WorldWideScience

Sample records for fly ash-sewage sludge

  1. Supercritical water oxidation of dioxins and furans in waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and industrial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Safari; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2014-08-01

    Three environmental samples containing dioxins and furans have been oxidized in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under supercritical water oxidation conditions. The samples consisted of a waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil. The reactor system was a batch, autoclave reactor operated at temperatures between 350 degrees C and 450degrees C, corresponding to pressures of approximately 20-33.5 MPa and with hydrogen peroxide concentrations from 0.0 to 11.25 vol%. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and temperature/pressure had a strong positive effect on the oxidation of dioxins and furans. At the highest temperatures and pressure of supercritical water oxidation of 4500C and 33.5 MPa and with 11.25 vol% of hydrogen peroxide, the destruction efficiencies of the individual polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) isomers were between 90% and 99%. There did not appear to be any significant differences in the PCDD/PCDF destruction efficiencies in relation to the different sample matrices of the waste incinerator fly ash, sewage sludge and contaminated industrial soil.

  2. Leachability of Heavy Metals from Lightweight Aggregates Made with Sewage Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight aggregate (LWA) production with sewage sludge and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is an effective approach for waste disposal. This study investigated the stability of heavy metals in LWA made from sewage sludge and MSWI fly ash. Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge (MSWI FA/SS) ratio, sintering temperature and sintering time. It was found that with the increase of MSWI FA/SS ratio, leaching rates of all heavy metals firstly decreased and then increased, indicating the optimal ratio of MSWI fly ash/sewage sludge was 2:8. With the increase of sintering temperature and sintering time, the heavy metal solidifying efficiencies were strongly enhanced by crystallization and chemical incorporations within the aluminosilicate or silicate frameworks during the sintering process. However, taking cost-savings and lower energy consumption into account, 1100 °C and 8 min were selected as the optimal parameters for LWA sample- containing sludge production. Furthermore, heavy metal leaching concentrations under these optimal LWA production parameters were found to be in the range of China’s regulatory requirements. It is concluded that heavy metals can be properly stabilized in LWA samples containing sludge and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:25961800

  3. Pyrolysis of high-ash sewage sludge in a circulating fluidized bed reactor for production of liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wu; Jin, Baosheng; Huang, Yaji; Sun, Yu; Li, Rui; Jia, Jiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A circulating fluidized bed reactor was used for pyrolyzing sewage sludge with a high ash content to produce liquids rich in heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds. GC/MS and FTIR analyses showed that heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds and hydrocarbons made up 38.5-61.21% and 2.24-17.48% of the pyrolysis liquids, respectively. A fluidized gas velocity of 1.13 m/s, a sludge feed rate of 10.78 kg/h and a particle size of 1-2mm promoted heterocyclic nitrogenated compound production. Utilizing heterocyclic nitrogenated compounds as chemical feedstock could be a way for offsetting the cost of sewage sludge treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    . Casagrande's coefficients were determined for the four materials at different water contents. The experiments in this work showed that chalk could be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM by electroosmosis....... The process was not optimised indicating that higher dry matter contents could be achieved by electroosmosis. It was possible to relate Casagrande's coefficient directly to the electroosmotic coefficient obtained by dewatering experiments....

  5. Electroosmotic dewatering of chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, H.K.; Kristensen, I.V.; Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A. [Dept. of Geology and Geotechnical Engineering, The Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    Electroosmotic dewatering has been tested in laboratory cells for 4 different porous materials: chalk sludge, iron hydroxide sludge, wet fly ash and biomass sludge from enzyme production. In all cases it was possible to remove water when passing electric DC current through the material. Casagrande's coefficients for the three materials where determined at different water contents. In the electroosmotic experiments shown in this work chalk can be dewatered from 40% to 79% DM (dry matter), fly ash from 75 to 82% DM, iron hydroxide sludge from 2.7 to 19% DM and biomass from 3 to 33% DM. The process was not optimised indicating that higher dry matter contents could be achieved. (orig.)

