Sample records for flyby encounters a numerical

  1. Quantifying the Effects of Gas-Rich Flyby Encounters on Galaxy Evolution (United States)

    Dumas, Julie; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan


    Recent work has shown that flyby encounters may be a common event in a galaxy's lifetime. Galaxy flybys are a one-time encounter when two halos interpenetrate, but unlike a galaxy merger, the two halos later detach. Relatively little work has been done to assess how flybys affect galaxy evolution. We present preliminary results of a suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical + N-body simulations of gas-rich flyby encounters, concentrating on Milky Way-like primaries. We track the bulk changes in structure, star formation history, kinematics, and morphology over a broad span of flyby encounters.

  2. FIRE - Flyby of Io with Repeat Encounters: A conceptual design for a New Frontiers mission to Io (United States)

    Suer, Terry-Ann; Padovan, Sebastiano; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Shkolyar, Svetlana; Cable, Morgan; Walker, Catherine; Szalay, Jamey; Parker, Charles; Cumbers, John; Gentry, Diana; Harrison, Tanya; Naidu, Shantanu; Trammell, Harold J.; Reimuller, Jason; Budney, Charles J.; Lowes, Leslie L.


    A conceptual design is presented for a low complexity, heritage-based flyby mission to Io, Jupiter's innermost Galilean satellite and the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. The design addresses the 2011 Decadal Survey's recommendation for a New Frontiers class mission to Io and is based upon the result of the June 2012 NASA-JPL Planetary Science Summer School. A science payload is proposed to investigate the link between the structure of Io's interior, its volcanic activity, its surface composition, and its tectonics. A study of Io's atmospheric processes and Io's role in the Jovian magnetosphere is also planned. The instrument suite includes a visible/near-IR imager, a magnetic field and plasma suite, a dust analyzer, and a gimbaled high gain antenna to perform radio science. Payload activity and spacecraft operations would be powered by three Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRG). The primary mission includes 10 flybys with close-encounter altitudes as low as 100 km. The mission risks are mitigated by ensuring that relevant components are radiation tolerant and by using redundancy and flight-proven parts in the design. The spacecraft would be launched on an Atlas V rocket with a delta-v of 1.3 km/s. Three gravity assists (Venus, Earth, Earth) would be used to reach the Jupiter system in a 6-year cruise. The resulting concept demonstrates the rich scientific return of a flyby mission to Io.

  3. Formation of Tidally Induced Bars in Galactic Flybys: Prograde versus Retrograde Encounters (United States)

    Łokas, Ewa L.


    Bars in disk galaxies can be formed by interactions with other systems, including those of comparable mass. It has long been established that the effect of such interactions on galaxy morphology depends strongly on the orbital configuration, in particular the orientation of the intrinsic spin of the galactic disk with respect to its orbital angular momentum. Prograde encounters modify the morphology strongly, including the formation of tidally induced bars, while retrograde flybys should have little effect on morphology. Recent works on the subject reached conflicting conclusions, one using the impulse approximation and claiming no dependence on this angle in the properties of tidal bars. To resolve the controversy, we performed self-consistent N-body simulations of hyperbolic encounters between two identical Milky Way-like galaxies assuming different velocities and impact parameters, with one of the galaxies on a prograde and the other on a retrograde orbit. The galaxies were initially composed of an exponential stellar disk and an NFW dark halo, and they were stable against bar formation in isolation for 3 Gyr. We find that strong tidally induced bars form only in galaxies on prograde orbits. For smaller impact parameters and lower relative velocities, the bars are stronger and have lower pattern speeds. Stronger bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that thicken their vertical structure. The encounters also lead to the formation of two-armed spirals with strength inversely proportional to the strength of the bars. We conclude that proper modeling of prograde and retrograde encounters cannot rely on the simplest impulse approximation.

  4. A possible flyby anomaly for Juno at Jupiter (United States)

    Acedo, L.; Piqueras, P.; Moraño, J. A.


    In the last decades there have been an increasing interest in improving the accuracy of spacecraft navigation and trajectory data. In the course of this plan some anomalies have been found that cannot, in principle, be explained in the context of the most accurate orbital models including all known effects from classical dynamics and general relativity. Of particular interest for its puzzling nature, and the lack of any accepted explanation for the moment, is the flyby anomaly discovered in some spacecraft flybys of the Earth over the course of twenty years. This anomaly manifest itself as the impossibility of matching the pre and post-encounter Doppler tracking and ranging data within a single orbit but, on the contrary, a difference of a few mm/s in the asymptotic velocities is required to perform the fitting. Nevertheless, no dedicated missions have been carried out to elucidate the origin of this phenomenon with the objective either of revising our understanding of gravity or to improve the accuracy of spacecraft Doppler tracking by revealing a conventional origin. With the occasion of the Juno mission arrival at Jupiter and the close flybys of this planet, that are currently been performed, we have developed an orbital model suited to the time window close to the perijove. This model shows that an anomalous acceleration of a few mm/s2 is also present in this case. The chance for overlooked conventional or possible unconventional explanations is discussed.

  5. Trajectory design for a lunar mapping and near-Earth-asteroid flyby mission (United States)

    Dunham, David W.; Farquhar, Robert W.


    In August, 1994, the unusual asteroid (1620) Geographos will pass very close to the Earth. This provides one of the best opportunities for a low-cost asteroid flyby mission that can be achieved with the help of a gravity assist from the Moon during the years 1994 and 1995. A Geographos flyby mission, including a lunar orbiting phase, was recommended to the Startegic Defense Initiative (SDI) Office when they were searching for ideas for a deep-space mission to test small imaging systems and other lightweight technologies. The goals for this mission, called Clementine, were defined to consist of a comprehensive lunar mapping phase before leaving the Earth-Moon system to encounter Geographos. This paper describes how the authors calculated a trajectory that met the mission goals within a reasonable total Delta-V budget. The paper also describes some refinements of the initially computed trajectory and alternative trajectories were investigated. The paper concludes with a list of trajectories to fly by other near-Earth asteroids during the two years following the Geographos opportunity. Some of these could be used if the Geographos schedule can not be met. If the 140 deg phase angle of the Geographos encounter turns out to be too risky, a flyby of (2120) Tantalus in January, 1995, has a much more favorable approach illumination. Tantalus apparently can be reached from the same lunar orbit needed to get to Geographos. However, both the flyby speed and distance from the Earth are much larger for Tantalus than for Geographos.

  6. Return to Mercury: a global perspective on MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby. (United States)

    Solomon, Sean C; McNutt, Ralph L; Watters, Thomas R; Lawrence, David J; Feldman, William C; Head, James W; Krimigis, Stamatios M; Murchie, Scott L; Phillips, Roger J; Slavin, James A; Zuber, Maria T


    In January 2008, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft became the first probe to fly past the planet Mercury in 33 years. The encounter revealed that Mercury is a dynamic system; its liquid iron-rich outer core is coupled through a dominantly dipolar magnetic field to the surface, exosphere, and magnetosphere, all of which interact with the solar wind. MESSENGER images confirm that lobate scarps are the dominant tectonic landform and record global contraction associated with cooling of the planet. The history of contraction can be related to the history of volcanism and cratering, and the total contractional strain is at least one-third greater than inferred from Mariner 10 images. On the basis of measurements of thermal neutrons made during the flyby, the average abundance of iron in Mercury's surface material is less than 6% by weight.

  7. A Lakatosian Encounter (United States)

    Chick, Helen


    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations," by Imre Lakatos. It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning process, where…

  8. [A tale of two encounters]. (United States)

    Chanel, Marie-Paule

    The moving testimony of a patient shows the impact which a successful encounter can have. Beyond the positive clinical consequences, her rediscovered motivation and pleasure are the essential drivers which have guided her along the pathway of reconstruction. A tale of two encounters which have marked her life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Asteroid (367943) 2012 DA14 Flyby Spin State Analysis (United States)

    Benson, Conor; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Moskovitz, Nicholas


    On February 15, 2013 asteroid 2012 DA14 experienced an extremely close Earth encounter, passing within 27700 km altitude. This flyby gave observers the chance to directly detect flyby-induced changes to the asteroid’s spin state and physical properties. The strongest shape and spin state constraints were provided by Goldstone delay-Doppler radar and visible-wavelength photometry taken after closest approach. These data indicated a roughly 40 m x 20 m object in non-principal axis rotation. NPA states are described by two fundamental periods. Pφ is the average precession period of the long/short axis about the angular momentum vector and Pψ is the rotation period about the long/short axis.WindowCLEAN (Belton & Gandhi 1988) power spectrum analysis of the post flyby light curve showed three prominent frequencies, two of which were 1:2 multiples of each other. Mueller et al. (2002) suggest peaks with this relationship are 1/Pφ and 2/Pφ, implying that Pφ = 6.35 hr. Likely values for Pψ were then 8.72, 13.95, or 23.39 hr. These Pφ,Pψ pairs yielded six candidate spin states in total, one LAM and one SAM per pair.Second to fourth order, two-dimensional Fourier series fits to the light curve were best for periods of 6.359 and 8.724 hr. The two other candidate pairs were also in the top ten fits. Inertia constraints of a roughly 2:1 uniform density ellipsoid eliminated two of the three SAM states. Using JPL Horizons ephemerides and Lambertian ellipsoids, simulated light curves were generated. The simulated and observed power spectra were then compared for all angular momentum poles and reasonable ellipsoid elongations. Only the Pφ = 6.359 hr and Pψ = 8.724 hr LAM state produced light curves consistent with the observed frequency structure. All other states were clearly incompatible. With two well-fitting poles found, phasing the initial attitude and angular velocity yielded plausible matches to the observed light curve. Neglecting gravitational torques, neither

  10. A note on the ring current in Saturn’s magnetosphere: Comparison of magnetic data obtained during the Pioneer-11 and Voyager-1 and -2 fly-bys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Bunce


    Full Text Available We examine the residual (measured minus internal magnetic field vectors observed in Saturn’s magnetosphere during the Pioneer-11 fly-by in 1979, and compare them with those observed during the Voyager-1 and -2 fly-bys in 1980 and 1981. We show for the first time that a ring current system was present within the magnetosphere during the Pioneer-11 encounter, which was qualitatively similar to those present during the Voyager fly-bys. The analysis also shows, however, that the ring current was located closer to the planet during the Pioneer-11 encounter than during the comparable Voyager-1 fly-by, reflecting the more com-pressed nature of the magnetosphere at the time. The residual field vectors have been fit using an adaptation of the current system proposed for Jupiter by Connerney et al. (1981a. A model that provides a reasonably good fit to the Pioneer-11 Saturn data extends radially between 6.5 and 12.5 RS (compared with a noon-sector magnetopause distance of 17 RS, has a north-south extent of 4 RS, and carries a total current of 9.6 MA. A corresponding model that provides a qualitatively similar fit to the Voyager data, determined previously by Connerney et al. (1983, extends radially between 8 and 15.5 RS (compared with a noon-sector magnetopause distance for Voyager-1 of 23–24 RS, has a north-south extent of 6 RS, and carries a total current of 11.5 MA.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems, magnetospheric configuration and dynamics, planetary magnetospheres

  11. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico


    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  12. PFERD Mission: Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design (United States)

    Lemke, Gary; Zayed, Husni; Herring, Jason; Fuehne, Doug; Sutton, Kevin; Sharkey, Mike


    The Pluto Flyby Exploration/Research Design (PFERD) mission will consist of a flyby spacecraft to Pluto and its satellite, Charon. The mission lifetime is expected to be 18 years. The Titan 4 with a Centaur upper stage will be utilized to launch the craft into the transfer orbit. The proposal was divided into six main subsystems: (1) scientific instrumentation; (2) command, communications, and control: (3) altitude and articulation control; (4) power and propulsion; (5) structures and thermal control; and (6) mission management and costing. Tradeoff studies were performed to optimize all factors of design, including survivability, performance, cost, and weight. Problems encountered in the design are also presented.

  13. Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS) Preparations for the EPOXI Flyby of Comet Hartley 2 (United States)

    Luna, Michael E.; Collins, Steven M.


    On November 4, 2010 the former "Deep Impact" spacecraft, renamed "EPOXI" for its extended mission, flew within 700km of comet 103P/Hartley 2. In July 2005, the spacecraft had previously imaged a probe impact of comet Tempel 1. The EPOXI flyby was the fifth close encounter of a spacecraft with a comet nucleus and marked the first time in history that two comet nuclei were imaged at close range with the same suite of onboard science instruments. This challenging objective made the function of the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) critical to the successful execution of the EPOXI flyby.As part of the spacecraft flyby preparations, the ADCS operations team had to perform meticulous sequence reviews, implement complex spacecraft engineering and science activities and perform numerous onboard calibrations. ADCS contributions included design and execution of 10 trajectory correction maneuvers, the science calibration of the two telescopic instruments, an in-flight demonstration of high-rate turns between Earth and comet point, and an ongoing assessment of reaction wheel health. The ADCS team was also responsible for command sequences that included updates to the onboard ephemeris and sun sensor coefficients and implementation of reaction wheel assembly (RWA) de-saturations.

  14. Alien encounter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    It has been nearly 100 years since the Apollo moon landings, when Jack and Vladimir, two astronauts on a mission to Venus, discover a mysterious void related to indigenous life on the planet. Subsequently more voids are detected on Earth, Mars, Titan, and, quite ominously, inside a planetoid emerging from the Kuiper belt. Jack is sent to investigate the voids in the Solar System and intercept the planetoid - which, as becomes increasingly clear, is inhabited by alien life forms. Jack and his crew will have little time to understand their alien biochemistry, abilities, behavior patterns, resilience, and technology, but also how these life forms relate to the voids. Humankind's first encounter with these exotic life forms couldn't be more fateful, becoming a race against time to save life on Earth and to reveal the true nature of the voids, which seem to be intrinsically related to life and the universe itself. In this novel, the author combines many topics related to state-of-the-art research in the field of...

  15. A Lakatosian Encounter with Probability (United States)

    Chick, Helen


    There is much to be learned and pondered by reading "Proofs and Refutations" by Imre Lakatos (Lakatos, 1976). It highlights the importance of mathematical definitions, and how definitions evolve to capture the essence of the object they are defining. It also provides an exhilarating encounter with the ups and downs of the mathematical reasoning…

  16. Optimization of high-inclination orbits using planetary flybys for a zodiacal light-imaging mission (United States)

    Soto, Gabriel; Lloyd, James; Savransky, Dmitry; Grogan, Keith; Sinha, Amlan


    The zodiacal light caused by interplanetary dust grains is the second-most luminous source in the solar system. The dust grains coalesce into structures reminiscent of early solar system formation; their composition has been predicted through simulations and some edge-on observations but better data is required to validate them. Scattered light from these dust grains presents challenges to exoplanet imaging missions: resolution of their stellar environment is hindered by exozodiacal emissions and therefore sets the size and scope of these imaging missions. Understanding the composition of this interplanetary dust in our solar system requires an imaging mission from a vantage point above the ecliptic plane. The high surface brightness of the zodiacal light requires only a small aperture with moderate sensitivity; therefore a 3cm camera is enough to meet the science goals of the mission at an orbital height of 0.1AU above the ecliptic. A 6U CubeSat is the target mass for this mission which will be a secondary payload detaching from an existing interplanetary mission. Planetary flybys are utilized to produce most of the plane change Δv deep space corrective maneuvers are implemented to optimize each planetary flyby. We developed an algorithm which determines the minimum Δv required to place the CubeSat on a transfer orbit to a planet's sphere of influence and maximizes the resultant orbital height with respect to the ecliptic plane. The satellite could reach an orbital height of 0.22 AU with an Earth gravity assist in late 2024 by boarding the Europa Clipper mission.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Ida flyby in Ida-centric Solar Ecliptic (ISE) and RTN coordinates. These data cover the interval...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Gaspra flyby in Gaspra-centric Solar Ecliptic (GaSE) and RTN coordinates. These data cover the interval...

  19. Special Relativity - A First Encounter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, W


    In the Einstein Centenary, it is no surprise to find a new book on relativity. But the competition is very strong, since there already exist so many texts on special relativity, and one must look for strong features in a new book. One great attraction of Giulini's book is that it succinctly contains all the essentials of special relativity within a mere 153 pages. In writing a text on relativity there are two possible approaches. Firstly, one could adopt a formal mathematical line. This has the advantage of satisfying the purist and convincing him/her of the generality of the results, but can suffer from failing to convey much insight into the subject. Secondly, the mathematics can be kept to a minimum, with emphasis on Gedanken experiments to illustrate the concepts. This has the advantage of appealing to the reader who is less mathematically minded, and of making the concepts clearer, but the arguments can be more difficult to follow than a straight mathematical account. Combining both approaches would necessarily add to its length. Giulini takes the second approach. Mathematics is minimized, but all the important results, particularly the Lorentz transformations, are carefully explained. At whom is the book aimed? A layman would have no trouble with the early part, but would probably find that it then became too difficult. However, it would be particularly suitable for an undergraduate meeting relativity for the first time, perhaps as supplementary reading to a more mathematical course. Many of the topics are as expected. There is an interesting historical background, followed by the Michelson-Morley experiment, length contraction, time dilation, simultaneity and the Lorentz transformations. These are derived by tightly knit arguments which are convincing without being unnecessarily wordy. It is also pleasing to find a brief section on the transformations of the electric and magnetic fields (but for brevity these are not proved). A chapter on applications

  20. Mercury's Atmosphere and Magnetosphere: MESSENGER Third Flyby Observations (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Johnson, Catherine L.; Gloeckler, George; Killen, Rosemary M.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; hide


    MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury en route to orbit insertion about the innermost planet took place on 29 September 2009. The earlier 14 January and 6 October 2008 encounters revealed that Mercury's magnetic field is highly dipolar and stable over the 35 years since its discovery by Mariner 10; that a structured, temporally variable exosphere extends to great altitudes on the dayside and forms a long tail in the anti-sunward direction; a cloud of planetary ions encompasses the magnetosphere from the dayside bow shock to the downstream magnetosheath and magnetotail; and that the magnetosphere undergoes extremely intense magnetic reconnect ion in response to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field. Here we report on new results derived from observations from MESSENGER's Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS), Magnetometer (MAG), and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) taken during the third flyby.

  1. Analysing bifurcations encountered in numerical modelling of current transfer to cathodes of dc glow and arc discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P G C; Benilov, M S; Cunha, M D; Faria, M J


    Bifurcations and/or their consequences are frequently encountered in numerical modelling of current transfer to cathodes of gas discharges, also in apparently simple situations, and a failure to recognize and properly analyse a bifurcation may create difficulties in the modelling and hinder the understanding of numerical results and the underlying physics. This work is concerned with analysis of bifurcations that have been encountered in the modelling of steady-state current transfer to cathodes of glow and arc discharges. All basic types of steady-state bifurcations (fold, transcritical, pitchfork) have been identified and analysed. The analysis provides explanations to many results obtained in numerical modelling. In particular, it is shown that dramatic changes in patterns of current transfer to cathodes of both glow and arc discharges, described by numerical modelling, occur through perturbed transcritical bifurcations of first- and second-order contact. The analysis elucidates the reason why the mode of glow discharge associated with the falling section of the current-voltage characteristic in the solution of von Engel and Steenbeck seems not to appear in 2D numerical modelling and the subnormal and normal modes appear instead. A similar effect has been identified in numerical modelling of arc cathodes and explained.

  2. A Survey of Cassini CAPS Ion Observations During Titan Flybys TA-T83 (United States)

    Woodson, A. K.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Crary, F. J.


    The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) sampled Titan's plasma environment during each of 83 encounters with the moon between orbit insertion on June 30, 2004 and June 1, 2012. The CAPS Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) acquired energy- and mass-per-charge-discriminated time-of-flight (TOF) spectra associated with ionospheric H+, H2+, H3+, CHx+, and C2Hx+ during at least 68 of those encounters. Herein we discuss ion energy distributions extracted from these spectra, each accumulated over an ~4 minute interval along the spacecraft trajectory. This is accomplished by fitting calibration peak models to TOF spectra in order to determine the TOF range associated with each aforementioned ion group, and then summing counts over each TOF range to obtain well-resolved energy peaks for each group. Energy distributions are determined by fitting the logistic power peak function to each of the resulting energy spectra. We then plot the resulting distribution parameters (peak energy, peak amplitude, and peak width or temperature) for each species and each encounter against Titan latitude, longitude, and altitude to generate a map of ion parameters. In addition, the encounters are grouped according to ambient plasma and magnetic field measurements in order to characterize the ion distribution parameters in different regions of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  3. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  4. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves


    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  5. Autonomous Navigation Performance During The Hartley 2 Comet Flyby (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J; Kennedy, Brian A.; Bhaskaran, Shyam


    On November 4, 2010, the EPOXI spacecraft performed a 700-km flyby of the comet Hartley 2 as follow-on to the successful 2005 Deep Impact prime mission. EPOXI, an extended mission for the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft, returned a wealth of visual and infrared data from Hartley 2, marking the fifth time that high-resolution images of a cometary nucleus have been captured by a spacecraft. The highest resolution science return, captured at closest approach to the comet nucleus, was enabled by use of an onboard autonomous navigation system called AutoNav. AutoNav estimates the comet-relative spacecraft trajectory using optical measurements from the Medium Resolution Imager (MRI) and provides this relative position information to the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for maintaining instrument pointing on the comet. For the EPOXI mission, AutoNav was tasked to enable continuous tracking of a smaller, more active Hartley 2, as compared to Tempel 1, through the full encounter while traveling at a higher velocity. To meet the mission goal of capturing the comet in all MRI science images, position knowledge accuracies of +/- 3.5 km (3-?) cross track and +/- 0.3 seconds (3-?) time of flight were required. A flight-code-in-the-loop Monte Carlo simulation assessed AutoNav's statistical performance under the Hartley 2 flyby dynamics and determined optimal configuration. The AutoNav performance at Hartley 2 was successful, capturing the comet in all of the MRI images. The maximum residual between observed and predicted comet locations was 20 MRI pixels, primarily influenced by the center of brightness offset from the center of mass in the observations and attitude knowledge errors. This paper discusses the Monte Carlo-based analysis that led to the final AutoNav configuration and a comparison of the predicted performance with the flyby performance.

  6. A Microchannel Inlet to Reduce High-Velocity Impact Fragmentation of Molecules in Orbital and Fly-by Mass Spectrometers (United States)

    Turner, Brandon; Anupriya, Anupriya; Sevy, Eric; Austin, Daniel E.


    Closed source neutral mass spectrometers are often used on flyby missions to characterize the molecular components of planetary exospheres. In a typical closed source, neutrals are thermalized as they deflect off the walls within a spherical antechamber prior to ionization and mass analysis. However, the high kinetic energy of each molecule as it impacts the chamber can lead to fragmentation before the ionization region is reached. Due to this fragmentation, the original composition of the molecule can be altered, leading to ambiguous identification.Even knowing the fragmentation pathways that occur may not allow deconvolution of data to give the correct composition. Only stable, volatile fragments will be observed in the subsequent mass spectrometer and different organic compounds likely give similar fragmentation products. Simply detecting these products will not lead to unambiguous identication of the precursor molecules. Here, we present a hardware solution to this problem—an inlet that reduces the fragmentation of molecules that impact at high velocities.We present a microchannel inlet that reduces the impact fragmentation by allowing the molecules to dissipate kinetic energy faster than their respective dissociation lifetimes. Preliminary calculations indicate that impact-induced fragmentation will be reduced up to three orders of magnitude compared with conventional closed sources by using this inlet. The benefits of such an inlet apply to any orbital or flyby velocity. The microchannel inlet enables detection of semi-volatile molecules that were previously undetectable due to impact fragmentation.

  7. Self. Propagating | a strategy of encounter |

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Lorraine Fletcher


    Full Text Available This piece mobilises both creative non-fiction and ficto-criticism to expose the necessary terrains of narrativity as a Country of the Lived,  making visible the redactive cartography of the PhD in telling Indigenous selfhood, and mobilising an argument for authentic encounter under the comfortable maps of form.

  8. Magnetic field `flyby' measurement using a smartphone's magnetometer and accelerometer simultaneously (United States)

    Monteiro, Martín; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.


    The spatial dependence of magnetic fields in simple configurations is a common topic in introductory electromagnetism lessons, both in high school and in university courses. In typical experiments, magnetic fields and distances are obtained taking point-by-point values using a Hall sensor and a ruler, respectively. Here, we show how to take advantage of the smartphone capabilities to get simultaneous measures with the built-in accelerometer and magnetometer and to obtain the spatial dependence of magnetic fields. We consider a simple setup consisting of a smartphone mounted on a track whose direction coincides with the axis of a coil. While the smartphone is moving on the track, both the magnetic field and the distance from the center of the coil (integrated numerically from the acceleration values) are simultaneously obtained. This methodology can easily be extended to more complicated setups.

  9. The Ginger-shaped Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: New Observations from a Successful Flyby of Chang'e-2 (United States)

    Huang, Jiangchuan; Ji, Jianghui; Ye, Peijian; Wang, Xiaolei; Yan, Jun; Meng, Linzhi; Wang, Su; Li, Chunlai; Li, Yuan; Qiao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingxin; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yun; Rao, Wei; Li, Sheng; Huang, Changning; Ip, Wing-Huen; Hu, Shoucun; Zhu, Menghua; Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Yongliao; Tang, Xianglong; Li, Jianyang; Zhao, Haibin; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xiaojun; Bai, Jinming


    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 +/- 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) +/-10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 +/- 5°, 63 +/- 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general.

  10. MESSENGER'S First Flyby of Mercury (United States)

    Slavin, James A.


    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th close flyby of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER'S first flyby on January 14th, 2008 will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  11. Geographos asteroid flyby and autonomous navigation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L.C.; Pines, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Patz, B.J.; Perron, D.C. [Coleman Research Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)


    Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE), also known as Clementine, is a collection of science experiments conducted in near-earth with the goal of demonstrating Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) developed technologies. The 785 lb (fully fueled) spacecraft will be launched into low Earth orbit in February 1994 together with a Star 37 solid kick motor and interstage. After orbit circulation using Clementine`s 110 lb Delta-V thruster, the Star 37 will execute a trans-lunar injection burn that will send the spacecraft toward lunar obit. The 110-lb will then be used in a sequence of burns to insert Clementine into a trimmed, polar orbit around the moon. After a two month moon mapping mission, Clementine will execute burns to leave lunar orbit, sling-shot around Earth, and flyby the moon on a 9.4 million km journey toward the asteroid Geographos. After about three months in transit, Clementine will attempt a flyby with a closest point of approach of 100 km from the asteroid on August 31, 1994. During its approach to Geographos, Clementine will be tracked by the Deep Space Network (DSN) and receive guidance updates. The last update and correction burn will occur about one day out of the flyby. Multiple experiments will be performed at key events during the mission that utilize Clementine`s SDIO-derived resources, including its Star Trackers, UV/Vis camera, infrared sensors (NWIR and LWIR), and high resolution laser radar (HIRes/LIDAR). In addition to the evaluation of SDIO algorithms and sensors, high resolution imagery will be obtained while the spacecraft is in Earth orbit, lunar obit and during the Geographos flyby. This paper describes the results of a study on the precision guidance, navigation, and intercept strategy for the flyby mission.

  12. The search for active Europa plumes in Galileo plasma particle detector data: the E12 flyby (United States)

    Huybrighs, H.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S. V.; Glassmeier, K. H.


    Hubble Space Telescope observations of Europa's auroral emissions and transits in front of Jupiter suggest that recurring water vapour plumes originating from Europa's surface might exist. If conclusively proven, the discovery of these plumes would be significant, because Europa's potentially habitable ocean could be studied remotely by taking in-situ samples of these plumes from a flyby mission. The first opportunity to collect in-situ evidence of the plumes will not arise before the early 2030's when ESA's JUICE mission or NASA's Europa Clipper are set to arrive. However, it may be possible that NASA's Galileo mission has already encountered the plumes when it was active in the Jupiter system from 1995 to 2003. It has been suggested that the high plasma densities and anomalous magnetic fields measured during one of the Galileo flybys of Europa (flyby E12) could be connected to plume activity. In the context of the search for Europa plume signatures in Galileo particle data we present an overview of the in-situ plasma particle data obtained by the Galileo spacecraft during the E12 flyby. Focus is in particular on the data obtained with the plasma particle instruments PLS (low energy ions and electrons) and EPD (high energy ions and electrons). We search for signs of an extended exosphere/ionosphere that could be consistent with ongoing plume activity. The PLS data obtained during the E12 flyby show an extended interaction region between Europa and the plasma from Jupiter's magnetosphere, hinting at the existence of an extended ionosphere and exosphere. Furthermore we show how the EPD data are analyzed and modelled in order to evaluate whether a series of energetic ion depletions can be attributed to losses on the moon's surface or its neutral exosphere.

  13. Secular dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binaries, with an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure - II. External perturbations: flybys and supernovae (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.


    We extend the formalism of a previous paper to include the effects of flybys and instantaneous perturbations such as supernovae on the long-term secular evolution of hierarchical multiple systems with an arbitrary number of bodies and hierarchy, provided that the system is composed of nested binary orbits. To model secular encounters, we expand the Hamiltonian in terms of the ratio of the separation of the perturber with respect to the barycentre of the multiple system, to the separation of the widest orbit. Subsequently, we integrate over the perturber orbit numerically or analytically. We verify our method for secular encounters and illustrate it with an example. Furthermore, we describe a method to compute instantaneous orbital changes to multiple systems, such as asymmetric supernovae and impulsive encounters. The secular code, with implementation of the extensions described in this paper, is publicly available within AMUSE, and we provide a number of simple example scripts to illustrate its usage for secular and impulsive encounters and asymmetric supernovae. The extensions presented in this paper are a next step towards efficiently modelling the evolution of complex multiple systems embedded in star clusters.

  14. The space of togetherness--a caring encounter. (United States)

    Holopainen, Gunilla; Kasén, Anne; Nyström, Lisbet


    Encounters in relation to the nurse-patient relationship are often discussed within nursing and caring literature without a reflection on the actual meaning of the concept. Assuming that an encounter is essential for nursing care, this article seeks to create a deeper understanding of the concept through a hermeneutic approach to texts by the philosophers Buber and Marcel. Presence, recognition, availability and mutuality seem to be essential prerequisites for an encounter. As these prerequisites are fulfilled within and between human beings who encounter each other, it is possible to speak of a space of togetherness, a mutual existence, where life's mystery shines forth and caring is realized. The challenge lies in creating these encounters within nursing care. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Customer-sales employee encounters: a dyadic perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolen, van W.; Lemmink, J.G.A.M.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.


    Although researchers have suggested that the performance of the salesperson during sales encounters is critical, many of the underlying mechanisms that govern the interaction between salespersons and customers are still unclear. In this research, we investigate sales encounters from a new approach

  16. Magnetic Field "Flyby" Measurement Using a Smartphone's Magnetometer and Accelerometer Simultaneously (United States)

    Monteiro, Martin; Stari, Cecilia; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C.


    The spatial dependence of magnetic fields in simple configurations is a common topic in introductory electromagnetism lessons, both in high school and in university courses. In typical experiments, magnetic fields and distances are obtained taking point-by-point values using a Hall sensor and a ruler, respectively. Here, we show how to take…

  17. Manned Mars flyby mission and configuration concept (United States)

    Young, Archie; Meredith, Ollie; Brothers, Bobby


    A concept is presented for a flyby mission of the planet. The mission was sized for the 2001 time period, has a crew of three, uses all propulsive maneuvers, and requires 442 days. Such a flyby mission results in significantly smaller vehicles than would a landing mission, but of course loses the value of the landing and the associated knowledge and prestige. Stay time in the planet vicinity is limited to the swingby trajectory but considerable time still exists for enroute science and research experiments. All propulsive braking was used in the concept due to unacceptable g-levels associated with aerobraking on this trajectory. LEO departure weight for the concept is approximately 594,000 pounds.

  18. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.


    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  19. A Radical Encounter Between Deleuze and Luhmann

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle Nickelsen, Marie Sundby

    This paper explores how an analytical strategy combining Deleuze and Luhmann drawing on Deleuze’s reading of Foucault’s archaeolo-gy of science and Luhmann’s concept of distinction. Based on a curi-osity about the tensions and contradictions in a modern post-bureaucratic organization the analytical...

  20. Spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley encounter: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.


    A summary of the present volume is presented in which the separate disciplines are drawn together to give an overview of the spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley interaction. Specific recommendations are made as to how the work of the Plasma Environment Working Group might continue to contribute to the GIOTTO program during encounter and post-encounter data analysis. 28 references, 3 tables

  1. Rhodotorula Keratitis: A Rarely Encountered Ocular Pathogen (United States)

    Giovannini, Joseph; Lee, Rick; Zhang, Sean X.; Jun, Albert S.; Bower, Kraig S.


    Purpose To describe a case of fungal keratitis involving an atypical organism with confirmatory in vivo confocal microscopy and to review the literature on Rhodotorula keratitis. Methods Case report and review of the medical literature. Results A 22-year-old college student was struck in the left eye with a tree branch and subsequently developed pain, redness and photophobia. Upon presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 and there was a large epithelial defect with diffuse stromal inflammation involving the anterior one-third of the cornea. Cultures of the infiltrate were performed for bacterial, viral and fungal organisms that resulted in a positive culture for Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Fungal elements were confirmed in vivo by confocal microscopy. The patient was treated with voriconazole initially and had amphotericin added once Rhodotorula infection was confirmed. The patient responded well clinically, and one month after therapy was initiated, the corneal infiltrate had resolved leaving mild anterior stromal haze. Upon completion of therapy at three months, the patient was asymptomatic, had a clear cornea and had a best corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in the involved eye. There was no measurable change in his manifest refraction. Conclusions Prior cases of Rhodotorula keratitis most often required surgical intervention and were associated with poor outcomes. This case shows that Rhodotorula keratitis can be successfully treated with topical antifungal agents if diagnosed early and appropriate treatment is initiated promptly. We report the first case of Rhodotorula keratitis confirmed by in vivo confocal microscopy. This is also the first description of pseudomycelium formation that has not been previously described in vivo, a morphological structure that this organism rarely demonstrates. Finally, this case shows that confocal microscopy may aid in the early diagnosis and management of fungal keratitis involving this rare but potentially damaging organism. PMID

  2. The Historian Encounters Film: A Historiography. (United States)

    Toplin, Robert Brent; Eudy, Jason


    Provides a historiography of the articles and books that focuses upon studying history through film. Reviews topics such as: censorship, the film industry's use and interpretations of history in films, and the lack of material on documentaries in the scholarship. (CMK)

  3. Nanoparticles and amyloid systems: A fatal encounter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Bernd [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Chemical Department, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany and Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Linnéstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)


    Nanoparticles (NPs) are used in many products of our daily life, however, there has been concern that they may also be harmful to human health. Recently NPs have been found to accelerate the fibrillation kinetics of amyloid systems. In the past this has been preliminarily attributed to a nucleation effect. Nanoparticle surfaces and interfaces appear to limit the degrees of freedom of amyloid systems (i.e., peptides and proteins) due to a phase space constraint such that rapid cross-beta structures are formed faster than without interface interactions and in turn fibril formation is enhanced significantly. Here we explore if lipid bilayers in the form of liposomes (140nm) also accelerate fibril formation for amyloid systems. We have investigated a fragment NNFGAIL of the Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) in contact with 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) liposomes in aqueous solution. We found that the lipid bilayer vesicles do accelerate fibril formation in time-resolved off-line detected atomic force microscopy experiments. Characteristic Thioflavine-T fluorescence on the same structures verify that the structures consist of aggregated peptides in a typical cross-β-structure arrangement.

  4. Managing the bank service encounter: A conceptual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Govender


    Full Text Available In financial services marketing, especially among banks, there are a limited number of chances to impress the customer, since the services are becoming more automated. Since personal interactions with customers are becoming less numerous, customers are expecting higher quality contacts and more individual treatment. This paper proposes a service encounter management model which may impact on the customers service experience. By matching service employees with customers, the effects of certain human resources strategies may be ascertained through the customers perception of the employee service quality and the overall service quality. Opsomming Daar is 'n beperkte geleenthede om die finansiele dienste klient, veral die in banke, te beindruk, aangesien dienste al meer ge-outomatiseer raak. Seinde persoonlike kontak met kliente al minder word, verwag kliente hoer gehalte kontak en meer individuele behandeling. Hierdie artikel stel 'n bestuursmodel vir diensontmoetings voor wat 'n impak op kliente se dienservarings mag he. Deur dienswerknemers met kliente te verbind kan bepaalde menslike hulpbronstrategie-effekte vasgestel word, deur middel van kliente se persepsie van werknemer-diensgehalte en algemene diensgehalte.

  5. Dual-Telescope Multi-Channel Thermal-Infrared Radiometer for Outer Planet Fly-By Missions (United States)

    Aslam, Shahid; Amato, Michael; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Hewagama, Tilak; Howard, Joseph; Howett, Carly; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Hurford, Terry; Hurley, Jane; hide


    The design of a versatile dual-telescope thermal-infrared radiometer spanning the spectral wavelength range 8-200 microns, in five spectral pass bands, for outer planet fly-by missions is described. The dual- telescope design switches between a narrow-field-of-view and a wide-field-of-view to provide optimal spatial resolution images within a range of spacecraft encounters to the target. The switchable dual-field- of-view system uses an optical configuration based on the axial rotation of a source-select mirror along the optical axis. The optical design, spectral performance, radiometric accuracy, and retrieval estimates of the instrument are discussed. This is followed by an assessment of the surface coverage performance at various spatial resolutions by using the planned NASA Europa Mission 13-F7 fly-by trajectories as a case study.

  6. Pipeline negotiations as a challenging setting for organised cultural encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    has linked together countries, cultures, identities, ultimately challenging, reorganizing and renegotiating them. Starting from these premises, the following paper intends to show how Canadian Mackenzie Valley represents a unique contact zone for the development of cultural encounters, where different...... with often competing interests and positions - the practice of public hearings can be approached as a form of organized cultural encounter, whose “implied purposes” are to deal with more or less substantial cultural differences and to provide a wider cultural understanding of each different position. Through......Within the context of resource extraction, cultural encounters have been historically performed in the way of more or less antagonistic social interactions, ranging from outright domination to more empowerment-oriented relations. Throughout the last decades, the building of pipelines in particular...

  7. Room with a View: Ethical Encounters in Room 13 (United States)

    Grube, Vicky


    In this article, the author describes ethical encounters in Room 13, a schoolroom where children made what they wanted, posed their own questions, and ran an art room like a small business. In Room 13 children had the responsibility to maintain all aspects of the art studio. Specific decisions fell to an annually elected management team, a small…

  8. Exploring Festival Performance as a State of Encounter (United States)

    O’Grady, Alice; Kill, Rebekka


    This article outlines the activities of the research network "Festival Performance as a State of Encounter", which was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council as part of the Beyond Text strategic programme. The network was formulated in 2008, and a range of different events were organized over the course of two years to…

  9. Swarm Flyby Gravimetry (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By tracking those probes, we can estimate the asteroid's gravity field and infer its underlying composition and structure. This approach offers a diverse measurement...

  10. Low-energy near Earth asteroid capture using Earth flybys and aerobraking (United States)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo


    Since the Sun-Earth libration points L1 and L2 are regarded as ideal locations for space science missions and candidate gateways for future crewed interplanetary missions, capturing near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) around the Sun-Earth L1/L2 points has generated significant interest. Therefore, this paper proposes the concept of coupling together a flyby of the Earth and then capturing small NEAs onto Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. In this capture strategy, the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is used to calculate target Lypaunov orbits and their invariant manifolds. A periapsis map is then employed to determine the required perigee of the Earth flyby. Moreover, depending on the perigee distance of the flyby, Earth flybys with and without aerobraking are investigated to design a transfer trajectory capturing a small NEA from its initial orbit to the stable manifolds associated with Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. Finally, a global optimization is carried out, based on a detailed design procedure for NEA capture using an Earth flyby. Results show that the NEA capture strategies using an Earth flyby with and without aerobraking both have the potential to be of lower cost in terms of energy requirements than a direct NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby. Moreover, NEA capture with an Earth flyby also has the potential for a shorter flight time compared to the NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby.

  11. Hyperbolic orbits of Earth flybys and effects of ungravity-inspired conservative potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O; Francisco, F; Gil, P J S


    In this work we take a critical look at the available data on the flyby anomaly and on the current limitations of attempts to develop an explanation. We aim to verify how conservative corrections to gravity could affect the hyperbolic trajectories of Earth flybys. We use ungravity-inspired potentials as illustrative examples and show how the resulting orbital simulations differ from the observed anomaly. We also get constraints on the model parameters from the observed flyby velocity shifts. The conclusion is that no kind of conservative potential can be the cause of the flyby anomaly. (paper)

  12. Encounter of a different kind: Rosetta observes asteroid at close quarters (United States)


    ESA's comet chaser, Rosetta, last night flew by a small body in the main asteroid belt, asteroid Steins, collecting a wealth of information about this rare type of minor Solar System body. At 20:58 CEST (18:58 UT) last night, ESA's Rosetta probe approached asteroid 2867 Steins, coming to within a distance of only 800 km from it. Steins is Rosetta's first nominal scientific target in its 11½ year mission to ultimately explore the nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The success of this 'close' encounter was confirmed at 22:14 CEST, when ESA's ground control team at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, received initial telemetry from the spacecraft. During the flyby operations, Rosetta was out of reach as regards communication links because its antenna had to be turned away from Earth. At a distance of about 2.41 AU (360 million kilometres) from our planet, the radio signal from the probe took 20 minutes to reach the ground. Steins is a small asteroid of irregular shape with a diameter of only 4.6 km. It belongs to the rare class of E-type asteroids, which had not been directly observed by an interplanetary spacecraft before. Such asteroids are quite small in size and orbit and are mostly found in the inner part of the main asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter. They probably originate from the mantle of larger asteroids destroyed in the early history of the Solar System, and are thought to be composed mainly of silicate minerals with little or no iron content. The data collected by Rosetta last night and which will be analysed over the coming days and weeks will finally unveil the true nature of Steins. Through the study of minor bodies such as asteroids, Rosetta is opening up a new window onto the early history of our Solar System. It will give us a better understanding of the origins and evolution of the planets, and also a key to better interpreting asteroid data collected from the ground. Under Rosetta's scope This

  13. The comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.; Neugebauer, M.; Weissman, P.R.


    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission is designed to answer the many questions raised by the Halley missions by exploring a cometary nucleus in detail, following it around its orbit and studying its changing activity as it moves closer to and then away from the Sun. In addition, on its way to rendezvous with the comet, CRAF will fly by a large, primitive class main belt asteroid and will return valuable data for comparison with the comet results. The selected asteroid is 449 Hamburga with a diameter of 88 km and a surface composition of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The expected flyby date is January, 1998. The CRAF spacecraft will continue to make measurements in orbit around the cometary nucleus as they both move closer to the Sun, until the dust and gas hazard becomes unsafe. At that point the spacecraft will move in and out between 50 and 2,500 kilometers to study the inner coma and the cometary ionosphere, and to collect dust and gas samples for onboard analysis. Following perihelion, the spacecraft will make a 50,000 km excursion down the comet's tail, further investigating the solar wind interaction with the cometary atmosphere. The spacecraft will return to the vicinity of the nucleus about four months after perihelion to observe the changes that have taken place. If the spacecraft remains healthy and adequate fuel is still onboard, an extended mission to follow the comet nucleus out to aphelion is anticipated

  14. The Venus flybys opportunity with BEPICOLOMBO (United States)

    Mangano, Valeria; de la Fuente, Sara; Montagnon, Elsa; Benkhoff, Johannes; Zender, Joe; Orsini, Stefano


    BepiColombo is a dual spacecraft mission to Mercury to be launched in October 2018 and carried out jointly between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) payload comprises eleven experiments and instrument suites. It will focus on a global characterization of Mercury through the investigation of its interior, surface, exosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, it will test Einstein's theory of general relativity. The second spacecraft, the Mercury Magnetosphere Orbiter (MMO), will carry five experiments or instrument suites to study the environment around the planet including the planet's exosphere and magnetosphere, and their interaction processes with the solar wind. The composite spacecraft made of MPO, MMO, a transfer module (MTM) and a sunshield (MOSIF) will be launched on an escape trajectory that will bring it into heliocentric orbit on its way to Mercury. During the cruise of 7.2 years toward the inner part of the Solar System, BepiColombo will make 1 flyby to the Earth, 2 to Venus, and 6 to Mercury. Only part of its payload will be obstructed by the sunshield and the cruise spacecraft configuration, so that the two flybys to Venus will allow operations of many instruments, like: spectrometers at many wavelengths, accelerometer, radiometer, ion and electron detectors. A scientific working group has recently formed from the BepiColombo community to identify potentially interesting scientific cases and to analyse operation timelines. Preliminary outputs will be presented and discussed.

  15. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Choosing a language in international office service encounters – from multilingual miscellany to medium-of-interaction in a matter of seconds Spencer Hazel Roskilde University, Denmark In higher education settings characterized by increasing transnational student and staff mobility, members...... to a multimodal interaction analysis following the ethnomethodological tradition of Conversation Analysis. Gafaranga, J. (2000). Medium repair vs. other-language repair: Telling the medium of a bilingual conversation. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4(3), 327-350. Hall, J. K., Hellermann, J., & Pekarek...... Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...

  16. Mobile encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing; Simonsen, Kirsten


    The paper explores modes of encounters in the everyday practice of bus travel. Particularly, it addresses cross-cultural encounters located in the tension between familiarity and difference, between inclusion and exclusion. The paper is located in contemporary thoughts, approaching public transport...... not only as a moving device but also as a social arena. Furthermore, the bus is simultaneously perceived as a public space, at once composite, contradictory and heterogeneous, and as a meeting place involving ‘Throwntogetherness’. The encounters analysed are bodily, emotional charged and outspoken meetings...

