented in this work. The spheroidization was carried out by magnesium master alloy in amounts of 1% casting mass. Nodulizer was located in the reactive chamber in the gating system made of foamed polystyrene. Pretests showed, that there are technical possibilities of manufacturing of casts from ductile cast iron in the LOST FOAM process with use of spheroidization in mould.

  10. Ductile cast iron obtaining by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pacyniak; R. Kaczorowski

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of manufacturing of ductile cast iron castings by Inmold method with use of LOST FOAM process was presented in this work. The spheroidization was carried out by magnesium master alloy in amounts of 1% casting mass. Nodulizer was located in the reactive chamber in the gating system made of foamed polystyrene. Pretests showed, that there are technical possibilities of manufacturing of casts from ductile cast iron in the LOST FOAM process with use of spheroidization in mould.

  11. 消失模铸造白区烘干房的冷冻除湿技术%Frozen Dehumidification Technology Research of Drying Room for Lost Foam Casting White Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易娜; 叶升平; 李小华

    2013-01-01

    通过对消失模铸造白区用烘干房现状的分析,引进了冷冻除湿技术对消失模涂料进行烘干.将冷冻除湿烘干方法与传统的蒸气烘干房进行比较分析.通过测量分析两个烘干房内的模样速率,展示了冷冻除湿技术的优势,为企业设计消失模烘干房提供参考方案.%The deficiency of the drying room for the lost foam casting was analyzed, and a frozen dehu-midifier technology was introduced to dry off the foam coatings. The frozen dehumidifier technology was compared with the traditional steam drying room. It was successfully demonstrated that the frozen dehumidifier technology has advantage in the drying efficiency through the measurement of the foam drying velocities in two different drying rooms, which provided a reference design for the enterprises.

  12. Morphological Study of Directionally Freeze-Cast Nickel Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyungyung; Kim, Min Jeong; Choi, Hyelim; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman; Dunand, David C.

    2016-03-01

    Nickel foams, consisting of 51 to 62 pct aligned, elongated pores surrounded by a network of Ni walls, were fabricated by reduction and sintering of directionally cast suspensions of nanometric NiO powders in water. Use of dispersant in the slurry considerably affected the foam morphology and microstructure at both the micro- and macro-scale, most likely by modifying ice solidification into dendrites (creating the aligned, elongated macro-pores) and NiO powder accumulation in the inter-dendritic space (creating the Ni walls with micro-pores). The mean width of the Ni walls, in foams solidified with and without dispersant, was 21 ± 5 and 75 ± 13 µm, respectively. Additionally, the foams with the dispersant showed less dense walls and rougher surfaces than those without the dispersant. Moreover, the fraction of closed pores present in the foam walls with the dispersant was higher than that of the samples without dispersant. We finally verified the potential energy application of the Ni foam produced in this study by carrying out a preliminary single-cell performance test with the Ni foam sample as the gas diffusion layer on the anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

  13. Evaluation of the lost foam process in terms of casting dimensional accuracy and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karwiński

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the major issues that are related with the use of polystyrene foam (of the density above 1,04 g/cm3 in the manufacture of investment castings characterised by intricate shapes. Test patterns were made from the high impact polystyrene and from styrene polymers (styrene acrylonitrile SAN.The process of polystyrene patterns removal from ceramic moulds considerably reduces the quality of these moulds in terms of surface microgeometry and dimensional accuracy of castings.The results of the studies can find practical application in the manufacture of near-net-shape castings for industrial applications as well as prototype castings. They may also serve as a tool in evaluation of the rapid prototyping process using polystyrene foam and polymers in the manufacture of investment castings characterised by high dimensional accuracy. The said technology has also been estimated in terms of its impact on the natural environment, taking into consideration the energy consumption during castings manufacture and their later use. It is possible to further improve the casting accuracy, raising it from class CT7 to CT6 according to Polish Standard PN [5].

  14. Recent development of ductile cast iron production technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qizhou; Wei Bokang

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the production and technology of ductile cast iron castings in China is reviewed.The manufacture and process control of as-cast ductile iron are discussed.The microstructure.properties and application of partial austenitization normalizing ductile iron and austempered duclile iron(ADI)are briefly depicted.The new development of duclile iron production techniques,such as cored-wire injection(wire-feeding nodularization)process,tundish cover ladle nodularizing process,horizontal continuous casting,and EPC process (lost foam)for ductile iron castings,etc.,are summarized.

  15. Recent development of ductile cast iron production technology in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Qizhou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the production and technology of ductile cast iron castings in China is reviewed. The manufacture and process control of as-cast ductile iron are discussed. The microstructure, properties and application of partial austenitization normalizing ductile iron and austempered ductile iron (ADI are briefl y depicted. The new development of ductile iron production techniques, such as cored-wire injection (wire-feeding nodularization process, tundish cover ladle nodularizing process, horizontal continuous casting, and EPC process (lost foam for ductile iron castings, etc., are summarized.

  16. Permeability of Aluminium Foams Produced by Replication Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim L. Cherny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The replication casting process is used for manufacturing open-pore aluminum foams with advanced performances, such as stability and repeatability of foam structure with porosity over 60%. A simple foam structure model based on the interaction between sodium chloride solid particles poorly wetted by melted aluminum, which leads to the formation of air pockets (or “air collars”, is proposed for the permeability of porous material. The equation for the minimum pore radius of replicated aluminum foam is derived. According to the proposed model, the main assumption of the permeability model consists in a concentration of flow resistance in a circular aperture of radius rmin. The permeability of aluminum open-pore foams is measured using transformer oil as the fluid, changing the fractions of initial sodium chloride. Measured values of minimum pore size are close to theoretically predicted ones regardless of the particle shape. The expression for the permeability of replicated aluminum foam derived on the basis of the “bottleneck” model of porous media agrees well with the experimental data. The obtained data can be applied for commercial filter cells and pneumatic silencers.

  17. Monitoring metal-fill in a lost foam casting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Arulanantham, Jeanison Pradeep; Dinwiddie, Ralph; Walford, Graham; Vondra, Fred

    2006-10-01

    The lost foam casting (LFC) process is emerging as a reliable casting method. The metal-fill profile in LFC plays an important role among several factors that affect casting quality. The metal-fill profile is in turn affected by several factors. Several casting defects may result due to an improper metal-fill process. Hence, it becomes essential to characterize and control, if possible, the metal-fill process in LFC. This research presents instrumentation and a technique to monitor and characterize the metal-fill process. The characterization included the determination of the position of the metal front and the profile in which the metal fills up the foam pattern. The instrumentation included capacitive sensors. Each sensor is comprised of two electrodes whose capacitive coupling changes as the metal fills the foam pattern. Foundry tests were conducted to obtain the sensors' responses to the metal fill. Two such sensors were used in the foundry tests. Data representing the responses of these sensors during the metal-fill process were collected using a data acquisition system. A number of finite element electrostatic simulations were carried out to study the metal-fill process under conditions similar to those experienced in foundry tests. An artificial neural network was trained using the simulation data as inputs and the corresponding metal-fill profiles as outputs. The neural network was then used to infer the profile of the metal-fill during foundry tests. The results were verified by comparing the metal-fill profile inferred from the neural network to the actual metal-fill profile captured by an infrared camera used during the foundry tests. The match up between the inferred profiles and the infrared camera measurements was satisfactory, indicating that the developed technique provides a reliable and cost effective method to monitor the metal-fill profile in LFC.

  18. Research and Application of Lost Foam Technology of Low-Carbon Alloy Steel Casting%低碳合金钢铸件消失模铸造技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新节

    2011-01-01

    运用计算机辅助三维设计、计算机辅助凝固过程数值模拟和计算机辅助数控编程制造CAD/CAE/CAM一体化技术手段,通过优化设计产品模型结构、铸造工艺参数、产品模具工装结构、浇冒口工艺系统以及模具型腔数控加工的刀具定位源文件,研究开发了货运列车低碳合金钢零部件转8A型承载鞍消失模铸件产品.与普通砂型铸造相比,其铸件单体重量减轻了3kg,铸件重量精度达到MT7级,铸件尺寸精度达到CT8级,铸造工艺出品率达到65%;本文也对大批量产生过程中容易出现的铸造缺陷进行了分析并提出了解决的办法.%By integrated technological medium of 3D CAD, computer aided solidification process numerical simulation engineering and computer aided NC programming manufacturing, by means of optimization of product pattern structure, foundry technological parameters, die auxiliary, equipment and tool, riser gating system and die cavity NC cutter location source file, the type of Z8A goods train lowcarbon alloy steel adapter lost foam casting has been developed. Comparedwith ordinary sand mold casting, the casting monomer weight lightened 3kg, grade of casting weight precision came to MT7, grade of casting size precision came to CT8, foundry yield came to 65% Casting defects easily appeared in the course of large quantities production have been analysed with solution methods offered

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Directionally Freeze-cast Copper Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia I. Cuba Ramos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of their excellent thermal and electric conductivities, copper foams are ideally suited for applications such as heat exchangers, catalyst supports and EMI-shields. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of copper with ~80% aligned, elongated, interconnected pores via directional freeze casting, a well established processing technique for porous ceramics. First, an aqueous slurry of 40−80 nm cupric oxide powders was directionally solidified, resulting in a preform consisting of elongated, aligned dendrites of pure ice separated by interdendritic ice walls with high oxide powder content. Oxide rather than metallic nanometric particles are used, as the latter would oxidize rapidly and uncontrollably when suspended in the aqueous solution used during directional casting. The preforms were then freeze-dried to sublimate the ice and sintered in a hydrogen-bearing atmosphere to reduce the copper oxide to metallic copper particles and densify these copper particles. Microstructural analysis of the copper foams shows that three types of porosities are present: (i aligned, elongated pores replicating the ice dendrites created during the freeze-casting process; (ii micro-porosity in the partially sintered copper walls separating the elongated pores; and (iii cracks in these copper walls, probably created because of shrinkage associated with the reduction of the oxide powders.

  20. Recent trends in aluminum foam sandwich technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banhart, John [TU Berlin, Materials Science and Technology, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz-Centre Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Seeliger, Hans-Wolfgang [Pohltec Metalfoam GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Str. 6D, 50769 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We review the status of aluminum foam sandwich (AFS) technology and discuss both recent improvements of foaming technology and current application strategies. It is concluded that the quality of foams has improved in the past years but the costs are still very much the same. This is why applications in which metal foams have more than one function are more likely to be economically viable. The examples presented include electromagnetic shielding, carrier plates for mirrors, cooking equipment, architectural panels, and blast protection. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Density and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Lost Foam Casting by Pressurization during Solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Porosity is thought to be severe in aluminum alloy castings produced by lost foam process due to the pyrolysis of the polystyrene foam pattern during pouring, which results in detrimental effect in mechanical property.The slow solidification rate promotes the formation of gassing pin holes, and relative weakness of the thermal gradients can cause micro-shrinkage if the outline of the part complicates feeding in the lost foam casting. One of the methods to eliminate the porosity is to apply high pressure to the molten metal like an isostatic forging during solidification. Fundamental experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the external pressure on the porosity and mechanical properties of A356.2 alloy bar in the lost foam casting. Solidification time and porosity decreased with increasing the applied pressure during solidification. Applying external pressure was effective in decreasing the porosity and increasing the elongation of the lost foam casting.

  2. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  3. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear.

  4. Investigation on the Interface Characteristics of Al/Mg Bimetallic Castings Processed by Lost Foam Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Li, Guangyu; Fan, Zitian; Wang, Long; Liu, Fuchu

    2016-05-01

    The lost foam casting (LFC) process was used to prepare the A356 aluminum and AZ91D magnesium bimetallic castings, and the interface characteristics of the reaction layer between aluminum and magnesium obtained by the LFC process were investigated in the present work. The results indicate that a uniform and compact interface between the aluminum and magnesium was formed. The reaction layer of the interface with an average thickness of approximately 1000 μm was mainly composed of Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds, including the Al3Mg2 layer adjacent to the aluminum insert, the Al12Mg17 middle layer, and the Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layer adjacent to the magnesium base. Meanwhile, the Mg2Si intermetallic compound was also detected in the reaction layer. An oxide film mainly containing C, O, and Mg elements generated at the interface between the aluminum and magnesium, due to the decomposed residue of the foam pattern, the oxidations of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as the reaction between the magnesium melt and the aluminum insert. The microhardness tests show that the microhardnesses at the interface were obviously higher than those of the magnesium and aluminum base metals, and the Al3Mg2 layer at the interface had a high microhardness compared with the Al12Mg17 and Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layers, especially the eutectic layer.

  5. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  6. Numerical simulation and analysis of mould filling process in lost foam casting

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Junxia; Wu Zhichao; Chen Liliang

    2008-01-01

    In lost foam casting (LFC) the foam pattern is the key criterion, and the filling process is crucial to ensure the high quality of the foam pattern. Filling which lacks uniformity and denseness will cause various defects and affect the surface quality of the casting. The infl uential factors of the fi lling process are realized in this research. Optimization of the fi lling process, enhancement of effi ciency, decrease of waste, etc., are obtained by the numerical simulation of the fi lling p...

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of lost foam cast 356 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-gui Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure and mechanical properties of lost foam cast aluminum alloys have been investigated in both primary A356 (0.13% Fe and secondary 356 (0.47%. As expected, secondary 356 shows much higher content of Fe-rich intermetallic phases, and in particular the porosity in comparison with primary A356. The average area percent and size (length of Fe-rich intermetallics change from about 0.5% and 6 祄 in A356 to 2% and 25 祄 in 356 alloy. The average area percent and maximum size of porosity also increase from about 0.4% and 420 祄 to 1.4% and 600 祄, respectively. As a result, tensile ductility decreases about 60% and ultimate tensile strength declines about 8%. Lower fatigue strength was also experienced in the secondary 356 alloy. Low cycle fatigue (LCF strength decreased from 187 MPa in A356 to 159 MPa in 356 and high cycle fatigue (HCF strength also declined slightly from 68 MPa to 64 MPa.

  8. Numerical simulation and analysis of mould filling process in lost foam casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junxia; Wu Zhichao; Chen Liliang; Hao Jing

    2008-01-01

    In lost foam casting (LFC) the foam pattern is the key criterion, and the filling process is crucial to ensure the high quality of the foam pattern. Filling which lacks uniformity and denseness will cause various defects and affect the surface quality of the casting. The influential factors of the filling process are realized in this research. Optimization of the filling process, enhancement of efficiency, decrease of waste, etc., are obtained by the numerical simulation of the filling process using a computer. The equations governing the dense gas-solid two-phase flow are established, and the physical significance of each equation is discussed. The Euler/Lagrange numerical model is used to simulate the fluid dynamic characteristics of the dense two-phase flow during the mould filling process in lost foam casting. The experiments and numerical results showed that this method can be a very promising tool in the mould filling simulation of beads' movement.

  9. The lost foam process in pilot castings plattes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of thermal evaporation of a foundry pattern. At several research-development centres, studies have beencarried out to examine the physico-chemical phenomena that take place in foundry mould filled with polystyrene pattern when it is pouredwith molten metal. In the technique of evaporative patterns, the process of mould filling with molten metal (the said mould holding inside a polystyrene pattern is interrelated with the process of thermal decomposition of this pattern. The process of polystyrene pattern evaporation in foundry mould under the effect of molten metal is of a very complex nature and depends on many different factors, still not fully investigated. The technology of evaporative patterns was used in manufacture of pilot castings of the high abrasion resistance plates. The material and the properties of the resultant castings were determined by the customer (patent protection. At the beginning of the studies, the properties of the pattern material were determined, patterns were assembled, the properties of the ceramic layer were determined as well as the technique of its preparation and application. The technique of molten metal feeding to the mould cavity was examined along with the parameters of the gating and feeding system, and casting cooling and solidification conditions (large contraction, shrinkage cavities and depressions.

  10. Modeling of mould cavity filling process with cast iron in Lost Foam method Part 2. Mathematical model – Pouring rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work pouring rate equation for cast iron in lost foam process was shown. For description of this phenomenon the motion dynamic equation was used. Pressure affecting the liquid cast iron surface was described using Bernoulli formulae. Numerical simulation results were analyzed with respect to permeability, refractory coating thickness and foamed polystyrene pattern density influence on pouring rate.

  11. Improved Sand-Compaction Method for Lost-Foam Metal Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    2008-01-01

    An improved method of filling a molding flask with sand and compacting the sand around a refractory-coated foam mold pattern has been developed for incorporation into the lost-foam metal-casting process. In comparison with the conventional method of sand filling and compaction, this method affords more nearly complete filling of the space around the refractory-coated foam mold pattern and more thorough compaction of the sand. In so doing, this method enables the sand to better support the refractory coat under metallostatic pressure during filling of the mold with molten metal.

  12. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  13. The influence of the parameters of lost foam process on the quality of aluminum alloys castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović-Pavlović Zagorka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results of application of Lost foam process for aluminum alloys castings of a simple geometry. The process characteristic is that patterns and gating of moulds, made of polymers, stay in the mould till the liquid metal inflow. In contact with the liquid metal, pattern intensely and in relatively short time decomposes and evaporates, which is accompanied by casting crystallization. As a consequence of polymer pattern decomposition and evaporation a great quantity of liquid and gaseous products are produced, which is often the cause of different types of casting errors. This paper presents the results of a research with a special consideration given to detecting and analyzing the errors of castings. In most cases the cause of these errors are defects of polymer materials used for evaporable patterns production, as well as defects of materials for refractory coatings production for polymer patterns. The researches have shown that different types of coatings determine properties of the obtained castings. Also, the critical processing parameters (polymer pattern density, casting temperature, permeability of refractory coating and sand, construction of patterns and gating of moulds significantly affect on castings quality. During the research a special consideration was given to control and optimization of these parameters with the goal of achieving applicable castings properties. The study of surface and internal error of castings was performed systematically in order to carry out preventive measures to avoid errors and minimize production costs. In order to achieve qualitative and profitable castings production by the method of Lost foam it is necessary to reach the balance in the system: evaporable polymer pattern - liquid metal - refractory coating - sandy cast in the phase of metal inflow, decomposition and evaporation of polymer pattern, formation and solidification of castings. By optimizing the processing

  14. Preparation of aligned porous chitin nanowhisker foams by directional freeze-casting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Fu, Shiyu; Pu, Yunqiao; Pan, Shaobo; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2014-11-04

    Structured biofoams with aligned porous structures were fabricated from nanosized chitin by employing a directional freeze-casting technique. The effects of the freezing conditions and slurry formulation on nanochitin foam morphology were investigated. The morphology of obtained foams was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the pore structure of the obtained foams was a likewise of the ice crystals formed during the directional freezing. The results indicate that directional freeze-casting protocol can significantly influence the morphological features and microstructures of the obtained biofoams which could have numerous applications, including engineered carriers, scaffolds, filters and specifically as a template for potential multi-layered composites after infusion with a second phase.

  15. Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Bates; J. A. Griffin

    2000-05-01

    There were two main tasks in the Clean Cast Steel Technology - Machinability and Technology Transfer Project. These were (1) determine the processing facts that control the machinability of cast steel and (2) determine the ability of ladle stirring to homogenize ladle temperature, reduce the tap and pouring temperatures, and reduce casting scrap.

  16. Casting Loop Quantum Cosmology in the Spin Foam Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Henderson, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The goal of spin foam models is to provide a viable path integral formulation of quantum gravity. Because of background independence, their underlying framework has certain novel features that are not shared by path integral formulations of familiar field theories in Minkowski space. As a simple viability test, these features were recently examined through the lens of loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Results of that analysis, reported in a brief communication [1], turned out to provide concrete arguments in support of the spin foam paradigm. We now present detailed proofs of those results. Since the quantum theory of LQC models is well understood, this analysis also serves to shed new light on some long standing issues in the spin foam and group field theory literature. In particular, it suggests an intriguing possibility for addressing the question of why the cosmological constant is positive and small.

  17. Effect of Technological Parameters on the Quality and Dimensional Accuracy of Castings Manufactured by Patternless Process Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoš E.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Submitted article deals with the effect of selected technological parameters on the quality and dimensional accuracy of prototype castings made by Patternless process technology. During experiments were used two types of molding compounds (foamed gypsum and compound based on silica sand and resin. Experiments were focused on optimization of cutting parameters in terms of efficiency, accuracy and possibilities to minimize tool wear. Article deals also with the dimensional and shape accuracy of the castings made by Z-Cast technology. The main aim of the research is to optimize Patternless process technology to such an extent, that achieved dimensional and shape accuracy will be comparable to castings made by the Z-Cast technology.

  18. STUDY KOMPARASI LOST FOAM DAN KONVENSIONAL CASTING PRODUK DISC BRAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoso, Sumeru; -, Suyitno

    2014-01-01

    Disc brake component is a vital component with gray cast iron base material, it’s also fast lasting wearing part, so it has be replaced often. The disc brake replacement component in a local market is being supplied by the small scale local metal casting industries have the same quality as the genuine part.Disc brake making process is utilizing casting method inserting RCS core between drag and coup, than metal molten poured inside mold. The problem of this method is the product result often ...

  19. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Luo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.

  20. Effects of porosity on corrosion resistance of Mg alloy foam produced by powder metallurgy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghion, E., E-mail: egyon@bgu.ac.il; Perez, Y.

    2014-10-15

    Magnesium alloy foams have the potential to serve as structural material for regular light-weight applications as well as for biodegradable scaffold implants. However, their main disadvantage relates to the high reactivity of magnesium and consequently their natural tendency to corrode in regular service conditions and in physiological environments. The present study aims at evaluating the effect of porosity on the corrosion resistance of MRI 201S magnesium alloy foams in 0.9% NaCl solution and in phosphate buffer saline solution as a simulated physiological electrolyte. The magnesium foams were produced by powder metallurgy technology using space-holding particles to control the porosity content. Machined chips were used as raw material for the production of Mg alloy powder by milling process. The microstructure of the foams was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion test and potentiodynamic polarization analysis. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that the porosity has a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of the tested foams. Foams with 14–19% porosity have a corrosion rate of 4–10 mcd and 7–15 mcd in NaCl and phosphate buffer saline solution, respectively, compared to only 0.10 mcd for the same alloy in as cast conditions. This increased corrosion degradation of the Mg foams by more than one order of magnitude compared to the cast alloy may limit their potential application in regular and physiological environments. - Highlights: • Porosity has a detrimental effect on corrosion resistance of MRI 201S Mg foams. • 14–19% porosity increases the corrosion rate by more than one order of magnitude. • Accelerated corrosion limits the use of foams in regular/physiological environments.

  1. Mesostructural Design and Manufacturing of Open-Pore Metal Foams by Investment Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin Matz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the manufacturing process of open-pore metal foams by investment casting and the mesostructural/morphological evolution resulting from a new technique of modifying the precursor. By this technique, the precursor is coated with a polymer layer whereby a thickening of the struts occurs. Relative densities in the range of 1.85≤ρrel≤25% of open-pore metal foams can be achieved with high accuracy. The samples investigated have pore densities of ρP=7 ppi, 10 ppi, and 13 ppi. The relevant processing parameters needed for a homogenous formation of the polymer layer are determined for two different coating materials and the resulting open-pore foam’s mesostructure is characterized qualitatively and quantitatively. The alloy used for investment casting open-pore metal foamsis AlZn11. The microstructural evolution of these foams is evaluated as a function of the mesostructure. Differences in the microstructure are observed for foams with low and high relative densities and discussed in terms of cooling subsequent to investment casting.

  2. Numerical simulation and analysis of mould filling process in lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Junxia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In lost foam casting (LFC the foam pattern is the key criterion, and the filling process is crucial to ensure the high quality of the foam pattern. Filling which lacks uniformity and denseness will cause various defects and affect the surface quality of the casting. The infl uential factors of the fi lling process are realized in this research. Optimization of the fi lling process, enhancement of effi ciency, decrease of waste, etc., are obtained by the numerical simulation of the fi lling process using a computer.The equations governing the dense gas-solid two-phase flow are established, and the physical significance of each equation is discussed. The Euler/Lagrange numerical model is used to simulate the fluid dynamic characteristics of the dense two-phase fl ow during the mould fi lling process in lost foam casting. The experiments and numerical results showed that this method can be a very promising tool in the mould fi lling simulation of beads' movement.

  3. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Hai; XIE Cheng-mu; ZHAO Jia-qi

    2005-01-01

    The development and research of titanium cast alloy and its casting technology, especially its application inaeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of molding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problems and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  4. Investigation via morphological analysis of aluminium foams produced by replication casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boschetto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Foams and porous materials with cellular structure have many interesting combinations of physical and mechanical properties coupled with low specific weight. By means of replication casting it is possible to manufacture foams from molten metal without direct foaming. A soluble salt is used as space holder, which is removed by leaching in water. This can be done successfully if the content of space holding fillers is so high that all the granules are interconnected. One of the main advantages of using the replication casting is a close control of pore sizes which is given by the distribution of particle sizes of the filler material. This contrasts with the pore size distribution of the materials foamed by other processes where a wider statistical distribution of pores is found. On the other hand, the maximum porosities that can be achieved using space holders are limited to values below 60%, whereas the other methods allow for porosities up to 98%. Temperature of the mould and infiltration pressure are critical process parameters: a typical problem encountered is the premature solidification of the melt, especially due to the high heat capacity of the salt. In this work foam properties such as cell shape, distribution and anisotropy and defect presence are investigated by using digital image processing technique. For this purpose replicated AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy foams are produced by infiltrating preforms of NaCl particles, varying the metal infiltration pressure and the mould preheating temperature. An original procedure based on image analysis has been set up to determine size, morphology and distribution of cells. The paper demonstrates that this methodology, coupled with microstructural analysis, is a useful tool for investigating the effects of process parameters on foam properties.

  5. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  6. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  7. Scientific paper zircon-based coating for the applications in Lost Foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prstić Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a possibility to develop a new zircon-based refractory coating for casting applications was investigated. Optimization of the coating composition with controlled rheological properties was attained by application of different coating components, particularly by application of a new suspension agent and by alteration of coating production procedure. Zircon powder with particle size of 25x10-6 m was used as filler. The zircon sample was investigated by means of the following methods: X-ray diffraction analysis, diffraction thermal analysis and polarized microscope. The shape and grain size were analyzed by means of the PC program package OZARIA 2.5. It was shown that application of this type of water-alcohol-based coating had a positive influence on surface quality, structural and mechanical properties of the castings of cast iron obtained by pouring into sand molds by means of the expandable patterns method (Lost Foam casting process.

  8. The Influence of Ingate Size on the Lost Foam Casting Process

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pacyniak; R. Kaczorowski

    2012-01-01

    The article presents analysis of the influence of ingate size on the Lost Foam casting process. In particular, analysis of simulation tests has been carried out to determine the ingate size influence on the rate of filling of the mould cavity, pressure in the gas gap and size of the gas gap. A specially prepared mathematical model of the process and an original calculation algorithm were used in simulation tests of full-mould casting. The tests have indicated that the increase of the ingate s...

  9. Influence of the cordierite lining on the lost foam casting process

    OpenAIRE

    Trumbulović Ljiljana; Gulišija Zvonko; Aćimović-Pavlović Zagorka; Andrić Lj.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discuss the influence of the refractory cordierite lining on the structure and mechanical properties of Al-Si and Al-Cu casings obtained from the Lost foam casting process. So far there has not been any report of the research on cordierite lining in the literature and moreover the cordierite ceramics have never been used in foundries. In the light of these facts this paper investigates the possibility of using cordierite for manufacturing evaporable model refractory linings. Our re...

  10. Construction and analysis of dynamic solidification curves for non-equilibrium solidification process in lost-foam casting hypo-eutectic gray cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-guo Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most lost-foam casting processes involve non-equilibrium solidification dominated by kinetic factors, while construction of a common dynamic solidification curve is based on pure thermodynamics, not applicable for analyses and research of non-equilibrium macro-solidification processes, and the construction mode can not be applied to non-equilibrium solidification process. In this study, the construction of the dynamic solidification curve (DSC for the non-equilibrium macro-solidification process included: a modified method to determine the start temperature of primary austenite precipitation (TAL and the start temperature of eutectic solidification (TES; double curves method to determine the temperature of the dendrite coherency point of primary austenite (TAC and the temperature of eutectic cells collision point (TEC; the “technical solidus” method to determine the end temperature of eutectic reaction (TEN. For this purpose, a comparative testing of the non-equilibrium solidification temperature fields in lost-foam casting and green sand mold casting hypoeutectic gray iron was carried out. The thermal analysis results were used to construct the DSCs of both these casting methods under non-equilibrium solidification conditions. The results show that the transformation rate of non-equilibrium solidification in hypoeutectic gray cast iron is greater than that of equilibrium solidification. The eutectic solidification region presents a typical mushy solidification mode. The results also indicate that the primary austenite precipitation zone of lost-foam casting is slightly larger than that of green sand casting. At the same time, the solid fraction (fs of the dendrite coherency points in lost-foam casting is greater than that in the green sand casting. Therefore, from these two points, lost-foam casting is more preferable for reduction of shrinkage and mechanical burnt-in sand tendency of the hypoeutectic gray cast iron. Due to the fact that

  11. Heat transfer characteristics of lost foam casting process of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zi-li; PAN Qing-lin; CHEN Zhao-feng; LIU Xi-qin; TAO Jie

    2006-01-01

    Effects of vacuum, pouring temperature and pattern thickness on the heat transfer of magnesium alloy lost foam casting(LFC) process were explored. The results indicate that without vacuum a positive thermal gradient from the gate to the end of the casting was formed immediately after the mold filling. The average temperature of the casting, the temperature gradient and solidification times increase significantly with pouring temperature and pattern thickness. Vacuum plays a quite different role in the heat transfer during mould filling and solidification periods: it significantly increases the cooling rate of the filling melt, but decreases the cooling rate of the casting during solidification period. The temperature of the liquid metal drops sharply and varies greatly with no apparent mode in the casting after the mold filling. The amplitude of temperature fluctuations in the casting increases with vacuum, pouring temperature and pattern thickness. The average temperature increases with pouring temperature and pattern thickness, but less rapidly than that without vacuum. The effect of vacuum on the solidification times of castings is found to depend on pouring temperature, vacuum makes solidification times increase greatly at high pouring temperature, while decreases slightly at low pouring temperature.

  12. Effect of vibration frequency on microstructure and performance of high chromium cast iron prepared by lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-qi Zou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, high chromium cast irons (HCCIs were prepared using the lost foam casting (LFC process. To improve the wear resistance of the high chromium cast irons (HCCIs, mechanical vibration was employed during the solidification of the HCCIs. The effects of vibration frequency on the microstructure and performance of the HCCIs under as-cast, as-quenched and as-tempered conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructures of the LFC-produced HCCIs were refined due to the introduction of mechanical vibration, and the hardness was improved compared to that of the alloy without vibration. However, only a slight improvement in hardness was found in spite of the increase of vibration frequency. In contrast, the impact toughness of the as-tempered HCCIs increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. In addition, the wear resistance of the HCCIs was improved as a result of the introduction of vibration and increased with an increase in the vibration frequency.

  13. Effect of vibration frequency on microstructure and performance of high chromium cast iron prepared by lost foam casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-qi Zou; Zhi-guo Zhang; Hao Yang; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, high chromium cast irons (HCCIs) were prepared using the lost foam casting (LFC) process. To improve the wear resistance of the high chromium cast irons (HCCIs), mechanical vibration was employed during the solidiifcation of the HCCIs. The effects of vibration frequency on the microstructure and performance of the HCCIs under as-cast, as-quenched and as-tempered conditions were investigated. The results indicated that the microstructures of the LFC-produced HCCIs were reifned due to the introduction of mechanical vibration, and the hardness was improved compared to that of the aloy without vibration. However, only a slight improvement in hardness was found in spite of the increase of vibration frequency. In contrast, the impact toughness of the as-tempered HCCIs increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. In addition, the wear resistance of the HCCIs was improved as a result of the introduction of vibration and increased with an increase in the vibration frequency.

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of magnesium alloy prepared by lost foam casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xue-feng; FAN Zi-tian; HUANG Nai-yu; WU He-bao; DONG Xuan-pu

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91 alloy prepared by lost foam casting(LFC) and various heat treatments have been investigated.The microstructure of the AZ91 alloy via LFC consists of dominant α-Mg and β-Mg17Al12 as well as a new phase Al32 Mn25 with size of about 5-50 μm,which has not been detected in AZ91 alloy prepared by other casting processes.The tests demonstrate that the as-cast mechanical properties are higher than those of sand gravity casting because of chilling and cushioning effect of foam pattern during the mould filling.The solution kinetics and the aging processes at different temperatures were also investigated by hardness and electrical resistivity measurements.The kinetics of aging are faster at the high temperature due to enhanced diffusion of atoms in the matrix,so the hardness peak at 380 ℃ occurs after 10 h;while at the lower aging temperature(150 ℃),the peak is not reached in the time(24 h) considered.

  15. Optimization of Master Alloy Amount and Gating System Design for Ductile Cast Iron Obtain in Lost Foam Process

    OpenAIRE

    Just, P.; R. Kaczorowski; T. Pacyniak

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the optimization of master alloy amount for the high nodular graphite yield (80-90%) in cast iron obtain in lost foam process. The influence of the gating system configuration and the shape of the reaction chamber, the degree of spheroidisation cast iron was examined. Research has shown that the, optimal of master alloy amount of 1.5% by mass on casting iron. The degree of spheroidisation is also influenced by the gating system configuration. The best spheroidisation effect...

  16. HT300液压件的消失模铸造%Lost Foam Casting HT300 Hydraulic Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭万银; 郭明明; 于大林; 彭丹; 武晓峰

    2012-01-01

    HT300 hydraulic castings was produced by lost foam casting. The experiment and practical application show that the hydraulic castings with smooth and clearly outline surfaces, accutate dimensions can be produced by selecting pattern materials with low carbon content, designing optimized gating system, using recently developed coating as well as increasing pouring temperature and vacuum degree moderately.%介绍了采用消失模铸造方法生产HT300液压铸件的工艺方法.试验和生产应用结果表明,通过选用含碳量低的模样材料,合理设计浇注系统,采用新开发的涂料,适度提高浇注温度和真空度等,能够生产出表面光洁、平整、棱角清晰且尺寸精度高的液压铸件.

  17. Technological parameters of die casting and quality of casting from EN AC46500 alloy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Die casting represents the highest technological level of metal mold casting. This technology enables production of almost all final products without necessity of further processing. The important aspect of efficiency and production is a proper casting parameters setting. In the submitted paper following die casting parameters are analyzed: plunger pressing speed and pressure. The studied parameters most significantly affect a qualitative of castings from EN AC46500 alloy and they influence t...

  18. Theoretical Model of Steel Continuous Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Gheorghies; I Crudu; C Teletin; C Spanu

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model adapted for studying steel continuous casting technology was proposed.The model based on system theory contained input/output,command,and control parameters.The process was divided into five stages,i.e.,tundish,mold,guiding system,guiding-drawing system,and guiding-drawing-soft reduction system.The model can be used to describe the physicoehemical processes,thermal processes,chemical processes,and characteristics of the cast material according to the above-mentioned stages.It can also be applied to other metallurgical technologies and even to other industries (chemistry,food,etc.).

  19. A new casting defect healing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, E.S.; Reddoch, T.W. [ForMat Industries, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Viswanathan, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A new technology is presented for healing of defects in 356 aluminium alloys that provides economic upgrading of these cast alloys. It uses pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF) to produce high quality Al alloys products with enhanced mechanical properties uniform throughout the part, allowing higher design allowables and increased usage of Al alloy castings. The fundamental mechanism underlying PIF is a single mode plastic deformation process that uses isostatic application of pressures for 10-30 seconds at temperature. The process can be integrated in-line with other production operations, i.e., using the latent heat from the previous casting step. Results of applying the PIF process indicate lower cost and significant improvement in mechanical properties that rival and often exceed corresponding properties of other technologies like hot isostatic pressing and related processes. This process offers many advantages that are described in this paper in addition to presenting case histories of property enhancement by PIF and the mechanism responsible for property enhancement.

  20. Casting Technology Development for SFR Metallic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.T.; Oh, S.J.; Ryu, H.J.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Kim, S.K.; Woo, Y.M.; Ko, Y.M.; Lee, C.B. [KAERI, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Fabrication technology of metallic fuel for sodium fast reactor (SFR) is being developed in Korea as a national mid- and long-term nuclear R and D program from 2007. The metallic fuel for SFR should be remotely fabricated under a radiation shielded environment such as a glove box or hot cell, because it contains long-lived minor actinides such as Np, Am and Cm. In order to design a reliable remote fabrication system, various casting techniques have been studied by using U-Zr and U-Zr-RE alloys as surrogate fuel material. Rare earth elements such as Ce or Nd were used as a surrogate for minor actinide elements or solid solution fission products. Macro-scale soundness, microstructures and compositional homogeneity of metallic fuel samples fabricated by vacuum-assisted injection casting, vacuum-assisted gravity casting, centrifugal atomization and continuous casting were compared. Although sound slugs of U-Zr metallic fuel of 4{approx}6 mm in diameter could be fabricated by vacuum-assisted injection casting or vacuum-assisted gravity casting, it was necessary to consider that vaporization of Am and volume of radioactive wastes such as crucibles and molds should be minimized. Effects of casting parameters on the volatile loss, and effects of coatings on the chemical reaction between metallic fuel and molds are discussed. Some methods to reduce the volatile Am loss and waste molds and crucibles will be proposed. Short rods of U-Zr or U-Zr-Ce fuel will be fabricated by the vacuum-assisted gravity casting technique for an irradiation test in the HANARO research reactor from 2010. (authors)

  1. Preparation of Aluminum Foam Sandwich by Rolling-bonding/Powder Metallurgy Foaming Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZU Guoyin; SONG Binna; GUAN Zhihao; WANG Lei; YAO Guangchun

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum foam sandwich was prepared by rolling-bonding/powder metallurgical foaming technology,and the effects of rolling on bond strength of face sheet/powders and powder density were studied.Moreover,the foaming agent,TiH2,was heat treated and a certain amount of Mg was added into powder in an attempt to understand how the stability and uniformity of foam was improved.The experimental results show that the foaming precursors with ideal quality were obtained by rolling-bonding process.When rolling reduction is 67%,the consistency of powders reach to 99.87%.Throughout consideration of the bonding of face sheet/core layer powders and deformation characteristic of powders,the optimum rolling reduction is 60%-70%.Cracks and drainage during foaming were inhibited by heat treatment of foaming agent TiH2 and the addition of a certain amount of Mg.The optimum heat treatment way of TiH2 is that heat preserving 1 hour at 450 ℃;the amount of adding Mg is 1wt%.

  2. 中大型耐磨铸钢件的消失模铸造%Medium and Large Wear Resistant Steel Castings by Lost Foam Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仲珏; 傅宏江; 刘冠岳

    2012-01-01

    According to the process characteristics of lost foam casting and the alloy feature, specific structure, mechanical properties and application performance requirements of wear resistant steel castings, the common defects causes of the castings were analyzed. The method and characteristics of lost foam casting for wear resistant steel casting were introduced, and the content and main points of process design were elaborated, which can provide the references for establishing the reasonable lost foam casting process.%针对消失模铸造工艺特点和中大型耐磨铸钢件的合金特性、具体结构、力学性能和使用性能要求,分析了该类铸件常见缺陷成因.介绍了耐磨铸钢件消失模工艺设计方法和特点,阐述工艺设计内容和要点,为制定出合理的消失模铸造工艺提供借鉴.

  3. Optimization of Master Alloy Amount and Gating System Design for Ductile Cast Iron Obtain in Lost Foam Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Just

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the optimization of master alloy amount for the high nodular graphite yield (80-90% in cast iron obtain in lost foam process. The influence of the gating system configuration and the shape of the reaction chamber, the degree of spheroidisation cast iron was examined. Research has shown that the, optimal of master alloy amount of 1.5% by mass on casting iron. The degree of spheroidisation is also influenced by the gating system configuration. The best spheroidisation effect was obtained for liquid cast iron was fed into the reaction chamber from the bottom and discharged from the top.

  4. Influence of the cordierite lining on the lost foam casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trumbulović Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the influence of the refractory cordierite lining on the structure and mechanical properties of Al-Si and Al-Cu casings obtained from the Lost foam casting process. So far there has not been any report of the research on cordierite lining in the literature and moreover the cordierite ceramics have never been used in foundries. In the light of these facts this paper investigates the possibility of using cordierite for manufacturing evaporable model refractory linings. Our results indicate that the application of cordierite ceramics is comparable to talc-based refractory linings in both Al-Cu and Al-Si castings, while cordierites are favorable in Al-Cu case due to their higher melting temperature.