  17. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie


    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  18. Doing Research in a Conflict Situation Encounters and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Dhakal


    Full Text Available Fieldwork, an anthropologist's vocation, is full of tensions and dilemmas. However, the experiences of any or all tensions, troubles and even failures are a 'source of ethnographic knowledge in themselves'. During the fieldwork for my PhD research, I encountered several such incidents, which have made my work more interesting and my experience richer. This article describes the situation of doing fieldwork in the conflict period, when the 'peace process' was not yet come to the conclusion.DOI: Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 8, 2014; 87-98

  19. The organisational stressors encountered by athletes with a disability. (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Wagstaff, Christopher R D; Steadman, Lauren; Pratt, Yasmin


    Organisational stressors have been found to be prevalent and problematic for sport performers, with research identifying demographic differences in the stressors encountered. Nevertheless, extant sport psychology research on the topic of stress has generally focused on able-bodied athletes; whilst that which has been conducted on performers with a disability has typically recruited relatively small samples to explore a narrow selection of organisational stressors, or examined other components of the stress process. The purpose of the present study was to explore the various organisational stressors that athletes with a disability encounter. The sample comprised 18 elite athletes with a disability (10 male, 8 female) who had a classified disability and experience of competing at a major championships in their sport (e.g., Paralympic Games, World Championships). Participants took part in a semi-structured interview which was analysed by drawing from grounded theory procedures. A total of 316 organisational stressors were identified, which were abstracted into 31 concepts and four, previously conceptualised, exploratory schemes: leadership and personnel issues, cultural and team issues, logistical and environmental issues, and performance and personal issues. This study not only provides the first illustration of the prevalence of organisational stressors for athletes with a disability, but also significantly points to salient similarities and distinct differences between the stress experiences of performers with and without a disability.

  20. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza


    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  1. Power-Law Scaling of the Impact Crater Size-Frequency Distribution on Pluto: A Preliminary Analysis Based on First Images from New Horizons' Flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholkmann F.


    Full Text Available The recent (14 th July 2015 flyby of NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft of the dwarf planet Pluto resulted in the first high-resolution images of the geological surface- features of Pluto. Since previous studies showed that the impact crater size-frequency distribution (SFD of different celestial objects of our solar system follows power-laws, the aim of the present analysis was to determine, for the first time, the power-law scaling behavior for Pluto’s crater SFD based on the first images available in mid-September 2015. The analysis was based on a high-resolution image covering parts of Pluto’s re- gions Sputnik Planum , Al-Idrisi Montes and Voyager Terra . 83 impact craters could be identified in these regions and their diameter ( D was determined. The analysis re- vealed that the crater diameter SFD shows a statistically significant power-law scaling ( α = 2.4926±0.3309 in the interval of D values ranging from 3.75±1.14 km to the largest determined D value in this data set of 37.77 km. The value obtained for the scaling coefficient α is similar to the coefficient determined for the power-law scaling of the crater SFDs from the other celestial objects in our solar system. Further analysis of Pluto’s crater SFD is warranted as soon as new images are received from the spacecraft.

  2. A simultaneous estimation of the mass of Mars and its natural satellites, Phobos and Deimos, from the orbital perturbations on the Mariner 9, Viking 1, and Viking 2 orbiters (United States)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Fricke, S. K.; Mccarthy, J. J.


    The natural satellites of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, caused perturbations on the orbits of the Mariner 9, and the Viking spacecraft that were used to estimate the satellite masses. The Viking spacecraft were specifically targeted to make close flybys (within a few hundred kilometers) of Phobos in February 1977 and of Deimos in October 1977. These close encounters were used to estimate the moon's gravitational constant, GM (the universal constant of gravitation multiplied by the satellite mass). However, the Viking and Mariner 9 spacecraft made numerous flybys of Phobos and Deimos at distances of a few thousand kilometers. The tracking data from these more 'distant' encounters were processed to estimate the masses of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos.

  3. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmenter, B.M.


    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  4. MESSENGER'S First and Second Flybys of Mercury (United States)

    Slavin, James A.


    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only approximately 1000 km above the surface. An overview of the MESSENGER mission and its January 14th and October 6th, 2008 close flybys of Mercury will be provided. Primary science objectives and the science instrumentation will be described. Initial results from MESSENGER will be discussed with an emphasis on the magnetic field and charged particle measurements.

  5. Cosmopolitan encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Woodward, Ian


    This study contributes to the growing research on everyday cosmopolitanism in diverse societies. We employ a cosmopolitan encounters framework to explore the reflexive openness people perform and the ethical reasoning they draw on to get along with each other. In particular, we look beyond....... The ethical framework we propose is grounded in reflexive acts of sharing going beyond notions of giving and performing hospitality within a host/guest dyad....

  6. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by (United States)


    The passage through the Earth-Moon system allowed ground controllers to test Rosetta's 'asteroid fly-by mode' (AFM) using the Moon as a 'fake' asteroid, rehearsing the fly-bys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia due in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The AFM test started at 23:01 GMT and ran for nine minutes during which the two onboard navigation cameras successfully tracked the Moon, allowing Rosetta's attitude to be automatically adjusted. Before and after closest approach, the navigation cameras also acquired a series of images of the Moon and Earth; these data will be downloaded early today for ground processing and are expected to be available by 8 March. In addition, other onboard instruments were switched on, including ALICE (ultraviolet imaging spectrometer), VIRTIS (visible and infrared mapping spectrometer) and MIRO (microwave instrument for the Rosetta orbiter), for calibration and general testing using the Earth and Moon as targets. The fly-by manoeuvre swung the three-tonne spacecraft around our planet and out towards Mars, where it will make a fly-by on 26 February 2007. Rosetta will return to Earth again in a series of four planet fly-bys (three times with Earth, once with Mars) before reaching Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, when it will enter orbit and deliver a lander, Philae, onto the surface. The fly-bys are necessary to accelerate the spacecraft so as to eventually match the velocity of the target comet. They are a fuel-saving way to boost speed using planetary gravity. Yesterday's fly-by came one year and two days after launch and highlights the valuable opportunities for instrument calibration and data gathering available during the mission's multi-year voyage. In just three months, on 4 July, Rosetta will be in a good position to observe and gather data during NASA's spectacular Deep Impact event, when the Deep Impact probe will hurl a 380 kg projectile into Comet Tempel 1, revealing data on the comet's internal structure. Certain of

  7. Venus's winds and temperatures during the MESSENGER's flyby: towards a three-dimensional instantaneous state of the atmosphere (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Hueso, R.; Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Lellouch, E.; Rengel, M.; Machado, P.; Omino, M.; Piccialli, A.; Imamura, T.; Horinouchi, T.; Murakami, S.; Ogohara, K.; Luz, D.; Peach, D.


    The atmosphere of the Earth or Mars globally rotates with a speed similar to the rotation of the planet (approximately 24 h). The rotation of Venus is of about 243 days, much slower than the Earth, but when scientists measured the winds by tracking the clouds of Venus, they discovered that the atmosphere rotates 60 times faster! No one has explained yet what originates this "superrotation", and we do not know well what happens either above or below the clouds. The technique of "Doppler shift" has been used to measure winds above the clouds, but results are "chaotic" and different to interpret. Thanks to a worldwide collaboration in June 2007 between NASA (MESSENGER), ESA (Venus Express), and many observatories (VLT in Chile, JCMT in Hawaii, HHSMT in Arizona, or IRAM in Spain), the authors combined the different data to obtain, for the first time, the instantaneous 3-D structure of the winds on Venus at the clouds and also above, very important for new Venus models to start "forecasts" of the Venus weather with "data assimilation". We also discovered that the superrotation seems unexpectedly different on the night of Venus and that it varies its altitude depending on the day.

  8. Automated trajectory planning for multiple-flyby interplanetary missions (United States)

    Englander, Jacob

    Many space mission planning problems may be formulated as hybrid optimal control problems (HOCP), i.e. problems that include both real-valued variables and categorical variables. In interplanetary trajectory design problems the categorical variables will typically specify the sequence of planets at which to perform flybys, and the real-valued variables will represent the launch date, ight times between planets, magnitudes and directions of thrust, flyby altitudes, etc. The contribution of this work is a framework for the autonomous optimization of multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectories. The trajectory design problem is converted into a HOCP with two nested loops: an "outer-loop" that finds the sequence of flybys and an "inner-loop" that optimizes the trajectory for each candidate yby sequence. The problem of choosing a sequence of flybys is posed as an integer programming problem and solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). This is an especially difficult problem to solve because GAs normally operate on a fixed-length set of decision variables. Since in interplanetary trajectory design the number of flyby maneuvers is not known a priori, it was necessary to devise a method of parameterizing the problem such that the GA can evolve a variable-length sequence of flybys. A novel "null gene" transcription was developed to meet this need. Then, for each candidate sequence of flybys, a trajectory must be found that visits each of the flyby targets and arrives at the final destination while optimizing some cost metric, such as minimizing ▵v or maximizing the final mass of the spacecraft. Three different classes of trajectory are described in this work, each of which requireda different physical model and optimization method. The choice of a trajectory model and optimization method is especially challenging because of the nature of the hybrid optimal control problem. Because the trajectory optimization problem is generated in real time by the outer-loop, the inner

  9. Should we assess clinical performance in single patient encounters or consistent behaviors of clinical performance over a series of encounters? A qualitative exploration of narrative trainee profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, M.; Dielissen, P.W.; Timmerman, A.; Ram, P.; Maiburg, B.; Muris, J.; Vleuten, C. van der


    BACKGROUND: A variety of tools have been developed to assess performance which typically use a single clinical encounter as a source for making competency inferences. This strategy may miss consistent behaviors. We therefore explored experienced clinical supervisors' perceptions of behavioral

  10. Shouting in a Desert: Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910 : Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam, 1850-1910

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Kruithof (Maryse)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ ‘‘Shouting in a desert’ Dutch missionary encounters with Javanese Islam’ concentrates on the shifts and developments in the Dutch mission discourse within the period from 1850 to 1910. It explores the Dutch missionary encounter with local communities and is conducted

  11. Encountering Heidi: meeting others as a central aspect of the river experience (United States)

    Lilian Jonas; Kevin Larkin


    Over the past few decades, numerous studies have investigated relationships between encounters and the backcountry recreation experience. Although academics and professionals may recognize that meeting others in backcountry areas could result in positive interactions that are beneficial to the experience, research directed at the positive aspects of intergroup...

  12. On boredom: a close encounter with encapsulated parts of the psyche. (United States)

    Bergstein, Avner


    The psychoanalytical literature has numerous scattered references to the analyst's experience of boredom, especially amongst writers working with primitive mental states. In the present paper, the author tries to gather some of these references in an attempt to integrate the various facets of this widespread phenomenon, and reflect on some clinical issues and dilemmas it raises. It is suggested that the experience of boredom in analysis may be a reaction to an encounter with a hidden, encapsulated part of the psyche, a bidimensional area of experience in which mental activity has been suspended, and experience remains meaningless. This is a barren area of lack, an encounter with the autistic core of the psyche. However, boredom may also be an experiential expression of despair, a re-living of primitive object relations with an emotionally non-existent primary object. Through bringing the emptiness and desolation into analysis, the individual makes room for the empty, blunt, dead inner object which resides within him, and that needs to be integrated into the psyche. This inner object is a vital part of the patient's inner world, part of his history, and can neither be erased nor filled in order to eradicate the emptiness. This is illustrated by clinical material from patients along the spectrum of autism, autistic reaction following trauma and autistic barriers in neurotic patients.

  13. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits (United States)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.


    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  14. Technical problems encountered during certification of a Type B (plutonium) package (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromada, R.J.; Opperman, E.K.


    Westinghouse Savannah River Company is responsible for maintaining the 5320 Plutonium Shipping Cask. The 5320 Cask was originally designed over 15 years ago to transport plutonium and americium. Since then the 5320 Cask has been redesigned numerous times to meet changing packaging regulations. During the current certificate renewal process, four of the 5320 Casks were subjected to hypothetical accident condition drop, puncture and thermal tests. This paper will discuss the technical problems encountered as well as the experiences gained from performing the accident test sequence. The first two sequential tests, the drop and puncture tests, were performed satisfactorily and immediately met the intent of the regulations. The third sequential test, a 1475degF thermal test, was performed in an electric furnace and did not meet regulations. Problems were encountered with oxygen deficiency and radiation attenuation during the test. An evaluation of the problems associated with furnace testing and their solutions will be discussed. The thermal test was repeated in a pool fire at the Sandia National Laboratory Lurance Canyon Burn Site. Unexpected problems from extremely high (1900degF) flame temperatures resulted in secondary vessel containment failure. From the results of a failure study, a heat shield was added to the 5320 Cask and a subsequent fire test determined that the packaging finally met the intent of the regulations. The failure study as well as the subsequent design solution will be discussed. (author)

  15. MESSENGER and Mariner 10 Flyby Observations of Magnetotail Structure and Dynamics at Mercury (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian Jay; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Imber, Suzanne M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios, M.; hide


    The first (M1), second (M2), and third (M3) MESSENGER flybys of Mercury traversed the planet's magnetotail from 1.25 to 3.25 RM downstream of the planet, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius (2440 km). The encounters took place under northward, southward, and variable-polarity interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), respectively. The magnetic field strength B in Mercury's magnetotail follows a power law decrease with increasing antisunward distance |X|, B approximately |X|(sup G), with G varying from -5.4 for northward to -1.6 for southward IMF. Low-latitude boundary layers (LLBLs) containing strong northward magnetic field were detected at the tail flanks during two of the flybys. The observed thickness of the LLBL was 33% and 16% of the radius of the tail during M1 and M3, respectively, but the boundary layer was completely absent during M2. Clear signatures of tail reconnection are evident in the M2 and M3 magnetic field measurements. Plasmoids and traveling compression regions were observed during M2 and M3 with typical durations of approximately 1-3 s, suggesting diameters of approximately 500-1500 km. Overall, the response of Mercury's magnetotail to the steady southward IMF during M2 appeared very similar to steady magnetospheric convection events at Earth, which are believed to be driven by quasi-continuous reconnection. In contrast, the M3 measurements are dominated by tail loading and unloading events that resemble the large-scale magnetic field reconfigurations observed during magnetospheric substorms at Earth.

  16. Moving Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Deslandes


    Full Text Available This essay explores my experience of losing an authoritative speaking position – that is, ‘falling on my face’ in a research encounter with the Brazilian Landless Worker’s Movement (O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra, or MST.  My specific movements through this locale invoke Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of ‘unlearning one’s privilege as a loss’; and Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘stranger fetishism’.  In writing my brief loss, I also; of course, recover my speaking position, meaning that I can always efface the loss by re-writing it as a source of ethnographic authority.  This essay is written in two voices in order to reflect this paradox: one which describes the encounter, and one that critically ruminates upon it.  I note, for example, that the MST as a variegated conglomerate of people takes the form of particular ‘Others’ when they are represented in the scholarship and polemic of ‘first world’ activists in the so called ‘global justice movement’.  ‘Falling on my face in the street’ of these Others locates particular processes of fetishization within the global justice movement and the relationships across power and difference that are contained herein; processes that impact on the idea of a ‘global’ solidarity against systemic ‘global’ oppressions.

  17. Cometary dust size distributions from flyby spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divine, N.


    Pior to the Halley flybys in 1986, the distribution of cometary dust grains with particle size were approximated using models which provided reasonable fits to the dynamics of dust tails, anti-tails, and infrared spectra. These distributions have since been improved using fluence data (i.e., particle fluxes integrated over time along the flyby trajectory) from three spacecraft. The fluence derived distributions are appropriate for comparison with simultaneous infrared photometry (from Earth) because they sample the particles in the same way as the IR data do (along the line of sight) and because they are directly proportional to the concentration distribution in that region of the coma which dominates the IR emission

  18. A Survey Instrument for Measuring the Experiential Value of Employee-Tourist Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming; Jensen, Jens Friis

    In this paper, we develop and test a survey instrument that aims at estimating the experiential value of employee-tourist encounters in destination-based tourism companies, as well as the characteristics of encounters that affect such experiential value. We suggest that such an instrument can...... for their visitors, rather than simply delivering service quality....

  19. Temporal characteristics of decisions in hospital encounters: a threshold for shared decision making? A qualitative study. (United States)

    Ofstad, Eirik H; Frich, Jan C; Schei, Edvin; Frankel, Richard M; Gulbrandsen, Pål


    To identify and characterize physicians' statements that contained evidence of clinically relevant decisions in encounters with patients in different hospital settings. Qualitative analysis of 50 videotaped encounters from wards, the emergency room (ER) and outpatient clinics in a department of internal medicine at a Norwegian university hospital. Clinical decisions could be grouped in a temporal order: decisions which had already been made, and were brought into the encounter by the physician (preformed decisions), decisions made in the present (here-and-now decisions), and decisions prescribing future actions given a certain course of events (conditional decisions). Preformed decisions were a hallmark in the ward and conditional decisions a main feature of ER encounters. Clinical decisions related to a patient-physician encounter spanned a time frame exceeding the duration of the encounter. While a distribution of decisions over time and space fosters sharing and dilution of responsibility between providers, it makes the decision making process hard to access for patients. In order to plan when and how to involve patients in decisions, physicians need increased awareness of when clinical decisions are made, who usually makes them, and who should make them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Swarm Flyby Gravimetry (Phase II) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a method for discerning the gravity fields and sub-surface mass distribution of a solar system small body, without requiring dedicated orbiters or...

  1. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco (United States)


    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  2. Mercury's complex exosphere: results from MESSENGER's third flyby. (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J; McClintock, William E; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Anderson, Brian J; Burger, Matthew H; Bradley, E Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C; Izenberg, Noam R


    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal altitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere.

  3. Mercury's Complex Exosphere: Results from MESSENGER's Third Flyby (United States)

    Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; McClintock, William E.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Burger, Matthew H.; Bradley, E. Todd; Mouawad, Nelly; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.


    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer detected emission from ionized calcium concentrated 1 to 2 Mercury radii tailward of the planet. This measurement provides evidence for tailward magnetospheric convection of photoions produced inside the magnetosphere. Observations of neutral sodium, calcium, and magnesium above the planet's north and south poles reveal attitude distributions that are distinct for each species. A two-component sodium distribution and markedly different magnesium distributions above the two poles are direct indications that multiple processes control the distribution of even single species in Mercury's exosphere,

  4. Can the flyby anomaly be attributed to earth-bound dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L.


    We make preliminary estimates to assess whether the recently reported flyby anomaly can be attributed to dark matter interactions. We consider both elastic and exothermic inelastic scattering from dark matter constituents; for isotropic dark matter velocity distributions, the former decrease, while the latter increase, the final flyby velocity. The fact that the observed flyby velocity anomaly shows examples with both positive and negative signs, requires the dominance of different dark matter scattering processes along different flyby trajectories. The magnitude of the observed anomalies requires dark matter densities many orders of magnitude greater than the galactic halo density. Such a large density could result from an accumulation cascade, in which the solar system-bound dark matter density is much higher than the galactic halo density, and the earth-bound density is much higher than the solar system-bound density. We discuss a number of strong constraints on the hypothesis of a dark matter explanation for the flyby anomaly. These require dark matter to be non-self-annihilating, with the dark matter scattering cross section on nucleons much larger, and the dark matter mass much lighter, than usually assumed.

  5. Organised Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten


    The article introduces the special issue by presenting the concept of organised cultural encounters that are encounters organised to manage and/or transform problems perceived to originate in or include cultural differences. Inspired by Pratt’s conceptualisation of the contact zone, a critical...... perspective on the particular historical and spatial context of any encounter and how this context frames and mediates what takes place during an encounter is applied. While the articles of the issue present different varieties of organised cultural encounters, it is argued that they are not only of the same...

  6. Hindi Numerals. (United States)

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  7. Traveler's encounter with nymphs in a hotel bed. (United States)

    Sandlund, Johanna; Banaei, Niaz


    This case illustrates skin lesions in a traveler staying in a hotel bed infested with tics. Although infestation of hotels with bedbugs belonging to the Cimex genus is a growing problem worldwide, tick infestation has never been reported before.

  8. China Encounters Darwinism: A Case of Intercultural Rhetoric. (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaosui


    Explores how influential works of one culture are adapted to the needs, circumstances and thought patterns of another. Analyzes as a case study Yan Fu's "Heavenly Evolution," a rhetorical translation of Thomas Huxley's "Evolution and Ethics," whose publication resulted in a rapid spread of a version of Darwinism in Confucian…

  9. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters. (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard


    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  10. Homelessness "Here"? A District Administrator Encounters an Unexpected Challenge (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Pavlakis, Alexandra; Bourgeois, Alexis


    This case was developed for use in a variety of leadership courses from contemporary issues to policy analysis or school-community relations. A narrative is presented about a superintendent, Kenny, who is faced with two new cases of student homelessness in his affluent suburban community. Students must consider the federal policy context (the…

  11. Low Back Pain - Management Perspective Of A commonly Encountered Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parharaj S S


    Full Text Available Low Back pain is a very common symptom affecting the general population, incurring a huge annual societal cost. In spite of this, it remains very commonly misdiagnosed and maltreated. The majority of benign chronic low back pain patients suffer from a combination of myofascial frozen back syndrome with or without an overly of psychosocioeconomic factors. Neural compression causes are less frequent. A though evaluation of the patient to select the most rational therapeutic approach is necessary. In majority of the patients, a well planned out rehabilitation programme is useful. Surgery is indicated in a minority with neural compression or spinal instability, motivation is essential as rehabilitation and surgery have a high failure rate in inadequately motivated patients with psychosocioeconomic dysfunction.

  12. Trust in initial encounters : a motivational, cognitive theory


    Johansen, Svein Tvedt


    In this dissertation I develop a theoretical model on the effects of risk on the formation of trust in the initial stages of a relationship. Risk is proposed to influence trust in two ways: First, risk exerts a direct influence on trust. Risk may decrease trust, increase trust, or increase trust under specific conditions. Second, risk may affect the level of trust indirectly by influencing the effect of social stimuli on the formation of trust. In this second indirect effect of risk, ri...

  13. Teaching Qualitative Methods: A Face-to-Face Encounter. (United States)

    Keen, Mike F.


    Considers the complete ethnographic project as a strategy for teaching qualitative methods. Describes an undergraduate class where students chose an ethnographic setting, gathered and analyzed data, and wrote a final report. Settings included Laundromats, bingo halls, auctions, karaoke clubs, and bowling leagues. (MJP)

  14. Ethical Issues Encountered by Families in a High Tech Society. (United States)

    Inana, Marjorie

    Until recently, technological advancement was an unquestioned societal goal. Today, however, controversy and public debate are beginning to arise over a wide variety of technologies, their development, and their use. As certain aspects of technology begin to be perceived as a possible threat to our health, privacy, environment, and safety,…

  15. A Brief Philosophical Encounter with Science and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ehsan Karbasizadeh


    Full Text Available We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  16. A brief philosophical encounter with science and medicine. (United States)

    Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan


    We show a lot of respect for science today. To back up our claims, we tend to appeal to scientific methods. It seems that we all agree that these methods are effective for gaining the truth. We can ask why science has its special status as a supplier of knowledge about our external world and our bodies. Of course, one should not always trust what scientists say. Nonetheless, epistemological justification of scientific claims is really a big project for philosophers of science. Philosophers of science are interested in knowing how science proves what it does claim and why it gives us good reasons to take these claims seriously. These questions are epistemological questions. Epistemology is a branch of philosophy which deals with knowledge claims and justification. Besides epistemological questions, metaphysical and ethical issues in science are worthy of philosophical scrutiny. This paper gives a short survey of these intellectually demanding issues.

  17. 2. A Study to Assess Problems Encountered by Immediate Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    probability sampling method. A total number of 145 .... the health workers. The above ... health workers, media, peer, books, family friends .... distributed in every province in Zambia , therefore there is ... D.(1993). Psychological Adjustment of.

  18. Brief encounters: delayed closure as a social art practice


    Shepley, Alec


    Often an unfinished or incomplete work is regarded with varying degrees of scepticism and even negativity to a certain extent - as if inconclusiveness somehow equates with failure, and the complete connected with success. On the other hand an unfinished object may also be seen as ‘invitational’ e.g. a door not having been given an attractive surface appearance in the final stage of manufacture as the item may be supplied unfinished for you to paint yourself! The unfinished work maintains...

  19. Hostile sexist male patients and female doctors: a challenging encounter. (United States)

    Klöckner Cronauer, Christina; Schmid Mast, Marianne


    Patient characteristics and attitudes can affect how patients react to the physician's communication style, and this reaction can then influence consultation outcomes. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the attitude of a sexist male patient affects how he perceives a female physician's nonverbal communication and whether this then results in expecting less positive consultation outcomes. Participants were analog patients who viewed four videotaped male and four videotaped female physicians in a consultation with one of their patients. Physician videos were preselected to represent a range of high and low patient-centered physician nonverbal behavior. Participants filled in questionnaires to assess how patient-centered they perceived the female and male physicians' nonverbal communication to be, and participants indicated how positive they expected the consultation outcomes to be. Moreover, we assessed the participants' sexist attitudes with a questionnaire measuring hostile and benevolent sexism. Students (N = 60) from a French-speaking university in Switzerland were recruited on campus. The main outcome measures were the extent to which analog patients expect the consultation outcomes to be positive (high satisfaction, increased trust in the physician, intention to adhere to treatment recommendations, and perceived physician competence) and the extent to which analog patients perceive physicians as patient-centered (judged from the physicians' nonverbal cues). Male analog patients' hostile sexism was negatively related to perceiving the physicians as patient-centered, and male analog patients' hostile sexism was also negatively related to expected positive consultation outcomes. For male patients viewing female physicians, mediation analysis revealed that perceived physician patient-centeredness mediated the negative relationship between hostile sexism and expected positive consultation outcomes. Male hostile sexist patients perceive a female

  20. Encounters with a Syrian - How two worlds converge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Eidenhammer


    Full Text Available Two people, from two different cultural backgrounds, with two different pasts, meet each other. The following article deals with the process of these two people´s becoming acquainted. Two years ago, Omar Khir Alanam was forced to leave his native Syria; he eventually arrived in Austria. In the spring of 2015, we met in Graz. We got together frequently, talked about everyday life and Syrian food. However, we never talked about our pasts. After a van attack in Graz on 20 June 2015, in which three people were killed and several badly injured, we became aware of how differently this affected us. Only then, after this horrible incident, did our individual pasts which colored our perceptions of the event become a major topic of interviews and discussions. During the process, the research took on a dialogic character. Only the mutual interest in the seemingly foreign enabled us to understand each other.

  1. A fruitful encounter between Cognitive Science and Science & Technology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Derra


    Full Text Available Scholars deriving from different schools of thought, especially if these grow out of different traditions, do not meet too frequently, and it is even more rare for these meeting to result in creating theories or research practices that would be cognitively surprising or rich in refreshing ideas. Therefore, the material we present in the current issue of Avant (1/2013 is exceptional. In the following part you can read articles by representatives of the so-called Toruń (postconstructivist school, “(Postconstructivism on the subject of techno-science” by Ewa Bińczyk and “A-socio-logy of a condition. A study of controversies surrounding etiology, diagnosis and therapy of ADHD” by Łukasz Afeltowicz and Michał Wróblewski.

  2. Suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals: a rare encounter. (United States)

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A C; Trimurty, Gaganam


    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ingestion of potassium permanganate crystals. After treatment, the patient was discharged home on the 8(th) day after admission. So we conclude that Emergency endoscopy has a significant role in diagnosis and management of potassium permanganate ingestion.

  3. India China Encounters-Allies and Competitors. A global perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    alignments in the global context where both countries share similar interests when it comes to op-posing the US and European Union (EU) in climate change policy, world trade and to a certain ex-tent in security and energy matters. However disagreement persists on unresolved problems in terms of attracting...

  4. Engineering Encounters: Can a Student Really Do What Engineers Do? (United States)

    Brown, Sherri; Newman, Channa; Dearing-Smith, Kelley; Smith, Stephanie


    "Framework for K-12 Science Education" states that "children are natural engineers … they spontaneously build sand castles, dollhouses, and hamster enclosures and use a variety of tools and materials for their own playful purposes" (NRC 2012, p. 70). The "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") also…

  5. A Mexican American Woman Encounters Sociology: An Autobiographical Perspective. (United States)

    Williams, Norma


    Describes the author's experience of teaching bilingual educators. Identifies the bureaucratic structure of the school and the Mexican American culture as the two problem areas focused upon during the course. Concludes that her major areas of research interest in sociology are a direct product of her ethnicity, work experience, and this…

  6. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter


    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam


    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  7. A personal encounter with psychology (1937-2002). (United States)

    Kendler, H H


    An undergraduate assistantship with Abraham Maslow, research with Solomon Asch, and an indirect exposure to Ernest Nagel's philosophy of science encouraged Howard H. Kendler to become involved with methodological issues in psychology. Graduate training with Kenneth Spence led to an active research career that was initially immersed in the latent learning controversy and later, with the collaboration of his wife Tracy Kendler, in the extension of the Hull-Spence model of cognitive development. Methodological concerns from a variety of sources encouraged Kendler to express his ideas on the methodology and history of psychology as well as its role in ethical and social policy issues. A productive symbiotic relationship is created from the interaction of democracy, natural-science psychology, and moral pluralism.

  8. Basic targeting strategies for rendezvous and flyby missions to the near-Earth asteroids (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.


    Missions to asteroids and comets are becoming increasingly feasible both from a technical and a financial point of view. In particular, those directed towards the Near-Earth Asteroids have proven suitable for a low-cost approach, thus attracting the major space agencies as well as private companies. The choice of a suitable target involves both scientific relevance and mission design considerations, being often a difficult task to accomplish due to the limited energy budget at disposal. The aim of this paper is to provide an approach to basic trajectory design which allows to account for both aspects of the problem, taking into account scientific and technical information. A global characterization of the Near-Earth Asteroids population carried out on the basis of their dynamics, physical properties and flight dynamics considerations, allows to identify a group of candidates which satisfy both, the scientific and engineering requirements. The feasibility of rendezvous and flyby missions towards them is then discussed and the possibility of repeated encounters with the same object is investigated, as an intermediate scenario. Within this framework, the capability of present and near future launch and propulsion systems for interplanetary missions is also addressed.

  9. Quantum Physics A First Encounter Interference, Entanglement, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Scarani, Valerio


    The essential features of quantum physics, largely debated since its discovery, are presented in this book, through the description (without mathematics) of recent experiments. Putting the accent on physical phenomena, this book clarifies the historical issues (delocalisation, interferences) and reaches out to modern topics (quantum cryptography, non-locality and teleportation); the debate on interpretations is serenely reviewed. - ;Quantum physics is often perceived as a weird and abstract theory, which physicists must use in order to make correct predictions. But many recent experiments have shown that the weirdness of the theory simply mirrors the weirdness of phenomena: it is Nature itself, and not only our description of it, that behaves in an astonishing way. This book selects those, among these typical quantum phenomena, whose rigorous description requires neither the formalism, nor an important. background in physics. The first part of the book deals with the phenomenon of single-particle interference...

  10. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters: A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; van Meeteren, Marijke M; van Dijk, Marloes; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T; Bouvy, Marcel L; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset


    To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed based on an observation protocol for the following information: content of encounter, initiator of a theme and pharmacy staff's communication style. In total, 119 encounters were recorded which concerned 42 first prescriptions, 16 first refill prescriptions and 61 follow-up refill prescriptions. During all encounters, discussion was mostly initiated by pharmacy staff (85%). In first prescription encounters topics most frequently discussed included instructions for use (83%) and dosage instructions (95%). In first refill encounters, patient experiences such as adverse effects (44%) and beneficial effects (38%) were regularly discussed in contrast to follow-up refills (7% and 5%). Patients' opinion on medication was hardly discussed. Pharmacy staff in outpatient pharmacies generally provide practical information, less frequently they discuss patients' experiences and seldom discuss patients' perceptions and preferences about prescribed medication. This study shows there is room for improvement, as communication is still not according to professional guidelines. To implement professional guidelines successfully, it is necessary to identify underlying reasons for not following the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Reflective Encounter with the Fine Sand Area in a Nursery School Setting (United States)

    Barnett, Anthony


    This article draws on a model of reflection that involves creating meanings through repeated encounters with evocative objects. Responses to one such evocative object, a 20-second video clip of children playing in the fine sand area, illustrates the "turning toward" and then "turning away" from the object to engage with broader…

  12. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species (United States)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.


    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  13. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate. (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori


    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  14. Oil spill encounter rate: A means of estimating advancing skimmer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.


    A high rate of oil spill recovery can only be achieved if the spilled oil can be collected fast enough for the skimming and pumping systems to operate at their rated capacity. For advancing skimmers, recovery capacity depends on the rate at which the skimming system encounters the oil slick. For these systems, encounter rate depends on skimming speed, sweep width, and the amount of oil available, in this case measured in terms of slick thickness. The computation of the spill encounter rate is described, and a chart is provided that permits the user to determine encounter rate for candidate skimming systems by inspection. Furthermore, a contingency planning worksheet for advancing skimmers is provided that allows the user to evaluate a particular response system. The resulting data can be used to determine the oil slick area that can be covered in a period of time, the volume of oil that can be expected to be recovered in that time based on oil spill planning scenarios, the pumping capacity required for skimming and transfer systems, and the storage requirements for recovered oil. Finally, suggestions are presented on how computations of oil spill encounter rate can be used to make important decisions in procuring advancing skimmers for specific applications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Adopting a Blended Learning Approach: Challenges Encountered and Lessons Learned in an Action Research Study (United States)

    Kenney, Jane; Newcombe, Ellen


    Adopting a new teaching approach is often a daunting task especially if one is an early adopter in a limited-resource environment. This article describes the challenges encountered and the strategies used in pilot testing a blended instructional method in a large size class within the college of education at a medium-sized university. The main…

  16. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig


    were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  17. Tactics Employed and Problems Encountered by University English Majors in Hong Kong in Using a Dictionary (United States)

    Chan, Alice Yin Wa


    Building on the results of a small-scale survey which investigated the general use of dictionaries by university English majors in Hong Kong using a questionnaire survey and their specific use of dictionaries using an error correction task, this article discusses the tactics these students employed and the problems they encountered when using a…

  18. Households' Stories of Their Encounters with a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (United States)

    Caperello, Nicolette D.; Kurani, Kenneth S.


    One way to progress toward greenhouse gas reductions is for people to drive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Households in this study participated in a 4- to 6-week PHEV driving trial. A narrative of each household's encounter with the PHEV was constructed by the researchers from multiple in-home interviews, questionnaires completed by…

  19. The Role of Individualism/Collectivism in Critical Classroom Encounters: A Four Country Study (United States)

    Frankel, Robert; Swanson, Scott R.; Sagan, Mariusz


    Internationalization raises the issue of whether, and to what extent, the inherent culture of a country may have particular influence on the nature of service interactions, and on education (i.e., student-professor interactions) specifically. Thus the service encounter in the classroom becomes a subject of increasing importance and interest with…

  20. Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds; A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Budding, Karin


    Information about reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds from 1953 through 2009 has been compiled to document the nature and scope of risks to aviation from volcanic activity. The information, gleaned from a variety of published and other sources, is presented in database and spreadsheet formats; the compilation will be updated as additional encounters occur and as new data and corrections come to light. The effects observed by flight crews and extent of aircraft damage vary greatly among incidents, and each incident in the compilation is rated according to a severity index. Of the 129 reported incidents, 94 incidents are confirmed ash encounters, with 79 of those having various degrees of airframe or engine damage; 20 are low-severity events that involve suspected ash or gas clouds; and 15 have data that are insufficient to assess severity. Twenty-six of the damaging encounters involved significant to very severe damage to engines and (or) airframes, including nine encounters with engine shutdown during flight. The average annual rate of damaging encounters since 1976, when reporting picked up, has been approximately 2 per year. Most of the damaging encounters occurred within 24 hours of the onset of ash production or at distances less than 1,000 kilometers from the source volcanoes. The compilation covers only events of relatively short duration for which aircraft were checked for damage soon thereafter; documenting instances of long-term repeated exposure to ash (or sulfate aerosols) will require further investigation. Of 38 source volcanoes, 8 have caused 5 or more encounters, of which the majority were damaging: Augustine (United States), Chaiten (Chile), Mount St. Helens (United States), Pacaya (Guatemala), Pinatubo (Philippines), Redoubt (United States), Sakura-jima (Japan), and Soufriere Hills (Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, United Kingdom). Aircraft have been damaged by eruptions ranging from small, recurring episodes to very large

  1. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.


    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual…

  2. Alternative modalities – A Review of Graphic Encounters: Comics and the Sponsorship of Multimodal Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Scott Humphrey


    Full Text Available Research exploring the multimodal characteristics of comics has recently flourished, and Dale Jacobs has been one of the early prolific authors on this topic. Jacobs expands these ideas further in 'Graphic Encounters: Comics and the Sponsorship of Multimodal Literacy', a monograph which engages with theories of multimodality, but shifts its focus primarily to literacy sponsorship.

  3. The Construction of Interculturality: A Study of Initial Encounters between Japanese and American Students. (United States)

    Mori, Junko


    Investigates how Japanese and American students initiate topical talk as they get acquainted with each other during their initial encounter at a student-organized conversation table. Looks at the observable and reportable ways in which the participants demonstrate the relevance, or the irrelevance, of interculturality in the development of the…

  4. Patient anxiety in the medical encounter: a study of verbal and nonverbal communication in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.M.; Verheul, W.; Dulmen, A.M. van


    Purpose: Many patients feel anxious when entering the consultation room, but seldom verbalize their emotions explicitly in the medical encounter. The authors designed a study to analyse the visibility of patient pre-consultation (state) anxiety in their communication during the consultation. In an

  5. Modeling close encounters with massive asteroids: a Markovian approach. An application to the Vesta family (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Roig, F.; Michtchenko, T. A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Nesvorný, D.


    Context: Nearly all members of the Vesta family cross the orbits of (4) Vesta, one of the most massive asteroids in the main belt, and some of them approach it closely. When mutual velocities during such close encounters are low, the trajectory of the small body can be gravitationally deflected, consequently changing its heliocentric orbital elements. While the effect of a single close encounter may be small, repeated close encounters may significantly change the proper element distribution of members of asteroid families. Aims: We develop a model of the long-term effect of close encounters with massive asteroids, so as to be able to predict how far former members of the Vesta family could have drifted away from the family. Methods: We first developed a new symplectic integrator that simulates both the effects of close encounters and the Yarkovsky effect. We analyzed the results of a simulation involving a fictitious Vesta family, and propagated the asteroid proper element distribution using the probability density function (pdf hereafter), i.e. the function that describes the probability of having an encounter that modifies a proper element x by Δx, for all the possible values of Δx. Given any asteroids' proper element distribution at time t, the distribution at time t+T may be predicted if the pdf is known (Bachelier 1900, Théorie de la spéculation; Hughes 1995, Random Walks and Random Environments, Vol. I). Results: We applied our new method to the problem of V-type asteroids outside the Vesta family (i.e., the 31 currently known asteroids in the inner asteroid belt that have the same spectral type of members as the Vesta family, but that are outside the limits of the dynamical family) and determined that at least ten objects have a significant diffusion probability over the minimum estimated age of the Vesta family of 1.2 Gyr (Carruba et al. 2005, A&A, 441, 819). These objects can therefore be explained in the framework of diffusion via repeated close

  6. The Consequences of Service Encounter Failure in Shopping Centers: A Study with Visually Impaired Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Felipe da Costa Coelho


    Full Text Available The advent of the Brazilian Law on the Inclusion of People with Disabilities, in 2015, has brought a series of implications for marketing researchers, since it concerns the rights to include people with disabilities in public and private consumption spaces, such as shopping malls. Despite the growth of these consumer spaces in Brazil, several failures in service encounters are frequent, especially when consumers are visually impaired. Therefore, this study aims to understand the consequences of service encounters failures in shopping malls for the consumer with visual disabilities. To reach this goal, we used a qualitative approach of phenomenological nature. Data were collected through direct and naturalistic observations and conduct of nine face-to-face interviews with visually impaired consumers. Through content analysis of the results, we concluded that there is a diversity of failures occurred in service encounters, such as excessive piety of sellers to consumers, contempt and the sudden change in the service script. For this reason, the consequences of service encounter failure were from the verbal confrontation and the withdrawal of the transaction to the word-of-mouth and negative expressions of frustration in virtual social networks. This article also presents managerial and academic contributions for marketing researchers.

  7. A transcultural study of Jordanian nursing students' care encounters within the context of clinical education. (United States)

    Nahas, V


    Clinical education is an integral part of nursing education. Clinical teachers are the vital link in this teaching-learning process. The quality and quantity of student-teacher interactions in the clinical area can either facilitate or hinder students' learning. This paper presents a part of a larger study that discovered, described, explained and compared Australian and Jordanian nursing students' caring and non-caring encounters with their clinical teachers within the context of clinical education. The study was guided by Leininger's theory of culture care universality and diversity and Leininger's ethnonursing research method was utilised. The informants consisted of 12 key informants and 35 general informants. Three major themes emerged from the analysis of the data: (1) clinical teacher's caring behaviours; (2) student-teacher caring encounters; and (3) caring encounter consequences. Under these themes, care constructs emerged which gave light to the Jordanian nursing students' care meanings, expressions and values within their cultural environment, social structures and world view. The overall findings revealed that Jordanian nursing students found their clinical experiences as beneficial when their encounters with the clinical teacher were conducted through mothering, translating, sustaining, negotiating and transforming processes.

  8. Encounter success of free-ranging marine predator movements across a dynamic prey landscape. (United States)

    Sims, David W; Witt, Matthew J; Richardson, Anthony J; Southall, Emily J; Metcalfe, Julian D


    Movements of wide-ranging top predators can now be studied effectively using satellite and archival telemetry. However, the motivations underlying movements remain difficult to determine because trajectories are seldom related to key biological gradients, such as changing prey distributions. Here, we use a dynamic prey landscape of zooplankton biomass in the north-east Atlantic Ocean to examine active habitat selection in the plankton-feeding basking shark Cetorhinus maximus. The relative success of shark searches across this landscape was examined by comparing prey biomass encountered by sharks with encounters by random-walk simulations of 'model' sharks. Movements of transmitter-tagged sharks monitored for 964 days (16754 km estimated minimum distance) were concentrated on the European continental shelf in areas characterized by high seasonal productivity and complex prey distributions. We show movements by adult and sub-adult sharks yielded consistently higher prey encounter rates than 90% of random-walk simulations. Behavioural patterns were consistent with basking sharks using search tactics structured across multiple scales to exploit the richest prey areas available in preferred habitats. Simple behavioural rules based on learned responses to previously encountered prey distributions may explain the high performances. This study highlights how dynamic prey landscapes enable active habitat selection in large predators to be investigated from a trophic perspective, an approach that may inform conservation by identifying critical habitat of vulnerable species.

  9. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby. (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C


    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  10. Pharmacy users' expectations of pharmacy encounters: a Q-methodological study. (United States)

    Renberg, Tobias; Wichman Törnqvist, Kristina; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Kettis Lindblad, Asa; Tully, Mary P


    Pharmacy practice is evolving according to general health-care trends such as increased patient involvement and public health initiatives. In addition, pharmacists strive to find new professional roles. Clients' expectations of service encounters at pharmacies is an under-explored topic but crucial to understanding how pharmacy practice can evolve efficiently. To identify and describe different normative expectations of the pharmacy encounter among pharmacy clients. Q methodology, an approach to systematically explore subjectivity that retains complete patterns of responses and organizes these into factors of operant subjectivity. Eighty-five regular prescription medication users recruited at Swedish community pharmacies and by snowballing. Seven factors of operant subjectivity were identified, and organized into two groups. Factors that emphasized the physical drug product as the central object of the pharmacy encounter were labelled as independent drug shopping; logistics of drug distribution; and supply of individual's own drugs. Factors that emphasized personal support as desirable were labelled competence as individual support; individualist professional relations, just take care of me; and practical health-care and lifestyle support. The systematic Q-methodological approach yielded valuable insights into how pharmacy clients construct their expectations for service encounters. They hold differentiating normative expectations for pharmacy services. Understanding these varying viewpoints may be important for developing and prioritizing among efficient pharmacy services. Clients' expectations do not correspond with trends that guide current pharmacy practice development. This might be a challenge for promoting or implementing services based on such trends. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Cultural geography. Different encounters, encountering difference


    Longhurst, Robyn


    In the first half of this paper it is argued that cultural geography is a dynamic and diverse field that extends well beyond a single branch of human geography. The boundaries between it and other sub-disciplines are often blurred. People have «different» encounters with cultural geography depending on their sub-disciplinary convergences. People also have different encounters with cultural geography depending on where they live and work. «Place matters» in the construction, production and rep...

  12. Time's arrow: A numerical experiment (United States)

    Fowles, G. Richard


    The dependence of time's arrow on initial conditions is illustrated by a numerical example in which plane waves produced by an initial pressure pulse are followed as they are multiply reflected at internal interfaces of a layered medium. Wave interactions at interfaces are shown to be analogous to the retarded and advanced waves of point sources. The model is linear and the calculation is exact and demonstrably time reversible; nevertheless the results show most of the features expected of a macroscopically irreversible system, including the approach to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, ergodicity, and concomitant entropy increase.

  13. Gyrotactic trapping: A numerical study (United States)

    Ghorai, S.


    Gyrotactic trapping is a mechanism proposed by Durham et al. ["Disruption of vertical motility by shear triggers formation of thin Phytoplankton layers," Science 323, 1067-1070 (2009)] to explain the formation of thin phytoplankton layer just below the ocean surface. This mechanism is examined numerically using a rational model based on the generalized Taylor dispersion theory. The crucial role of sedimentation speed in the thin layer formation is demonstrated. The effects of variation in different parameters on the thin layer formation are also investigated.

  14. Incidental memory of younger and older adults for objects encountered in a real world context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Qin

    Full Text Available Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults' incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals' attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults' reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the

  15. Transformative Theatre: A Promising Educational Tool for Improving Health Encounters With LGBT Older Adults. (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Luz, Clare; Hall, Dennis; Gardner, Penny; Hennessey, Chris Walker; Lammers, Lynn


    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) older adults are often unaware or fearful of aging services that contribute to greater vulnerability, isolation, and risk when services are needed. In addition, they may perceive or experience bias in health care encounters. Providers may not recognize their own biases or their impact on such encounters. In response, a group of LGBT community activists, aging professionals, researchers, and a theatre ensemble developed an interactive theatre experience, described herein, that portrays challenges faced by LGBT older adults needing services. Goals included raising awareness among LGBT older adults and providers about issues such as the limited legal rights of partners, limited family support, and fear of being mistreated as a result of homophobia. Evaluations and feedback reflected the potential of interactive theatre to engage people in sensitive discussions that can lead to increased awareness, reduced bias, practice change, and ultimately improved care for LGBT older adults.

  16. The prevalence of two ‘commonly’ encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment


    Palmer, Ray; Burnett, Elisabeth; Luff, Natalie; Wagner, Craig; Stinga, Georgia; Carney, Clare; Sheridan, Kelly


    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation.\\ud \\ud Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), ...

  17. Universities as spaces for engaging the other: A pedagogy of encounter for intercultural and interreligious education (United States)

    Gill, Scherto


    Internationalisation of Higher Education coupled with students' mobility across the globe in the 21st century has led to universities in many countries having to deal with an unprecedented flow of human diversity. Such diversity can become a potential source of conflict due to increased "otherness", but at the same time, it also presents an ideal lifelong learning opportunity for engaging the other through intercultural and interreligious education. This paper begins with a literature review, exploring the challenges of international higher education and the opportunities it offers in fostering intercultural and interreligious dialogue and deeper engagement across values, beliefs, world views, habits of mind and ways of being. The review highlights that on the one hand, rich diversity and otherness within universities can easily be built up in so-called educated individuals as givens and therefore be treated with insensitivity or indifference. On the other hand, diversity can evoke the possibility for the exchange of thoughts, values and world views, sharing experiences, engaging with each other's foreignness, and making the encounter a real enrichment and transformation. Next, using the narrative of a case study about conflicts within an international students' residence, the author illustrates the necessity of encounter and engagement with otherness as decisive avenues for intercultural learning and interreligious understanding. Through a further analysis of the case study, she establishes that pedagogical strategies formulated around encounter, dialogue and engagement should be integrated into the students' life at international universities so that they serve to bridge religions, cultures, world views and other differences, thus creating a sustainable culture of dialogue and peace. The paper concludes by suggesting a few key elements which seem useful for implementing a pedagogy of encounter in both formal and informal lifelong learning settings.

  18. An Alternative Humans to Mars Approach: Reducing Mission Mass with Multiple Mars Flyby Trajectories and Minimal Capability Investments (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan J.; Jedrey, Richard; Landau, Damon; Ocampo, Cesar


    Mars flyby trajectories and Earth return trajectories have the potential to enable lower- cost and sustainable human exploration of Mars. Flyby and return trajectories are true minimum energy paths with low to zero post-Earth departure maneuvers. By emplacing the large crew vehicles required for human transit on these paths, the total fuel cost can be reduced. The traditional full-up repeating Earth-Mars-Earth cycler concept requires significant infrastructure, but a Mars only flyby approach minimizes mission mass and maximizes opportunities to build-up missions in a stepwise manner. In this paper multiple strategies for sending a crew of 4 to Mars orbit and back are examined. With pre-emplaced assets in Mars orbit, a transit habitat and a minimally functional Mars taxi, a complete Mars mission can be accomplished in 3 SLS launches and 2 Mars Flyby's, including Orion. While some years are better than others, ample opportunities exist within a given 15-year Earth-Mars alignment cycle. Building up a mission cadence over time, this approach can translate to Mars surface access. Risk reduction, which is always a concern for human missions, is mitigated by the use of flybys with Earth return (some of which are true free returns) capability.

  19. Encounter with comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.


    This paper reports on an international armada of six spacecraft which encountered the comet Halley and performed in-situ measurements. These encounters led to the discovery of a number of cometary plasma physics phenomena. Another important result was that a value for the average density of the cometary nucleus could be estimated, which is found to be compatible with snow ball models for the nucleus

  20. A numerical study of a premixed flame on a slit burner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.


    A numerical study of a premixed methane/air flame on a 4 mm slit burner is presented. A local grid refinement technique is used to deal with large gradients and curvature of all variables encountered in the flame, keeping the number of grid points within reasonable bounds. The method used here leads

  1. Healthcare Engagement and Encounters in a Rural State: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Singh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural populations have many barriers to quality health care including lack of access to primary care and specialty care and a greater likelihood to be underinsured or uninsured. They are also less likely to use preventive screening, or to participate in self-care and engage in their health when compared to urban residents. The purpose of this paper was to describe patients’ healthcare experiences in a rural western state focusing on their healthcare expectations and engagement. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using a focus group protocol to elicit rural patients’ healthcare experiences. A purposeful sample of English speaking adult residents from a single county who were willing to discuss their healthcare experiences was included. Patients and community members (21 years and older were recruited through a local hospital as well as via flyers posted throughout the community. Each audio-recorded group took about two hours. A total of 15 focus groups were conducted to obtain sufficient text for theoretical saturation and thematic analysis. Each group had a range of 3-8 participants. A $25 visa gift card and lunch were provided for each participant as an incentive. Results: ‘Encounters with Healthcare Professionals’ and ‘Engagement in Health’ were the two dominant dimensions with two themes each. Themes centered around what characterized the best or worst encounters. Trust and Communication - both were based on time spent with the provider and establishment of rapport with the providers. The best encounters were those with health care providers or pharmacists who had sufficient time, adequately explained a diagnosis and new medications did not dismiss patient concerns, and treated individuals with respect. Typical responses describing the worst encounters included examples of misdiagnosis, dismissing patient’s symptoms, healthcare professionals whose attention was not focused on the patient, pushing too

  2. Variation of the binary encounter peak energy as a function of projectile atomic number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.M.


    The energy of the binary encounter peak, in spectra of electrons emitted at 0 degrees with respect to the projectile beam direction, has been studied to investigate its dependence on the atomic number of the projectile ion. The projectiles all had the same squared velocity of 0.6 MeV/u, and all had the same charge q=7. The Z of the projectiles ranged from 8 to 35, and the target was H 2 . The Energy E BEP of the binary encounter peak and also the energy t of the cusp formed by electron loss or electron capture to the projectile continuum (ELC or ECC) were obtained from fits to the spectra. Considerable care was required in fitting the cusp in order to properly ascertain the cusp energy. The energy shift ΔE, defined as the difference between 4t and E BEP , was obtained for each projectile. It is found that the energy shift decreases as the projectile Z increases. This trend is the opposite of that seen for projectile charge where the shift increases as q increases. Such a trend is not well described by the simple elastic scattering model of binary encounter electron production

  3. Satisfaction with the outpatient encounter - A comparison of patients' and physicians' views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbelt, Linda C.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Oort, Frans J.; Godfried, Mieke H.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.


    OBJECTIVE: To compare patients' and physicians' visit-specific satisfaction in an internal medicine outpatient setting, and to explain their respective views. DESIGN: Patients' and physicians' background characteristics were assessed prior to outpatient encounters. Immediately after the encounter,

  4. Transformation of a wave energy spectrum from encounter to absolute domain when observing from an advancing ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam


    directly in the encounter domain. The encounter domain is that observed from a ship when it advances in a seaway, whereas the absolute domain is that corresponding to making observations from a fixed point in the inertial frame. Spectrum transformation can be uniquely carried out if the ship sails ”against...

  5. Toward a Theory of the Educational Encounter: Gert Biesta's Educational Theory and the Right to the City (United States)

    Ford, Derek R.


    This paper outlines a theory of the educational encounter, the space of, and the right to that encounter. Situated in response to neoliberal educational reforms, this theory is developed through a reading and synthesis of the educational theory of Gert Biesta, the architectural component of his theory, and literature on the right to the city. The…

  6. Bodies or organisms? Medical encounter as a control apparatus at a primary care centre in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zaballos Samper


    Full Text Available Medical practice is driven by technology, discourses, and knowledge about health and illness. This has resulted in its gaining a dominating position in power relations achieved by means of diagnosis, medicalization, and habit and conduct creation and maintenance. Interaction at primary care centres is built on mainstream biomedical views of both the medical discourse and the social practices related to health, illness and the human body. Moreover, it is also rooted on the ideologies conveyed by those social concepts, which in turn, permeate interaction all through with power relations. The present paper takes ethnographic data and in-depth interviews as a departing point to analyse how diagnosis, medicalization, and biopolicies for health prevention and improvement carried out in primary care centres in Barcelona make up a control apparatus. Furthermore, this essay also explores how the apparatus is developed in the medical encounter and turns the body into an organism.

  7. Encountering Drawing (United States)

    Gregory, Nuala


    This article divides into two roughly equal parts, both of which aim to address the "act" rather than the "art" of drawing. The second part focuses on a theoretical discussion of drawing. The first bears on a number of themes including the role of drawing in colonial history, drawing and data collection, and drawing and memory.…

  8. Challenges encountered when expanding activated sludge models: a case study based on N2O production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, Laura; Boiocchi, Riccardo; Flores Alsina, Xavier


    (WWTPs). As a consequence, these experiments might not be representative for full-scale performance, and unexpected behaviour may be observed when simulating WWTP models using the derived process equations. In this paper we want to highlight problems encountered using a simplified case study: a modified......: problems related to the overall mathematical model structure and problems related to the published set of parameter values. The paper describes the model implementation incompatibilities, the variability in parameter values and the difficulties of reaching similar conditions when simulating a full...

  9. Two massive stars possibly ejected from NGC 3603 via a three-body encounter (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Chené, A.-N.; Schnurr, O.


    We report the discovery of a bow-shock-producing star in the vicinity of the young massive star cluster NGC 3603 using archival data of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Follow-up optical spectroscopy of this star with Gemini-South led to its classification as O6 V. The orientation of the bow shock and the distance to the star (based on its spectral type) suggest that the star was expelled from the cluster, while the young age of the cluster (˜2 Myr) implies that the ejection was caused by a dynamical few-body encounter in the cluster's core. The relative position on the sky of the O6 V star and a recently discovered O2 If*/WN6 star (located on the opposite side of NGC 3603) allows us to propose that both objects were ejected from the cluster via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter between a single (O6 V) star and a massive binary (now the O2 If*/WN6 star). If our proposal is correct, then one can `weigh' the O2 If*/WN6 star using the conservation of the linear momentum. Given a mass of the O6 V star of ≈30 M⊙, we found that at the moment of ejection the mass of the O2 If*/WN6 star was ≈175 M⊙. Moreover, the observed X-ray luminosity of the O2 If*/WN6 star (typical of a single star) suggests that the components of this originally binary system have merged (e.g., because of encounter hardening).

  10. Encountering Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savinetti, Nicol Marie Foulkes

    migrants’ social citizenship is affected by the move to the mega-cities Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore, which have been recognized as challenging destinations for foreign highly skilled migrant workers. I apply Rainer Bauböck’s (2010) citizenship constellation as a theoretical frame. It does not conform...

  11. Evidence for young volcanism on Mercury from the third MESSENGER flyby. (United States)

    Prockter, Louise M; Ernst, Carolyn M; Denevi, Brett W; Chapman, Clark R; Head, James W; Fassett, Caleb I; Merline, William J; Solomon, Sean C; Watters, Thomas R; Strom, Robert G; Cremonese, Gabriele; Marchi, Simone; Massironi, Matteo


    During its first two flybys of Mercury, the MESSENGER spacecraft acquired images confirming that pervasive volcanism occurred early in the planet's history. MESSENGER's third Mercury flyby revealed a 290-kilometer-diameter peak-ring impact basin, among the youngest basins yet seen, having an inner floor filled with spectrally distinct smooth plains. These plains are sparsely cratered, postdate the formation of the basin, apparently formed from material that once flowed across the surface, and are therefore interpreted to be volcanic in origin. An irregular depression surrounded by a halo of bright deposits northeast of the basin marks a candidate explosive volcanic vent larger than any previously identified on Mercury. Volcanism on the planet thus spanned a considerable duration, perhaps extending well into the second half of solar system history.

  12. Aesthetic Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Marianne

    By studying what goes on in the world of art, it is possible not only to make observations about art and the artist but also to understand how modern-day culture is being organized and negotiated. From this perspective, understanding the experiences of autonomy and contemporaneity in being...... an artist today, and how these relate to cultural structures, can serve to explain some of the cultural structures that organize the world of art. In this thesis, my empirical starting point is the local context of a Danish art school and global attitudes to cultural policy-making and art education....... These attitudes, in turn, carry my research process across the global world of art, involving the local context of a Chinese art school. Moving away from the somewhat simplified conflicts of autonomy and heteronomy, the global and the local, and the traditional and the contemporary, the three main themes...

  13. Difficulties that Students who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language Encounter During Listening Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah KALDIRIM


    Full Text Available Listening skills play an important role in an individual’s communication with others and in their understanding of the environment. Since it provides a basis for the acquisition of language skills it is one of the most important learning tools, and because it is frequently used in everyday life and in the learning process, listening skill is the foreground of foreign language teaching. It is important for students to understand what they listen to in order that they do not encounter any difficulties in the language learning process. To ensure success in the environments where the Turkish language is taught as a foreign language, it is necessary to follow the listening processes of the students attentively and to identify the problems they face during this process. This study aims to identify the listening barriers encountered by university students learning Turkish as a foreign language at level B2, and was designed based on a qualitative research approach and a phenomenological design. Within the scope of the study, eight students studying at Dumlupınar University’s TÖMER (Turkish & Foreign Languages Research and Application Center were identified as participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with students included in the sample, and descriptive analysis technique was applied in the analysis of the research data. Participants expressed views that they often encountered problems such as accented speech, frequent use of idioms and proverbs during listening, lack of vocabulary development, and lack of emphasis and voice intonation during speech. Also, factors that make listening easy to understand are identified as the other languages they speak, good vocabulary knowledge, interesting topics, listening to audiovisual elements, and the speaker’s use of gestures and mimics.

  14. A Numerical Simulation for a Deterministic Compartmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, an earlier deterministic mathematical model of HIV/AIDS is revisited and numerical solutions obtained using Eulers numerical method. Using hypothetical values for the parameters, a program was written in VISUAL BASIC programming language to generate series for the system of difference equations from the ...

  15. Earth Glint Observations Conducted During the Deep Impact Spacecraft Flyby (United States)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Robinson, T.; Hewagama, T.


    We describe observations of Earth conducted using the High Resolution Instrument (HRI) - a 0.3 m f/35 telescope - on the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft during its recent flybys. Earth was observed on five occasions: 2008-Mar-18 18:18 UT, 2008-May-28 20:05 UT, 2008-Jun-4 16:57 UT, 2009-Mar-27 16:19 and 2009-Oct-4 09:37 UT. Each set of observations was conducted over a full 24-hour rotation of Earth and a total of thirteen NIR spectra were taken on two-hour intervals during each observing period. Photometry in the 450, SSO, 650 and 8S0 nm filters was taken every fifteen minutes and every hour for the 350, 750 and 950 nm filters. The spacecraft was located over the equator for the three sets of observations in 2008, while the 2009- Mar and 2009-Oct were taken over the north and south Polar Regions, respectively. Observations of calibrator stars Canopus and Achernar were conducted on multiple occasions through all filters. The observations detected a strong specular glint not necessarily associated with a body of water. We describe spectroscopic characterization of the glint and evidence for the possibility of detection of reflection from high cirrus clouds. We describe implications for observations of extrasolar planets.

  16. Managing uncertainty: a grounded theory of stigma in transgender health care encounters. (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Kerrigan, Deanna


    A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was taken to this study of stigma in health care interactions. Between January and July 2011, fifty-five transgender people and twelve medical providers participated in one-time in-depth interviews about stigma, discrimination, and health care interactions between providers and transgender patients. Due to the social and institutional stigma against transgender people, their care is excluded from medical training. Therefore, providers approach medical encounters with transgender patients with ambivalence and uncertainty. Transgender people anticipate that providers will not know how to meet their needs. This uncertainty and ambivalence in the medical encounter upsets the normal balance of power in provider-patient relationships. Interpersonal stigma functions to reinforce the power and authority of the medical provider during these interactions. Functional theories of stigma posit that we hold stigmatizing attitudes because they serve specific psychological functions. However, these theories ignore how hierarchies of power in social relationships serve to maintain and reinforce inequalities. The findings of this study suggest that interpersonal stigma also functions to reinforce medical power and authority in the face of provider uncertainty. Within functional theories of stigma, it is important to acknowledge the role of power and to understand how stigmatizing attitudes function to maintain

  17. Bimolecular encounters and re-encounters (cage effect) of a spin-labeled analogue of cholestane in a series of n-alkanes: effect of anisotropic exchange integral. (United States)

    Vandenberg, Andrew D; Bales, Barney L; Salikhov, K M; Peric, Miroslav


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the nitroxide spin probe 3β-doxyl-5α-cholestane (CSL) are studied as functions of the molar concentration, c, and the temperature, T, in a series of n-alkanes. The results are compared with a similar study of a much smaller spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT). The Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) rate constants, K(ex), of CSL are similar in hexane, octane, and decane and are about one-half of those for pDT in the same solvents. They are also about one-half of the Stokes-Einstein-Perrin prediction. This reduction in HSE efficiency is attributed to an effective steric factor, f(eff), which was evaluated by comparing the results with the Stokes-Einstein-Perrin prediction or with pDT, and it is equal to 0.49 ± 0.03, independent of temperature. The unpaired spin density in CSL is localized near one end of the long molecule, so the exchange integral, J, leading to HSE, is expected to be large in some collisions and small in others; thus, J is modeled by an ideal distribution of values of J = J(0) with probability f and J = 0 with probability (1 - f). Because of rotational and translation diffusion during contact and between re-encounters of the probe, the effective steric factor is predicted to be f(eff) = f(1/2). Estimating the fraction of the surface of CSL with rich spin density yields a theoretical estimate of f(eff) = 0.59 ± 0.08, in satisfactory agreement with experiment. HSE is well described by simple hydrodynamic theory, with only a small dependence on solvent-probe relative sizes at the same value of T/η, where η is the viscosity of the solvent. This result is probably due to a fortuitous interplay between long- and short-range effects that describe diffusion processes over relatively large distances. In contrast, dipole-dipole interactions (DD) as measured by the line broadening, B(dip), and the mean time between re-encounters within the cage, τ(RE), vary significantly

  18. Adrenal lesions encountered in current medical practice − a review of their radiological imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesha Naidu


    Full Text Available Modern radiological technology has transformed the way that adrenal lesions are currently investigated. The contemporary radiologist has been catapulted to the forefront in the management of adrenal disease. With the increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, adrenal lesions are being serendipitously discovered in radiological studies undertaken for non-adrenal-related conditions – the so-called adrenal ‘incidentaloma’. This review discusses the imaging modalities available for characterising these lesions, highlighting current concepts and controversies in differentiating benign from malignant pathology. The article also provides a brief overview of the spectrum of adrenal pathology commonly encountered in the adult population.

  19. The flyby of Rosetta at asteroid Šteins - mission and science operations (United States)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Wirth, Kristin R.; Lodiot, Sylvain; Küppers, Michael; Schwehm, Gerhard


    The international Rosetta mission, a cornerstone mission of the european space agency scientific Programme, was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 years journey towards a rendezvous with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko ( Gardini et al., 1999). During its interplanetary flight towards its target Rosetta crosses the asteroid belt twice with the opportunity to observe at close quarters two asteroids: (2867)-Šteins in 2008 and (21)-Lutetia in 2010. The spacecraft design was such that these opportunities could be fully exploited to deliver valuable data to the scientific community. The mission trajectory was controlled such that Rosetta would fly next to asteroid Šteins on the 5th of September 2008 with a relative speed of 8.6 km/s at a minimum distance of 800 km. Mission operations have been carefully planned to achieve the best possible flyby scenario and scientific outcome. The flyby scenario, the optical navigation campaign, and the planning of the scientific observations had to be adapted by the Mission and the Science Operations Centres to the demanding requirements expressed by the scientific community. The flyby was conducted as planned with a large number of successful observations.

  20. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter


    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  1. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    Studies into cultural encounters have predominantly taken point of departure in ‘problematic encounters’, in which researchers and participants see cultural difference as an obstacle on the road to harmonious relationships (e.g. in ‘the clash of civilisations,’ or in migration/integration studies......). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... and cultures. A prominent feature of the organisation is organised cultural encounters between Northern (predominantly Danish) volunteers and Africans, which takes place at ‘training centres’ both in Denmark and in African countries, such as Kenya or Tanzania. In this paper I will outline the theoretical...

  2. Critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter: a review and model. (United States)

    Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L


    Increasing the cultural competence of physicians is one means of responding to demographic changes in the USA, as well as reducing health disparities. However, in spite of the development and implementation of cultural competence training programs, little is known about the ways cultural competence manifests itself in medical encounters. This paper will present a model of culturally competent communication that offers a framework of studying cultural competence 'in action.' First, we describe four critical elements of culturally competent communication in the medical encounter--communication repertoire, situational awareness, adaptability, and knowledge about core cultural issues. We present a model of culturally competent physician communication that integrates existing frameworks for cultural competence in patient care with models of effective patient-centered communication. The culturally competent communication model includes five communication skills that are depicted as elements of a set in which acquisition of more skills corresponds to increasing complexity and culturally competent communication. The culturally competent communication model utilizes each of the four critical elements to fully develop each skill and apply increasingly sophisticated, contextually appropriate communication behaviors to engage with culturally different patients in complex interactions. It is designed to foster maximum physician sensitivity to cultural variation in patients as the foundation of physician-communication competence in interacting with patients.

  3. Thriving on Pressure: A Factor Mixture Analysis of Sport Performers' Responses to Competitive Encounters. (United States)

    Brown, Daniel J; Arnold, Rachel; Standage, Martyn; Fletcher, David


    Although considerable research exists on performers' responses to sporting encounters, little is known about thriving in sport contexts. The current study examined if distinct response patterns existed between sport performers who thrived in competitive encounters compared with those who did not. Participants were 535 sport performers (134 women; M age  = 23.60 years, SD age  = 8.08; M competing  = 11.84 years, SD competing  = 7.11). Results of factor mixture analysis supported a four-profile solution comprising a thriving group (n = 146), a low-functioning group (n = 38), and two groups characterized by scores marginally above (n = 131) and below (n = 209) the sample mean. Profile membership was found to be predicted by personal enablers (viz., personal resilient qualities, psychological skills use) and process variables (viz., basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration, challenge appraisal). This examination of thriving in sport performers offers significant implications for research and practice.

  4. Negotiating frame ambiguity: a study of simulated encounters in medical education. (United States)

    Seale, Clive; Butler, Christopher C; Hutchby, Ian; Kinnersley, Paul; Rollnick, Stephen


    We report an investigation of the sociolinguistic characteristics of simulated encounters (role plays) in medical education, focusing in particular on frame negotiation. The role played by context in influencing the nature of out-of-frame activity is noted through comparison with another published study of simulations (Linell and Thunqvist 2003). While in general sustaining a role-playing frame that involved an orientation to exact mimicry of clinical situations, the interactional work done to sustain this appearance of 'authenticity' at certain moments was revealed by out-of-frame utterances. One participating doctor in particular used humor to exploit the ambiguous realism of the role-playing frame. The success of this doctor in acquiring and applying new communication behaviors problematizes the view that 'realism', achieved through mimicry, is solely responsible for the success of training interventions. The implications for studying other kinds of simulated encounters, including an outline for a program of research into the sociolinguistics of acting tasks in general, are outlined. Sociolinguistic researchers involved in observational studies of talk would benefit from adopting the view that role-played, rehearsed, and even scripted talk of the sort used in dramatic performance is a variety of naturally occurring data and therefore worthy of study.

  5. Telephone Encounters Predict Future High Financial Expenditures in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study. (United States)

    Click, Benjamin; Anderson, Alyce M; Ramos Rivers, Claudia; Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Hashash, Jana G; Dunn, Michael A; Schwartz, Marc; Swoger, Jason; Barrie, Arthur; Szigethy, Eva; Regueiro, Miguel; Schoen, Robert E; Binion, David G


    Telephone activity is essential in management of complex chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Telephone encounters logged in the electronic medical record have recently been proposed as a surrogate marker of disease activity and impending health care utilization; however, the association between telephone calls and financial expenditures has not been evaluated. We performed a 3-year prospective observational study of telephone encounters logged at a tertiary referral IBD center. We analyzed patient demographics, disease characteristics, comorbidities, clinical activity, and health care financial charges by telephone encounter frequency. Eight hundred one patients met inclusion criteria (52.3% female; mean age, 44.1 y), accounted for 12,669 telephone encounters, and accrued $70,513,449 in charges over 3 years. High telephone encounter frequency was associated with female gender (P=0.003), anxiety/depression (Pfinancial charges the following year after controlling for demographic, utilization, and medication covariates. Increased telephone encounters are associated with significantly higher health care utilization and financial expenditures. Increased call frequency is predictive of future health care spending. Telephone encounters are a useful tool to identify patients at risk of clinical deterioration and large financial expense.

  6. Dealing with Coronary Artery Disease in Early Encountering: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mojalli


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rising in industrial and developing countries. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the most common cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the signs and risk factors of CAD from the patients’ perspective and their ways of dealing with this disease is of vital importance. Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore the Iranian patients’ viewpoints about CAD and how they dealt with it in their first encounter. Patients and Methods: This study was a qualitative content analysis conducted on 18 patients with CAD. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, purposeful sampling was performed followed by maximum variety. Sampling continued until data saturation. Then, all the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. After all, the data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using MAXQUDA2010 software. Results: The themes manifested in this study included “invasion of disease” with subthemes of “warning signs” and “risk factors” and “confrontation strategies” with subthemes of “seeking for information”, “follow-up”, and “control measures”. Conclusions:: The results of this study described the patients’ perceptions of CAD and how they dealt with this disorder in early encountering. Based on the results, physicians and nurses should focus on empowerment of patients by facilitating this process as well as by educating them with regards to dealing with CAD.

  7. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine


    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  8. Building a Unique Scenario to Support Cross-Mission Science with SPICE: The Siding-Spring comet encounter with Mars (United States)

    Costa, M.; Witasse, O.; Sánchez-Cano, B.


    On October 2014, Mars experienced a close encounter with Comet Siding Spring. This contribution outlines a SPICE scenario built to assist studies combining MEX, MAVEN, Mars Odyssey, MSL, and Siding-Spring data focused on a Cosmographia 3D scenario.

  9. CO near the Pleiades: encounter of a star cluster with a small molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, J.; White, R.E.


    Although there is a large amount of interstellar matter near the Pleiades star cluster, the observed dust and gas is not a remnant of the placental molecular cloud from which the star cluster was formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) associated with the visible reflection nebulae was discovered by Cohen (1975). Its radial velocity differs from that of the cluster by many times the cluster escape velocity, which implies that the cloud-cluster association is the result of a chance encounter. This circumstance and the proximity of the Pleiades to the sun creates an unique opportunity for study of interstellar processes at high spatial resolution. To study the molecular component of the gas, a 1.7 square degree field was mapped with the ATandT Bell Laboratories 7-meter antenna (1.7' beam) on a 1' grid in the J=1.0 C(12)O line, obtaining over 6000 spectra with 50 kHz resolution. The cloud core was mapped in the J=1-0 line of C(13)O. Further observations include an unsuccessful search for CS (J=2-1) at ATandT BL, and some C(12)O J=2-1 spectra obtained at the Millimeter Wave Observatory of the University of Texas

  10. CO near the Pleiades: Encounter of a star cluster with a small molecular cloud (United States)

    Bally, J.; White, R. E.


    Although there is a large amount of interstellar matter near the Pleiades star cluster, the observed dust and gas is not a remnant of the placental molecular cloud from which the star cluster was formed. Carbon monoxide (CO) associated with the visible reflection nebulae was discovered by Cohen (1975). Its radial velocity differs from that of the cluster by many times the cluster escape velocity, which implies that the cloud-cluster association is the result of a chance encounter. This circumstance and the proximity of the Pleiades to the sun creates an unique opportunity for study of interstellar processes at high spatial resolution. To study the molecular component of the gas, a 1.7 square degree field was mapped with the AT&T Bell Laboratories 7-meter antenna (1.7' beam) on a 1' grid in the J=1.0 C(12)O line, obtaining over 6,000 spectra with 50 kHz resolution. The cloud core was mapped in the J=1-0 line of C(13)O. Further observations include an unsuccessful search for CS (J=2-1) at AT&T BL, and some C(12)O J=2-1 spectra obtained at the Millimeter Wave Observatory of the University of Texas.

  11. Human Resources Performance in Service EncountersA Customer Service Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia GRIGORE


    Full Text Available Efficiency is generally defined as the extent to which resources or effort is employed in order to achieve a certain purpose or objective. As per an economic perspective, this term may also mean a minimum quantity of supplies which can generate a maximum result. But can we talk about efficiency in terms of human resources and their allocation to a specific task? And how one asses the activity of the employees when considering service encounters? This study aims to provide an answer to these two questions from an emotional labor perspective: individuals employ their emotional abilities in order to perform a certain job. This is a process under a commercial perspective: the wage represents the exchange value for these competencies.

  12. Issues encountered in a qualitative secondary analysis of help-seeking in the prodrome to psychosis. (United States)

    Gladstone, Brenda M; Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M


    Primary data are rarely used explicitly as a source of data outside of the original research purpose for which they were collected. As a result, qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) has been described as an "invisible enterprise" for which there is a "notable silence" amongst the qualitative research community. In this paper, we report on the methodological implications of conducting a secondary analysis of qualitative data focusing on parents' narratives of help-seeking activities in the prodrome to psychosis. We review the literature on QSA, highlighting the main characteristics of the approach, and discuss issues and challenges encountered in conducting a secondary analysis. We conclude with some thoughts on the implications for conducting a QSA in children's mental health services and research.

  13. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette


    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  14. A reexamination of plasma measurements from the Mariner 5 Venus encounter (United States)

    Shefer, R. E.; Lazarus, A. J.; Bridge, H. S.


    Mariner 5 plasma data from the Venus encounter have been analyzed with twice the time resolution of the original analysis of Bridge et al. (1967). The velocity distribution function for each spectrum is used to determine more precisely the locations of boundaries and characteristic flow parameters in the interaction region around the planet. A new region is identified in the flow located between magnetosheathlike plasma inside the shock front and an interior low-flux region near the geometrical shadow of the planet. The region is characterized by a wide velocity distribution function and a decrease in ion flux. Using the highest time resolution magnetic field data, it is proposed that rapid magnetic field fluctuations in this region may result in an artificial broadening of the distribution function. It is concluded that very high time resolution is required in future experiments in order to determine the true nature of the plasma in this region.

  15. Modifiable influences on female HPV vaccine uptake at the clinic encounter level: a literature review. (United States)

    Small, Stephanie L; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Martyn, Kristy K; Dempsey, Amanda F


    A review of the literature to identify modifiable influences on female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake relevant to clinical practice in order to support nurse practitioners (NPs) in the prevention of cervical cancer. PubMed, CINAHL, reference lists of publications that surfaced in the electronic search. Six influences are modifiable and potentially amenable to being addressed at the clinic encounter level: (a) cost and insurance coverage, (b) provider recommendation, (c) vaccination opportunity, (d) HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge, (e) vaccine safety concerns, and (f) HPV risk. NPs have an important role in improving HPV vaccine uptake and research suggests several areas they can address to increase vaccination during clinic visits. ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. Navigation of Chang'E-2 asteroid exploration mission and the minimum distance estimation during its fly-by of Toutatis (United States)

    Cao, Jianfeng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Songjie; Liu, Lei; Tang, Geshi; Huang, Yong; Li, Peijia


    China's space probe Chang'E-2 began its asteroid exploration mission on April 15, 2012 and had been in space for 243 days before its encounter with Toutatis. With no onboard navigation equipment available, the navigation of CE-2 during its fly-by of the asteroid relied totally on ground-based Unified S-Band (USB) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking data. The orbit determination of Toutatis was achieved by using a combination of optical measurements and radar ranging. On November 30, 2012, CE-2 was targeted at a destination that was 15 km away from the asteroid as it performed its third trajectory correction maneuver. Later orbit determination analysis showed that a correction residual was still present, which necessitated another maneuver on December 12. During the two maneuvers, ground-based navigation faced a challenge in terms of the orbit determination accuracy. With the optimization of our strategy, an accuracy of better than 15 km was finally achieved for the post-maneuver orbit solution. On December 13, CE-2 successfully passed by Toutatis and conducted continuous photographing of Toutatis during the entire process. An analysis of the images that were taken from the solar panel monitoring camera and the satellite attitude information demonstrates that the closest distance obtained between CE-2 and Toutatis (Toutatis's surface) was 1.9 km, which is considerably better than the 30 km fly-by distance that we originally hoped based on the accuracies that we can obtain on the satellite and Toutatis' orbits.

  17. "What constitutes a 'problem'?" Producing 'alcohol problems' through online counselling encounters. (United States)

    Savic, Michael; Ferguson, Nyssa; Manning, Victoria; Bathish, Ramez; Lubman, Dan I


    Typically, health policy, practice and research views alcohol and other drug (AOD) 'problems' as objective things waiting to be detected, diagnosed and treated. However, this approach to policy development and treatment downplays the role of clinical practices, tools, discourses, and systems in shaping how AOD use is constituted as a 'problem'. For instance, people might present to AOD treatment with multiple psycho-social concerns, but usually only a singular AOD-associated 'problem' is considered serviceable. As the assumed nature of 'the serviceable problem' influences what treatment responses people receive, and how they may come to be enacted as 'addicted' or 'normal' subjects, it is important to subject clinical practices of problem formulation to critical analysis. Given that the reach of AOD treatment has expanded via the online medium, in this article we examine how 'problems' are produced in online alcohol counselling encounters involving people aged 55 and over. Drawing on poststructural approaches to problematisation, we not only trace how and what 'problems' are produced, but also what effects these give rise to. We discuss three approaches to problem formulation: (1) Addiction discourses at work; (2) Moving between concerns and alcohol 'problems'; (3) Making 'problems' complex and multiple. On the basis of this analysis, we argue that online AOD counselling does not just respond to pre-existing 'AOD problems'. Rather, through the social and clinical practices of formulation at work in clinical encounters, online counselling also produces them. Thus, given a different set of circumstances, practices and relations, 'problems' might be defined or emerge differently-perhaps not as 'problems' at all or perhaps as different kinds of concerns. We conclude by highlighting the need for a critical reflexivity in AOD treatment and policy in order to open up possibilities for different ways of engaging with, and responding to, people's needs in their complexity

  18. Health care encounters in Danish chiropractic practice from a consumer perspectives - a mixed methods investigation. (United States)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Boyle, Eleanor; Larsen, Johanne Brinch; Christensen, Henrik Wulff


    Perceived value is the key ingredient to carving and maintaining a competitive business niche. The opportunities to interact with consumers to understand and enhance perceived value are termed 'touch points'. Due to the out-of-pocket expense incurred by patients, Danish chiropractors are subject to consumer trends and behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to explore and describe consumer touch points relevant to perceived value through healthcare journeys in chiropractic practices. We designed a convergent parallel, mixed methods study. Our purposive sampling framework identified 11 chiropractic clinics from which we collected observational field notes, video recordings and face-to-face interviews. Data was collected between April 14(th) and June 26(th) 2014. We described the exteriors and interiors of all participant clinics, interviewed 32 staff members, 12 new patients and 36 follow-up patients and finally video recorded 11 new and 24 follow-up consultations. Categorization and analysis led to the emergence six consumer touch point themes: 'the internet', 'the physical environment', 'practice models', 'administrative staff', 'the consultation sequence and timing' and 'a consultation that adds value'. The Internet functions as a tool when choosing/confirming a clinic as appropriate, developing and initial image and managing appointments. The administrative hub appears integral to the shaping of positive consumer experiences outside of the consultation. Clinic location, practice model and interior design may contribute to context effects and thus may influence value perception during the clinical encounter. The duration of hands-on treatment received from the chiropractor is not an apparent consumer focus point. Rather, through a seven stage clinical procedure patients value consultations with clinicians who demonstrate professional competence by effective communication diagnosis/management and facilitating satisfactory treatment outcomes. At least six

  19. Limits to Mercury's Magnesium Exosphere from MESSENGER Second Flyby Observations (United States)

    Sarantos, Menelaos; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Bradley, E. Todd; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.


    The discovery measurements of Mercury's exospheric magnesium, obtained by the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment, GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) probe during its second Mercury flyby, are modeled to constrain the source and loss processes for this neutral species. Fits to a Chamberlain exosphere reveal that at least two source temperatures are required to reconcile the distribution of magnesium measured far from and near the planet: a hot ejection process at the equivalent temperature of several tens of thousands of degrees K, and a competing, cooler source at temperatures as low as 400 K. For the energetic component, our models indicate that the column abundance that can be attributed to sputtering under constant southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions is at least a factor of five less than the rate dictated by the measurements, Although highly uncertain, this result suggests that another energetic process, such as the rapid dissociation of exospheric MgO, may be the main source of the distant neutral component. If meteoroid and micrometeoroid impacts eject mainly molecules, the total amount of magnesium at altitudes exceeding approximately 100 km is found to be consistent with predictions by impact vaporization models for molecule lifetimes of no more than two minutes. Though a sharp increase in emission observed near the dawn terminator region can be reproduced if a single meteoroid enhanced the impact vapor at equatorial dawn, it is much more likely that observations in this region, which probe heights increasingly near the surface, indicate a reservoir of volatile Mg being acted upon by lower-energy source processes.

  20. Theoretical numerical analysis a functional analysis framework

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Kendall


    This textbook prepares graduate students for research in numerical analysis/computational mathematics by giving to them a mathematical framework embedded in functional analysis and focused on numerical analysis. This helps the student to move rapidly into a research program. The text covers basic results of functional analysis, approximation theory, Fourier analysis and wavelets, iteration methods for nonlinear equations, finite difference methods, Sobolev spaces and weak formulations of boundary value problems, finite element methods, elliptic variational inequalities and their numerical solu

  1. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters : A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ellen S.; van Meeteren, Marijke M.; Van Dijk, M; van de Bemt, Bart J F; Ensing, Hendrikus T.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Blom, Lyda; van Dijk, Liset


    Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  2. Patient–provider interaction during medication encounters: a study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M. van; Bemt, B.J.F. van de; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van


    Objective: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. Methods: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  3. Patient-provider interaction during medication encounters: A study in outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.S.; Meeteren, M.M. van; Dijk, M.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Ensing, H.T.; Bouvy, M.L.; Blom, L.; Dijk, L. van


    OBJECTIVE: To describe communication between pharmacy staff and patients at the counter in outpatient pharmacies. Both content and communication style were investigated. METHODS: Pharmaceutical encounters in three outpatient pharmacies in the Netherlands were video-recorded. Videos were analyzed

  4. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.


    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  5. Sodium ion exosphere of Mercury during MESSENGER flybys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paral, Jan; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Rankin, R.; Schriver, D.


    Roč. 37, č. 19 (2010), L19102/1-L19102/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : MESSENGER flybys * solar wind sputtering * photo-stimulated desorption Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.505, year: 2010

  6. Silent loss and the clinical encounter: Parents’ and physicians’ experiences of stillbirth–a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Maureen C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, an estimated 70 stillbirths occur each day, on average 25,000 each year. Research into the prevalence and causes of stillbirth is ongoing, but meanwhile, many parents suffer this devastating loss, largely in silence, due to persistent stigma and taboo; and many health providers report feeling ill equipped to support grieving parents. Interventions to address bereavement after neonatal death are increasingly common in U.S. hospitals, and there is growing data on the nature of parent bereavement after a stillbirth. However, further research is needed to evaluate supportive interventions and to investigate the parent-clinician encounter during hospitalization following a stillbirth. Qualitative inquiry offers opportunities to better understand the lived experience of parents against the backdrop of clinicians’ beliefs, intentions, and well-meaning efforts to support grieving parents. Methods We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. Participants were drawn from the greater Seattle region in Washington State. We examine parents’ and physicians’ experiences and beliefs surrounding stillbirth during the clinical encounter using iterative discourse analysis. Results Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. Parents also reported that their grief is deeply felt but not socially recognized. While physicians recognized patients’ grief, they did not grasp its depth or duration. Physicians viewed stillbirth as an unexpected clinical tragedy, though several considered stillbirth less traumatic than the death of a neonate

  7. Design and numerical simulation of a 3-D electron plasma analyzer that resolves both energy and elevation angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.A.; Sablik, M.J.; Winningham, J.D.; Frahm, R.A.; Reiff, P.H.


    The Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF) will include, as one of its complement of thirteen scientific instruments, a plasma electron analyzer capable of providing 3-dimensional measurements of the energy and angular distribution of electrons in the solar wind, asteroidal and cometary environments. After initial instrument selection, mission planners at JPL suggested that an instrument capable of performing angular scanning electronically rather than mechanically be investigated. This paper describes the computer design of the new CRAF plasma electron detector, consisting of an electronic scanning component, called the 'elevation analyzer', and an energy analyzing component based on the Soft Particle Spectrometer (SPS) and its successor, the Spectrographic Particle Imager (SPI). Numerical simulation of each component's operation - consisting of ray-tracing particles through the electrostatic field of each analyzer and collecting statistics on those particles successfully transmitted - is used to determine the energy and angular response functions of each component and the design dimensions that optimize these responses. (orig.)

  8. 'Freud's speculations in ethnology': A reflection on anthropology's encounter with psychoanalysis. (United States)

    Rivera, Patrick S


    In the early 20th century, many analysts - Freud and Ernest Jones in particular - were confident that cultural anthropologists would demonstrate the universal nature of the Oedipus complex and other unconscious phenomena. Collaboration between the two disciplines, however, was undermined by a series of controversies surrounding the relationship between psychology and culture. This paper re-examines the three episodes that framed anthropology's early encounter with psychoanalysis, emphasizing the important works and their critical reception. Freud's Totem and Taboo began the interdisciplinary dialogue, but it was Bronislaw Malinowski's embrace of psychoanalysis - a development anticipated through a close reading of his personal diaries - that marked a turning point in relations between the two disciplines. Malinowski argued that an avuncular (rather than an Oedipal) complex existed in the Trobriand Islands. Ernest Jones' critical dismissal of this theory alienated Malinowski from psychoanalysis and ended ethnographers' serious exploration of Freudian thought. A subsequent ethnographic movement, 'culture and personality,' was erroneously seen by many anthropologists as a product of Freudian theory. When 'culture and personality' was abandoned, anthropologists believed that psychoanalysis had been discredited as well - a narrative that still informs the historiography of the discipline and its rejection of psychoanalytical theory. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Evaluation of a Cultural Competence Intervention with Implications for the Nurse-Patient Encounter (United States)

    Bradford, Althea Betty

    A short-term intervention on participants' knowledge of cultural competence was provided to 38 students in a baccalaureate nursing program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU). The study examined the effectiveness of this intervention. Although WSSU is a Historically Black University, the majority of students in this program were White. Six tools were used for data collection. The Cultural Competence Survey consisted of 19 Likert Scale items that also gave participants an opportunity to elaborate on each response. Four tools allowed participants to provide written answers to prompts related to cultural competence. The final tool made it possible for the investigator to record impressions and reflections regarding various aspects of the study. Results showed that the students are familiar with cultural competence and want to avoid stereotypical behavior in their nurse-patient encounters. The study suggests a need for education in cultural competence in three areas: 1) accepting that cultural competence is a lifelong endeavor, 2) understanding patients from a holistic perspective, and 3) recognizing that all people have biases; however, the competent nurse is self-aware and has been educated to recognize biased behavior.

  10. Festival as embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Neergaard, Maja de


    This article is part of a project on Paradoxical Spaces: Encountering the Other in public space which explores how cultural difference is experienced, practiced and negotiated in public space. Specifically, it explores the ‘multicultural’ festival Kulturhavn taking place yearly along the harbour...... of Copenhagen. Multicultural festivals are seen as places for on-going identity negotiations, where individuals and groups define meaningful concepts of identity along with notions of exclusion. In the paper, we adopt a performative approach abandoning the distinction between bodies and space and embracing...... ideas of ‘embodiment’ and ‘rhythm’. We explore participant engagement emphasizing bodily practices as well as sensuous experiences, but also differential processes and orientalist images produced in, and through, encounters. Among the range of activities at the festival, we focus on three: food; dance...

  11. Valuable yet Vulnerable-A review of the challenges encountered by older nurses in the workplace. (United States)

    Ryan, C; Bergin, M; Wells, J S


    As the global nursing workforce ages, developing a comprehensive understanding of the experiences, needs and values specific to older nurses is increasingly significant. This paper reviews the evidence with regard to the specific challenges encountered by older nurses in the workplace. A scoping review of the published literature was conducted using the electronic databases Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Google Scholar. A total of 20 papers were included in this review, most of which were qualitative (n=14). Three quantitative studies were identified (including one study which combined a physical exam with survey methods) as well as three mixed method studies. The challenges faced by older nurses in their practice are synthesised across three primary domains: Nursing and the ageing body; Recognition and support of the older nurse and Demands associated with middle-age. As older nurses form a substantial proportion of the healthcare workforce in many countries, the development and implementation of strategies to address these challenges is of utmost importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence of two 'commonly' encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment. (United States)

    Palmer, R; Burnett, E; Luff, N; Wagner, C; Stinga, G; Carney, C; Sheridan, K


    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation. Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), pub seats (54) and cinema seats (53). Using low power stereomicroscopy, a total of 114 and 68 fibres, superficially similar to the respective black acrylic and blue polyester target fibres, were recovered from these tapings. The full range of comparative microscopical and instrumental analysis used in operational forensic laboratories was performed on the recovered fibres. No matches were found with either of the target fibres. These findings are in accordance with similar studies which show that the probability of an 'adventitious' match with a particular fibre type/colour combination is extremely low. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the current techniques and instrumentation employed by operational forensic laboratories are fit for purpose. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that databases and surveys (e.g. fibre population studies) which do not consider the analytical/comparison processes, must not be used in isolation when evaluating fibre evidence at source level. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard


    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘o...... approach to meeting the other (culinary culture), ultimately, their respective culinary adventures work to re-affirm a social hierarchy in their favor....