  5. The Influence of Ingate Size on the Lost Foam Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analysis of the influence of ingate size on the Lost Foam casting process. In particular, analysis of simulation tests has been carried out to determine the ingate size influence on the rate of filling of the mould cavity, pressure in the gas gap and size of the gas gap. A specially prepared mathematical model of the process and an original calculation algorithm were used in simulation tests of full-mould casting. The tests have indicated that the increase of the ingate size results in the increase of filling rate and increase of pressure of gases in the gas gap. However, significant influence on mould cavity filling occurs only when the ingate size is less than ~1 cm2.

  6. Influence of mechanical vibration on the solidification of a lost foam cast 356 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical vibration was applied to the solidification of a lost foam cast (LFC 356 aluminum alloy. Effects of mechanical vibration, with different peak acceleration, on the size and morphology of α-Al phase, and also on the mechanical properties of the castings were studied. Results indicated that α-Al dendrites gradually grow into equiaxed grains as the peak acceleration of vibration is increased. When the peak acceleration is between about 1 to 4 g,α-Al phase distribution is uniform and is refined obviously. α-Al dendrites are reduced and the mechanical properties of the castings are improved significantly when compared to those of the castings that are produced without vibration. However, when the peak acceleration is higher than 4 g, strong vibration will lead to defects formation, such as sand adhesion, while the amount and size of pores will be increased. And due to theturbulent flow that caused by strong vibration, the chance of forming large pores in the matrix has been increased significantly. The increase in defects will result in the deterioration of mechanical properties.

  7. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed H. Imam

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation. Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the foam product (panels exhibited useful mechanical properties. Foams with all three fish by-products, ranging between 10 and 15 wt%, showed the highest flexural modulus (500-770 Mpa. Above 20% fiber content, the modulus dropped considerably in all foam samples. Foam panels with pollock frames had the highest flexural modulus, at about 15% fiber content (770 Mpa. Foams with salmon heads registered the lowest modulus, at 25% concentration. Attempts were also made to cast starch-glycerol-poly (vinyl alcohol films containing 25% fish by-product (salmon heads. These films showed a tensile strength of 15 Mpa and elongation at break of 78.2%. All foams containing fish by-product degraded well in compost at ambient temperature (24oC, loosing roughly between 75-80% of their weight within 7 weeks. The films degraded at a much higher rate initially. When left in water, foams prepared without fish by-product absorbed water much more quickly and deteriorated faster, whereas, water absorption in foams with fish by-product was initially delayed and/or slowed for about 24 h. After this period, water absorption was rapid.

  8. High Cr white cast iron/carbon steel bimetal liner by lost foam casting with liquid-liquid composite process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xiaofeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Liners in wet ball mill for mineral processing industry must bear abrasive wear and corrosive wear, and consequently, the service life of the liner made from traditional materials, such as Hadfield steel and alloyed steels, is typically less than ten months. Bimetal liner, made from high Cr white cast iron and carbon steel, has been successfully developed by using liquid-liquid composite lost foam casting process. The microstructure and interface of the composite were analyzed using optical microscope, SEM, EDX and XRD. Micrographs indicate that the boundary of bimetal combination regions is staggered like dogtooth, two liquid metals are not mixed, and the interface presents excellent metallurgical bonding state. After heat treatment, the composite liner specimens have shown excellent properties, including hardness > 61 HRC, fracture toughness αk >16.5 J·cm-2 and bending strength >1,600 MPa. Wear comparison was made between the bimetal composite liner and alloyed steel liner in an industrial hematite ball mill of WISCO, and the results of eight-month test in wet grinding environment have proved that the service life of the bimetal composite liner is three times as long as that of the alloyed steel liner.

  9. EFFECT OF La-RICH RE ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF B319 ALLOY IN LOST FOAM CASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国华; 谢敏; 王叶双; 马春江; 朱燕萍; 丁文江

    2002-01-01

    By use of ICP spectroscopy, energy spectrum analysis, hydrogen tester, image analyzer, the differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and microscope analysis, the effects of RE on the Porosity, structure and properties of B319 aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that under the 0. 3 C/s slow cooling rate in lost foam casting, the effect of RE on modification and grain size of B319 aluminum alloy is little. With the increase of RE master alloy, the tensile strength and elongation increase. When RE>0. 15%, block-like La2Si2Al3 phase appear, and the tensile strength and elongation decrease. The results also show that the melt hydrogen content and casting porosity can be decreased greatly by adding 0.15% RE to aluminum melt. This is the important reason why RE improves the mechanical properties of casting under lost foam casting condition.

  10. Advanced precision expendable pattern casting technology. 1994 Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Casting technology is described. The following areas are reported on: precision pattern production; pattern coating; sand fill and compaction; pattern gating; mechanical properties; and technology transfer efforts.

  11. Effect of manganese on the ferrum phases of B319 aluminum alloy in lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua WU

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available By using ICP spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis, X-ray diffraction, SEM and microscope analysis, the effects of Mn on the structure of B319 aluminum alloy are studied. The results show that without addition of Mn, there are coral-like Al2Cu phase and needle like Al5FeSi phase in the structure of casting with lost foam casting (LFC. Precipitation of Al2Cu can take plasce along the long sides of the Al5FeSi needles. Under the rapid cooling rates, such as ones in metallic mold, the Fe phase appears in the form of Chinese script α-Fe. With the addition of Mn, there are Chinese script α-Fe phases (Al15(Mn, Fe3Si2 in the structure of LFC casting. When Fe/Mn≦1.5, the needle-like β-Fe phases transform to Chinese script α-Fe completely. With the decrease of Fe/Mn ratio, the tensile strength and elongation increase, especially the elongation increases greatly. When Fe/Mn ratio decreases from 2.5 to1, the elongation ncreases from 1.2 to 1.9 % by 58 %.

  12. Influence of Technological Parameters of Furane Mixtures on Shrinkage Creation in Ductile Cast Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasková I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ductile cast iron (GS has noticed great development in last decades and its boom has no analogue in history humankind. Ductile iron has broaden the use of castings from cast iron into areas, which where exclusively domains for steel castings. Mainly by castings, which weight is very high, is the propensity to shrinkage creation even higher. Shrinkage creation influences mainly material, construction of casting, gating system and mould. Therefore, the main realized experiment was to ascertain the influence of technological parameters of furane mixture on shrinkage creation in castings from ductile iron. Together was poured 12 testing items in 3 moulds forto determine and compare the impact of various technological parameters forms the propensity for shrinkage in the casting of LGG.

  13. Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Cast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2012-03-31

    This Final Technical Report describes progress made on the sub-projects awarded in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42457: Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST). The final reports for each sub-project are attached in the appendix. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: a) Solid-solid separation b) Solid-liquid separation c) Chemical/Biological Extraction d) Modeling and Control, and e) Environmental Control.

  14. Sharing casting technological data on web site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xun; Li Hailan; Wang Junqing; Piao Dongxue; Hou Gang; Guan Yang; Wang Penghua; Zhu Qiang; Xle Huasheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on database and asp.net technologies, a web platform of scientific data in the casting technology field has been developed. This paper presents the relevant data system structure, the approaches to the data collection, the applying methods and policy in data sharing, and depicts the collected and shared data recently finished. Statistics showed that there are about 20,000 visitors in China every day visiting the related data through the web, proving that many engineers or other relevant persons are interested in the data.

  15. Technological parameters of die casting and quality of casting from EN AC46500 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Gašpár

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Die casting represents the highest technological level of metal mold casting. This technology enables production of almost all final products without necessity of further processing. The important aspect of efficiency and production is a proper casting parameters setting. In the submitted paper following die casting parameters are analyzed: plunger pressing speed and pressure. The studied parameters most significantly affect a qualitative of castings from EN AC46500 alloy and they influence the most a gained porosity level as well as basic mechanical properties represented by permanent deformations.

  16. Thermal degradation of foamed polymethyl methacrylate in the expendable pattern casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S.; Shivkumar, S.

    1994-06-01

    The thermal degradation of foamed polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) patterns in the expendable pat-tern casting process has been studied. Various physical transitions that may occur during the degradation of PMMA have been determined using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the effects of polymer density on the degradation characteristics have been investigated. The results indicate that, when exposed to elevated temperatures, the polymer beads collapse at about 140 to 200 °. The collapsed beads melt at 260 ° and begin to volatilize. Peak volatilization temperatures are on the order of 370 °. The end temperature for volatilization is between 420 and 430 °. The initial density of the polymer does not have a significant effect on the transition tem-peratures associated with degradation.

  17. Instability of the Liquid Metal-Pattern Interface in the Lost Foam Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, W. D.; Ainsworth, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The nature of the liquid metal-pattern interface during mold filling in the Lost Foam casting of aluminum alloys was investigated using real-time X-ray radiography for both normal expanded polystyrene, and brominated polystyrene foam patterns. Filling the pattern under the action of gravity from above or below had little effect on properties, both cases resulting in a large scatter of tensile strength values, (quantified by their Weibull Modulus). Countergravity filling at different velocities demonstrated that the least scatter of tensile strength values (highest Weibull Modulus) was associated with the slowest filling, when a planar liquid metal-pattern interface occurred. Real-time X-ray radiography showed that the advancing liquid metal front became unstable above a certain critical velocity, leading to the entrainment of the degrading pattern material and associated defects. It has been suggested that the transition of the advancing liquid metal-pattern interface into an unstable regime may be a result of Saffman-Taylor Instability.

  18. 常压消失模铸造工艺在大扭曲叶轮生产中的应用%Application of Normal Pressure Lost Foam Casting to Big Warping Blade Wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立明

    2011-01-01

    分析了大扭曲叶轮的结构特点和技术要求,论述了常压消失模铸造叶轮工艺,探讨了叶轮消失模铸造过程中应注意的问题.经生产验证,用常压消失模铸造生产大扭曲叶轮叶片完全适用不利起模工况条件下的生产.%The structural features and technological requirement of big blade wheel were analyzed, and the normal pressure lost foam casting process of blade wheel as well as the key points should be paid more attention to during the production were discussed. The result indicates that the normal pressure lost foam casting is suitable for production of castings like big warping blade wheel, which are difficult for pattern drawing.

  19. Digital management technology and its application to investment casting enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yuan Ji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of Industry 4.0, more and more investment casting enterprises are implementing production manufacturing systems, especially in the last two years. This paper summarizes three new common requirements of the digital management aspect in precision casting enterprises, and puts forward three corresponding techniques. They are: the production process tracking card technology based on the main-sub card mode; the workshop site production process processing technology based on the barcode; and the equipment data integration technology. Then, this paper discusses in detail the principle, application and effect of these technologies; to provide the reference for enterprises to move towards digital casting and intelligent casting.

  20. Modeling of mould cavity filling process with cast iron in Lost Foam method Part 3. Mathematical model – pressure inside the gas gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work mathematical model describing changes of pressure inside the gas gap was shown during manufacturing gray cast iron castings with use of lost foam process. Authors analyzed the results of numerical simulation enclosing influence of foamed polystyrene pattern density, permeability and thickness of refractory coating on pressure changes in the gap. Studies have shown, that all these parameters have significant influence on pressure inside the gas gap.

  1. CENTER FOR ADVANCED SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CAST) PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Hull, Christopher

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. is the largest producer of mining products in the world. In 2011, U.S. mining operations contributed a total of $232 billion to the nation’s GDP plus $138 billion in labor income. Of this the coal mining industry contributed a total of $97.5 billion to GDP plus $53 billion in labor income. Despite these contributions, the industry has not been well supported with research and development funds as compared to mining industries in other countries. To overcome this problem, the Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was established to develop technologies that can be used by the U.S. mining industry to create new products, reduce production costs, and meet environmental regulations.

  2. Probabilistic thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion for lost foam casting aluminium alloys based on 2D/3D porosities distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Szmytka F.; Limodin N.; Wang L; Osmond P.; Adrien J.; Charkaluk E.; Buffiere J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    A thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion is proposed to assess the lifetime of aluminium alloys produced by a lost foam casting process. It is based on the observed size distribution of pores sizes which are considered as critical zones for cracks initiation and gives reliable results when both pores sizes are identified from X-ray tomography and mean stresses are taken into account. Lifetime probabilities are finally successfully compared with experimental results.

  3. Probabilistic thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion for lost foam casting aluminium alloys based on 2D/3D porosities distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmytka F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermal-mechanical fatigue criterion is proposed to assess the lifetime of aluminium alloys produced by a lost foam casting process. It is based on the observed size distribution of pores sizes which are considered as critical zones for cracks initiation and gives reliable results when both pores sizes are identified from X-ray tomography and mean stresses are taken into account. Lifetime probabilities are finally successfully compared with experimental results.

  4. APPLICATION OF POLYSTYRENE FOAM CORE FUSIBLE PATTERNS IN PRODUCTION OF GAS TURBINES’ CAST PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Shinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of replacing the LVM dissolves polystyrene molding on models is at the present time, technologically, economically and environmentally promising from the point of view of industrial applications for gas turbine plants in Ukraine. The authors proposed and tested manufacturing process of casting ceramic molds way to remove the polystyrene model of the dissolution of her organic solvents. Kinetic parameters of the process of dissolving and removing patterns of degradation products the polystyrene in the group of solvents depending on the type and amount of polystyrene were identified. The absence of surface defects of castings, reduction of roughness, increased their accuracy class in comparison to accepted technological regulations of the process of production, which reduced the cost of machined parts and increased utilization of expensive heat-resistant alloys were produced.

  5. Effects of pouring temperature and slurry viscosity on heat transfer and surface roughness in lost foam casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayganpour, A.; Idris, M. H.; Izman, S.; Farahany, S.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of pouring temperature and slurry viscosity in terms of heat transfer on surface roughness during lost foam casting (LFC) of LM6 alloy were investigated experimentally. Heat transfer of molten materials is an important factors to changes the microstructure which is considered in the present study. It is primarily dependent on the pouring temperature, casting thickness, mould material, mould temperature and surrounding medium. The pouring temperature changed from 700 to740°C and slurry viscosity altered from 20 to 36 sec. A full 2-level factorial design experimental technique was used to identify the significant factors that effect on surface roughness of castings. The results show that surface roughness improved by lower pouring temperature, whereas slurry viscosity has less influence on the quality of surface.

  6. 发动机缸体消失模铸造工艺%Lost Foam Casting Method of Engine Cylinder Blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏; 叶升平

    2012-01-01

    An introduction was made to the development situation of the lost foam casting process, the feasibility and prospect to cast cylinder blocks with lost foam casting process. As examples, several lost foam casting methods of cylinder blocks was given, and were analyzed and compared.%介绍了消失模铸造工艺的发展情况以及采用消失模铸造工艺生产发动机缸体的可行性及发展前景,例举了数种发动机缸体的消失模铸造工艺,并对这些工艺进行了分析比较.

  7. Recent development of ductile cast iron production technology in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Qizhou; Wei Bokang

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the production and technology of ductile cast iron castings in China is reviewed. The manufacture and process control of as-cast ductile iron are discussed. The microstructure, properties and application of partial austenitization normalizing ductile iron and austempered ductile iron (ADI) are briefl y depicted. The new development of ductile iron production techniques, such as cored-wire injection (wire-feeding nodularization) process, tundish cover ladle nodularizing proc...

  8. CHOICE OF MATERIAL AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kupriyanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the carried out work abundant type of steel was chosen for casting production of asterisk of the excavator «Kamatsu». This type of steel is widely used as the wearproof steel working in the conditions of abrasive and shock – abrasive wear. Mathematical modeling of process of filling and hardening of casting was done and it confirmed a choice of the technology to produce casting without faulty parts.

  9. PERFECTION OF TECHNOLOGY OF CASTINGS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY CONSUMABLE PATTERNS

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Urbanovich; O. S. Komarov; V. I. Volosatikov; M. I. Kurbatov; V. G. Pavlovich

    2008-01-01

    The role of closed air gates at casting by gasified models of non-casting polystyrene in the process of castings defects elimination, connected with creation of non-gasified products of polystyrene thermodestruction, is studied.

  10. PERFECTION OF TECHNOLOGY OF CASTINGS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY BY CONSUMABLE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Urbanovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of closed air gates at casting by gasified models of non-casting polystyrene in the process of castings defects elimination, connected with creation of non-gasified products of polystyrene thermodestruction, is studied.

  11. Effects of Melt-to-Solid Insert Volume Ratio on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al/Mg Bimetallic Castings Produced by Lost Foam Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Fan, Zitian; Li, Guangyu; Yang, Li; Liu, Xinwang

    2016-12-01

    A356 aluminum and AZ91D magnesium alloys, which act as a solid insert and a melt, respectively, were used to prepare Al/Mg bimetallic castings using the lost-foam casting process, and the effects of the melt-to-solid volume ratio (VR) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and fractographies of the Al/Mg bimetallic castings were investigated in this paper. Obtained results show that the average thickness of the reaction layer between aluminum and magnesium significantly increased with increasing VR, and a compact and uniform interface was obtained with a VR of 14.6. The reaction layers of all the bimetallic castings obtained by different VRs mainly consisted of the Al12Mg17 + δ eutectic layer close to the magnesium matrix, the Al12Mg17 + Mg2Si intermediate layer as well as the Al3Mg2 + Mg2Si layer next to the aluminum base. The microhardnesses of reaction layers of all the bimetallic castings with different VRs were considerably higher than those of the magnesium and aluminum matrix alloys, particularly the Al3Mg2 layer. Excessive thick reaction layer and pore defects remarkably weakened the bonding strength of the bimetallic castings, especially pore defects, and a relative maximum shear strength was obtained with a VR of 14.6. The fractographs of the push-out samples showed a change in the fracture surface from a mixed brittle and ductile fracture nature to that of a brittle fracture nature with the increase of VR.

  12. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-12-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  13. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  14. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  15. Application of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology in casting aspect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Jinwu; Zhang Xiaopeng; Zhang Chi; Liu Baicheng

    2014-01-01

    3D stereoscopic visualization technology is coming into more and more common use in the field of entertainment, and this technology is also beginning to cut a striking ifgure in casting industry and scientiifc research. The history, fundamental principle, and devices of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology are reviewed in this paper. The authors’ research achievements on the 3D stereoscopic visualization technology in the modeling and simulation of the casting process are presented. This technology can be used for the observation of complex 3D solid models of castings and the simulated results of solidiifcation processes such as temperature, lfuid lfow, displacement, stress strain and microstructure, as wel as the predicted defects such as shrinkage/porosity, cracks, and deformation. It can also be used for other areas relating to 3D models, such as assembling of dies, cores, etc. Several cases are given to compare the illustration of simulated results by traditional images and red-blue 3D stereoscopic images. The spatial shape is observed better by the new method. The prospect of 3D stereoscopic visualization in the casting aspect is discussed as wel. The need for aided-viewing devices is stil the most prominent problem of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology. However, 3D stereoscopic visualization represents the tendency of visualization technology in the future; and as the problem is solved in the years ahead, great breakthroughs wil certainly be made for its application in casting design and modeling and simulation of the casting processes.

  16. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  17. Defects Analysis and Prevention of Lost Foam Process-Cast Flywheel Housing%飞轮壳消失模铸造的缺陷分析及防止

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高成勋; 刘伟明; 胡雪飞; 高远

    2013-01-01

    根据消失模铸造工艺原理和飞轮壳铸件的结构和工艺特性,通过控制EPS泡沫堆积密度和泡沫成形工艺操作、增设支撑筋、优化涂料配制工艺以及造型装箱工艺,改进浇注系统设计和浇注操作方法以及优化管理等措施,有效预防了飞轮壳铸件变形、夹渣、铁包砂、冷隔等缺陷的产生,提高了铸件的工艺出品率和合格率.%Based on the principle of the lost foam casting process, configuration and technological characteristics of the flywheel housing and by adopting measures of controlling the deposit density of EPS foam and the foam shaping-up process operation, adding supporting ribs, optimizing coating preparing process and molding box filling process, improving gating system and pouring operation,as well as optimizing management etc.,the casting defects such as deformation,slag inclusion, iron-sand scab and cold lap was effectively prevented, the process yield rate and the qualifying rate of the casting was increased.

  18. 浅析消失模球铁管件生产中失圆变形的防治措施%Analysis on Preventing Ductile Iron in Lost Foam Casting from Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚

    2014-01-01

    采用消失模工艺生产薄壁壳体铸件最典型的就是球墨铸铁管件的生产,常因泡沫模样易变形而导致铸件尺寸超差和实圆变形;结合我们在生产中实践,介绍了防止泡沫模样变形和减轻铸件失圆变形的几项措施:如从模具组装、成型工艺和外加辅助手段方面进行控制,有效地减轻管件的变形缺陷。%It is typical to apply the lost foam casting to the production of ductile iron pipes. In the process, the possible deformation of foam pattern easily results in the dimension error and deformation of the castings. Based on the production practice, this paper discusses how to prevent the foam pattern and castings from deforming,and the effective measures are how to control the process of mold assembling and technology, and any possible assistant methods.

  19. The deformation of wax patterns and castings in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional accuracy of the final casting of Inconel alloy 738 LC is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of the casting of the rotor blades. Various approaches have been tested for cooling wax pattern. When wax models are cooling on the air, without clamping in jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm and most are in extreme positions of the model. When blade is cooled in fixing jig in water environment, the resulting deviations compared with cooling in air are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with usage of wax models, which have deviations from the ideal position smaller. Another deformation occurs when shell mould is produced around wax pattern and furthermore deformations emerge while casting of blade is cooling. This paper demonstrates first steps in describing complex process of deformations of Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results from thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010 and measurements from CNC scanning system Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems deformations of wax pattern and deformations of castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing entirely whole process of deformations will help increase precision of blade castings so that models at the beginning and blades in the end are the same.

  20. Development of Continuous Electrical Steel and Casting Technology of New Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-tao; DENG Chen-hong; DONG Mei; SHI Li-fa; ZHANG Jian-ping

    2012-01-01

    The development of continuous casting technology of electrical steel was analyzed. The technologies and products characteristics of conventional continuous casting, thin slab continuous casting and rolling, middle thin slab continuous casting and rolling and twin-roll thin strip were compared. Conventional continuous casting technology was widely adopted in producing electrical steel, thin slab continuous casting and rolling and middle thin slab contin- uous casting and roiling technology industrialized electrical steel~ and study of twin-roll thin strip casting technology was focused on fundamental experiments.

  1. Study on typical hole defects in AZ91D magnesium alloy prepared by low pressure lost foam casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiqiang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The hole defects can easily occur in magnesium alloy castings that are prepared by low pressure lost foam casting (LP-LFC process when the process parameters such as vacuum, pouring temperature and filling velocity are not properly selected. In this study, the forming mechanism of the hole defects in AZ91D magnesium castings by LP-LFC process was investigated. The shape, location and surface appearance of the hole defects were observed using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the chemical composition on the surface of the holes was analyzed using energy spectrometer. The result indicates that there are two types of hole defects, i.e., the pyrolysis products related hole defects, including concentrative hole and blow hole defects, and slag related hole defects. The concentrative hole and the blow-hole defects were formed either by the liquid-EPS degradation products entrapped in the molten metal under the condition that the pouring temperature is equal to or lower than 730 ℃, or by the hindered transport of EPS pyrolysis products. Some irregular shape hole defects were caused by slag or by coating slough entrapment when the pouring temperature is equal to 750 ℃ and the filling velocity is equal to or greater than 100 mm·s-1. To reduce or eliminate the hole defects, the vacuum and filling velocity must be properly chosen to ensure that the metal front profile exhibits convex shape and in laminar current state, and the pouring temperature should be just high enough to ensure that the molten melt has adequate heat energy to complete the foam pyrolysis and to fully occupy the mould. For AZ91D magnesium castings in this study, the parameters should be 730 ℃ pouring temperature, 0.02-0.03 MPa vacuum and 80 mm·s-1 filling velocity.

  2. Lost Foam Casting Process of Gray Cast Iron Flywheel Cover%灰铸铁飞轮壳体消失模铸造工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟兆亚; 王建民; 史家全; 孙洪超

    2011-01-01

    以灰铸铁飞轮壳体为例,系统的阐述了消失模铸造的工艺过程和工艺参数.采用阶梯式浇注系统,雨淋式加沙法,浇道比为F内∶F横∶F直=1.0∶1.2:1.4,浇注时负压为0.040~0.055 MPa.浇注温度控制在1 470~1 480℃.生产出的飞轮壳体铸件,石墨分布较均匀,基体组织为珠光体加铁素体,抗拉强度达200 MPa以上.%The article systematically interpreted the process and parameter of lost foam casting,taking gray cast iron flywheel cover for example.Step gating system and raining wise sand filling was adopted.The gating ratio was F内: F横: F直 = 1.0: 1.2: 1.4.The negative pressure was 0.04 ~0.055 MPa during pouring.And the pouring temperature was controlled at 1 470~ 1 480 ℃.With uniformly distributed graphite, matrix of the flywheel cover casting was pearlite and ferrite.Its tensile strength was higher than 200 MPa.

  3. Combining the casting and punching technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Ashkeyev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studying the microstructure of metals obtained by the method of casting and punching in equal-channel step matrixes (ECSM. The analysis of the microstructure of metals obtained on the scanning and transmission microscope showed that owing to realization of intensive shift deformations on the inclined portion of ECSM there emerge shear bands which extend practically in parallel to zones of the matrix channels connection and influence positively closing and sealing all internal defects of cast blanks.

  4. Manufacturing technology of high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents manufacturing technology of pressure castings made of Al-Si alloy without porosity or with low microporosity of castings. It has been shown that the greatest impact on the porosity of the castings and the concentration of hydrogen has had the charge to the melting furnace. Liquidation or occurrence of a small microporosity of castings provides refining with solid refiners, nitrogen and modification of liquid alloy after various operations of preparing process. The liquid alloy stored in holding furnace should be refined once every 2 h with nitrogen. Authors developed a computer program of Al-Si alloys inspection with using of TDA method. The developed technology was verified under production conditions.

  5. Preparation and properties of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam by centrifugal slip casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to provide a novel technique for preparing gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams. This technique used epispastic polystyrene spheres to array templates and centrifugal slip casting to obtain cell struts with gradient distribution of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles and high packing density. Aqueous Al2O3-20vol.% ZrO2 slurries with 20vol.% solid contents were prepared and the dispersion and rheological characteristics of the slurries were investigated. The settling velocity and mass segregation of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles at different centrifugal accelerations were calculated and studied. The drying behavior, macrostructure, microstructure, compressive property and resistance to thermal shock of the sintered products were also investigated. The results show that the difference of settling velocity of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles increases and mass segregation becomes acute with an increase in centrifugal acceleration. The cell struts prepared at a centrifugal acceleration of 1,690 g have high sintered density (99.0% TD and continuous gradient distribution of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles. When sintered at 1,550 oC for 2 h, the cell size of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 foam is approximately uniform, about 1.1 mm. With the porosity of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams increasing from 75.3% to 83.0%, the compressive strength decreases from 4.4 to 2.4 MPa, and the ceramic foams can resist 8-11 repeated thermal shock from 1,100 oC to room temperature.

  6. Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Foam Fabricated from Die Castings without Using Blowing Agent by Friction Stir Processing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Hangai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Al foam has been used in a wide range of applications owing to its light weight, high energy absorption and high sound insulation. One of the promising processes for fabricating Al foam involves the use of a foamable precursor. In this study, ADC12 Al foams with porosities of 67%–78% were fabricated from Al alloy die castings without using a blowing agent by the friction stir processing route. The pore structure and tensile properties of the ADC12 foams were investigated and compared with those of commercially available ALPORAS. From X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT observations of the pore structure of ADC12 foams, it was found that they have smaller pores with a narrower distribution than those in ALPORAS. Tensile tests on the ADC12 foams indicated that as their porosity increased, the tensile strength and tensile strain decreased, with strong relation between the porosity, tensile strength, and tensile strain. ADC12 foams exhibited brittle fracture, whereas ALPORAS exhibited ductile fracture, which is due to the nature of the Al alloy used as the base material of the foams. By image-based finite element (FE analysis using X-ray CT images corresponding to the tensile tests on ADC12 foams, it was shown that the fracture path of ADC12 foams observed in tensile tests and the regions of high stress obtained from FE analysis correspond to each other. Therefore, it is considered that the fracture behavior of ADC12 foams in relation to their pore structure distribution can be investigated by image-based FE analysis.

  7. Modeling of mould cavity filling process with cast iron in Lost Foam method Part 1. Mathematical model – rate of pattern gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a mathematical model of mould cavity filling process with cast iron for lost foam method was shown, enclosing phenomena connected with gasification of foamed polystyrene pattern. For its description the thermal balance equation was used, which together with pouring rate equations (part 2 and pressure change equations (part 3 enabled determination of permeability, refractory coating thickness and foam pattern density influence on pouring rate, gas pressure in gas gap and its size. In this work authors showed results of numerical simulation concerning rate of pattern gasification and gas gap size, based on developed mathematical model. Presented studies indicated, that with decrease in coating permeability and increase in its thickness the gas gap size increased causing the decrease of foamed polystyrene pattern gasification rate.

  8. Numerical Simulation on Lost Foam Casting of Gray Cast Iron Box Cover%灰铸铁箱盖的消失模铸造数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 杜晓明

    2013-01-01

    The lost foam casting process of gray cast iron box cover was simulated by using the numerical simulation method. The properties of the mould filling and solidification for lost foam casting were studied. And the comparison of the simulated results with the practical casting was carried out. The results show that the bottom gating system is used for the casting, pouring temperature is 1400℃, foam density is 13 kg/m3, vacuum is 0.04 MPa, coating thickness is 0.5 mm and coating permeability is 9.5×l0-9m/(Pa·s).%采用数值模拟方法对灰铸铁箱盖的消失模铸造过程进行了模拟.研究了消失模铸造的充填与凝固特性,并与实际生产进行了对比.结果表明,该件采用底注式浇注系统,浇注温度为1400℃,泡沫模样密度为13 kg/m3,负压度为0.04MPa,涂料厚度为0.5mm,涂料透气性为9.5× 10-9m2/(pa.s).

  9. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xuefeng; Fang Feng; Jiang Jianjing

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in ...

  10. DOE applied to study the effect of process parameters on silicon spacing in lost foam Al-Si-Cu alloy casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayganpour, A.; Idris, M. H.; Izman, S.; Jafari, H.

    2012-09-01

    Lost foam casting as a relatively new manufacturing process is extensively employed to produce sound complicated castings. In this study, an experimental investigation on lost foam casting of an Al-Si-Cu aluminium cast alloy was conducted. The research was aimed in evaluating the effect of different pouring temperatures, slurry viscosities, vibration durations and sand grain sizes on eutectic silicon spacing of thin-wall castings. A stepped-pattern was used in the study and the focus of the investigations was at the thinnest 3 mm section. A full two-level factorial design experimental technique was used to plan the experiments and afterwards identify the significant factors affecting casting silicon spacing. The results showed that pouring temperature and its interaction with vibration time have pronounced effect on eutectic silicon phase size. Increasing pouring temperature coarsened the eutectic silicon spacing while the higher vibration time diminished coarsening effect. Moreover, no significant effects on silicon spacing were found with variation of sand size and slurry viscosity.

  11. A Research on Investment Casting Technology of Ti Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this research, the materials and the compositions of the surface slurries were chosen by considering the characteristics of Ti investment casting. The effects of solid-liquid ratios on the properties of the slurry and the effects of baking temperatures on the flexural strength have also been investigated. Flawless shells having smooth inner surface were manufactured with proper technology. Ti and its alloys were melted and poured by water-cooled Cu crucible vacuum induction furnace. The qualities of the investment castings made accordingly were studied and analyzed.

  12. Making Artificial Heart Components – Selected Aspects Of Casting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczak J.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study shown possibilities of Rapid Prototyping techniques (RP and metal casting simulation software (MCSS, including non inertial reference systems. RP and MCSS have been used in order to design and produce essential elements for artificial heart. Additionally it has been shown possibilities of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM technique and DodJet technology using prototyped elements of rotodynamic pump. MAGMASOFT® software allowed to verify the cast kit heart valves model. Optical scanner Atos III enabled size verification of experimental elements supplied by rapid prototyping together with metal casting elements. Due to the selection of ceramic materials and assessment of molten metal – ceramic reactivity at high temperatures together with pattern materials selection model it was possible to design, manufacture a ceramic mould for titanium based alloys. The casting structure modification has been carried out by means of high isostatic pressure technique (HIP. The quality assessment of the casting materials has been performed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, ARL 4460 Optical Emission Spectrometer, metallographic techniques and X-ray computed tomography.

  13. Particle motion behavior during gasification of foam carrier in lost foam-squeeze casting of 20%TiC/ZG270-500 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shibo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The particle motion behavior affects the distribution of particles in the metal matrix and finally determines the mechanical properties of the particle reinforced metal-matrix composites. To obtain a uniform distribution of TiC particles and excellent strengthening effect in 20%TiC/ZG270-500 composites fabricated by lost foam-squeeze casting (LFSC, the particle motion behavior in the gas gap and the conditions of the particles getting into the molten steel were investigated. The results show that the airflow velocity (v1 and TiC particle motion velocity (uP change little with the pouring temperature (TP, increase with an increase in metal filling velocity (vP, ratios of cross sections of in-gate/orifice (AP/A0 and orifice/mould cavity (A0/A1, but the increase trend of uP is more intense. The airflow pressure (P1 changes little with TP and A0/A1, but increases with the increasing of vP and AP/A0. Besides, there is a critical velocity for the particles getting into the molten steel. The higher the particle motion velocity, the easier the particles get into the molten steel and the more uniform the distribution of the particles in the steel matrix. When TP = 1,873 K, vP = 30 mm·s-1, AP/A0 =10 and A0/A1 = 0.02 in this study, the biggest TiC particle motion velocity (20.59 m·s-1 can be gained, and the steel matrix with the most uniformly distributed TiC particles and fine grains are obtained.

  14. Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Frank [International Lead Zinc Research Org., Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-10-31

    A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted for 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.

  15. Medical implants by using RP and investment casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Horacek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the production technology of knee joint replacement by using rapid prototyping technology. The aim of the work is to outline the manufacturing technology intended for prototype production with the use of rapid prototyping and investment casting technology for use in orthopaedics and the surgery of knee joint replacement. The research results should make an effective contribution in the attempts to minimize the invasive surgical procedure, shorten the production of knee joint replacement as well as reduce the cost. At present, the research is focused on the preparation of STL data from CT (Computed Tomography and verification of the production technology of prototypes made using available RP technology and its evaluation.

  16. Application of digital pattern-less molding technology to produce art casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li1

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the conventional casting process, digital pattern-less casting technology has many advantages such as good machining accuracy, a short processing cycle, and low production cost. It is a new rapid manufacturing technology for castings, integrated with CAD/CAM, casting, CNC machining and many other advanced technologies. With this digital casting technology, no pattern is needed for making molds; it is precise, flexible, and green. Usually, art castings have complex structures and are made in small batches or even made in a single-piece, especially for large-sized art castings. So it has the shortcomings of high cost, low efficiency and long time for making a pattern to produce art castings with the conventional casting processes. However, the digital pattern-less casting technology can be applied to fabricate art castings, since it can greatly shorten the manufacturing cycle and lower the production cost, thus having a very good prospect. In this study, based on the digital pattern-less casting technology, a plaque casting with artistic Chinese characters (a Chinese poem was designed and manufactured, and the production process was demonstrated in detail.

  17. 消失模铸钢件侵入性气孔产生的原因与防止措施%Forming Reasons and Precaution Measures of Irruptive Gas-holes in Steel Casting with Lost Foam Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝良; 武晓峰

    2011-01-01

    The gas film pressure between liquid metal and foam, and the gas pressure of the interface between liquid metal and coating layer, increases of them both are the main reasons of forming irruptive gas hole in the top and side surface of the casting, respectively. Increasing pouring time, using top or step gating system, reducing the density of foam and increasing coating permeability are the effective measures to prevent the irruptive gas hole of steel casting in lost foam casting, which has been verified in production.%金属液与模样之间形成的气膜压力,模样受热形成的液态残留物聚集在与液态金属接触的涂料层界面的气体压力,二者增大分别是铸件顶部和侧表面形成侵入性气孔的主要原因.增加浇注时间、顶部或阶梯浇注、降低泡沫模样密度及增加涂层透气性是防止消失模铸钢件侵入性气孔的有效措施,这已在生产中得到验证.

  18. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people

  19. Processing Technology and Mechanical Properties of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloy AZ91D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan'gai(刘艳改); LIU Wenhui(刘文辉); XIONG Shoumei(熊守美); LIU Baicheng(柳百成); Wang Gang (王罡); MATSUMOTO Yoshihide; MURAKAMI Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties of magnesium die-casting components can be improved with improved die-casting processing technology. An orthogonal experiment with four factors and three levels (Lq, 34) was used to evaluate the effect of various die-casting processing parameters on the quality and mechanical properties of an AZ91D magnesium alloy cylinder head cover component. The results show that the injection speed and casting and die temperatures all influence the component quality, with the influence of the casting pressure being the smallest. The injection speed and casting pressure are the two most important factors influencing the tensile strength. The best die-casting parameters for the magnesium alloy cylinder head cover component were determined to be a casting temperature of 660℃, a die temperature of 200℃, an injection speed of 70 ms(1, and a casting pressure of 65 MPa. The porosity is one of the most important parameters influencing the casting strength.

  20. Urethane foam void filling. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    compares the cost and performance of the baseline segmentation technology and the innovative void filling technology using expanded polyurethane foam.

  1. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  2. Discussion on "proportional solidification technology" for nodular iron casting method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gen

    2006-01-01

    The Proportional Solidification Technology believes that advancing the expansion of graphite precipitation is favorable for fully utilizing the expansion to offset the contraction and minimizing feeder size. But this author has proved that advancing the expansion is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion. On contrary, advancing the contraction is favorable for both kinds of feeding and favorable for avoiding shrinkage. The feeding efficiency of feeders cannot be increased by advancing the expansion of the casting, but can only be increased by accelerating cooling and contraction of the casting, and (or) by delaying the freezing of the feeders. In order to fully utilize the expansion to offset the contraction, it is a must to ensure that all inlets and outlets of a casting being poured are blocked rapidly at the moment when pouring is finished. It is pointed out that blocking at the earlier frozen feeder neck is unfavorable for both feeding from the feeder and the self-feeding by expansion; whereas blocking at earlier frozen ingates is favorable for both kinds of feeding.

  3. [Covering dental defects with aluminum cast dowel construction and technology of their manufacture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudonogov, G I

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory studies have revealed benefits of aluminum cast constructions. Its cast dowel inserts are used in the system of fixed metal-free dentures made from ceramics (dental bridges, single crowns, etc.). The high efficiency, availability of casting technology for aluminum reduces patients' treatment periods and ensures accurate attachment of dowel insets to the root canal and stump of a tooth.

  4. Technological Aspects of Low-Alloyed Cast Steel Massive Casting Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnara J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors have undertaken the attempt of explaining the causes of cracks net occurrence on a massive 3-ton cast steel casting with complex geometry. Material used for casting manufacturing was the low-alloyed cast steel with increased wear resistance modified with vanadium and titanium. The studies included the primary and secondary crystallization analysis with use of TDA and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of non-metallic inclusions.

  5. The technology of precision casting of titanium alloys by centrifugal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karwiński

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development of a procedure for the preparation of foundry ceramic moulds and making first test castings. The presented studies included:development of technological parameters of the ceramic mould preparation process using water-based zirconium binders and zirconia ceramic materials, where moulds are next used for the centrifugal casting of titanium alloys melted in vacuum furnaces, designing of pouring process using simulation software, making test castings,testing and control of the casting properties. The technological process described in this paper enables making castings in titanium alloys weighing up to about 500 g and used in the majority of technical applications.

  6. 国家标准《消失模铸件质量评定方法》解读%Resolution of GB《Evaluation Method of Lost Foam Castings Quality》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增民; 黄述哲; 李立新

    2013-01-01

    国家标准GB/T 26658-2011《消失模铸件品质评定方法》已于2011年6月发布,定于2012年6月1日实施.为了推广贯彻这项标准,提高消失模铸件品质,对标准制定的各项技术指标和我国消失模铸造生产实际品质控制情况进行简要评述,以此对标准中的指标进行说明,便于消失模铸造企业贯彻执行,对消失模铸件品质进行控制.%The national standard GB/T 26658-2011, evaluation method of lost foam castings quality, had been issued in June 2011, and will be brought into effect on, Jun, 2012. In order to generalize, propagandize and carry out the standard, and improve the lost foam castings quality, a outline comment was made on some technical indicators in the standard and the quality control of production for lost foam casting process in home, in which the technical indicators were explained to be carried out in lost foam casting enterprises to control the quality of lost foam castings.

  7. Investigations on injection molded, glass-fiber reinforced polyamide 6 integral foams using breathing mold technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, A.; Kehret, L.; Huber, T.; Henning, F.; Elsner, P.

    2015-05-01

    Investigations on PA6-GF50 integral foams have been carried out using different material systems: longfiber- and shortfiber-reinforced PA6 as well as unreinforced PA6 as a reference material. Both chemical and physical blowing agents were applied. Breathing mold technology (decompression of the mold) was selected for the foaming process. The integral foam design, which can be conceived as a sandwich structure, helps to save material in the neutral axis area and maintains a distance between load-bearing, unfoamed skin layers. For all test series an initial mold gap of 2.5 mm was chosen and the same amount of material was injected. In order to realize different density reductions, the mold opening stroke was varied. The experiments showed that, at a constant mass per unit area, integral polyamide 6 foams have a significantly higher bending stiffness than compact components, due to their higher area moment of inertia after foaming. At a constant surface weight the bending stiffness in these experiments could be increased by up to 600 %. Both shortfiber- and longfiber-reinforced polyamide 6 showed an increase in energy absorption during foaming.

  8. Commom Defects and Control of Lost Foam Castings%消失模铸件常见缺陷及控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志君; 孙萍; 张燕瑰; 吴进; 程和法; 余金元

    2011-01-01

    结合大量生产实例及试验数据,分析了消失模铸造生产中变形、塌箱、粘砂、冷隔、夹砂及碳夹杂等常见缺陷产生的原因并给出了防止措施.研究结果表明,消失模铸件质量受泡沫模样及其热解特性、涂料、造型特点、高温铁液、负压度、浇注过程及充型凝固过程等因素综合影响.%In the lost foam casting production conditions, combined with mass production examples and test data, reasons for casting defects such as deformation, crush, sand fusion, cold shut, sand inclusion and carbon have been analysed and relevant prevention measures been proposed. The result showed that the quality of lost foam castings have been affected by many factors such as bubble appearance and its pyrolysis, coating layer, modeling features, high-temperature molten iron, vacuum degree, process of pouring and solidification.

  9. 柴油机气缸体的消失模铸造工艺%Lost Foam Casting Process for Diesel Engine Cylinder Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新节

    2011-01-01

    介绍了用消失模铸造工艺生产直列四缸柴油发动机气缸体的工艺过程.包括泡沫模样的制作、模具的设计、泡沫模样的组装、型砂的选择及造型、浇注系统的设计等几个方面.与传统的普通砂型铸造相比,其铸件单体重量减轻约10%,铸件重量精度达到MT7级,铸件尺寸精度达到CT8级.%The lost foam casting process for the cylinder block of inline four-cylinder diesel engine was presented, including the manufacture of foam patterns, design of dies, assembling of the patterns, selection of molding sand, design of gating system, and so on. Compared with the conventional sand casting, the weight of a single casting was reduced by 10%. Its weight accuracy reached MT7, and the dimension accuracy reached CT8.

  10. Problems Should Pay attentions When Adopting Lost Foam Casting Process%采用消失模铸造工艺要注意的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章舟; 厉三于; 应根鹏

    2012-01-01

    An introduction was given to the choice principle of lost foam pattern material, the influence of the pattern pieces binding quality on casting quality, as well as the main points of coating choice and baking. It was pointed out that proper increasing alloy pouring temperature is beneficial to the pattern full gasifying, splitting, decomposing and to the alloy melt better filling the mold to form casting. In addition,the choice principle of various lost foam casting equipments was introduced.%介绍了消失模铸造模样材料的选用原则、模块粘结质量对铸件质量的影响、以及涂料的选用和烘干要点;指出适当提高合金的浇注温度,有利于确保模样充分气化、裂解、分解,使合金溶液能较好地充填铸型形成铸件.同时介绍了各种消失模铸造设备的选购原则.

  11. Effects of Parameters on Formation and Microstructure of Surface Composite Layer Prepared by Lost Foam Casting Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dongfeng; DONG Xuanpu; FAN Zitian

    2012-01-01

    Surface composite layer was fabricated on the AZ91D substrate using the lost foam casting (LFC) process.The pre-coating layer rea.cted with melt substrate and formed the composite layer,and the coating was mainly consist of alloying aluminum powder and low-temperature glass powder (PbO-ZnO-Na2O).The vacuum degree,pouring temperature,mold filling process of melt,and pre-coating thickness played an important role during the formation process of composite layer.The results show that surface morphology of composite layer can be divided into three categories:alloying effect of bad and good ceramic layer,alloying effect of good and bad ceramic layer,composite layer of good quality.The main reason for bad alloying layer is that alloying pre-coating thickness is so thin that it is scoured easily and involved in the melt,in addition,it isdifficult for melt to infiltrate into the alloying coating owing to the surface tension of coating when the vacuum degree is excessively low.Bad ceramic layer is because of somewhat lower pouring temperature and the thicker alloying coating,due to the absorption of heat from the melt,making low temperature glass powder pre-coating layer fuse inadequate.Thus,to get good quality composite layer,the process conditions must be appropriate,the result shows that the optimum process parameters are as follows:at a pouring temperature of 800 ℃,vacuum degree of -0.06 MPa,alloying pre-coating thickness of 0.4 mm,and low glass powder pre-coating layer thickness of 1 mm.

  12. Polyimide foam-like microstructures: technology and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzynska, J. A.; Joris, P.; Jiguet, S.; Renaud, P.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2011-10-01

    We report a process for the realization of polyimide films with custom-designed microporosity based on the heat-induced depolymerization of polyimide-embedded polypropylene carbonate microstructures. The foam-like microstructures are up to 40 µm thick and incorporate air cavities with a width ranging from 20 to 200 µm, a length up to 5 mm and a height of 20 µm. We model the mechanical stress-strain properties of the microcavities using both analytical and numerical methods. The simulation data are in good agreement with the results of nanoindentation and microcompression experiments, which show the reduction of the effective Young's modulus from 5.77 ± 0.06 GPa for bulk polyimide to 2.51 ± 0.03 GPa for a foam-like layer.

  13. Improvement of Process Design of Lost Foam Casting for Thin-walled Tall Steel Casting%薄壁高大铸钢件消失模铸造工艺的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦芳; 卢献忠; 范晓明

    2015-01-01

    The heavy rail bearing of thin-walled tall steel castings were produced by the use of lost foam casting. But the problems such as 'vacant shell', collapse of sand and so on,which lead to the lower quality and yield of castings. By improving the casting process, using bottom pouring system to replace the ladder pouring system,using sprue and runner of refractory materials, reducing pouring temperature and degree of negative pressure, and adopting appropriate pouring speed, the quality and yield of heavy rail bearing steel castings were successfully improved. The experience of production is worth promoting.%利用消失模铸造工艺生产了薄壁高大铸钢重轨支座,出现了“空壳”、塌箱等问题,导致其质量和成品率较低。通过改进铸造工艺,改阶梯浇注为底部浇注,采用耐火材料直浇道和横浇道,降低浇注温度和负压度,并采用合适的浇注速度,成功提高了重轨支座铸钢件的质量和成品率,其生产经验值得推广。

  14. Mechanism investigation of surface alloying through lost foam casting technique%消失模铸造工艺表面合金化机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东风; 丁洁; 董选普; 易传贵; 王红超

    2014-01-01

    Surface alloying forming mechanism was investigated under lost foam casting (LFC ) technology through orthogonal experiment.Surface alloyed model was established and driving force was analyzed.Homoge-neous alloyed layer has been formed on the Mg-alloy matrix on condition that the vacuum degree and metal grain size were different,pouring temperature was 780 ℃ respectively,scanning electron microscopy (SEM)was used to examined the change of surface layer microstructure,micro area composition analysis of new phase formed on the matrix and line scan composition characteristics on the surface were carried out.The results show that the surface layer consists ofβ- Mg17 Al12 phase,micro-hardness value was enhanced greatly compared with the matrix.Analyzed the alloying mechanism and the important factors during the alloying process that influ-enced the formation of uniform alloyed layer,it has been found that alloying metal grain size and casting infil-tration driving force are the key factors in the experiment,with the increase of grain size and vacuum degree, the surface alloying effect has become better.%利用消失模铸造工艺,通过正交实验合金化工艺,重点研究了表面合金化的形成机理,建立了消失模铸件表面合金化模型,分析了合金化过程的动力。在不同真空度、金属粒度、温度为780℃的条件下进行浇注,发现在镁合金基体表面形成均匀的合金化层,通过扫描电镜(SEM)分析表层组织变化,对生成的新相进行微区成分和表层线成分分析。研究表明,在表层生成的新相主要是 Mg17 Al12,并且表层显微硬度明显高于基体。分析了合金化机理和影响形成均匀合金化层的主要因素,得出了合金化颗粒粒度和铸渗动力在合金化过程中起关键作用,随着合金化颗粒粒度和真空度增大,表面合金化效果明显得到了提高。

  15. 我国铝(镁)合金消失模铸造技术研究现状%Current Researches on Aluminum (Magnesium) Alloy Lost-Foam Casting Technique in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 周恩俊

    2016-01-01

    The treatise gives an overview on the processes, technologies, features, application scope and current researches of aluminum (magnesium) alloy lost-foam casting in China, summarizes the key points and achievements of the researches and looks into the future of this technique in China on the basis of recent researches.%综合概述了我国铝(镁)合金消失模铸造的工艺、技术、特点、应用范围和研究现状,总结了铝(镁)合金消失模铸造技术的研究重点及成果,针对近年来的研究现状,展望了我国铝(镁)合金消失模铸造的研究方向。

  16. Numerical Simulation Analysis on Filling Process of Lost Foam Casting%消失模铸造充型过程的数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭静; 郭玲宏

    2012-01-01

    Based on numerical simulation software, the filling process of lost foam casting was simulated and the changes of vacuum were analyzed. The producing process and reasons of defects in the fill process such as coanda effect, wrapped gas and anti -spray were studied.%应用计算机数值模拟技术对消失模铸造充型过程仿真,对充型过程中真空度的变化进行分析,研究充型过程中附壁效应、裹气和反喷缺陷的产生过程及原因。

  17. Design of Lost Foam Casting Process for Universal Vacuum Docking Device%消失模铸造万向负压对接装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白金帅

    2012-01-01

    消失模铸造万向负压对接装置,左右调整范围为80 mm,倾斜调整范围为15.,克服了由于砂箱对接口变形及自动生产线定位误差造成的对接错位,解决了负压浇注过程中的漏气问题.%In the lost foam casting process for universal vacuum docking device, by adopting the adjustment range of 80 mm, the tilt adjustment range of 15° can overcome the docking dislocation caused by the interface deformation of sand box and the positioning errors of automated production lines, and solve the problem of leak in vacuum casting process.

  18. The Design of Human-Machine Interface of Lost Foam Casting Shaker%消失模振动台的人机界面系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原云峰

    2012-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the performance and characteristic of the lost foam casting shaker, puts forward the work- ing process of new typed shaker and the design scheme of electrical control; the scheme has the advantages of operation easily, and also can satisfy the casting production process requirements.%介绍了新型雨淋加砂振动台的工作过程及电气控制设计方案,重点阐述了振动台的人机界面设计以及特点;该方案操作方便,能满足不同铸件的生产工艺要求。

  19. Rigid Polyurethane Foam (RPF) Technology for Countermines (Sea) Program Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WOODFIN,RONALD L.; FAUCETT,DAVID L.; HANCE,BRADLEY G.; LATHAM,AMY E.; SCHMIDT,C.O.

    1999-10-01

    This Phase II report documents the results of one subtask initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of Rigid Polyurethane Foams for neutralization of mines and barriers in amphibious assault was the objective of the tasking. This phase of the program concentrated on formation of RPF in water, explosive mine simulations, and development of foam and fabric pontoons. Field experimentation was done primarily at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM between February 1996 and September 1998.

  20. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  1. The Influence of the Shape of the Reaction Chamber on Spheroidisation of Cast Iron Produced in the Lost Foam Casting Process with use of the Inmold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Just

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the influence of the shape of reaction chamber on spheroidisation of cast iron produced with use of the inmold method. The amounts of nodular graphite precipitates in castings produced with the use of different reaction chambers have been compared.

  2. The Influence of the Shape of the Reaction Chamber on Spheroidisation of Cast Iron Produced in the Lost Foam Casting Process with use of the Inmold Method

    OpenAIRE

    Just, P.; T. Pacyniak

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research on the influence of the shape of reaction chamber on spheroidisation of cast iron produced with use of the inmold method. The amounts of nodular graphite precipitates in castings produced with the use of different reaction chambers have been compared.

  3. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macků

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to theproduction of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out whatdimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mouldproduction, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself.Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically.A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meetrequirements specified by a customer were the results.

  4. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-10-01

    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  5. 行星轮架消失模铸造工艺优化%Optimization of Lost Foam Casting Planet Gear Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊康; 吴志超; 雷鸣; 徐琤琤; 解明国

    2012-01-01

    Although lost foam casting (LFC) exhibits many advantages in producing planet gear frame, there exists easily shrinkage porosity (hole) due to its ductile iron and structure features. Shrinkage porosity (hole) was visualized at the key position of the castings by simulating the initial process with the help of the CAE software. The trial-production was conducted to verify the feasibility of the simulated results. The results were accordant with the simulated ones. The casting process was optimized on the basis of proportion solidification theory combined with the CAE software, and qualified planet gear frame was produced successfully.%采用消失模铸造生产行星轮架具有诸多的优势,但其球铁材质及铸件结构原因容易产生缩孔、缩松缺陷.首先使用CAE软件对原铸造工艺进行模拟,发现铸件在关键部位产生了缩孔、缩松;其次进行了铸件试生产,解剖铸件结果验证了模拟的准确性;最后基于均衡凝固理论结合CAE,优化了铸造工艺方案,得到了合格的铸件.

  6. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  7. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-08-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  8. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xuefeng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in their morphologies and growth characteristics in the ingots by both casting methods. In the ingot by iron mould casting, they have a plate-like morphology and grow anisotropically. However, in the ingot made by continuous casting, the carbides evolved into the fiber-like shape that exhibited little characteristics of anisotropic growth. It was noticed that the fiber-like M2C was much easier to decompose and spheroidize after heated, as a result, the carbides refined remarkably, compared with the case of plate-like carbides in the iron mould casting ingot.

  9. Metal Foam Analysis: Improving Sandwich Structure Technology for Engine Fan and Propeller Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    The Life Prediction Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center is searching for ways to construct aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades that are lighter and less costly. One possible design is to create a sandwich structure composed of two metal faces sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets would carry the bending loads and the foam core would have to resist the transverse shear loads. Metal foam is ideal because of its low density and energy absorption capabilities, making the structure lighter, yet still stiff. The material chosen for the face sheets and core was 17-4PH stainless steel, which is easy to make and has appealing mechanical properties. This material can be made inexpensively compared to titanium and polymer matrix composites, the two current fan blade alternatives. Initial tests were performed on design models, including vibration and stress analysis. These tests revealed that the design is competitive with existing designs; however, some problems were apparent that must be addressed before it can be implemented in new technology. The foam did not hold up as well as expected under stress. This could be due to a number of issues, but was most likely a result of a large number of pores within the steel that weakened the structure. The brazing between the face sheets and the foam was also identified as a concern. The braze did not hold up well under shear stress causing the foam to break away from the face sheets. My role in this project was to analyze different options for improving the design. I primarily spent my time examining various foam samples, created with different sintering conditions, to see which exhibited the most favorable characteristics for our purpose. Methods of analysis that I employed included examining strut integrity under a microscope, counting the number of cells per inch, measuring the density, testing the microhardness, and testing the strength under compression. Shear testing will also be done to examine

  10. Centrifugal slip casting for preparing open-cell Al2O3 foam%离心成形法制备开孔氧化铝泡沫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于景媛; 李然; 李强; 李晓东; 孙旭东

    2006-01-01

    Centrifugal slip casting in prefabricated template was used to prepare open-cell Al2O3 foams. Aqueous α- Al2O3 slurries with up to 50% solid contents (volume fraction) were prepared. The sedimentation of slurries during centrifugation was discussed with respect to the hydronamic conditions at large particle concentrations. The effect of solid contents on mass segregation was observed. Segregation phenomena were hindered for slurries with high solid loadings exceeding 50% ( volume fraction). The dried and sintered behaviors of samples were analyzed. The cell struts in green bodies had good particles packing and showed high green density ( 63.4% theory density ). After sintered at 1500 ℃, the cell struts of final products had high sintered density ( 98. 8% theory density) and homogeneous microstructure. The porosity of final products is 75.6%

  11. Study on Compressive Behavior of Open-cell Aluminum Foam by Gypsum Mould Infiltrating Casting%石膏型渗流法制备的开孔泡沫铝的压缩行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴进; 程和法; 黄笑梅; 张燕瑰; 胡志君

    2011-01-01

    本文采用可溶石膏型预制块,通过加压渗流的方法制备了泡沫纯铝、泡沫ZL101合金和泡沫ZL102合金,并通过准静态压缩实验研究了3种不同基体材料的泡沫铝的压缩行为及吸能性能.结果表明:通过石膏型渗流法制备的开孔泡沫铝合金的孔隙率可以达到85%~93.5%;泡沫铝基体材料的力学性能对泡沫铝压缩力学性能有重要影响;泡沫ZL101合金能够吸收最多的能量,且在较大的应力、应变范围内对材料起到缓冲保护作用.%The polymeric reticular sponge was choosen as the mother plate to make the soluble gypsum mould,and after that, through infiltrating casting to fabricate three kinds of open-cell aluminum foam, which are pure aluminum foam, ZL101 aluminum alloy foam and ZL102 aluminum alloy foam. The compressive behaviors and energy-absorption capacities of those different kinds of foams were investigated by the quasi-static compression test. The experimental results indicate that the porosity of the aluminum foams made by the gypsum mould infiltrating casting are 85%~93. 5%;The matrix properties have notable effects on the mechanical behaviors of foams;The ZL101 aluminum alloy foam can absorb the most energy and also can protect the materials in the larger ranges of stress and strain.

  12. Casting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhry, Anil R. (Xenia, OH); Dzugan, Robert (Cincinnati, OH); Harrington, Richard M. (Cincinnati, OH); Neece, Faurice D. (Lyndurst, OH); Singh, Nipendra P. (Pepper Pike, OH)

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  13. BP Neural Network of Continuous Casting Technological Parameters and Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing of Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANG Li-hong; WANG Ai-guo; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Wei-cun; FAN Qiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The continuous casting technological parameters have a great influence on the secondary dendrite arm spacing of the slab, which determines the segregation behavior of materials. Therefore, the identification of technological parameters of continuous casting process directly impacts the property of slab. The relationships between continuous casting technological parameters and cooling rate of slab for spring steel were built using BP neural network model, based on which, the relevant secondary dendrite arm spacing was calculated. The simulation calculation was also carried out using the industrial data. The simulation results show that compared with that of the traditional method, the absolute error of calculation result obtained with BP neural network model reduced from 0. 015 to 0. 0005, and the relative error reduced from 6, 76 % to 0.22 %. BP neural network model had a more precise accuracy in the optimization of continuous casting technological parameters.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF DIE-CASTING MOLDING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuzmich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main details of foundry equipment are developed. Analysis of the process of filling and hardening of casting “Transducer case” is carried out on the basis of methods of mathematic modeling of foundry processes.

  15. Measurement of casting parameters in ZnAlCu3 molds created by additive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Medić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the parameters of casting ZnAl4Cu3 alloy (volume, castability, density and occupancy of the mold in mold made additive technology. Molds made by additive technology are: cheaper in production of a small number of castings, geometrically more accurate and faster made. From obtained results of this paper it is clearly seen that printed mold must be protected with thermal coating because liquid adhesive of powder otherwise evaporates during casting and creates additional moisture in the mold, as it was noted.

  16. Development of a manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron castings from a cupola furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bouska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compacted graphite iron, also known as vermicular cast iron or semiductile cast iron is a modern material, the production of which is increasing globaly. Recently this material has been very often used in automotive industry. This paper reviews some findigs gained during the development of the manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron under the conditions in Slévárna Heunisch Brno, Ltd. The new technology assumes usage of cupola furnace for melting and is beeing developed for production of castings weighing up to 300 kilograms poured into bentonite sand moulds.

  17. Rigid polyurethane foam (RPF) technology for Countermine (Sea) Program -- Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfin, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Exploratory Sensors and Munitions Dept.

    1997-01-01

    This Phase 1 report documents the results of one of the subtasks that was initiated under the joint Department of Energy (DOE)/Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Countermine Warfare. The development of a foam that can neutralize mines and barriers and allow the safe passage of amphibious landing craft and vehicles was the objective of this subtask of the Sea Mine Countermeasures Technology program. This phase of the program concentrated on laboratory characterization of foam properties and field experiments with prefabricated foam blocks to determine the capability of RPF to adequately carry military traffic. It also established the flammability characteristics of the material under simulated operational conditions, extended the understanding of explosive cavity formation in RPF to include surface explosions, established the tolerance to typical military fluids, and the response to bullet impact. Many of the basic analyses required to establish the operational concept are reported. The initial field experiments were conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM in November 1995 through February 1996.

  18. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Jinwu; Huang Tianyou; Liu Baicheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc.In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  19. Review of production status of heavy steel castings and key technologies for their manufacture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Baicheng

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper expatiates on domestic status of heavy steel casting production, with a special focus on hydraulic turbine castings for Three Gorges Project. In China, there is magnificent demand for heavy castings with the rapid growth of the national economy in recent years and the expected high growth in the coming 10 to 20 years. Some heavy and large castings such as mill housing and hydraulic turbine runner crown, blade and band for Three Gorges Project have been successfully made. However, the domestic production capability is still far from meeting the gigantic requirements. The domestic capability still lags behind the world class level, and a lot of heavy castings still depend on import. The paper also gives a particular introduction of the key technologies in the manufacturing of heavy steel castings like metal melting, foundry technology, heat treatment technology and numerical simulation technique, etc. In addition, several case studies on the application of numerical simulation in the production of heavy steel castings are presented.

  20. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  1. Casting Protocols for the Production of Open Cell Aluminum Foams by the Replication Technique and the Effect on Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo Luna, Erardo M.; Barari, Farzad; Woolley, Robert; Goodall, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Metal foams are interesting materials from both a fundamental understanding and practical applications point of view. Uses have been proposed, and in many cases validated experimentally, for light weight or impact energy absorbing structures, as high surface area heat exchangers or electrodes, as implants to the body, and many more. Although great progress has been made in understanding their structure-properties relationships, the large number of different processing techniques, each producing material with different characteristics and structure, means that understanding of the individual effects of all aspects of structure is not complete. The replication process, where molten metal is infiltrated between grains of a removable preform material, allows a markedly high degree of control and has been used to good effect to elucidate some of these relationships. Nevertheless, the process has many steps that are dependent on individual “know-how”, and this paper aims to provide a detailed description of all stages of one embodiment of this processing method, using materials and equipment that would be relatively easy to set up in a research environment. The goal of this protocol and its variants is to produce metal foams in an effective and simple way, giving the possibility to tailor the outcome of the samples by modifying certain steps within the process. By following this, open cell aluminum foams with pore sizes of 1–2.36 mm diameter and 61% to 77% porosity can be obtained. PMID:25548938

  2. Development of CAD software package of intellectualized casting technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hua; CHENG Jun; XU Hong

    2005-01-01

    Based on the numerical simulation of solidification, a computer aid design(CAD) software package of casting technique was developed to design the rising system intelligently. The software can calculate the size and locate the situations of the isolated melts. According to the liquid shrinkage of each isolated melts and the standard parameters of risers in the database, the riser's situation and the size can be identified intelligently as long as the riser's shape is selected. 3-D software and simulation analysis of CAST soft/computer aid engineering(CAE) software show that the design of the riser and the running system is feasible.

  3. Vermicular cast iron production in the “Inmold” technology (in the Metalpol casting house and the assessment of its thermal fatigue resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zych

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of obtaining the vermicular cast iron in the “Inmold” technology and the results of the thermal fatigue investigations, are presented in the paper. The influence of the maximum cycle temperature (Tmax on the thermal fatigue resistance was examined by means of the L.F. Coffin method. The cast iron structure change caused by the thermal fatigue is presented in the paper. When the vermicular cast iron is subjected to the thermal fatigue the matrix ferritisation occurs, which leads to the strength, Rm., decrease. The heating process of the vermicular cast iron is slower as compared to the spheroidal cast iron, whereas the cooling process is faster. Under the same conditions of heat exchanging the vermicular cast iron is heated to a much lower temperature than the spheroidal one. Together with the maximum heating temperature increase the thermal fatigue resistance decreases.

  4. Mechanical and thermal property characterization of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) scaffold developed using pressure-controllable green foaming technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shen-Jun [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hu, Xiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Department of Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Wang, Fang, E-mail: wangfang@njnu.edu.cn [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Ma, Qing-Yu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics of Jiangsu Province, School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Min-Fen [Center of Analysis and Testing, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most promising biological materials used for tissue engineering scaffolds (TES) because of their excellent biodegradability and tenability. Here, microcellular PLLA foams were fabricated by pressure-controllable green foaming technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction measurement (WAXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, enzymatic degradation study and MTT assay were used to analyze the scaffolds' morphologies, structures and crystallinities, mechanical and biodegradation properties, as well as their cytotoxicity. The results showed that PLLA foams with pore sizes from 8 to 103 μm diameters were produced when the saturation pressure decreased from 7.0 to 4.0 MPa. Through a combination of StepScan DSC (SSDSC) and WAXRD approaches, it was observed in PLLA foams that the crystallinity, highly-oriented metastable state and rigid amorphous phase increased with the increasing foaming pressure. It was also found that both the glass transition temperature and apparent enthalpy of PLLA significantly increased after the foaming process, which suggested that the changes of microcellular structure could provide PLLA scaffolds better thermal stability and elasticity. Moreover, MTT assessments suggested that the smaller pore size should benefit cell attachment and growth in the scaffold. The results of current work will give us better understanding of the mechanisms involved in structure and property changes of PLLA at the molecular level, which enables more possibilities for the design of PLLA scaffold to satisfy various requirements in biomedical and green chemical applications. - Highlights: • Pressure-controllable green foaming technology is used. • The crystallinity and rigid amorphous fraction is calculated by using DSC and XRD. • We examine the changes of

  5. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  6. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  7. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  8. Application of welding technology TIG to cast iron repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Rcpnir nT cnst imn clcrncnts rcaEi7c in ordcr to cut out a sltpcrficial casting dcfcc~s, Dcrccis clccrcasc ;z usahiliny nt ca~rings torconsin~ciionaal pplication m d incrcasc a manufacturing costs. Thc pnpcr prcsclrls rcscarch rcsufts or itsc o r '1'IG - Tun~stcnI ncn Gas alsokncwn RS GTA - Gas Tunpstcn Arc surfacin: hy wclding on colt1 and half-hot to rcpnls chrninil~m cnsr iron EN-GJN-XCrlS withcliro~niurnc ontcnt nhout 3 5% and nodular ({vi~hF crritic-pcarli~ic matrix cast iron EN-GJS-500-7. Thc rcsttl~o r invcsiigations showpossibility of cns~ings rcpais hy put on derccts a good quality padding wclds, which havc compamhlc nr hcricr propcrtlcs than hnsc~naicrial.

  9. A study on the effect of coating's sorption capacity on the porosity in lost foam aluminum alloy casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Effects of coating constituent, coating density, coating layer thickness and temperature on coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products have been studied systematically. It has been found that the effect of attapulgite clay on sorption capacity is the largest among coating constituents. The sorption capacity of the coating with 2 %attapulgite clay is elevated by 81%. The relationship between casting porosity and coating sorption capacity has been studied. It has been pointed out that higher coating sorption capacity for polystyrene decomposition products is helpful to decrease the casting porosity. Results also show that the sorption capacity of self- developed HW- 1 coating for polystyrene decomposition products is as good as that of Ashland coating from America.

  10. Analysis of key technologies and development of integrated digital processing system for cast blasting design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小华; 李克民; 肖双双; 狐为民

    2015-01-01

    Casting blast can greatly reduce the stripping cost and improve the production capacity of opencast coal mines. Key technologies including high bench blasting, inclined hole, millisecond blasting, pre-splitting blasting and casting blast parameters determination which have influence on the effect of casting blast have been researched with the combination of the ballistic theory and experience in mines. The integrated digital processing system of casting blast was developed in order to simplify the design process of casting blast, improve working efficiency and veracity of design result and comprehensively adopt the software programming method and the theory of casting blast. This system has achieved five functions, namely, the 3D visualization graphics management, the intelligent management of geological information, the intelligent design of casting blast, the analysis and prediction of the blasting effect and the automatic output of the design results. Long-term application in opencast coal mines has shown that research results can not only reduce the specific explosive consumption and improve the blasting effect, but also have high value of popularization and application.

  11. Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Model Sistem Saluran Dan Variasi Temperatur Tuang Terhadap Prosentase Porositas, Kekerasan Dan Harga Impact Pada Pengecoran Adc 12 Dengan Metode Lost Foam Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Yanuar Salam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metode pengecoran lost foam merupakan metode yang tergolong baru dalam industri pengecoran logam. Pada saat ini belum banyak industri pengecoran logam yang menggunakan metode ini dalam memproduksi benda cor. Sedikitnya industri yang menerapkan metode pengecoran ini, yang mendorong untuk melakukan percobaan pengecoran dengan menggunakan metode lost foam, dengan melakukan perbedaan variasi temperatur tuang dan variasi model sistem saluran. Proses pengecoran dengan metode lost foam ini menggunakan styrofoam sebagai polanya, yang ditanam dalam cetakan yang berisi pasir silika kering (tanpa pengikat kemudian cetakan digetarkan untuk memadatkan pasir. Ketika logam cair dimasukkan ke dalam cetakan, maka styrofoam akan menguap sampai cetakan tersebut terisi penuh oleh logam cair. Dalam penelitian ini, parameter yang digunakan adalah model sistem saluran dan variasi temperatur tuang terhadap kualitas hasil coran, diantaranya kekerasan, harga impact, prosentase porositas dan struktur mikro. Material yang digunakan dalam pengecoran ini adalah ADC (Aluminium Die Casting 12. Parameter pertama yaitu model sistem saluran meliputi saluran samping, saluran bawah, saluran bawah dengan 2 gate dan saluran bawah dengan 3 gate dengan temperatur tuang konstan 700°C. Parameter kedua yaitu variasi perbedaan temperatur tuang antara 700°C, 750°C, 800°C dan 850°C dengan sistem saluran samping. Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh bahwa sistem saluran samping memiliki prosentase cacat porositas paling sedikit dibanding sistem saluran lainnya yaitu sebesar 2,7535% dan memiliki harga impact rata-rata paling besar yaitu 0,0275 J/mm2 pada potongan 1 dan 0,0660 J/mm2 pada potongan 2. Variasi temperatur tuang berpengaruh terhadap banyaknya cacat porositas dan harga impact rata-rata. Temperatur tuang 700°C dibanding temperatur tuang yang lain memiliki cacat porositas paling sedikit dan harga impact rata-rata paling besar yaitu 0,0275 J/mm2 pada potongan 1 dan 0,0660 J/mm2

  12. The influence of calcium on technological properties and micropurity of steel castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hampl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the technological parameters, micro-purity and mechanical properties of castings of steel alloyed with calcium. The effect of calcium on the steel was analyzed on samples taken in the process of casting heavy castings and ingots of the weight of ranging from 40 000 to 60 000 kg. Samples for the determination of the liquidus temperature and the solidus temperature of cast steels were analysed using differential thermal analysis (DTA. The production of low alloyed steel grades was performed on the EAF - ASEA-SKF facilities and the production of highalloyed steels on the EAF - ASEA-SKF - SS-VOD facilities. The purity calcium was added into the steel by the injection of a stuffed profile.

  13. SOME ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF CASTINGS IN COATED CHILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of technological process of pouring into coated iron chill is presented. It is shown that the process is very sensitive to the change of technological parameters, is rather complex in regulation and control.

  14. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan; Zhanping You

    2016-01-01

    Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as f...

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-Gd-Y-Zr alloy cast by metal mould and lost foam casting%金属型铸造和消失模铸造Mg-Gd-Y-Zr合金的组织结构和力学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉林; 陈荣石; 柯伟

    2011-01-01

    研究金属型铸造和消失模铸造Mg-10.1Gd-3.74Y-0.25zr(质量分数,%)合金的组织结构和力学性能.结果表明:采用两种铸造工艺得到的合金具有相似的铸态组织,均由а-Mg固溶体相、а-Mg+Mg(Gd,Y)5共晶相和立方状Mg5(Gd,Y)相组成:但金属型铸造合金的晶粒尺寸明显小于消失模铸造合金.经525℃,6 h固溶处理后,合金中的共晶相完全溶入基体中,而立方状Mg5(Gd,Y)相仍然存在.固溶处理后的合金在225℃时效处理24 h后达到硬化峰值.经过时效处理后,消失模铸造合金和金属型铸造合金的室温抗拉强度分别提高到285 MPa和325 MPa,但两者的屈服强度相差不大.与金属型铸造相比,消失模铸造过程中合金的冷却速度相对较慢,而且消失模铸造Mg-Gd-Y-zr合金铸件更容易产生缩松等铸造缺陷,这是造成两种合金强度差异的主要原因.%The microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-10.1 Gd-3.74Y-0.25Zr (mass fraction, %) alloy (GW104 alloy) cast by metal mould casting (MMC) and lost foam casting (LFC) were evaluated, respectively. It is revealed that different forming modes do not influence the phase composition of as-cast alloy. In the as-cast specimens, the microstructures are similar and composed of size of the alloy produced by metal mould casting is smaller than that by lost foam casting. The eutectic compound of the alloy is completely dissolved after solution treatment at 525 ℃ for 6 h, while the Mg5(Gd, Y) phase still exists after solution treatment. After peak-ageing, the lost foam cast alloy exhibits the maximum ultimate tensile strength of 285 MPa, and metal mould cast specimen 325 MPa at room temperature, while the tensile yield strengths of them are comparable. It can be concluded that GWl04 alloy cast by lost foam casting possesses similar microstructure and evidently lower mechanical strength compared with metal mould cast alloy, due to slow solidification rate and proneness to form

  16. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF EMERGING PIPE WALL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR LARGE CAST IRON WATER MAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a large-scale field demonstration of innovative leak detection/location and condition assessment technologies on a 76-year old, 2,500-ft long, cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY from July through Septembe...

  17. Laser welding of SSM Cast A356 aluminium alloy processed with CSIR-Rheo technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akhter, R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of aluminium alloy A356 were manufactured by Semi Solid Metals HPDC technology, developed recently in CSIR, Pretoria. They were butt welded in as cast conditions using as Nd: YAG laser. The best metal and weld microstructure were presented...

  18. Investigations of Properties of Wax Mixtures Used in the Investment Casting Technology – New Investigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zych

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of testing of the selected group of wax mixtures used in the investment casting technology, are presented in the paper. Themeasurements of the kinetics of the mixtures shrinkage and changes of viscous-plastic properties as a temperature function wereperformed. The temperature influence on bending strength of wax mixtures was determined.

  19. Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor: A New Technology for Biotreatment of Airborne Volatile Organic Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghorbani Shahna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological treatment is a new established technology for the air pollutants. This technology can be an alternative for physical and chemical treatment methods. Among bioreators, the Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor (BFER is a new alternative that has not the problems of the conventional ones. In this reactor bed clogging in the conventional bioreactor was resolved by bioactive foam as a substitute of packing bed. The pollutant absorption has been increased using biocompatible organic phase in liquid .This reactor can be used for higher inlet toluene concentration. The objective of this study was designing and optimizing the operational parameters of BFER for toluene treatment.Materials & Methods: In the first step of this experimental-analytic study, the toluene degradation microorganisms were identified, extracted and concentrated for injection to bioreactor. Then the effect of several parameters such as Kind and concentration of organic phase,and residence time oxygen content on bioreactor performance were studied and the optimum conditions were selected for continuous operation. The continuous operation of bioreactor was monitored at the optimum conditions.Results: Experimental results showed that the residence time of 15s, oxygen content of 40%, and the 4 % (v/v n-hexadecane as organic phase were the optimum conditions. The average elimination capacity (EC and removal efficiency of bioreactor were 231.68 g/m3h and 88.44% respectively for the inlet concentration about of 1 g/m3. The statistical developed model predicted that the maximum EC of this reactor could reach to 426.21 g/m3h.Conclusion: Since the elimination capacity of this reactor is several times more than the other bioreactors, it has the potential to be applied instead of biofilters and biotrickling filters.

  20. EXAMPLES OF 3D-TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PROCESSES. DECREASE IN METAL CONSUMPTION IN CASTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Doroshenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the design of metal castings produced by use of 3D-technologies. Some new ways of 3D-processing of materials connected with additive processes are described, which represents the next step in environmental resource-saving production. Examples of patterns and casting of complex design with an optimal combination of materials, durability and attractive appearance are shown. Described 3D high-tech processes are expanding the existing range of metal products and the ways of its production.

  1. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as foaming agents through the measurements of rotational viscosity, the reduction in temperature during foaming, and volatile loss. The ethanol-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 80 °C and 100 °C, while the water-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 100 °C and 120 °C. Additionally, the rolling thin film oven (RTFO was used to generate short-term aging of the foamed asphalt binders. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of the asphalt binders at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. Overall, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam. It is proven based on the smaller drop in temperature of the asphalt binder foamed using ethanol compared with that prepared with water. This is due to the lower latent heat capacity of ethanol, which requires less energy to vaporize compared with water. Through the rotational viscometer test, ethanol performs better in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, which is essential in allowing production processes at low temperatures, as well as a better workability and aggregate coating. Ethanol can be expelled from the foamed asphalt binders at a higher rate due to its lower boiling point and latent heat.

  2. Effect of melting technology on the properties of G17CrMo5-5 steel for cast turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mańkowski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two technologies of the G17CrMo 5-5 cast steel melting were compared, i.e. the so far used oxygen-recovery melting technology (electricarc furnace + ladle furnace – EAF + LF and a new recovery melting technology (electric induction furnace + ladle furnace - EIF + LF.The effect of the melting technology on the properties of cast steel for turbine parts was determined. The cast steel was evaluated in term of its metallurgical purity and mechanical properties. During melting of G17CrMo 5-5 steel in induction furnace, lower total content of oxygen in casting was reached, but nitrogen content was higher than it was in the cast steel from arc furnace. Metal refining in LF improved the steel desulphurising degree and contributed to modification of the non-metallic inclusions.

  3. Advanced manufacturing technologies of large martensitic stainless steel castings with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yanchun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The key manufacturing technologies associated with composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, casting quality and key process control for large martensitic stainless steel castings are involved in this paper. The achievements fully satisfied the technical requirements of the large 700 MW stainless steel hydraulic turbine runner for the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, and become the major technical support for the design and manufacture of the largest 700 MW hydraulic turbine generator unit in the world developed through our own efforts. The characteristics of a new high yield to tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness are also described. Over the next ten years, the large martensitic stainless steel castings and advanced manufacturing technologies will see a huge demand in clean energy industry such as nuclear power, hydraulic power at home and abroad. Therefore, the new high yield o tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel materials, the fast and flexible manufacturing technologies of large size castings, and new environment friendly sustainable process will face new challenges and opportunities.

  4. Improvement of Castability and Surface Quality of Continuously Cast TWIP Slabs by Molten Mold Flux Feeding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wook; Yoo, Shin; Park, Min-Seok; Park, Joong-Kil; Moon, Ki-Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    An innovative continuous casting process named POCAST (POSCO's advanced CASting Technology) was developed based on molten mold flux feeding technology to improve both the productivity and the surface quality of cast slabs. In this process, molten mold flux is fed into the casting mold to enhance the thermal insulation of the meniscus and, hence, the lubrication between the solidifying steel shell and the copper mold. Enhancement of both the castability and the surface quality of high-aluminum advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) slabs is one of the most important advantages when the new process has been applied into the commercial continuous casting process. A trial cast of TWIP steel has been carried out using a 10-ton scale pilot caster and 100-ton scale and 250-ton scale commercial casters. The amount of mold flux consumption was more than 0.2 kg/m2 in the new process, which is much larger than that in the conventional powder casting. Trial TWIP castings at both the pilot and the plant caster showed stable mold performances such as mold heat transfer. Also, cast slabs showed periodic/sound oscillation marks and little defects. The successful casting of TWIP steel has been attributed to the following characteristics of POCAST: dilution of the reactant by increasing the slag pool depth, enlargement of channel for slag film infiltration at meniscus by elimination of the slag bear, and decrease of apparent viscosity of the mold slag at meniscus by increasing the slag temperature.