  14. [Social problems encountered during prenatal care in a Paris maternity ward]. (United States)

    Ozguler, A; Alfaro, C; Bonniaus, G; Renders, P; Blot, P; Brodin, M; Lombrail, P


    In 1993, about 2,600 children are born in Robert Debré Hospital (RDH), a hospital specialized in pediatrics and obstetrics located in Paris. One hundred and seventy nine of the mothers contacted the hospital social service during pregnancy. The main goal of this study was to describe the social problems encountered by these women and the solutions proposed by the social service of RDH. The second aim was to describe the socio-demographic profile and medical problems of this population. At first contact, 45% of the women had no social coverage, and only 18% had a steady job. Most social problems were related to administrative procedures. Financial and housing problems were more difficult to solve in this context. These figures reflect the growing problem of precarity, with its consequences. A hospital social service is not the right place to solve these very complex problems. The most worrisome point is that the living conditions of newborn children are often unknown after delivery.

  15. Management of Commonly Encountered Secondary Cleft Deformities of Face-A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob John


    Full Text Available Orofacial clefts are one of the commonest congenital deformities occurring due to disturbances during the embryological formation, development and growth of orofacial region. The treatment of cleft deformities in the early period of life is mandatory to address the aesthetic, functional and psychological problems affecting the child. A considerable number of surgical modalities for definitive correction of unilateral and bilateral cleft lip, nose, and eyelid deformities have been reported over the past half century. After the initial cleft repair, there is a long period of dramatic growth. This powerful variable of growth may ultimately distort the immediate surgical result. Hence, the correction of secondary deformities plays a very important part in the care of these patients. In this article we are enlisting some simple techniques to correct the commonly encountered secondary cleft deformities of face that gave acceptable results to the patients. These corrective surgeries not only improved the function and aesthetics but also increased the confidence level, satisfaction and overall quality of life of the patient.

  16. Crawling and walking infants encounter objects differently in a multi-target environment. (United States)

    Dosso, Jill A; Boudreau, J Paul


    From birth, infants move their bodies in order to obtain information and stimulation from their environment. Exploratory movements are important for the development of an infant's understanding of the world and are well established as being key to cognitive advances. Newly acquired motor skills increase the potential actions available to the infant. However, the way that infants employ potential actions in environments with multiple potential targets is undescribed. The current work investigated the target object selections of infants across a range of self-produced locomotor experience (11- to 14-month-old crawlers and walkers). Infants repeatedly accessed objects among pairs of objects differing in both distance and preference status, some requiring locomotion. Overall, their object actions were found to be sensitive to object preference status; however, the role of object distance in shaping object encounters was moderated by movement status. Crawlers' actions appeared opportunistic and were biased towards nearby objects while walkers' actions appeared intentional and were independent of object position. Moreover, walkers' movements favoured preferred objects more strongly for children with higher levels of self-produced locomotion experience. The multi-target experimental situation used in this work parallels conditions faced by foraging organisms, and infants' behaviours were discussed with respect to optimal foraging theory. There is a complex interplay between infants' agency, locomotor experience, and environment in shaping their motor actions. Infants' movements, in turn, determine the information and experiences offered to infants by their micro-environment.

  17. A Binary-Encounter-Bethe Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Direct Effect (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.


    The DNA damage is of crucial importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. The main mechanisms of DNA damage are by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research in this area, many questions on the formation of DNA damage remains. To refine existing DNA damage models, an approach based on the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model was developed[1]. This model calculates differential cross sections for ionization of the molecular orbitals of the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates using the electron binding energy, the mean kinetic energy and the occupancy number of the orbital. This cross section has an analytic form which is quite convenient to use and allows the sampling of the energy loss occurring during an ionization event. To simulate the radiation track structure, the code RITRACKS developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center is used[2]. This code calculates all the energy deposition events and the formation of the radiolytic species by the ion and the secondary electrons as well. We have also developed a technique to use the integrated BEB cross section for the bases, sugar and phosphates in the radiation transport code RITRACKS. These techniques should allow the simulation of DNA damage by ionizing radiation, and understanding of the formation of double-strand breaks caused by clustered damage in different conditions.

  18. High-velocity runaway stars from three-body encounters (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.


    We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between hard, massive binaries and a very massive star (VMS; formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster) to explore the hypothesis that this dynamical process could be responsible for the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) early or late B-type stars. We estimated the typical velocities produced in encounters between very tight massive binaries and VMSs (of mass of ≥ 200 M⊙) and found that about 3 - 4% of all encounters produce velocities ≥ 400 km s-1, while in about 2% of encounters the escapers attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity. We therefore argue that the origin of high-velocity (≥ 200 - 400 km s-1) runaway stars and at least some so-called hypervelocity stars could be associated with dynamical encounters between the tightest massive binaries and VMSs formed in the cores of star clusters. We also simulated dynamical encounters between tight massive binaries and single ordinary 50 - 100 M⊙ stars. We found that from 1 to ≃ 4% of these encounters can produce runaway stars with velocities of ≥ 300 - 400 km s-1 (typical of the bound population of high-velocity halo B-type stars) and occasionally (in less than 1% of encounters) produce hypervelocity (≥ 700 km s-1) late B-type escapers.

  19. Nursing students’ experiences of professional patient care encounters in a hospital unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth


    experiences of professional patient care encounters where students engage with patients and provide nursing care within the basic principles of nursing care relating to the patients’ physiological and psychological needs. Studies that reflect nursing students’ comprehension of or attitudes towards nursing...

  20. The formation mechanism of 4179 Toutatis' elongated bi-lobed structure in a close Earth encounter scenario (United States)

    Hu, Shoucun; Ji, Jianghui; Richardson, Derek C.; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Yun


    The optical images of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis acquired by Chang'e-2 spacecraft show that Toutatis has an elongated contact binary configuration, with the contact point located along the long axis. We speculate that such configuration may have resulted from a low-speed impact between two components. In this work, we performed a series of numerical simulations and compared the results with the optical images, to examine the mechanism and better understand the formation of Toutatis. Herein we propose an scenario that an assumed separated binary precursor could undergo a close encounter with Earth, leading to an impact between the primary and secondary, and the elongation is caused by Earth's tide. The precursor is assumed to be a doubly synchronous binary with a semi-major axis of 4 Rp (radius of primary) and the two components are represented as spherical cohesionless self-gravitating granular aggregates. The mutual orbits are simulated in a Monte Carlo routine to provide appropriate parameters for our N-body simulations of impact and tidal distortion. We employ the pkdgrav package with a soft-sphere discrete element method (SSDEM) to explore the entire scenarios. The results show that contact binary configurations are natural outcomes under this scenario, whereas the shape of the primary is almost not affected by the impact of the secondary. However, our simulations further provide an elongated contact binary configuration best-matching to the shape of Toutatis at an approaching distance rp = 1.4 ˜ 1.5 Re (Earth radius), indicative of a likely formation scenario for configurations of Toutatis-like elongated contact binaries.

  1. Numerical convergence for a sewage disposal problem


    Alvarez-Vázquez, L.J.; Martínez, A.; Rodríguez, C.; Vázquez-Méndez, M.E.


    The management of sewage disposal and the design of wastewater treatment systems can be formulated as a constrained pointwise optimal control problem. In this paper we study the convergence of the numerical resolution for the corresponding state system by means of a characteristics Galerkin method. The main difficulty of the problem is due to the existence of Radon measures in the right-hand side of the state system. Finally, we present numerical results for a realistic problem posed in a ria...

  2. Encountering Urbanization on Jersey: Development, Sustainability, and Spatiality in a Small Island Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available On the island of Jersey, the success of local industries including agriculture, tourism, and financial services has helped grow the population of permanent residents, contract workers, seasonal workers, and short-term tourists. As a result, between 1950 and 2015 the island’s population nearly doubled from about 55,000 to 100,000, and, consequently, the landscape has undergone much urban development, not only in and around the parish capital of St Helier, but also in varying degrees in each of the island’s other parishes. During this period of population growth, the island’s urbanization has been framed within a context of developing the island’s industries on the one hand, yet sustaining the island’s unique environment on the other. After all, one of the main qualities of Jersey that has helped its tourism industry has been its ability to maintain characteristics of the island in a context of population growth and increased resource restraints. Using a method of critical inquiry of primary and secondary sources, this article foregrounds how the geographically small island of Jersey has encountered urbanization, particularly in the decades following the Second World War. The discussion illustrates some of the consequences for islanders and how development and sustainability as an assemblage of interconnected practices and perceptions have helped craft a distinct environment for the island that contributes to its local character. The article shows that inward migration flows have led to a locally-defined urbanization, which has resulted in a continually growing population and a type of urban island lure. For the field of Island Studies, a study of Jersey’s locally-defined urbanization sheds light on how urban development and sustainability consciousness is characterized and practised on this particular small island in an era that sees it especially dependent on the finance and tourism industries.

  3. A literature survey on numerical heat transfer (United States)

    Shih, T. M.


    Technical papers in the area of numerical heat transfer published from 1977 through 1981 are reviewed. The journals surveyed include: (1) ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, (2) International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, (3) AIAA Journal, (4) Numerical Heat Transfer, (5) Computers and Fluids, (6) International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, (7) SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis, and (8) Journal of Computational Physics. This survey excludes experimental work in heat transfer and numerical schemes that are not applied to equations governing heat transfer phenomena. The research work is categorized into the following areas: (A) conduction, (B) boundary-layer flows, (C) momentum and heat transfer in cavities, (D) turbulent flows, (E) convection around cylinders and spheres or within annuli, (F) numerical convective instability, (G) radiation, (H) combustion, (I) plumes, jets, and wakes, (J) heat transfer in porous media, (K) boiling, condensation, and two-phase flows, (L) developing and fully developed channel flows, (M) combined heat and mass transfer, (N) applications, (O) comparison and properties of numerical schemes, and (P) body-fitted coordinates and nonuniform grids.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vinod Kumar Viswanathan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND With the ever increasing prevalence of diabetes, complications of diabetes are encountered across all specialities. Hence, it is imperative that all specialists should have a working knowledge of diabetes mellitus. This study was done to understand the prevalence and complications of diabetes among patients attending a pulmonologist OPD. Knowledge of diabetes and its complications will help pulmonary medicine specialists to identify and manage the complications of diabetes better. MATERIALS AND METHODS All patients attending a pulmonologist’s clinic for a period of one month were enquired regarding their diabetes status and patients with known history of diabetes were questioned using a standard questionnaire and their available records examined regarding their complications pertaining to diabetes and the results analysed. RESULTS In this study, 18.7% of patients attending pulmonologist clinic had diabetes mellitus and 13.5% of patients had diabetes of more than 10 years duration. Most of the patients were in the age group of 40 to 60 years and were predominantly male. Among the diabetic patients, 71.9% had complications due to diabetes. Infections were the most commonly associated complication followed by pulmonary and cardiovascular complications. Many cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were observed among these patients. Other respiratory infections observed included pneumonias and flu. Cardiovascular complications like systemic hypertension, coronary artery disease and dyslipidaemia were observed. CONCLUSION With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus, such cases are frequently observed across all medical specialities. Hence, it is vital that all specialists should be trained in a management of diabetes, which is a frequent comorbidity observed by all specialists. Knowledge of diabetes, identifying diabetes early and management of complications will go a long way in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to diabetes and also

  5. Travel Medicine Encounters of Australian General Practice Trainees-A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim M; Tapley, Amanda; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke L; Spike, Neil A; McArthur, Lawrie A; Davey, Andrew R; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Magin, Parker J


    Travel medicine is a common and challenging area of clinical practice and practitioners need up-to-date knowledge and experience in a range of areas. Australian general practitioners (GPs) play a significant role in the delivery of travel medicine advice. We aimed to describe the rate and nature of travel medicine consultations, including both the clinical and educational aspects of the consultations. A cross-sectional analysis from an ongoing cohort study of GP trainees' clinical consultations was performed. Trainees contemporaneously recorded demographic, clinical, and educational details of consecutive patient consultations. Proportions of all problems/diagnoses managed in these consultations that were coded "travel-related" and "travel advice" were both calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations of a problem/diagnosis being "travel-related" or "travel advice" were tested using simple logistic regression within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. A total of 856 trainees contributed data on 169,307 problems from 108,759 consultations (2010-2014). Travel-related and travel advice problems were managed at a rate of 1.1 and 0.5 problems per 100 encounters, respectively. Significant positive associations of travel-related problems were younger trainee and patient age; new patient to the trainee and practice; privately billing, larger, urban, and higher socioeconomic status practices; and involvement of the practice nurse. Trainees sought in-consultation information and generated learning goals in 34.7 and 20.8% of travel advice problems, respectively, significantly more than in non-travel advice problems. Significant positive associations of travel advice problems were seeking in-consultation information, generation of learning goals, longer consultation duration, and more problems managed. Our findings reinforce the importance of focused training in travel medicine for GP trainees and adequate exposure to patients in the practice

  6. Space weather at planet Venus during the forthcoming BepiColombo flybys (United States)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Jackson, B.; Odstrcil, D.


    The BepiColombo (BC) Mission which will be launched in 2018, will include during its Cruise Phase two flybys of Venus and five Mercury flybys. It will then enter a one Earth year orbit about Mercury (with a possible one-year extension) during which two spacecraft, one provided by ESA (MPO) and one provided by JAXA (MMO), will perform both autonomous and coordinated observations of the Hermean environment at various separations. The measurements will take place during the minimum of solar cycle 24 and the rise of solar cycle 25. At the start of the minimum of solar cycle 23, four major flares, each associated with the production of MeV particle radiation and CME activity occurred. Predictions of the HAFv.2 model of the arrival of particle radiation and a travelling shock at Venus on 6 December 2006 were verified by in-situ measurements made aboard Venus Express (VEX) by the ASPERA 4 instrument. Interplanetary scintillation observations, as well as the ENLIL 3-D MHD model when employed separately or in combination, enable the making of predictions of the solar wind density and speed at various locations in the inner heliosphere. Both methods, which outdate HAFv.2, are utilized in the present paper to predict (retrospectively) the arrival of the flare related, interplanetary propagating shock recorded at Venus on 6 December 2006 aboard VEX with a view to putting in place the facility to make very reliable space weather predictions for BC during both its Cruise Phase and when in the Hermean environment itself. The successful matching of the December 2006 predictions with in-situ signatures recorded aboard Venus Express provide confidence that the predictive methodology to be adopted will be appropriate to provide space weather predictions for BepiColombo during its Venus flybys and throughout the mission.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On MARCH 6, 1986, AT 7:20:06 UT, the Vega spacecraft passed the nucleus of comet Halley at a distance of 8,890 km with a relative velocity of 78 km/s. The magnetic...

  8. A nationwide survey of first aid training and encounters in Norway. (United States)

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Steinvik, Tine; Angell, Johan; Wisborg, Torben


    Bystander first aid can improve survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or trauma. Thus, providing first aid education to laypersons may lead to better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of first aid training in the populace, how often first aid skills are needed, and self-reported helping behaviour. We conducted a telephone survey of 1000 respondents who were representative of the Norwegian population. Respondents were asked where and when they had first aid training, if they had ever encountered situations where first aid was necessary, and stratified by occupation. First aid included cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and basic life support (BLS). To test theoretical first aid knowledge, respondents were subjected to two hypothetical first aid scenarios. Among the respondents, 90% had received first aid training, and 54% had undergone first aid training within the last 5 years. The workplace was the most common source of first aid training. Of the 43% who had been in a situation requiring first aid, 89% had provided first aid in that situation. There were considerable variations among different occupations in first aid training, and exposure to situations requiring first aid. Theoretical first aid knowledge was not as good as expected in light of the high share who had first aid training. In the presented scenarios 42% of respondent would initiate CPR in an unconscious patient not breathing normally, and 46% would provide an open airway to an unconscious road traffic victim. First aid training was correlated with better theoretical knowledge, but time since first aid training was not. A high proportion of the Norwegian population had first aid training, and interviewees reported high willingness to provide first aid. Theoretical first aid knowledge was worse than expected. While first aid is part of national school curriculum, few have listed school as the source for their first aid training.

  9. New Horizons Pluto Flyby Guest Operations (United States)

    Simon, M.; Turney, D.; Fisher, S.; Carr, S. S.


    On July 14, 2015, after 9.5 years of cruise, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft flew past the Pluto system to gather first images humankind had ever seen on Pluto and its five moons. While much has been discovered about the Pluto system since New Horizons launch in 2006, the system has never been imaged at high resolution and anticipation of the "First Light" of the Pluto system had been anticipated by planetary enthusiasts for decades. The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), which built and operates New Horizons, was the focal point for gathering three distinct groups: science and engineering team members; media and public affairs representatives; and invited public, including VIP's. Guest operations activities were focused on providing information primarily to the invited public and VIP's. High level objectives for the Guest Operations team was set to entertain and inform the general public, offer media reaction shots, and to deconflict activities for the guests from media activities wherever possible. Over 2000 people arrived at APL in the days surrounding closest approach for guest, science or media operations tracks. Reaction and coverage of the Guest Operations events was universally positive and global in impact: iconic pictures of the auditorium waving flags during the moment of closest approach were published in media outlets on every continent. Media relations activities ensured coverage in all key media publications targeted for release, such as the New York Times, Science, Le Monde, and Nature. Social and traditional media coverage of the events spanned the globe. Guest operations activities are designed to ensure that a guest has a memorable experience and leaves with a lifelong memory of the mission and their partnership in the activity. Results, lessons learned, and other data from the New Horizons guest operations activity will be presented and analyzed.

  10. Report on the observed response of Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) upon encountering a reticulated python (Python reticulatus). (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Prayitno, Bambang; Suryobroto, Bambang


    We observed an encounter between a reticulated python (Python reticulatus) and a group of wild Javan lutungs (Trachypithecus auratus mauritius) at the Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. A python (about 2 m in length) moved toward a group of lutungs in the trees. Upon seeing the python, an adult male and several adult female lutungs began to emit alarm calls. As the python approached, two adult and one sub-adult female jumped onto a branch near the python and began mobbing the python by shaking the branch. During the mobbing, other individuals in the group (including an adult lutung male) remained nearby but did not participate. The python then rolled into a ball-like shape and stopped moving, at which point the lutungs moved away. The total duration of the encounter was about 40 min, during which time the lutungs stopped feeding and grooming. Group cohesiveness during and after the encounter was greater than that before the encounter, indicating that lutungs adjust their daily activity in response to potential predation risk.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Enrico Beltramini


    Full Text Available Markus Viehbeck (ed., 2017. Transcultural Encounters in the Himalayan Borderlands - Kalimpong as a "Contact Zone." Heidelberg: Heidelberg University Publishing, viii + 350 pp, ISBN 978-3-946054-58-0 (paperback 55.37USD. This volume is both a story of the hill station of Kalimpong, in the Eastern Himalayan region, and a study of transcultural dynamics seen through the prism of the local story of Kalimpong. A collaborative work, the book is the result of a conference that brought together various international scholars on the cultural history of Kalimpong. Scholars from Europe (Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Heidelberg, Manchester, Oxford, Roskilde, North America (Los Angeles, Toronto, Oceania (Melbourne, and India (Sikkim met in Kalimpong 6-8 March 2015, to discuss the topic from a variety of disciplinary viewpoints, including social history, Tibetan studies, anthropology, ethnography, religious studies, and postcolonial literature. The publisher, Heidelberg University Publishing, has included this anthology in its prestigious Heidelberg Studies on Transculturality. The history of Kalimpong, the other mountain town of Darjeeling and, more generally the entire Eastern Himalayan region, has been the focus of a specialized yet expanding scholarly field. Works center on Kalimpong (Hilker, 2005, Darjeeling (Besky, 2014; Sharma, 2011 and 2014; Warner, 2014, and the entire area of the Himalayan territories of Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan, as well as parts of Northern-Eastern India (Huber and Blackburn, 2012; McKay, 2007; Mullard, 2011; Phuntsho, 2013; Shneiderman, 2015. In this context, scholars note how Kalimpong and Darjeeling shared the same destiny: originally sparsely populated settlements in the foothills of the Himalayas, both villages were acquired in the nineteenth century by the English East India Company (Kalimpong was annexed in 1865 from the kingdom of Bhutan, and Darjeeling from the kingdom of Sikkim in 1835 to become British-ruled towns and

  12. A Decolonizing Encounter: Ward Churchill and Antonia Darder in Dialogue. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 430 (United States)

    Orelus, Pierre W., Ed.


    "A Decolonizing Encounter" examines the effects of western colonialism on historically marginalized and colonized populations living both in the West and the "third world". Specifically, it explores crucial issues such as the decolonizing of schools and communities of color; the decentralization of power of the capitalist and…

  13. Designing the Self: The Transformation of the Relational Self-Concept through Social Encounters in a Virtual Immersive Environment (United States)

    Knutzen, K. Brant; Kennedy, David M.


    This article describes the findings of a 3-month study on how social encounters mediated by an online Virtual Immersive Environment (VIE) impacted on the relational self-concept of adolescents. The study gathered data from two groups of students as they took an Introduction to Design and Programming class. Students in group 1 undertook course…

  14. 'A good fit?' Bringing the sociology of footwear to the clinical encounter in podiatry services: a narrative review. (United States)

    Nicholls, Emily; Robinson, Victoria; Farndon, Lisa; Vernon, Wesley


    This narrative review explores the ways in which drawing on theories and methods used in sociological work on footwear and identity can contribute to healthcare research with podiatrists and their patients, highlighting recent research in this field, implications for practice and potential areas for future development.Traditionally, research within Podiatry Services has tended to adopt a quantitative, positivist focus, developing separately from a growing body of sociological work exploring the importance of shoes in constructing identity and self-image. Bringing qualitative research drawing on sociological theory and methods to the clinical encounter has real potential to increase our understanding of patient values, motivations and - crucially - any barriers to adopting 'healthier' footwear that they may encounter. Such work can help practitioners to understand why patients may resist making changes to their footwear practices, and help us to devise new ways for practitioners to explore and ultimately break down individual barriers to change (including their own preconceptions as practitioners). This, in turn, may lead to long-term, sustainable changes to footwear practices and improvements in foot health for those with complex health conditions and the wider population. A recognition of the complex links between shoes and identity is opening up space for discussion of patient resistance to footwear changes, and paving the way for future research in this field beyond the temporary 'moment' of the clinical encounter.

  15. Flyby Characterization of Lower-Degree Spherical Harmonics Around Small Bodies (United States)

    Takahashi, Yu; Broschart, Stephen; Lantoine, Gregory


    Interest in studying small bodies has grown significantly in the last two decades, and there are a number of past, present, and future missions. These small body missions challenge navigators with significantly different kinds of problems than the planets and moons do. The small bodies' shape is often irregular and their gravitational field significantly weak, which make the designing of a stable orbit a complex dynamical problem. In the initial phase of spacecraft rendezvous with a small body, the determination of the gravitational parameter and lower-degree spherical harmonics are of crucial importance for safe navigation purposes. This motivates studying how well one can determine the total mass and lower-degree spherical harmonics in a relatively short time in the initial phase of the spacecraft rendezvous via flybys. A quick turnaround for the gravity data is of high value since it will facilitate the subsequent mission design of the main scientific observation campaign. We will present how one can approach the problem to determine a desirable flyby geometry for a general small body. We will work in the non-dimensional formulation since it will generalize our results across different size/mass bodies and the rotation rate for a specific combination of gravitational coefficients.

  16. Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions for clinical encounters: a systematic review. (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Légaré, France; Brouwers, Melissa C; Webster, Fiona; Badley, Elizabeth; Straus, Sharon


    Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions engage patients in their own health care. Insight on which PKT interventions are effective is lacking. We sought to describe the type and impact of PKT interventions. We performed a systematic review of PKT interventions, defined as strategies that inform, educate and engage patients in their own health care. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 2005 to 2014 for English language studies that evaluated PKT interventions delivered immediately before, during or upon conclusion of clinical encounters to individual patients with arthritis or cancer. Data were extracted on study characteristics, PKT intervention (theory, content, delivery, duration, personnel, timing) and outcomes. Interventions were characterized by type of patient engagement (inform, activate, collaborate). We performed content analysis and reported summary statistics. Of 694 retrieved studies, 16 were deemed eligible (5 arthritis, 11 cancer; 12 RCTs, 4 cohort studies; 7 low, 3 uncertain, 6 high risk of bias). PKT interventions included print material in 10 studies (brochures, booklets, variety of print material, list of websites), electronic material in 10 studies (video, computer program, website) and counselling in 2 studies. They were offered before, during and after consultation in 4, 1 and 4 studies, respectively; as single or multifaceted interventions in 10 and 6 studies, respectively; and by clinicians, health educators, researchers or volunteers in 4, 3, 5 and 1 study, respectively. Most interventions informed or activated patients. All studies achieved positive impact in one or more measures of patient knowledge, decision-making, communication and behaviour. This was true regardless of condition, PKT intervention, timing, personnel, type of engagement or delivery (single or multifaceted). No studies assessed patient harms, or interventions for providers to support PKT intervention delivery. Two studies evaluated

  17. Modeling of the Magnetosphere of Mercury at the Time of the First MESSENGER Flyby (United States)

    Benna, Mehdi; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; hide


    The MESSENGER spacecraft flyby of Mercury on 14 January 2008 provided a new opportunity to study the intrinsic magnetic field of the innermost planet and its interaction with the solar wind, The model presented in this paper is based on the solution of the three-dimensional, bi-f1uid equations for solar wind protons and electrons in the absence of mass loading, In this study we provide new estimates of Mercury's intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind conditions that prevailed at the time of the flyby. We show that the location of the boundary layers and the strength of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory can be reproduced with a solar wind ram pressure P(sub sw) = 6.8 nPa and a planetary magnetic dipole having a magnitude of 210 R(sub M)(exp 3)- nT and an offset of 0.18 R(sub M) to the north of the equator, where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius. Analysis of the plasma flow reveals the existence of a stable drift belt around the planet; such a belt can account for the locations of diamagnetic decreases observed by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. Moreover, we determine that the ion impact rate at the n011hern cusp was four times higher than at the southern cusp, a result that provides a possible explanation for the observed north-south asymmetry in exospheric sodium in the neutral tail.

  18. A delta-rule model of numerical and non-numerical order processing. (United States)

    Verguts, Tom; Van Opstal, Filip


    Numerical and non-numerical order processing share empirical characteristics (distance effect and semantic congruity), but there are also important differences (in size effect and end effect). At the same time, models and theories of numerical and non-numerical order processing developed largely separately. Currently, we combine insights from 2 earlier models to integrate them in a common framework. We argue that the same learning principle underlies numerical and non-numerical orders, but that environmental features determine the empirical differences. Implications for current theories on order processing are pointed out. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS) Preparations for the EPOXI Flyby of Comet Haley 2 (United States)

    Luna, Michael E.; Collins, Stephen M.


    On November 4, 2010 the already "in-flight" Deep Impact spacecraft flew within 700km of comet 103P/Hartley 2 as part of its extended mission EPOXI, the 5th time to date any spacecraft visited a comet. In 2005, the spacecraft had previously imaged a probe impact comet Tempel 1. The EPOXI flyby marked the first time in history that two comets were explored with the same instruments on a re-used spacecraft-with hardware and software originally designed and optimized for a different mission. This made the function of the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) critical to the successful execution of the EPOXI flyby. As part of the spacecraft team preparations, the ADCS team had to perform thorough sequence reviews, key spacecraft activities and onboard calibrations. These activities included: review of background sequences for the initial conditions vector, sun sensor coefficients, and reaction wheel assembly (RWA) de-saturations; design and execution of 10 trajectory correction maneuvers; science calibration of the two telescope instruments; a flight demonstration of the fastest turns conducted by the spacecraft between Earth and comet point; and assessment of RWA health (given RWA problems on other spacecraft).

  20. Monte Carlo Modeling of Sodium in Mercury's Exosphere During the First Two MESSENGER Flybys (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; McClintock, William E.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Mouawad, Nelly


    We present a Monte Carlo model of the distribution of neutral sodium in Mercury's exosphere and tail using data from the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft during the first two flybys of the planet in January and September 2008. We show that the dominant source mechanism for ejecting sodium from the surface is photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) and that the desorption rate is limited by the diffusion rate of sodium from the interior of grains in the regolith to the topmost few monolayers where PSD is effective. In the absence of ion precipitation, we find that the sodium source rate is limited to approximately 10(exp 6) - 10(exp 7) per square centimeter per second, depending on the sticking efficiency of exospheric sodium that returns to the surface. The diffusion rate must be at least a factor of 5 higher in regions of ion precipitation to explain the MASCS observations during the second MESSENGER f1yby. We estimate that impact vaporization of micrometeoroids may provide up to 15% of the total sodium source rate in the regions observed. Although sputtering by precipitating ions was found not to be a significant source of sodium during the MESSENGER flybys, ion precipitation is responsible for increasing the source rate at high latitudes through ion-enhanced diffusion.

  1. A numerical method for resonance integral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanbay, Tayfun; Ozgener, Bilge


    A numerical method has been proposed for resonance integral calculations and a cubic fit based on least squares approximation to compute the optimum Bell factor is given. The numerical method is based on the discretization of the neutron slowing down equation. The scattering integral is approximated by taking into account the location of the upper limit in energy domain. The accuracy of the method has been tested by performing computations of resonance integrals for uranium dioxide isolated rods and comparing the results with empirical values. (orig.)

  2. A numerical primer for the chemical engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.


    This book provides an introduction to numerical methods for students in chemical engineering. The book starts with a recap on linear algebra. It then presents methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations, with a special focus on Gaussian elimination and Newton’s method. It also discusses

  3. Ducted wind turbine optimization : A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dighe, V.V.; De Oliveira Andrade, G.L.; van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The practice of ducting wind turbines has shown a beneficial effect on the overall performance, when compared to an open turbine of the same rotor diameter1. However, an optimization study specifically for ducted wind turbines (DWT’s) is missing or incomplete. This work focuses on a numerical

  4. The Art of the Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Vautrin


    Full Text Available As the archives from the second half of Grotowski’s life were made available, this text focuses on the Polish master’s conceptions of theatre where he describes theatre as the art of the encounter. This paper simultaneously places this proposition in the context of questions of a specific time period, and reveals how this encounter is the anathema that will revert viewpoints both about the art of acting and the creation of theatrical relations. These researches on theatre as the art of the encounter continue today through the Open Program, one of the two groups of the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards, and, notably, their creations around American poet Allen Ginsberg, an author whose poetry intends, in a similar way, to encounter the other and the world.

  5. Galileo's Last Fly-Bys of Io: NIMS Observations of Loki, Tupan, and Emakong Calderas (United States)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Kamp, L. W.; Davies, A. G.; Smythe, W. D.; Carlson, R. W.; Doute, S.; McEwen, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Leader, F.; Mehlman, R.


    NIMS results from the 2001 Galileo fly-bys of Io will be presented, focusing on three calderas that may contain lava lakes. Preliminary results from the January 2002 Io fly-by will be presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Rotation harmonics for a numerical diatomic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobeissi, H.; Korek, M.


    The problem of the determination of the rotation harmonics phi 1 , phi 2 , ... for the case of a numerical diatomic potential is considered. These harmonics defined in a recent work by psisub(vJ) = psisub(vO) + lambda 2 phi 2 + ... (where psisub(vJ) is the wave function of the vibration level v and the rotation level J, and lambda = J(J+1)) are studied for the case of the Dunham potential and for a numerical potential defined by the coordinates of its turning points with polynomial interpolations and extrapolations. It is proved that the analytical expressions of the harmonics phi 1 , phi 2 , ... reduce to polynomials where the coefficients are simply related to those of the potential in the case of the Dunham potential, and to the coordinates of the turning points in the case of the numerical potential. The numerical application is simple. The examples presented show that the vibration-rotation wave function psisub(vJ) calculated by using two harmonics only is ''exact'' up to eight significant figures

  7. Numerical methods and optimization a consumer guide

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Éric


    Initial training in pure and applied sciences tends to present problem-solving as the process of elaborating explicit closed-form solutions from basic principles, and then using these solutions in numerical applications. This approach is only applicable to very limited classes of problems that are simple enough for such closed-form solutions to exist. Unfortunately, most real-life problems are too complex to be amenable to this type of treatment. Numerical Methods and Optimization – A Consumer Guide presents methods for dealing with them. Shifting the paradigm from formal calculus to numerical computation, the text makes it possible for the reader to ·         discover how to escape the dictatorship of those particular cases that are simple enough to receive a closed-form solution, and thus gain the ability to solve complex, real-life problems; ·         understand the principles behind recognized algorithms used in state-of-the-art numerical software; ·         learn the advantag...

  8. A summary of numerical computation for special functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shanjie


    In the paper, special functions frequently encountered in science and engineering calculations are introduced. The computation of the values of Bessel function and elliptic integrals are taken as the examples, and some common algorithms for computing most special functions, such as series expansion for small argument, asymptotic approximations for large argument, polynomial approximations, recurrence formulas and iteration method, are discussed. In addition, the determination of zeros of some special functions, and the other questions related to numerical computation are also discussed

  9. New insights of asteroid 4179 Toutatis using China Chang'e-2 close flyby optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Yanlong; Tang, Geshi; Cao, Jianfeng; Hu, Songjie; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Chuankai; Di, KaiChang; Xu, Bin; Liu, Bin; Fa, Wenzhe; Hu, Tianjiang; Ding, Chibiao


    The mysteries of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis have been more comprehensively unveiled by analyzing the optical images taken during the Chang'e-2 flyby in 2012. Compared with previous works, this paper concentrates on the photogrammetric relation between the Chang'e-2 spacecraft and Toutatis and the imaging shadow effect during the flyby. Accurate models of imaging and optical measurements are developed to study Toutatis's dimensions and rotational state at the time of imaging. As the illumination study shows, the shadowed region perpendicular to the long axis accounts for 27.78% of the Toutatis images, while the long axis of the body is fully captured. With a compensation on the shadow effect, the optical measurements reveal that Toutatis's long axis is 4354 ± 56 m, the maximum length is 4391 ± 56 m, and the spatial orientation described with the angles of direction cosine during the flyby is (126.°13 ± 0.°29, 122.°98 ± 0.°21, 126.°63 ± 0.°46). Furthermore, a new triaxial ellipsoid of 4354 × 1835 × 2216 m and a volume of 7.5158 km 3 are proposed based on the previous Toutatis shape model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated, since typical features such as the neck and endpoints agree well with the results simultaneously observed by the ground radar. Moreover, it also potentially provides a feasible approach to precisely calculate the spin period of Toutatis.

  10. Difficult medical encounters and job satisfaction - results of a cross sectional study with general practitioners in Germany. (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Mahnkopf, Janis; Kornitzky, Anna; Steinhäuser, Jost


    In primary care 15% of patient encounters are perceived as challenging by general practitioners (GP). However it is unknown what impact these encounters have regarding job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate which encounters are perceived as challenging by German GPs and whether they were associated with job satisfaction. A total of 1538 questionnaires were sent to GPs in the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. GPs should rate 14 medical conditions and 8 traits of patients on the perceived challenge using a Likert scale (1: 'not challenging at all' to 10: 'extremely challenging'). Job satisfaction was measured with the Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale. A linear regression analyses were used to explore potential associations between for the primary outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Total response was 578 (38%). GPs perceived 16% of their patients as challenging. Psychiatric disorders such as somatization disorder (mean = 7.42), schizophrenia (mean = 6.83) and anxiety disorder (mean = 6.57) were ranked as high challenging while diabetes mellitus type 2 (mean = 4.87) and high blood pressure (mean = 3.22) were ranked as a rather low challenging condition. GPs were mostly satisfied with 'colleagues' (mean = 5.80) and mostly dissatisfied with their 'hours of work' (mean = 4.20). The linear regression analysis showed no association with challenging medical conditions and traits of patients but only with different aspects of job satisfaction concerning the outcome variable 'overall job satisfaction'. Especially psychiatric conditions are perceived as challenging the question arises, in what amount psychiatric competences are gained during the postgraduate specialty training in general practice and if GPs with a mandatory rotation in psychiatry perceive these conditions as less challenging. Interestingly this study indicates that challenging encounter in terms of challenging medical conditions and traits

  11. Initial Encounters : The Lived Experiences of Buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wright; J.J. Dekker


    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter.

  12. Overspecialized and undertrained? Patient diversity encountered by medical students during their internal medicine clerkship at a university hospital. (United States)

    Melderis, Simon; Gutowski, Jan-Philipp; Harendza, Sigrid


    During the four-month internal medicine clerkship in their final year, undergraduate medical students are closely involved in patient care. Little is known about what constitutes their typical learning experiences with respect to patient diversity within the different subspecialties of internal medicine and during on call hours. 25 final year medical students (16 female, 9 male) on their internal medicine clerkship participated in this observational single-center study. To detail the patient diversity encountered by medical students at a university hospital during their 16-week internal medicine clerkship, all participants self-reported their patient contacts in the different subspecialties and during on call hours on patient encounter cards. Patients' chief complaint, suspected main diagnosis, planned diagnostic investigations, and therapy in seven different internal medicine subspecialties and the on call medicine service were documented. 496 PECs were analysed in total. The greatest diversity of chief complaints (CC) and suspected main diagnoses (SMD) was observed in patients encountered on call, with the combined frequencies of the three most common CCs or SMDs accounting for only 23% and 25%, respectively. Combined, the three most commonly encountered CC/SMD accounted for high percentages (82%/63%), i.e. less diversity, in oncology and low percentages (37%/32%), i.e. high diversity, in nephrology. The percentage of all diagnostic investigations and therapies that were classified as "basic" differed between the subspecialties from 82%/94% (on call) to 37%/50% (pulmonology/oncology). The only subspecialty with no significant difference compared with on call was nephrology for diagnostic investigations. With respect to therapy, nephrology and infectious diseases showed no significant differences compared with on call. Internal medicine clerkships at a university hospital provide students with a very limited patient diversity in most internal medicine

  13. A Tentative Research on the Education of Teacher by "Adlerian Psychology" (II) : Using Structured Group Encounter Method


    柴山, 謙二; シバヤマ, ケンジ; Shibayama, Kenji


    This is a tentative research on the education of teacher explored in Adlerian Psychology that used the structured group encounter method. The purpose of teacher education by Adlerian Psychology is to develop and deepen social interests of teachers, and to learn this theory and psychological techniques at school. The process of short-time workshop for teachers who were specialized in guidance for pupils was designed and documented for the education of teacher, and the author participated in th...

  14. Ways of understanding the encounter with head and neck cancer patients in the hospital dental team--a phenomenographic study. (United States)

    Röing, Marta; Hirsch, J-M; Holmström, Inger


    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Fifty percent of the patients can be cured by surgery, radiotherapy or a combination approach. Head and neck cancer is life-threatening, and treatment may leave the patient with visible facial disfigurements and impairment of functions such as speech and eating. This affects not only the patient, but may arouse difficult feelings in the treatment staff. Dental personnel are involved in all facets of treatment, yet they have no specific training in cancer care. The aim of this study was to describe the variation in ways dental personnel understand and experience the encounter with head and neck cancer patients, as the way of understanding a certain phenomenon is judged to be fundamental to the way we act and form our beliefs. Twenty members of hospital dental teams were interviewed. The interviews focused on experiences of the encounter with head and neck cancer patients. A qualitative research approach, phenomenography, was used in analysing the interviews. The encounter was perceived in three qualitatively different ways: as an act of caring, as a serious and responsible task and as an overwhelming emotional situation. The results indicate that hospital dental personnel are not able to lean on education and professional training in finding ways of dealing with situations with strong emotional impact. This has implications for the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer, as well as education of dental personnel.

  15. Theta and beta oscillatory dynamics in the dentate gyrus reveal a shift in network processing state during cue encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maria Rangel


    Full Text Available The hippocampus is an important structure for learning and memory processes, and has strong rhythmic activity. Although a large amount of research has been dedicated towards understanding the rhythmic activity in the hippocampus during exploratory behaviors, specifically in the theta (5-10 Hz frequency range, few studies have examined the temporal interplay of theta and other frequencies during the presentation of meaningful cues. We obtained in vivo electrophysiological recordings of local field potentials (LFP in the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus as rats performed three different associative learning tasks. In each task, cue presentations elicited pronounced decrements in theta amplitude in conjunction with increases in beta (15-30Hz amplitude. These changes were often transient but were sustained from the onset of cue encounters until the occurrence of a reward outcome. This oscillatory profile shifted in time to precede cue encounters over the course of the session, and was not present during similar behavior in the absence of task relevant stimuli. The observed decreases in theta amplitude and increases in beta amplitude in the dentate gyrus may thus reflect a shift in processing state that occurs when encountering meaningful cues.

  16. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation. (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos


    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs.

  17. Customer satisfaction in medical service encounters -- a comparison between obstetrics and gynecology patients and general medical patients. (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Weng, Hui-Ching; Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Hsu, Tsuen-Ho


    This study is concerned with the "service encounter", and seeks to describe, by use of the Service Encounter Evaluation Model, how the processes involved in the service encounter affect customer satisfaction. Its findings have implications for management practice and research directions, and recommendations are made. With the implementation of a national health insurance scheme, an ever-prospering economy and continually improving educational levels in Taiwan, demand among citizens for good health and medical care is ever increasing. Obstetrics and gynecology patients often differ greatly from general patients, in terms of their moods and emotions. This research involved an empirical study, whose subjects were 590 customers of general clinics and 339 customers of gynecology clinics, in various medical centers in southern Taiwan. By factor analysis, the study established four influencing factors, which were "Medical professionals", "Nursing professionals", "Service personnel" and "Space and facilities". Using the Linear Structural Relation Model (LISREL), it found that medical professionals, nursing professionals, service personnel and space and facilities were effective predictors of medical treatment satisfaction. We also found that the greatest positive impact on overall medical treatment satisfaction resulted from rises in satisfaction with medical professionals, but that the least impact was achieved in relation to service personnel in the general and gynecology clinics.

  18. A hybrid numerical method for orbit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.; Himel, T.; Shoaee, H.


    The authors describe a simple hybrid numerical method for beam orbit correction in particle accelerators. The method overcomes both degeneracy in the linear system being solved and respects boundaries on the solution. It uses the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to find and remove the null-space in the system, followed by a bounded Linear Least Squares analysis of the remaining recast problem. It was developed for correcting orbit and dispersion in the B-factory rings

  19. A Numerical Model for Trickle Bed Reactors (United States)

    Propp, Richard M.; Colella, Phillip; Crutchfield, William Y.; Day, Marcus S.


    Trickle bed reactors are governed by equations of flow in porous media such as Darcy's law and the conservation of mass. Our numerical method for solving these equations is based on a total-velocity splitting, sequential formulation which leads to an implicit pressure equation and a semi-implicit mass conservation equation. We use high-resolution finite-difference methods to discretize these equations. Our solution scheme extends previous work in modeling porous media flows in two ways. First, we incorporate physical effects due to capillary pressure, a nonlinear inlet boundary condition, spatial porosity variations, and inertial effects on phase mobilities. In particular, capillary forces introduce a parabolic component into the recast evolution equation, and the inertial effects give rise to hyperbolic nonconvexity. Second, we introduce a modification of the slope-limiting algorithm to prevent our numerical method from producing spurious shocks. We present a numerical algorithm for accommodating these difficulties, show the algorithm is second-order accurate, and demonstrate its performance on a number of simplified problems relevant to trickle bed reactor modeling.

  20. Dental Encounter System (DES) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  1. A Numerical Framework for Self-Similar Problems in Plasticity: Indentation in Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    A new numerical framework specialized for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed. Self-similarity in plasticity is encountered in a number of different problems such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. To date, such problems are handled by traditional Lagrangian...... procedures that may be associated with severe numerical difficulties relating to sufficient discretization, moving contact points, etc. In the present work, self-similarity is exploited to construct the numerical framework that offers a simple and efficient method to handle self-similar problems in history...... numerical simulations [3] when possible. To mimic the condition for the analytical predictions, the wedge indenter is considered nearly flat and the material is perfectly plastic with a very low yield strain. Under these conditions, [1][2] proved analytically the existence of discontinuities in the slip...

  2. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review. (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo


    The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Across a Different Table: Strange and Familiar Encounters in Asian American Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yon Kim


    Full Text Available The 2008 San Francisco International Asian American Film Festival presented three narrative films, Never Forever, Pretty to Think So, and West 32nd, with suggestively similar interests. Namely, all three films focus on “horizontal” (rather than intergenerational conflicts between characters distinguished by class, legal status, and migration history but connected by ethnic or racial identifications. This article argues that the films, individually and collectively, participate in ongoing deliberations about the borders of Asian America by juxtaposing and organizing distinct models of conceiving Asian American identity. In particular, the films suggest the limitations of privileging certain formations of Asian America over others by both dramatizing and embodying their uneasy coexistence. Tensions between minority, immigrant, and diasporic positions become evident not only through their plots, characterizations, and stylistic elements but also in their complex production and distribution histories. The films together highlight the necessity of attending to the difficult questions of ethnic and racial identification and material inequity that are manifest when the various narratives of affiliation and difference espoused by each model encounter one another.

  4. Problems Facing Disabled People in Malawi : A Critical Reflection on My Encounter with a Disabled Woman in a Rural Area in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memory J. Tembo


    Full Text Available This critical reflection is based on my encounter with a disabled woman in a district in Malawi, and how I have reflected and analyzed the encounter using social work theories. The essay reflects on the story of the disabled woman and my own perception at that time, in addition to my analysis of these perceptions using different perspectives in social work based on my current understanding of these perspectives. In line with Fook’s (2002; 68 critical reflection techniques, social work theories will be applied to deconstruct and reconstruct the critical incident. The essay highlights the challenges and dilemmas I encountered in attempting to make meaning out of this encounter, which left me helpless and powerless, as I could not offer her any sustainable help at the time.

  5. A student's guide to numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, Ian H


    This concise, plain-language guide for senior undergraduates and graduate students aims to develop intuition, practical skills and an understanding of the framework of numerical methods for the physical sciences and engineering. It provides accessible self-contained explanations of mathematical principles, avoiding intimidating formal proofs. Worked examples and targeted exercises enable the student to master the realities of using numerical techniques for common needs such as solution of ordinary and partial differential equations, fitting experimental data, and simulation using particle and Monte Carlo methods. Topics are carefully selected and structured to build understanding, and illustrate key principles such as: accuracy, stability, order of convergence, iterative refinement, and computational effort estimation. Enrichment sections and in-depth footnotes form a springboard to more advanced material and provide additional background. Whether used for self-study, or as the basis of an accelerated introdu...