  5. Improvement of Castability and Surface Quality of Continuously Cast TWIP Slabs by Molten Mold Flux Feeding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Wook; Yoo, Shin; Park, Min-Seok; Park, Joong-Kil; Moon, Ki-Hyeon

    2017-02-01

    An innovative continuous casting process named POCAST (POSCO's advanced CASting Technology) was developed based on molten mold flux feeding technology to improve both the productivity and the surface quality of cast slabs. In this process, molten mold flux is fed into the casting mold to enhance the thermal insulation of the meniscus and, hence, the lubrication between the solidifying steel shell and the copper mold. Enhancement of both the castability and the surface quality of high-aluminum advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) slabs is one of the most important advantages when the new process has been applied into the commercial continuous casting process. A trial cast of TWIP steel has been carried out using a 10-ton scale pilot caster and 100-ton scale and 250-ton scale commercial casters. The amount of mold flux consumption was more than 0.2 kg/m2 in the new process, which is much larger than that in the conventional powder casting. Trial TWIP castings at both the pilot and the plant caster showed stable mold performances such as mold heat transfer. Also, cast slabs showed periodic/sound oscillation marks and little defects. The successful casting of TWIP steel has been attributed to the following characteristics of POCAST: dilution of the reactant by increasing the slag pool depth, enlargement of channel for slag film infiltration at meniscus by elimination of the slag bear, and decrease of apparent viscosity of the mold slag at meniscus by increasing the slag temperature.

  6. Effects of Pressure Field on Structure and Properties of Loot Foam Casting ZL101 Alloy%压力场对ZL101铝合金消失模铸造性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐波; 樊自田; 赵忠; 潘迪; 成平

    2009-01-01

    采用自行研制的压力凝固试验装置,研究了ZL101铝合金消失模铸造过程中,不同的压力和加压速率对铸件性能的影响.试验结果表明,随着外加压力的增加.铸件的密度和力学性能逐步提高,孔隙率显著降低,当外加压力达到0.5MPa以上时,ZL101消失模铸件的力学性能提高趋缓;加压时,不同的加压速率对消失模铸件的密度及性能影响很大,当加压速率为0.003~0.030 MPa/s时,铝合金消失模铸件性能较好;由于在压力下凝固,ZL101铝合金消失模铸件针孔等缺陷减少、密度提高,铸件耐腐蚀性进一步提高.%We have developed a set of pressurization solidification experimental apparatus to examine the effects of varied pressures "and pressurization rate on mechanical properties of lost foam casting ZL101 alu-minum alloy components. The results show that with increasing in applied pressure, the density and me-chanical properties of the lost foam casting ZL101 al-loy components are improved gradually, and porosity rate in the castings is greatly decreased, meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the castings exhibit slightly increasing tendency. With a fixed pressure, the density and properties of the casting are closely re-lated to the pressurization rates. The lost foam casting ZL101 alloy components exhibit desirable performance at pressurization rate of 0. 003 MPa~0. 03 MPa. In addition, corrosion resistance of the alloy components is further improved as a result of the increase of densi-ty and decrease of pin-hole defects in the components at pressurization solidification.

  7. Mechanical and thermal property characterization of poly-l-lactide (PLLA) scaffold developed using pressure-controllable green foaming technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shen-Jun; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Fang; Ma, Qing-Yu; Gu, Min-Fen

    2015-04-01

    Poly-l-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most promising biological materials used for tissue engineering scaffolds (TES) because of their excellent biodegradability and tenability. Here, microcellular PLLA foams were fabricated by pressure-controllable green foaming technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction measurement (WAXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, reflection-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, enzymatic degradation study and MTT assay were used to analyze the scaffolds' morphologies, structures and crystallinities, mechanical and biodegradation properties, as well as their cytotoxicity. The results showed that PLLA foams with pore sizes from 8 to 103μm diameters were produced when the saturation pressure decreased from 7.0 to 4.0MPa. Through a combination of StepScan DSC (SSDSC) and WAXRD approaches, it was observed in PLLA foams that the crystallinity, highly-oriented metastable state and rigid amorphous phase increased with the increasing foaming pressure. It was also found that both the glass transition temperature and apparent enthalpy of PLLA significantly increased after the foaming process, which suggested that the changes of microcellular structure could provide PLLA scaffolds better thermal stability and elasticity. Moreover, MTT assessments suggested that the smaller pore size should benefit cell attachment and growth in the scaffold. The results of current work will give us better understanding of the mechanisms involved in structure and property changes of PLLA at the molecular level, which enables more possibilities for the design of PLLA scaffold to satisfy various requirements in biomedical and green chemical applications.

  8. A reliable and consistent production technology for high volume compacted graphite iron castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jincheng

    2014-01-01

    The demands for improved engine performance, fuel economy, durability, and lower emissions provide a continual chalenge for engine designers. The use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) has been established for successful high volume series production in the passenger vehicle, commercial vehicle and industrial power sectors over the last decade. The increased demand for CGI engine components provides new opportunities for the cast iron foundry industry to establish efficient and robust CGI volume production processes, in China and globaly. The production window range for stable CGI is narrow and constantly moving. Therefore, any one step single addition of magnesium aloy and the inoculant cannot ensure a reliable and consistent production process for complicated CGI engine castings. The present paper introduces the SinterCast thermal analysis process control system that provides for the consistent production of CGI with low nodularity and reduced porosity, without risking the formation of lfake graphite. The technology is currently being used in high volume Chinese foundry production. The Chinese foundry industry can develop complicated high demand CGI engine castings with the proper process control technology.

  9. Morphological Investigation of Foamed Aluminum Parts Produced by Melt Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Surace

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal materials are a new class of materials with low densities, large specific surface, and novel physical and mechanical properties. Their applications are extremely varied: for light weight structural components, for filters and electrodes, and for shock or sound absorbing products. Recently, interesting foaming technology developments have proposed metallic foams as a valid commercial chance; foam manufacturing techniques include solid, liquid, or vapor state methods. The foams presented in this study are produced by Melt Gas Injection (MGI process starting from melt aluminum. The aim of this investigation is to obtain complex foamed aluminum parts in order to make the MGI more flexible. This new method, called MGI-mould process, makes possible to produce 3D-shaped parts with complicated shape or configuration using some moulds obtained by traditional investment casting process.

  10. Energy Saving Melting andRevert Reduction Technology (E0SMARRT): Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimension for Investment Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Cannell; Dr. Mark Samonds; Adi Sholapurwalla; Sam Scott

    2008-11-21

    The investment casting process is an expendable mold process where wax patterns of the part and rigging are molded, assembled, shelled and melted to produce a ceramic mold matching the shape of the component to be cast. Investment casting is an important manufacturing method for critical parts because of the ability to maintain dimensional shape and tolerances. However, these tolerances can be easily exceeded if the molding components do not maintain their individual shapes well. In the investment casting process there are several opportunities for the final casting shape to not maintain the intended size and shape, such as shrinkage of the wax in the injection tool, the modification of the shape during shell heating, and with the thermal shrink and distortion in the casting process. Studies have been completed to look at the casting and shell distortions through the process in earlier phases of this project. Dr. Adrian Sabau at Oak Ridge National Labs performed characterizations and validations of 17-4 PH stainless steel in primarily fused silica shell systems with good agreement between analysis results and experimental data. Further tasks provided material property measurements of wax and methodology for employing a viscoelastic definition of wax materials into software. The final set of tasks involved the implementation of the findings into the commercial casting analysis software ProCAST, owned and maintained by ESI Group. This included: o the transfer of the wax material property data from its raw form into separate temperature-dependent thermophysical and mechanical property datasets o adding this wax material property data into an easily viewable and modifiable user interface within the pre-processing application of the ProCAST suite, namely PreCAST o and validating the data and viscoelastic wax model with respect to experimental results

  11. Low-energy thermal processing technology of foamed concrete products in landfills using solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauzhanov Nabi Tokmurzaevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comprehensive research and industrial development there is a new method developed for accelerating the hardening of foamed products using thermal heating of products by soft modes, which allows to receive high quality material and organize energy-efficient and environmentally friendly production of foam concrete products.

  12. Time-Series Analysis Technologies Applied to the Study of Carbon Element Distribution Along Casting Direction in Continuous-Casting Billet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zibing; Cheng, Guoguang; Wu, Chengchuan; Chen, Chao

    2012-12-01

    The carbon element distributions along casting direction at centerline position, V-shaped segregation band, and columnar to equiaxed transformation (CET) position in continuous-casting billet have been first obtained by the original position statistic distribution analysis (OPA). Different location points at a certain position were formed along the opposite direction of casting direction with the lapse of the time, so the carbon mass fractions of different location points at a certain position can be considered as a time series. Based on the actual result, some typical time-series analysis technologies, such as the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, were used to analyze the characteristics of the three time series. It is found that there is some periodicity in the carbon element distribution at centerline position, and the correlation relationship between centerline position and CET position is closer than that between the centerline position and V-shaped segregation band at the same location point along the casting direction. Moreover, the element distribution along the casting direction is one of the solidifying results with the lapse of the time, so it is possible to investigate the characteristics of the system about the solidification process of continuous-casting billet by using these time series. Then it shows that there is a chaos feature in the system about the solidification process of studied continuous-casting billet on the basis of Hurst exponents and saturated correlative dimensions. Meanwhile, the formation process of carbon element distribution along casting direction can be described as fractional Brownian motion, and the upper and lower limits of the number of internal independent variables were determined in order to describe the formation process of carbon element distributions at different positions of the studied billet. Finally, the stochastic extent at V-shaped segregation band is found to be the largest, and it needs

  13. Preparation of QTi4.3-4Graghite Composite by Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; DU Yunhui; LIU Hanwu; ZENG Daben; BA Limin

    2005-01-01

    The electromagnetic-mechanical stirring technology was employed for preparing QTi4.3-4 graghite composite slurry, and QTi4.3-4 graghite composite with uniform distribution of graphite particles was prepared using the semi-solid casting technology successfully. The structure of this QTi4.3-4 graghite composite was studied and the condition for uniform distribution of graphite particles was got. The experimental results show that there exists a linear relationship between the solid fraction aud the stirring temperature of QTi4.3-4 graphite slurry. With the decreasing of stirring temperature, the solid fraction of QTi4.3-4 graghite slurry increases constantly. In casting, with the iucreasing of solid fraction of QTi4.3-4graghite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles is removed gradually. When the solid fraction is higher than 40% , graphite particles can distribute evenly in QTi4.3-4 graghite composite.

  14. Assessment of the possibility of utilisation of used ceramic moulds originated from the investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of wastes generated by investment casting technology and discussion on possibilities of disposal of the largest quantity waste from this technology - used ceramic mould is presented in the paper. Preliminary examinations of disintegration process of used ceramic mould conducted in various testing conditions were performed in the frame of presented research. Applied system of disintegration doesn’twarrant obtained material to be suitable for reuse in production of ceramic moulds. Investigations of the inter-phase boundary: ceramicmould-casting were performed to examine environmental harmfulness of used ceramic moulds. Additionally ecologic assessment of spentmoulds by means of it’s elution in the aspect of qualifying possibilities of it’s disposal were performed. Gained results qualify the waste from ceramic mould to storage in deposits for neutral wastes.

  15. Effect of Pouring Temperature on the Defects of Aluminum Alloy Lost Foam Castings%浇注温度对消失模铝合金铸件缺陷的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新智

    2013-01-01

    This article briefs the formation mechanism of fold defects in aluminum alloy lost foam castings; taking gearbox housing for example, pouring at different temperature and analyzing the casting fold defects, testifying that higher pouring temperature is beneficial for reducing the quantities and areas of fold defects.%简述了消失模铝合金铸件碳夹杂冷隔缺陷形成的机理,以变速箱壳体铸件为例,对在不同浇注温度条件下的碳夹杂冷隔缺陷进行分析,表明高温有利于减少碳夹杂冷隔缺陷的数量及面积.

  16. Technology development for thin strip metal casting, Phase 2: Final technical report. [Melt spinning or planar flow casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1988-03-07

    The Phase II program has been conducted by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric Corporation and Armco, Inc., with the objective of providing a suitably sized experimental planar flow casting machine, and using it to perform casting trials to address the above technical uncertainties for cast thicknesses and speeds representative of industrial production, and with sufficient duration to diminish thermal transient effects. A nominally 7 ft. diameter water-cooled copper wheel planar flow casting system has been designed, fabricated and installed in a dedicated 15,000 sq. ft. foundry facility are Armco Inc., Middletown, Ohio. This system is capable of casting 3 in. wide strip and operating at surface speeds up to 25 ft/sec. Additionally, the facility also contains a 16 in. diameter water-cooled wheel with interchangeable casting substrates of different materials. This small wheel facility has been adapted to utilize the melt overflow process for casting of 3 in. wide strip. These casting facilities are supported by a 500 lb. induction melting furnace and necessary liquid steel handling equipment. Adequate techniques have been developed for transportation and filtering of liquid steel without undue temperature loss. Good control of the planar flow casting process was not achieved during this program, however given such control and the adoption of clean steel practices, the inference is that the process will be capable of producing strip which is readily cold-rollable in the as-cast condition. After cold rolling and annealing, such material should have useful mechanical properties. 8 refs., 112 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Trappings of technology: casting palliative care nursing as legal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann-Claire

    2012-12-01

    Community palliative care nurses in Perth have joined the throng of healthcare workers relying on personal digital assistants (PDAs) to store, access and send client information in 'real time'. This paper is guided by Heidegger's approach to technologies and Habermas' insights into the role of law in administering social welfare programs to reveal how new ethical and legal understandings regarding patient information add to nursing's professional responsibilities. This qualitative research interprets data from interviews with twenty community palliative care nurses about clients' legal rights to informational privacy and confidentiality. It explores nurses' views of their nursing responsibilities regarding clients' legal rights, liability issues, bureaucratic monitoring and enforcement procedures. It concludes that nurses and clients are construed as legal subjects entrenched in legal relations that have magnified since these nurses began using PDAs in 2005/2006. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effect of pattern coating thickness on characteristics of lost foam Al-Si-Cu alloy casting%涂层厚度对消失模铸Al-Si-Cu合金铸件的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid KARIMIAN; Ali OURDJINI; Mohd HASBULLAH IDRIS; Hassan JAFARI

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study on lost foam casting of an Al-Si-Cu alloy was conducted.The main objective was to study the effect of pattern coating thickness on casting imperfection and porosity percentage as well as eutectic silicon spacing of the alloy.The results showed that increasing slurry viscosity and flask dipping time influenced the casting integrity and microstructural characteristics.It was found that thinner pattern coating produced improved mould filling,refined microstructure and higher quality castings containing less porosity.%对Al-Si-Cu合金进行消失模铸造,研究涂层厚度对Al-Si-Cu合金铸件缺陷、孔隙率和共晶硅间距的影响.结果表明,提高涂层浆料黏度和延长浸渍时间对铸件的完整性和显微组织有影响.薄的涂层有利于模腔充填性能的改善、显微组织的细化和低孔隙度高质量铸件的获得.

  19. Aqueous foam as a less-than-lethal technology for prison applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Tommy D.

    1997-01-01

    High expansion aqueous foam is an aggregation of bubbles that has the appearance of soap suds and is used to isolate individuals both visually and acoustically. It was developed in the 1920's in England to fight coal mine fires and has been widely used since for fire fighting and dust suppression. It was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in the 1970's for nuclear safeguards and security applications. In late 1994, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research arm of the Department of Justice, began a project with SNL to determine the applicability of high expansion aqueous foam for correctional applications. NIJ funded the project as part of its search for new and better less-than-lethal weapons for responding to violent and dangerous individuals, where other means of force could lead to serious injuries. The phase one objectives of the project were to select a low-to-no toxicity foam concentrate with physical characteristics suited for use in a single cell or large prison disturbances, and to determine if the selected foam concentrate could serve as a carrier for Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) irritant. The phase two objective were to conduct an extensive toxicology review of the selected foam concentrate and OC irritant, and to conduct respiration simulation experiments in the selected high expansion aqueous foam. The phase three objectives were to build a prototype individual cell aqueous foam system and to study the feasibility of aqueous foams for large prison facility disturbances. The phase four and five objectives were to use the prototype system to do large scale foam physical characteristics testing of the selected foam concentrate, and to have the prototype single cell system further evaluated by correctional representatives. Prison rather than street scenarios were evaluated as the first and most likely place for using the aqueous foam since prisons have recurrent incidents where officers and inmates might be seriously injured during

  20. Investigation of field temperature in moulds of foamed plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plaster moulds used in precision foundry are characterized by a very low permeability which, in the case of classic plaster moulds, equals to about 0,01÷0,02 m2/(MPa·s. One of the most effective methods for increasing the permeability is a foaming treatment. Another characteristic feature of plaster is its very good insulating power which has influence on the process of solidification and cooling of a cast and also on a knock-out property. This insulating power is a function of thermophysical properties of plaster which, in turn, depend mainly on the mineralogical composition of the mould material, its bulk density as well as on the temperature of the pouring alloy. In the case of a foamed plaster mould an increase of the degree of foaming increases its porosity which causes a change in its thermophysical properties, thereby increasing susceptibility of the mass to overheating. The susceptibility of the plaster layer surrounding the cast to overheating is favorable because it makes it easier to knock-out of the cast by immersing the hot mould in cold water. Thermal and phase tensions that are created during this process cause fast destruction of plaster. This paper describes our investigations aimed at the determination of the dependence of the mould temperature field on the time of the cast stay in the mould, as recorded in a process of an unsteady heat flow. The determined data were planned to be used for estimation of the technological properties of the plaster mould. The tests were carried out using the plaster α-Supraduro and Alkanol XC (foaming agent. The test mould had a diameter of Ø 120 mm with centrally situated mould cavity of Ø 30 mm. Plaster moulds with a degree of foaming 20; 32,5 and 45% and comparatively from non-foaming plaster were tested and their temperatures were measured at the distance x=2; 9; 21; 25;27; 30 mm from the mould cavity within 25 min. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion, that the highest

  1. Production of Stell Ball for E-type Coal Mill by Lost Foam Casting and Its Numerical Simulation%E型磨煤机钢球消失模铸造工艺及数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞丽; 叶升平; 薛国祯; 孙爱民

    2012-01-01

    用消失模工艺铸造E型磨煤机用耐磨空心钢球,设计了侧注、顶注两种工艺方案,并用华铸CAE分析系统对两种方案进行充型和凝固模拟,并对两种方案的模拟结果进行分析和对比.另将试验结果和模拟结果作对比.分析了在铸造大型空心钢球方面,用消失模工艺方法生产的优势和劣势.%A wear-resistant hollow stell ball for E-type coal mill was produced by lost foam casting process. Two pouring schemes including the top pouring and the side pouring were designed. The filling and solidification of the two schemes were simulated by the Huazhu CAE software. The simulated results were analyzed comparatively. And the experiment results were well in agreement with the simulated ones. The advantages and disadvantages of producing large wear-resistant hollow steel ball with lost foam casting process were described.

  2. Development of a rolling technology for twin-roll cast magnesium strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ullmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the best lightweight potential of all metallic construction materials, magnesium primarily helps to increase energy efficiency over the lifecycle of automotive and non-automotive industrial products. Yet to assess overall energy efficiency, the production process must also be taken into account. This paper provides an insight into the energy-efficient production of magnesium strips up to 0,8 mm in thickness based on twin-roll casting and strip rolling on an industrial scale, as developed at the Institute of Metal Forming at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany in cooperation with MgF Magnesium Flachprodukte GmbH (Germ any. The technology of twin-roll casting and strip rolling on a four-high reversing mill is described.

  3. The technology transfer of non-ferrous alloys casting during the middle age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garbacz-Klempka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on the findings from the metallographic analysis of 13th c. archaeological objects from Chełm (eastern Poland. The group submitted for analysis includes jeweller’s dies used in the production of women’s ceremonial ornaments, crucibles and bronze ornaments. The Mongol invasion of 13th c. had caused craftsmen from central areas of East Europe to flee and seek shelter in the western parts of Rus. It may be safe to interpret the finds from Chełm as the remains of a jeweller’s workshop, the site of casting and working copper alloys and silver. The analysis of the technology used in casting copper alloys and silver in the jeweller’s workshop were made using optical microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray radiography.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Pressure and Thickness in Gas Gap in Lost Foam Casting Process%消失模铸造充型过程中的气膜压力及其厚度的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓明; 张倩; 黄勇; 董秀琦

    2011-01-01

    采用数值模拟方法,通过模拟板形灰铸铁件的消失模铸造充型过程,分析了各种工艺因素对充型过程中的气膜压力和气膜厚度的影响.结果表明,液态金属充型的驱动力并非重力而是消失模的退让速度,而这一速度是由气膜压力和气膜厚度的相互自动变化来调节,使充型达到稳态.结合理论计算,得到底注式浇注时充型可达到稳态,且气膜厚度和气膜压力随浇注温度、模样密度、涂料层厚度的增大而增大,随负压度和涂层透气性的增大而减小.%Through the simulation of the filling process of LFC (lost foam casting ) gray cast iron plate castings, influences of various processing factors on the pressure and thickness in gas gap in lost foam casting process were analyzed by a numerical simulation method. The results show that the filling ability of molten metal is dependent on the speed of the foam decomposition rather than its gravity. The speed is adjusted by automatic change of the pressure in gas gap and gas gap thickness each other. Finally, the mold filling becomes steady-state. The steady-state filling of the molten metal can be realized with the bottom pouring by combining with the theoretical calculation. And the pressure thickness and in gas gap are increased with the increase of the pouring temperature, the pattern density and thickness of coating, and they are decreased with the increase of vacuum rate and coating permeability.

  5. Development of Vacuum Lost Foam-Investment Shell Mould Composite Casting Process Used for Ductile Iron Pipes Production%球铁管件真空消失模壳型复合铸造工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符坚; 龙枚青; 符寒光

    2012-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the vacuum lost foam fasting process and the investment casting process were compared- By combining two processes flexibly,a composite process consisted of vacuum lost foam process plus investment shell mould process and useable for large scale production of high property pipe castings was developed. An introduction was given to the determ illation of the rigidity of the lost foam pattern, dimensions choice of the gating system, establishment of the shell mould making process flow, the choice and preparation of the raw materials of shell mould,as well as the sodium silicate shell mould making process (low. The test result showed: (a )When using above process for the pipes production,the operation procedure was easy and the easting quality was stable with the casting pass rate higher than 98.5% ; (b )This process needs only making 4 layers of mould shells,much less than that of the normal investment casting process which needs making 8 and even more layers of mould shells.and therefore,the productivity was enhanced,both the. production cost and the labors cost were reduced.%比较了真空消失模铸造和熔模铸造两种工艺的优缺点,将两种工艺的优点有机结合,开发了适应大量生产高性能出口管件的真空消失模壳型复合铸造工艺.介绍了消失模铸造模型刚度的确定、浇注系统尺寸的选择,壳型工艺流程的制订、壳型涂料的原材料选用和配制、以及水玻璃壳型制造流程.试验结果显示:(1)用此工艺生产的管件,工序简单且铸件质最稳定,铸件合格率达到98.5%以上;(2)此工艺只要制4层壳,相比普通蜡模精密铸造制壳要8层以上,提高了生产效率,降低了生产成本和人力资源成本.

  6. Foundry technology and its applications of ductile iron castings produced by water-cooled copper alloy mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The high efficiency mechanized foundry technology of castings produced by using water-cooled copper alloy permanent mold has been systematically studied. Through the researching a Cu-Cr-Mg alloy with high conductivity and good combined mechanical properties used for making permanent mold was developed, and the basic design principles of the water-cooled permanent mold along with the control-range of relevant foundry processing parameters were also established.A cast production line equipped with water-cooled copper alloy mold was designed and fabricated for production of ductile iron automobile gear castings. This production line can consistently make automobile gear castings in QT500-15 and QT600-5 (Chinese Standard) grades of ductile iron with up to 95 % casting success rate.

  7. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30

    This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing this delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at

  8. Application of heat pipe technology in permanent mold casting of nonferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalem, Kaled

    The issue of mold cooling is one, which presents a foundry with a dilemma. On the one hand; the use of air for cooling is safe and practical, however, it is not very effective and high cost. On the other hand, water-cooling can be very effective but it raises serious concerns about safety, especially with a metal such as magnesium. An alternative option that is being developed at McGill University uses heat pipe technology to carry out the cooling. The experimental program consisted of designing a permanent mold to produce AZ91E magnesium alloy and A356 aluminum alloy castings with shrinkage defects. Heat pipes were then used to reduce these defects. The heat pipes used in this work are novel and are patent pending. They are referred to as McGill Heat Pipes. Computer modeling was used extensively in designing the mold and the heat pipes. Final designs for the mold and the heat pipes were chosen based on the modeling results. Laboratory tests of the heat pipe were performed before conducting the actual experimental plan. The laboratory testing results verified the excellent performance of the heat pipes as anticipated by the model. An industrial mold made of H13 tool steel was constructed to cast nonferrous alloys. The heat pipes were installed and initial testing and actual industrial trials were conducted. This is the first time where a McGill heat pipe was used in an industrial permanent mold casting process for nonferrous alloys. The effects of cooling using heat pipes on AZ91E and A356 were evaluated using computer modeling and experimental trials. Microstructural analyses were conducted to measure the secondary dendrite arm spacing, SDAS, and the grain size to evaluate the cooling effects on the castings. The modeling and the experimental results agreed quite well. The metallurgical differences between AZ91E and A356 were investigated using modeling and experimental results. Selected results from modeling, laboratory and industrial trials are presented. The

  9. Influence of mechanical vibration on the filling capacity of A356 and AZ91D in lost foam casting%机械振动对A356和AZ91D消失模充型的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠; 樊自田; 成平; 唐波

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical vibration was applied during lost foam casting (LFC) process of A356 aluminum alloy and AZ91D magnesium alloy. The vibration direction was the same as the flow direction, and the influence of mechanical vibration at different frequency and amplitude on the filling capacity of A356 and AZ91D under lost foam casting was studied. The filling mathematical model was established in lost foam casting by the vibration, and the filling capacity was analyzed by the fluid dynamics and heat transfer, and the influence of the vibration on the filling capacity of the alloys was explained. The results show that the filling capacity of the alloys increase with the vibration frequency and amplitude increased, and it is obviously increased applying mechanical vibration to be at the peak acceleration between from 1g to 4g. The calculated results of filling capacity of the mathematical model are basically consistent with the experimental results.%在A356铝合金和AZg1D镁合金消失模铸造浇注过程中采用与流动方向一致的水平振动,研究不同频率和振幅的机械振动对A356和AZ91D消失模铸造充型能力的影响.建立了消失模振动浇注时金属液充型数学模型,利用流体动力学和传热学原理,分析振动对消失模铸造浇注过程中充型能力的影响.结果表明:金属液充型能力随着振动频率和振幅的增加而增强,振动峰值加速度在1g~4g之间,机械振动可明显提高A356和AZ91D消失模铸造充型能力.数学模型计算结果与实验结果基本一致.

  10. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piwonka, T.S. [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This report details results of a 30-month program to develop methods of making clean ferrous castings, i.e., castings free of inclusions and surface defects. The program was divided into 3 tasks: techniques for producing clean steel castings, electromagnetic removal of inclusions from ferrous melts, and study of causes of metal penetration in sand molds in cast iron.

  11. The UK Casting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The casting production in the UK in 2004 is presented and analysed. The UK casting industry has played an important role in world casting and manufacturing production. However recent years the rapid development of some developing countries has been shifting the casting production from the western industrialized countries including the UK. The UK casting industry and associated research and technology organizations, universities have been working together very hard to face the serious competition to make the UK casting industry have a sustainable future. The UK casting industry remains strong and plays an important role in world casting and manufacturing production.

  12. Development of casting process for large thin-wall precision magnesium alloy castings%大型薄壁精密镁合金铸件铸造技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳光; 彭晓东; 赵辉; 谢卫东; 魏群义

    2011-01-01

    The advantage and disadvantage as well as the development of sand casting, low tension casting, die casting, lost foam casting and centrifugal casting technologies for the production of large thin - wall precision magnesium alloy castings are discussed. According to the development of aerospace industry, the research and development direction of the magnesium alloy centrifugal casting are pointed out.%介绍了砂型、低压、压铸、消失模、离心铸造大型、薄壁、精密镁合金铸件的优势和缺点,以及这些铸造技术的最新发展情况.针对航天工业的发展指出离心铸造镁合金的研究与发展方向.

  13. Experimental study of SRAT/SME foaming by Illinois Institute of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.P.; Wasan, D.T.

    1997-11-10

    This report summarizes the results of experiments performed by IIT in an effort to understand the fundamental science involved in the stable foam formation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility`s (DWPF`s) Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The results of this testing will be confirmed in an experimental apparatus designed to be prototypic of DWPF CPC processing.

  14. INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish strong concrete mixtures (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.3…0.4 and ductile ones (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.5…0.7. Strong concrete mixtures are more durable. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the higher the foam concrete strength. However super-plastic substances cannot be mixed by ordinary turbulent mixers. Foam concrete produced using the turbulence cavitation technology needs air-entraining, its intensity being dependent on several factors. One of the main factors is the amount of free water, if it is insufficient, the mixture will not be porous enough. A researcher needs to identify the optimal water-to-cement ratio based on the water consumption rate. Practical production of prefabricated concrete products and structures has proven that the reduction of the water-to-cement ratio improves the strength of the product. The task is to find the water-to-cement ratio for the foam concrete mixture to be plastic enough for air entraining. An increase in the ratio causes loss in the strength. The ratio shall vary within one hundredth points. Super-plasticizers are an alternative solution.

  15. The influence of ceramic fibre on thermal expansion of moulding materials for investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadolski M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of dilatometric measurements presented in the paper are a supplement to the investigations concerning broadening thecomposition of ceramic slurry intended for investment casting technology with ceramic fibre matrix. An applying of fibre material and a change of rheologic characteristics of ceramic slurry have impelled to develop the method of applying the material to the pattern sets. The technology of multi-layer spraying has been found to be the most favourable method. Partial replacing of the grain silica materials with aluminosilicate materials in the fibrous form has affected the magnitude of dimensional changes taking place during the heating process. In order to determine the magnitude of these changes, there have been prepared slurries of various fibre fraction in the matrix and their thermal expansion has been examined within the temperature range of 273-1273 K

  16. Application of New Technology that Unlike Hollow Floor of BDF Cast-in-situ Reinforced Concrete%有别于BDF现浇钢筋混凝土空心楼板的新技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志坚

    2011-01-01

    The cast-in-situ hollow slab is the high strength composite foam ball which is the each interval along with direction of the force in the middle of casting slab. The beam d structure generally set in the dark plate, and the after floor of pouring concrete becomes a hollow structure. Soft hollow ball have resonance effect compared the BDF hollow thin-walled tube, the chapping by stress concentration generated is less, and other benefits is equivalent to the hollow floor technology of BDF hollow thin-walled tube cast-in-situ reinforced concrete.%现浇空心楼板是在现浇楼板的截面中部沿受力方向设置相互间隔的高强复合泡沫球,结构的梁一般暗设在板内,浇筑混凝土后楼板变成空心结构.柔软中空球较BDF空心薄壁管有共振作用,对应力集中所产生龟裂较少,其他优点等同于BDF空心薄壁管现浇钢筋混凝土空心楼板技术.

  17. Effect of antioxidants on thermooxidative stability and technological properties of radiation grafted foam polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burukhina, G.A.; Berlyant, S.M.; Pleshanov, V.P.

    1986-04-01

    Foam polyethylene (FPE) is used in many industrial applications at temperatures of 65-70%. In order to increase this range of practical utilization the effect of oxidation inhibitors was studied along with thermal stabilization of FPE. It was shown that even with small amounts of antioxidants, the foaming coefficient decreased and the optimal radiation absorption dose increased. Therefore, during stabilization of FPE, the introduced antioxidants should not exceed a level of 1%. The use of soot (in excess of 3%) was found to be advantageous in many cases. It yielded material with greater resistance to photodestruction; ionizing radiation affected it to a minimal extent and it did not migrate from the plastic during exposure to high temperatures. Otherwise, amine antioxidants were more effective than the phenolic antioxidants. 6 references, 3 figures.

  18. Energy consumption and commercial applications of liquid foam insulation technology for greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J. [Environnement-MJ, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); De Halleux, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sols et de Genie Agroalimentaire; Aberkani, K. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Centre de Recherche en Horticulture; Vineberg, S. [Sunarc of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Sunarc of Canada has developed an energy saving system for commercial greenhouse growers. Large amounts of energy are needed to operate commercial greenhouses in northern latitudes, and as energy prices fluctuate, it is important to enable growers to control their microclimate. Sunarc's liquid foam insulating system was installed in 2007 at 2 sites in Ontario. The first site had an area of 14,700 ft{sup 2} while the other site had an area of 43,000 ft{sup 2}. Both facilities were monitored for energy use during the winter period. Night-time energy savings ranged from above 60 per cent to below 10 per cent depending on outdoor temperatures. The greater savings occurred during colder outdoor temperatures. Monthly average night-time energy savings from February, March and April were 46.6, 42, and 32.3 per cent respectively. After initial commercial testing, the liquid foam system was re-engineered to optimize operations, reduce fill time, and improve liquid foam formulas. The new system was installed at a third site in Quebec as a demonstration unit. The company is currently negotiating international distribution rights with several partners.

  19. Physical Characteristics and Technology of Glass Foam from Waste Cathode Ray Tube Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mucsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the laboratory investigation of cathode-ray-tube- (CRT- glass-based glass foam, the so-called “Geofil-Bubbles” which can be applied in many fields, mainly in the construction industry (lightweight concrete aggregate, thermal and sound insulation, etc.. In this study, the main process engineering material properties of raw materials, such as particle size distribution, moisture content, density, and specific surface area, are shown. Then, the preparation of raw cathode ray tube glass waste is presented including the following steps: crushing, grinding, mixing, heat curing, coating, and sintering. Experiments were carried out to optimize process circumstances. Effects of sintering conditions—such as temperature, residence time, and particle size fraction of green pellet—on the mechanical stability and particle density of glass foam particles were investigated. The mechanical stability (abrasion resistance was tested by abrasion test in a Deval drum. Furthermore, the cell structure was examined with optical microscopy and SEM. We found that it was possible to produce foam glass (with proper mechanical stability and particle density from CRT glass. The material characteristics of the final product strongly depend on the sintering conditions. Optimum conditions were determined: particle size fraction was found to be 4–6 mm, temperature 800°C, and residence time 7.5 min.

  20. THEORETICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL BASIS OF CASTING OF HOLLOW BILLETS BY THE METHOD OF DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method of continuously iterative casting of hollow cylindrical castings from cast iron without application of core, based on the principle of direction of metal solidification is presented in the work. the thermal condition of crystallizer at iterative temperature influences on its internal surface and solidification of casting in the conditions of intensive one-way heat sink and presence of constant overheat on front of solidification is examined.

  1. Investigation of gating parameter, temperature and density effects on mold filling in the lost foam casting (LFC process by direct observation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharifi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mold filling sequence of A356 aluminum alloy was investigated with the aid of direct observation method (photography method. The results show that increase of the foam density causes decrease of the filling rate and increase of the filling time. Foam density has more pronounced effect on mold filling rate rather than pouring temperature. Gating design also affects the profile of molten metal advancement in the mold. The results show that the higher filling rate was obtained with G2 gating than with other gating system. Regarding the mold filling pattern, G3 gating system has more effective contact interface than G2 gating system and has lower filling time. Filling time in G4 gating and G1 gating system are nearly the same.

  2. Preparation QTi3.5-3.5 Graphite Lubricant Material with Semi-solid Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Yunhui DU; Daben ZENG; Jianzhong CUI; Limin BA

    2001-01-01

    For the first time, the distribution of graphite particles in QTi3.5-3.5 graphite ingot was studied by using semi-solid casting technology. The results show that: the relationship between solid fraction and stirring temperature of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is y=759.4-0.711x (where y is solid fraction, x is stirring temperature). With the increasing of solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry, the agglomeration of graphite particles in ingot reduces gradually. The condition to prepare QTi3.5-3.5 graphite lubricant material with even distribution of graphite particles is that the solid fraction of QTi3.5-3.5 graphite slurry is larger than 40%.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEX OF EQUIPMENT FOR REFINING AND CASTING OF STEEL AND ALLOYS IN THE FOUNDRY AND STEEL INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zolotukhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulcan TM is a small innovative company, specializing in the manufacture of steel and alloys casting systems and refractory accessories.Available for foundry and metallurgical industries, special technological equipment, designed and manufactured by LLC NPP “Vulkan-TM.”

  4. Foaming in stout beers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W. T.; M. G. Devereux

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same m...

  5. THE EFFECT OF PREPARATION CONDITIONS OF RAPIDLY SOLIDIFIED IRON BASED GRANULES ON PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL FORMED BY CASTING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variety of requirements for friction pairs requires the development of different technologies for the production of tribological materials with reference to the operation modes. Composite materials obtained by the casting technology have been successfully applied for the normalization of the thermomechanical state of the steam turbines. These composites consist of the matrix based on copper alloys reinforced with cast iron granules. Because the structure and properties of cast iron are determined by the conditions of their production studies have been conducted on determination of preparation conditions on grain structure and properties of the synthesized composite material. Using an upgraded unit for production of granules technological regimes were determined providing narrow fractional composition. It has been found that granules formed are characterized with typical microstructure of white cast iron containing perlite and ledeburite. Microhardness of pilot cast iron granules is characterized by high values (from 7450 up to 9450 MPa and depends on the size of the fraction. Composite materials obtained using experimental granules had a microhardness of the reinforcing cast iron granules about 3500 MPa, and a bronze matrix – 1220 MPa, which is higher than the hardness of the composite material obtained by using the annealed DCL-1granules (2250 MPa. Metal base of experimental granules in the composite material has the structure of perlitic ductile iron with inclusions of ferrite not exceeding 10–15% and set around a flocculent graphite. As a result, the increase of physical-mechanical properties of finished products made of composite material is observed. 

  6. Toughening of phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongbin

    2003-06-01

    Phenolic foam has excellent FST performance with relatively low cost, and thus is an attractive material for many applications. However, it is extremely brittle and fragile, precluding it from load-bearing applications. In order to make it tougher and more viable for structural purposes, an effective approach has been proposed and investigated in this study. Composite phenolic foam with short fiber reinforcements resulted in significant improvement in mechanical performance while retaining FST properties comparable to conventional phenolic foam. For example, composite phenolic foam with aramid fibers exhibited a seven-fold increase in peel resistance together with a five-fold reduction in friability. In shear tests, aramid composite foam endured prolonged loading to high levels of strain, indicating the potential for use in structural applications. On the other hand, glass fiber-reinforced phenolic foam produced substantial improvement in the stiffness and strength relative to the unreinforced counterpart. In particular, the Young's modulus of the glass fiber composite foam was increased by as much as 100% relative to the plain phenolic foam in the foam rise direction. In addition, different mechanical behavior was observed for aramid and glass fiber-reinforced foams. In an attempt to understand the mechanical behavior of composite foam, a novel NDT technique, micro-CT, was used to acquire information on fiber length distribution (FLD) and fiber orientation distribution (FOD). Results from micro-CT measurements were compared with theoretical distribution models, achieving various degrees of agreement. Despite some limitations of current micro-CT technology, the realistic observation and measurement of cellular morphology and fiber distribution within composite foams portend future advances in modeling of reinforced polymer foam. To explain the discrepancy observed in shear stiffness between traditional shear test results and those by the short sandwich beam test, a

  7. 现浇泡沫混凝土围护结构自保温体系在寒冷地区应用研究%Application of self-insulation system for cast-in-place foam concrete envelope structure in the cold region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁来彬; 袁伟; 刘涛; 张善德

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, according to the design requirements, the dry density rating of cast-in-place foam con⁃crete is calculated and determined to meet the envelope structure thermal performance parameter limits in the cold region A, and conducts test verifies of cast-in-place wall in lab according to the standard of“Thermal insulation, Determination of steady-state thermal transmission properties, Calibrated and guard hot box”(GB/T13475). Final⁃ly, the engineering application practice is taken place in Hotan, Xinjiang, thermal performance of the practical engi⁃neering envelope structure is tested by heat flow meter method and infrared thermal imaging technology, and the re⁃sults are in line with the national standards.%根据设计要求,计算确定满足寒冷A区围护结构热工性能参数限值的现浇泡沫混凝土干密度等级,并在实验室根据《绝热稳态传热性质的测定标定和防护热箱法》(GB/T13475)标准进行现浇墙体检测验证。最终在新疆和田地区进行工程应用实践。通过热流计法及红外热成像技术对实际工程围护结构进行热工性能检测,其热工性能检测结果均符合国家标准要求。

  8. Foaming volume and foam stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  9. Clean ferrous casting technology research. Final technical report, September 29, 1993--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.; Giese, S.R.; Lane, A.M. [and others

    1996-01-31

    This is the final report covering work performed on research into methods of attaining clean ferrous castings. In this program methods were developed to minimize the formation of inclusions in steel castings by using a variety of techniques which decreased the tendency for inclusions to form during melting, casting and solidification. In a second project, a reaction chamber was built to remove inclusions from molten steel using electromagnetic force. Finally, a thorough investigation of the causes of sand penetration defects in iron castings was completed, and a program developed which predicts the probability of penetration formation and indicates methods for avoiding it.