  6. Product numerical range in a space with tensor product structure


    Puchała, Zbigniew; Gawron, Piotr; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Skowronek, Łukasz; Choi, Man-Duen; Życzkowski, Karol


    We study operators acting on a tensor product Hilbert space and investigate their product numerical range, product numerical radius and separable numerical range. Concrete bounds for the product numerical range for Hermitian operators are derived. Product numerical range of a non-Hermitian operator forms a subset of the standard numerical range containing the barycenter of the spectrum. While the latter set is convex, the product range needs not to be convex nor simply connected. The product ...

  7. Solar Electric Propulsion Triple-Satellite-Aided Capture With Mars Flyby (United States)

    Patrick, Sean

    Triple-Satellite-aided-capture sequences use gravity-assists at three of Jupiter's four massive Galilean moons to reduce the DeltaV required to enter into Jupiter orbit. A triple-satellite-aided capture at Callisto, Ganymede, and Io is proposed to capture a SEP spacecraft into Jupiter orbit from an interplanetary Earth-Jupiter trajectory that employs low-thrust maneuvers. The principal advantage of this method is that it combines the ISP efficiency of ion propulsion with nearly impulsive but propellant-free gravity assists. For this thesis, two main chapters are devoted to the exploration of low-thrust triple-flyby capture trajectories. Specifically, the design and optimization of these trajectories are explored heavily. The first chapter explores the design of two solar electric propulsion (SEP), low-thrust trajectories developed using the JPL's MALTO software. The two trajectories combined represent a full Earth to Jupiter capture split into a heliocentric Earth to Jupiter Sphere of Influence (SOI) trajectory and a Joviocentric capture trajectory. The Joviocentric trajectory makes use of gravity assist flybys of Callisto, Ganymede, and Io to capture into Jupiter orbit with a period of 106.3 days. Following this, in chapter two, three more SEP low-thrust trajectories were developed based upon those in chapter one. These trajectories, devised using the high-fidelity Mystic software, also developed by JPL, improve upon the original trajectories developed in chapter one. Here, the developed trajectories are each three separate, full Earth to Jupiter capture orbits. As in chapter one, a Mars gravity assist is used to augment the heliocentric trajectories. Gravity-assist flybys of Callisto, Ganymede, and Io or Europa are used to capture into Jupiter Orbit. With between 89.8 and 137.2-day periods, the orbits developed in chapters one and two are shorter than most Jupiter capture orbits achieved using low-thrust propulsion techniques. Finally, chapter 3 presents an

  8. Tvashtar's Plume during the New Horizons Flyby of the Jovian System (United States)

    Trafton, Laurence M.; Hoey, William Andrew; Ackley, Peter; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.


    During the gravity-assist flyby of the Jovian system from 26 Feb 2007 to 3 Mar 2007, the New Horizons spacecraft obtained multiple images of Io's Pele-class plume "Tvashtar" using the panchromatic LORRI camera, including a unique "movie" sequence of 5 images taken 2 minutes apart that provide the only record of dynamical activity for an extra-terrestrial volcanic plume. Prominent plume activity included a single traveling wave traveling down the west side of the canopy and a semi-regular particulate pattern that evolved down the canopy. The spout was detected in an average of the 5 movie images and its intensity may constrain the refractory complement of the plume. Comparison with the observed plume irradiance may then constrain the condensate complement. Other features, more apparent after subtracting the mean movie image, include semi-periodic azimuthal density variation in the canopy at plausibly common flight times from the vent, implying an azimuthal component to the dust density distribution at the vent. There are features that show a few large tendrils distributed in azimuth around the canopy that extend all the way to the surface, like the canopy projection, while the rest of the canopy appears to have a large discontinuity in density at the rim, as if the canopy were suspended. Successive waves having contrasting mean wavefront density suggest a fundamental-mode temporal pulsing at the vent. The scattering phase function for the plume particulates was found to be strongly forward scattering, increasing nearly monotonically during the flyby by an order of magnitude over the solar phase angle range 57 - 150 deg. Rathbun et al. (2014; Icarus 231, 261) reported that neither the Girru nor Tvashtar surface eruptions varied dramatically over 1-2 Mar 2007; however, most of the growth we found in Tvashtar's brightness during the flyby occurred by these dates. Therefore, increasing eruption activity, rising refractory dust density, or condensation may have

  9. Expert System Architecture for Rocket Engine Numerical Simulators: A Vision (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Babu, U.; Earla, A. K.; Hemminger, Joseph A.


    Simulation of any complex physical system like rocket engines involves modeling the behavior of their different components using mostly numerical equations. Typically a simulation package would contain a set of subroutines for these modeling purposes and some other ones for supporting jobs. A user would create an input file configuring a system (part or whole of a rocket engine to be simulated) in appropriate format understandable by the package and run it to create an executable module corresponding to the simulated system. This module would then be run on a given set of input parameters in another file. Simulation jobs are mostly done for performance measurements of a designed system, but could be utilized for failure analysis or a design job such as inverse problems. In order to use any such package the user needs to understand and learn a lot about the software architecture of the package, apart from being knowledgeable in the target domain. We are currently involved in a project in designing an intelligent executive module for the rocket engine simulation packages, which would free any user from this burden of acquiring knowledge on a particular software system. The extended abstract presented here will describe the vision, methodology and the problems encountered in the project. We are employing object-oriented technology in designing the executive module. The problem is connected to the areas like the reverse engineering of any simulation software, and the intelligent systems for simulation.

  10. A numerical technique for reactor subchannel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, Hassan E.S.


    A numerical technique is developed for the solution of the transient boundary layer equations with a moving liquid-vapour interface boundary. The technique uses the finite difference method with the velocity components defined over an Eulerian mesh. A system of interface massless markers is defined where the markers move with the flow field according to a simple kinematic relation between the interface geometry and the fluid velocity. Different applications of nuclear engineering interest are reported with some available results. The present technique is capable of predicting the interface profile near the wall which is important in the reactor subchannel analysis

  11. New Understanding of Mercury's Magnetosphere from MESSENGER'S First Flyby (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho, George C.; Killen, M.; Korth, Haje; hide


    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft on 14 January 2008 have revealed new features of the solar system's smallest planetary magnetosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field orientation was unfavorable for large inputs of energy from the solar wind and no evidence of magnetic substorms, internal magnetic reconnection, or energetic particle acceleration was detected. Large-scale rotations of the magnetic field were measured along the dusk flank of the magnetosphere and ultra-tow frequency waves were frequently observed beginning near closest approach. Outbound the spacecraft encountered two current-sheet boundaries across which the magnetic field intensity decreased in a step-like manner. The outer current sheet is the magnetopause boundary. The inner current sheet is similar in structure, but weaker and -1000 km closer to the planet. Between these two current sheets the magnetic field intensity is depressed by the diamagnetic effect of planetary ions created by the photo-ionization of Mercury's exosphere.

  12. Preliminary results from a simulated laboratory experiment or an encounter of cluster satellite probes with a reconnection layer (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Ren, Y.; Ji, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Darfman, S.


    With the recent upgrade of the MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment) device[1], our experimental operation allows us to carry out a jog experiment in which a current sheet can be moved swiftly across an inserted probe assembly. A cluster of probes with variable distances can be inserted into a known desired position in the MRX device. This setup can be similar to the situation in which a cluster of satellites encounters a rapidly moving reconnection layer. If necessary, we can create a neutral sheet where the density of one side is significantly higher than the other, as is the case for the magnetopause. A variable guide field will be applied to study its effect on reconnection. We proposed[2] to document basic patterns of data during a simulated encounter of the MRX reconnection layer with the four-probe mock-up system and compare them with data acquired from past satellites. Relative position of the MMS satellites in the magnetosphere can then be determined. Optimum cluster configuration or distance between the four satellites can be determined for various diagnostics or research missions. The relationship of magnetic fluctuations[3] with the observed out-of- plane quadrupole field, a characteristic signature of the Hall MHD, can be also studied in this series of experiments. In this paper, results from a preliminary experiment will be presented. These experiments utilize effectively the unique MRX ability to accurately know the location of diagnostics with respect to the moving reconnection layer. Supported by DoE, NASA, NSF. [1] M. Yamada et al, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052119 (2006), [2] M.Yamada et al, MMS-IDS proposal (2006), [3] H. Ji et al, Phys. Rev. Letts. 92, 115001 (2004)

  13. Use of a field model to analyze probable fire environments encountered within the complex geometries of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Usher, J.L.; Singhal, A.K.; Tam, L.T.


    A fire in a nuclear power plant (NPP) can damage equipment needed to safely operate the plant and thereby either directly cause an accident or else reduce the plant's margin of safety. The development of a field-model fire code to analyze the probable fire environments encountered within NPP is discussed. A set of fire tests carried out under the aegis of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is described. The results of these tests are then utilized to validate the field model

  14. Fracture assessment of a main reactor coolant pump in a BWR with encountered defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B [Swedish Plant Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)


    This document presents a case-study fracture assessment in BWR type reactor components. A cast stainless steel presenting defects due to thermal is studied. The stress analysis performed by aid of a finite element technique shows that a Leak Before Break situation could be expected. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the cross section of the pump where the defect area was located can withstand very deep cracks before the risk of failure becomes unacceptable. (TEC).

  15. Five Encounters with "El Sistema" International: A Venezuelan Marvel Becomes a Global Movement (United States)

    Booth, Eric; Tunstall, Tricia


    Genuine worldwide movements for social change are rare in human history. Even more rare is the phenomenon of a worldwide movement for social change through art, with teaching artists at the forefront. This article presents the evolution of such a movement now, in the global blossoming of "El Sistema," a program that seeks to change the…

  16. "A Cellular Encounter": Constructing the Cell as a Whole System Using Illustrative Models (United States)

    Cohen, Joel I.


    A standard part of biology curricula is a project-based assessment of cell structure and function. However, these are often individual assignments that promote little problem-solving or group learning and avoid the subject of organelle chemical interactions. I evaluate a model-based cell project designed to foster group and individual guided…

  17. A "Shark Encounter": Delayed Primary Closure and Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment of a Great White Shark Bite. (United States)

    Popa, Daniel; Van Hoesen, Karen


    Shark bites are rare but sensational injuries that are covered in the lay press but are not well described in the medical literature. We present the case of a 50-year-old man who sustained two deep puncture wounds to his thigh from a great white shark in the waters surrounding Isla de Guadalupe off the coast of Baja California, Mexico, during a caged SCUBA dive. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We discuss our strategy of closing the wounds in a delayed primary fashion 24 hours after injury, our antibiotic choices, and the patient's course and review marine pathogens and appropriate antibiotic coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Mommy Breast and a Daddy Breast: Encountering Illness as Emergent Curriculum (United States)

    Wien, Carol Anne; Keating, Bobbi-Lynn; West, Justin; Bigelow, Barb


    A visitor to Peter Green Hall Children's Centre's classroom for 4- and 5-year-olds broke down in tears when she saw their teacher Bobbi with a head bald from chemotherapy. The visitor said her sister-in-law had recently died of breast cancer. In the family's desperate need to cope with the situation, their children, 4 and 6 years old, were not…

  19. Asymptotic and numerical studies of a differential-delay system (United States)

    Semak, Matthew Richard

    A singularly-perturbed differential-delay equation is studied the form of which is seen in various fields. Relaxation effects are combined with nonlinear driving from the past in this system. Having an infinite dimensional phase space, this flow is capable of very interesting behavior. Among the rich aspects of the dynamics of such a relation, period doubling can be observed as parameters are varied. Rigorous proofs concerning the existence of such periodic solutions can be found in the literature. Attention is given to the (first) Hopf bifurcation as the periodic structure is born. Key questions concern the limit of fast relaxation. In this limit, one can analytically understand the development of the periodic solution in the neighborhood of the bifurcation along with the frequency shift which is encountered. This limit also reveals the underlying mapping structure present. In the model studied, this is the logistic map the behavior of which is well-known. Convergence of periodic solutions to the mapping's square wave involves central issues in this work. An analogue to Gibb's phenomenon presents itself as the mapping structure is approached for a certain range of parameters. Transition layers also exist and, together with the latter, present a challenge to various computational approaches. A highly accurate and efficient spectral numerical technique is introduced to properly resolve such behavior in the limit studied. This scheme is used to measure the period's dependence on the relaxation rate in this region of parameter space. Also, numerically assisted asymptotic analysis develops relations for the layers. Moreover, regimes of parameter values have been identified for which there exist extremely long-lived transient states of arbitrarily complex form. Finally, initial interval states are designed which lead to specific long-lived multi-layer patterns of significant complexity. Layer-layer interactions are considered concerning the formation and lifetime of

  20. A rare encounter with very massive stars in NGC 3125-A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wofford, Aida [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [University of Toledo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bouret, Jean-Claude, E-mail: [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)


    Super star cluster A1 in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 3125 is characterized by broad He II λ1640 emission (FWHM ∼ 1200 km s{sup –1}) of unprecedented strength (equivalent width, EW = 7.1 ± 0.4 Å). Previous attempts to characterize the massive star content in NGC 3125-A1 were hampered by the low resolution of the UV spectrum and the lack of co-spatial panchromatic data. We obtained far-UV to near-IR spectroscopy of the two principal emitting regions in the galaxy with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We use these data to study three clusters in the galaxy, A1, B1, and B2. We derive cluster ages of 3-4 Myr, intrinsic reddenings of E(B – V) = 0.13, 0.15, and 0.13, and cluster masses of 1.7 × 10{sup 5}, 1.4 × 10{sup 5}, and 1.1 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, respectively. A1 and B2 show O V λ1371 absorption from massive stars, which is rarely seen in star-forming galaxies, and have Wolf-Rayet (WR) to O star ratios of N(WN5-6)/N(O) = 0.23 and 0.10, respectively. The high N(WN5-6)/N(O) ratio of A1 cannot be reproduced by models that use a normal initial mass function (IMF) and generic WR star line luminosities. We rule out that the extraordinary He II λ1640 emission and O V λ1371 absorption of A1 are due to an extremely flat upper IMF exponent, and suggest that they originate in the winds of very massive (>120 M {sub ☉}) stars. In order to reproduce the properties of peculiar clusters such as A1, the present grid of stellar evolution tracks implemented in Starburst99 needs to be extended to masses >120 M {sub ☉}.

  1. Polish Experts’ Communication Encounters with Locals in a Chinese Subsidiary of a Western MNC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczewski, Michał; Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Gut, Arkadiusz

    and thematic analysis. Their stories reveal prerequisites for intercultural communication, language and culture-related communication problems with strategies to mitigate them, and factors that affect communication. The study offers important insights into the Polish-Chinese communication in a specific...

  2. Intercultural Encounters as a "Mind Body" Experience: A Case Study in Jerusalem (United States)

    Bar Shalom, Yehuda; Grebelsy-Lichtman, Tsfira; Alayan, Fatima


    This study presents new techniques for teaching diversity, when dealing with the challenges of multicultural society. We present a course model, which incorporates methods that have been developed by the Center for Mind-Body Medicine (CMBM), and continue to disclose and analyse some of the reactions and evaluations we received from the…

  3. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skorek


    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  4. Development of a numerical pump testing framework. (United States)

    Kaufmann, Tim A S; Gregory, Shaun D; Büsen, Martin R; Tansley, Geoff D; Steinseifer, Ulrich


    It has been shown that left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) increase the survival rate in end-stage heart failure patients. However, there is an ongoing demand for an increased quality of life, fewer adverse events, and more physiological devices. These challenges necessitate new approaches during the design process. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), lumped parameter (LP) modeling, mock circulatory loops (MCLs), and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are combined to develop a numerical Pump Testing Framework (nPTF) capable of analyzing local flow patterns and the systemic response of LVADs. The nPTF was created by connecting a CFD model of the aortic arch, including an LVAD outflow graft to an LP model of the circulatory system. Based on the same geometry, a three-dimensional silicone model was crafted using rapid prototyping and connected to an MCL. PIV studies of this setup were performed to validate the local flow fields (PIV) and the systemic response (MCL) of the nPTF. After validation, different outflow graft positions were compared using the nPTF. Both the numerical and the experimental setup were able to generate physiological responses by adjusting resistances and systemic compliance, with mean aortic pressures of 72.2-132.6 mm Hg for rotational speeds of 2200-3050 rpm. During LVAD support, an average flow to the distal branches (cerebral and subclavian) of 24% was found in the experiments and the nPTF. The flow fields from PIV and CFD were in good agreement. Numerical and experimental tools were combined to develop and validate the nPTF, which can be used to analyze local flow fields and the systemic response of LVADs during the design process. This allows analysis of physiological control parameters at early development stages and may, therefore, help to improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Magnetic Tail Loading and Unloading During its Third Flyby of Mercury: Substorms? (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Gloeckler, George; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.


    During MESSENGER's third flyby of Mercury on September 29, 2009, a variable interplanetary magnetic field produced a series of several minute enhancements of the tail magnetic field hy factors of approx. 2 to 3.5. The magnetic field flaring during these intervals indicates that they result from loading of the tail with magnetic flux transferred from the dayside magnetosphere. The unloading intervals were associated with plasmoids and traveling compression regions, signatures of tail reconnection. The peak tail magnetic flux during the smallest loading events equaled 30% of the magnetic flux emanating from Mercury, and may have reached 100% for the largest event. In this case the dayside magnetic shielding is reduced and solar wind flux impacting the surface may be greatly enhanced. Despite the intensity of these events and their similarity to terrestrial substorm magnetic flux dynamics, no energetic charged particles with energies greater than 36 keV were observed.

  6. Getting a Kick Out of Numerical Relativity (United States)


    Operating ground-based gravitational wave detectors and a planned instrument in space are bringing about the new field of gravitational wave astronomy. A prime source for any of these observatories is the merger of a system of two black holes. Brought together by copious losses of gravitational-wave energy, these systems merge in a burst of energy with a peak power exceeding any electromagnetic source. Observations of these sources will generate a wealth of astrophysical information, and may provide an unparalleled probe of strong-field gravitational physics, but a full interpretation of the observations will require detailed predictions from General Relativity. I will discuss recent advances in numerical simulations of binary black hole systems which are generating dramatic progress in understanding binary black hole mergers. Recent achievements include the first simulations of binary black hole systems through several orbits and merger, leading to detailed predictions for the final portion of the gravitational radiation waveforms from equal-mass mergers. For unequal-mass mergers, it has recently become possible to measure the impulsive kick imparted to the final black hole, by the asymmetry of the merger radiation. These first results announce an accelerating wave of progress soon to come from the energetic field of numerical relativity.

  7. Ultraviolet Observations of the Earth and Moon during the Juno Flyby (United States)

    Gladstone, R.; Versteeg, M. H.; Davis, M.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gerard, J. M.; Grodent, D. C.; Bonfond, B.


    We present the initial results from Juno-UVS observations of the Earth and Moon obtained during the flyby of the Juno spacecraft on 9 October 2013. Juno-UVS is an imaging spectrograph with a bandpass of 70dog-bone' shape 7.2° long, in three sections of 0.2°, 0.025°, and 0.2° width (as projected onto the sky). Light entering the slit is dispersed by a toroidal grating which focuses UV light onto a curved microchannel plate cross delay line detector with a solar blind UV-sensitive CsI photocathode, which makes up the instrument's focal plane. Tantalum surrounds the detector assembly to shield it from high-energy electrons. The detector electronics are located behind the detector. All other electronics are located in a box inside Juno's spacecraft vault, including redundant low-voltage and high-voltage power supplies, command and data handling electronics, heater/actuator electronics, scan mirror electronics, and event processing electronics. The purpose of Juno-UVS is to remotely sense Jupiter's auroral morphology and brightness to provide context for in situ measurements by Juno's particle instruments. The recent Earth flyby provided an opportunity to: 1) use observations of the lunar surface to improve flux and wavelength calibration at EUV wavelengths λ<91 nm (for which there are few stellar calibration options); 2) test the Juno spacecraft nadir-pulse system (which will be used at Jupiter to control scan mirror movements); 3) observe Earth airglow, aurora, and geocoronal emissions (for science interest); and 4) determine the effectiveness of the Ta shielding to high-energy particles (using dark observations made during Juno's passage through Earth's radiation belts). Preliminary results for each of these objectives will be presented.

  8. From Parasite Encounter to Infection: Multiple-Scale Drivers of Parasite Richness in a Wild Social Primate Population (United States)

    Benavides J. A.; Huchard, E.; Pettorelli, N.; King, A. J.; Brown, M. E.; Archer, C. E.; Appleton, C. C.; Raymond, M.; Cowlishaw, G.


    Host parasite diversity plays a fundamental role in ecological and evolutionary processes, yet the factors that drive it are still poorly understood. A variety of processes, operating across a range of spatial scales, are likely to influence both the probability of parasite encounter and subsequent infection. Here, we explored eight possible determinants of parasite richness, comprising rainfall and temperature at the population level, ranging behavior and home range productivity at the group level, and age, sex, body condition, and social rank at the individual level. We used a unique dataset describing gastrointestinal parasites in a terrestrial subtropical vertebrate (chacma baboons, Papio ursinus), comprising 662 faecal samples from 86 individuals representing all age-sex classes across two groups over two dry seasons in a desert population. Three mixed models were used to identify the most important factor at each of the three spatial scales (population, group, individual); these were then standardised and combined in a single, global, mixed model. Individual age had the strongest influence on parasite richness, in a convex relationship. Parasite richness was also higher in females and animals in poor condition, albeit at a lower order of magnitude than age. Finally, with a further halving of effect size, parasite richness was positively correlated to day range and temperature. These findings indicate that a range of factors influence host parasite richness through both encounter and infection probabilities, but that individual-level processes may be more important than those at the group or population level.

  9. A numerical study of cutting bubbles with a wire mesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, M.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.


    Gas-liquid-solid flows are frequently encountered in chemical, petrochemical and biochemical industries. To overcome the heat and mass transfer limitations in trickle bed reactors and bubble slurry columns, respectively, a micro-structured bubble column (MSBC) can serve as an attractive alternative.

  10. The Morphology of Craters on Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Flybys (United States)

    Barnouin, Oliver S.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Herrick, Robert R.; Chappelow, John E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.


    Topographic data measured from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft were used for investigations of the relationship between depth and diameter for impact craters on Mercury. Results using data from the MESSENGER flybys of the innermost planet indicate that most of the craters measured with MLA are shallower than those previously measured by using Mariner 10 images. MDIS images of these same MLA-measured craters show that they have been modified. The use of shadow measurement techniques, which were found to be accurate relative to the MLA results, indicate that both small bowl-shaped and large complex craters that are fresh possess depth-to-diameter ratios that are in good agreement with those measured from Mariner 10 images. The preliminary data also show that the depths of modified craters are shallower relative to fresh ones, and might provide quantitative estimates of crater in-filling by subsequent volcanic or impact processes. The diameter that defines the transition from simple to complex craters on Mercury based on MESSENGER data is consistent with that reported from Mariner 10 data.

  11. Nursing students experienced personal inadequacy, vulnerability and transformation during their patient care encounter: A qualitative meta-synthesis. (United States)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth


    To identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence exploring nursing students' experiences of professional patient care encounters in a hospital unit. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) guidelines were followed and a meta-synthesis was conducted. Qualitative research articles were considered for inclusion in the review, and JBI's meta-aggregative approach to synthesizing qualitative evidence was followed. An extensive search for relevant literature was undertaken in scientific databases. Data were extracted from the included research articles, and qualitative research findings were pooled using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. This involved categorization of findings on the basis of similarity of meaning and aggregation of these categories to produce a comprehensive set of synthesized findings. A total of five research articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The review process resulted in 46 subcategories that were aggregated into 13 categories. The categories generated four synthesized findings: personal existence; personal learning and development; being a professional fellow human; and clinical learning environment. We meta-synthesized that: Nursing students experienced personal inadequacy, vulnerability and a transformation during their patient care encounter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and Characterization of a High Throughput Screen to investigate the delayed Effects of Radiations Commonly Encountered in Space (United States)

    Morgan, W. F.

    Astronauts based on the space station or on long-term space missions will be exposed to high Z radiations in the cosmic environment In order to evaluate the potentially deleterious effects of exposure to radiations commonly encountered in space we have developed and characterized a high throughput assay to detect mutation deletion events and or hyperrecombination in the progeny of exposed cells This assay is based on a plasmid vector containing a green fluorescence protein reporter construct We have shown that after stable transfection of the vector into human or hamster cells this construct can identify mutations specifically base changes and deletions as well as recombination events e g gene conversion or homologous recombination occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation Our focus has been on those events occurring in the progeny of an irradiated cell that are potentially associated with radiation induced genomic instability rather than the more conventional assays that evaluate the direct immediate effects of radiation exposure Considerable time has been spent automating analysis of surviving colonies as a function of time after irradiation in order to determine when delayed instability is induced and the consequences of this delayed instability The assay is now automated permitting the evaluation of potentially rare events associated with low dose low dose rate radiations commonly encountered in space


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Earth-2 flyby in GSE and GSM coordinates. These data cover the interval 1992-11-03 to 1992-12-20.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Galileo Orbiter 60 second sampled trajectory data from the Earth-1 flyby in GSE and GSM coordinates. These data cover the interval 1990-11-05 to 1990-12-31.

  15. Mathematica with a Numerical Methods Course (United States)

    Varley, Rodney


    An interdisciplinary "Numerical Methods" course has been shared between physics, mathematics and computer science since 1992 at Hunter C. Recently, the lectures and workshops for this course have become formalized and placed on the internet at (follow the links "Course Listings and Websites" >> "PHYS385 (Numerical Methods)". Mathematica notebooks for the lectures are available for automatic download (by "double clicking" the lecture icon) for student use in the classroom or at home. AOL (or Netscape/Explorer) can be used provided Mathematica (or the "free" MathReader) has been made a "helper application". Using Mathematica has the virtue that mathematical equations (no LaTex required) can easily be included with the text and Mathematica's graphing is easy to use. Computational cells can be included within the notebook and students may easily modify the calculation to see the result of "what if..." questions. Homework is sent as Mathematica notebooks to the instructor via the internet and the corrected workshops are returned in the same manner. Most exam questions require computational solutions.

  16. N-Body simulations of tidal encounters between stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.D.; Ramamani, N.; Alladin, S.M.


    N-Body simulations have been performed to study the tidal effects of a primary stellar system on a secondary stellar system of density close to the Roche density. Two hyperbolic, one parabolic and one elliptic encounters have been simulated. The changes in energy, angular momentum, mass distribution, and shape of the secondary system have been determined in each case. The inner region containing about 40% of the mass was found to be practically unchanged and the mass exterior to the tidal radius was found to escape. The intermediate region showed tidal distension. The thickness of this region decreased as we went from hyperbolic encounters to the elliptic encounter keeping the distance of closest approach constant. The numerical results for the fractional change in energy have been compared with the predictions of the available analytic formulae and the usefulness and limitations of the formulae have been discussed. (author)

  17. Encounters of The Solar System With Molecular Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, J. T.


    The solar system has penetrated about 5 -- 10 giant molecular clouds over its history, and passes within 5 parsecs of a star-forming nebula every 100 million years or so. Numerical simulations of the effect of such encounters in perturbing the Oort cloud of comets are carried out using standard n-body computational techniques. It is found that the ingress of comets into the inner planetary system during such encounters amounts to factors of ∼100 over the average. During an encounter the impact rate of comets onto Earth increases by a comparable factor. The of ages of impact craters on the Earth is shown to be consistent with predictions from the model

  18. Awkward Encounters and Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koning, Juliette; Ooi, Can-Seng


    from these encounters. Un-paralyzing reflexivity means to include the awkward, the emotional, and admit the non-rational aspects of our ethnographic experiences; such inclusive reflexivity is incredibly insightful. Research limitations/implications – Inclusive reflexivity not only allows room...

  19. Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.


    The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.

  20. Towards observing the encounter of the T7 DNA replication fork with a lesion site at the Single molecule level

    KAUST Repository

    Shirbini, Afnan


    Single-molecule DNA flow-stretching assays have been a powerful approach to study various aspects on the mechanism of DNA replication for more than a decade. This technique depends on flow-induced force on a bead attached to a surface-tethered DNA. The difference in the elastic property between double-strand DNA (long) and single-strand DNA (short) at low regime force allows the observation of the beads motion when the dsDNA is converted to ssDNA by the replisome machinery during DNA replication. Here, I aim to develop an assay to track in real-time the encounter of the bacteriophage T7 replisome with abasic lesion site inserted on the leading strand template. I optimized methods to construct the DNA substrate that contains the abasic site and established the T7 leading strand synthesis at the single molecule level. I also optimized various control experiments to remove any interference from the nonspecific interactions of the DNA with the surface. My work established the foundation to image the encounter of the T7 replisome with abasic site and to characterize how the interactions between the helicase and the polymerase could influence the polymerase proofreading ability and its direct bypass of this highly common DNA damage type.

  1. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry. (United States)

    Charbonneau, D L; Ponte, J M; Kochanowski, B A


    In many outbreaks of foodborne illness, the food worker has been implicated as the source of the infection. To decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination, food workers must clean and disinfect their hands frequently. To ensure their effectiveness, hand disinfectants should be tested using rigorous conditions that mimic normal use. Currently, several different methods are used to assess the efficacy of hand disinfectants. However, most of these methods were designed with the health care worker in mind and do not model the specific contamination situations encountered by the food worker. To fill this void, we developed a model that uses soil from fresh meat and a means of quantifying bacteria that is encountered and transferred during food preparation activities. Results of studies using various doses of para-chloro-meta-xylenol and triclosan confirm that the method is reproducible and predictable in measuring the efficacy of sanitizers. Consistent, dose-dependent results were obtained with relatively few subjects. Other studies showed that washing hands with a mild soap and water for 20 s was more effective than applying a 70% alcohol hand sanitizer.

  2. Trends in the utilization of medical imaging from 2003 to 2011: clinical encounters offer a complementary patient-centered focus. (United States)

    Dodoo, Martey S; Duszak, Richard; Hughes, Danny R


    The aim of this study was to investigate trends in utilization and spending for medical imaging, using medical visits resulting in imaging as a novel metric of utilization. Utilization and spending for medical imaging were examined using (1) Medicare Part B claims data from 2003 to 2011 to measure per-enrollee spending and (2) household component events data on the elderly Medicare-age population from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2003 to 2010 to measure utilization as a function of clinical encounters. Annual health spending and Medicare payments for imaging for the elderly population grew from $294 per enrollee in 2003 to $418 in 2006 and had declined to $390 by 2011. Over this entire time, however, annual medical visits by a similar Medicare-age (≥ 65 years old) population resulting in imaging trended consistently downward, from 12.8% in 2003 to 10.6% in 2011. Despite early growth and then more recent declines in average Medicare spending per enrollee since 2003, the percentage of patient encounters resulting in medical imaging has significantly and consistently declined nationwide. Spending alone is thus an incomplete measure of changes in the role and utilization of medical imaging in overall patient care. As policymakers focus on medical imaging, a thoughtful analysis of payment policy influencing imaging utilization, and its role in concurrent and downstream patient care, will be critical to ensure appropriate patient access. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical investigation of a Hall thruster plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Subrata; Pandey, B.P.


    The dynamics of the Hall thruster is investigated numerically in the framework of a one-dimensional, multifluid macroscopic description of a partially ionized xenon plasma using finite element formulation. The model includes neutral dynamics, inelastic processes, and plasma-wall interaction. Owing to disparate temporal scales, ions and neutrals have been described by set of time-dependent equations, while electrons are considered in steady state. Based on the experimental observations, a third order polynomial in electron temperature is used to calculate ionization rate. The results show that in the acceleration channel the increase in the ion number density is related to the decrease in the neutral number density. The electron and ion velocity profiles are consistent with the imposed electric field. The electron temperature remains uniform for nearly two-thirds of the channel; then sharply increases to a peak before dropping slightly at the exit. This is consistent with the predicted electron gyration velocity distribution

  4. Drag on a Satellite Moving across a Spherical Galaxy: Tidal and Frictional Forces in Short-lived Encounters (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Pallavicini, Andrea


    The drag force on a satellite of mass M moving with speed V in the gravitational field of a spherically symmetric background of stars is computed. During the encounter, the stars are subject to a time-dependent force that alters their equilibrium. The resulting distortion in the stellar density field acts back to produce a force FΔ that decelerates the satellite. This force is computed using a perturbative technique known as linear response theory. In this paper, we extend the formalism of linear response to derive the correct expression for the back-reaction force FΔ that applies when the stellar system is described by an equilibrium one-particle distribution function. FΔ is expressed in terms of a suitable correlation function that couples the satellite dynamics to the unperturbed dynamics of the stars. At time t, the force depends upon the whole history of the composite system. In the formalism, we account for the shift of the stellar center of mass resulting from linear momentum conservation. The self-gravity of the response is neglected since it contributes to a higher order in the perturbation. Linear response theory applies also to the case of a satellite orbiting outside the spherical galaxy. The case of a satellite moving on a straight line, at high speed relative to the stellar dispersion velocity, is explored. We find that the satellite during its passage raises (1) global tides in the stellar distribution and (2) a wake, i.e., an overdense region behind its trail. If the satellite motion is external to the galaxy, it suffers a dissipative force that is not exclusively acting along V but acquires a component along R, the position vector relative to the center of the spherical galaxy. We derive the analytical expression of the force in the impulse approximation. In penetrating short-lived encounters, the satellite moves across the stellar distribution and the transient wake excited in the density field is responsible for most of the deceleration. We

  5. High energy gravitational scattering: a numerical study

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, Giuseppe


    The S-matrix in gravitational high energy scattering is computed from the region of large impact parameters b down to the regime where classical gravitational collapse is expected to occur. By solving the equation of an effective action introduced by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano we find that the perturbative expansion around the leading eikonal result diverges at a critical value signalling the onset of a new regime. We then discuss the main features of our explicitly unitary S-matrix down to the Schwarzschild's radius R=2G s^(1/2), where it diverges at a critical value b ~ 2.22 R of the impact parameter. The nature of the singularity is studied with particular attention to the scaling behaviour of various observables at the transition. The numerical approach is validated by reproducing the known exact solution in the axially symmetric case to high accuracy.

  6. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.


    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  7. A numerical reference model for themomechanical subduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinquis, Matthieu; Chemia, Zurab; Tosi, Nicola


    Building an advanced numerical model of subduction requires choosing values for various geometrical parameters and material properties, among others, the initial lithosphere thicknesses, representative lithological types and their mechanical and thermal properties, rheologies, initial temperature...

  8. U. Blossing, G. Imsen & L. Moos (eds., The Nordic Education Model: ´A School for All´ Encounters Noe-Liberal Policy (Dordrecht: Springer, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þorlákur Axel Jónsson


    Full Text Available Book review of: Blossing, G. Imsen & L. Moos (eds, The Nordic Education Model: ´A School for All´ Encounters Noe-Liberal Policy (Dordrecht: Springer, Policy Implications of Research in Education 1, 2014

  9. Cultural Psychiatry: A Spotlight on the Experience of Clinical Social Workers' Encounter with Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mental Health Clients. (United States)

    Freund, Anat; Band-Winterstein, Tova


    Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Exclusion vs. grace and compassion. (2) Mental health: A professional or cultural arena? (3) Mental health help-seeking changing processes. This study shows that the attitude in the Haredi community toward mental health therapy undergoes a process of change. It is important to strengthen this process, together with preserving existing community informal structures of help.

  10. Numerical Simulation of a Seaway with Breaking (United States)

    Dommermuth, Douglas; O'Shea, Thomas; Brucker, Kyle; Wyatt, Donald


    The focus of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts to simulate a fully non-linear seaway with breaking by using a high-order spectral (HOS) solution of the free-surface boundary value problem to drive a three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) solution. Historically, the two main types of simulations to simulate free-surface flows are the boundary integral equations method (BIEM) and high-order spectral (HOS) methods. BIEM calculations fail at the point at which the surface impacts upon itself, if not sooner, and HOS methods can only simulate a single valued free-surface. Both also employ a single-phase approximation in which the effects of the air on the water are neglected. Due to these limitations they are unable to simulate breaking waves and air entrainment. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method on the other hand is suitable for modeling breaking waves and air entrainment. However it is computationally intractable to generate a realistic non-linear sea-state. Here, we use the HOS solution to quickly drive, or nudge, the VOF solution into a non-linear state. The computational strategies, mathematical formulation, and numerical implementation will be discussed. The results of the VOF simulation of a seaway with breaking will also be presented, and compared to the single phase, single valued HOS results.

  11. Numerical simulation of a precessing vortex breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, P.; Sinigersky, A.; Hehle, M.; Schaefer, O.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.


    The objective of this work is to present the results of time-dependent numerical predictions of a turbulent symmetry breaking vortex breakdown in a realistic gas turbine combustor. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved by using the k-ε two-equation model as well as by a full second-order closure using the Reynolds stress model of Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski (SSG). The results for a Reynolds number of 5.2 x 10 4 , a swirl number of 0.52 and an expansion ratio of 5 show that the flow is emerging from the swirler as a spiral gyrating around a zone of strong recirculation which is also asymmetric and precessing. These flow structures which are typical for the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown have been confirmed by PIV and local LDA measurements in a corresponding experimental setup. Provided that high resolution meshes are employed the calculations with both turbulence models are capable to reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of the flow

  12. The Association Between Law Enforcement Encounters and Syringe Sharing Among IDUs on Skid Row: A Mixed Methods Analysis (United States)

    Simon-Freeman, Rebecca; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.


    The legal environment is one factor that influences injection drug users' (IDUs) risk for HIV and other bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). We examined the association between law enforcement encounters (i.e., arrests and citations) and receptive syringe sharing among IDUs in the context of an intensified policing effort. We conducted a mixed methods analysis of 30 qualitative and 187 quantitative interviews with IDUs accessing services at a Los Angeles, CA syringe exchange program from 2008 to 2009. Qualitative findings illustrate concerns related to visibility, drug withdrawal, and previous history of arrest/incarceration. In quantitative analysis, the number of citations received, current homelessness, and perceiving that being arrested would be a “big problem” were independently associated with recent syringe sharing. Findings illustrate some of the unintended public health consequences associated with intensified street-level policing, including risk for HIV and HCV transmission. PMID:23620243

  13. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3. (United States)

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  14. Provocative Encounters Reflecting Struggles with Change: Power and Coercion in a Japanese University Situation (United States)

    Toh, Glenn


    This article examines a case of what Olssen et al. (2004) call "managerial oppression" set in a faculty of international studies of a Japanese university. Japanese universities have, in recent times, been facing the financial pressures of a falling birthrate and dwindling enrolments. To remain solvent, some universities have had to…

  15. To Like or Not to Like: A Shakespeare Encounter (Middle Ground). (United States)

    DeFord, Andrea


    Describes how one English teacher developed a five-day approach by which William Shakespeare's "Macbeth" was successfully introduced to a seventh-grade class. Argues that it is possible to have such young students read and enjoy Shakespeare. (HB)

  16. Experimental Verification of a Global Exponentially Stable Nonlinear Wave Encounter Frequency Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belleter, Dennis J.W.; Galeazzi, Roberto; Fossen, Thor Inge


    towing tank experiments using a container ship scale model. The estimates for both regular and irregular waves confirm the results. Finally, the estimator is applied to full-scale data gathered from a container ship operating in the Atlantic Ocean during a storm. Again the theoretical results...

  17. Contested Norms in Inter-National Encounters: The ‘Turbot War’ as a Prelude to Fairer Fisheries Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Wiener


    Full Text Available This article is about contested norms in inter-national encounters in global fisheries governance. It illustrates how norms work by reconstructing the trajectory of the 1995 ‘Turbot War’ as a series of inter-national encounters among diverse sets of Canadian and European stakeholders. By unpacking the contestations and identifying the norms at stake, it is suggested that what began as action at cross-purposes (i.e. each party referring to a different fundamental norm, ultimately holds the potential for fairer fisheries governance. This finding is shown by linking source and settlement of the dispute and identifying the shared concern for the balance between the right to fish and the responsibility for sustainable fisheries. The article develops a framework to elaborate on procedural details including especially the right for stakeholder access to regular contestation. It is organised in four sections: section 1 summarises the argument, section 2 presents the framework of critical norms research, section 3 reconstructs contestations of fisheries norms over the duration of the dispute, and section 4 elaborates on the dispute as a prelude to fairer fisheries governance. The latter is based on a novel conceptual focus on stakeholder access to contestation at the meso-layer of fisheries governance where organising principles are negotiated close to policy and political processes, respectively. The conclusion suggests for future research to pay more attention to the link between the ‘is’ and the ‘ought’ of norms in critical norms research in International Relations theories (IR.

  18. Chance Encounters: Rap Music as a Relational and Pedagogical Resource in Clinical Pastoral Education. (United States)

    Gilmore, Jeremy


    Music has long been regarded as a valuable tool for educators. Over the last three decades, rap music has grown to become a global phenomenon. However, due to historical and cultural factors, rap music is often underutilized in Clinical Pastoral Education. This article discusses the social significance of rap music, highlights how rap music informed my supervision of a clinical pastoral education student, and examines Chance the Rapper's mixtape Coloring Book as a case study on the utilization of rap music as a relational and pedagogical resource in spiritual education.

  19. A numerical model of aerosol scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Molenkamp, C.R.


    Using a three-dimensional numerical cloud/smoke-plume model, we have simulated the burning of a large, mid-latitude city following a nuclear exchange. The model includes 18 dynamic and microphysical equations that predict the fire-driven airflow, cloud processes, and smoke-cloud interactions. In the simulation, the intense heating from the burning city produces a firestorm with updraft velocities exceeding 60 m/s. Within 15 minutes of ignition, the smoke plume penetrates the tropopause. The updraft triggers a cumulonimbus cloud that produces significant quantities of ice, snow, and hail. These solid hydrometeors, as well as cloud droplets and rain, interact with the smoke particles from the fire. At the end of the one-hour simulation, over 20% of the smoke is in slowly falling snowflakes. If the snow reaches the ground before the flakes completely sublimate (or melt and then evaporate), then only approximately 50% of the smoke will survive the scavenging processes and remain in the atmosphere to affect the global climate

  20. New insights of asteroid 4179 Toutatis using China Chang'e-2 close flyby optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Yanlong; Tang, Geshi; Cao, Jianfeng; Hu, Songjie; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Chuankai [Aerospace Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Beijing Aerospace Control Center, PO Box 5130, Beijing 100094 (China); Di, KaiChang; Xu, Bin; Liu, Bin [Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Fa, Wenzhe [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Peking 100871 (China); Hu, Tianjiang [College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 (China); Ding, Chibiao, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 (China)


    The mysteries of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis have been more comprehensively unveiled by analyzing the optical images taken during the Chang'e-2 flyby in 2012. Compared with previous works, this paper concentrates on the photogrammetric relation between the Chang'e-2 spacecraft and Toutatis and the imaging shadow effect during the flyby. Accurate models of imaging and optical measurements are developed to study Toutatis's dimensions and rotational state at the time of imaging. As the illumination study shows, the shadowed region perpendicular to the long axis accounts for 27.78% of the Toutatis images, while the long axis of the body is fully captured. With a compensation on the shadow effect, the optical measurements reveal that Toutatis's long axis is 4354 ± 56 m, the maximum length is 4391 ± 56 m, and the spatial orientation described with the angles of direction cosine during the flyby is (126.°13 ± 0.°29, 122.°98 ± 0.°21, 126.°63 ± 0.°46). Furthermore, a new triaxial ellipsoid of 4354 × 1835 × 2216 m and a volume of 7.5158 km{sup 3} are proposed based on the previous Toutatis shape model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated, since typical features such as the neck and endpoints agree well with the results simultaneously observed by the ground radar. Moreover, it also potentially provides a feasible approach to precisely calculate the spin period of Toutatis.

  1. Global encounters at a Dutch MFA : intercultural dialogue in higher art education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Margo


    Over the past fifteen to twenty years we have witnessed Dutch and European higher art education become increasingly more international, a development that is reflecting globalisation in the art world in general. The artists we work with in many of our institutes and (master) programmes come from a

  2. Moving into interaction - Social practices for initiating encounters at a help desk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer


    Opening an interaction is a crucial step in establishing and maintaining social relationships. In this paper we describe how participants in an institutional setting, a help desk counter for exchange students at an international university, literally move into interaction. This is accomplished...

  3. Close Encounters with Nature in an Urban Kindergarten: A Study of Learners' Inquiry and Experience (United States)

    Ghafouri, Farveh


    This article reports on the findings of a recent qualitative grounded theory research study in a metropolitan area in the south-east of Canada examining one junior/senior kindergarten classroom's engagement with nature. It focuses on the role of the learners, the children and the teacher, in co-constructing two very different learning experiences.…

  4. Backchannel Head Nods in Danish First Meeting Encounters with a Humanoid Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj; Rehm, Matthias


    Head nods have been shown to play an important role for communication management in human communication, e.g. as a non-verbal feedback signal from the listener. Based on a study with virtual agents, which showed that the use of head nods helps eliciting more verbal input from the user, we...

  5. Numerical simulation of a sour gas flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)


    Due to the limited amount of information in the literature on sour gas flares and the cost of conducting wind tunnel and field experiments on sour flares, this presentation presented a modelling project that predicted the effect of operating conditions on flare performance and emissions. The objectives of the project were to adapt an existing numerical model suitable for flare simulation, incorporate sulfur chemistry, and run simulations for a range of conditions typical of sour flares in Alberta. The study involved the use of modelling expertise at the University of Utah, and employed large eddy simulation (LES) methods to model open flames. The existing model included the prediction of turbulent flow field; hydrocarbon reaction chemistry; soot formation; and radiation heat transfer. The presentation addressed the unique features of the model and discussed whether LES could predict the flow field. Other topics that were presented included the results from a University of Utah comparison; challenges of the LES model; an example of a run time issue; predicting the impact of operating conditions; and the results of simulations. Last, several next steps were identified and preliminary results were provided. Future work will focus on reducing computation time and increasing information reporting. figs.

  6. Student Encounters with Philippine Embroidery in a Tourism Destination: The Case of Lumban, Laguna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Corazon P. Rodriguez


    Full Text Available Tourism has been traditionally regarded as a business and management concern. This paper explores how cultural settings can be used to open opportunities for other stakeholders in communities to participate in touristic activities. It aims to contribute to what the authors believe to be the emerging importance of alternative definitions of tourism as a phenomenon. It documents research activities of two academics that did participant observation and interviews in a third-class municipality known for heritage skills in embroidery. Content analysis of field notes obtained months before the off icial start of the university’s semester was done to put structure in an out-of-classroomlearning activity (OCLA of three sections of undergraduate students. Pre- and post-trip surveys were conducted to gather data on the one-day OCLA. Data obtained from students and local tourism stakeholders were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using a culture tourism framework. The paper ends with insights on OCLAs of undergraduate students and a description of how a visit to a destination can uncover meanings that contribute toward understanding of embroidery, self-identity, and embedded meanings of the visited place.

  7. Enigmatic origin of hepatitis B virus: An ancient travelling companion or a recent encounter? (United States)

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ebranati, Erika; Gabanelli, Elena; Sorrentino, Chiara; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Galli, Massimo


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of liver disease and infects an estimated 240 million people worldwide. It is characterised by a high degree of genetic heterogeneity because of the use of a reverse transcriptase during viral replication. The ten genotypes (A-J) that have been described so far further segregate into a number of subgenotypes which have distinct ethno-geographic distribution. Genotypes A and D are ubiquitous and the most prevalent genotypes in Europe (mainly represented by subgenotypes D1-3 and A2); genotypes B and C are restricted to eastern Asia and Oceania; genotype E to central and western Africa; and genotypes H and F (classified into 4 subgenotypes) to Latin America and Alaska. This review summarises the data obtained by studying the global phylodynamics and phylogeography of HBV genotypes, particularly those concerning the origin and dispersion histories of genotypes A, D, E and F and their subgenotypes. The lack of any consensus concerning the HBV substitution rate and the conflicting data obtained using different calibration approaches make the time of origin and divergence of the various genotypes and subgenotypes largely uncertain. It is hypothesised that HBV evolutionary rates are time dependent, and that the changes depend on the main transmission routes of the genotypes and the dynamics of the infected populations. PMID:24976700

  8. Health care encounters in Danish chiropractic practice from a consumer perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Boyle, Eleanor; Larsen, Johanne Brinch


    patients and 36 follow-up patients and finally video recorded 11 new and 24 follow-up consultations. Categorization and analysis led to the emergence six consumer touch point themes: 'the internet', 'the physical environment', 'practice models', 'administrative staff', 'the consultation sequence and timing......' and 'a consultation that adds value'. The Internet functions as a tool when choosing/confirming a clinic as appropriate, developing and initial image and managing appointments. The administrative hub appears integral to the shaping of positive consumer experiences outside of the consultation. Clinic....... The duration of hands-on treatment per se does not appear to be a particular focus point. More research is required to explore this issue....

  9. The Importance of TLR2 and Macrophages in Modulating a Humoral Response after Encountering Streptococcus pneumoniae (United States)


    Chapter 3 Submited as: Sam Vasilevsky, Jesus Colino, Roman Puliaev, David H. Canaday, and Clifford M...general microbiology 138:249- 259. 7. Musher , D. M. 1992. Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: clinical spectrum, pathogenesis, immunity, and...Pneumonia and Its Implications for Antimicrobial Resistance Chest 115:1-2. 230. Musher , D. M., I. Alexandraki, E. A. Graviss, N. Yanbeiy, A. Eid, L

  10. Prosthetic memory and post-memory: cultural encounters with the past in designing a museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mălina Ciocea


    Full Text Available This paper1 investigates the sources of representations on the communist period and the type of engagement with the past in an experiential museum, in the context of the National Network of Romanian Museums’ project for a laboratory-museum of Romanian Communism. Our analysis of focus-groups in October-November 2012 explores the public’s expectations in terms of museum experience and engagement with objects and the potential of an experiential museum to facilitate deliberation about the past. We use the conceptual framework of recent studies on postmemory (Hirsch, 2008 and prosthetic memory (Landsberg, 2004, 2009 to focus on ways of building the experiential archive needed to produce prosthetic memory. We consider that such an analysis is relevant for two interconnected problems: the bidirectional relationship between a projected museum of communism and a prospective public, and the methodological insights available for investigating this relation. With regard to the first problem, this paper makes a case for treating museums as a memory device rather than a lieu de memoire and analyses the role of the museum in relation to cultural memory. With regard to the second problem, it offers an example of conducting research on prospective publics which departs from traditional marketing approaches, adopting theoretical insights and analytical categories from specific conceptualizations in the field of memory studies.

  11. Ambivalence, equivocation and the politics of experimental knowledge: a transdisciplinary neuroscience encounter. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Littlefield, Melissa M; Knudsen, Kasper J; Tonks, James; Dietz, Martin J


    This article is about a transdisciplinary project between the social, human and life sciences, and the felt experiences of the researchers involved. 'Transdisciplinary' and 'interdisciplinary' research-modes have been the subject of much attention lately--especially as they cross boundaries between the social/humanistic and natural sciences. However, there has been less attention, from within science and technology studies, to what it is actually like to participate in such a research-space. This article contributes to that literature through an empirical reflection on the progress of one collaborative and transdisciplinary project: a novel experiment in neuroscientific lie detection, entangling science and technology studies, literary studies, sociology, anthropology, clinical psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Its central argument is twofold: (1) that, in addition to ideal-type tropes of transdisciplinary conciliation or integration, such projects may also be organized around some more subterranean logics of ambivalence, reserve and critique; (2) that an account of the mundane ressentiment of collaboration allows for a more careful attention to the awkward forms of 'experimental politics' that may flow through, and indeed propel, collaborative work more broadly. Building on these claims, the article concludes with a suggestion that such subterranean logics may be indissociable from some forms of collaboration, and it proposes an ethic of 'equivocal speech' as a way to live with and through these kinds of transdisciplinary experiences.

  12. Complexity Meets Development - A Felicitous Encounter on the Road of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis L. Smith


    Full Text Available Since before Adam Smith, economists have been concerned with development. However, they have seldom understood it or paid it enough mind. For example, the “sequence” economists, such as Marx in the 19th Century and Rostow in the 20th sought to force development everywhere into a rigid pattern. Since 1874, the marginalists and their Neoliberal descendents have emphasised comparative statics and steady-state equilibriums, not growth.Although many new ideas popped up after WW II, none proved satisfactory. These included alleged “silver bullets” such as “free” trade, foreign direct investment, import substitution, industrialization and investment in human capital, as well as varied sets of “multiple drivers”, whose individual effects proved hard to sort out.Meanwhile, Neoliberal economics gradually took over the non-Marxist world. But it lost its credibility by spawning a mindless globalisation and long series of economic, human and social disasters. So today development economics is undergoing a “rebirth”, with “the Barcelona Consensus”, custom design, multiple objectives and sustainability among its guiding stars.By happy coincidence, a new discipline called complexity began to emerge in the mid 1980’s. Out of it has come a new kind of economics which is not only congruent with current thinking about development but also provides useful advice in the design and management of development programs, including those related to poverty.Meanwhile the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (USA is trying a new approach to the eradication of this evil. Poor communities have been identified, organised and then made responsible for taking the lead in coordinating their own development. This coordination covers not only projects managed by the community but those sponsored by outside private- and public-sector organisations. The “jury is still out” but the odds are that this approach will provide much more civic, economic and social

  13. Encountering abuse in health care; lifetime experiences in postnatal women - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Anne-Mette; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Midtgaard, Julie


    BACKGROUND: Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women with these ex......BACKGROUND: Abuse in health care (AHC) has been associated with potential severe health consequences, and has further been related to maternal morbidity and mortality in childbirth. To improve our understanding of what qualifies as AHC and to support and optimise the health of women...... with these experiences, the objective of this study was to describe how women, who had previously endured AHC, gave meaning to and managed their experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the early postnatal period. METHOD: Women, who had reported substantial suffering as a result of a previous experience of abuse...... within the healthcare system, were purposefully selected from a Danish sample of a multinational cohort study on negative life events among pregnant women (the BIDENS Study). Eleven women were interviewed individually by means of a semi-structured interview guide. Transcripts of the interviews were...

  14. An assessment of air as a source of DNA contamination encountered when performing PCR. (United States)

    Witt, Nina; Rodger, Gillian; Vandesompele, Jo; Benes, Vladimir; Zumla, Alimuddin; Rook, Graham A; Huggett, Jim F


    Sensitive molecular methods, such as the PCR, can detect low-level contamination, and careful technique is required to reduce the impact of contaminants. Yet, some assays that are designed to detect high copy-number target sequences appear to be impossible to perform without contamination, and frequently, personnel or laboratory environment are held responsible as the source. This complicates diagnostic and research analysis when using molecular methods. To investigate the air specifically as a source of contamination, which might occur during PCR setup, we exposed tubes of water to the air of a laboratory and clean hood for up to 24 h. To increase the chances of contamination, we also investigated a busy open-plan office in the same way. All of the experiments showed the presence of human and rodent DNA contamination. However, there was no accumulation of the contamination in any of the environments investigated, suggesting that the air was not the source of contamination. Even the air from a busy open-plan office was a poor source of contamination for all of the DNA sequences investigated (human, bacterial, fungal, and rodent). This demonstrates that the personnel and immediate laboratory environment are not necessarily to blame for the observed contamination.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelar Araujo Santos Junior


    Full Text Available Religiosity of contemporary Andean indigenous peoples is constituted by a complex interaction between theology and the original items from the Christianized and ideologies historically produced phenomena such as taxation, interpenetration, removal, syncretism, resistance and reinvention. Embedded in this context was developed as a way of enhancing identity particular worldview is quite representative of their feelings and attitudes about the world, mainly in what it says respect to their territory and their community experiences and patterns of reciprocity in the socialization of traditions. Thus, our proposal in this article is to analyze some of the different elements of the symbolic representation, mythological and ritualistic of these communities, characterized by persistent conflict between a hegemonic dominance of the creative and creative autonomy.

  16. Religion-Related Child Maltreatment: A Profile of Cases Encountered by Legal and Social Service Agencies. (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R


    Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Design Challenges Encountered in a Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Flight Test Program (United States)

    Maine, Trindel; Burken, John; Burcham, Frank; Schaefer, Peter


    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft system on an F-15 airplane. This system was designed to explore the feasibility of providing safe emergency landing capability using only the engines to provide flight control in the event of a catastrophic loss of conventional flight controls. Control laws were designed to control the flightpath and bank angle using only commands to the throttles. Although the program was highly successful, this paper highlights some of the challenges associated with using engine thrust as a control effector. These challenges include slow engine response time, poorly modeled nonlinear engine dynamics, unmodeled inlet-airframe interactions, and difficulties with ground effect and gust rejection. Flight and simulation data illustrate these difficulties.

  18. [Being a mother: encounters between mothers of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and nurses in Taiwan]. (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Li; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chin, Chi-Chun


    The role of "mother" is understood and represented differently by people from different cultures. In traditional Taiwanese society, mothers demonstrate their existence value by giving birth to and raising sons able to continue her husband's familial line. Sons bear the patriarchal name and care for their parents in old age. However, a son stricken, paralyzed and eventually killed by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) can destroy a mother's perceived value in this traditional social context. Mothers are thus soundless sufferers. Nurses have a critical role to play in giving encouragement and hope to mothers of children with DMD. Through their own difficult situation, these mothers can also highlight the value and importance of Taiwan's nurses, who work in conditions marked by overloading, high stress, and under-appreciation. Caring for women in critical need of empathy and support help nurses realize their own positive capacity to empower sufferers.

  19. On the Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets: Tatooine’s Close Encounters with a Death Star (United States)

    Sutherland, Adam P.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.


    Circumbinary planets whose orbits become unstable may be ejected, accreted, or even captured by one of the stars. We quantify the relative rates of these channels, for a binary of secondary star’s mass fraction 0.1 with an orbit of 1 AU. The most common outcome is ejection, which happens ∼80% of the time. If binary systems form circumbinary planets readily and sloppily, this process may fill the Milky Way with free-floating planets. A significant fraction of the time, ∼20%, the unstable planet strikes the primary or secondary. We tracked whether a Jupiter-like planet would undergo tidal stripping events during close passages, and find that these events are rarely strong enough to capture the planet, although this may be observable via free-floating planets that are heated or spun-up by this process.

  20. Universities as Spaces for Engaging the Other: A Pedagogy of Encounter for Intercultural and Interreligious Education (United States)

    Gill, Scherto


    Internationalisation of Higher Education coupled with students' mobility across the globe in the 21st century has led to universities in many countries having to deal with an unprecedented flow of human diversity. Such diversity can become a potential source of conflict due to increased "otherness", but at the same time, it also presents…

  1. A Figurational Analysis of How Indigenous Students Encounter Racialization in Physical Education and School Sport (United States)

    Williams, John


    The recently launched Australian Curriculum Health and Physical Education has five propositions, one of which is for students to adopt a critical inquiry approach within this subject area. In particular, students are encouraged to explore issues that relate to social power and taken-for-granted assumptions. This paper problematizes the concept of…

  2. B. F. Skinner and T. N. Whitehead: A Brief Encounter, Research Similarities, Hawthorne Revisited, What Next? (United States)

    Claus, Calvin K.


    B. F. Skinner and T. N. Whitehead recalled a personal interaction in 1934, with differing memories of the event. No evidence of other subsequent interactions or mutual citations has been found. Although they went their separate ways, three similarities in their research strategies have been found and are discussed. Elements of Whitehead's…

  3. Encountering the Chinese: A Guide for Americans. Second Edition. The InterAct Series. (United States)

    Wenzhong, Hu; Grove, Cornelius L.

    This book provides a practical and culturally sensitive guide to Chinese culture along with insights into how to communicate with and interact with Chinese people. This edition contains information on economic changes and the gradual demise of state owned companies in addition to information about basic Chinese values, cultural norms, and…

  4. A report on SHARP (Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype) and the Voyager Neptune encounter (United States)

    Martin, R. G. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; James, M. L.; Lawson, D. L.; Porta, H. J.


    The development and application of the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) for the operations of the telecommunications systems and link analysis functions in Voyager mission operations are presented. An overview is provided of the design and functional description of the SHARP system as it was applied to Voyager. Some of the current problems and motivations for automation in real-time mission operations are discussed, as are the specific solutions that SHARP provides. The application of SHARP to Voyager telecommunications had the goal of being a proof-of-capability demonstration of artificial intelligence as applied to the problem of real-time monitoring functions in planetary mission operations. AS part of achieving this central goal, the SHARP application effort was also required to address the issue of the design of an appropriate software system architecture for a ground-based, highly automated spacecraft monitoring system for mission operations, including methods for: (1) embedding a knowledge-based expert system for fault detection, isolation, and recovery within this architecture; (2) acquiring, managing, and fusing the multiple sources of information used by operations personnel; and (3) providing information-rich displays to human operators who need to exercise the capabilities of the automated system. In this regard, SHARP has provided an excellent example of how advanced artificial intelligence techniques can be smoothly integrated with a variety of conventionally programmed software modules, as well as guidance and solutions for many questions about automation in mission operations.

  5. Managing barriers to empathy in the clinical encounter: a qualitative interview study with GPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, F.A.; Hartman, T.C. Olde; Bensing, J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.


    BACKGROUND: Current daily general practice has become increasingly technical and somatically oriented (where attention to patients' feelings is decreased) due to an increase in protocol-based guidelines. Priorities in GP-patient communication have shifted from a focus on listening and empathy to

  6. Managing barriers to empathy in the clinical encounter: a qualitative interview study with GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, F.A.W.M.; Olde Hartman, T.C.; Bensing, J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.


    Background: Current daily general practice has become increasingly technical and somatically oriented (where attention to patients’ feelings is decreased) due to an increase in protocol-based guidelines. Priorities in GP–patient communication have shifted from a focus on listening and empathy to

  7. A Proposed Smart-Card Solution for Australian Health Services: The Problems Encountered


    Danielle Fowler; Paul Swatman; Tanya Castleman


    This case study describes the experience of a state government health department in evaluating the use of smart card technology to redesign health benefits programs for the disabled in Australia. The social and political context of the system is explained in detail, and the potential benefits and risks accruing to the government, health care intermediaries and the community are examined.

  8. Encountering the Expertise Reversal Effect with a Computer-Based Environment on Electrical Circuit Analysis (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Atkinson, Robert K.; Seeling, Patrick; Reisslein, Martin


    This study examined the effectiveness of a computer-based environment employing three example-based instructional procedures (example-problem, problem-example, and fading) to teach series and parallel electrical circuit analysis to learners classified by two levels of prior knowledge (low and high). Although no differences between the…

  9. Difficulties Encountered by Both Teachers and Students in Teaching and Learning Turkish as a Second Language (United States)

    Canbulat, Mehmet; Dilekçi, Atilla


    The objective of this research is to identify and suggest solutions to the problems experienced by students learning Turkish as a second language according to the opinions of both teachers and students evaluated. The research has been conducted among the classroom teachers, Turkish language teachers and the students attending the schools in…

  10. Action Researchers Encountering Ethical Review: A Literature Synthesis on Challenges and Strategies (United States)

    Fouché, Christa B.; Chubb, Laura A.


    Action research (AR) comprises a diverse family of methodologies. Common amongst most types of AR are both an emergent design--leading to action or change--and participation or community involvement. While this type of research has expanded considerably since the early 2000s, the criteria used for ethical review have apparently been slow to adapt…

  11. Academic Reading Difficulties Encountered by International Graduate Students in a Malaysian University (United States)

    Alghail, Ali Abdullah Ali; Mahfoodh, Omer Hassan Ali


    This study examines how international graduate students in a Malaysian public university perceive and overcome academic reading difficulties. The target population included all graduate students from Yemen, an Arab country, studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Data were collected using questionnaires, focus group interviews, and journal writing.…

  12. First encounter of European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) in a bat in Finland. (United States)

    Jakava-Viljanen, M; Lilley, T; Kyheröinen, E-M; Huovilainen, A


    In Finland, rabies in bats was suspected for the first time in 1985 when a bat researcher, who had multiple bat bites, died in Helsinki. The virus isolated from the researcher proved to be antigenically related to rabies viruses previously detected in German bats. Later, the virus was typed as EBLV-2b. Despite an epidemiological study in bats 1986 and subsequent rabies surveillance, rabies in bats was not detected in Finland until the first case in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) was confirmed in August 2009. The bat was paralysed, occasionally crying, and biting when approached; it subsequently tested positive for rabies. The virus was genetically typed as EBLV-2. This is the northernmost case of bat rabies ever detected in Europe. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the EBLV-2b isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related, demonstrating that EBLV-2 may have been circulating in Finland for many years.

  13. Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions for clinical encounters: a systematic review


    Gagliardi, Anna R.; L?gar?, France; Brouwers, Melissa C.; Webster, Fiona; Badley, Elizabeth; Straus, Sharon


    Background Patient-mediated knowledge translation (PKT) interventions engage patients in their own health care. Insight on which PKT interventions are effective is lacking. We sought to describe the type and impact of PKT interventions. Methods We performed a systematic review of PKT interventions, defined as strategies that inform, educate and engage patients in their own health care. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from 2005 to 2014 for English language studies that eva...

  14. A nationwide survey of first aid training and encounters in Norway


    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Steinvik, Tine; Angell, Johan; Wisborg, Torben


    Background Bystander first aid can improve survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or trauma. Thus, providing first aid education to laypersons may lead to better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of first aid training in the populace, how often first aid skills are needed, and self-reported helping behaviour. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 1000 respondents who were representative of the Norwegian population. Respondents were ...

  15. Place attachment in stroke rehabilitation: a transdisciplinary encounter between cultural geography, environmental psychology and rehabilitation medicine. (United States)

    Nanninga, Christa S; Meijering, Louise; Schönherr, Marleen C; Postema, Klaas; Lettinga, Ant T


    To increase understanding of stroke survivor's needs to successfully re-establish attachment to meaningful places at home and in the community. Qualitative research methodology including in-depth interviews with stroke survivors in the clinical, post-discharge and reintegration phases of the Rehabilitation process. Participants longed for recovery and domestic places in the clinical phase, for pre-stroke activities and roles in the post-discharge phase, and for recognition and a sense of belonging in the reintegration phase. The participants' selves had changed, while the spatial and social contexts of their homes had remained the same. Their spatial scope became smaller in both a social and a geographical sense. It was difficult to achieve a feeling of being at home in their bodies and own living environments again. The complexities that needed to be dealt with to engage with the outside world, turned participants unintentionally inwards. In particular, family members of participants with cognitive problems, longed for support and recognition in dealing with the changed personality of their spouses. Rehabilitation should put greater effort into supporting stroke survivors and their families in home-making and community reintegration processes, and help them to re-own and renegotiate their disabled bodies and changed identities in real life. Implications for Rehabilitation The experienced self-body split, identity confusion and related mourning process should be foregrounded in the post-discharge phase rather than functional recovery, in order to help stroke survivors understand and come to terms with their changed bodies and selves. In the post-discharge and reintegration phases stroke survivors should be coached in rebuilding meaningful relations to their bodies, home and communities again. This home-making process should start at real-life sites where stroke survivors wish to (inter)act.

  16. A close look at the parenchyma in various liver diseases commonly encountered in India - concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwe, B.; Ahire, B.; Sewatkar, A.; Dacosta, H.


    Medical trends indicate that computerized tomography is likely to be used more frequently in the future. However, instrument costs are escalating, and insurance agencies are reluctant to bear the total cost of health care. It is important, therefore, to realize that SPECT, though a very economical investigation, yields adequate organ details for the initial diagnosis and, being less innocuous, permits repeat studies for the follow-up of patients undergoing treatment for both benign and malignant diseases. (orig.) [de

  17. Studying flight crew behavior: A social psychologist encounters the real world (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.


    Considerable social psychological research has been conducted on the relationship between personality and performance in various occupational settings. Of special interest are situations where the performer is under pressure or the consequences of poor performance can be serious, as in aircraft operation. Some significant findings are summarized, including those related to Type A personality factors, achievement motivation factors, and attitude factors. Future research should focus on group behavior.

  18. Managing barriers to empathy in the clinical encounter: a qualitative interview study with GPs. (United States)

    Derksen, Frans Awm; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Bensing, Jozien M; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine Lm


    Current daily general practice has become increasingly technical and somatically oriented (where attention to patients' feelings is decreased) due to an increase in protocol-based guidelines. Priorities in GP-patient communication have shifted from a focus on listening and empathy to task-oriented communication. To explore what barriers GPs experience when applying empathy in daily practice, and how these barriers are managed. Thirty Dutch GPs with sufficient heterogeneity in sex, age, type of practice, and rural or urban setting were interviewed. The consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) were applied. The verbatim transcripts were then analysed. According to participating GPs, the current emphasis on protocol-driven care can be a significant barrier to genuineness in communication. Other potential barriers mentioned were time pressures and constraints, and dealing with patients displaying 'unruly behaviour' or those with personality disorders. GPs indicated that it can be difficult to balance emotional involvement and professional distance. Longer consulting times, smaller practice populations, and efficient practice organisation were described as practical solutions. In order to focus on a patient-as-person approach, GPs strongly suggested that deviating from guidelines should be possible when necessary as an element of good-quality care. Joining intercollegiate counselling groups was also discussed. In addition to practical solutions for barriers to behaving empathically, GPs indicated that they needed more freedom to balance working with protocols and guidelines, as well as a patient-as-person and patient-as-partner approach. This balance is necessary to remain connected with patients and to deliver care that is truly personal. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  19. Development of a Data Collection Instrument for Violent Patient Encounters against Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R. Hauff


    Full Text Available Introduction: Healthcare and social workers have the highest incidence of workplace violence ofany industry. Assaults toward healthcare workers account for nearly half of all nonfatal injuries fromoccupational violence. Our goal was to develop and evaluate an instrument for prospective collectionof data relevant to emergency department (ED violence against healthcare workers.Methods: Participants at a high-volume tertiary care center were shown 11 vignettes portrayingverbal and physical assaults and responded to a survey developed by the research team andpiloted by ED personnel addressing the type and severity of violence portrayed. Demographic andemployment groups were compared using the independent-samples Mann-Whitney U Test.Results: There were 193 participants (91 male. We found few statistical differences whencomparing occupational and gender groups. Males assigned higher severity scores to acts ofverbal violence versus females (mean M,F=3.08, 2.70; p<0.001. While not achieving statisticalsignificance, subgroup analysis revealed that attending physicians rated acts of verbal violencehigher than resident physicians, and nurses assigned higher severity scores to acts of sexual,verbal, and physical violence versus their physician counterparts.Conclusion: This survey instrument is the first tool shown to be accurate and reliable in characterizingacts of violence in the ED across all demographic and employment groups using filmed vignettesof violent acts. Gender and occupation of ED workers does not appear to play a significant role inperception of severity workplace violence

  20. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters. (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng


    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  1. Difficulties encountered managing nodules detected during a computed tomography lung cancer screening program. (United States)

    Veronesi, Giulia; Bellomi, Massimo; Scanagatta, Paolo; Preda, Lorenzo; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Guarize, Juliana; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Leo, Francesco; Solli, Piergiorgio; Masullo, Michele; Spaggiari, Lorenzo


    The main challenge of screening a healthy population with low-dose computed tomography is to balance the excessive use of diagnostic procedures with the risk of delayed cancer detection. We evaluated the pitfalls, difficulties, and sources of mistakes in the management of lung nodules detected in volunteers in the Cosmos single-center screening trial. A total of 5201 asymptomatic high-risk volunteers underwent screening with multidetector low-dose computed tomography. Nodules detected at baseline or new nodules at annual screening received repeat low-dose computed tomography at 1 year if less than 5 mm, repeat low-dose computed tomography 3 to 6 months later if between 5 and 8 mm, and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography if more than 8 mm. Growing nodules at the annual screening received low-dose computed tomography at 6 months and computed tomography-positron emission tomography or surgical biopsy according to doubling time, type, and size. During the first year of screening, 106 patients underwent lung biopsy and 91 lung cancers were identified (70% were stage I). Diagnosis was delayed (false-negative) in 6 patients (stage IIB in 1 patient, stage IIIA in 3 patients, and stage IV in 2 patients), including 2 small cell cancers and 1 central lesion. Surgical biopsy revealed benign disease (false-positives) in 15 cases (14%). Positron emission tomography sensitivity was 88% for prevalent cancers and 70% for cancers diagnosed after first annual screening. No needle biopsy procedures were performed in this cohort of patients. Low-dose computed tomography screening is effective for the early detection of lung cancers, but nodule management remains a challenge. Computed tomography-positron emission tomography is useful at baseline, but its sensitivity decreases significantly the subsequent year. Multidisciplinary management and experience are crucial for minimizing misdiagnoses.

  2. Procedures followed in the evaluation of a LWR plant in Spain and problems encountered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brincones, M.; Gea, A.; Perez del Moral, C.


    The main problems arising in the safety assessment of nuclear power plants based on the experience of the authors (project managers) and to recomend possible improvements both for Spain and other developing countries are described. The first part will be devoted to the organizative aspects of the assessment and the second part will deal with different possible methods of technical assessment and its associated necesities. Finally, as a result of the previous considerations some recomendations in order to improve the technical assessment practice are proposed. (author)

  3. Adopting a critical intercultural communication approach to understanding health professionals' encounter with ethnic minority patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten


    professionals and their approach to ethnic minority patients influence the accessibility of healthcare and availability of health prevention resources of ethnic minorities. When adapting healthcare practice to minority patients, healthcare professionals draw on insights from intercultural communication...... and anthropology. However, within these disciplines such concepts as culture, interculturality, and ethnicity are subjected to contestation due to co-existing, but competing paradigms. This paper demonstrates how healthcare discourses on ethnic minority patients reflect shifting intercultural communication...... paradigms and advocates the adoption of a critical intercultural communication approach in relation to ethnicity-based health inequality....

  4. Change orientated learning and the Greek disability movement - a mutually beneficial encounter between knowledge and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Chatzipetrou


    Full Text Available This paper is a qualitative survey based on the exploration of disabled peoples' existing experience of participating in non-formal forms of education, which take place in the context of the Greek disability movement. Its aim is to record the way in which this kind of education can be a catalyst in the empowerment of disabled people. Data was obtained through semi-structured interviews held with both learners with disabilities and educators and from direct observation of the educational process. The main findings of this study explore the ways in which educators can contribute to the empowerment of disabled people. It is found that the empowerment of learners cannot simply be regarded as an aspect of education but rather as an integral part embedded in the content, in the educational methods and in the role of the educator. Finally, the paper highlights the necessity for disability organisations to cooperate with the fields of disability studies and adult education, in order for them to jointly conceive and try out new more transformative pedagogical methods.

  5. The first encounter with Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy: patients' experiences, a basis for knowledge. (United States)

    Ekerholt, Kirsten; Bergland, Astrid


    The intention of this study was to elucidate patients' experiences of the examination of the body given in Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy. A qualitative approach was used, based on interviews with nine women and one man aged between 41 and 65 years. The data were analysed with the aid of grounded theory, using the first two steps: open and axial coding. Three categories were identified from the patients' experiences. The first category "The Situation before Treatment", emerged from the subcategories "Prejudice concerning the prefix 'psycho"', "Difficulties in recognizing the body's information", and "The body is ambiguous". The second category, "Establishing the Relationship", emerged from the subcategories "Getting to know the therapist as an empathic person" and "Discovering professional skills". The third category, "Examination is Interaction", emerged from the subcategories "Dialogues--room for reflection", "Undress, the feeling of disclosure", and "Personal boundaries--good to be seen". These three categories emphasize the importance of cooperation between the physiotherapist and the patient in exploring the social and emotional context in order to understand the meaning of the body's symptoms. There must be no doubt about the skill and competence of the therapists, including their insight, personal responsibility, engagement, attentiveness, and awareness. Our material reflects the great impact the body examination had on the informants. Examination requires mutual interpretation. The patients' knowledge represents a significant potential for understanding of their own situation.

  6. Appropriate Interventions on the Problems Encountered on Effective Teaching Practices in a State University External Campus in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo L. Masbaño


    Full Text Available Descriptive studies on the perception of teachers regarding effective teaching practices, problems encountered and appropriate interventions have generally supported the beliefs that the problems of education did not lie only outside the school but inside the school itself. Yet such studies neglect the primary reason through which students learn, the effective teaching practices. The current study explores the link on the perception of teachers regarding effective teaching practices, problems encountered and appropriate interventions. Data were obtained using the questionnaire that were collected from 80 respondents whom faculty members of WVSU-JC. Mean and rank were used as statistical tools. A high level of agreement among teachers on the propositions regarding effective teaching was hypothesized. However, they preferred some teaching practices to the other. Teachers' perception on effective teaching practices were, showing of mastery on the subject matter, updating of knowledge about the subject matter, utilizing an appropriate strategies and methods and observing an ethical and moral principles in teaching. Generally, the top problems perceived by teachers that hinder their effective teaching includes inadequacy of laboratory facilities and equipment, insufficient library references and classrooms which are not conducive for teaching-learning process. However, it varies according to the classification as to different categories of variables. The appropriate interventions were the upgrading of laboratory facilities and equipment, the purchasing of additional books, the giving of trainings to the teachers on the recent development on the subject that they are teaching, providing more hands on activities for students, enhancing the teaching strategies and methods, and strengthening the commitment among teachers.

  7. Encounter with disaster: a medical diary of Hiroshima, 1945. Condensed from the original publication, 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebow, A.A.


    The effects of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 are described. Immediately after the bombing, Japanese civilian and military authorities mobilized an intense effort to provide help to the damaged cities and their inhabitants. At the same time, research was undertaken by the Japanese in an attempt to determine the nature of the effects of the bombs on the population. Some weeks later, the American armed services and the Manhattan District also organized an investigation of these effects. This memoir describes the early days of the American research effort, its integration with the Japanese program, and the development of a Joint Commission to study the effects of the bombing. After the first rapid survey, described in this paper, the effort was reorganized and continued under the sponsorship of the National Research Councils of America and Japan as the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

  8. Political Dynasty in Public Governance: A Close Encounter with the Cebuanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrich Rama


    Full Text Available This is a qualitative study which described the existence of political dynasties in Cebu, Philippines. The prevailing issues on political equality and perennial rule of political families were also investigated unfolding the Cebuanos’ perceptions of political dynasty and its impact on Cebuano bureaucracy. The method of data analysis used in the study was narrative inquiry where storytelling among the selected key informants served as data collection technique. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of key informant politicians while random sampling for key informant voters was determined. The instruments used in data gathering were interviews and observations. The study revealed the true meaning of political dynasty, its advantages and drawbacks to its constituents. Varied rejoinders and call for democracy motivated the selected key informant politicians to continue serving the citizenry. This study recommends that an anti-individualistic voting preferences campaign be promoted by the government, education and youth sectors in transforming intelligent Filipino voters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Fauzi


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the bylaw on prostitution issued by the Bantul authority in May 2007. It specifically examines the relation between the involvement of religious symbolism, the call for public participation and political interests in the legislation process. The paper argues that, on the one hand, the law relates prostitution to issues of immorality, social illness, and the degradation of women due to economic discrimination or sexual exploitation. The subject of prostitution has been extended, covering not only sex workers and pimps, but everyone committing indecent acts, such as showing a ‘sexy’ performance. On the other hand, this regulation is considered to be ambiguous in determining the standard of public morality and, therefore, puts women in a marginalised position. That the implementation of this law contributes to institutionalising the criminalisation against women is another fact which is believed to diminish the meaning of democracy. The government is blamed as taking too much care with procedural democracy but giving less attention to education and employment opportunities.[Artikel merupakan hasil studi peraturan daerah tentang larangan pelacuran yang dikeluarkan oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Bantul pada Mei 2007. Studi ini menguji keterkaitan antara simbol-simbol keagamaan, partisipasi publik, dan kepentingan politik yang muncul dan menyertai proses legislasi. Penulis berpendapat bahwa pada satu sisi, dalam peraturan tersebut, pelacuran dikaitkan dengan perusakan terhadap nilai agama dan sosial serta penurunan martabat perempuan, terlepas akibat diskriminasi ekonomi atau eksploitasi seksual. Subjek pelacuran ternyata juga diperluas, tidak hanya pekerja seks dan mucikari, tetapi setiap orang yang melakukan perbuatan cabul, seperti berpenampilan seksi. Pada sisi yang lain, ukuran moralitas publik dalam peraturan ini dianggap kurang jelas dan menempatkan perempuan pada posisi yang terpinggirkan. Bahwa penerapan peraturan

  10. Hick’s Religious Pluralism and Plantinga’s Exclusivism in a Comparative Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yazdani


    Full Text Available The issue of religious diversity is one of the significant issues in philosophy of religion. The existence of different religions in the world is an inevitable fact. Nowadays, due to the unprecedented development of information technology and public awareness of different beliefs across the nations have made the acknowledgement of religious diversity more widespread than the past. Being this the case, the questions as to religious diversity have been taken to the fore and contemporary man finds himself exposed to the question that how should a believer approach the other beliefs? Could all religions despite the differences they have in their dogmas, beliefs and doctrines be legitimate? Will the followers of all beliefs touch salvation?       Accordingly, among the key issues of philosophy of religion are the issue of legitimacy of different religions and the issue of salvation of followers of different creeds. This essay is an epistemological assessment of Hick and Plantinga on the legitimacy of religions in a comparative context. The following questions represent the guidelines of the present essay: How much is pluralism rationally and epistemologically feasible in its claim as to the legitimacy of all beliefs and the equal access of followers of all creeds to salvation? Does Plantinga's exclusivist taking as to religious truth and salvation and narrowing them down to Christianity and Christians have rational and epistemological justification? Hick has propounded his pluralism as a cure to difficulties caused by Christian religious exclusivism and inclusivism. Having insisted on the salvation promoting evolution from egotism to theism as the basic substance of religion, Hick traces the differences of religions back to the inattention to the symbolic language of religion. On the other hand, Plantinga takes the existing differences between religions as an evidence indicating the contradictoriness of pluralism and legitimacy of religious

  11. Encountering aged care: a mixed methods investigation of medical students' clinical placement experiences. (United States)

    Annear, Michael J; Lea, Emma; Lo, Amanda; Tierney, Laura; Robinson, Andrew


    Residential aged care is an increasingly important health setting due to population ageing and the increase in age-related conditions, such as dementia. However, medical education has limited engagement with this fast-growing sector and undergraduate training remains primarily focussed on acute presentations in hospital settings. Additionally, concerns have been raised about the adequacy of dementia-related content in undergraduate medical curricula, while research has found mixed attitudes among students towards the care of older people. This study explores how medical students engage with the learning experiences accessible in clinical placements in residential aged care facilities (RACFs), particularly exposure to multiple comorbidity, cognitive impairment, and palliative care. Fifth-year medical students (N = 61) completed five-day clinical placements at two Australian aged care facilities in 2013 and 2014. The placements were supported by an iterative yet structured program and academic teaching staff to ensure appropriate educational experiences and oversight. Mixed methods data were collected before and after the clinical placement. Quantitative data included surveys of dementia knowledge and questions about attitudes to the aged care sector and working with older adults. Qualitative data were collected from focus group discussions concerning medical student expectations, learning opportunities, and challenges to engagement. Pre-placement surveys identified good dementia knowledge, but poor attitudes towards aged care and older adults. Negative placement experiences were associated with a struggle to discern case complexity and a perception of an aged care placement as an opportunity cost associated with reduced hospital training time. Irrespective of negative sentiment, post-placement survey data showed significant improvements in attitudes to working with older people and dementia knowledge. Positive student experiences were explained by in

  12. Ritual encounters of the queer kind: a political analysis of jewish lesbian ritual innovation. (United States)

    Brettschneider, Marla


    SUMMARY Jewish feminist and queer engagement in Jewish life and Judaism are transforming the practices and foundational orientations of traditional modes. Jewish feminist, queer ritual innovation in particular is inspired by an array of secular and radical critical theories as much as it is by the historic concrete experiences of a diversity of Jews in different Jewish communities. It is important to hold all of us who are involved in religious ritual innovation responsible to the knowledges we have developed and learned in critical theory or we risk, even with the best of intentions and creativity, re-inscribing some of the very problems of traditional ontological norms that we might have originally sought to disrupt and subvert. This article looks specifically at examples of new "coming out" rituals for Jewish queers explored over time in the Jewish Queer Think Tank: honoring them as well as offering tools from secular critical theory to assist our work in keeping them accountable to our aspirations to both love and fundamentally transform Jewishness. Here I redefine the function of religious ritual itself in political terms as an identity-producing performance. As such I utilize social constructionist queer theories (i.e., Shane Phelan and Judith Butler), anarchists (i.e., Emma Goldman), and those involved in radical theatre (i.e., Augusto Boal) to articulate the revolutionary potential of ritual innovation.

  13. Numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R. Herrero [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)


    This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC), which acts as an energy recovery device in air conditioning systems. The numerical simulation was conducted by applying the CFD software FLUENT implementing a UDF to model evaporation/condensation. The numerical model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Experimental data and numerical results agree for the lower relative humidity series but not for higher relative humidity values. (author)

  14. A History of Computer Numerical Control. (United States)

    Haggen, Gilbert L.

    Computer numerical control (CNC) has evolved from the first significant counting method--the abacus. Babbage had perhaps the greatest impact on the development of modern day computers with his analytical engine. Hollerith's functioning machine with punched cards was used in tabulating the 1890 U.S. Census. In order for computers to become a…

  15. Being a bridge: Swedish antenatal care midwives' encounters with Somali-born women and questions of violence; a qualitative study. (United States)

    Byrskog, Ulrika; Olsson, Pia; Essén, Birgitta; Allvin, Marie-Klingberg


    Violence against women is associated with serious health problems, including adverse maternal and child health. Antenatal care (ANC) midwives are increasingly expected to implement the routine of identifying exposure to violence. An increase of Somali born refugee women in Sweden, their reported adverse childbearing health and possible links to violence pose a challenge to the Swedish maternity health care system. Thus, the aim was to explore ways ANC midwives in Sweden work with Somali born women and the questions of exposure to violence. Qualitative individual interviews with 17 midwives working with Somali-born women in nine ANC clinics in Sweden were analyzed using thematic analysis. The midwives strived to focus on the individual woman beyond ethnicity and cultural differences. In relation to the Somali born women, they navigated between different definitions of violence, ways of handling adversities in life and social contexts, guided by experience based knowledge and collegial support. Seldom was ongoing violence encountered. The Somali-born women's' strengths and contentment were highlighted, however, language skills were considered central for a Somali-born woman's access to rights and support in the Swedish society. Shared language, trustful relationships, patience, and networking were important aspects in the work with violence among Somali-born women. Focus on the individual woman and skills in inter-cultural communication increases possibilities of overcoming social distances. This enhances midwives' ability to identify Somali born woman's resources and needs regarding violence disclosure and support. Although routine use of professional interpretation is implemented, it might not fully provide nuances and social safety needed for violence disclosure. Thus, patience and trusting relationships are fundamental in work with violence among Somali born women. In collaboration with social networks and other health care and social work professions, the

  16. Habitability in different Milky Way stellar environments: a stellar interaction dynamical approach. (United States)

    Jiménez-Torres, Juan J; Pichardo, Bárbara; Lake, George; Segura, Antígona


    Every Galactic environment is characterized by a stellar density and a velocity dispersion. With this information from literature, we simulated flyby encounters for several Galactic regions, numerically calculating stellar trajectories as well as orbits for particles in disks; our aim was to understand the effect of typical stellar flybys on planetary (debris) disks in the Milky Way Galaxy. For the solar neighborhood, we examined nearby stars with known distance, proper motions, and radial velocities. We found occurrence of a disturbing impact to the solar planetary disk within the next 8 Myr to be highly unlikely; perturbations to the Oort cloud seem unlikely as well. Current knowledge of the full phase space of stars in the solar neighborhood, however, is rather poor; thus we cannot rule out the existence of a star that is more likely to approach than those for which we have complete kinematic information. We studied the effect of stellar encounters on planetary orbits within the habitable zones of stars in more crowded stellar environments, such as stellar clusters. We found that in open clusters habitable zones are not readily disrupted; this is true if they evaporate in less than 10(8) yr. For older clusters the results may not be the same. We specifically studied the case of Messier 67, one of the oldest open clusters known, and show the effect of this environment on debris disks. We also considered the conditions in globular clusters, the Galactic nucleus, and the Galactic bulge-bar. We calculated the probability of whether Oort clouds exist in these Galactic environments.

  17. Integration of numerical analysis tools for automated numerical optimization of a transportation package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkowski, W.R.; Eldred, M.S.; Harding, D.C.


    The use of state-of-the-art numerical analysis tools to determine the optimal design of a radioactive material (RAM) transportation container is investigated. The design of a RAM package's components involves a complex coupling of structural, thermal, and radioactive shielding analyses. The final design must adhere to very strict design constraints. The current technique used by cask designers is uncoupled and involves designing each component separately with respect to its driving constraint. With the use of numerical optimization schemes, the complex couplings can be considered directly, and the performance of the integrated package can be maximized with respect to the analysis conditions. This can lead to more efficient package designs. Thermal and structural accident conditions are analyzed in the shape optimization of a simplified cask design. In this paper, details of the integration of numerical analysis tools, development of a process model, nonsmoothness difficulties with the optimization of the cask, and preliminary results are discussed

  18. Encountering spiritual tourism in Kathmandu


    Børø, Nora


    Spiritual tourism as a phenomenon is increasing worldwide. Many have conducted research looking at the intersection between religion and tourism, but few have focused on the host community within these encounters. Many Western tourists arrive in Kathmandu to go on retreats', and to participate in yoga and meditation classes. The majority of these are particularly interested in various forms of Buddhist practice and traditions. In this thesis I have studied how N...

  19. A numerical 4D Collision Risk Model (United States)

    Schmitt, Pal; Culloch, Ross; Lieber, Lilian; Kregting, Louise


    With the growing number of marine renewable energy (MRE) devices being installed across the world, some concern has been raised about the possibility of harming mobile, marine fauna by collision. Although physical contact between a MRE device and an organism has not been reported to date, these novel sub-sea structures pose a challenge for accurately estimating collision risks as part of environmental impact assessments. Even if the animal motion is simplified to linear translation, ignoring likely evasive behaviour, the mathematical problem of establishing an impact probability is not trivial. We present a numerical algorithm to obtain such probability distributions using transient, four-dimensional simulations of a novel marine renewable device concept, Deep Green, Minesto's power plant and hereafter referred to as the 'kite' that flies in a figure-of-eight configuration. Simulations were carried out altering several configurations including kite depth, kite speed and kite trajectory while keeping the speed of the moving object constant. Since the kite assembly is defined as two parts in the model, a tether (attached to the seabed) and the kite, collision risk of each part is reported independently. By comparing the number of collisions with the number of collision-free simulations, a probability of impact for each simulated position in the cross- section of the area is considered. Results suggest that close to the bottom, where the tether amplitude is small, the path is always blocked and the impact probability is 100% as expected. However, higher up in the water column, the collision probability is twice as high in the mid line, where the tether passes twice per period than at the extremes of its trajectory. The collision probability distribution is much more complex in the upper end of the water column, where the kite and tether can simultaneously collide with the object. Results demonstrate the viability of such models, which can also incorporate empirical

  20. Processing changes across reading encounters. (United States)

    Levy, B A; Newell, S; Snyder, J; Timmins, K


    Five experiments examined changes in the processing of a text across reading encounters. Experiment 1 showed that reading speed increased systematically across encounters, with no loss in the extensiveness of analyses of the printed text, as indicated by the ability to detect nonword errors embedded within that passage. Experiment 2 replicated this improved reading fluency with experience and showed that it occurred even with typescript changes across trials, thus indicating that a primed visual operations explanation cannot account for the effect. The third and fourth experiments then extended the study of the familiarity effect to higher level processing, as indicated by the detection of word errors. Familiarity facilitated the detection of these violations at the syntactic-semantic levels. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that these higher level violations continued to be well detected over a series of reading encounters with the same text. The results indicate that prior experience improves reading speed, with no attenuation of analysis of the printed words or of the passage's message.