  10. Parameters affect foaming and foam stability during foam drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hazaea Mohammed; Youhong SUN; Ould El Houssein Yarbana

    2007-01-01

    The authors presented indoor practice experiments of parameters affect on foaming and foam stability. Experiments were carried out and special equipments were used to determine foaming and foam stability; tests were tabulated and charted. The effects of chemical and physical parameters on foaming and foam stability have been conducted.

  11. Evaluation of significant manufacturing parameters in lost foam casting of thin-wall Al-Si-Cu alloy using full factorial design of experiment%影响消失模铸造Al-Si-Cu合金薄壁铸件质量的显著性工艺参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan JAFARI; Mohd Hsbullah IDRIS; Amirreza SHAYGANPOUR

    2013-01-01

    通过控制消失模铸造工艺参数可以制备出无缺陷的形状复杂的铸件产品。对 Al−Si−Cu 合金消失模铸造进行研究,考察浇注温度、涂料黏度、振动时间、型砂粒径以及它们之间的交互作用对铸件表面质量、孔隙率和共晶硅间距的影响。采用两水平全因子实验设计方法考察影响铸件性能的显著性影响工艺参数。结果表明,浇注温度和振动时间对铸件共晶硅间距和孔隙率的影响最明显。在细型砂模和较高的浇注温度下,铸件的表面质量几乎保持稳定不变,而在粗型砂模下铸件的表面质量较低。涂料黏度对铸件性能没有显著影响。%Controlling process parameters of lost foam casting (LFC) enables this process to produce defect-free complex shape castings. An experimental investigation on lost foam casting of an Al−Si−Cu cast alloy was carried out. The effects of pouring temperature, slurry viscosity, vibration time and sand size on surface finish, shrinkage porosity and eutectic silicon spacing of thin-wall casting were investigated. A full two-level factorial design of experimental technique was used to identify the significant manufacturing factors affecting the properties of casting. Pouring temperature was found as the most significant factor affecting Al−Si−Cu lost foam casting quality. It was shown that flask vibration time interacted with pouring temperature influenced eutectic silicon spacing and porosity percentage significantly. The results also revealed that the surface quality of the samples cast in fine sand moulds at higher pouring temperatures was almost unchanged, while those cast in coarse sand moulds possessed lower surface qualities. Furthermore, variation in slurry viscosity showed no significant effect on the evaluated properties compared to other parameters.

  12. Thin-Wall Aluminum Die-Casting Technology for Development of Notebook Computer Housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Silicon-based aluminum casting alloys are known to be one of the most widely used alloy systems mainly due to their superior casting characteristics and unique combination of mechanical and physical properties.However, manufacturing of thin-walled aluminum die-casting components, less than 1.0 mm in thickness, is generally known to be very difficult task to achieve aluminum casting alloys with high fluidity. Therefore, in this study, the optimal die-casting conditions for producing 297 mm×210 mm×0.7 mm thin-walled aluminum component was examined experimentally by using 2 different gating systems, tangential and split type, and vent design. Furthermore, computational solidification simulation was also conducted. The results showed that split type gating system was preferable gating design than tangential type gating system at the point of view of soundness of casting and distortion generated after solidification. It was also found that proper vent design was one of the most important factors for producing thin-wall casting components because it was important for the fulfillment of the thin-wall cavity and the minimization of the casting distortion.

  13. Effect of casting technology on microstructure and phases of high carbon high speed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tianming

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The as-cast microstructures of high carbon high speed steels (HC-HSS made by sand casting, centrifugal casting and electromagnetic centrifugal casting, respectively, were studied by using of optical microscopy (OM and D/max2200pc X-ray diffraction. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast HC-HSS is dominated by alloy carbides (W2C, VC, Cr7C3, martensite and austenite. The centrifugal casting and electromagnetic centrifugal casting apparently improve the solidification structure of HC-HSS. With the increase of magnetic intensity (B, the volume fraction of austenite in the HC-HSS solidification structure increases significantly while the eutectic ledeburite decreases. Moreover, the secondary carbides precipitated from the austenite are finer with more homogeneous distribution in the electromagnetic centrifugal castings. It has also been found that the lath of eutectic carbide in ledeburite becomes finer and carbide phase spacing in eutectic ledeburite increases along with the higher magnetic field strength.

  14. Foaming properties of guar foaming albumin

    OpenAIRE

    細見, 典子; Hosomi, Noriko; 原田, 麻子; Harada, Asako; 下山, 亜美; Shimoyama, Ami; 土居, 幸雄; Doi, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    From guar meal we recently isolated an albumin fraction with a high foaming ability, named guar foaming albumin (GFA) . Here, we further characterized the foaming activity, foam stability and surface tension of GFA solutions. Foaming activity and foam stability were estimated by measuring the conductivity of foam using a glass column with a conductivity cell. Surface tension was measured by the drop weight method using a stalagmometer. GFA showed higher foaming activity than casein at any pro...

  15. Technology, Preparation and Properties of the Cast Glass-Coated Magnetic Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei A. Baranov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic properties of cast amorphous and nanocrystalline microwires have been reviewed considering their potential application. Microwires were produced from Co Fe Mn Cr Cu B and Si using the Taylor–Ulitovsky method. Technological aspects of the Taylor–Ulitovsky method for fabrication of glass-coated microwire with different structure are analyzed. Magnetic microwires demonstrate a large variety of magnetic behaviors, which is important for sensing applications. Depending on the chemical composition of the metallic core, for Co-, Fe- and Ni-based composition, the microwires’ properties are very different. The geometrical characteristics (diameter of metallic core and thickness of the glass of the microwire depend on the physical properties of a metallic composition and of glass and the parameters of the heating inductor and the speed of obtaining a microwire. The diameter of metallic core in these microwires can range from 0.5 to 70 μm, and their thickness of the glass can vary from 1 to 50 μm.

  16. Ecological aspects of the use of lost foam patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some aspects of ecology in the use of lost foam patterns for piece production of large castings poured from ferrousalloys under the conditions of Metalodlew SA. Foundry. The technological processes used in the manufacture of castings are related with numerous hazards. Numerous problems requiring prompt solution occur also during the process of foundry mould pouring, to mention only various contaminants, air pollution, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment. Varioustechnological processes cause strenuous work conditions in foundry shops. Many of the publications that have appeared so far dealing withthe problems of environmental protection and hard work conditions in foundries [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] discuss in both general anddetailed way problems related with various pollutants, noise and other factors harmful to the human health and natural environment,responsible for hazards faced by foundry workers. Studies carried out by various R&D centres are mainly focussed on the problem of howto reduce the harmful effect of technological processes on the environment through modification of the already existing or development of new ecological and energy-saving materials and technologies. This paper shows the opportunities and threats resulting from the application of the Lost Foam Process in a foundry, which up to now has been using a more traditional technology.

  17. Low-gravity solidification of cast iron and space technology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of analyses relating to cast iron solidification were conducted. A theoretical analysis using a computer to predict the cooling versus time relationship throughout the test specimen was performed. Tests were also conducted in a ground-based laboratory to generate a cooling time curve for cast iron. In addition, cast iron was cooled through the solidification period on a KC-135 and an F-104 aircraft while these aircraft were going through a period of low gravity. Future subjects for low gravity tests are enumerated.

  18. Effect of Foamed Pattern Density on the Lost Foam Process

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pacyniak

    2007-01-01

    The study examines the effect of the foamed polystyrene pattern density on the process of making castings by the lost foam technique with emphasis put on the analysis of simulation tests. The simulation regarded the effect that pattern density is said to have on the mould cavity filling rate, pressure in the gas gap, and size of this gap. For simulation tests of the full mould process, a mathematical model presented in this study was used. For calculations, the author's own algorithm was appl...

  19. 消失模精密铸造工艺研究%Lost Foam Pattern for Investment Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁子洲; 张劲松; 陈秀娟

    2003-01-01

    借助熔模铸造制壳工艺制成消失模铸造用的超薄空腔型壳,以减少消失模铸造在浇注过程中因聚苯乙烯气化而产生的铸件增碳、增氢等缺陷.聚苯乙烯模失模工艺为随炉升温至600 ℃,保温60 min.型壳焙烧工艺为800 ℃焙烧1 h.

  20. Spin foams

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The spin foam framework provides a way to define the dynamics of canonical loop quantum gravity in a spacetime covariant way, by using a path integral over histories of quantum states which can be interpreted as `quantum space-times'. This chapter provides a basic introduction to spin foams aimed principally at beginning graduate students and, where possible, at broader audiences.

  1. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, Selcuk [CanmetMATERIALS; Li, Delin [CanmetMATERIALS

    2013-12-31

    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using

  2. 变速箱壳体消失模铸造工艺与缺陷防止%The Process and Defects of the Die Casting of the Gearbox Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腊勤

    2015-01-01

    本文首先就消失模铸造工艺进行简要介绍,分析消失模铸造工艺在变速箱壳体中应用的缺陷,并提出解决缺陷的有效措施。%This paper briefly introduces the process of the lost foam casting process, analyzes the defects in the application of the lost foam casting technology in the application of variable speed box.

  3. Rapid Manufacturing Technology for Precision Casting MouldBased on Selective Laser Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白培康; 程军; 王建宏; 刘斌

    2004-01-01

    The selective laser sintering (SLS) technique is introduced. A new type of rapid prototyping material (PCPI) has been developed, which can be used to produce precision casting mould directly and rapidly from a CAD model by the selective sintering of successive layers of PCPI with a laser beam. In comparison with conventional manufacturing methods, prominent features of this technique include high forming rate, low development cost and good flexibility. The rapid manufacturing process of precision casting mould based on SLS is discussed.

  4. TO SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF SOFTENING HEAT TREATMENT FOR HIGH CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Efremenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. High chromium cast irons with austenitic matrix have low machinability. The aim of work is search of new energy-saving modes of preliminary softening heat treatment enhancing the machinability of castings by forming an optimum microstructure. Methodology. Metallographic analysis, hardness testing and machinability testing are applied. Findings. It was found out that high temperature annealing with continuous cooling yields to martensite-austenite matrix in cast iron 270Х15Г2Н1MPhT, which abruptly affects the machinability of cast iron. Significant improvement of machinability is achieved by forming of structure "ferrite + granular carbides" and by decline of hardness to 37-39 HRC in the case of two-stage isothermal annealing in the subcritical temperature range or by the use of quenching and tempering (two-step or cyclic. Originality. It was found that the formation of the optimal structure of the matrix and achievement of desired hardness level needed for improving machinability of high chromium cast iron containing 3 % austenite-forming elements, can be obtained: 1 due to pearlite original austenite followed by spherodization eutectoid carbides, and 2 by getting predominantly martensite structure followed by the decay of martensite and carbides coagulation at high-temperature tempering. Practical value. The new energy-saving schemes of softening heat treatment to ensure the growth of machinability of high chromium cast iron, alloyed by higher quantity of austenite forming elements, are proposed.

  5. Discussion on the Heat Insulation Technology of Rigid Polyurethane Foam External Wall%聚氨酯硬泡外墙隔热保温技术的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董飞翔

    2014-01-01

    目前,聚氨酯硬泡外墙隔热保温技术是一种主要应用的保温技术。本文重点对聚氨酯硬泡外墙隔热保温技术进行了探讨。%At present, the polyurethane rigid foam exterior wal insulation technology is a major thermal insulation tech- nology. This paper focuses on the rigid polyurethane foam wal insulation technology.

  6. Ceramic filters for bulk inoculation of nickel alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work includes the results of research on production technology of ceramic filters which, besides the traditional filtering function, playalso the role of an inoculant modifying the macrostructure of cast nickel alloys. To play this additional role, filters should demonstratesufficient compression strength and ensure proper flow rate of liquid alloy. The role of an inoculant is played by cobalt aluminateintroduced to the composition of external coating in an amount from 5 to 10 wt.% . The required compression strength (over 1MPa isprovided by the supporting layers, deposited on the preform, which is a polyurethane foam. Based on a two-level fractional experiment24-1, the significance of an impact of various technological parameters (independent variables on selected functional parameters of theready filters was determined. Important effect of the number of the supporting layers and sintering temperature of filters after evaporationof polyurethane foam was stated.

  7. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Novel polymer composites from waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber by supercritical CO2 foaming technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Keuk Min; Hong, Yeo Joo; Saha, Prosenjit; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2014-11-01

    In this study, a composite has been prepared by mixing waste rubber, such as ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer and low-density poly ethylene foaming, with supercritical carbon dioxide. In order to optimise the foaming process of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer-low-density poly ethylene composite, the variations of pressure and temperature on the foamed Microcell formation were studied. As indicated in scanning electron microscope photographs, the most uniform microcellular pattern was found at 200 bar and 100 °C using 30% by weight of waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer. Carbon dioxide could not be dissolved uniformly during foaming owing to extensive cross-linking of the waste ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer used for the composite. As a result the presence of un-uniform microcells after foaming were observed in the composite matrix to impart inferior mechanical properties of the composite. This problem was solved with uniform foaming by increasing the cross-link density of low-density poly ethylene using 1.5 parts per hundred dicumyl peroxide that enhances composite tensile and compressive strength up to 57% and 15%, respectively. The composite has the potential to be used as a foaming mat for artificial turf.

  9. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing Via Novel Tool-less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.; hide

    2002-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) offer relatively higher specific strength, specific stiffness, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and lower density as compared with conventional alloys. These unique properties make them very attractive for aerospace turbomachinery applications where there is ever increasing emphasis to reduce weight and cost, and to increase engine performance. Through a joint effort between NASA and Metal Matrix Cast Composites, Inc., a complex liquid oxygen (LOX) compatible turbopump housing is being redesigned and manufactured from hybrid (particulate and fibers) Aluminum MMC. To this end, a revolutionary toolless pressure infiltration casting technology is being perfected. Ceramic preforms for the composite are 3-dimensionally printed using a stereolithography file, acquired from a CAD model. The preforms are then invested into a refractory material and pressure infiltrated with liquid metal. After casting, the refractory material is washed away leaving behind a near net-shape composite part. Benefits of this process include increased composite uniformity, no mold machining, short time from design to part, properties matching traditional methods, ability to make previously impossible to manufacture parts and no size limitations with a newly developed joining technology. The results of materials, manufacturing and design optimizations, preform joining, and sub-element tests will be presented.

  10. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing Via Novel Tool-less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) offer relatively higher specific strength, specific stiffness, lower coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and lower density as compared with conventional alloys. These unique properties make them very attractive for aerospace turbomachinery applications where there is ever increasing emphasis to reduce weight and cost, and to increase engine performance. Through a joint effort between NASA and Metal Matrix Cast Composites, Inc., a complex liquid oxygen (LOX) compatible turbopump housing is being redesigned and manufactured from hybrid (particulate and fibers) Aluminum MMC. To this end, a revolutionary toolless pressure infiltration casting technology is being perfected. Ceramic preforms for the composite are 3-dimensionally printed using a stereolithography file, acquired from a CAD model. The preforms are then invested into a refractory material and pressure infiltrated with liquid metal. After casting, the refractory material is washed away leaving behind a near net-shape composite part. Benefits of this process include increased composite uniformity, no mold machining, short time from design to part, properties matching traditional methods, ability to make previously impossible to manufacture parts and no size limitations with a newly developed joining technology. The results of materials, manufacturing and design optimizations, preform joining, and sub-element tests will be presented.

  11. ZL101泡沫铝合金制备技术研究%Study on Preparation Technology of ZL101 Foamed Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬民; 周丹晨; 刘建辉; 黄姝珂

    2011-01-01

    以ZL101为基体材料,利用熔体发泡法制备泡沫铝合金,通过控制增粘温度、增粘物质和发泡物质的加入方式、发泡温度等关键参数获得稳定的制备工艺参数.实验结果表明,在660℃增粘效果要好于在700℃以上增粘;TiH2采用铝箔包裹方式加入可以有效减少加入过程的烧损量;加入发泡剂过程中使用带有下旋压力的双层折叶搅拌浆有利于将TiH2快速分散均匀和减小泡沫铝底部实心层;发泡温度为645℃时可以获得孔径较均匀的泡沫铝合金.%ZL101 foamed aluminium alloy was prepared by melt foaming method. The stabilized technological parameters was got by controlling the key factors such as the temperature of adding viscosity increaser, the way of adding viscosity increaser and blister, the temperature of foaming and so on. The results show that adding viscosity increaser at 660 ℃ is better than above 700 ℃. Packed TiH2 with aluminium foil is effective to reduce TiH2 burning loss. It is useful to break up powder of TiH2 quickly and decrease the solid thickness of foamed aluminium alloy using double-deck stirring paddle with downward stress. When the foaming temperature is 645 ℃, it could get uniform aperture aluminium alloy.

  12. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  13. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  14. Foaming in stout beers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, W T

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibres, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for the scientific investigation of the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is very modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. Finally we consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer...

  15. A new method of producing casts for anatomical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sordi, Nadia; Bombardi, Cristiano; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Clavenzani, Paolo; Trerè, Claudio; Canova, Marco; Grandis, Annamaria

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify if polyurethane foam is a suitable material to make accurate casts of vessels and viscera, and to develop a method based on its use for anatomical studies. This new technique has been tested primarily on the lungs of different animals, but also on the renal, intestinal and equine digital vessels. It consisted of three steps: specimen preparation, injection of the foam and corrosion of the cast. All structures injected with foam were properly filled. The bronchial tree and the vessels could be observed up to their finer branches. The method is inexpensive, simple and requires no special equipment. The pre-casting procedure does not require perfusion of the specimens with formalin, or prolonged flushing with carbon dioxide gas or air for drying. The polyurethane foam does not need a catalyst. It is simply diluted with acetone, which does not cause shrinkage of the cast due to evaporation during hardening. The foam naturally expands into the cavities without high pressure of the inoculum, and hardens in just 2 or 3 h at room temperature. Only two drawbacks were observed. The first is the fact that multiple injections cannot be made in the same cavity since the foam solidifies quickly; the second is the slight brittleness of the cast, due to the low elasticity of polyurethane foam. In conclusion, polyurethane foam was a suitable material for producing accurate casts of vessels and viscera.

  16. Effect of Foamed Pattern Density on the Lost Foam Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the effect of the foamed polystyrene pattern density on the process of making castings by the lost foam technique with emphasis put on the analysis of simulation tests. The simulation regarded the effect that pattern density is said to have on the mould cavity filling rate, pressure in the gas gap, and size of this gap. For simulation tests of the full mould process, a mathematical model presented in this study was used. For calculations, the author's own algorithm was applied. The investigations have proved that with decreasing pattern density the pouring rate increases, while pressure in the gas gap and the size of the gap are decreasing. The increasing pouring rate ensures correct making of castings, even if their shapes are very intricate and the wall cross-sections are very small. Smaller size of the gas gap and lower pressure of gases in this gap reduce the risk of mould damage. The author’s own investigations have proved a very significant effect of the density of foamed polystyrene pattern on the casting process, and specially on the mould pouring rate. The best pouring rate is ensured by patterns of the density comprised in a range of ρ2 =18÷25 kg/m3.

  17. Foam Microrheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG,MICHAEL; REINELT,DOUGLAS A.

    1999-09-01

    The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams.

  18. 高强度聚氨酯硬质泡沫制备技术的发展现状与展望%Research Progress of High-strength Rigid Polyurethane Foam and its Reinforced Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成飞

    2014-01-01

    The important factors affected on the strength of rigid polyurethane foams were discussed. The reinforced technologies of rigid polyurethane foam were introduced. The research progress of rigid polyurethane foam in the hybrid reinforced and nano-reinforced methods were summarized.%讨论了影响聚氨酯硬质泡沫塑料强度的重要因素,并介绍了聚氨酯硬质泡沫塑料的增强技术,重点综述了混杂增强和纳米增强的研究进展。

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30

    lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  20. Review of the continuous casting of steel by strip casting technology. Twin roll method system; Revision del proceso siderurgicode colado continua mediante solidificacion rapida. Sistema de dos cilindros de colada conformacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarrondo, I.

    2008-07-01

    In order to compete in the future steel market and to maintain market share, the steel makers will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. In this way, the strip casting technology by twin rol method is one of the most important research are in the iron and steel industry today. This review makes a general description of the strip casting technology as well as its different steps, such us; metal delivery and casting, solidification process, hot rolling reduction step, etc. Through mathematical and physical models, the influence on microstructure texture surface quality and mechanical properties of the materials obtained by this method are described as a function of processing parameters, specially the roughness of the rolls. the manufacturing of carbon, stainless and electrical steels involves smaller capital and operating cost, lower gas emissions, and an opportunity to create new grades due to a faster solidification rate that leads to a different solidification structures. In sight of all this it is likely that Strip Casting technology will make a profound impact on the manufacturing landscape of the 21{sup s}t century. (Author) 177 refs.

  1. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Von L. [Advanced Technology Inst., Virginia Beach, VA (United States)

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  2. Physicochemical and Microstructural Characterization of Corn Starch Edible Films Obtained by a Combination of Extrusion Technology and Casting Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch-Vargas, Perla Rosa; Aguilar-Palazuelos, Ernesto; de Jesús Zazueta-Morales, José; Vega-García, Misael Odín; Valdez-Morales, Jesús Enrique; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando; Jacobo-Valenzuela, Noelia

    2016-09-01

    Starch edible films (EFs) have been widely studied due to their potential in food preservation; however, their application is limited because of their poor mechanical and barrier properties. Because of that, the aim of this work was to use the extrusion technology (Ex T) as a pretreatment of casting technique to change the starch structure in order to obtain EFs with improved physicochemical properties. To this, corn starch and a mixture of plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol, in different ratios) were processed in a twin screw extruder to generate the starch modification and subsequently casting technique was used for EFs formation. The best conditions of the Ex T and plasticizers concentration were obtained using response surface methodology. All the response variables evaluated, were affected significatively by the Plasticizers Ratio (Sorbitol:Glycerol) (PR (S:G)) and Extrusion Temperature (ET), while the Screw Speed (SS) did not show significant effect on any of these variables. The optimization study showed that the appropriate conditions to obtain EFs with the best mechanical and barrier properties were ET = 89 °C, SS = 66 rpm and PR (S:G) = 79.7:20.3. Once the best conditions were obtained, the optimal treatment was characterized according to its microstructural properties (X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy) to determine the damage caused in the starch during Ex T and casting technique. In conclusion, with the combination of Ex T and casting technique were obtained EFs with greater breaking strength and deformation, as well as lower water vapor permeability than those reported in the literature. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Influence of Conditions of Preparing the Foamed Plaster on its Degree of Foaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Foamed plaster moulds are used in precision casting process of non-ferrous alloys. Casting from those moulds are characterizedby high dimensional accuracy, very good shape pattering and small surface roughness. However, a drawback of the plaster mould is very low permeability. A substational improvement of this parametr may be achived through physical or phisico-chemical treatment of the plaster slurry or prepared mould. The most advantageous results can be obtained by foaming the slurry. The investigatious comprised evaluation of the influence of mixing parametrs (mixer type, rotation and mixing time, settings the mixer in mixing device and the content of a foaming agent on the degree of foaming of the plaster. The tests were carried out using the α-plaster Hartform-H1 and Alkanol XC as a foaming agent. The structure of a slurry produced after foaming is non-homogeous. Therefore, the investigations were completed by making appropriate of this process. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion, that the foamed plaster Hartform_H1 reaches the top degree of foaming at the following parameters: the water/plaster ratio W/G=0.55, the content of Alkanol XC a=0.07%, stirring with a perforate disc mixer at the rotation speed nm=4000 rpm during τm=30 s. In turn the top homogeneity of the foamed plaster slurry can be achieved at the rotation speed nu=1400 rpm during τu=30 s., while other parameters are the same as in the foaming process. The obtained results can provide the basis for the elaboration of the industry procedures useful in the production of the plaster moulds for precision casting.

  4. Resource-saving technologies of making advanced cast and deformable superalloys with allowance for processing all types of wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kablov, E. N.; Sidorov, V. V.; Kablov, D. E.; Min, P. G.; Rigin, V. E.

    2016-12-01

    The results of thermodynamic analysis of the vacuum-melt-ceramic system and experimental investigations of using up to 100% wastes during vacuum-induction melting are presented. An important role of rare-earth and alkaline-earth metals and heat treatment is shown for effective refining of a melt from impurities and gases. As a result, a resource-saving technology of making advanced cast and deformable nickel superalloys is developed with allowance for processing all types of wastes, including off-grade wastes. The developed technology of refining wastes under vacuum makes it possible to manufacture the alloys that fully meet the requirements of alloy specifications from 100% wastes. This technology is now used for the mass production of nickel superalloys in a research complex at FGUP VIAM.

  5. Foam Micromechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraynik, A.M.; Neilsen, M.K.; Reinelt, D.A.; Warren, W.E.

    1998-11-03

    Foam evokes many different images: waves breaking at the seashore, the head on a pint of Guinness, an elegant dessert, shaving, the comfortable cushion on which you may be seated... From the mundane to the high tech, foams, emulsions, and cellular solids encompass a broad range of materials and applications. Soap suds, mayonnaise, and foamed polymers provide practical motivation and only hint at the variety of materials at issue. Typical of mukiphase materiaIs, the rheoIogy or mechanical behavior of foams is more complicated than that of the constituent phases alone, which may be gas, liquid, or solid. For example, a soap froth exhibits a static shear modulus-a hallmark of an elastic solid-even though it is composed primarily of two Newtonian fluids (water and air), which have no shear modulus. This apparent paradox is easily resolved. Soap froth contains a small amount of surfactant that stabilizes the delicate network of thin liq- uid films against rupture. The soap-film network deforms in response to a macroscopic strain; this increases interracial area and the corresponding sur- face energy, and provides the strain energy of classical elasticity theory [1]. This physical mechanism is easily imagined but very challenging to quantify for a realistic three-dimensional soap froth in view of its complex geome- try. Foam micromechanics addresses the connection between constituent properties, cell-level structure, and macroscopic mechanical behavior. This article is a survey of micromechanics applied to gas-liquid foams, liquid-liquid emulsions, and cellular solids. We will focus on static response where the foam deformation is very slow and rate-dependent phenomena such as viscous flow can be neglected. This includes nonlinear elasticity when deformations are large but reversible. We will also discuss elastic- plastic behavior, which involves yield phenomena. Foam structures based on polyhedra packed to fill space provide a unify- ing geometrical theme. Because a two

  6. PREFACE: International Conference on Advancement in Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST): Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Hee, Pah Chin

    2013-04-01

    The 4th International Conference on the Advancement of Science and Technology 2012 (iCAST 2012), with theme 'Contemporary Mathematics, Mathematical Physics and their Applications', took place in Kuantan, Malaysia, from Wednesday 7 to Friday 9 November 2012. The conference was attended by more than 100 participants, and hosted about 160 oral and poster papers by more than 140 pre-registered authors. The key topics of the 4th iCAST 2012 include Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Dynamical Systems, Statistics and Financial Mathematics. The scientific program was rather full since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, four parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The conference aimed to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with the application of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology and environmental sciences. We would like to thank the Keynote and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to 4th iCAST 2012. We would also like to thank the members of the International Scientific Committee and the members of the Organizing Committee. We cannot end without expressing our many thanks to International Islamic University Malaysia and our sponsors for their financial support . This volume presents selected papers which have been peer-reviewed. The editors hope that it may be useful and fruitful for scholars, researchers, and advanced technical members of the industrial laboratory facilities for developing new tools and products. Guest Editors Nasir Ganikhodjaev, Farrukh Mukhamedov and Pah Chin Hee The PDF contains the committee lists, board list and biographies of the plenary speakers.

  7. Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

    2005-08-30

    In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

  8. Technology and mechanism of a new protein-based core sand for aluminum casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶玉; 黄天佑; 石红玉; 何镇明

    2001-01-01

    The protein-based binding material is from natural products, which is nontoxic and recyclable. This kind of green binder is earnestly needed by aluminum casting products. The new protein-based core possesses higher strength and easier shakeout. Its tensile strength is close to that of common resin sands. The micro-mechanism of protein binder was investigated by using infrared spectrum, chemical element analysis, SEM and thermal lost-mass analysis.

  9. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  10. A New Direct-Pour In-Mold (DPI) Technology for Producing Ductile and Compacted Graphite Iron Castings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Hitchings; Jay R. Hitchings

    2007-07-20

    A new "Direct Pour In-Mold" (DPI) Magnesium treatment technology has been developed that can produce both Nodular and Compacted Graphite iron. The DPI technology converts the standard horizontal runner system into a vertical one, by placing a Magnesium Ferrosilicon treatment alloy and molten metal filter into a specially designed container. The DPI container is easily placed into either vertically or horizontally parted molds, and then a base metal can be poured directly into it. The metal is treated and filtered as it passes through, and then proceeds directly into a runner or casting cavity. Various sizes of containers provide all of the necessary components required to deliver a range of weights of treated and filtered metal at accurate and consistent flow rates. The DPI containers provide energy savings over competing techniques, increased mold yields, very high Magnesium recovery, zero Magnesium fume, and no post inoculation is required. By treating the metal just prior to it entering a casting cavity many other benefits and advantages are also realized.

  11. Data of microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon foams derived from sucrose/polyacrylamide hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An easy method that combined gel casting and physical foaming was used to fabricate modified carbon foams. The design of carbon foams from sucrose/polyacrylamide hydrogel is a new concept for controlling the microstructure and improving the compressive properties of carbon foams. This article provides the micrographs obtained from optical and scanning electron microscope for foaming solution and carbon foams. Weight loss data used to construct the thermo-gravimetric curves are included. Load–displacement data constructing the stress–strain curves and the derived compressive properties are also included.

  12. Clean cast steel technology. Determination of transformation diagrams for duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumbley, S. L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma ( can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling- transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ( formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations, The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local

  13. Intelligent casting machine control technology development%智能连铸机控制技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志杰

    2014-01-01

    with the customer more strict to the requirement of the slab quality, puts forward a new control requirements for continuous casting machine, the surface quality and internal quality, must take effective means of technology. Therefore the control principle, on the basis of digesting and absorbing the original equipment according to the production process, respectively from the mold status diagnosis technology, precise argon blowing and temperature measuring integration, large current electromagnetic stirring technique, fan-shaped segment positioning technology and micro cutting, double control burring formed the technical characteristics of the third generation of intelligent continuous casting machine.%随着客户对板坯产品质量的要求更加严格,对连铸机提出了新的控制要求,无论是表面质量还是内在质量,都必须采取有效的技术手段。为此在消化吸收原设备控制原理的基础上,按照生产流程,分别从结晶器状态诊断技术、中包精准吹氩与测温集成、大电流电磁搅拌技术、扇形段定位技术、微切割、双控去毛刺等方面形成了第三代智能连铸机的技术特征。

  14. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 January 1996--31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report describes Solarex`s accomplishments during this phase of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program. During this reporting period, Solarex researchers converted 79% of production casting stations to increase ingot size and operated them at equivalent yields and cell efficiencies; doubled the casting capacity at 20% the cost of buying new equipment to achieve the same capacity increase; operated the wire saws in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; purchased additional wire saws; developed and qualified a new wire-guide coating material that doubles the wire-guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; ran an Al paste back-surface-field process on 25% of all cells in manufacturing; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; substituted RTV adhesive for the 3M Very High Bond tape after several field problems with the tape; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; demonstrated the use of light soldering for solar cells; demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers; and presented three PVMaT-related papers at the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference.

  15. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  16. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  17. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  18. Application of Hydrogen Technologies for Increasing the Operating Characteristic of Stem of Hip Implant Made of Titanium Alloy, Procured By Mold Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvortsova SV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the possibility of using the thermo hydrogen technology in the process of manufacturing the stem of hip implant made of titanium alloy, procured by mold castings. The influence of modes of thermo hydrogen processing on the transformation of the cast structure and mechanical properties of mold castings is analyzed in this work. It is shown that the use of thermo hydrogen processing ensures good physical and chemical contact and lets substantially increase the adhesion strength of Osseo integrating porous coating made of unalloyed titanium with titanium alloy VT6 (Ti-6-4 surface of the stem of hip implant. It identifies the elements of the processing technology of the implant elements, allowing to obtain products correspond to the international standard is identified in the work.

  19. Focusing on Technology and Services, Competing in China Die Casting Market Report on visits with five companies participating in the Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Asia-Pacific Die Casting Industry Exhibition 2005, organized by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES), was held in INTEX Shanghai, China on August 14-17, 2005. On August 16th, the journalists of CHINA FOUNDRY journal visited five exhibitors on the spot of exhibition.

  20. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  1. Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2005-11-01

    The study examines current and emerging melting technologies and discusses their technical barriers to scale-up issues and research needed to advance these technologies, improving melting efficiency, lowering metal transfer heat loss, and reducing scrap.

  2. Microstructure and damping behavior of SiCp/Gr/2024Al metal matrix composites by squeeze casting technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Jin-feng; WU Gao-hui

    2006-01-01

    SiCp/Gr/2024Al metal matrix composites were processed by squeeze casting technology. The microstructure of composites was observed by SEM and TEM, and the effects of graphite particulates and SiC particulates on the damping behaviors of composites were also investigated. The results show that the microstructure of composites was dense and homogeneous, without any interfacial reactivity among reinforcement/matrix interfaces. Compared with the damping capacity of 2024Al, the damping capacity of composites was enhanced significantly by addition of SiC or graphite particulates. The main damping mechanisms of SiCp/Al composites were ascribed to the dislocation damping, and those of SiCp/Gr/2024Al were attributed to the intrinsic damping and interface damping.

  3. Property Characteristics of a TiB2P/AI Composite Fabricated by Squeeze Casting Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min ZHAO; Gaohui WU; Zuoyong DOU; Longtao JIANG

    2006-01-01

    TiB2P/Al composite was successfully fabricated by squeeze casting technology. Its mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated. The elimination of Ti-Al intermetallic compound was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. At 45% volume fraction, the bending strength at ambient temperature was 934 MPa. And the fracture modes included ductile failure of Al matrix and brittle fracture of TiB2 particles. In dry sliding wear mode, severe plastic deformation and adhesive wear were found on the worn surfaces of the SiCP/Alcomposite. But no obvious characteristics of adhesion or abrasion wear were observed on that of the TiB2P/Al composites. At the steady stage, the friction coefficient of the SiCP/Al composite was about 0.6. While that of TiB2P/Al composite was only about 0.16~0.17.

  4. Supplemental Immobilization Cast Stone Technology Development and Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Pierce, Eric M.; Cozzi, Alex; Chung, Chul-Woo; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-05-31

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment facility will have the capacity to separate all of the tank wastes into the HLW and LAW fractions, and the HLW Vitrification Facility will have the capacity to vitrify all of the HLW. However, a second immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A number of alternatives, including Cast Stone—a cementitious waste form—are being considered to provide the additional LAW immobilization capacity.

  5. Foam Cushioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    One innovation developed by a contractor at Ames Research Center was an open cell polymeric foam material with unusual properties. Intended as padding for aircraft seats the material offered better impact protection against accidents, and also enhanced passenger comfort because it distributed body weight evenly over the entire contact area. Called a slow springback foam, it flows to match the contour of the body pressing against it, and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. It has many applications including aircraft cushions and padding, dental stools, and athletic equipment. Now it's used by Dynamic Systems, Inc. for medical applications such as wheel chairs for severely disabled people which allow them to sit for 3-8 hours where they used to be uncomfortable in 15-30 minutes.

  6. Resistance of Cast Iron Unified Module Recuperator of Heating Furnaces with High-Temperature Thermal Technologies at Machine Building, Automotive and Tractor Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a stress analysis in the field of elastic and elastic-plastic wall state of a cast iron module industrial recuperator of high-temperature technology furnaces applied in blank and mechanical assembly production at machine building enterprises.

  7. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  8. Production of low-density poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) foam via phase inversion from binary solvent/nonsovent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simandl, R.F.; Robinson, D.N.; Bolinger, W.L.; Davis, W.E.

    1991-11-01

    Phase inversion from durene/naphthalene, durene/tmpdo, and durene/hexadecanol binary solvent/nonsolvent systems produced well interconnected, radiographically homogeneous, open-celled poly (4- methyl-1-pentene) or pmp foams. These foams ranged in density from 5 to 50 mg/cm{sup 2}. Foam homogeneity and casting efficiency were dependent on casting scheme, durene quality, solvent-to-nonsolvent ratio, and quench temperature. Foam density tracked linearly with dissolved-polymer content. Homogeneous, ultralow-density (5 to 6 mg/cm{sup 3}) foams were produced by using a 49/51 durene/naphthalene solvent eutectic. Foam hardness or firmness tracked somewhat linearly with foam density. Foams with densities above 20 mg/cm{sup 3} were too fragile to handle without damage.

  9. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  10. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  11. New approach for porous materials obtaining using centrifugal casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălţătescu, O.; Axinte, M.; Barbu, G.; Manole, V.

    2015-11-01

    It has been presented different methods for obtaining porous materials, (mainly used for metallic foams) and highlighting a new technology developed in the Faculty of Materials science and engineering, of Iasi. Our technology for obtaining porous materials is called centrifugal casting for porous materials. This technology is included in the method number 8: co-pressing of a metal powder with a leachable powder being in the same time a newer approach in the porous materials field. This technology is currently in the developmental phase. Since now we made experiments on the metallic materials, aluminum alloys. The technology is briefly described in this paper. The obtained parts were used for making samples in order to characterize the properties of the materials. The cellular structure of metallic foams requires special precautions that must be taken in characterization and testing. In this paper we have characterized the samples structurally by its cell topology (open cells, closed cells), relative density, cell size and cell shape and anisotropy. Also it was used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which is straightforward; the only necessary precaution is that relating to surface preparation.

  12. Autoclave foam concrete: Structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestnikov, Alexei; Semenov, Semen; Strokova, Valeria; Nelubova, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the technology and properties of autoclaved foam concrete taking into account practical experience and laboratory studies. The results of study of raw materials and analysis of structure and properties of foam-concrete before and after autoclave treatment are basic in this work. Experimental studies of structure and properties of foam concrete are carried out according to up-to-date methods and equipment on the base of the shared knowledge centers. Results of experimental studies give a deep understanding of properties of raw materials, possible changes and new formations in inner layers of porous material providing the improvement of constructional and operational properties of autoclaved foam concrete. Principal directions of technology enhancement as well as developing of production of autoclave foam concretes under cold-weather conditions in Russia climate are justified.

  13. 电解液喷射沉积制备泡沫镍技术及其应用现状%Technologies and Applications of Jet Electrodeposited Foam Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈劲松; 杨建明; 乔斌; 徐继标

    2013-01-01

    The technologies of foam metals prepared by jet electrodeposition were introduced. The principles and characteristics of jet electrodeposition and preparation of foam metals were analyzed. The current applications of porous nickel in electrode materials, catalyst supports and supercapacitor were overviewed.%介绍了电解液喷射沉积制备泡沫金属技术,说明了电解液喷射沉积法的原理及特点,综述了泡沫镍在电极材料、催化剂载体和超级电容器等方面的应用.

  14. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF ROLLS CASTING LS-57 EXECUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Maymur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the use of complex modifier is not accompanied by gas evolution and the pyroelectric effect, which increases the sustainability of the process. When using modifier simplifies complex technology of the modified roller melt and reduced the duration of melting due to lower discharge temperature of the melt from the melting unit.

  16. Product development within the framework of a National Casting Technology Centre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, WB

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and developing the downstream high technology manufacturing industry, inter alia through the aerospace, automotive and metals sectors. In the light of the above and in an effort to retain and expand the current national skills, expertise and facilities...

  17. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  18. Effect of thermophysical property and coating thickness on microstructure and characteristics of a casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-chao Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new improved investment casting technology (IC has been presented and compared with the existing IC technology such as lost foam casting (LFC. The effect of thermophysical property and coating thickness on casting solidification temperature field, microstructure and hardness has been investigated. The results show that the solidification rate decreases inversely with the coating thickness when the coating contains silica sol, zircon powder, mullite powder and defoaming agent. In contrast, the solid cooling rate increases as the coating thickness increases. However, the solidification rate and solid cooling rate of the casting produced by the existing IC and the improved IC are very similar when the coating thickness is 5 mm, so the microstructure and hardness of a container corner fitting produced by the improved IC and the existing IC are similar. The linear regression equation for the grain size (d and cooling rate (v of the castings is d= –0.41v+206.1. The linear regression equation for the content of pearlite (w and solid cooling rate (t is w=1.79t + 6.71. The new improved IC can greatly simplify the process and decrease the cost of production compared with the existing IC. Contrasting with LFC, container corner fittings produced by the new improved IC have fewer defects and better properties. It was also found that the desired microstructure and properties can be obtained by changing the thermophysical property and thickness of the coating.