  1. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L.; Boin, M.; Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)


    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  2. A numerical simulation of a contrail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkov, L; Boin, M; Meinert, D [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany)


    The formation of a contrail from an aircraft flying near the tropopause is simulated using a three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model including a very complex scheme of parameterized cloud microphysical processes. The model predicted ice concentrations are in very good agreement with data measured during the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE), 1989. Sensitivity simulations were run to determine humidity forcing on the life time of contrails. (author) 4 refs.

  3. Beyond the Embodied Digital Service Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    When a digital service encounter develops differently than anticipated, the client becomes a user. This transformation reveals the ambiguous nature of digital service encounter being neither well-functioning tools, nor having the same sensitivity to and tolerance for service failures as in human ...

  4. Interactions of aquatic animals with the ORPC OCGen® in Cobscook Bay, Maine: Monitoring behavior change and assessing the probability of encounter with a deployed MHK device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle Barbin [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). School of Marine Sciences; Staines, Garrett [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viehman, Haley [Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada); Shen, Haixue [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Altenritter, Megan [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)


    Commercial viability of the marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry is contingent on numerous and diverse factors. A major factor is the effects deployed devices have on animals. This factor is multi-faceted since it is dependent on the availability of appropriate scientific approaches to detect these effects. One of the animal groups with overlapping distributions of MHK devices are fishes. As such, individual fish behavior is likely to be influenced by the presence and operation of MHK devices. Depending on the scale of deployment there are implications for changes to essential fish habitat and effects that can be explored during deployment of a single device yet most changes are likely to be realized when multiple devices are deployed over large areas. It is not only important to document these effects and examine the need for mitigation, but also determine whether the methods involved can be used within the economic constraints of this nascent industry. The results presented in this report benefit the MHK industry by providing transferrable environmental monitoring approaches for MHK projects, specifically related to the interactions between static and dynamic tidal turbines and fish. In addition, some of the data can be used to generalize conditions (e.g., the temporal periodicity of fish presence in tidal regions and probability of fish encountering a device) at other MHK sites with similar physical conditions and fish assemblages. Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) deployed and tested a prototype OCGen® tidal module in Cobscook Bay, Maine, in the summer of 2014. University of Maine researchers proposed an approach to inform other researchers, regulators, and industry members of the effects of this deployment on fish. While the approach was specifically applied to the OCGen® module, results are applicable to other pilot projects and inform future array deployments. Research funded under this grant allowed us to quantify fish presence as well as

  5. Flyby Error Analysis Based on Contour Plots for the Cassini Tour (United States)

    Stumpf, P. W.; Gist, E. M.; Goodson, T. D.; Hahn, Y.; Wagner, S. V.; Williams, P. N.


    The maneuver cancellation analysis consists of cost contour plots employed by the Cassini maneuver team. The plots are two-dimensional linear representations of a larger six-dimensional solution to a multi-maneuver, multi-encounter mission at Saturn. By using contours plotted with the dot product of vectors B and R and the dot product of vectors B and T components, it is possible to view the effects delta V on for various encounter positions in the B-plane. The plot is used in operations to help determine if the Approach Maneuver (ensuing encounter minus three days) and/or the Cleanup Maneuver (ensuing encounter plus three days) can be cancelled and also is a linear check of an integrated solution.

  6. A numerical strategy for modelling rotating stall in core compressors (United States)

    Vahdati, M.


    The paper will focus on one specific core-compressor instability, rotating stall, because of the pressing industrial need to improve current design methods. The determination of the blade response during rotating stall is a difficult problem for which there is no reliable procedure. During rotating stall, the blades encounter the stall cells and the excitation depends on the number, size, exact shape and rotational speed of these cells. The long-term aim is to minimize the forced response due to rotating stall excitation by avoiding potential matches between the vibration modes and the rotating stall pattern characteristics. Accurate numerical simulations of core-compressor rotating stall phenomena require the modelling of a large number of bladerows using grids containing several tens of millions of points. The time-accurate unsteady-flow computations may need to be run for several engine revolutions for rotating stall to get initiated and many more before it is fully developed. The difficulty in rotating stall initiation arises from a lack of representation of the triggering disturbances which are inherently present in aeroengines. Since the numerical model represents a symmetric assembly, the only random mechanism for rotating stall initiation is provided by numerical round-off errors. In this work, rotating stall is initiated by introducing a small amount of geometric mistuning to the rotor blades. Another major obstacle in modelling flows near stall is the specification of appropriate upstream and downstream boundary conditions. Obtaining reliable boundary conditions for such flows can be very difficult. In the present study, the low-pressure compression (LPC) domain is placed upstream of the core compressor. With such an approach, only far field atmospheric boundary conditions are specified which are obtained from aircraft speed and altitude. A chocked variable-area nozzle, placed after the last compressor bladerow in the model, is used to impose boundary

  7. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi


    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  8. Deliberate teaching tools for clinical teaching encounters: A critical scoping review and thematic analysis to establish definitional clarity. (United States)

    Sidhu, Navdeep S; Edwards, Morgan


    We conducted a scoping review of tools designed to add structure to clinical teaching, with a thematic analysis to establish definitional clarity. Six thousand and forty nine citations were screened, 434 reviewed for eligibility, and 230 identified as meeting study inclusion criteria. Eighty-nine names and 51 definitions were identified. Based on a post facto thematic analysis, we propose that these tools be named "deliberate teaching tools" (DTTs) and defined as "frameworks that enable clinicians to have a purposeful and considered approach to teaching encounters by incorporating elements identified with good teaching practice." We identified 46 DTTs in the literature, with 38 (82.6%) originally described for the medical setting. Forty justification articles consisted of 16 feedback surveys, 13 controlled trials, seven pre-post intervention studies with no control group, and four observation studies. Current evidence of efficacy is not entirely conclusive, and many studies contain methodology flaws. Forty-nine clarification articles comprised 12 systematic reviews and 37 narrative reviews. The most number of DTTs described by any review was four. A common design theme was identified in approximately three-quarters of DTTs. Applicability of DTTs to specific alternate settings should be considered in context, and appropriately designed justification studies are warranted to demonstrate efficacy.

  9. Two ways of acquiring environmental knowledge: by encountering living animals at a beehive and by observing bees via digital tools (United States)

    Schönfelder, Mona L.; Bogner, Franz X.


    Pollinating animals are profoundly affected by the current loss of biodiversity, a problem that is of concern to science, policy-makers and the public. One possibility to raise awareness for pollinator conservation is education. Unfortunately, insects such as bees are often perceived as frightening creatures; a negative emotion that may hinder successful learning processes. Thus, any educational initiative must conquer this obstacle and promote conservational knowledge. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the effectiveness of an educational programme using two student-centred learning approaches: One by encountering living honeybees (Apis mellifera) at a beehive (N = 162), the other by using an eLearning tool connected to a remote beehive (N = 192). We monitored secondary school students' environmentally relevant knowledge of bees, their environmental attitudes and their perception of bees in regard to conservation and dangerousness. The results indicate that both approaches lead to the acquisition of conservational knowledge in the short and medium term. Direct experiences with nature are regarded as crucial, but using an eLearning tool in environmental education constitutes an outstanding alternative to acquire knowledge. Adolescents with low 'green' attitudes responded positively to the online beehive, and the perceived danger of bees played no role in the learning process.

  10. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in malaysia. (United States)

    Ganasegeran, K; Al-Dubai, S A R


    The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%). Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  11. Formation of a stable oligomer of beta-2 microglobulin requires only transient encounter with Cu(II). (United States)

    Calabrese, Matthew F; Miranker, Andrew D


    Beta-2 Microglobulin (beta2m) is a small, globular protein, with high solubility under conditions comparable to human serum. A complication of hemodialysis in renal failure patients is the deposition of unmodified beta2m as amyloid fibers. In vitro, exposure of beta2m to equimolar Cu(2+) under near-physiological conditions can result in self-association leading to amyloid fiber formation. Previously, we have shown that the early steps in this process involve a catalyzed structural rearrangement followed by formation of discrete oligomers. These oligomers, however, have a continued requirement for Cu(2+) while mature fibers are resistant to addition of metal chelate. Here, we report that the transition from Cu(2+) dependent to chelate resistant states occurs in the context of small oligomers, dimeric to hexameric in size. These species require Cu(2+) to form, but once generated, do not need metal cation for stability. Importantly, this transition occurs gradually over several days and the resulting oligomers are isolatable and kinetically stable on timescales exceeding weeks. In addition, formation is enhanced by levels of urea similar to those found in hemodialysis patients. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that transient encounter of full-length wild-type beta2m with transition metal cation at the dialysis membrane interface is causal to dialysis related amyloidosis.

  12. A method of encountering the ratio of adjacent sides and its applied study in nuclear engineering survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jingqin


    The cross side or range net survey method is to compute the average error of the measured lengths of sides. With the increment of the side length, the viewing variance increases greatly. Generally the photo-electrical distance survey equipment has a high inside precision, but it is affected by typical weather error so that the outside precision is decreased, and this weather error similar to systematic error greatly decreases the viewing side precision. To solve this problem, theoretical study and field test were carried out for the correlation of ratios among short sides by photo-electrical survey, and the stability degree of the ratios of sides, a new method of ratio encountering of adjacent sides is put forward. Because of the weights of the ration variance σ γ 2 = 2η 2 γ 2 and the angular variance σ β 2 = 2J 2 ρ 2 match each other, so the systematic error can be eliminated completely, and a survey point co-ordinate of high precision can be obtained. It is easy to operate, as it does not require multi-photo-band survey or to operate at the optimal observation time, and is especially suitable to nuclear engineering survey applications. (3 tabs.)

  13. Determination of the radius of comet 19P/Borrelly in support of the NMP DS1 Flyby (United States)

    Festou, Michel


    Comet 19P/Borrelly is the ultimate target of the New Mellinium Program {NMP} Deep Space 1 asteroid-comet flyby mission. The size of this comet's nucleus is a critical parameter needed for flyby planning activities. However, as we describe below, P/Borrelly's radius is not well established. We, the NMP DS1 Science Team, request 1 orbit of HST/STIS time in Cycle 8 to refine the nuclear size estimate. This program cannot wait until Cycle 9 because of mission planning constraints and the fact that the comet is likely to be producing a weak but nonetheless enhanced coma by the time of Cycle 9. We therefore propose to observe comet P/Borrelly in Cycle 8 when the activity level of its nucleus is near its minimum, and quite possibly negligible. From a clear separation of the contributions of the coma and the nucleus in the inner part of STIS images, we will extract the cross section of Borrelly's nucleus. In addition to its immediate value for NMP DS1 mission planning, when c oupled to existing data sets, the STIS data will then enable us to model the coma morphology to better infer the effect of the nucleus outgassing on the comet's motion.

  14. Very massive runaway stars from three-body encounters (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia


    Very massive stars preferentially reside in the cores of their parent clusters and form binary or multiple systems. We study the role of tight very massive binaries in the origin of the field population of very massive stars. We performed numerical simulations of dynamical encounters between single (massive) stars and a very massive binary with parameters similar to those of the most massive known Galactic binaries, WR 20a and NGC 3603-A1. We found that these three-body encounters could be responsible for the origin of high peculiar velocities (≥70 km s-1) observed for some very massive (≥60-70 M⊙) runaway stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (e.g. λ Cep, BD+43°3654, Sk -67°22, BI 237, 30 Dor 016), which can hardly be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova scenario. The production of high-velocity massive stars via three-body encounters is accompanied by the recoil of the binary in the opposite direction to the ejected star. We show that the relative position of the very massive binary R145 and the runaway early B-type star Sk-69°206 on the sky is consistent with the possibility that both objects were ejected from the central cluster, R136, of the star-forming region 30 Doradus via the same dynamical event - a three-body encounter.

  15. A model for the numerical simulations of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.


    We present a complete set of equations for the numerical simulation of ion cyclotron heating of tokamak plasmas. The model includes the full geometry of the tokamak equilibrium, full parallel dispersion, and perpendicular dispersion to second order in the Larmor radius. It is therefore capable of describing correctly ion cyclotron damping at the fundamental and first harmonic, as well as mode conversion to the ion Bernstein wave and/or the shear Alfven wave, depending on the heating scenario. It includes also electron magnitude pumping and Landau damping, the latter to lowest order in msub(e)/msub(i). Relying on the knowledge gained from slab and ray tracing analysis, we also situate with respect to this standard model some of the further approximations which are commonly encountered in the literature. Finally, two procedures for the numerical solution of the standard model are proposed. (orig.)

  16. Power imbalance and consumerism in the doctor-patient relationship: health care providers' experiences of patient encounters in a rural district in India. (United States)

    Fochsen, Grethe; Deshpande, Kirti; Thorson, Anna


    The aim of this study is to explore health care providers' experiences and perceptions of their encounters with male and female patients in a rural district in India with special reference to tuberculosis (TB) care. The authors conducted semistructured interviews with 22 health care providers, 17 men and 5 women, from the public and private health care sectors. Findings reveal that doctors adopted an authoritarian as well as a consumerist approach in the medical encounter, indicating that power imbalances in the doctor-patient relationship are negotiable and subject to change. Gender was identified as an influencing factor of the doctor's dominance. A patient-centered approach, acknowledging patients' own experiences and shared decision making, is called for and should be included in TB control activities. This seems to be especially important for female patients, whose voices were not heard in the medical encounter.

  17. A theoretical introduction to numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ryaben'kii, Victor S


    PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION Discretization Conditioning Error On Methods of Computation INTERPOLATION OF FUNCTIONS. QUADRATURES ALGEBRAIC INTERPOLATION Existence and Uniqueness of Interpolating Polynomial Classical Piecewise Polynomial Interpolation Smooth Piecewise Polynomial Interpolation (Splines) Interpolation of Functions of Two Variables TRIGONOMETRIC INTERPOLATION Interpolation of Periodic Functions Interpolation of Functions on an Interval. Relation between Algebraic and Trigonometric Interpolation COMPUTATION OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS. QUADRATURES Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson's Formula, and the Like Quadrature Formulae with No Saturation. Gaussian Quadratures Improper Integrals. Combination of Numerical and Analytical Methods Multiple Integrals SYSTEMS OF SCALAR EQUATIONS SYSTEMS OF LINEAR ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS: DIRECT METHODS Different Forms of Consistent Linear Systems Linear Spaces, Norms, and Operators Conditioning of Linear Systems Gaussian Elimination and Its Tri-Diag...

  18. Encounters in place ballet: a phenomenological perspective on older people’s walking routines in an urban park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, D. van; Pijpers, R.A.H.


    The phenomenological tradition within human geography continues to inspire research on everyday city life. This paper draws on David Seamon's notion of place ballet to understand the meaning of encounters between older people visiting an urban park in the city of Eindhoven, the Netherlands. The

  19. Energy deposition and ion production from thermal oxygen ion precipitation during Cassini's T57 flyby (United States)

    Snowden, Darci; Smith, Michael; Jimson, Theodore; Higgins, Alex


    Cassini's Radio Science Investigation (RSS) and Langmuir Probe observed abnormally high electron densities in Titan's ionosphere during Cassini's T57 flyby. We have developed a three-dimensional model to investigate how the precipitation of thermal magnetospheric O+ may have contributed to enhanced ion production in Titan's ionosphere. The three-dimensional model builds on previous work because it calculates both the flux of oxygen through Titan's exobase and the energy deposition and ion production rates in Titan's atmosphere. We find that energy deposition rates and ion production rates due to thermal O+ precipitation have a similar magnitude to the rates from magnetospheric electron precipitation and that the simulated ionization rates are sufficient to explain the abnormally high electron densities observed by RSS and Cassini's Langmuir Probe. Globally, thermal O+ deposits less energy in Titan's atmosphere than solar EUV, suggesting it has a smaller impact on the thermal structure of Titan's neutral atmosphere. However, our results indicate that thermal O+ precipitation can have a significant impact on Titan's ionosphere.

  20. The Effects of Tryptophan on Everyday Interpersonal Encounters and Social Cognitions in Individuals with a Family History of Depression. (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; Aan Het Rot, Marije


    Individuals with a family history of depression show subtle abnormalities in the processing of social stimuli. This could negatively affect their interpersonal functioning and contribute to their depression risk. Repeated administration of the serotonin precursor tryptophan has previously been shown to increase agreeable behavior and reduce quarrelsome behavior in irritable people, who are also considered at risk for depression. To examine the effects of tryptophan on social functioning in individuals with a family history of depression, 40 men and women with at least one first-degree relative with depression received tryptophan (1g three times a day) and placebo for 14 days each in a double-blind crossover design and recorded their social behavior and mood during everyday interpersonal encounters. Participants also provided daily ratings of their positive and negative cognitions concerning their social functioning. Tryptophan improved mood. Unexpectedly, tryptophan increased quarrelsome behavior and reduced agreeable behavior, specifically during interactions at home. The behavioral effects of tryptophan were not moderated by mood or by the interaction partner. Negative social cognitions were lower when tryptophan was given second and lower during placebo when placebo was given second. Overall, tryptophan may not alter social behavior in individuals with a family history of depression as it does in irritable people. However, the behavioral effects of tryptophan at home might be seen as a way for individuals with a family history of depression to achieve more control. Over time, this may positively influence the way they feel and think about themselves in a social context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  1. Global trends and factors associated with the illegal killing of elephants: A hierarchical bayesian analysis of carcass encounter data. (United States)

    Burn, Robert W; Underwood, Fiona M; Blanc, Julian


    Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE), set up by the 10(th) Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002-2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE) as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process.

  2. Global trends and factors associated with the illegal killing of elephants: A hierarchical bayesian analysis of carcass encounter data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Burn

    Full Text Available Elephant poaching and the ivory trade remain high on the agenda at meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. Well-informed debates require robust estimates of trends, the spatial distribution of poaching, and drivers of poaching. We present an analysis of trends and drivers of an indicator of elephant poaching of all elephant species. The site-based monitoring system known as Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE, set up by the 10(th Conference of the Parties of CITES in 1997, produces carcass encounter data reported mainly by anti-poaching patrols. Data analyzed were site by year totals of 6,337 carcasses from 66 sites in Africa and Asia from 2002-2009. Analysis of these observational data is a serious challenge to traditional statistical methods because of the opportunistic and non-random nature of patrols, and the heterogeneity across sites. Adopting a bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, we used the proportion of carcasses that were illegally killed (PIKE as a poaching index, to estimate the trend and the effects of site- and country-level factors associated with poaching. Important drivers of illegal killing that emerged at country level were poor governance and low levels of human development, and at site level, forest cover and area of the site in regions where human population density is low. After a drop from 2002, PIKE remained fairly constant from 2003 until 2006, after which it increased until 2008. The results for 2009 indicate a decline. Sites with PIKE ranging from the lowest to the highest were identified. The results of the analysis provide a sound information base for scientific evidence-based decision making in the CITES process.

  3. Silence about encounters with dying among healthcare professionals in a society that ‘de-tabooises’ death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ramvi


    Full Text Available Background: Empirical studies on healthcare personnel indicate that professionals’ experiences with dying and death become silenced and unutterable within the healthcare service. Aim: To explore and interpret silence about encounters with death and dying among healthcare professionals in Norway. Method: The method used was theoretical exploration, using a psychosocial approach. Findings: This analysis reveals complex interrelations and two-way dynamics between subject-worlds, sociocultural and societal worlds when it comes to dealing with death and dying at work. A performance culture saturates these worlds, and may be implicated in silencing death within the healthcare institutions of the Norwegian welfare state. Conclusions: This article suggests that silence about death and dying among healthcare professionals is indicative of crucial emerging and unresolved tensions in the neoliberal episteme, accompanied and reinforced by the ineluctable basic conditions of life and intrapsychic defence against threats towards the self. Implications for practice: Silence about death and dying presents a serious challenge for dying patients and next of kin. Healthcare professionals should be enabled to acknowledge their thoughts and emotions about death in order to be able to support and contain patients and next of kin Learning activities such as peer support and supervision can help the processing of difficult psychological content and allow for emotional aspects of professionals’ work to be acknowledged and thought about in a way that encourages reflective and sound practice Clinical managers should address whether performance pressures induce shameful feelings in staff, who may believe that by providing appropriate levels of care they are compromising productivity. Shame in turn, may undermine professionals’ emotional wellbeing and ability to continue to provide attuned and adequate care for dying patients Creative approaches to facilitate

  4. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: Evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ganasegeran


    Full Text Available Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS® (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY was used. Cronbach′s alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Results: Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%. Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. Conclusion: The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  5. Memory and the operational witness: Police officer recall of firearms encounters as a function of active response role. (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona; Sauer, James D; Lewinski, William; Mirashi, Arta; Atuk, Emel


    Investigations after critical events often depend on accurate and detailed recall accounts from operational witnesses (e.g., law enforcement officers, military personnel, and emergency responders). However, the challenging, and often stressful, nature of such events, together with the cognitive demands imposed on operational witnesses as a function of their active role, may impair subsequent recall. We compared the recall performance of operational active witnesses with that of nonoperational observer witnesses for a challenging simulated scenario involving an armed perpetrator. Seventy-six police officers participated in pairs. In each pair, 1 officer (active witness) was armed and instructed to respond to the scenario as they would in an operational setting, while the other (observer witness) was instructed to simply observe the scenario. All officers then completed free reports and responded to closed questions. Active witnesses showed a pattern of heart rate activity consistent with an increased stress response during the event, and subsequently reported significantly fewer correct details about the critical phase of the scenario. The level of stress experienced during the scenario mediated the effect of officer role on memory performance. Across the sample, almost one-fifth of officers reported that the perpetrator had pointed a weapon at them although the weapon had remained in the waistband of the perpetrator's trousers throughout the critical phase of the encounter. These findings highlight the need for investigator awareness of both the impact of operational involvement and stress-related effects on memory for ostensibly salient details, and reflect the importance of careful and ethical information elicitation techniques. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Interfaith dialogue as moral encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    The concept of interfaith dialogue has been introduced and developed by scholars of different religions. The aim has been to find solutions from within religion to handle and optimise encounters with religious ‘Others’. Furthermore, interfaith dialogue has increasingly become a tool to solve...... between Muslims and Christians and analyse the different moral orders involved and how – following these orders – the participants are expected to deal with differences. Main focus is on how the participants are expected to deal with a requirement of staying the same (as Christian or Muslim) while...

  7. Aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury in patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' encountered on a liaison neurology service. (United States)

    Bogdanova-Mihaylova, Petya; Burke, David; O'Dwyer, John P; Bradley, David; Williams, Jennifer A; Cronin, Simon J; Smyth, Shane; Murphy, Raymond P; Murphy, Sinead M; Wall, Catherine; McCabe, Dominick J H


    Patients with 'suspected viral encephalitis' are frequently empirically treated with intravenous aciclovir. Increasing urea and creatinine are 'common', but rapidly progressive renal failure is reported to be 'very rare'. To describe the clinical course and outcome of cases of aciclovir-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) encountered by the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH and to highlight the importance of surveillance and urgent treatment of this iatrogenic complication. Retrospectively and prospectively collected data from the Liaison Neurology Service at AMNCH on patients who received IV aciclovir for suspected viral encephalitis and developed AKI were analysed. Aciclovir-induced AKI was defined by a consultant nephrologist in all cases as a rise in serum creatinine of > 26 μmol/L in 48 h or by ≥ 1.5 times the baseline value. Renal function, haematocrit, and fluid balance were monitored following AKI onset. Data from 10 patients were analysed. Median time to AKI onset was 3.5 days (range: 1-6 days). Aciclovir was stopped or the dose adjusted. All patients recovered with IV normal saline, aiming for a urine output > 100-150 ml/h. The interval between first rise in creatinine and return to normal levels varied between 5 and 19 days. Liaison neurologists and general physicians need to be aware that aciclovir may cause AKI attributed to distal intra-tubular crystal nephropathy. Daily fluid balance and renal function monitoring are essential because AKI may arise even with intensive pre-hydration. Prognosis is good if identified early and actively treated.

  8. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology


    O'Neill, Rachel


    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  9. The need for trust and safety inducing encounters: a qualitative exploration of women's experiences of seeking perinatal care when living as undocumented migrants in Sweden. (United States)

    Barkensjö, My; Greenbrook, Josephine T V; Rosenlundh, Josefine; Ascher, Henry; Elden, Helen


    Studies from around the world have shown that women living as undocumented migrants have limited and deficient access to perinatal care, increasing their risks of both physical and psychological complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Failures to provide equal access to healthcare have been criticized extensively by the United Nations. In 2013, undocumented migrants' rights to healthcare in Sweden were expanded to include full access to perinatal care. Research surrounding clinical encounters involving women living as undocumented migrants remains largely lacking. The present study aimed to provide a composite description of women's experiences of clinical encounters throughout pregnancy and childbirth, when living as undocumented migrants in Sweden. Taking an inductive approach, qualitative content analysis was implemented. Thirteen women from ten different countries were interviewed. Meaning-units were extracted from the data collected in order to identify emergent overarching themes. In clinical encounters where healthcare professionals displayed empathic concern and listening behaviours, women felt empowered, acknowledged, and encouraged, leading them to trust clinicians, diminishing fears relating to seeking healthcare services. Conversely, when neglectful behaviour on part of healthcare professionals was perceived in encounters, anxiousness and fear intensified. Vulnerability and distress induced by the women's uncertain living circumstances were apparent across themes, and appeared exacerbated by traumatic memories, difficulties in coping with motherhood, and fears of deportation. The present study contributes unique and important knowledge surrounding women's experience of being pregnant and giving birth when living as undocumented migrants. The overarching findings indicated that the needs of undocumented migrant women were largely similar to those of all expectant mothers, but that due to vulnerabilities relating to their circumstances, flexible

  10. A numerical method for a transient two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coq, G.; Libmann, M.


    The transient boiling two-phase flow is studied. In nuclear reactors, the driving conditions for the transient boiling are a pump power decay or/and an increase in heating power. The physical model adopted for the two-phase flow is the two fluid model with the assumption that the vapor remains at saturation. The numerical method for solving the thermohydraulics problems is a shooting method, this method is highly implicit. A particular problem exists at the boiling and condensation front. A computer code using this numerical method allow the calculation of a transient boiling initiated by a steady state for a PWR or for a LMFBR

  11. Numerical Loading of a Maxwellian Probability Distribution Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, J.L.V.


    A renormalization procedure for the numerical loading of a Maxwellian probability distribution function (PDF) is formulated. The procedure, which involves the solution of three coupled nonlinear equations, yields a numerically loaded PDF with improved properties for higher velocity moments. This method is particularly useful for low-noise particle-in-cell simulations with electron dynamics

  12. RE-NUMERATE: A Workshop to Restore Essential Numerical Skills and Thinking via Astronomy Education (United States)

    McCarthy, D.; Follette, K.


    The quality of science teaching for all ages is degraded by our students' gross lack of skills in elementary arithmetic and their unwillingness to think, and to express themselves, numerically. Out of frustration educators, and science communicators, often choose to avoid these problems, thereby reinforcing the belief that math is only needed in “math class” and preventing students from maturing into capable, well informed citizens. In this sense we teach students a pseudo science, not its real nature, beauty, and value. This workshop encourages and equips educators to immerse students in numerical thinking throughout a science course. The workshop begins by identifying common deficiencies in skills and attitudes among non-science collegians (freshman-senior) enrolled in General Education astronomy courses. The bulk of the workshop engages participants in well-tested techniques (e.g., presentation methods, curriculum, activities, mentoring approaches, etc.) for improving students' arithmetic skills, increasing their confidence, and improving their abilities in numerical expression. These techniques are grounded in 25+ years of experience in college classrooms and pre-college informal education. They are suited for use in classrooms (K-12 and college), informal venues, and science communication in general and could be applied across the standard school curriculum.

  13. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl


    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  14. Owl: A General-Purpose Numerical Library in OCaml


    Wang, Liang


    Owl is a new numerical library developed in the OCaml language. It focuses on providing a comprehensive set of high-level numerical functions so that developers can quickly build up data analytical applications. In this abstract, we will present Owl's design, core components, and its key functionality.

  15. Numerical investigation of Dean vortices in a curved pipe (United States)

    Bernad, S. I.; Totorean, A.; Bosioc, A.; Stanciu, R.; Bernad, E. S.


    This study is devoted to the three-dimensional numerical simulation of developing secondary flows of Newtonian fluid through a curved circular duct. The numerical simulations produced for different Dean numbers show clearly the presence of two steady Dean vortices. Therefore, results confirm that helical flow constitutes an important flow signature in vessels, and its strength as a fluid dynamic index.

  16. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen


    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.

  17. Encounter Group Effects of Soccer Team Performance. (United States)

    Magen, Zipora


    Suggests that a positive relationship exists between encounter group experience and the soccer team performance--a conclusion worthy of consideration in further research in the fields of psychology and sociology of sports. (Author)

  18. Curricular analysis of competency-based osteopathic medical education: application of a matrix for quality enhancement to a standardized patient encounter example. (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Tucker-Potter, Stacy; Sargentini, Neil J


    With the formal adoption of the seven core competencies, the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation instructed osteopathic medical educators to guide curricular development with these goals in mind. Tools to facilitate and monitor these purposes have been under development separately at each of the nation's colleges of osteopathic medicine. To demonstrate the utility of a checklist-based curriculum assessment tool, the Matrix for Quality Enhancement, as developed at Kirksville (Mo) College of Osteopathic Medicine-A.T. Still University. APPLICATION of the Matrix is illustrated using examples selected from our analysis of a set of 16 standardized patient encounters provided as part of a first-year basic science course in medical microbiology. Encounters were developed to improve student understanding of infectious disease entities while also providing a variety of clinical experiences. Feedback on professionalism and humanistic behaviors was also provided. A novel aspect of the Matrix is the inclusion of a component dealing with patient safety. Adding standardized patient encounters to the medical microbiology teaching program at Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine was an effective means of integrating educational experiences with the seven core competencies, the requirements of Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-PE (Performance Evaluation), and patient safety issues. The Matrix is a valuable tool for evaluating or developing curricular components that maintain osteopathic integrity while working toward standards for medical education specified by the commission.

  19. Direct Numerical Simulations of turbulent flow in a driven cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.; Wissink, J.G.; Cazemier, W.; Veldman, A.E.P.

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 2 and 3D turbulent flows in a lid-driven cavity have been performed. DNS are numerical solutions of the unsteady (here: incompressible) Navier-Stokes equations that compute the evolution of all dynamically significant scales of motion. In view of the large

  20. Numerical simulations of concrete flow: A benchmark comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roussel, Nicolas; Gram, Annika; Cremonesi, Massimiliano


    First, we define in this paper two benchmark flows readily usable by anyone calibrating a numerical tool for concrete flow prediction. Such benchmark flows shall allow anyone to check the validity of their computational tools no matter the numerical methods and parameters they choose. Second, we ...

  1. 'Wouldn't it be easier if you continued to be a guy?' - a qualitative interview study of transsexual persons' experiences of encounters with healthcare professionals. (United States)

    von Vogelsang, Ann-Christin; Milton, Camilla; Ericsson, Ingrid; Strömberg, Lars


    To describe transsexual persons' experiences of encounters with healthcare professionals during the sex reassignment process. Transsexual persons are individuals who use varying means to alter their natal sex via hormones and/or surgery. Transsexual persons may experience stigma, which increases the risk of psychological distress. Mistreatments by healthcare professionals are common. Qualitative studies addressing transsexual persons' experiences of healthcare are scarce. Qualitative descriptive design. A Swedish non-clinical convenience sample was used, consisting of six persons who had been diagnosed as transsexual, gone through sex reassignment surgery or were at the time of the interview awaiting surgery. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken, and data were analysed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Three categories and 15 subcategories were identified. The encounters were perceived as good when healthcare professionals showed respect and preserved the transsexual person's integrity, acted in a professional manner and were responsive and built trust and confidence. However, the participants experienced that healthcare professionals varied in their level of knowledge, exploited their position of power, withheld information, expressed gender stereotypical attitudes and often used the wrong name. They felt vulnerable by having a condescending view of themselves, and they could not choose not to be transsexual. They felt dependent on healthcare professionals, and that the external demands were high. Transsexual persons are in a vulnerable position during the sex reassignment surgery process. The encounters in healthcare could be negatively affected if healthcare professionals show inadequate knowledge, exploit their position of power or express gender stereotypical attitudes. A good encounter is characterised by preserved integrity, respect, responsiveness and trust. Improved education on transgender issues in nursing and medical education is

  2. Numeral-Incorporating Roots in Numeral Systems: A Comparative Analysis of Two Sign Languages (United States)

    Fuentes, Mariana; Massone, Maria Ignacia; Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Makotrinsky, Alejandro; Pulgarin, Francisca


    Numeral-incorporating roots in the numeral systems of Argentine Sign Language (LSA) and Catalan Sign Language (LSC), as well as the main features of the number systems of both languages, are described and compared. Informants discussed the use of numerals and roots in both languages (in most cases in natural contexts). Ten informants took part in…

  3. A novel numerical approach for workspace determination of parallel mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yiqun; Niu, Junchuan; Liu, Zhihui; Zhang, Fuliang [Shandong University, Shandong (China)


    In this paper, a novel numerical approach is proposed for workspace determination of parallel mechanisms. Compared with the classical numerical approaches, this presented approach discretizes both location and orientation of the mechanism simultaneously, not only one of the two. This technique makes the presented numerical approach applicable in determining almost all types of workspaces, while traditional numerical approaches are only applicable in determining the constant orientation workspace and orientation workspace. The presented approach and its steps to determine the inclusive orientation workspace and total orientation workspace are described in detail. A lower-mobility parallel mechanism and a six-degrees-of-freedom Stewart platform are set as examples, the workspaces of these mechanisms are estimated and visualized by the proposed numerical approach. Furthermore, the efficiency of the presented approach is discussed. The examples show that the presented approach is applicable in determining the inclusive orientation workspace and total orientation workspace of parallel mechanisms with high efficiency.

  4. Is video review of patient encounters an effective tool for medical student learning? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammoud MM


    Full Text Available Maya M Hammoud1, Helen K Morgan1, Mary E Edwards2, Jennifer A Lyon2, Casey White31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Health Sciences Center Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education, Faculty Affairs and Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USAPurpose: To determine if video review of student performance during patient encounters is an effective tool for medical student learning.Methods: Multiple bibliographic databases that include medical, general health care, education, psychology, and behavioral science literature were searched for the following terms: medical students, medical education, undergraduate medical education, education, self-assessment, self-evaluation, self-appraisal, feedback, videotape, video recording, televised, and DVD. The authors examined all abstracts resulting from this search and reviewed the full text of the relevant articles as well as additional articles identified in the reference lists of the relevant articles. Studies were classified by year of student (preclinical or clinical and study design (controlled or non-controlled.Results: A total of 67 articles met the final search criteria and were fully reviewed. Most studies were non-controlled and performed in the clinical years. Although the studies were quite variable in quality, design, and outcomes, in general video recording of performance and subsequent review by students with expert feedback had positive outcomes in improving feedback and ultimate performance. Video review with self-assessment alone was not found to be generally effective, but when linked with expert feedback it was superior to traditional feedback alone.Conclusion: There are many methods for integrating effective use of video-captured performance into a program of learning. We recommend combining student self-assessment with feedback

  5. Close stellar encounters in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.


    Stellar encounters are expected to produce a variety of interesting objects in the cores of globular clusters, either through the formation of binaries by tidal capture, or direct collisions. Here, I describe several attempts to observe the products of stellar encounters. In particular, the use of color maps has demonstrated the existence of a color gradient in the core of M15, which seems to be caused by a population of faint blue objects concentrated towards the cluster center. (author)

  6. A review of numerical techniques approaching microstructures of crystalline rocks (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen


    The macro-mechanical behavior of crystalline rocks including strength, deformability and failure pattern are dominantly influenced by their grain-scale structures. Numerical technique is commonly used to assist understanding the complicated mechanisms from a microscopic perspective. Each numerical method has its respective strengths and limitations. This review paper elucidates how numerical techniques take geometrical aspects of the grain into consideration. Four categories of numerical methods are examined: particle-based methods, block-based methods, grain-based methods, and node-based methods. Focusing on the grain-scale characters, specific relevant issues including increasing complexity of micro-structure, deformation and breakage of model elements, fracturing and fragmentation process are described in more detail. Therefore, the intrinsic capabilities and limitations of different numerical approaches in terms of accounting for the micro-mechanics of crystalline rocks and their phenomenal mechanical behavior are explicitly presented.

  7. A simple numerical model of a geometrically nonlinear Timoshenko beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijdener, C.; Metrikine, A.


    In the original problem for which this model was developed, onedimensional flexible objects interact through a non-linear contact model. Due to the non-linear nature of the contact model, a numerical time-domain approach was adopted. One of the goals was to see if the coupling between axial and

  8. Numerical analysis of a waterjet propulsion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, N.W.H.


    A waterjet propulsion system is used to propel ships, using a pump which produces a high speed jet. A standard waterjet installation can be divided into an inlet, a pump and a nozzle. For manoeuvring and reversing purposes an additional steering device can be integrated into the installation. The

  9. Numerical and experimental study of a hydrodynamic cavitation tube (United States)

    Hu, H.; Finch, J. A.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.


    A numerical analysis of hydrodynamics in a cavitation tube used for activating fine particle flotation is described. Using numerical procedures developed for solving the turbulent k-ɛ model with boundary fitted coordinates, the stream function, vorticity, velocity, and pressure distributions in a cavitation tube were calculated. The calculated pressure distribution was found to be in excellent agreement with experimental results. The requirement of a pressure drop below approximately 10 m water for cavitation to occur was observed experimentally and confirmed by the model. The use of the numerical procedures for cavitation tube design is discussed briefly.

  10. Space in Numerical and Ordinal Information: A Common Construct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Alexander Schroeder


    Full Text Available Space is markedly involved in numerical processing, both explicitly in instrumental learning and implicitly in mental operations on numbers. Besides action decisions, action generations, and attention, the response-related effect of numerical magnitude or ordinality on space is well documented in the Spatial-Numerical Associations of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Here, right- over left-hand responses become relatively faster with increasing magnitude positions. However, SNARC-like behavioral signatures in non-numerical tasks with ordinal information were also observed and inspired new models integrating seemingly spatial effects of ordinal and numerical metrics. To examine this issue further, we report a comparison between numerical SNARC and ordinal SNARC-like effects to investigate group-level characteristics and individual-level deductions from generalized views, i.e., convergent validity. Participants solved order-relevant (before/after classification and order-irrelevant tasks (font color classification with numerical stimuli 1-5, comprising both magnitude and order information, and with weekday stimuli, comprising only ordinal information. A small correlation between magnitude- and order-related SNARCs was observed, but effects are not pronounced in order-irrelevant color judgments. On the group level, order-relevant spatial-numerical associations were best accounted for by a linear magnitude predictor, whereas the SNARC effect for weekdays was categorical. Limited by the representativeness of these tasks and analyses, results are inconsistent with a single amodal cognitive mechanism that activates space in mental processing of cardinal and ordinal information alike. A possible resolution to maintain a generalized view is proposed by discriminating different spatial activations, possibly mediated by visuospatial and verbal working memory, and by relating results to findings from embodied numerical cognition.

  11. Thinking about the service encounter enhances encounter-related word-of-mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    ) the memorability of the service encounter and (b) the extent to which what had happened had been subject to rehearsal with the purpose of telling others about it. These findings should be seen in relation to the literature’s view that customer satisfaction, not thinking, is a dominant predictor of word-of-mouth......This study examines the impact of thinking about a service encounter, after it has been completed, on telling others about it (i.e., word-of-mouth). The main finding was that encounter-related thinking boosted word-of-mouth. We also found that the think-talk association was mediated by (a....... Our results, however, indicate that satisfaction’s contribution to the variation in talking about the encounter was modest (and customer satisfaction played only a minor role in explaining why an encounter is thought about)....

  12. Numerical Investigation of a Generic Scramjet Configuration


    Karl, Sebastian


    A Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (scramjet) is, at least in theory, an efficient air-breathing propulsion system for sustained hypersonic flight at Mach numbers above approximately M=5. Important design issues for such hypersonic propulsion systems, are the lack of ground based facilities capable of testing a full-sized engine at cruise flight conditions and the absence of general scaling laws for the extrapolation of wind tunnel data to flight configurations. Therefore, there is a strong need ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper further proves that a single spiral strange attractor can be observed in an extremely simple autonomous electrical circuit by computer simulation. It is of third order and has only one nonlinear element: a three-segment piecewise linear resistor. The digital analyses show that the strange attractor has peculiar features compared with other third-order differential systems.

  14. A numerical approach to Stefan problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotalik, P.


    The one-dimensional Stefan problem for a thin plate heated by laser pulses is solved by approximating the enthalpy formulation of the problem by C 0 piecewise linear finite elements in space combined with a semi-implicit scheme in time. (author) 6 figs., 5 refs

  15. A numerical study of the Magellan Plume (United States)

    Palma, Elbio D.; Matano, Ricardo P.


    In this modeling study we investigate the dynamical mechanisms controlling the spreading of the Magellan Plume, which is a low-salinity tongue that extends along the Patagonian Shelf. Our results indicate that the overall characteristics of the plume (width, depth, spreading rate, etc.) are primarily influenced by tidal forcing, which manifests through tidal mixing and tidal residual currents. Tidal forcing produces a homogenization of the plume's waters and an offshore displacement of its salinity front. The interaction between tidal and wind-forcing reinforces the downstream and upstream buoyancy transports of the plume. The influence of the Malvinas Current on the Magellan Plume is more dominant north of 50°S, where it increases the along-shelf velocities and generates intrusions of saltier waters from the outer shelf, thus causing a reduction of the downstream buoyancy transport. Our experiments also indicate that the northern limit of the Magellan Plume is set by a high salinity discharge from the San Matias Gulf. Sensitivity experiments show that increments of the wind stress cause a decrease of the downstream buoyancy transport and an increase of the upstream buoyancy transport. Variations of the magnitude of the discharge produce substantial modifications in the downstream penetration of the plume and buoyancy transport. The Magellan discharge generates a northeastward current in the middle shelf, a recirculation gyre south of the inlet and a region of weak currents father north.

  16. A textbook of computer based numerical and statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, AK


    About the Book: Application of Numerical Analysis has become an integral part of the life of all the modern engineers and scientists. The contents of this book covers both the introductory topics and the more advanced topics such as partial differential equations. This book is different from many other books in a number of ways. Salient Features: Mathematical derivation of each method is given to build the students understanding of numerical analysis. A variety of solved examples are given. Computer programs for almost all numerical methods discussed have been presented in `C` langu

  17. Five Fabulous Flybys of the Small Inner Moons of Saturn by the Cassini Spacecraft (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Momary, T.; Clark, R. N.; Brown, R. H.; Filacchione, G.; Mosher, J. A.; Baines, K. H.; Nicholson, P. D.


    The Saturn system possesses a number of small unique moons, including the coorbitals Janus and Epimetheus; the ring moons Pan and Daphnis; and Prometheus, Pandora, and Atlas, which orbit near the edge of the main ring system. During the last phases of the Cassini mission, when the spacecraft executed close passes to the F-ring of Saturn, five "best-ever" flybys of these moons occurred. Pan, Daphnis, Atlas, Pandora, and Epimetheus were approached at distances ranging from 6000-40,000 km. The Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) captured data from the spectral range spanning 0.35-5.1 microns, as well as capturing solar phase angles not observed before. When combined with spectra from different regions of the moons obtained throughout the mission, the VIMS observations reveal substantial changes in the depth of water-ice absorption bands and color over the moons' surfaces. These measurements show the accretion of main-ring material onto the moons, with leading sides exhibiting stronger water-ice signatures in general. Atlas and Pandora have red visible spectra similar to the A-ring and unlike other icy moons, which are blue, further revealing accretion of main ring material onto the small inner moons. In general the visible spectra of the moons gets bluer with distance from Saturn until the surface of the moons is dominated by contamination from the E-ring, which is composed of fresh ice. There is a weak correlation between color and albedo, with lower-albedo moons being redder, suggesting the existence of a dark reddish contaminant from the main ring system. The solar phase curves of the moons are similar to those of larger icy moons (unfortunately no opposition surge data was gathered). 2017 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  18. A numerical model of heavy gas dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidokhtti, A.A.


    A simple mathematical model describing the motion of a dense gas released continuously into and environment is presented. The model correctly predicts the laboratory experiments which were carried out by Britter and Snyder (1987). It is an entrainment model better known as box model. In this model, the effects of temperature change and phase change are not considered and it is for a steady-state case. Further work is required for including these effects which are often associated with the mechanisms involved in accidental or natural release of heavy gases in the environment. The results of such a model will be extended to the practical situations which are and will be common to the nuclear industry at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. The applicability of such studies to these situations will be discussed

  19. Numerical method improvement for a subchannel code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, W.J.; Gou, J.L.; Shan, J.Q. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology


    Previous studies showed that the subchannel codes need most CPU time to solve the matrix formed by the conservation equations. Traditional matrix solving method such as Gaussian elimination method and Gaussian-Seidel iteration method cannot meet the requirement of the computational efficiency. Therefore, a new algorithm for solving the block penta-diagonal matrix is designed based on Stone's incomplete LU (ILU) decomposition method. In the new algorithm, the original block penta-diagonal matrix will be decomposed into a block upper triangular matrix and a lower block triangular matrix as well as a nonzero small matrix. After that, the LU algorithm is applied to solve the matrix until the convergence. In order to compare the computational efficiency, the new designed algorithm is applied to the ATHAS code in this paper. The calculation results show that more than 80 % of the total CPU time can be saved with the new designed ILU algorithm for a 324-channel PWR assembly problem, compared with the original ATHAS code.

  20. A Generalized Technique in Numerical Integration (United States)

    Safouhi, Hassan


    Integration by parts is one of the most popular techniques in the analysis of integrals and is one of the simplest methods to generate asymptotic expansions of integral representations. The product of the technique is usually a divergent series formed from evaluating boundary terms; however, sometimes the remaining integral is also evaluated. Due to the successive differentiation and anti-differentiation required to form the series or the remaining integral, the technique is difficult to apply to problems more complicated than the simplest. In this contribution, we explore a generalized and formalized integration by parts to create equivalent representations to some challenging integrals. As a demonstrative archetype, we examine Bessel integrals, Fresnel integrals and Airy functions.

  1. A numerical relativity scheme for cosmological simulations (United States)

    Daverio, David; Dirian, Yves; Mitsou, Ermis


    Cosmological simulations involving the fully covariant gravitational dynamics may prove relevant in understanding relativistic/non-linear features and, therefore, in taking better advantage of the upcoming large scale structure survey data. We propose a new 3  +  1 integration scheme for general relativity in the case where the matter sector contains a minimally-coupled perfect fluid field. The original feature is that we completely eliminate the fluid components through the constraint equations, thus remaining with a set of unconstrained evolution equations for the rest of the fields. This procedure does not constrain the lapse function and shift vector, so it holds in arbitrary gauge and also works for arbitrary equation of state. An important advantage of this scheme is that it allows one to define and pass an adaptation of the robustness test to the cosmological context, at least in the case of pressureless perfect fluid matter, which is the relevant one for late-time cosmology.

  2. Paleoclimate validation of a numerical climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelling, F.J.; Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Thompson, S.L.


    An analysis planned to validate regional climate model results for a past climate state at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, against paleoclimate evidence for the period is described. This analysis, which will use the GENESIS model of global climate nested with the RegCM2 regional climate model, is part of a larger study for DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project that is evaluating the impacts of long term future climate change on performance of the potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The planned analysis and anticipated results are presented

  3. The challenges encountered in the integration of an early test wafer surface scanning inspection system into a 450mm manufacturing line (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey; McGarvey, Steve


    The introduction of early test wafer (ETW) 450mm Surface Scanning Inspection Systems (SSIS) into Si manufacturing has brought with it numerous technical, commercial, and logistical challenges on the path to rapid recipe development and subsequent qualification of other 450mm wafer processing equipment. This paper will explore the feasibility of eliminating the Polystyrene Latex Sphere deposition process step and the subsequent creation of SSIS recipes based upon the theoretical optical properties of both the SSIS and the process film stack(s). The process of Polystyrene Latex Sphere deposition for SSIS recipe generation and development is generally accepted on the previous technology nodes for 150/200/300mm wafers. PSL is deposited with a commercially available deposition system onto a non-patterned bare Si or non-patterned filmed Si wafer. After deposition of multiple PSL spots, located in different positions on a wafer, the wafer is inspected on a SSIS and a response curve is generated. The response curve is based on the the light scattering intensity of the NIST certified PSL that was deposited on the wafer. As the initial 450mm Si wafer manufacturing began, there were no inspection systems with sub-90nm sensitivities available for defect and haze level verification. The introduction of a 450mm sub-30nm inspection system into the manufacturing line generated instant challenges. Whereas the 450mm wafers were relatively defect free at 90nm, at 40nm the wafers contained several hundred thousand defects. When PSL was deposited onto wafers with these kinds of defect levels, PSL with signals less than the sub-90nm defects were difficult to extract. As the defectivity level of the wafers from the Si suppliers rapidly improves the challenges of SSIS recipe creation with high defectivity decreases while at the same time the cost of PSL deposition increases. The current cost per wafer is fifteen thousand dollars for a 450mm PSL deposition service. When viewed from the

  4. 實徵研究/a study on online information encountering and personal characteristics/蔡怡欣、黃元鶴

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    蔡怡欣、黃元鶴 Yi-Hsin Tsai, Yuan-Ho Huang


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the individual online information encountering (IE experience and investigate the effects of their personal characteristics on IE experience. The study were conducted a qualitative research and a total of 11 respondents were interviewed. The results were as follows: Most online encountered information could satisfy the individual's present and future information needs. Most people acquire encountered information by themselves, and the encountered information came from various sources on the web. Frequent Internet users could be more sensitive to information than others. Moreover, people with higher intrinsic motivation, usually interested or curious about many things, are easy to acquire online IE experience. After having online IE experience, the individuals occasionally feel anxious because of time pressure, furthermore, they want to avoid encountering more information. However, most individuals feel novel and joyful while they encountered information. They even further process encountering information resources and expect to gain more experience about information encountering. In addition, the ideal environments of online information encountering include no commercial advertising, credibility, and a personalized database with the powerful searchable function. 本研究目的在瞭解個體的線上資訊偶遇經驗情形,以及個體所具備的個人特徵對其線上資訊偶遇經驗的影響。本研究分析11 位受訪者的資訊偶遇經驗並整合研究發現後,得出以下結論並提出後續的實務建議:線上偶遇資訊多為滿足個體現在及未來的資訊需求,且多由自己獲得、資訊來源廣泛。較常接觸並使用網路者,對自己的資訊敏感度具相當信心。內在學習動機較高、對許多事物都感興趣、或好奇心重的個體均易產生線上資訊偶遇經驗。個體偶爾會因資訊的繁雜或時間壓力而對於

  5. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  6. Numerical Methods for a Class of Differential Algebraic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the study of some efficient numerical methods for the differential algebraic equations (DAEs. At first, we propose a finite algorithm to compute the Drazin inverse of the time varying DAEs. Numerical experiments are presented by Drazin inverse and Radau IIA method, which illustrate that the precision of the Drazin inverse method is higher than the Radau IIA method. Then, Drazin inverse, Radau IIA, and Padé approximation are applied to the constant coefficient DAEs, respectively. Numerical results demonstrate that the Padé approximation is powerful for solving constant coefficient DAEs.

  7. Numerical linear algebra a concise introduction with Matlab and Julia

    CERN Document Server

    Bornemann, Folkmar


    This book offers an introduction to the algorithmic-numerical thinking using basic problems of linear algebra. By focusing on linear algebra, it ensures a stronger thematic coherence than is otherwise found in introductory lectures on numerics. The book highlights the usefulness of matrix partitioning compared to a component view, leading not only to a clearer notation and shorter algorithms, but also to significant runtime gains in modern computer architectures. The algorithms and accompanying numerical examples are given in the programming environment MATLAB, and additionally – in an appendix – in the future-oriented, freely accessible programming language Julia. This book is suitable for a two-hour lecture on numerical linear algebra from the second semester of a bachelor's degree in mathematics.

  8. A numerical library in Java for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Hang T


    At last researchers have an inexpensive library of Java-based numeric procedures for use in scientific computation. The first and only book of its kind, A Numeric Library in Java for Scientists and Engineers is a translation into Java of the library NUMAL (NUMerical procedures in ALgol 60). This groundbreaking text presents procedural descriptions for linear algebra, ordinary and partial differential equations, optimization, parameter estimation, mathematical physics, and other tools that are indispensable to any dynamic research group. The book offers test programs that allow researchers to execute the examples provided; users are free to construct their own tests and apply the numeric procedures to them in order to observe a successful computation or simulate failure. The entry for each procedure is logically presented, with name, usage parameters, and Java code included. This handbook serves as a powerful research tool, enabling the performance of critical computations in Java. It stands as a cost-effi...

  9. A numerical study of threshold states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ata, M.S.; Grama, C.; Grama, N.; Hategan, C.


    There are some experimental evidences of charged particle threshold states. On the statistical background of levels, some simple structures were observed in excitation spectrum. They occur near the coulombian threshold and have a large reduced width for the decay in the threshold channel. These states were identified as charged cluster threshold states. Such threshold states were observed in sup(15,16,17,18)O, sup(18,19)F, sup(19,20)Ne, sup(24)Mg, sup(32)S. The types of clusters involved were d, t, 3 He, α and even 12 C. They were observed in heavy-ions transfer reactions in the residual nucleus as strong excited levels. The charged particle threshold states occur as simple structures at high excitation energy. They could be interesting both from nuclear structure as well as nuclear reaction mechanism point of view. They could be excited as simple structures both in compound and residual nucleus. (author)

  10. Experimental and numerical study of smoke propagation through a vent separating two mechanically ventilated rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, Laurent; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel


    The paper presents an experimental and numerical study about smoke propagation through a horizontal opening between two superposed compartments, as can be encountered in nuclear installations, in case of a fire taking place in the lower room. The experimental configuration proposed in this study consists in two rooms mechanically ventilated and connected each other by a horizontal opening. The fire source is simulated by a propane burner located in the lower room. The inlet ventilation duct is located in the lower room and the exhaust ventilation duct is located in the upper room. For such experimental configuration, several flow regimes at the horizontal opening connecting the two rooms can be encountered depending on the fire power, the opening size (diameter, depth) and the ventilation set-up (location of inlet/outlet ducts, flow rate). Indeed, flow at the opening is governed by buoyant forces due to the hot gases produced by the fire, the inertia effect due to the forced ventilation and the momentum effect due to smoke flow nearby the horizontal opening (for instance, ceiling jet or thermal plume from fire). Consequently, such complex mixed (natural/ forced) convective flows are still a challenge for CFD fire codes to make properly calculations of these experimental scenarios. The objective of this paper is to assess the capability of ISIS code (CFD) to simulate the behaviour of smoke propagation inside these two superposed compartments. Results of this study are presented with details (especially, thermal stratification and flow rates through the horizontal vent) and are discussed thoroughly.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of smoke propagation through a vent separating two mechanically ventilated rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, Laurent; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    The paper presents an experimental and numerical study about smoke propagation through a horizontal opening between two superposed compartments, as can be encountered in nuclear installations, in case of a fire taking place in the lower room. The experimental configuration proposed in this study consists in two rooms mechanically ventilated and connected each other by a horizontal opening. The fire source is simulated by a propane burner located in the lower room. The inlet ventilation duct is located in the lower room and the exhaust ventilation duct is located in the upper room. For such experimental configuration, several flow regimes at the horizontal opening connecting the two rooms can be encountered depending on the fire power, the opening size (diameter, depth) and the ventilation set-up (location of inlet/outlet ducts, flow rate). Indeed, flow at the opening is governed by buoyant forces due to the hot gases produced by the fire, the inertia effect due to the forced ventilation and the momentum effect due to smoke flow nearby the horizontal opening (for instance, ceiling jet or thermal plume from fire). Consequently, such complex mixed (natural/ forced) convective flows are still a challenge for CFD fire codes to make properly calculations of these experimental scenarios. The objective of this paper is to assess the capability of ISIS code (CFD) to simulate the behaviour of smoke propagation inside these two superposed compartments. Results of this study are presented with details (especially, thermal stratification and flow rates through the horizontal vent) and are discussed thoroughly.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Particle Motion in a Curved Channel (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Nie, Deming


    In this work the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to numerically study the motion of a circular particle in a curved channel at intermediate Reynolds numbers (Re). The effects of the Reynolds number and the initial particle position are taken into account. Numerical results include the streamlines, particle trajectories and final equilibrium positions. It has been found that the particle is likely to migrate to a similar equilibrium position irrespective of its initial position when Re is large.

  13. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming (United States)


    Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

  14. A numerical simulation of pre-big bang cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, J P; Veneziano, Gabriele


    We analyse numerically the onset of pre-big bang inflation in an inhomogeneous, spherically symmetric Universe. Adding a small dilatonic perturbation to a trivial (Milne) background, we find that suitable regions of space undergo dilaton-driven inflation and quickly become spatially flat ($\\Omega \\to 1$). Numerical calculations are pushed close enough to the big bang singularity to allow cross checks against previously proposed analytic asymptotic solutions.

  15. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi


    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  16. A new numerical approximation of the fractal ordinary differential equation (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Jain, Sonal


    The concept of fractal medium is present in several real-world problems, for instance, in the geological formation that constitutes the well-known subsurface water called aquifers. However, attention has not been quite devoted to modeling for instance, the flow of a fluid within these media. We deem it important to remind the reader that the concept of fractal derivative is not to represent the fractal sharps but to describe the movement of the fluid within these media. Since this class of ordinary differential equations is highly complex to solve analytically, we present a novel numerical scheme that allows to solve fractal ordinary differential equations. Error analysis of the method is also presented. Application of the method and numerical approximation are presented for fractal order differential equation. The stability and the convergence of the numerical schemes are investigated in detail. Also some exact solutions of fractal order differential equations are presented and finally some numerical simulations are presented.

  17. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters


    Lee, Linda


    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  18. A numerical solution for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintz, E.; Sudano, J.P.


    The iterative techniques alternating direction implicit (ADI), sucessive ove-relaxation (SOR) and Gauss-Seidel are applied to a nonlinear elliptical second order differential equation (Grand-Shafranov). This equation was solve with the free boundary conditions plasma-vacuum interface over a rectangular section in cylindrical coordinates R and Z. The current density profile, plasma pressure profile, magnetic and isobaric surfaces are numerically determined for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Spectral analysis of Jupiter kilometric radio emissions during the Ulysses flyby (United States)

    Echer, M. P. D. S.; Echer, E.; Gonzalez, W.; Magalães, F. P.


    In this work we analyze Ulysses URAP kilometric radio data during Ulysses Jupiter flyby. The interval selected for analysis was from October 1991 to February 1992. URAP 10-min averages of auroral (bkom) and torus (nkom) radio data are used. The wavelet and iterative regression spectral analyses techniques are employed on both data set. The results obtained will enable us to determine the major frequencies present in the auroral and torus data and study their similar and different periodicities.

  20. Numerical modeling of isothermal and nonisothermal flow in unsaturated fractured rock: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, K.; Wang, J.S.Y.


    The tuff formations at and near the Nevada Test Site are comprised of fractured-porous material, with hydrologic properties quite different from those encountered in most previous unsaturated flow studies dealing with soils. In the vicinity of the waste packages, flow is driven by high temperatures (exceeding 100 0 C) and large temperature gradients. The approximations developed in soil science for weakly nonisothermal flow are not applicable to this situation, and a multiphase description of flow is required, similar to approaches used in modeling of geothermal reservoirs and thermally enhance oil recovery. The conventional approach to unsaturated flow is applicable, however, to a variety of problems relating to natural (undisturbed) and far-field flow conditions. This paper reviews recent work on numerical modeling of unsaturated flow undertaken in the context of nuclear waste isolation studies. Concepts and applications of broader interest are summarized, and important issues are identified that have not been adequately explored. 84 refs, 8 figs

  1. The Adriatic response to the bora forcing. A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachev, N.


    This paper deals with the bora wind effect on the Adriatic Sea circulation as simulated by a 3-D numerical code (the DieCAST model). The main result of this forcing is the formation of intense upwelling along the eastern coast in agreement with previous theoretical studies and observations. Different numerical experiments are discussed for various boundary and initial conditions to evaluate their influence on both circulation and upwelling patterns

  2. Personal Albums and Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    as discussions of representational ethics in relation to anthropological and colonial photography, this article examines the exhibition The Photo Albums at the Dutch National Maritime Museum. Typically, the photo collections of maritime museums include many photographs that represent cultural encounters...

  3. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.


    sludge. Phenomena as free and hindered settling and the Bingham plastic characteristic of activated sludge suspensions are included in the numerical model. Further characterisation and test tank experiments are described. The characterisation experiments were designed to measure calibration parameters...... for model description of settling and density differences. In the test tank experiments, flow velocities and suspended sludge concentrations were measured with different tank inlet geomotry and hydraulic and sludge loads. The test tank experiments provided results for the calibration of the numerical model......A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended...

  4. Innovation from the ICT-based service encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders


    The pupose of the paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from the ICT-based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT...

  5. Differences in Faculty and Standardized Patient Scores on Professionalism for Second-Year Podiatric Medical Students During a Standardized Simulated Patient Encounter. (United States)

    Mahoney, James M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Anwar, Noreen; Hagenbucher, Jacob


    This study examined the differences between faculty and trained standardized patient (SP) evaluations on student professionalism during a second-year podiatric medicine standardized simulated patient encounter. Forty-nine second-year podiatric medicine students were evaluated for their professionalism behavior. Eleven SPs performed an assessment in real-time, and one faculty member performed a secondary assessment after observing a videotape of the encounter. Five domains were chosen for evaluation from a validated professionalism assessment tool. Significant differences were identified in the professionalism domains of "build a relationship" ( P = .008), "gather information" ( P = .001), and share information ( P = .002), where the faculty scored the students higher than the SP for 24.5%, 18.9%, and 26.5% of the cases, respectively. In addition, the faculty scores were higher than the SP scores in all of the "gather information" subdomains; however, the difference in scores was significant only in the "question appropriately" ( P = .001) and "listen and clarify" ( P = .003) subdomains. This study showed that professionalism scores for second-year podiatric medical students during a simulated patient encounter varied significantly between faculty and SPs. Further consideration needs to be given to determine the source of these differences.

  6. Engineering Encounters: No, David! but Yes, Design! Kindergarten Students Are Introduced to a Design Way of Thinking (United States)

    Douglass, Helen


    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance science teaching. In today's classrooms, teachers face numerous challenges. They are preparing students for jobs and careers that are not even conceived of yet. Assessments are being used to address students' college and career readiness and to promote critical thinking and problem solving.…

  7. Encounters with Structure (United States)

    Connell, R. W.


    A discussion of poststructuralism may be helped by reflecting on the trajectory of ideas and practices that produced it. Structuralism as an intellectual movement has had a bad press and doubtless some of that is deserved. But structuralism was more diverse and creative, and structural analysis as a procedure in social science is more important,…

  8. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Nefat


    Full Text Available Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfactory is provided by the critical incident technique, where causes of dis/satisfaction differ primarily depending on whether they derive from interpersonal contact or from contact with technology. The evidence of service, which includes people, process and the physical evidence, plays a critical role in a customer’s dis/satisfaction. The influence of these elements cannot be observed separately; it must be observed in their interaction during the delivery of service and their strongest effect is achieved during face-to-face service encounters that have the characteristics of a theatre metaphor. Even though a high level of satisfaction may be achieved after the recovery of a service, enterprises should aim to conduct excellent service encounters right from the start.

  9. Numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piran, T.


    There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)

  10. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasis, Georgios, E-mail: [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)


    “Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”.

  11. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasis, Georgios


    “Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”

  12. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt


    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  13. Encountering Rural Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm


    . The presence of “The controlled ruin at the church” in the rural village catalyzed an exchange of memories of the place among the local inhabitants. Furthermore, the subsequent decay process showed a positive influence on the local attitude towards the implemented strategy. Bringing in surveyed examples...

  14. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle


    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  15. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip


    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The recent growth of many cities calls for a rethinking of urban and suburban development. How are suburbs and former industrial areas transformed to provide room for new citizens and functions? How do housing and urban space shape communities and everyday life? How can architecture and urban pla...

  17. Web of Design Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Christina


    of this thesis is to exemplify how an exploratory research setup may move architectural design practice into a more social and open design space. Enlightened by Actor Network Theory combined with Hans-Jörg Reinbergers conceptual framework for analyzing experimental research practice, it enters and proceeds...

  18. Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (United States)


    Colin at the Coral Reef Research Foundation and Paul Collins, who has extensive experience with such data). Helen Reef Concerted UCTD measurements...sensors, weights , 45 m of line, and a float) which were arrayed around Helen Reef nominally on the 90-m isobath using Revelle’s workboat. Colin (CRRF...the main islands of Palau and diverts around the south and north ends of the island group (Figure 1, left and right; Section ). At Helen Reef and Toby

  19. Encountering the Everyday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    life traditions such as Chicago sociology, phenomenology, American pragmatism, symbolic interactionism, existentialism and critical everyday life sociologies, but also to the later developments by Erving Goffman, French everyday life thinkers, the ethnomethodologists, conversation analysts...... and the absurdists. Finally, a section deals with the most recent approaches such as the specifically Scandinavian everyday life perspectives, the sociology of emotions, social semiotics, cultural studies and postmodern interpretive interactionism. The chapters all accessibly introduce the reader to the ‘core...

  20. The First Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Jane Bjørn


    Much work in Science and Technology Studies (STS) assumes that scientists enter into research collaborations as entities characterized by difference. It is assumed that in order to collaborate these differences must be aligned. In this paper, I investigate the intriguing role of difference...... collaboration. I conclude the paper by suggesting that if collaboration is in fact not held back by dissimilarities this suggests a need to rethink the dynamics of science-industry relations....

  1. Copenhagen, an unexplained encounter

    CERN Multimedia


    Why did Werner Heisenberg, a participant in the nuclear research programme of the Third Reich, visit his friend and mentor Niels Bohr in occupied Denmark in September 1941? Was it a deliberate attempt to mislead the allies through talking to Bohr? Or was he really pursuing the utopian goal of halting the race to build the atomic bomb? What the historians have never been able to fully explain is explored in the play "Copenhagen", in which the ghosts of the two great scientists try to fathom why they failed to understand each other all those years ago. "Copenhagen", which has filled theatres in London, New York and Paris, is one of the most successful plays of British author Michael Frayn, also famous for his crime thrillers and comedies. A production of the play in French will be staged at the Théâtre de Carouge from 18th November. Werner Heisenberg and Niels Bohr before World War II.Both CERN and the Association pour l'Histoire des Sciences have associated themselves with the production...

  2. Close encounters with DNA (United States)

    Maffeo, C.; Yoo, J.; Comer, J.; Wells, D. B.; Luan, B.; Aksimentiev, A.


    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena and we review the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field. PMID:25238560

  3. Close encounters with DNA. (United States)

    Maffeo, C; Yoo, J; Comer, J; Wells, D B; Luan, B; Aksimentiev, A


    Over the past ten years, the all-atom molecular dynamics method has grown in the scale of both systems and processes amenable to it and in its ability to make quantitative predictions about the behavior of experimental systems. The field of computational DNA research is no exception, witnessing a dramatic increase in the size of systems simulated with atomic resolution, the duration of individual simulations and the realism of the simulation outcomes. In this topical review, we describe the hallmark physical properties of DNA from the perspective of all-atom simulations. We demonstrate the amazing ability of such simulations to reveal the microscopic physical origins of experimentally observed phenomena. We also discuss the frustrating limitations associated with imperfections of present atomic force fields and inadequate sampling. The review is focused on the following four physical properties of DNA: effective electric charge, response to an external mechanical force, interaction with other DNA molecules and behavior in an external electric field.

  4. Numerical Predictions of Flow Characteristics in a 90 Degree Bended Upward Elbow Located at the Downstream Region of a Flow Control Valve (Butterfly Valve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Se Youl; Park, Young Sheop; Kim, Yun Jung; Oh, Seung Jong


    Butterfly valves are widely used in industrial piping components. They are used for flow control in large diameter pipes because of their lightweight, simple structure and the rapidity of manipulation. Any flow disturbing components such as elbows, orifice plates and tees are recommended to be located in a distance of 8 diameters (L/D.8) from the downstream of butterfly valves to decrease the effect of flow disturbance. However, one would encounter cases where other piping components are installed in a close proximity due to the space restriction. In these cases, the numerical simulation will be useful to evaluate the impact of flow disturbances. In this study, we have examined one practical case encountered where the elbow is located in a close proximity to the butterfly valve. Due to the close proximity, we are concerned about pipe thinning and we use the numerical evaluation to determine the range of operating regime and options

  5. Reducing symbolic-violence in the research encounter: collaborating with a survivor of domestic abuse in a qualitative study in UK primary care. (United States)

    Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene


    This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  6. Termite: Emulation Testbed for Encounter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bruno


    Full Text Available Cutting-edge mobile devices like smartphones and tablets are equipped with various infrastructureless wireless interfaces, such as WiFi Direct and Bluetooth. Such technologies allow for novel mobile applications that take advantage of casual encounters between co-located users. However, the need to mimic the behavior of real-world encounter networks makes testing and debugging of such applications hard tasks. We present Termite, an emulation testbed for encounter networks. Our system allows developers to run their applications on a virtual encounter network emulated by software. Developers can model arbitrary encounter networks and specify user interactions on the emulated virtual devices. To facilitate testing and debugging, developers can place breakpoints, inspect the runtime state of virtual nodes, and run experiments in a stepwise fashion. Termite defines its own Petri Net variant to model the dynamically changing topology and synthesize user interactions with virtual devices. The system is designed to efficiently multiplex an underlying emulation hosting infrastructure across multiple developers, and to support heterogeneous mobile platforms. Our current system implementation supports virtual Android devices communicating over WiFi Direct networks and runs on top of a local cloud infrastructure. We evaluated our system using emulator network traces, and found that Termite is expressive and performs well.

  7. Application of high precision two-way S-band ranging to the navigation of the Galileo Earth encounters (United States)

    Pollmeier, Vincent M.; Kallemeyn, Pieter H.; Thurman, Sam W.


    The application of high-accuracy S/S-band (2.1 GHz uplink/2.3 GHz downlink) ranging to orbit determination with relatively short data arcs is investigated for the approach phase of each of the Galileo spacecraft's two Earth encounters (8 December 1990 and 8 December 1992). Analysis of S-band ranging data from Galileo indicated that under favorable signal levels, meter-level precision was attainable. It is shown that ranginging data of sufficient accuracy, when acquired from multiple stations, can sense the geocentric angular position of a distant spacecraft. Explicit modeling of ranging bias parameters for each station pass is used to largely remove systematic ground system calibration errors and transmission media effects from the Galileo range measurements, which would otherwise corrupt the angle finding capabilities of the data. The accuracy achieved using the precision range filtering strategy proved markedly better when compared to post-flyby reconstructions than did solutions utilizing a traditional Doppler/range filter strategy. In addition, the navigation accuracy achieved with precision ranging was comparable to that obtained using delta-Differenced One-Way Range, an interferometric measurement of spacecraft angular position relative to a natural radio source, which was also used operationally.

  8. Numerical modeling of a cryogenic fluid within a fuel tank (United States)

    Greer, Donald S.


    The computational method developed to study the cryogenic fluid characteristics inside a fuel tank in a hypersonic aircraft is presented. The model simulates a rapid draining of the tank by modeling the ullage vapor and the cryogenic liquid with a moving interface. A mathematical transformation was developed and applied to the Navier-Stokes equations to account for the moving interface. The formulation of the numerical method is a transient hybrid explicit-implicit technique where the pressure term in the momentum equations is approximated to first order in time by combining the continuity equation with an ideal equation of state.

  9. Generalized Roe's numerical scheme for a two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumi, I.; Raymond, P.


    This paper is devoted to a mathematical and numerical study of a six equation two-fluid model. We will prove that the model is strictly hyperbolic due to the inclusion of the virtual mass force term in the phasic momentum equations. The two-fluid model is naturally written under a nonconservative form. To solve the nonlinear Riemann problem for this nonconservative hyperbolic system, a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver, is used, based on a linearization of the nonconservative terms. A Godunov type numerical scheme is built, using this approximate Riemann solver. 10 refs., 5 figs,

  10. A numerical methodology for the Painlevé equations

    KAUST Repository

    Fornberg, Bengt


    The six Painlevé transcendents PI-PVI have both applications and analytic properties that make them stand out from most other classes of special functions. Although they have been the subject of extensive theoretical investigations for about a century, they still have a reputation for being numerically challenging. In particular, their extensive pole fields in the complex plane have often been perceived as \\'numerical mine fields\\'. In the present work, we note that the Painlevé property in fact provides the opportunity for very fast and accurate numerical solutions throughout such fields. When combining a Taylor/Padé-based ODE initial value solver for the pole fields with a boundary value solver for smooth regions, numerical solutions become available across the full complex plane. We focus here on the numerical methodology, and illustrate it for the PI equation. In later studies, we will concentrate on mathematical aspects of both the PI and the higher Painlevé transcendents. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hyperactivity and Dust Composition of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 During the EPOXI Encounter (United States)

    Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Wooden, Diane H.


    Short-period comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the flyby target of the Deep Impact eXtended Investigation on 2010 November 4 UT. This comet has a small hyperactive nucleus, i.e., it has a high water production rate for its surface area. The underlying cause of the hyperactivity is unknown; the relative abundances of volatiles in the coma of 103P are not unusual. However, the dust properties of this comet have not been fully explored. We present four epochs of mid-infrared spectra and images of comet 103P observed from Gemini-South +T-ReCS on 2010 November 5, 7, 21 and December 13 UT, near and after the spacecraft encounter. Comet 103P exhibited a weak 10 μm emission feature ≃1.14 ± 0.01 above the underlying local 10 μm continuum. Thermal dust grain modeling of the spectra shows the grain composition (mineralogy) was dominated by amorphous carbon and amorphous pyroxene with evidence for Mg-rich crystalline olivine. The grain size has a peak grain radius range of a peak ∼ 0.5–0.9 μm. On average, the crystalline silicate mass fraction is ≃0.24, fairly typical of other short-period comets. In contrast, the silicate-to-carbon ratio of ≃0.48–0.64 is lower compared to other short-period comets, which indicates that the flux measured in the 10 μm region of 103P was dominated by amorphous carbon grains. We conclude that the hyperactivity in comet 103P is not revealing dust properties similar to the small grains seen with the Deep Impact experiment on comet 9P/Tempel 1 or from comet C/1995 O1 (Hale–Bopp).

  12. Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and influenza health-care encounters: a self-controlled study. (United States)

    Kwong, Jeffrey C; Vasa, Priya P; Campitelli, Michael A; Hawken, Steven; Wilson, Kumanan; Rosella, Laura C; Stukel, Therese A; Crowcroft, Natasha S; McGeer, Allison J; Zinman, Lorne; Deeks, Shelley L


    The possible risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome from influenza vaccines remains a potential obstacle to achieving high vaccination coverage. However, influenza infection might also be associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and after influenza-coded health-care encounters. We used the self-controlled risk interval design and linked universal health-care system databases from Ontario, Canada, with data obtained between 1993 and 2011. We used physician billing claims for influenza vaccination and influenza-coded health-care encounters to ascertain exposures. Using fixed-effects conditional Poisson regression, we estimated the relative incidence of hospitalisation for primary-coded Guillain-Barré syndrome during the risk interval compared with the control interval. We identified 2831 incident admissions for Guillain-Barré syndrome; 330 received an influenza vaccine and 109 had an influenza-coded health-care encounter within 42 weeks before hospitalisation. The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome within 6 weeks of vaccination was 52% higher than in the control interval of 9-42 weeks (relative incidence 1·52; 95% CI 1·17-1·99), with the greatest risk during weeks 2-4 after vaccination. The risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome within 6 weeks of an influenza-coded health-care encounter was greater than for vaccination (15·81; 10·28-24·32). The attributable risks were 1·03 Guillain-Barré syndrome admissions per million vaccinations, compared with 17·2 Guillain-Barré syndrome admissions per million influenza-coded health-care encounters. The relative and attributable risks of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination are lower than those after influenza illness. Patients considering immunisation should be fully informed of the risks of Guillain-Barré syndrome from both influenza vaccines and influenza illness. Canadian Institutes of Health Research

  13. A numerical scheme for the generalized Burgers–Huxley equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh K. Singh


    Full Text Available In this article, a numerical solution of generalized Burgers–Huxley (gBH equation is approximated by using a new scheme: modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM. The scheme is based on differential quadrature method in which the weighting coefficients are obtained by using modified cubic B-splines as a set of basis functions. This scheme reduces the equation into a system of first-order ordinary differential equation (ODE which is solved by adopting SSP-RK43 scheme. Further, it is shown that the proposed scheme is stable. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by four numerical experiments, which confirm that obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies. This scheme is an easy, economical and efficient technique for finding numerical solutions for various kinds of (nonlinear physical models as compared to the earlier schemes.

  14. Infinite occupation number basis of bosons: Solving a numerical challenge (United States)

    Geißler, Andreas; Hofstetter, Walter


    In any bosonic lattice system, which is not dominated by local interactions and thus "frozen" in a Mott-type state, numerical methods have to cope with the infinite size of the corresponding Hilbert space even for finite lattice sizes. While it is common practice to restrict the local occupation number basis to Nc lowest occupied states, the presence of a finite condensate fraction requires the complete number basis for an exact representation of the many-body ground state. In this work we present a truncation scheme to account for contributions from higher number states. By simply adding a single coherent-tail state to this common truncation, we demonstrate increased numerical accuracy and the possible increase in numerical efficiency of this method for the Gutzwiller variational wave function and within dynamical mean-field theory.

  15. Numerical semigroups in a problem about economic incentives for consumers


    Robles-Pérez, Aureliano M.; Rosales, José Carlos


    Motivated by a promotion to increase the number of musical downloads, we introduce the concept of $C$-incentive and show an algorithm that compute the smallest $C$-incentive containing a subset $X \\subseteq {\\mathbb N}$. On the other hand, in order to study $C$-incentives, we see that we can focus on numerical $C$-incentives. Then, we establish that the set formed by all numerical $C$-incentives is a Frobenius pseudo-variety and we show an algorithmic process to recurrently build such a pseud...

  16. Numerical analysis of the performance prediction for a thermoelectric generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Nyung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The present study develops a two-dimensional numerical code that can predict the performance of a thermoelectric generator module including a p-leg/n-leg pair and top and bottom electrodes. The present code can simulate the detailed thermoelectric phenomena including the heat flow, electric current, Joule heating, Peltier heating, and Thomson heating, together with the efficiency of the modules whose properties depend on the temperature. The present numerical code can be used for the design optimization of a thermoelectric power generator.

  17. Highly uniform parallel microfabrication using a large numerical aperture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zi-Yu; Su, Ya-Hui, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Zhang, Chen-Chu; Hu, Yan-Lei; Wang, Chao-Wei; Li, Jia-Wen; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong, E-mail:, E-mail: [CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    In this letter, we report an improved algorithm to produce accurate phase patterns for generating highly uniform diffraction-limited multifocal arrays in a large numerical aperture objective system. It is shown that based on the original diffraction integral, the uniformity of the diffraction-limited focal arrays can be improved from ∼75% to >97%, owing to the critical consideration of the aperture function and apodization effect associated with a large numerical aperture objective. The experimental results, e.g., 3 × 3 arrays of square and triangle, seven microlens arrays with high uniformity, further verify the advantage of the improved algorithm. This algorithm enables the laser parallel processing technology to realize uniform microstructures and functional devices in the microfabrication system with a large numerical aperture objective.

  18. Service encounters as bases for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Sundbo, Donna; Henten, Anders


    customers with the innovating organization. Based on literature studies and pilot case studies, seven propositions are proposed and tested in a qualitative, hermeneutic way in field experiments in nine service organizations. Important new results are that encounter-based innovation requires mutual empathy...... between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two...

  19. Numerical simulation of a multi-reef tabular mining layout in a South African platinum mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Napier, JAL


    Full Text Available Some of the key problems facing rock engineers on mines in the Bushveld Complex are design of stable panel spans, optimum pillar dimensions and assessing hangingwall stability. A particularly difficult problem is encountered in some mines where...

  20. A numerical study of a supercritical fluid jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Pallares, J.; Garcia-Serna, J.; Cocero, M.J.; Parra-Santos, M.T.; Castro-Ruiz, F.


    This study affords the numerical solution of the mixing of a submerged turbulent jet under supercritical conditions and near-critical conditions. Turbulence plays a very important role in the behaviour of chemical engineering equipment. An accurate prediction of the turbulence at supercritical conditions with low computational cost is crucial in designing new processes such as reactions in supercritical media, high pressure separation processes, nanomaterials processing and heterogeneous catalysis. At high-pressure, the flow cannot be modelled accurately using the ideal-gas assumption. Therefore, the real gas models must be used in order to solve accurately the fluid flow and heat transfer problems where the working fluid behaviour deviate seriously from the ideal-gas assumption. The jet structure has three parts clearly distinguished: the injection, the transition and the fully developed jet. Once the flow is dominated by the turbulent eddies of the shear layer, the flow is fully developed and the radial profiles match a similarity profile. This work reports the state of the project that is not completed and is being processed now. This work is devoted to establish the distance downstream from the injector where the jet become self-preserving and the shape of the similarity profiles. This system is of interest in the design of supercritical reactor inlets, where two streams should be mixed in the shortest length, or mixing conditions strongly affect the behaviour of the processes. The numerical results have been validated with experimental measurements made in the jet mixing region. The radial profiles for average velocity, density and temperature are analyzed. The parameters of the profile that match better the numerical results are summarized in Table 1. The density requires a lower value of n than these for velocity and temperature, which reflect smoother profiles. These conclusions are in good agreement with the results from Oschwald and Schik. (author)

  1. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van


    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body

  2. Numerical modeling of magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno


    This report explains the numerical programs behind a comprehensive modeling effort of magma-repository interactions. Magma-repository interactions occur when a magma dike with high-volatile content magma ascends through surrounding rock and encounters a tunnel or drift filled with either a magmatic

  3. MATH: A Scientific Tool for Numerical Methods Calculation and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Glaser-Opitz


    Full Text Available MATH is an easy to use application for various numerical methods calculations with graphical user interface and integrated plotting tool written in Qt with extensive use of Qwt library for plotting options and use of Gsl and MuParser libraries as a numerical and parser helping libraries. It can be found at MATH is a convenient tool for use in education process because of its capability of showing every important step in solution process to better understand how it is done. MATH also enables fast comparison of similar method speed and precision.

  4. Numerical method for two phase flow with a unstable interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glimm, J.; Marchesin, D.; McBryan, O.


    The random choice method is used to compute the oil-water interface for two dimensional porous media equations. The equations used are a pair of coupled equations; the (elliptic) pressure equation and the (hyperbolic) saturation equation. The equations do not include the dispersive capillary pressure term and the computation does not introduce numerical diffusion. The method resolves saturation discontinuities sharply. The main conclusion of this paper is that the random choice is a correct numerical procedure for this problem even in the highly fingered case. Two methods of inducing fingers are considered: deterministically, through choice of Cauchy data and heterogeneity, through maximizing the randomness of the random choice method

  5. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia


    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  6. Numerical study on drop formation through a micro nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Son, Gi Hun


    The drop ejection process from a micro nozzle is investigated by numerically solving the conservation equations for mass and momentum. The liquid-gas interface is tracked by a level set method which is extended for two-fluid flows with irregular solid boundaries. Based on the numerical results, the liquid jet breaking and droplet formation behavior is found to depend strongly on the pulse type of forcing pressure and the contact angle at the gas-liquid-solid interline. The negative pressure forcing can be used to control the formation of satelite droplets. Also, various nozzle shapes are tested to investigate their effect on droplet formation

  7. Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.


    With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...

  8. Laser altimeter observations from MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby. (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Phillips, Roger J; Peale, Stanton J; Head, James W; Hauck, Steven A; McNutt, Ralph L; Oberst, Jürgen; Neumann, Gregory A; Lemoine, Frank G; Sun, Xiaoli; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Harmon, John K


    A 3200-kilometers-long profile of Mercury by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft spans approximately 20% of the near-equatorial region of the planet. Topography along the profile is characterized by a 5.2-kilometer dynamic range and 930-meter root-mean-square roughness. At long wavelengths, topography slopes eastward by 0.02 degrees , implying a variation of equatorial shape that is at least partially compensated. Sampled craters on Mercury are shallower than their counterparts on the Moon, at least in part the result of Mercury's higher gravity. Crater floors vary in roughness and slope, implying complex modification over a range of length scales.

  9. On the characteristics of a numerical fluid dynamics simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, K.H.A.; Norman, M.L.; Norton, J.L.


    John von Neumann envisioned scientists and mathematicians analyzing and controlling their numerical experiments on nonlinear dynamic systems interactively. The authors describe their concept of a real-time Numerical Fluid Dynamics Simulator NFDS. The authors envision the NFDS to be composed of simulation processors, data storage devices, and image processing devices of extremely high power and capacity, interconnected by very high throughput communication channels. They present individual component performance requirements for both real-time and playback operating modes of the NFDS, using problems of current interest in fluid dynamics as examples. Scaling relations are derived showing the dependence of system requirements on the dimensionality and complexity of the numerical model. The authors conclude by extending their analysis to the system requirements posed in modeling the more involved physics of radiation hydrodynamics

  10. Numerical analysis of a polysilicon-based resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh


    This study investigates a conductive bridge resistive memory device based on a Cu top electrode, 10-nm polysilicon resistive switching layer and a TiN bottom electrode, by numerical analysis for $$10^{3}$$103 programming and erase simulation cycles

  11. About numerical analysis of a plasma physics problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Cipolatti, R. de


    A numerical study on macroscopic equilibrium of a plasma at interior of a tokamak device, considering boundary problems for the case which f(s)=sis presented. The abstract Dirichlet problem enumerating main results which is applied to plasma model is studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Numerical study of agglomerate abrasion in a tumbling mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh Nguyen, [No Value; Willemsz, Tofan; Frijlink, Henderik; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort


    A numerical simulation using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) was performed to investigate the phenomena concerning the abrasion and breakage of agglomerates in a diffusion powder mixer. Agglomerates were created by defining a single structure of particles with bonds of different strengths using

  13. Theoretical and numerical treatment of diffraction through a circular aperture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, C.J.


    The three-dimensional diffraction of a scalar plane wave through a circular aperture in an infinite plane screen is analyzed and numerically computed for the case of normal incidence. A modified Babinet's principle is formulated, and this is used to find the diffraction of sound by an acoustically

  14. A numerical method for solving singular De`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaver, W.T.


    A numerical method is developed for solving singular differential equations using steepest descent based on weighted Sobolev gradients. The method is demonstrated on a variety of first and second order problems, including linear constrained, unconstrained, and partially constrained first order problems, a nonlinear first order problem with irregular singularity, and two second order variational problems.

  15. Jupiter's Magnetosphere: Plasma Description from the Ulysses Flyby. (United States)

    Bame, S J; Barraclough, B L; Feldman, W C; Gisler, G R; Gosling, J T; McComas, D J; Phillips, J L; Thomsen, M F; Goldstein, B E; Neugebauer, M


    Plasma observations at Jupiter show that the outer regions of the Jovian magnetosphere are remarkably similar to those of Earth. Bow-shock precursor electrons and ions were detected in the upstream solar wind, as at Earth. Plasma changes across the bow shock and properties of the magnetosheath electrons were much like those at Earth, indicating that similar processes are operating. A boundary layer populated by a varying mixture of solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas was found inside the magnetopause, again as at Earth. In the middle magnetosphere, large electron density excursions were detected with a 10-hour periodicity as planetary rotation carried the tilted plasma sheet past Ulysses. Deep in the magnetosphere, Ulysses crossed a region, tentatively described as magnetically connected to the Jovian polar cap on one end and to the interplanetary magnetic field on the other. In the inner magnetosphere and lo torus, where corotation plays a dominant role, measurements could not be made because of extreme background rates from penetrating radiation belt particles.

  16. Numerical Studies of Homogenization under a Fast Cellular Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Iyer, Gautam


    We consider a two dimensional particle diffusing in the presence of a fast cellular flow confined to a finite domain. If the flow amplitude A is held fixed and the number of cells L 2 →∞, then the problem homogenizes; this has been well studied. Also well studied is the limit when L is fixed and A→∞. In this case the solution averages along stream lines. The double limit as both the flow amplitude A→∞and the number of cells L 2 →∞was recently studied [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074]; one observes a sharp transition between the homogenization and averaging regimes occurring at A = L 2. This paper numerically studies a few theoretically unresolved aspects of this problem when both A and L are large that were left open in [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074] using the numerical method devised in [G. A. Pavliotis, A. M. Stewart, and K. C. Zygalakis, J. Comput. Phys., 228 (2009), pp. 1030-1055]. Our treatment of the numerical method uses recent developments in the theory of modified equations for numerical integrators of stochastic differential equations [K. C. Zygalakis, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 33 (2001), pp. 102-130]. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. Numerical Studies of Homogenization under a Fast Cellular Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Iyer, Gautam; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C.


    We consider a two dimensional particle diffusing in the presence of a fast cellular flow confined to a finite domain. If the flow amplitude A is held fixed and the number of cells L 2 →∞, then the problem homogenizes; this has been well studied. Also well studied is the limit when L is fixed and A→∞. In this case the solution averages along stream lines. The double limit as both the flow amplitude A→∞and the number of cells L 2 →∞was recently studied [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074]; one observes a sharp transition between the homogenization and averaging regimes occurring at A = L 2. This paper numerically studies a few theoretically unresolved aspects of this problem when both A and L are large that were left open in [G. Iyer et al., preprint, arXiv:1108.0074] using the numerical method devised in [G. A. Pavliotis, A. M. Stewart, and K. C. Zygalakis, J. Comput. Phys., 228 (2009), pp. 1030-1055]. Our treatment of the numerical method uses recent developments in the theory of modified equations for numerical integrators of stochastic differential equations [K. C. Zygalakis, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 33 (2001), pp. 102-130]. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  18. Numerical solution of a model for a superconductor field problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsop, L.E.; Goodman, A.S.; Gustavson, F.G.; Miranker, W.L.


    A model of a magnetic field problem occurring in connection with Josephson junction devices is derived, and numerical solutions are obtained. The model is of mathematical interest, because the magnetic vector potential satisfies inhomogeneous Helmholtz equations in part of the region, i.e., the superconductors, and the Laplace equation elsewhere. Moreover, the inhomogeneities are the guage constants for the potential, which are different for each superconductor, and their magnitudes are proportional to the currents flowing in the superconductors. These constants are directly related to the self and mutual inductances of the superconducting elements in the device. The numerical solution is obtained by the iterative use of a fast Poisson solver. Chebyshev acceleration is used to reduce the number of iterations required to obtain a solution. A typical problem involves solving 100,000 simultaneous equations, which the algorithm used with this model does in 20 iterations, requiring three minutes of CPU time on an IBM VM/370/168. Excellent agreement is obtained between calculated and observed values for the inductances

  19. A bibliography on parallel and vector numerical algorithms (United States)

    Ortega, James M.; Voigt, Robert G.; Romine, Charles H.


    This is a bibliography on numerical methods. It also includes a number of other references on machine architecture, programming language, and other topics of interest to scientific computing. Certain conference proceedings and anthologies which have been published in book form are also listed.

  20. Numerical experiment with modelled return echo of a satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have simulated the return echo of a satellite altimeter from a rough ocean surface using an analytical formula and have studied its sensitivity with respect to various oceanic and altimeter parameters. Our numerical expcriment shows that for normally observed significant wave heights (SWFI) the effect of ...