  19. The Optimum Vibration Generator for the Technological Process in Casting Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa-Oana Hamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The performing of some experimental investigations caucering theapplication of vibrations to the technological processes in foundries has required in the first place a vibration generator. By an analysis of the existent generator types it has been established that the optimum generator for these processes is the pneumatic ball-generator. In the work the principle of functioning of this kind of generator is treated and the dimensional and functional characteristics for two realized prototypes are given.

  20. Research on Casting Technology for Super Heavy Anvil Block%特厚大砧座铸件的铸造技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德润; 唐贤其; 宁德林; 杨晓兵

    2014-01-01

    Combined with the application of computer solidification simulation technology , the casting technology for super heavy anvil block are reseached , and the exported super heavy steel castings with thickness 2 350 mm which are needed the overall ultrasonic test are successfully completed .%结合计算机凝固模拟技术的应用,对厚大砧座铸钢件的铸造工艺及技术进行了研究,成功完成了厚度达到2350 mm且需要进行整体超声检测的外贸特厚大铸钢件的铸造。

  1. 无模精密砂型快速铸造技术研究进展%Progress of Rapid Technology without Mold in Precision Sand Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佩兰; 徐志锋; 余欢; 王振军

    2013-01-01

    无模精密砂型快速铸造技术具有制造周期短、成本低、砂型/砂芯一体化制造及制造任意形状复杂铸件等特点.采用该方法制备的砂型(芯)尺寸精度高、表面质量好,可实现复杂铸件的整体近净成形.特别适合于复杂铸件的单件、小批量生产及新产品的试制.综述了基于激光烧结、三维打印、数控加工原理的无模精密砂型快速铸造技术的工艺特点、适用范围,并指出了各自存在的问题及其发展前景.%With short manufacturing cycle, low manufacturing costs, sand mold and core integrated manufacturing and the development of any complex shaped castings, precision sand casting rapid technology without mold was used to fabricate sand molds or cores with high dimensional accuracy and good surface quality to realize near-net shape of the complex castings, especially suitable for the complex castings of single or small batch production as well as trial of new products. Precision sand casting rapid technology without mold based on laser sintering, 3D printing and CNC machining principles was reviewed, focusing on the characteristics of the process, the scope of application, and existing problems as well as development prospects.

  2. Defluoridation technology for drinking water and tea by green synthesized Fe3O4/Al2O3 nanoparticles coated polyurethane foams for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sonu; Khan, Suphiya

    2017-08-14

    Fluoride (F) contaminated ground water poses a serious public health concern to rural population with unaffordable purification technologies. Therefore, development of a cost-effective, portable, environment and user-friendly defluoridation technique is imperative. In the present study, we report on the development of a green and cost-effective method that utilizes Fe3O4 and Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized using jojoba defatted meal. These NPs were impregnated on to polyurethane foam (PUF) and made into tea infusion bags. The Al2O3 NPs-PUF displayed a higher water defluoridation capacity of 43.47 mg g(-1) of F as compared to 34.48 mg g(-1) of F with Fe3O4 NPs-PUF. The synthesized Al2O3-PUF infusion bags removed the F that was under the permissible limit of 1.5 mg L(-1). The sorption experiments were conducted to verify the effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, size of PUF and initial F concentration. The different properties of adsorbent were characterized using a combination of FESEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR techniques, respectively. The calculated total cost per NPs-PUF pouch developed is as low as US $0.05, which makes the technology most suitable for rural communities. This paper will be beneficial for researchers working toward further improvement in water purification technologies.

  3. Remanufacturing Technology in Continuous Casting Core Equipment and Its Application%连铸关键设备再制造技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯峰岩; 任乔华; 高锦岩

    2012-01-01

    连铸关键设备的再制造是高效、绿色钢铁发展的重要方向.介绍了连铸结晶器和连铸辊的失效形式、表面处理技术以及结构设计技术在结晶器和连铸辊上的研究与应用;分析总结了各种表面涂层的热稳定性能、耐磨损性能和实际应用寿命;运用有限元解析技术对结晶器铜板和连铸辊的结构、服役条件进行分析,并对其进行各种优化设计,与优异的表面处理技术相配合,提高连铸设备的整体使用寿命.实践表明借助再制造工程体系的先进表面技术和先进设计与管理方法,可以使连铸设备不断得到性能恢复和技术改造升级,延长其寿命和报废期限,提高连铸设备的档次和附加值,具有良好的经济和社会效益.%Remanufacturing of continuous casting core equipment is an important direction for efficient devel-opment of green steel. The failure mode of continuous casting mold and roller was described. Surface technol-ogy and structural design techniques for continuous casting core equipment were introduced. Thermal stabili-ty, wear resistant and life of all type coatings were analyzed. Finite element analytical techniques were used to analyze the structure and service condition of continuous casting mold and roller. Designs were optimized and matched the excellent surface technology to improve the overall life of the continuous casting equipment. Prac-tice show that the performance and technology of continuous casting equipment are improved through advanced surface technology, design and management of the remanufacturing engineering system. The life expectancy and retirement period are extended and the quality and added value are improved, resulting in good social and economical benefits.

  4. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF STEEL AND CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the use of a number of promising casting technologies applied to produce the castings of steel and cast iron with special properties. Such as, technology of centrifugal casting of large-size workpieces made of steel, forecasting method composition of slag in the smelting of high-manganese steels, method of complex modifying chromium cast irons, analysis of properties of perspective high-alloy aluminium cast iron.

  5. Casting technology for ODS steels - dispersion of nanoparticles in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M.; Grants, I.; Kaldre, I.; Bojarevics, A.; Gerbeth, G.

    2017-07-01

    Dispersion of particles to produce metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNC) can be achieved by means of ultrasonic vibration of the melt using ultrasound transducers. However, a direct transfer of this method to produce steel composites is not feasible because of the much higher working temperature. Therefore, an inductive technology for contactless treatment by acoustic cavitation was developed. This report describes the samples produced to assess the feasibility of the proposed method for nano-particle separation in steel. Stainless steel samples with inclusions of TiB2, TiO2, Y2O3, CeO2, Al2O3 and TiN have been created and analyzed. Additional experiments have been performed using light metals with an increased value of the steady magnetic field using a superconducting magnet with a field strength of up to 5 T.

  6. 我国铸铁生产技术回顾与展望%Review and Prospect of Production Technology of Cast Iron in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克锐; 曾艺成; 张忠仇; 吴现龙

    2012-01-01

    我国是铸铁生产大国,铸铁件产量约占世界的40%; 2010年我国铸铁件产量达到2 950万t(其中,灰铸铁1 900万t,球墨铸铁990万t),铸铁件占全部铸件产量的74.5%.本文回顾了60年来我国球墨铸铁、等温淬火球墨铸铁(ADI)、蠕墨铸铁和灰铸铁在生产技术、性能水平、技术标准、应用领域、质量检测和控制等方面的进展;对比分析了与国外先进工业国家在铸铁材质结构、生产规模、成分和性能波动、熔炼造型和质量控制等方面的差距;展望了铸铁生产技术发展趋势,供同行探讨和参考.%The annual output of iron castings in China has increased to 29.5 million tons in 2010 (including 19 million tons gray cast iron and 9.9 million tons ductile iron), which is about 40% of the world total. The production technology, mechanical properties, standard, application field, and quality control about ductile iron (DI), austempered ductile iron (ADI), compacted graphite cast iron (CGCI) and gray cast iron (GCI) castings in China were briefly reviewed and described. The gap in cast iron, production scale, component and properties consistency, process control etc. between China and industrial developed countries is compared and analyzed. The development trend of production technology of iron castings was forecasted, which provided the discussion and reference for the practitioners in the foundry field.

  7. Research progress on squeeze casting in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuanyuan; Zhang Weiwen; Zhao Haidong; You Dongdong; Zhang Datong; Shao Ming; Zhang Wen

    2014-01-01

    Squeeze casting is a technology with short route, high efficiency and precise forming, possessing features of casting and plastic processing. It is widely used to produce high performance metallic structural parts. As energy conservation and environmental protection concerns have risen, lightweight and high performance metal parts are urgently needed, which accelerated the development of squeeze casting technology over the past two decades in China. In this paper, research progress on squeeze casting aloys, typical parts manufacturing and development of squeeze casting equipment in China are introduced. The future trend and development priorities of squeeze casting are discussed.

  8. Foams theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Saad A

    1996-01-01

    This volume discusses the physics and physical processes of foam and foaming. It delineates various measurement techniques for characterizing foams and foam properties as well as the chemistry and application of foams. The use of foams in the textile industry, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, firefighting and mineral floatation are highlighted, and the connection between the microstructure and physical properties of foam are detailed. Coverage includes nonaqueous foams and silicone antifoams, and more.

  9. Review of current research and application of ductile cast iron quality monitoring technologies in Chinese foundry industry

    OpenAIRE

    Da-yong Li; Zhen-yu Xu; Xu-liang Ma

    2015-01-01

    There is a long history of studying and making use of ductile cast iron in China. Over the years, the foundrymen in China have carried out a lot of valuable research and development work for measuring parameters and controlling the quality in ductile cast iron production. Many methods, such as rapid metallographic phase, thermal analysis, eutectic expansion ratio, surface tension measurement, melt electrical resistivity, oxygen and sulfur activity measurement, ultrasonic measurement and sound...

  10. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great significance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

  11. Review of current research and application of ductile cast iron quality monitoring technologies in Chinese foundry industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-yong Li; Zhen-yu Xu; Xu-liang Ma; De-quan Shi

    2015-01-01

    There is a long history of studying and making use of ductile cast iron in China. Over the years, the foundrymen in China have carried out a lot of valuable research and development work for measuring parameters and control ing the quality in ductile cast iron production. Many methods, such as rapid metal ographic phase, thermal analysis, eutectic expansion ratio, surface tension measurement, melt electrical resistivity, oxygen and sulfur activity measurement, ultrasonic measurement and sound frequency measurement, have been used and have played important roles in Chinese casting production in the past. These methods can be general y classiifed as liquid testing and solid testing according to the sample state. Based on the analysis of the present situation of these methods applied in the Chinese metal casting industry, the authors consider that there are two dififcult technical problems to be currently solved in monitoring ductile iron quality. One is to seek an effective method for quickly evaluating the nodularizing result through on-the-spot sample analysis before the liquid iron is poured into the mould. The other is to ifnd a nondestructive method for accurately identifying casting quality before castings are delivered.

  12. Review of current research and application of ductile cast iron quality monitoring technologies in Chinese foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-yong Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a long history of studying and making use of ductile cast iron in China. Over the years, the foundrymen in China have carried out a lot of valuable research and development work for measuring parameters and controlling the quality in ductile cast iron production. Many methods, such as rapid metallographic phase, thermal analysis, eutectic expansion ratio, surface tension measurement, melt electrical resistivity, oxygen and sulfur activity measurement, ultrasonic measurement and sound frequency measurement, have been used and have played important roles in Chinese casting production in the past. These methods can be generally classified as liquid testing and solid testing according to the sample state. Based on the analysis of the present situation of these methods applied in the Chinese metal casting industry, the authors consider that there are two difficult technical problems to be currently solved in monitoring ductile iron quality. One is to seek an effective method for quickly evaluating the nodularizing result through on-the-spot sample analysis before the liquid iron is poured into the mould. The other is to find a nondestructive method for accurately identifying casting quality before castings are delivered.

  13. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  14. Development of the fundamentals of melting and casting technology of Al-Me (Cr, Ni, Mo, W, Ti master alloys used for modification of microstructure in silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piatkowski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the technological backgrounds of the process of melting and casting Al-Cr, Al-Ni, Al-Mo, Al-W and Al-Ti masteralloys, used as refiners of the microstructure of cast silumins. Basing on the analysis of phase equilibrium diagrams for an Al-Me (Cr, Ni, Mo, W, Ti system at a temperature of 900oC, the characteristic intermetallic phases of AlxMey were investigated. Due to their similarity with Al and Si in respect of both structure and lattice arrangement, these phases may act as heterogeneous nuclei and promote solution hardening during, e.g., heat treatment. Using the method of thermal analysis ATD, the temperature was plotted in function of time, and then the characteristic values of the solidification parameters of master alloys were read out from the respective curves.

  15. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  16. The construction technology of cast-in-place hollow floor slab two casting instant-formation%现浇空心楼板二次浇筑一次成型施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the subsidiary comprehensive building project of ICBC Shanxi branch,mainly described the features,technological process,construction method,quality control,safety measures of cast-in-place hollow floor slab,the floor slab structure of above ground fifteen floors used cast-in-place hollow beamless floor structure system,had good construction quality,gained the praise of construction units and related departments.%结合中国工商银行山西省分行附属综合楼工程,主要叙述了现浇空心楼板特点,工艺流程,施工方法,质量控制,安全措施,地上15层部分楼板结构采用现浇空心无梁楼盖结构体系,施工质量好,得到了建设单位和有关部门的好评。

  17. Study on Reconstruction Technology of Continuous Casting Equipment%论连铸关键设备再制造技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕健

    2013-01-01

    我国的钢铁制造倡导高效、绿色的发展方式,连铸关键设备的再制造就是钢铁产业发展的关键,本文就对连铸技术中结构设计问题以及表面处理技术等做出了分析研究,并且在对各种表面涂层的稳定性分析方面作了总结,对于连铸钢铁表面的图层的实际耐磨损程度和使用寿命做出了预算.大量实践经验证明,提高连铸设备的使用年限和报废期限对取得良好的经济和社会效益具有重要作用.%The high efficiency,green development pattern is advocated by Steelmaker in China,and remanufacturing of continuous casting key equipment is the key to the development of steel industry.The author analyses and researches the structural design problem in the continuous casting technology and surface treatment technology,and summarizes the stability analysis of varieties of surface coatings,and budgets actual wear resistance and service life for surface layer of continuous casting of steel.A great deal of practical experience proved that it was important to improve the lifespan and scrap period of the continuous casting equipment for obtaining good economic and social benefits.

  18. Thermoforming of foam sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko; Pronk, Ruud M.

    1997-01-01

    Thermoforming is a widely used process for the manufacture of foam sheet products. Polystyrene foam food trays for instance can be produced by first heating the thermoplastic foam sheet, causing the gas contained to build up pressure and expand, after which a vacuum pressure can be applied to draw t

  19. Bimetallic layered castings alloy steel – carbon cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast processso-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic carbon cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X10CrNi 18-8. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The quality of the bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic NDT (non-destructive testing, structure and macro- and microhardness researches.

  20. Machinability of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) Produced by Integrated Green Technology of Continuous Casting-Heat Treatment Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, A.; El Mansori, M.; Ghidossi, P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the novel processing technique known as continuous casting-heat treatment processes to produce Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) which is a new class of ductile iron. ADI is characterized by improved mechanical properties but has low machinability as compared to other cast irons and steel of similar strength. The novel technique is developed by the integration of casting (in die casting) and heat treatment processes in foundry to save cost energy and time. Specimens just after casting were austenitized at 930° C for 90 min and then austempered in fluidized bed at 380° C for 90 and 120 min. Hence, the effect of austempering time on the morphology of retained austenite and mechanical properties of the material were examined and compared with conventionally produced ADI. Drilling tests were then carried out to evaluate the machinability of ADI in terms of cutting forces, chip micro-hardness, chip morphology and surface roughness. The mechanical properties of ADI austempered for 120 min have found to be better as compare to the ADI austempered for 90 min.

  1. Heat Transfer and Acoustic Properties of Open Cell Aluminum Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aluminum open cell foams have been prepared by the conventional precision casting method to investigate the thermal and acoustic properties. A water heating system and silencers were organized as a first step for its applications. The temperature increase between the top and bottom of the foam became larger as the cell size increased in the heat transfer measurement. Sound absorption ratio of the close cell foams was 60%-100%,whereas the open cell aluminum foam showed only 10%-20% of sound absorption at low frequency. When the prototype electric water heater manufactured by combining aluminum open cell foam with a heater was heated to 100-400℃, the highest temperature of water was in the range of 16-46℃. This suggests that there could be potential for this type of heater to be used as a commercial electric water heater. Sound silencer made with the aluminum open cell foam was applied to exit of exhaustion side at air pressure line. Sound silencing effect of open-celled aluminum foam showed that the noise level went down by introducing smaller cell size foam.

  2. Advanced Casting Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Zusatz seltener Erden - Giesserei Pr., 1977, p. 249-262. 32) Henrichs, L. U. Hielscher - Das Fliessverhalten erstarrender Aluminium-Gusswerkstoffe als...necessairement associees a des fissures ; elles sont alors parfois difficiles a detecter lors du controle ultrasons et peuvent conduire a des ruptures catastro...controle ultrasons . Nota : Nous avons egalement observe qu’une zone equiaxe donne lieu a une variation sensible de I’attenuation lors d’un sondage

  3. Shooting in a foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Anne; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2014-09-21

    We study the motion of a solid sphere after its fast impact on a bath of liquid foam. We identify two regimes of deceleration. At short times, the velocity is still large and the foam behaves similar to a Newtonian fluid of constant viscosity. Then we measure a velocity threshold below which the sphere starts experiencing the foam's elasticity. We interpret this behavior using a visco-elasto-plastic model for foam rheology. Finally we discuss the possibility of stopping a projectile in the foam, and evaluate the capture efficiency.

  4. Research Progress in Flame Retardant Technologies for Polystyrene Foams%聚苯乙烯泡沫塑料阻燃技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 崔正; 董明哲; 孙同兵; 陈宇

    2011-01-01

    The development of flame retarded polystyrene foam technology was reviewed. Brominebased, and phosphorus based, expanded graphite based, and inorganic based flame retardants as well as their synergist systems were introduced.%分析了聚苯乙烯(PS)泡沫塑料实现阻燃的必要性,介绍了当前国内外PS泡沫塑料阻燃技术的发展现状,详细介绍了卤系阻燃剂(溴系为主)、磷系阻燃剂、无机阻燃剂(膨胀石墨为主)以及阻燃协效剂的应用现状。针对当前无卤化阻燃PS泡沫塑料的发展趋势,提出了开发高效、低溴、多功能型阻燃剂的建议。

  5. 麻秆芯纤维发泡缓冲包装材料的制备工艺%Manufacturing Technology of Foaming Buffer Packaging Material Prepared from Cannabis sativa Core Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蕊; 陈太安; 戈应仓

    2011-01-01

    利用大麻秆芯纤维为植物纤维原料制备缓冲包装材料,探讨麻秆芯纤维添加量、胶黏剂、发泡剂和填料4个工艺因素对发泡体性能的影响,并利用外观特征、密度和回弹率3个性能指标对发泡体进行综合评价,筛选出的优化工艺条件为:麻秆芯纤维添加量为30.0%,胶黏剂用量为20.0%,发泡剂用量为1.5%,填料用量为10.0%.优化工艺条件下制备的发泡材料外观量化评分为9,密度为0.151//cm3,回弹率为3.22%,初步达到缓冲包装材料的要求.%The foaming buffer packaging material was experimented to be made of the Cannabis sativa stem core fiber. The influence of the proportion of four major raw material components i. e. , the amount of C. sativa stem core fiber, glue dosage, dosage of foaming agent and the additive dosage applied, upon the properties of foaming material was studied, and the properties of the foaming material were comprehensively evaluated with appearance, bulk density and shape recovery rate indexes. The results showed that the optimized raw material proportionfor the processing was 30. 0% of fiber, 20. 0% of glue, 1. 5% of foaming agent and 10. 0% of additive. The foaming buffer packaging material manufactured by the optimized processing technology was assessed that the appearance was scored as 9 points, the bulk density was 0. 151 g/cm3 and the shape recovery rate was 3. 22% , indicating that the foaming material could be used as buffer packaging material.

  6. Effect of Process Parameters on Porosity in Aluminum Lost Foam Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiyoung KIM; Kyongwhoan LEE

    2005-01-01

    Porosity is a main defect in aluminum alloy castings, which is also thought to be severe in aluminum alloy castings produced by lost foam process due to the pyrolysis of the polystyrene foam pattern during pouring. Fundamental experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as the melt treatment, the cooling rate and the density of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam on porosity in A356.2 bar casting. The effect of melt treatment including degassing and refining was investigated. The effect of cooling rate was also evaluated by changing the mold packing material such as the silica sand, the zircon sand and the steel shots. Gas entrapment due to the turbulent metal flow during mold filling in conventional molding process results in porosity. Mold filling sequence in lost foam process is different from that in conventional molding process. The effect of molten metal flow was estimated by comparing the density of the casting by conventional sodium silicate molding with that by lost foam process. Density measurement was conducted to analyze the extent of porosity in the casting. Source of the porosity in lost foam process can be divided into two factors, i.e. turbulence in molten metal flow and entraining residue or gas from the pattern during pouring.

  7. A new adding method of foaming agent used for foam dust suppression in underground coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆新晓; 沈威; 王德明; 仲晓星; 朱朝炳; 徐超航

    2015-01-01

    To realize a stable addition of foaming agent used for foam technology, a new adding method using the jet cavitation was introduced, and its performance was investigated experimentally under different operating conditions. Experimental results show that the bubble region in the jet device has a constant vapor pressure, which creates a good condition for liquid absorption, while it shrinks with increasing outlet pressure. The liquid absorption amount keeps unchanged when the outlet pressure is lower than a critical value. The critical outlet pressure increases by 40% with decreasing cavitation absorption amount, which is especially suitable for mini-flow quantitative addition of foaming agent used for foam dust suppression. Its effectiveness on suppressing mine dust was evaluated in a heading face of underground coal mines. Field application indicates that the reliable and simple foaming system adopting the new adding method makes a marked dust suppression effect. The working environment of heading face is significantly improved, ensuring the safe tunneling and personal security.

  8. Foam process models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A. (Procter & Gamble Co., West Chester, OH); Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  9. Foam consolidation and drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S; Pelot, D D; Yarin, A L

    2012-03-27

    A theoretical model of foam as a consolidating continuum is proposed. The general model is applied to foam in a gravity settler. It is predicted that liquid drainage from foam in a gravity settler begins with a slow drainage stage. Next, a stage with faster drainage occurs where the drainage rate doubles compared to the initial stage. The experiments conducted within the framework of this work confirmed the theoretical predictions and allowed measurements of foam characteristics. Foams of three different concentrations of Pantene Pro-V Classic Care Solutions shampoo were studied, as well as the addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in one case. The shampoo's main foaming components are sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate. It is shown to what extent foam drainage is slowed down by using higher shampoo concentrations and how it is further decreased by adding polymer (PEO).

  10. Hair casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions,which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  11. Feynman propagator for spin foam quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriti, Daniele

    2005-03-25

    We link the notion causality with the orientation of the spin foam 2-complex. We show that all current spin foam models are orientation independent. Using the technology of evolution kernels for quantum fields on Lie groups, we construct a generalized version of spin foam models, introducing an extra proper time variable. We prove that different ranges of integration for this variable lead to different classes of spin foam models: the usual ones, interpreted as the quantum gravity analogue of the Hadamard function of quantum field theory (QFT) or as inner products between quantum gravity states; and a new class of causal models, the quantum gravity analogue of the Feynman propagator in QFT, nontrivial function of the orientation data, and implying a notion of "timeless ordering".

  12. Foam inflated rigidized structures for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D. M.; Warner, M. J.; Blair, M.

    1993-11-01

    Large lightweight stowable structures that can be deployed in space without astronaut extra vehicular activity are vital to expanding space exploration and utilization. To meet this challenge Foam Inflated Rigidized (FIR) structures have been developed by Thiokol Corporation on the Air Forces's Gossamer Baggie Torus program. In this paper the development, proof of concept demonstration of an eight foot diameter octagonal torus, and design application of this technology for structural elements to stabilize the solar collector of a solar thermal rocket are discussed. A FIR structure uses foam to inflate and pre-stress a resin impregnated fabric skin. The predeployed foam used was a solvent swelled polymer that foams immediately when exposed to vacuum due to rapid solvent loss. This property allows a very simple deployment mechanism to be used in erecting these structures. Once inflated, the skin resin is cured using the available ultraviolet radiation. By using high strength and stiffness fiber materials a stiff, strong lightweight structure was produced.

  13. Theoretic and Experimental Studies on the Casting of Large Die-Type Parts Made of Lamellar Graphite Grey Pig Irons by Using the Technology of Polystyrene Moulds Casting from Two Sprue Cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis between the practical results of pig iron die-type part casting and the results reached by simulation. The insert was made of polystyrene, and the casting was downward vertical. As after the part casting and heat treatment cracks were observed in the part, it became necessary to locate and identify these fissures and to establish some measures for eliminating the casting defects and for locating them. The research method was the comparisons of defects identified through verifications, measurements, and metallographic analyses applied to the cast part with the results of some criteria specific to simulation after simulating the casting process. In order to verify the compatibility between reality and simulation, we then simulated the part casting respecting the real conditions in which it was cast. By visualising certain sections of the cast part during solidification, relevant details occur about the possible evolution of defects. The simulation software was AnyCasting, the measurements were done through nondestructive methods.

  14. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  15. Present Status of Lost Foam Casting Small-middle Enterprises in the U.S.A%美国消失模铸造中小型企业现状介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏莉; 叶升平

    2007-01-01

    介绍了美国消失模铸造中小企业的典型代表-Citation foam 、Irish Foundry和Mueller公司的发展现状,着重以Citation foam公司的多功能支架、差速器壳和Irish Foundry生产的铝合金散热片、铸铝燃气喷嘴为例介绍消失模技术的优势,还以Mueller 公司生产阀体的工艺过程,就选择泡沫材料、涂料,涂料使用时配置的参数,原砂的选择,浇注系统的设计与优化,以及浇注温度等相关参数进行了较详细的介绍.

  16. Defects in aluminum foam with superfine open-cell structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fang; Zhang Zhimin; Li Baocheng; Wang Lucai

    2008-01-01

    The infiltration casting process for producing aluminum foam includes three steps: preparing precursor using NaCI particles, infiltrating molten aluminum and cleaning NaCI precursor. Defects occur during the preparation of aluminum foam with superfine open-cell structure, and influence the pore structure and performance of aluminum foam materials. The types of the defect and their forming mechanisms are analyzed in this paper. The defects include point defects and linear metal defects, and are caused by the defects in salt precursor and the insufficient infiltration of molten aluminum into precursor. With the choice of proper precursor preparation method and infiltration process parameters, the complete aluminum foam with superfine pores could be achieved.

  17. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  18. Silica Foams for Fire Prevention and Firefighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander V; Kuprin, D S; Abduragimov, I M; Kuprin, G N; Serebriyakov, Evgeniy; Vinogradov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-13

    We report the new development of fire-extinguishing agents employing the latest technology of fighting and preventing fires. The in situ technology of fighting fires and explosions involves using large-scale ultrafast-gelated foams, which possess new properties and unique characteristics, in particular, exceptional thermal stability, mechanical durability, and full biocompatibility. We provide a detailed description of the physicochemical processes of silica foam formation at the molecular level and functional comparison with current fire-extinguishing and fire-fighting agents. The new method allows to produce controllable gelation silica hybrid foams in the range from 2 to 30 s up to 100 Pa·s viscosity. Chemical structure and hierarchical morphology obtained by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images develop thermal insulation capabilities of the foams, reaching a specific heat value of more than 2.5 kJ/(kg·°C). The produced foam consists of organized silica nanoparticles as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis with a narrow particle size distribution of ∼10-20 nm. As a result of fire-extinguishing tests, it is shown that the extinguishing efficiency exhibited by silica-based sol-gel foams is almost 50 times higher than that for ordinary water and 15 times better than that for state-of-the-art firefighting agent aqueous film forming foam. The biodegradation index determined by the time of the induction period was only 3 d, while even for conventional foaming agents this index is several times higher.

  19. Safety Analysis of Melt-Cast Technology for DNAN Explosive%DNAN炸药熔铸工艺安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红星; 王浩; 蒋芳芳; 赵凯; 徐申

    2014-01-01

    In order to ensure safety in melt-cast process for the DNAN explosive, emphasize safety analysis from the explosive properties, the melt-cast technological procedure, the thermal safety of DNAN explosive was studied by cook-off test, the delay time of thermal explosion in different temperature was obtained. The results show that DNAN under the ambient temperature of 220℃ was non-flammabled, DNAN was semi-burned under the ambient temperature of 230℃, when the temperature reaches above 240℃, thermal decomposition reaction of DNAN occurs. The delay of thermal explosion was obtained from theoretical calculation at 100℃, results show that the DNAN explosive melt-cast technological is safe and reliable.%为确保新型载体炸药DNAN熔铸装药过程的安全性,着重从炸药的基本特性和装药工艺流程等方面对熔铸装药工艺进行安全分析,并采用自行设计的一种烤燃试验装置,对DNAN的热安全性进行试验研究,得到其在不同温度下的热爆炸延滞期。结果表明:DNAN在220℃环境温度下,放置48 h没有发生反应;230℃发生不完全燃烧;当温度达到240℃以上时发生热分解反应;理论计算DNAN在通常的熔药温度(100℃)下的热爆炸延滞期,表明DNAN的装药工艺安全可靠。

  20. 涡轮壳铸件消失模发泡模具的快速制造%Rapid Manufacture of the Foam Die for Worm Wheel in Lost Foam Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志超; 叶升平; 鄂文峰; 李海; 戴辉

    2000-01-01

    The rapid manufacturing process of the foam die for worm wheel in lost foam process is described in this paper. First, the 3D model of the foam die is constructed by using the surface modeling and then it is rapid manufactured by using the laminated object manufacturing (LOM) and precise casting technology of transferring coating. The results showed that this technology could be used to produce the small-sized, complicated shallow die.%本文介绍了涡轮壳铸件消失模发泡模具的快速制造过程,即首先采用曲面建模技术,完成模具的三维造型,而后结合分层物体制造(LOM)快速造型技术和转移涂料精确铸造工艺,实现模具的快速制造。结果表明,此种工艺方法,可以实现小型、复杂浅腔模具的快速制造。

  1. 应用溶剂浇铸-颗粒滤沥法制备气管软骨组织工程管状泡沫支架%Establishing a tube foam scaffold for tracheal cartilage tissue engineering by using solvent casting/particulate leaching method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国义; 梁传余; 郑艳; 王力红; 陈立; 黄定强; 古庆家

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both aperture and porosity are mainly evaluating markers for three-dimensional poly materials. The higher the porosity is, the easier the growth and proliferation of cartilage cells are. However, with the successive increasing of porosity, compressive strength of scaffolds decreases and utility of aperture also decreases. Therefore, it is extremely significant for tracheal cartilage tissue engineering to establish three-dimensional poly scaffolds which have suitable aperture and porosity.OBJECTIVE: To establish tube foam scaffolds by using solvent casting/particulate leaching method so as to find out practical and ideal scaffolds for tracheal cartilage tissue engineering.DESIGN: Observational study.SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology, Taihe Hospital, Yunyang Medical College; Department of Otolaryngology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in Chemical Institute, Chengdu Sub-college of Chinese Academy of Sciences from March to May 2002. Poly-D, L-lactic acid (PDLLA, Mr= 4.23×104) and sodium chloride granules (50-200 μm in diameter) were used as porogenic agent.METHODS: PDLLA was dissolved in chloroform in spherical-shape glass container to dispend 100 g/L solution and then add with sodium chloride granules (50-200 μm) based on various mass fractions of 800, 850, 900, 920, 940 and 960 g/L. Sodium chloride granules were regarded as porogenic agent (scaffolds numbered from 1 to 6) to stir and make paste suspension. Continuously, suspension was cast into tube models, heated at 90 ℃, compressed,and maintained in ventilation cabinet for 48 hours for solvent volatilization. And the resting solvent was drawn out.Form-fitting drying tube foam scaffolds were taken out and dipped in double distilled water for 48 hours so as to remove sodium chloride. The double distilled water was changed every 8 hours. Then, all tube materials were dried in vacuum drying oven for 24-48 hours. While, three-dimensional PDLLA

  2. Behaviour of aluminum foam under fire conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grabian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account fire-protection requirements it is advantageous for aluminum foam, after melting at a temperature considerably exceeding the melting point, to have a structure of discontinuous suspension of solid inclusions to liquid metal instead of liquid consistency. Continuity of the suspension depends on the solid phase content. The boundary value of the phase determined by J. Śleziona, above which the suspension becomes discontinuous, is provided by the formula (1. Figure 1 presents the relationship graphically. Boundary values of the vs content resulting from the above relationship is too low, taking into account the data obtained from the technology of suspension composites [4]. Therefore, based on the structure assumed for the suspension shown in Figure 2 these authors proposed another way of determining the contents, the value of which is determined by the relationship (3 [5].For purposes of the experimental study presented in the paper two foams have been molten: a commercially available one, made by aluminum foaming with titanium hydride, and a foam manufactured in the Marine Materials Plant of the Maritime University of Szczecin by blowing the AlSi7 +20% SiC composite with argon. Macrophotographs of foam cross-sections are shown in Figure 3. The foams have been molten in the atmosphere of air at a temperature of 750ºC. The products of melting are presented in Figure 4. It appears that molten aluminum foam may have no liquid consistency, being unable to flow, which is a desired property from the point of view of fire-protection. The above feature of the molten foam results from the fact that it may be a discontinuous suspension of solid particles in a liquid metal. The suspended particles may be solid particles of the composite that served for making the foam or oxide membranes formed on extended metal surface of the bubbles included in the foam. The desired foam ability to form a discontinuous suspension after melting may be

  3. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ EOR application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Lee, Robert [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Yu, Jianjia [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Li, Liangxiong [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Bustamante, Elizabeth [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Khalil, Munawar [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Mo, Di [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Jia, Bao [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Wang, Sai [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); San, Jingshan [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); An, Cheng [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ -EOR application, in which nanoparticles instead of surfactants are used for stabilizing CO₂ foam to improve the CO₂ sweep efficiency and increase oil recovery. The studies included: (1) investigation of CO₂ foam generation nanoparticles, such as silica nanoparticles, and the effects of particle concentration and surface properties, CO₂/brine ratio, brine salinity, pressure, and temperature on foam generation and foam stability; (2) coreflooding tests to understand the nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for waterflooded residual oil recovery, which include: oil-free coreflooding experiments with nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam to understand the transportation of nanoparticles through the core; measurements of foam stability and CO₂ sweep efficiency under reservoir conditions to investigate temperature and pressure effects on the foam performance and oil recovery as well as the sweep efficiency in different core samples with different rock properties; and (3) long-term coreflooding experiments with the nanoparticle- stabilized CO₂ foam for residual oil recovery. Finally, the technical and economical feasibility of this technology was evaluated.

  4. Study on Integrated Technology of Casting CAD/CAE/ES/PDM/ERP%铸造CAD/CAE/ES/PDM/ERP一体化及集成技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐红涛; 周建新; 计效园; 沈旭; 廖敦明; 庞盛永; 殷亚军

    2012-01-01

    The system research to support casting process design, process optimization, information management and business administration and their application character was discussed in detail, and the integrated framework of casting CAD/CAE/ES/PDM/ERP on PDM was presented. Based on Huazhu CAE/CAD/PDM/ERP software, the keys to integrated system and technology were designed and realized. At last, the practical applicability of this integrated technology was proved by some actual cases.%详细阐述了支持铸造工艺设计、工艺优化、工艺信息管理、企业管理的系统研究与应用特点,在此基础上提出了基于PDM平台的铸造CAD/CAE/ES/PDM/ERP一体化框架体系,在华铸实验室现有软件体系(华铸CAE/CAD/PDM/ERP)及应用的基础上,设计与实现了一体化系统关键点及其集成技术。最后,以若干实际案例来证明本研究一体化系统的实用性。

  5. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  6. The science of foaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenckhan, Wiebke; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud

    2015-08-01

    The generation of liquid foams is at the heart of numerous natural, technical or scientific processes. Even though the subject of foam generation has a long-standing history, many recent progresses have been made in an attempt to elucidate the fundamental processes at play. We review the subject by providing an overview of the relevant key mechanisms of bubble generation within a coherent hydrodynamic context; and we discuss different foaming techniques which exploit these mechanisms.

  7. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  8. Shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  9. Operator Spin Foam Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, Benjamin; Kamiński, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as the main tool. An equivalence relation we impose in the set of the operator spin foams allows to split the faces and the edges of the foams. The consistency with that relation requires introduction of the (familiar for the BF theory) face amplitude. The operator spin foam models are defined quite generally. Imposing a maximal symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with demanding consistency with splitting the edges, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on Spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4d quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the EPRL or FK models. That makes...

  10. Construction technology of waterproofing and insulation in spraying rigid polyurethane foam on external wall%外墙喷涂聚氨酯硬泡体防水保温一体化施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付国永

    2012-01-01

      Rigid polyurethane foam is a new type of building material. Rigid polyurethane foam external wall insulation system is a thermal insulation system with excellent properties, which can achieve 65 % of energy conservation. This article describes characteristics, structure, construction process and construction technology of rigid polyurethane foam external thermal insulation system.%  聚氨酯硬泡体是一种新型建筑材料。聚氨酯硬泡体外墙外保温系统是技术先进、性能优良的保温体系,其应用和推广对于实现65%的节能目标具有重要意义。针对喷涂法介绍聚氨酯硬泡体外墙防水保温一体化系统的特点、构造、施工流程和施工工艺等。

  11. Foam coating on aluminum alloy with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; van Heeswijk, V.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Csach, K.

    dThis article concentrates on the creation of a foam layer on an Al-Si substrate with laser technology. The cladding of At-Si powder in the front of a laser track has been separated from the side injection of mixture of Al-Si/TiH2 powder (foaming agent), which allows for fine tuning of the main

  12. Foam coating on aluminum alloy with laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; van Heeswijk, V.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Csach, K.

    2004-01-01

    dThis article concentrates on the creation of a foam layer on an Al-Si substrate with laser technology. The cladding of At-Si powder in the front of a laser track has been separated from the side injection of mixture of Al-Si/TiH2 powder (foaming agent), which allows for fine tuning of the main proc

  13. 3D 打印技术在大型铸锻件领域应用的可行性分析%Feasibility Analysis of 3 D Print Technology Applied in Heavy Casting and Forging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门正兴; 李其; 郑旭; 徐文金; 杜青泉

    2015-01-01

    根据目前3D打印技术在我国大型铸锻件行业的发展现状,对3D打印在大型铸锻件领域的发展方向进行了预测。分析了金属和非金属3D打印技术在各自领域应用的优点和存在的问题。%In accordance with the developing status of 3D print technology in the field of current heavy casting and forging industry in China, the development direction of 3D print technology in heavy casting and forging has been fore-casted.Meanwhile, the advantage and existed problems of 3D print technology for metal and non-metal applied in re-spective field have been analyzed.

  14. Foaming in membrane bioreactors: identification of the causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Gaetano; Torregrossa, Michele

    2013-10-15

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) represent by now a well established alternative for wastewater treatment. Their increasing development is undoubtedly related to the several advantages that such technology is able to guarantee. Nevertheless, this technology is not exempt from operational problems; among them the foaming still represents an "open challenge" of the MBR field, due to the high complexity of phenomenon. Unfortunately, very little work has been done on the foaming in MBRs and further studies are required. Actually, there is not a distinct difference between conventional activated system and MBR: the main difference is that the MBR plants can retain most Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPSs) in the bioreactor. For these reason, unlike conventional activated sludge systems, MBRs have experienced foaming in the absence of foam-forming micro-organisms. Nevertheless, the actual mechanisms of EPS production and the role of bacteria in producing foam in activated sludge in MBRs are still unclear. In this paper, the authors investigated the roles of EPS and foam-forming filamentous bacteria by analyzing samples from different pilot plants using MBRs. In particular, in order to define the macroscopic features and the role of EPS and filamentous bacteria, a Modified Scum Index (MSI) test was applied and proposed. Based on the MSI and the foam power test, the causes of biological foaming were identified in terms of the potential for foaming, the quality and the quantity of the foam. The results indicated that the MBR foaming was influenced significantly by the concentration of bound EPSs in the sludge. In addition, the quantity and stability of MBR scum increased when both bound EPSs and foam-forming filamentous bacteria were present in the activated sludge.

  15. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-18

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate.

  16. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund

    2016-01-01

    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  17. CAST Xi'an Branch Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) Xi'an Branch was established on April 8,2008.The new branch consists of the headquarters of the former Xi'an Institute of Space Radio Technology (XISRT) of CAST and five former subsidiaries of the XISRT,i.e.the Institute of Space Electronic Technology,the Institute of Microwave Technology,the Institute of Space Antenna Technology,the Manufacturing Center for Space Electronics and Civilian High-tech Company.

  18. Acoustic properties of aluminium foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L. E.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses normal incidence sound absorption by aluminium foam manufactured with powder metallurgy technology. Aluminium foams with different surface morphologies were obtained by varying the type of precursor and adding filler materials during the foaming process. The sound absorption coefficients found for these aluminium foams were compared to the coefficient for commercial foams marketed under the name ALPORAS. The effect of foam thickness on the absorption coefficient was studied for each sample prepared. The combination of good acoustic and mechanical properties makes aluminium foams particularly attractive products. The study included an analysis of the effect of 2-, 5- and 10-cm air gaps on the sound absorption coefficient. The results showed that such gaps, which are routinely used in construction to reduce the reverberation period in indoor premises, raised the low frequency absorption coefficient significantly. This increase was found to depend on aluminium foam density and thickness and the depth of the air gap. In this same line, we have investigated the absorption coefficient of the aluminium foams combined with a mineral fiber panel.Se presenta un estudio del coeficiente de absorción acústica a incidencia normal de espumas de aluminio fabricadas mediante la técnica pulvimetalúrgica. Se fabricaron espumas de aluminio de distinta morfología superficial variando el tipo de precursor y usando materiales de relleno durante el proceso de espumación. Se muestra un estudio comparativo del coeficiente de absorción acústica de las espumas de aluminio fabricadas y las espumas comerciales conocidas como ALPORAS. Para cada muestra fabricada se estudió la influencia del espesor sobre el valor del coeficiente de absorción.El atractivo de las espumas de aluminio radica en que en ellas se combinan interesantes propiedades acústicas y mecánicas. Se analizó el efecto de una cámara de aire de 2, 5 y 10 cm de anchura sobre el

  19. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  20. Beer foam physics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, L.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and coalescence we

  1. Chronicles of foam films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochev, G; Platikanov, D; Miller, R

    2016-07-01

    The history of the scientific research on foam films, traditionally known as soap films, dates back to as early as the late 17th century when Boyle and Hooke paid special attention to the colours of soap bubbles. Their inspiration was transferred to Newton, who began systematic study of the science of foam films. Over the next centuries, a number of scientists dealt with the open questions of the drainage, stability and thickness of foam films. The significant contributions of Plateau and Gibbs in the middle/late 19th century are particularly recognized. After the "colours" method of Newton, Reinold and Rücker as well as Johhonnot developed optical methods for measuring the thickness of the thinner "non-colour" films (first order black) that are still in use today. At the beginning of the 20th century, various aspects of the foam film science were elucidated by the works of Dewar and Perrin and later by Mysels. Undoubtedly, the introduction of the disjoining pressure by Derjaguin and the manifestation of the DLVO theory in describing the film stability are considered as milestones in the theoretical development of foam films. The study of foam films gained momentum with the introduction of the microscopic foam film methodology by Scheludko and Exerowa, which is widely used today. This historical perspective serves as a guide through the chronological development of knowledge on foam films achieved over several centuries.

  2. Metal foams: A survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael; F.; Ashby; LU; Tianjian(卢天健)

    2003-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in the development of cellular metal foams is reviewed, with focus on their fabrication, mechanical/thermal/acoustic properties, and potential applications as lightweight panels, energy absorbers, heat exchangers, and acoustic liners. Foam property charts with scaling relations are presented, allowing scoping and selection through the use of material indices.

  3. Some Metallurgical Issues Concerning Austenite Conditioning in Nb-Ti and Nb-Mo Microalloyed Steels Processed by Near-Net-Shape Casting and Direct Rolling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Ibabe, Jose M.

    2016-08-01

    As thin slab direct rolling technologies are moving to the production of higher quality steel grades, chemical compositions based on Nb-Ti and Nb-Mo become a good option. However, with the use of multiple microalloying additions, the as-cast austenite conditioning becomes more complex. This paper analyzes some of the microstructural features that should be taken into account during the as-cast austenite conditioning in Nb-Ti and Nb-Mo microalloyed steel grades. In the case of Nb-Ti grades, it has been observed that the process parameters during solidification and post-solidification steps affect the austenite evolution during hot rolling. This is due to the differences in the size and volume fraction of TiN particles that can be formed. Fine TiN precipitates have been shown to be able to delay recrystallization kinetics. Moreover, the solute drag effect of Ti cannot be ignored in the case of hyperstoichiometric Ti/N ratios. It is observed that Nb-Ti grades tend to have lower non-recrystallization temperatures compared to Nb grades, which means that pancaking of the austenite is more difficult for these steels. The opposite is observed for the Nb-Mo grades, although in both cases the behavior is affected by the nominal content of Nb.

  4. Development of Brake Head Casting Process Technology%闸瓦托铸件工艺技术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱丽; 刘天平; 孙玉福

    2016-01-01

    根据闸瓦托使用性能要求,采用QT550-8材质;通过确定合适的Si、Cu和Mn含量,严格控制炉料质量和铁液成分;选用合适的球化剂,采用合理的球化、多环节孕育处理工艺,解决了远边薄壁部位白口问题;采用静压造型+覆膜砂芯定位补芯工艺,确保闸瓦托铸件的内外质量,满足了产品使用性能要求。%The casting use QT550-8 according brake head performance requirements; determine suitable silicon, copper, manganese and strictly control the charging quality and composition of molten iron; select appropriate nodulizer, spheroidizing treatment and multi-link inoculation process to solve white at the thin-walled remote end; guarantee quality of internal and external and performance requirements with brake head casting by hydrostatic modeling and coated sand cores positioning process.

  5. Fabrication of Aluminum Tubes Filled with Aluminum Alloy Foam by Friction Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Hangai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum foam is usually used as the core of composite materials by combining it with dense materials, such as in Al foam core sandwich panels and Al-foam-filled tubes, owing to its low tensile and bending strengths. In this study, all-Al foam-filled tubes consisting of ADC12 Al-Si-Cu die-cast aluminum alloy foam and a dense A1050 commercially pure Al tube with metal bonding were fabricated by friction welding. First, it was found that the ADC12 precursor was firmly bonded throughout the inner wall of the A1050 tube without a gap between the precursor and the tube by friction welding. No deformation of the tube or foaming of the precursor was observed during the friction welding. Next, it was shown that by heat treatment of an ADC12-precursor-bonded A1050 tube, gases generated by the decomposition of the blowing agent expand the softened ADC12 to produce the ADC12 foam interior of the dense A1050 tube. A holding time during the foaming process of approximately tH = 8.5 min with a holding temperature of 948 K was found to be suitable for obtaining a sound ADC12-foam-filled A1050 tube with sufficient foaming, almost uniform pore structures over the entire specimen, and no deformation or reduction in the thickness of the tube.

  6. Processing Technology of Von Karman Fairing Fabricated by PMI Foam Sandwich Structure%PMI 泡沫夹层结构整流罩冯卡门锥段成型技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锐霞; 尹亮; 潘玲英

    2012-01-01

    对PMI泡沫夹层结构整流罩冯卡门锥段成型技术进行了研究,通过对玻璃钢面板及其泡沫夹层结构性能、面板成型、泡沫热成形、泡沫拼接、玻璃钢泡沫夹层结构成型及无损检测等技术研究,确定了玻璃钢外面板、预先固化,然后与泡沫等复合组装,最后铺覆内面板,整体进罐固化的成型工艺.结果表明,玻璃钢面板纵、横向拉伸强度为602、593MPa,模量为26.0、27.2 GPa,满足设计强度≥350MPa、模量≥25GPa的要求;玻璃钢/PMI泡沫夹层结构泡沫密度为(110±10)kg/m3,厚度28mm,纵、横向侧压强度为32.9、30.5MPa、模量为2.31、2.38GPa,满足设计指标侧压强度≥25MPa、模量≥2.0GPa的要求,采用玻璃钢/PMI 泡沫夹层结构分步固化成型工艺研制的首件新型号整流罩冯卡门锥段,满足设计使用要求.%The processing technology of Von Karman Fairing Fabricated by PMI Foam Sandwich Structure was investigated. The processing method was determined by the investigation on the properties of glass fiber reinforced composite and foam structure, the thermoforming and splicing of foam, the processing of composite and sandwich structure, and the nondestructive testing technology. The results show that the lognitudinal and transverse strength of glass reinforced composite panel are respectively 602 MPa and 593 MPa. The lognitudinal and transverse modulus of panel are respectively 26. 0 GPa and 27. 2 GPa. The lognitudinal and transverse edgewise compression strength of foam sandwich structure with density of (110±10) kg/m3 and thickness of 8mm are respectively 32. 9 MPa and 30. 5 MPa. The lognitudinal and transverse edgewise compression modulus of foam sandwich structure are respectively 2.31 GPa and 2. 38 GPa. The mechanical properties of panel and foam sandwich can meet the design requirements. In addition , the lest Von Karman Fairing fabricated with the PMI foam sandwich structure with glass fiber reinforced composite

  7. Continuous Beam Cantilever of the Luoqing jiang Casting Construction Technology River Extra-large Bridge%洛清江特大桥连续梁悬臂灌筑施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锟

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes an explanation about construction technology for bridge segment No. O, the cantilever casting segment, the cast-in-situ segment and the closure segment under cantilever casting construction of the Luoqingjiang extralarge bridge which is of pre-stressed continuous box girder type. It sums up the key technology for construction of continuous beam of the Luoqingjiang extra-large double line bridge.%详细介绍洛清江双线特大桥预应力砼连续箱梁悬臂灌筑的0号号段、悬灌段、现浇段及合龙段施工技术,从而总结出洛清江双线特大桥连续梁关键施工技术。

  8. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  9. Novel foaming agent used in preparation process of aluminum foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The performances of a novel foaming agent used in the preparation process of aluminum foams were investigated,and the effects of some factors,such as addition of the foaming agent,foaming temperature on the porosity,and appearance of aluminum foams were also discussed.Experimental results show that the novel foaming agent has a wide decomposition temperature range and a mild decomposed rate; the foaming agent has the ability to enhance the viscosity of aluminum melt,as a result,an extra viscosifier such as Ca or SiCp is unnecessary while using this foaming agent; the bubble-free zone in material decreases and the foaming efficiency increases with the increase of foaming agent; the bubble-free zone disappears and the foaming efficiency is near 100% when the addition of foaming agent is more than 1.4wt% ; the porosity of the aluminum foam increases with the increase of foaming agent when the addition of foaming agent is less than 2.2wt% .

  10. Announcement on the Ranking List of China's Large Casting Enterprises in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China is the largest country in casting production worldwide and with many excellent casting producers. Advanced manufacturing technology, scientific management ideas, enormous economic benefit in these enterprises makes them the pioneers of the national casting industry.

  11. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  12. Nodular cast iron and casting monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper quality monitoring of nodular cast iron and casting made of it is presented. A control system of initial liquid cast iron to spheroidization, after spheroidization and inoculation with using of TDA method was shown. An application of an ultrasonic method to assessment of the graphite form and the metal matrix microstructure of castings was investigated.

  13. Development of superconductor application technology - Fabrication of superconducting plate using tape casting and development of directional growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Kwang Soo; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Joon Sung; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Woo, Sung Soo; Hong, Seung Bum; Kim, Eun Ah; Song, Han Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-05-01

    This study concerns the establishment of the fabrication techniques of the high temperature superconductor tape using tape coating, the heat treatment and directional growth techniques in order to fabricate high temperature superconductor bulks having high current density. This study is important in the development of bulk high temperature superconductors and in the applications in bulk forms. Development of Tape Casting Technique : Fabrication of the high temperature superconductor tape using different processing condition. Fabrication of Y- and Bi- High Temperature Superconductor Tapes : Based on the optimum processing condition, the superconductor tapes were fabricated. Development of Directional Growth Techniques : The tapes were heat-treated at proper condition and directionally growth using different directional growth condition. The superconducting properties were tested on the directionally grown samples. 21 figs. (author)

  14. Cause and effect relationship between foam formation and treated wastewater effluents in a transboundary river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Katerina; Gabriel, Oliver; Bletterie, Ulrike; Winkler, Stefan; Zessner, Matthias

    The occurrence of foam at weirs in a lowland river in Austria and shortly after the Austrian border with Hungary, as well as, the associated protests from Hungarian locals led to investigations concerning the reasons for foam formation. Three aspects were the main subject of investigation, namely, (i) to assess the dimension of the appearing foam, (ii) to evaluate the reasons for the formation of foam, and (iii) to set abatement-measures. A 1 year monitoring programme included a close network of surface water sampling sites, as well as, the sampling of thirteen municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants along the river stretch. In addition to classical parameters (physical and chemical) the surface tension and tensides were analysed. Constant observation of foam formation in Hungary was achieved by the installation of an online webcam with combined data recording, which resulted in the development of a seven-stage foam index (0-6) for semi quantitative assessment of foam formation on the river. Also, the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants that were considered were the subject of standardised foaming tests. The basis of the tests was to detect, (i) foam on the sample and, (ii) the dilution of a sample at which no more foam could be observed. The dilution factor was used to calculate the foam potential of an effluent, which is an size for the potential volume of river water that may be foamed by waste water treatment plants’ effluents. The spatial distribution of foam along the river stretch, as well as, the results of the foam tests allowed the identification of three tanneries as the main contributors to foam, although wastewater from these tanneries is treated at wastewater treatment plants by the best available technology (biological treatment with nitrification and denitrification, sludge retention time >20 days, temperature in the activated sludge tank >20 °C). The implementation of an accepted degree of foam formation was desirable to

  15. Design of the Structure and Optimization of Technological Parameters of Magnesium Alloy Cylinder Head Through AnyCasting%基于AnyCasting的镁合金缸盖结构设计与工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄裕飞; 李晓棠; 陈流; 杨立权; 冯瀚

    2012-01-01

    在实际压铸试验的基础上,提出了合理的铸件结构和压铸工艺参数.利用AnyCasting软件求解了不同工艺参数和铸件结构对铸件充型、凝固过程的影响规律.在现有的镁合金汽车缸盖铸件条件下,根据凝固规律重点研究了铸件中可能存在的缩松、缩孔分布与尺寸.结果表明:优化的铸件结构以及优化的压铸工艺参数(浇注温度680℃,模具温度190℃,冲头低速速度0.2 m/s,高速压射速度为6m/s,真空度30 kPa)能够明显降低铸件凝固时间以及减少铸件内部缩松、缩孔数量;同时在优化设计的基础上,结合阿基米德原理和力学性能测试验证了工艺参数和铸件结构的合理性,生产出了具有致密微观组织的镁合金零件.%The reasonable structure and die-casting parameters are put forward on the basis of the actual die-casting experiment. The influence laws of different process parameters and casting structure to casting mould filling and solidification process were solved through AnyCasting software. According to solidification laws, the distribution and size of shrinkage and dispersed shrinkage that may exist in the casting were studied especially under existing cast condition of the magnesium alloy cylinder head. The result shows the optimization of the casting structure and the optimization of the die-casting parameters (pouring temperature 680 ℃, mold temperature 190 ℃, plunger injection lowest speed 0.2 m/s, injection highest speed 6 m/s, vacuum degree 30 kPa) can significantly cut the solidification time and reduce the quantity of the shrinkage and dispersed shrinkage of the casting. The rationality of the technology parameters and the structure of the casting were proved on the basis of optimization design, the Archimedes principle and mechanical properties test, and magnesium alloy parts with compact microstructure were produced.

  16. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  17. Sandia-Power Surety Task Force Hawaii foam analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-11-01

    The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Power Surety Task Force was officially created in early 2008, after nearly two years of work in demand reduction and renewable energy technologies to support the Warfighter in Theater. The OSD Power Surety Task Force is tasked with identifying efficient energy solutions that support mission requirements. Spray foam insulation demonstrations were recently expanded beyond field structures to include military housing at Ft. Belvoir. Initial results to using the foam in both applications are favorable. This project will address the remaining key questions: (1) Can this technology help to reduce utility costs for the Installation Commander? (2) Is the foam cost effective? (3) What application differences in housing affect those key metrics? The critical need for energy solutions in Hawaii and the existing relationships among Sandia, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Forest City, make this location a logical choice for a foam demonstration. This project includes application and analysis of foam to a residential duplex at the Waikulu military community on Oahu, Hawaii, as well as reference to spray foam applied to a PACOM facility and additional foamed units on Maui, conducted during this project phase. This report concludes the analysis and describes the utilization of foam insulation at military housing in Hawaii and the subsequent data gathering and analysis.

  18. The effect of refractory coating permeability on the Lost Foam Process

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pacyniak

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses the effect of refractory coating permeability on the process of casting manufacture by the Lost Foam technique. Theanalysis was focussed on simulation tests examining the effect of coating permeability on the mould cavity filling rate, pressure in gas gap, and the size of this gap. In simulation tests of the Lost Foam Process, a mathematical model of the process presented in this study and the author’s own computation algorithm were used. The computations have proved that...

  19. The foaming of lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeefe, J. A.; Walton, W.

    1976-01-01

    Foaming is of great practical and theoretical significance for volcanic processes on the earth, the moon, and perhaps the meteorite parent bodies. The theory of foams agrees with steelmaking experience to indicate that their presence depends on the existence of solutes in the lavas which reduce the surface tension, and are not saturated. These solutes concentrate at the surface, and are called surfactants. The surfactant responsible for the formation of volcanic ash was not identified; it appears to be related to the oxygen partial pressure above the lava. This fact may explain why lunar and meteoritic melts are not observed to foam. Experimental studies are needed to clarify the process.

  20. Micro flows in foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Stephan; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Stone, Howard; Weeks, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Foam drainage, the flow of liquid through foams, has been extensively studied macroscopically, on the scale of many bubbles. We use a confocal microscope to determine the flow-field in a single channel, and find good agreement with a model based upon surface rheology (R. A. Leonard and R. Lemlich, AIChE J. 11, p. 25-29 (1965)). The microscopic measurements show different types of flows depending on the type of surfactant used to stabilize the foam, which has also been observed on the macroscopic level. Surprisingly we find very little mixing in the nodes, the regions where four different channels intersect.

  1. A new design of foaming agent mixing device for a pneumatic foaming system used for mine dust suppression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Deming; Lu Xinxiao; Wang Hetang; Chen Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of the conventional foam technology used for dust suppression, including large pressure loss, high water pressure and low driving pressure, a new pneumatic foaming system is introduced. Then an original design of foaming agent mixing device is proposed, and its performance is investigated and evaluated under different pressure compensations. Experimental results show that the maximum absorption amount increases by 2.9–6.7 times at a pressure compensation of 0.04–0.2 MPa compared with no pressure compensation. The pressure loss and pressure fluctuation both reduce significantly with increasing pressure compensation. The critical outlet pressure increases by 30.4–240%. Field application indicates that the proposed mixing device ensures the reliable addition of foaming agent used for foam dust suppression. The effect of foam on dust suppression is remarkable, and the economic cost of foam is low. Therefore, there is reason to believe that the new mixing device will greatly promote foam technology to be widely used for suppressing dust in underground coal mines.

  2. Accuracy Verification of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI Technology for Lower-Limb Prosthetic Research: Utilising Animal Soft Tissue Specimen and Common Socket Casting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Safari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  3. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements.

  4. Foaming Behaviour, Structure, and Properties of Polypropylene Nanocomposites Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antunes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preparation and characterization of compression-moulded montmorillonite and carbon nanofibre-polypropylene foams. The influence of these nanofillers on the foaming behaviour was analyzed in terms of the foaming parameters and final cellular structure and morphology of the foams. Both nanofillers induced the formation of a more isometric-like cellular structure in the foams, mainly observed for the MMT-filled nanocomposite foams. Alongside their crystalline characteristics, the nanocomposite foams were also characterized and compared with the unfilled ones regarding their dynamic-mechanical thermal behaviour. The nanocomposite foams showed higher specific storage moduli due to the reinforcement effect of the nanofillers and higher cell density isometric cellular structure. Particularly, the carbon nanofibre foams showed an increasingly higher electrical conductivity with increasing the amount of nanofibres, thus showing promising results as to produce electrically improved lightweight materials for applications such as electrostatic painting.

  5. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  6. Preparation of High Performance Foamed Concrete from Cement, Sand and Mineral Admixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Zhihua; Fujiwara Hiromi; Wee Tionghuan

    2007-01-01

    The titled high performance foamed concrete was developed from Portland cement, ultra fine granulated blast-furnace slag, pulverized fly ash and condensed silica fume by means of pre-foaming process. The resultant foamed concrete presents its thermal conductivity of about 0.16-0.75 W/(m·℃) and 28 d compressive strength of about 1.1-23.7 MPa when its mix proportion varies in the range of cement content 280 kg-650 kg/m3, fly ash 42-97 kg/m3, slag 64-146 kg/m3, silica fume 34-78 kg/m3, and sand 0-920 kg/m3. The compressive strength of the foamed concrete with oven dried bulk density of 1500 kg/m3 in appropriate mix proportion and with small amount of superplasticizer reached as high as 44.1 MPa. Meanwhile, the fresh foamed concrete behaves like an excellent flow-ability, therefore, is especially suitable for the application in case of massive foamed concrete casting in situ and in the case of filling casting into large volume underground irregular voids, except for pre-casting of building components like blocks, bricks, and wall panels.

  7. Effect of osteoblastic culture conditions on the structure of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foam scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A. S.; Zhu, G.; Morris, G. E.; Meszlenyi, R. K.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) foams are an osteoconductive support that holds promise for the development of bone tissue in vitro and implantation into orthopedic defects. Because it is desirable that foams maintain their shape and size, we examined a variety of foams cultured in vitro with osteoblastic cells. Foams were prepared with different porosities and pore sizes by the method of solvent casting/porogen leaching using 80, 85, and 90 wt% NaCl sieved with particle sizes of 150-300 and 300-500 microm and characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Foams seeded with cells were found to have volumes after 7 days in static culture that decreased with increasing porosity: the least porous exhibited no change in volume while the most porous foams decreased by 39 +/- 10%. In addition, a correlation was observed between decreasing foam volume after 7 days in culture and decreasing internal surface area of the foams prior to seeding. Furthermore, foams prepared with the 300-500 microm porogen had lower porosities, greater mean wall thicknesses between adjacent pores, and larger volumes after 7 days in culture than those prepared with the smaller porogen. Two culture conditions for maintaining cells, static and agitated (in a rotary vessel), were found to have similar influences on foam size, cell density, and osteoblastic function for 7 and 14 days in culture. Finally, we examined unseeded foams in aqueous solutions of pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.4 and found no significant decrease in foam size with degradation. This study demonstrates that adherent osteoblastic cells may collapse very porous PLGA foams prepared by solvent casting/particulate leaching: a potentially undesirable property for repair of orthopedic defects.

  8. Effect of osteoblastic culture conditions on the structure of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) foam scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A. S.; Zhu, G.; Morris, G. E.; Meszlenyi, R. K.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) foams are an osteoconductive support that holds promise for the development of bone tissue in vitro and implantation into orthopedic defects. Because it is desirable that foams maintain their shape and size, we examined a variety of foams cultured in vitro with osteoblastic cells. Foams were prepared with different porosities and pore sizes by the method of solvent casting/porogen leaching using 80, 85, and 90 wt% NaCl sieved with particle sizes of 150-300 and 300-500 microm and characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Foams seeded with cells were found to have volumes after 7 days in static culture that decreased with increasing porosity: the least porous exhibited no change in volume while the most porous foams decreased by 39 +/- 10%. In addition, a correlation was observed between decreasing foam volume after 7 days in culture and decreasing internal surface area of the foams prior to seeding. Furthermore, foams prepared with the 300-500 microm porogen had lower porosities, greater mean wall thicknesses between adjacent pores, and larger volumes after 7 days in culture than those prepared with the smaller porogen. Two culture conditions for maintaining cells, static and agitated (in a rotary vessel), were found to have similar influences on foam size, cell density, and osteoblastic function for 7 and 14 days in culture. Finally, we examined unseeded foams in aqueous solutions of pH 3.0, 5.0, and 7.4 and found no significant decrease in foam size with degradation. This study demonstrates that adherent osteoblastic cells may collapse very porous PLGA foams prepared by solvent casting/particulate leaching: a potentially undesirable property for repair of orthopedic defects.

  9. 泡沫镍的制备工艺条件和比表面积%Preparation Technological Conditions and Specific Surface Area of Nickel Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段翠云; 崔光; 刘培生

    2011-01-01

    Based on the technique of electrodeposition on the organic foam, relationship between several deferent specific producing conditions and the corresponding specific surface area of nickel foam products has been investigated.The result showed that the same surface morphology and specific surface area of the nickel foam could be acquired by direct sintering in NH3 decomposition atmosphere at 850 ℃ or 980 ℃ for 40 min after electrodepositing and by burning in air at 600 ℃ for 4 min before and then reductive sintering, after electrodepositing.%本文以有机泡沫电沉积法为基础,探讨了几种具体工艺条件与所得泡沫镍产品比表面积的关系.结果发现,电镀后直接在850~980℃的氨分解气氛中烧结40 min所得产品,与电镀后先在600℃的空气中烧结4 min再进行还原烧结所得产品,具有相同的表面形态和比表面积.

  10. Advances on Microstructure Modeling of Solidification Process of Shape Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳百成; 许庆彦

    2004-01-01

    Simulation technology for shape casting at macro-scale has been successfully put into engineering application in a number of casting plants and as a result the quality of castings is assured, the research and development time is shortened, and the manufacturing cost is greatly saved as well. In this paper, modeling and simulation technologies of solidification process of shape casting at microstructure-scale, especially deterministic, cellular automaton, and phase field models are studied and reviewed.

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  12. Evaluation of the potential of alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) foams in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. A.; Romer-Zeron, L.; Kantzas, A. [University of Calgary, Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Results of a study of a new enhanced oil recovery technology, known as alkali-surfactant-polymer foams (ASPF), are discussed. The study was carried out through a series of laboratory core floods using sand packs and dead crude oil. The foaming solution was formulated using synthetic brine; a polycrylamide (AC 935) combined with the foaming surfactant (CD 1045) was chosen to provide the greatest gas mobility control capability and foam stability. Results demonstrated very high oil recovery efficiency resulting from ASPF flooding. Various combination of water flooding, foam flooding and gas flooding were investigated in an effort to determine the optimum injection scenarios for maximum oil recovery.

  13. Ultralight metal foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Nash, Philip; Shi, Chunsheng; Wang, Zejun

    2015-09-01

    Ultralight (acoustic, vibration, or shock energy damping. However, most of these ultralight materials, especially ultralight metal foams, are fabricated using either expensive materials or complicated procedures, which greatly limit their large-scale production and practical applications. Here we report a simple and versatile method to obtain ultralight monolithic metal foams. These materials are fabricated with a low-cost polymeric template and the method is based on the traditional silver mirror reaction and electroless plating. We have produced ultralight monolithic metal foams, such as silver, nickel, cobalt, and copper via this method. The resultant ultralight monolithic metal foams have remarkably low densities down to 7.4 mg/cm3 or 99.9% porosity. The metal foams have a long flat stress-train curve in compression tests and the densification strain ɛD of the Ni/Ag foam with a porosity of 99.8% can reach 82%. The plateau stress σpl was measured and found to be in agreement with the value predicted by the cellular solids theory.

  14. 球墨铸铁飞轮壳的无冒口铸造工艺实践%Non-Riser Casting Technological Practice of Ductile Iron Flywheel-Casing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春明

    2013-01-01

    对某球铁飞轮壳铸件的无冒口铸造工艺进行了分析,采用呋喃树脂自硬砂造型、控制铁液的化学成分、采用中间底注、铁液分散进入型腔的浇注方式以及四角设置出气孔等措施,使球铁飞轮壳的无冒口铸造工艺得到了实现,生产的球铁飞轮壳力学性能符合技术要求,且实现了批量生产.%The non-riser casting technological design of ductile iron flywheel-casing was analyzed, and the casting technology was achieved by no-bake sand molding, controlling composition of iron melt, pouring from bottom center of the casting and dispersing into the mould cavity, and exhausting from four holes around the casting. The mechanical properties of the ductile iron flywheel-casing made by this technology meet the technical standard, and the batch production is achieved.

  15. Development of Strip Casting Technology in Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Alloys and Hydrogen Storage Alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Weiping; Guo Binglin; Yu Xiaojun; Zhu Jinghan; Cheng Xinghua

    2007-01-01

    The SC technique is now being applied widely in material preparation, especially in rare earth functional materials in virtue of its advanced process and high performance product. The applications of SC technique in rare earth permanent magnet alloys and hydrogen storage alloys were analyzed integrative, on the basis of summary of SC technique development in this paper. The paper mainly includes development history of SC technology, effect of SC technology on alloy microstructure, application of SC technology in RE storage hydrogen alloy and sintered Nd-Fe-B alloy, development of SC equipment and SC product industry. At the same time, the paper points out the existing problem of SC products.

  16. Effect of lead foam grid on performance of lead-acid battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chang-song; WANG Dian-long; HU Xin-guo; JIANG Zhao-hua; YAN Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    In order to increase the specific energy and specific power of a lead-acid battery, lead foam grid was prepared by electrodepositing Pb-Sn alloy on a copper foam substrate and used as negative current collector for a lead acid battery whose capacity was limited by the negative plate. Comparing the effect of the cast grid, under the same conditions, the mass of lead foam grid decreases by 35% , and the area of lead foam contacted with active material increases by about 20 times. Under 2 h rate discharge condition, with a high current (3.0 I2 ) e and low-temperature ( - 10 ℃, I2 ) discharge system, the lead foam grid markedly boosts the discharge performance of lead acid battery. It increases not only the negative electrode mass specific capacity by 27% ,37%and 29% ,but also the utilization efficiency of the negative active material by 5%. Compared with the negative electrode of cast grid, XRD and SEM results show that after 20 cycles at the state of charge, the sponge lead in the negative lead foam electrode has smaller crystals and less PbSO4 on its surface. Meanwhile, at the state of full discharge, the PbSO4 crystals are smaller and occur less on the surface of lead foam electrode. This indicates its active material reacts more uniformly.

  17. LFT foam - Lightweight potential for semi-structural components through the use of long-glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, A.; Huber, T.; Henning, F.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Investigations on PP-LGF30 foam sandwiches have been carried out using different manufacturing processes: standard injection molding, MuCell® and LFT-D foam. Both chemical and physical blowing agents were applied. Precision mold opening (breathing mold technology) was selected for the foaming process. The integral foam design, which can be conceived as a sandwich structure, helps to save material in the neutral axis area and maintains a distance between load-bearing, unfoamed skin layers. The experiments showed that, at a constant mass per unit area, integral foams have a significantly higher flexural rigidity than compact components, due to their greater area moment of inertia after foaming: with an increase of the wall thickness from 3.6 mm to 4.4 mm compared to compact construction, the flexural rigidity increased by 75 %. With a final wall thickness of 5.8 mm an increase of 300 % was measured. Compared to non-reinforced components that show significant embrittlement during foaming, the energy absorption capacity (impact strength) of LFT foam components remains almost constant.

  18. Analysis of Tube Bank Heat Transfer In Downward Directed Foam Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gylys

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Apparatus with the foam flow are suitable to use in different technologies like heat exchangers, food industry, chemical and oil processing industry. Statically stable liquid foam until now is used in technologic systems rather seldom. Although a usage of this type of foam as heat transfer agent in foam equipment has a number of advantages in comparison with one phase liquid equipment: small quantity of liquid is required, heat transfer rate is rather high, mass of equipment is much smaller, energy consumption for foam delivery into heat transfer zone is lower. The paper analyzes the peculiarities of heat transfer from distributed in staggered order and perpendicular to foam flow in channel of rectangular cross section tube bundle to the foam flow. It was estimated the dependence of mean gas velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam flow to heat transfer in downward foam flow. Significant difference of heat transfer intensity from front and back tubes of tube row in laminar foam flow was noticed. Dependence of heat transfer on flow velocity and volumetric void fraction of foam was confirmed and estimated by criterion equations.

  19. 消失模加工效率及质量提升方法研究及应用%Research and Application of Improvement Method for Processing Efficiency and Quality of Lost Foam Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文强; 宗如帆; 原晓雷

    2014-01-01

    Combined with a long time experiences with working at the vacuum lost foam casting technology, an example has been taken to elaborate the use of raw materials and cutter selection for a complete set of increasing machining efficiency and quality of vacuum lost foam pattern with a reference to shortening of working cycle and promoting of patterns quality.%通过长时间对消失模机床加工方法的研究和质量改进,从原材料使用、刀具选择及加工方法等方面总结了一套提高消失模加工效率及加工质量的方法,可为缩短消失模制作周期和提升模具质量提供参考。

  20. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. In range of studies was made cast steel test castings withcomposite surface layer, which usability for industrial applications was estimated by criterion of hardness and aberasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral and quality of joint cast steel – (Fe-Cr-C. Based on conducted studies a thesis, that composite surface layer arise from liquid state, was formulated. Moreover, possible is control of composite layer thickness and its hardness by suitable selection of parameters i.e. thickness of insert, pouring temperature and solidification modulus of casting. Possibility of technology application of composite surface layer in manufacture of cast steel slide bush for combined cutter loader is presented.

  1. CA Investment Casting Process of Complex Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    CA (Computer aided) investment casting technique used in superalloy castings of aerospace engine parts was presented. CA investment casting integrated computer application, RP (Rapid Prototyping) process, solidification simulation and investment casting process. It broke the bottle neck of making metal die. Solid model of complex parts were produced by UGII or other software, then translated into STL(Stereolithography) file, after RP process of SLS(Selective Laser Sintering), wax pattern used in investment ...

  2. 聚氨酯泡沫化学镀镍工艺%Technology of Electroless Nickel Plating on Polyurethane Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚凡; 马玲俊; 李占双

    2001-01-01

    Technical conditions of electroless nickel plating on polyurethane foam were given in detail in this paper. Solution components and o perating conditions in the process of the removal of oil stain ,the activation and the electroless nickel plating were discussed.%介绍了聚氨酯泡沫化学镀镍的工艺条件,其中包括除油、活化和 化学镀镍溶液的配方及操作条件

  3. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiser, Peter W.; Anguelova, Magdalena D.

    2012-01-01

    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  4. Military housing foam application and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia and Forest City have established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), the partnership provides a unique opportunity to take technology research and development from demonstration to application in sustainable communities. This project consists of two activities conducted in Hawaii that focus on performance, integration and application of energy saving technologies. Hawaii has many energy challenges, making this location an excellent testbed for these activities. Under this project, spray foam technology was applied at military housing on Oahu and the consumption data collected. A cost benefit and operational analysis of the foam was completed. The second phase of this project included design, integration, and analysis of photovoltaic systems at a military community on Oahu. This phase of the project was conducted as part of Forest City's second Solar America Showcase Award.

  5. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  6. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  7. Aqueous foams and foam films stabilised by surfactants. Gravity-free studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    There are still many open questions and problems in both fundamental research and practical applications of foams. Despite the fact that foams have been extensively studied, many aspects of foam physics and chemistry still remain unclear. Experiments on foams performed under microgravity allow studying wet foams, such as those obtained early during the foaming process. On Earth, wet foams evolve too quickly due to gravity drainage and only dry foams can be studied. This paper reviews the foam and foam film studies that we have performed in gravity-free conditions. It highlights the importance of surface rheology as well as of confinement effects in foams and foam films behaviour.

  8. Technological and ecological studies of moulding sands with new inorganic binders for casting of non-ferrous metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Izdebska-Szanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies which form a part of broader research programme executed under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies".In a concise manner, the results of studies on the effect of chemical modification of inorganic binders on the technological properties ofmoulding sands containing these binders were presented.Special attention was paid to the effect of modification of inorganic binders on their thermal destruction behaviour in the range of pouringtemperatures of the non-ferrous metals and their alloys.Also the results of comparative studies of the thermal emission of toxic gases and odours from moulding sands with new inorganic andorganic binders were discussed.

  9. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  10. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Ken I.

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  11. Application of foam column as green technology for concentration of saponins from sisal (Agave sisalana and Juá (Ziziphus joazeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Saponins, molecules classified as triterpenic or steroidal glycosides, are metabolites distributed in all the plant kingdom that can be used for the production of foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals, as well as in soil bioremediation. Saponins are normally extracted from natural resources with water, ethanol and/or methanol, and then concentrated by liquid-liquid partitioning with n-butanol. An alternative concentration method is with a foam column, by which the saponins can be concentrated via preferential adsorption at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the objective of this work was the use of a foam column for the concentration of saponins from juá and sisal, evaluating parameters such as: initial working volume in the column, saponin concentration in the extracts from juá and sisal, air flow rate, pH, Raschig rings loading and operation time. When a gradient air flow rate and 25 g of Raschig rings were used, 82.6% of the jua saponins loaded onto the system were recovered in a 3.46-fold concentrated solution after 9 h of operation. Regarding sisal saponins, a concentration factor of 1.98 was observed with 90.5% of saponin recovery during 4.5 h of operation.

  12. Evaluation of porosity in Al alloy die castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Říhová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of an Al-alloy die casting depend significantly on its structural properties. Porosity in Al-alloy castings is one of the most frequent causes of waste castings. Gas pores are responsible for impaired mechanical-technological properties of cast materials. On the basis of a complex evaluation of experiments conducted on AlSi9Cu3 alloy samples taken from the upper engine block which was die- cast with and without local squeeze casting it can be said that castings manufactured without squeeze casting exhibit maximum porosity in the longitudinal section. The area without local squeeze casting exhibits a certain reduction in mechanical properties and porosity increased to as much as 5%. However, this still meets the norms set by SKODA AUTO a.s.

  13. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products.

  14. Discourse of the form and concentration of surfactants to ensure the sustainability foam-emulsive products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kotlyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of dry mixes for making spumy and emulsion products are topical, because nowadays there is a tendency to minimize the time spent on the process of cooking, which is achieved by the use of semi finished products high degree of readiness. Materials and methods. Foaming ability was determined by the method of multiplicity of the foam, the stability of unstable foam-by the half-life method of foam, highly resistant foam - as a ratio of the height of the column of foam after exposure for 24 hours. Results. Was determined the influence of sunflower oil on the foaming ability and half-life foam of systems «sodium caseinate-oil». It was found that getting systems with high index of foaming capacity and foam stability in the presence of oil in the system is impossible without the use of low molecular weight surfactants. Substantiated recommendations regarding the feasibility of using two surfactants in systems «sodium caseinate-surfactants-oil», which provide the necessary kinship surfaces air, fat and water phases. it has been found that the use of 2,5...3,5% mono-and diglycerides of fatty acid sand Lecithin’s 0.15...0.25% in the content of sodium caseinate about 0.5% allows to receive the stable foam-emulsive systems containing sunflower oil 7...8% and foaming ability about 640±1%. Conclusions. It is established that for ensuring high indicators foaming capacity and stability of foam-emulsive systems required the use of low-molecular surfactants. The research results, is recommended to use when developing technology of foam-emulsive products. Introduction

  15. PRODUCTION OF CAST DIE INSERTS FOR HOT STRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Dudetskaja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses distinctive design features of casting molds and technological aspects of producing cast inserts from 5ХНМЛ pressed steel. The designs of long-life metal shell molds are described. They ensure saving of molding material, increase of accepted material and improvement of quality of castings.

  16. 三相泡沫防灭火技术在自燃采面的应用%Application of Three -phase Foam Fire -fighting Technology in Spontaneous Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中岭

    2015-01-01

    Introduces HTC spontaneous process and cause of 21021 mining face in Hongda Coal Mine,through the analysis,after compa-ring the three -phase foam fire -fighting technology governance,the fire area supplemented by local pressure ventilation,successfully solves the mining face of spontaneous combustion,to ensure the safety in production,has a certain reference value.%介绍了宏达煤矿21021采煤工作面发生自燃的过程及原因,通过分析、对比后采用三相泡沫防灭火技术对火区进行治理,辅以局部均压通风等,成功解决了采面自燃,保证了安全生产,具有一定的借鉴价值。

  17. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  18. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  19. Production of lightweight foam glass (invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass production allows low cost recycling of postconsumer glass and industrial waste materials as foaming agent or as melt resource. Foam glass is commonly produced by utilising milled glass mixed with a foaming agent. The powder mixture is heat-treated to around 10^3.7 – 10^6 Pa s, which...... result in viscous sintering and subsequent foaming of the glass melt. The porous glass melt is cooled down to room temperature to freeze-in the foam structure. The resulting foam glass is applied in constructions as a light weight material to reduce load bearing capacity and as heat insulating material...... in buildings and industry. We foam panel glass from old televisions with different foaming agents. We discuss the foaming ability and the foaming mechanism of different foaming systems. We compare several studies to define a viscous window for preparing low density foam glass. However, preparing foam glass...

  20. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY OF GRAY CAST IRON GRAPHITIZING MODIFICATION BY DISPERSION-FILLED CONSUMABLE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nebozhak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key criteria of the process of graphitizing modification of matrix melt silicon concentration and silicon assimilation evaluated were on samples of gray cast iron grade СЧ20 State Standard 1412-85. These criteria of evaluation on the structure and properties of casting ingots proved an efficiency of intra-mold modification of molten gray cast iron by dispersed ferrosilicon grade ФС75 State Standard 1415-93 (ISO 5445-80 using lost-foam casting (LFC-process.

  2. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller.

  3. Relationship between casting distortion, mold filling, and interfacial heat transfer. Annual technical report, September 1997 - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, K.A.; Parker, J.K.; Piwonka, T.S.; Owusu, Y.

    1998-10-22

    In the third year of this program, the final castings necessary to evaluate the effect of casting orientation and gating in silica sand lost foam were poured and measured using a CMM machine. Interfacial heat transfer and gap formation measurements continued. However, significant problems were encountered in making accurate measurements. No consistent evidence of gap formation was found in aluminum sand casting. Initial analysis yields heat transfer values below those previously reported in the literature. The program in continuing.

  4. Dimensional accuracy of small gold alloy castings. Part 4. The casting ring and ring liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, E F

    1992-04-01

    The role of the casting ring and its asbestos liner is discussed. Asbestos as a liner has now largely been replaced by two alternative materials, one based on cellulose and the other on ceramic fibres. The limited literature on the effect of these newer materials on casting accuracy is also reviewed as their introduction may require significant changes in the traditional technology of dental casting.

  5. Using Remote Sensing Technology, Web Casts, and Participation in a Valuable Research Project to Jazz Teachers and Excite Students About Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, T. M.; Czajkowski, K. P.; Struble, J.; Zhao, L.

    2002-12-01

    Scientific education of primary and secondary school children has become a topic of concern in Ohio and throughout the United States. So with that in mind, how do you get students excited about learning science? One route is to inform and jazz teachers about current technology! The University of Toledo has hosted three one-week, NASA and OhioView sponsored professional development institutes entitled, Observing Earth from Space, for teachers from grades K-12 during July 2000, 2001, and 2002. Sixty-seven teachers from the Upper Midwest and Kansas with Earth Science, Social Studies, and Physics backgrounds attended. Each participant acquired new ideas, plenty of educational materials, and posters of satellite imagery. The teachers received basic training in remote sensing, global positioning systems, digital elevation models, and weather observing techniques and learned about useful remote sensing applications. This instruction was conducted through: 1) presentations given by research scientists, 2) integration of the learned content into authentic, hands-on lesson plans, and 3) participation in a learning adventure, where their students collected real-time earth science data at their respective schools while university research scientists gathered corresponding satellite imagery. The students observations were submitted via a simple Web interface: www.remotesensing.utoledo.edu. One of the very exciting platforms used to communicate with the teachers and students throughout the school year were live Web Casts sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center. The students data have successfully assisted in the validation of cloud/snow remote sensing algorithms, and next year the students observations will include various surface temperature readings. The participation in a cutting-edge technology workshop and in an important global climate change research project, applicable in the classroom, has added another worthwhile dimension to the learning process and career awareness

  6. THE WEAR RESISTANCE INCREASE OF CHROMIUM CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Ilyushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the tests on the wear resistance of chromium cast irons of different compositions obtained in sand forms. It has been shown that increase of the wear resistance and mechanical properties of the cast iron is possible to obtain using the casting in metal molds. A further increase in wear resistance of parts produced in metal molds is possible by changing the technological parameters of casting and alloying by titanium.

  7. Ambiguous chairs cast in fabric formed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a specific experiment with a new casting technique for concrete structures, this paper discusses explorations of materiality as a way of generating discussion of the use of new technologies....

  8. Friction Stir Processing of Cast Superalloys Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort examines the feasibility of an innovative fabrication technology incorporating sand casting and friction stir processing (FSP) for producing...

  9. Fracture of metal foams : In-situ testing and numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onck, PR; van Merkerk, R.; De Hosson, JTM; Schmidt, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is on a combined experimental/modeling study on the tensile fracture of open-cell foams. In-situ tensile tests show that individual struts can fail in a brittle or ductile mode, presumably depending on the presence of casting defects. In-situ single strut tests were performed, enabling ob

  10. Biocatalytic nerve agent detoxification in fire fighting foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeJeune, K E; Russell, A J

    1999-03-20

    Current events across the globe necessitate rapid technological advances to combat the epidemic of nerve agent chemical weapons. Biocatalysis has emerged as a viable tool in the detoxification of organophosphorus neurotoxins, such as the chemical weapons VX and sarin. Efficient detoxification of contaminated equipment, machinery, and soils are of principal concern. This study describes the incorporation of a biocatalyst (organophosphorus hydrolase, E.C. 3.1.8.1) into conventional formulations of fire fighting foam. The capacity of fire fighting foams to decrease volatilization of contained contaminants, increase surface wettability, and control the rate of enzyme delivery to large areas makes them useful vehicles for enzyme application at surfaces. The performance of enzyme containing foams has been shown to be not only reproducible but also predictable. An empirical model provides reasonable estimations for the amounts of achievable surface decontamination as a function of the important parameters of the system. Theoretical modeling illustrates that the enzyme-containing foam is capable of extracting agent from the surface and is catalytically active at the foam-surface interface and throughout the foam itself. Biocatalytic foam has proven to be an effective, "environmentally friendly" means of surface and soil decontamination.

  11. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon

    2017-01-30

    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.

  12. Stable Aqueous Foams from Cellulose Nanocrystals and Methyl Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Xu, Richard; Cranston, Emily D; Pelton, Robert H

    2016-12-12

    The addition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) greatly enhanced the properties of methylcellulose (MC) stabilized aqueous foams. CNC addition decreased air bubble size, initial foam densities and drainage rates. Mixtures of 2 wt % CNC + 0.5 wt % MC gave the lowest density foams. This composition sits near the onset of nematic phase formation and also near the overlap concentration of methylcellulose. More than 94% of the added CNC particles remained in the foam phase, not leaving with the draining water. We propose that the nanoscale CNC particles bind to the larger MC coils both in solution and with MC at the air/water interface, forming weak gels that stabilize air bubbles. Wet CNC-MC foams were sufficiently robust to withstand high temperature (70 °C for 6 h) polymerization of water-soluble monomers giving macroporous CNC composite hydrogels based on acrylamide (AM), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), or polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). At high temperatures, the MC was present as a fibrillar gel phase reinforced by CNC particles, explaining the very high foam stability. Finally, our CNC-MC foams are based on commercially available forms of CNC and MC, already approved for many applications. This is a "shovel-ready" technology.

  13. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  14. 新峪矿综放工作面注氮气泡沫防灭火技术应用%Application of fire fighting technology of nitrogen foam injection on fully mechanized coal face in Xin Yu mine coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红俊; 陈军伟; 康怀宇

    2011-01-01

    氮气防灭火技术是防治煤层内因火灾的有效技术措施之一,但氮气轻,易流失,本文针对新峪矿5110综放工作面的实际情况,采用了氮气泡沫结合的方法进行防灭火,对注氮设备、注氮方式、注氮工艺、进行了详细的阐述,并对防灭火效果进行了深入分析。%Fire fighting technology of nitrogen injection is one of the most effective technical measures in preventing coal seam fire.However,nitrogen is light and loses easily.Regarding the practical situation on 5110 fully mechanized coal face of Xin Yu mine coal,this thesis analyzes the combination of nitrogen and foam for firefighting technology.It elaborates the nitrogen produce equipment,nitrogen injection way,and nitrogen injection technology.Furthermore,it analyzes the fire control results in details.

  15. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  16. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  17. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  18. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  19. Drug distribution in wet granulation: foam versus spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Melvin X L; Nguyen, Thanh H; Hapgood, Karen P

    2013-09-01

    Foam granulation technology is a new wet granulation approach for pharmaceutical formulations. This study evaluates the performance of foam and spray granulation in achieving uniform drug distribution using a model formulation. To observe wetting and nuclei formation, single drop/foam penetration experiments were performed on a static powder bed comprised of varying compositions of hydrophilic/hydrophobic glass ballotini, and hydrophilic lactose/hydrophobic salicylic acid respectively. High shear granulation experiments were performed in a 5L mixer using varying compositions of hydrophilic lactose and hydrophobic salicylic acid. Four percent hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) solution was delivered at 90 g/min as either a foam (92% FQ) or an atomized spray whilst recording impeller power consumption. After drying, the granule size distribution was measured and the granule composition was estimated using gravimetric filtration in methanol. Foam penetration was less dependent on the powder hydrophobicity compared to drop penetration. For glass ballotini powder mixtures, foam induced nucleation created nuclei with relatively uniform structure and size regardless of the powder hydrophobicity. For salicylic acid and lactose mixtures, increasing the proportion of salicylic acid reduced the nuclei granule size for both foam and drop binder addition. The granule drug distribution was not significantly affected by the binder addition method. Processing conditions, including liquid binder amount, impeller speed, wet massing, and the wettability properties of the formulation were the dominant factors for delivering homogeneous granules. The study reveals that foam and spray granulation involve different nucleation mechanisms - spray tends to incur early liquid penetration whereas foam granulation operates well in mechanical dispersion.

  20. STUDY ON MACRO AND MICRO MODELING ON SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS OF SHAPED CASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Facing the market economy and global challenge the development of manufacturing industry especially casting industry is critical to the national economy. To reform the traditional casting industry by using computer technology is one of the hottest research frontiers studied by many researchers and engineers. Computer simulation of solidification process of shaped casting can assure the quality of casting, optimize the casting technology, shorten the lead time and therefore decrease the developing and manufacturing cost. Recently, numerical simulation of mold-filling and solidification processes of shaped casting and prediction of microstructure and property as well are extensively studied and put into application in many casting plants with many successful simulation cases.

  1. mFOAM-1.02: A compact version of the cellular event generator FOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadach, S.; Sawicki, P.

    2007-09-01

    The general-purpose self-adapting Monte Carlo (MC) event generator/simulator mFOAM (standing for mini-FOAM) is a new compact version of the FOAM program, with a slightly limited functionality with respect to its parent version. On the other hand, mFOAM is easier to use for the average user. This new version is fully integrated with the ROOT package, the C++ utility library used widely in the particle physics community. The internal structure of the code is simplified and the very valuable feature of the persistency of the objects of the mFOAM class is improved. With the persistency at hand, it is possible to record very easily the complete state of a MC simulator object based on mFOAM and ROOT into a disk-file at any stage of its use: just after object allocation, after full initialization (exploration of the distribution), or at any time during the generation of the long series of MC events. Later on the MC simulator object can be easily restored from the disk-file in the "ready to go" state. Objects of the TFoam class can be used as a stand-alone solution to many everyday problems in the area of the Monte Carlo simulation, or as building blocks in large-scale MC projects, taking full advantage of the object-oriented technology and persistency. Program summaryManuscript title: mFOAM-1.02: A compact version of the cellular event generator FOAM Authors: S. Jadach, P. Sawicki Program title: mFOAM (mini FOAM), version 1.02 Catalogue identifier: ADYX_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYX_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 036 711 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 21 403 104 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: ANSI C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations, supercomputers and PC Operating

  2. Enhanced flushing of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated sands using surfactant foam: effect of partition coefficient and sweep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Foam flushing is an in situ soil remediation technology based on the traditional surfactant flushing method. The contribution of mobility control to contaminant removal by foam is helpful for improving this technology. Foam flushing of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated unconsolidated media was performed to evaluate the effect of the partition coefficient (PC) and sweep efficiency (SE) on PCB removal. Column flushing with surfactant solution and foam with different types and concentrations of surfactant was carried out for PCB removal. Two types of quartz sand were investigated to evaluate the Jamin effect on the SE value of the washing agent. The results demonstrate that a small PC value and large SE value are necessary to achieve high PCB removal for foam flushing. Compared with solution flushing, the introduction of foam can effectively control the mobility of the washing agent. Similar to solution flushing, solubilization is a key factor which dominates the removal of PCBs in foam flushing. In addition, the SE value and PCB removal by foam flushing is less affected by particle size. Therefore, foam flushing was proved to be more effective in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and high porosity. An integrated flushing with water, surfactant solution and foam was performed and the results prove that this technology successfully combines the advantages of solution solubilization and mobility control by foam, and thus further increases the remediation efficiency of PCBs to 94.7% for coarse sand.

  3. Enhanced flushing of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated sands using surfactant foam: Effect of partition coefficient and sweep efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Jiajun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Foam flushing is an in situ soil remediation technology based on the traditional surfactant flushing method.The contribution of mobility control to contaminant removal by foam is helpful for improving this technology.Foam flushing of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated unconsolidated media was performed to evaluate the effect of the partition coefficient (PC) and sweep efficiency (SE) on PCB removal.Column flushing with surfactant solution and foam with different types and concentrations of surfactant was carried out for PCB removal.Two types of quartz sand were investigated to evaluate the Jamin effect on the SE value of the washing agent.The results demonstrate that a small PC value and large SE value are necessary to achieve high PCB removal for foam flushing.Compared with solution flushing,the introduction of foam can effectively control the mobility of the washing agent.Similar to solution flushing,solubilization is a key factor which dominates the removal of PCBs in foam flushing.In addition,the SE value and PCB removal by foam flushing is less affected by particle size.Therefore,foam flushing was proved to be more effective in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and high porosity.An integrated flushing with water,surfactant solution and foam was performed and the results prove that this technology successfully combines the advantages of solution solubilization and mobility control by foam,and thus further increases the remediation efficiency of PCBs to 94.7% for coarse sand.

  4. Construction of horizontal stratum landform-like composite foams and their methyl orange adsorption capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Shi, Xiaowen; Zhan, Yingfei; Qiu, Xiaodan; Du, Yumin; Deng, Hongbing

    2017-03-01

    Chitosan (CS)/rectorite (REC)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite foams with good mechanical properties were successfully fabricated by unidirectional freeze-casting technique. The morphology of the foam showed the well-ordered porous three-dimensional layers and horizontal stratum landform-like structure. The holes on the layers looked like the wings of butterfly. Additionally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicated the successful addition of CNTs and REC. The intercalated REC with CS chains was confirmed by small-angle X-ray diffraction. The surface structure of the foams was also analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. The adsorption experiments showed that when the mass ratio of CS to REC was 10:1 and CNTs content was 20%, the composite foam performed best in adsorbing low concentration methyl orange, and the largest adsorption capacity was 41.65 mg/g.

  5. Technological and Economic Analysis of Cast-in-situ Hollow Floor Diaphragm of Underground Garage%地下车库现浇混凝土空心楼盖技术经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柯达; 敖荦

    2014-01-01

    Cast-in-site hollow floor diaphragm technology is widely applied in underground garage, shopping mall and multistoried and high-rise industri-al and civil building for it can drastically reduce self-weight and increase floor headroom, and has the advantages of excellent heat insulation, thermal in-sulation, sound insulation and significant improvement of building function. Through the contrastive analysis on the construction costs and construction period change of the traditional cast-in-situ floor diaphragm and pre-stressed cast-in-situ floor diaphragm, the technological and economic superiority of hollow floor diaphragm in engineering is presented.%现浇空心楼盖技术因其可大幅度减轻楼盖自重增加楼层净高、具备保温隔热隔声及显著改善建筑使用功能的特点,而被广泛应用于地下车库、商场、多层与高层工业与民用建筑中。该文通过与传统现浇混凝土楼盖、预应力混凝土楼盖从工程造价、工期变化等进行对比分析,阐述了空心楼盖在工程应用中的经济技术优势。

  6. The structure of abrasion-resisting castings made of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of chrome iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in rugged conditions abrasion-percussive and high temperature. While producing the casts of chrome iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technologi cal process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Cr alloy Ni, Mo or Cu and then proper heat treatment leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. Then it is possible to develop high mechanical properties which are recommended by PN-EN12513. As can it be seen from the above research silicon is an adverse chemical element in this kind of alloy cast iron. However, the reason of cracksappearing in chrome iron casts are phosphorus eutectic microareas. When the compound of Si and P reach the critical point, described inPN-88/H-83144 outdated standard, the microareas might appear.

  7. An overview of polyurethane foams in higher specification foam mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppi, Esa; Lehtiö, Juha; Saarinen, Hannu

    2015-02-01

    Soft polyurethane foams exist in thousands of grades and constitute essential components of hospital mattresses. For pressure ulcer prevention, the ability of foams to control the immersion and envelopment of patients is essential. Higher specification foam mattresses (i.e., foam mattresses that relieve pressure via optimum patient immersion and envelopment while enabling patient position changes) are claimed to be more effective for preventing pressure ulcers than standard mattresses. Foam grade evaluations should include resiliency, density, hardness, indentation force/load deflection, progressive hardness, tensile strength, and elongation along with essential criteria for higher specification foam mattresses. Patient-specific requirements may include optimal control of patient immersion and envelopment. Mattress cover characteristics should include breathability, impermeability to fluids, and fire safety and not affect mattress function. Additional determinations such as hardness are assessed according to the guidelines of the American Society for Testing and Materials and the International Organization for Standardization. At this time, no single foam grade provides an optimal combination of the above key requirements, but the literature suggests a combination of at least 2 foams may create an optimal higher specification foam mattress for pressure ulcer prevention. Future research and the development of product specification accuracy standards are needed to help clinicians make evidence-based decisions about mattress use.

  8. Mg Alloy Foam Fabrication via Melt Foaming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui YANC; Changhwan SEO; Bo-Young HUR

    2008-01-01

    For the first time AZ91 (MgAl9Zn1) and AM60 (MgAl6) Mg alloy foams with homogeneous pore structures were prepared successfully via melt foaming method using CaCO3 as blowing agent. It is revealed that the blowing gas to foam the melt is not CO2 but CO, which comes from liquid-solid reaction between Mg melt. The reaction temperature is more than 100℃ lower than CaCO3 decomposition, which makes Mg alloy melts foam into cellular structure much more easily in the temperature range from 690℃ to 750℃.

  9. Influence of Orientation and Radiative Heat Transfer on Aluminum Foams in Buoyancy-Induced Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Billiet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two differently-produced open-cell aluminum foams were compared to a commercially available finned heat sink. Further, an aluminum plate and block were tested as a reference. All heat sinks have the same base plate dimensions of four by six inches. The first foam was made by investment casting of a polyurethane preform and has a porosity of 0.946 and a pore density of 10 pores per linear inch. The second foam is manufactured by casting over a solvable core and has a porosity of 0.85 and a pore density of 2.5 pores per linear inch. The effects of orientation and radiative heat transfer are experimentally investigated. The heat sinks are tested in a vertical and horizontal orientation. The effect of radiative heat transfer is investigated by comparing a painted/anodized heat sink with an untreated one. The heat flux through the heat sink for a certain temperature difference between the environment and the heat sink’s base plate is used as the performance indicator. For temperature differences larger than 30 °C, the finned heat sink outperforms the in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink on average by 17%. Furthermore, the in-house-made aluminum foam dissipates on average 12% less heat than the other aluminum foam for a temperature difference larger than 40 °C. By painting/anodizing the heat sinks, the heat transfer rate increased on average by 10% to 50%. Finally, the thermal performance of the horizontal in-house-made aluminum foam heat sink is up to 18% larger than the one of the vertical aluminum foam heat sink.

  10. Development of nonflammable cellulosic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttinger, M.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a moldable cellulosic foam for use in Skylab instrument storage cushions is considered. Requirements include density of 10 lb cu ft or less, minimal friability with normal handling, and nonflammability in an atmosphere of 70 percent oxygen and 30 percent nitrogen at 6.2 psia. A study of halogenated foam components was made, including more highly chlorinated binders, halogen-containing additives, and halogenation of the cellulose. The immediate objective was to reduce the density of the foam through reduction in inorganic phosphate without sacrificing flame-retarding properties of the foams. The use of frothing techniques was investigated, with particular emphasis on a urea-formaldehyde foam. Halogen-containing flame retardants were deemphasized in favor of inorganic salts and the preparation of phosphate and sulphate esters of cellulose. Utilization of foam products for civilian applications was also considered.

  11. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs....... Moreover, foaming presents adverse environmental impacts owing to the overflowing of the pre-storage or digester tanks. So far, there has never been thoroughly investigation of foaming problem in manure-based digester, which is the main anaerobic digestion applied in Denmark. The purpose of the present...

  12. Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

  13. Study of displacement efficiency and flow behavior of foamed gel in non-homogeneous porous media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Wang

    Full Text Available Field trials have demonstrated that foamed gel is a very cost-effective technology for profile modification and water shut-off. However, the mechanisms of profile modification and flow behavior of foamed gel in non-homogeneous porous media are not yet well understood. In order to investigate these mechanisms and the interactions between foamed gel and oil in porous media, coreflooding and pore-scale visualization waterflooding experiments were performed in the laboratory. The results of the coreflooding experiment in non-homogeneous porous media showed that the displacement efficiency improved by approximately 30% after injecting a 0.3 pore volume of foamed gel, and was proportional to the pore volumes of the injected foamed gel. Additionally, the mid-high permeability zone can be selectively plugged by foamed gel, and then oil located in the low permeability zone will be displaced. The visualization images demonstrated that the amoeba effect and Jamin effect are the main mechanisms for enhancing oil recovery by foamed gel. Compared with conventional gel, a unique benefit of foamed gel is that it can pass through micropores by transforming into arbitrary shapes without rupturing, this phenomenon has been named the amoeba effect. Additionally, the stability of foam in the presence of crude oil also was investigated. Image and statistical analysis showed that these foams boast excellent oil resistance and elasticity, which allows them to work deep within formations.

  14. Shape memory polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molded flexible polyurethane (PU foams have been synthesized from polypropylene glycol (PPG with different molecular weights (Mw and functionalities (f, and 2,4/2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI-80 with water as blowing agent. It was found that the glassy state properties of the foam mainly depended on the urethane group content while the rubbery state properties on the crosslink density. That is, PPG of low MW and low f (more urethane groups provided superior glass state modulus, strength, density, shape fixity and glass transition temperature (Tg, while that of high Mw and high f (higher crosslink density showed high rubbery modulus and shape recovery. Consequently shape fixity of low Mw PPG decreased from 85 to 72% while shape recovery increased from 52 to 63% as the content of high Mw PPG increased from 0 to 40%.

  15. Biomaterials by freeze casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K; Schecter, Matthew; Donius, Amalie E; Hunger, Philipp M

    2010-04-28

    The functional requirements for synthetic tissue substitutes appear deceptively simple: they should provide a porous matrix with interconnecting porosity and surface properties that promote rapid tissue ingrowth; at the same time, they should possess sufficient stiffness, strength and toughness to prevent crushing under physiological loads until full integration and healing are reached. Despite extensive efforts and first encouraging results, current biomaterials for tissue regeneration tend to suffer common limitations: insufficient tissue-material interaction and an inherent lack of strength and toughness associated with porosity. The challenge persists to synthesize materials that mimic both structure and mechanical performance of the natural tissue and permit strong tissue-implant interfaces to be formed. In the case of bone substitute materials, for example, the goal is to engineer high-performance composites with effective properties that, similar to natural mineralized tissue, exceed by orders of magnitude the properties of its constituents. It is still difficult with current technology to emulate in synthetic biomaterials multi-level hierarchical composite structures that are thought to be the origin of the observed mechanical property amplification in biological materials. Freeze casting permits to manufacture such complex, hybrid materials through excellent control of structural and mechanical properties. As a processing technique for the manufacture of biomaterials, freeze casting therefore has great promise.

  16. Foams structure and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cantat, Isabelle; Graner, François; Pitois, Olivier; Höhler, Reinard; Elias, Florence; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud; Rouyer, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first to provide a thorough description of all aspects of the physico-chemical properties of foams. It sets out what is known about their structure, their stability, and their rheology. Engineers, researchers and students will find descriptions of all the key concepts, illustrated by numerous applications, as well as experiments and exercises for the reader. A solutions manual for lecturers is available via the publisher's web site.

  17. Causal spin foams

    CERN Document Server

    Immirzi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    I discuss how to impose causality on spin-foam models, separating forward and backward propagation, turning a given triangulation to a 'causal set', and giving asymptotically the exponential of the Regge action, not a cosine. I show the equivalence of the prescriptions which have been proposed to achieve this. Essential to the argument is the closure condition for the 4-simplices, all made of space-like tetrahedra.

  18. Polyurethane Foam Roofing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    underfilled a second or third application of foam may be required to completely fill the void . If a second or third application or pour is required, pour(s...often creates other problems such as pinholes, voids (or "holidays") and cracking. Occasionally, small areas of marginal coating coverage may be found on...which can be worked down into small voids , crevices and pinholes. Suitable caulk sealants can also be used to make corrections. Such corrective

  19. Laser assisted foaming of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathuria, Y.P. [Laser X Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Recently aluminum foams have evoked considerable interest as an alternative material owing to their wide range of applications ranging from microelectronics, through automobiles to aerospace industries. The manufacturing techniques and characterization methods for aluminum foams require further development to achieve effective and economical use of this material. In this communication the authors demonstrate the feasibility of unidirectional and localized expansion of the aluminum foam using the Nd-YAG/CO{sub 2} laser and powder metallurgy. (orig.)

  20. Technology for Rapid Casting of Arc-shaped Cradles for TBM Stepping%TBM弧形步进的滑槽快速施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑孝福

    2011-01-01

    Options for the casting of the arc-shaped cradles for TBM stepping of West Qinling Tunnel are analyzed on basis of casting speed, arc surface quality and economical benefit, so as to shorten the construction period.In the end, the option of casting the arc-shaped cradles by means of sliding formwork is selected.The maximum daily casting rate has reached 160 m and the assembly and stepping of TBM are guaranteed, which demonstrates that the casting method adopted is feasible.%为提高施工进度,以西秦岭隧道为工程实例,从施工进度、弧面质量、经济效益等方面进行方案比选,最终选择了TBM弧形步进滑槽的快速施工方法.事实证明此方案是可行的,达到了最高日进度160m的记录,保证了IBM组装和步进的开展.

  1. Processing, Microstructure, and Oxidation Behavior of Iron Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeji; Noh, Yoonsook; Choi, Hyelim; Hong, Kicheol; Kwon, Kyungjung; Choe, Heeman

    2016-09-01

    With its historically long popularity in major structural applications, the use of iron (Fe) has also recently begun to be explored as an advanced functional material. For this purpose, it is more advantageous to use Fe as a porous structure, simply because it can provide a greater surface area and a higher reaction rate. This study uses a freeze-casting method, which consists of simple and low-cost processing steps, to produce Fe foam with a mean pore size of 10 μm. We examine the influences of various parameters ( i.e., mold bottom temperature, powder content, and sintering time) on the processing of Fe foam, along with its oxidation kinetics at 823 K (550 °C) with various heat-treatment times. We confirm that Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 oxide layers are successfully formed on the surface of Fe foam. With the Fe oxide layers as an active anode material, the Fe foam can potentially be used as a three-dimensional anode current collector for an advanced lithium-ion battery.

  2. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  3. Assessment of possible control of selected operational properties of metal-ceramic foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective use of metal foams, an increasingly popular group of machine structural materials, often requires that their properties be adjusted to customer needs. The growing popularity of foams is due to their specific properties, i.e. capability of absorbing the impact and explosion energy, increasing the stiffness of structural components such as panels of closed profiles, ability to damp vibrations, relatively good thermal insulation, dispersion of electromagnetic waves, resistance to high temperature and others. One of the operational properties of metal foams that is essential for their use in various structures is the resistance to single-axial static compression.Initial studies aimed at the determination of how metal foam behaves when statically compressed. Foam samples were made by blowing gas into liquid metal. The composition of metal foam (AlSi11 was differentiated by introducing ceramic particles SiC. By changing technological parameters of the foaming process we could affect the size of gaseous bubbles and their homogeneity. By comparing the structure of foams and their properties we found significant differences in the curve x = f(P of foam sample affected by the force (P. It has been proved that one operational property, namely the resistance to compression, can be indirectly controlled, that is its determined specific structure can be obtained by maintaining specific technological parameters.

  4. COMPUTER RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY CHANGE OF THE VACUUM-FILM MOLD OF ON CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CASTING PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of changes in the thermal conductivity of vacuum-film mold at production of cast iron castings «body» was studied. Three variants of the gating system with different thermal conductivity l, 0,6 l and 0,4 l are considered. The dependencies of speed change and its projections on the time of filling in the allocated form points were established. Statistical distributions of temperatures in the casting for various moments of times are calculated. The technique of the formalization of statistical distributions characterizing the quantification of different groups of grid elements on the average temperature of the object was offered.

  5. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... microscope above maximum foaming temperature gives a suitable foaming temperature for the remaining samples. We show that the foaming kinetics depend on the type of gas and the pressure. A critical pressure of around 20 MPa is found to give the largest expansion for all gasses. Samples are obtained with 100...

  6. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  7. Researches on Nitrogen Foam Flooding Technology in the Tahe Triassic Sandstone Reservoir%塔河底水砂岩油藏氮气泡沫驱技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学利; 胡文革; 谭涛; 张林艳; 刘蕊

    2016-01-01

    塔河三叠系砂岩油藏为块状底水油藏,与中国其他砂岩油藏相比,其埋藏深、底水能量强,具有油藏温度高、矿化度高和钙镁离子含量高的特点,进入开发中后期以后油井水淹现象严重,低产低效井多,由于高温高盐的特征,一般的化学驱提高采收率方法很难适用。在调研砂岩油藏提高采收率技术的基础上,结合塔河底水砂岩油藏实际特点,开展了氮气泡沫驱室内实验研究,确定了氮气泡沫驱的可行性,并在现场进行了先导试验。实践表明,氮气泡沫驱技术是底水砂岩油藏有效的提高采收率手段。%Compared with other sandstone reservoirs in China, the Tahe triassic sandstone reservoir is a block bottom water reservoir, which is characteristic of deeply buried reservoir, active bottom water, high formation temperature and high salini-ty(excessive calcium and magnesian ion). Therefore the number of low production and low effectiveness wells is increasing when the oil wells are flooded in the middle-later developed period. In addition, the chemical flooding to improve oil recovery does not apply due to high temperature and high salinity. Based on the researches on enhanced oil recovery technology in sandstone reservoir and the practical characteristics of bottom water sandstone reservoir of Tahe Oilfield, nitrogen foam flood-ing experiments were made and the feasibility was proved. Then the pilot test on field was conducted, and it showed that the nitrogen foam flooding technology is an effective method of improving oil recovery in bottom water sandstone reservoir.

  8. CAST with its micromegas detector installed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) uses a prototype LHC dipole magnet to search for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. The magnet converts the solar axions to photons which are then detected by an X-ray detector based on Micromegas technology. CAST's Micromegas detector has now been installed. Photos 01 02: General view of the CAST experiment with the Micromegas detector in place. Photo 03: Close-up of the micromegas set-up.

  9. Foam Assisted WAG, Snorre Revisit with New Foam Screening Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirov, Pavel; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Khan, Arif

    2012-01-01

    on a complex geological model for quick feasibility studies, either for onward practical pilot or as justification for more detailed technical study. The simulation showed that Foam model is applicable. The mismatch between history and actual GOR in some periods of injection is due to the complexity...... as quick reference for future general foam pilot simulations at field scale....

  10. THIRD-GENERATION FOAM BLOWING AGENTS FOR FOAM INSULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of third-generation blowing agents for foam insulation. (NOTE: the search for third-generation foam blowing agents has led to the realization that, as the number of potential substitutes increases, new concerns, such as their potential to act a...

  11. Solid/hollow, soldered/cast, morphology/technology. The Castro technological domain system through the torcs with double moulding ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armbruster, Barbara

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We oppose the direct observation of the artefacts and the study of the fabrication, distribution and consumption processes against the traditional typological view of the castro torcs. Technological variability defines best this particular archaeological material which forms part of the Iron Age goldwork in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. We forget its quality of adornment and conceptualize the object as a collective investment within a diachronic context beginning in the Final Bronze Age and extending into the Period of romanization.

    Contraponemos la observación directa de las piezas y el estudio del proceso de fabricación, distribución y consumo, a la tradicional visión tipológica de los torques cástrenos. La variabilidad tecnológica es la característica que mejor define este material arqueológico, dentro del conjunto de la orfebrería del noroeste peninsular de la Edad del Hierro. Olvidamos su carácter de adorno y conceptualizamos el objeto como una inversión colectiva dentro de un espacio temporal que se inicia en el Bronce Final y se prolonga hasta más allá de la romanización.

  12. Impact of fillers on dissolution kinetic of fenofibrate dry foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Sprunk, Angela; Kleinebudde, Peter; Page, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Dry foam technology reveals the opportunity to improve the dissolution behavior of poorly soluble drugs tending to agglomeration due to micronization. In this study, the impact of fillers on the manufacturability, the properties of dry foams and granules as well as the dissolution kinetics of dry foam tablets was investigated using fenofibrate as a model compound. Different maltodextrins and dried glucose syrups, a maltodextrin-phosphatidylcholine complex, isomalt and a 1:1 mixture of mannitol/glucose syrup were used as filler. Within the group of maltodextrins and glucose syrups, the influences of dextrose equivalent (DE), particle morphology and botanical source of starch were investigated. Comparable macroscopic foam structures were obtained with maltodextrins and glucose syrups whereas different foam morphologies were obtained for the other fillers tested. Regarding the maltodextrins and glucose syrups, different physicochemical and particle properties had a minor impact on granule characteristics and tablet dissolution. Using the maltodextrin-phosphatidylcholine complex resulted in a low specific surface area of the granules and a slow tablet dissolution caused by a slow disintegration. In contrast, a high specific surface area and a fast release were obtained with isomalt and glucose syrup/mannitol mixture indicating that high soluble low molecular weight fillers enable the development of fast dissolving dry foam tablets.

  13. Dielectric properties of novel polyurethane-PZT-graphite foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Jarkko; Hannu, Jari; Nelo, Mikko; Juuti, Jari; Jantunen, Heli

    2016-09-01

    Flexible foam composite materials offer multiple benefits to future electronic applications as the rapid development of the electronics industry requires smaller, more efficient, and lighter materials to further develop foldable and wearable applications. The aims of this work were to examine the electrical properties of three- and four-phase novel foam composites in different conditions, find the optimal mixture for four-phase foam composites, and study the combined effects of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and graphite fillers. The flexible and highly compressible foams were prepared in a room-temperature mixing process using polyurethane, PZT, and graphite components as well as their combinations, in which air acted as one phase. In three-phase foams the amount of PZT varied between 20 and 80 wt% and the amount of graphite, between 1 and 15 wt%. The four-phase foams were formed by adding 40 wt% of PZT while the amount of graphite ranged between 1 and 15 wt%. The presented results and materials could be utilized to develop new flexible and soft sensor applications by means of material technology.

  14. Gears castings from ductile iron of improved abrasion wear resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an industrial technological process for the manufacturing of castings from alloyed ductile iron characterized by improved resistance to abrasion wear. The outcome of the study was the implementation of developed technology under the industrial conditions of ASPAMET Foundry Plant and start up of production of a wide range of cast gears.

  15. Average foam life and foaming intensity of foaming phenomenon originating from decomposition reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liu, X.; Yao, K.; Zhao, J. [Beijing Univ. of Science and Technology, Metallurgy School (China)

    2003-06-01

    The average foam life anti {tau} and foam intensity i have been defined. The expression of anti {tau} and i were given through the relationship between the gas quantity of carbonate decomposition and time, which could be determined by the mass and heat balance. anti {tau} means the effective foaming endurance time. i is a dimensionless number and means the intensity of the foaming process. With these two parameters and the supplement formation and rupture coefficients (K and k), the foaming process originating from decomposition reaction in the melt can be described quantitatively. Through the experiment in the laboratory, the foam height has been measured during the foaming process originating from reaction of the carbonate decomposition in Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} melt. By means of the experimental results and through the self-developed calculation program, the foam behaviour parameters (K, k, anti {tau} and i) for the foaming process could be determined under different conditions, such as variations of crucible diameter, added carbonate quantity, initial slag height and foaming agent radius and so on. In this way the foam behaviour of the different foaming processes originating from reaction of carbonate decomposition in Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} melt would be analysed quantitatively. It was shown that the crucible diameter has little effect on rupture coefficient k, average foam life anti {tau} and foam intensity i, just like the foam caused by blowing gas. However, formation coefficient K was affected by the crucible diameter quite a lot. With increased carbonate and initial slag height, anti {tau} and i increase too. In addition anti {tau} and i are influenced by the particle size of the carbonate added to the Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} melt. The larger the particle, the lower anti {tau} and i. With addition of the two different sizes of particles, both of them were getting larger. The composition of the melt has also an influence on the foaming process

  16. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Dan R. Lipsa; Roberts, Richard C; Laramee, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design ...

  17. Dynamic Property of Aluminum Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Irie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum in the foam of metallic foam is in the early stage of industrialization. It has various beneficial characteristics such as being lightweight, heat resistance, and an electromagnetic radiation shield. Therefore, the use of aluminum foam is expected to reduce the weight of equipment for transportation such as the car, trains, and aircraft. The use as energy absorption material is examined. Moreover aluminum foam can absorb the shock wave, and decrease the shock of the blast. Many researchers have reported about aluminum foam, but only a little information is available for high strain rates (103 s-1 or more. Therefore, the aluminum foam at high strain rates hasn't been not characterized yet. The purpose in this research is to evaluate the behavior of the aluminum form in the high-strain rate. In this paper, the collision test on high strain rate of the aluminum foam is investigated. After experiment, the numerical analysis model will be made. In this experiment, a powder gun was used to generate the high strain rate in aluminum foam. In-situ PVDF gauges were used for measuring pressure and the length of effectiveness that acts on the aluminum foam. The aluminum foam was accelerated to about 400 m/s from deflagration of single component powder and the foam were made to collide with the PVDF gauge. The high strain rate deformation of the aluminum form was measured at two collision speeds. As for the result, pressure was observed to go up rapidly when about 70% was compressed. From this result, it is understood that complete crush of the cell is caused when the relative volume is about 70%. In the next stage, this data will be compared with the numerical analysis.

  18. Pressing Speed, Specific Pressure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the process of aluminum alloy die castings production, which is nowadays deeply implemented into the rapidly growing automobile, shipping and aircraft industries, is aimed at increasing the useful qualitative properties of the die casting in order to obtain its high mechanical properties at acceptable economic cost. Problem of technological factors of high pressure die casting has been a subject of worldwide research (EU, US, Japan, etc.. The final performance properties of die castings are subjected to a large number of technological factors. The main technological factors of high pressure die casting are as follows: plunger pressing speed, specific (increase pressure, mold temperature as well as alloy temperature. The contribution discusses the impact of the plunger pressing speed and specific (increase pressure on the mechanical properties of the casting aluminum alloy.

  19. Technological Superiority and Application of Real-Time Control Die Casting Machine%实时控制压铸机的技术优势及应用*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新华; 孔晓武

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the development of die casting machine controlling theory, concept and feature of die casting machine embedded real time operating system,with drawing conclusions that contain electro-hydraulic schematic diagram for die casting machine injection system, configuration scheme of embedded real time controlling, analysis of real time control curve and comparison with traditional controlling technique. The real time control die casting machine which referred in this article has been to the stage of application,and won quite considerable market share and high praise.%介绍了压铸机控制理论的发展和压铸机嵌入式实时控制技术的概念及其特点优势,给出了压铸机压射系统的电液原理图,嵌入式实时控制的配置方案,实时控制曲线的分析及与传统控制技术的对比。介绍的实时控制压铸机已经进入应用环节,并取得了较大的市场份额和较好的评价。

  20. 对熔模铸造现行制壳工艺的改进和讨论%Improvement and Discussion on Current Shell Moulding Technology of Investment Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炳荣; 景宗梁

    2012-01-01

    Silicon sol shell moulding technology with medium-temperature pattern material is the main technology in production of investment castings at home and abroad. However, production cycle of this technology is too long, and casting defects often occur due to the surface defects of shell mold. Some measures were adopted, such as adding anti-cracking agent to the surface slurry, drying the surface layer by strong wind, using big size colloidal particle in surface slurry, cancelling the prewetting before coating second layer, cancelling coating of the silicon sol before the surface coating. The results show that the surface strength of shell mold is increased, defects on the surface of shell mold are decreased, drying time of coating is shortened, and the qualified rate of the castings is increased.%中温模料硅溶胶制壳工艺是目前国内外用于精密铸件生产的主流工艺.然而此工艺的制壳生产周期长,而且存在因面层型壳缺陷导致铸件缺陷的问题.采用了面层浆料加入防裂剂、面层大风力干燥、面层采用大粒径硅溶胶、取消涂二层前预湿、取消涂面层前沾硅溶胶的工艺举措.结果表明,面层型壳的强度得到了提高,面层型壳的缺陷减少,涂层干燥时间缩短,铸件一次性合格率增大.