  6. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong

    2012-05-01

    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  7. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Isaksson, Karl-Erik [Boliden Mineral AB (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water. To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water. Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments. Large scale application of ashes, sewage sludge and an ash/sludge mixture have been performed in field at three test plots with the size of 0.3-1 ha. Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. In addition, the ability of plant roots to penetrate sealing layers made of different ash/sludge mixtures have been examined in greenhouse experiments. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the

  8. Influence of vegetation and sewage sludge on sealing layer of fly ashes in post-treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Inverkan av vegetation och roetslam paa taetskikt av flygaska vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria; Neuschuetz, Clara (Inst. of Bothany, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Karl-Erik (Boliden Mineral AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    are that: It is possible to apply a sealing layer of ashes on mine tailings independent of season due to the quick hardening process of the ashes. Sewage sludge can, on the other hand, only be applied when the tailings are frozen. The application leads to a rise in the ground water level in the tailings Covering of mine tailings with sewage sludge and fly ash decreases the metal leakage. The higher proportion of sewage sludge in the cover layer the more N and P and less metals is released. The leakage decreases with time. Plant establishment in general decreases the leakage of metals and nutrients, especially by decreasing the amount of leakage water. Because of great amounts of nitrate in sewage sludge plants with a high uptake of nitrate is to prefer to decrease the nitrogen leakage. Some plant species can loosen up the surface of hardened fly ash, and in that way influence the sealing layer structure. This may lead to increased breaking down of secondary minerals, which can be important for the stability of the sealing layer. It is possible that excretion of sacharids from plant roots can increase shattering of ash, and that such exudation increases in the presence of ash. Estimation of the resistance needed to avoid root penetration were made to approx2,5 MPa. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration of a sealing layer. Since roots can affect a thin sealing layer a thickness of approximately 0.5 meter is recommended

  9. Stabilization of chromium-bearing electroplating sludge with MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guangren; Yang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shixiang; Zhou, Jizhi; Sun, Ying; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang

    2009-06-15

    This work investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices on stabilizing/solidifying industrial chromium-bearing electroplating sludge using MSWI fly ash as the main raw material with a small addition of active aluminum. The compressive strength, leaching behavior and chemical speciation of heavy metals and hydration phases of matrices were characterized by TCLP, XRD, FTIR and other experimental methods. The results revealed that MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices could effectively stabilize chromium-bearing electroplating sludge, the formed ettringite and Friedel phases played a significant role in the fixation of heavy metals in electroplating sludge. The co-disposal of chromium-bearing electroplating sludge and MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices with a small addition of active aluminum is promising to be an effective way of stabilizing chromium-bearing electroplating sludge.

  10. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantawin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to mixer ratio of 0.3 and curing time of 7 days. Increase of sludge to binder ratio from 0.5 to 0.75 and 1 resulted in increase in the minimum percent cement in binder up to 30 percent in both ratios. With the minimum percent cement in binder, the calculated cement to sludge ratios for samples with sludge to binder ratios of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. Leaching chromium and compressive strength of the samples with these ratios could achieve the solidified waste standard by the Ministry of Industry. For solidification of chromium sludge at sludge to binder ratio of 1, the lowest cost binder ratio of cement to lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste in this study was 30:21:49. The cost of binder in this ratio was 718 baht per ton dry sludge.

  11. The characteristics and application of sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) as novel filter media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shuxin; Yue Qinyan; Yue Min; Gao Baoyu; Li Qian; Yu Hui; Zhao Yaqin; Qi Yuanfeng

    2009-01-01

    Novel filter media-sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) were prepared using dewatered sludge, fly ash and clay with a mass ratio of 1:1:1. Compared with commercial ceramic particles (CCP), SFCP had higher total porosity, larger total surface area and lower bulk and apparent density. Tests of heavy metal elements in lixivium proved that SFCP were safe for wastewater treatment. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic bioreactor was employed to ascertain the application of SFCP in denitrification process using acetate as carbon source. The results showed that SFCP reactor brought a relative superiority to CCP reactor in terms of total nitrogen (TN) removal at the optimum C/N ratio of 4.03 when volumetric loading rates (VLR) ranged from 0.33 to 3.69 kg TN (m 3 d) -1 . Therefore, SFCP application, as a novel process of treating wastes with wastes, provided a promising way in sludge and fly ash utilization.

  12. The Use of Fly Ash and Lime Sludge as Partial Replacement of Cement in Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand of drinking water and power has led huge generation of water treatment plant residue i.e. sludge and the thermal power plant by-product such as fly ash. Large quantities of sludge and fly ash are produced in India and disposed off by landfilling or dumping in and around sites. In this study fly ash and water softening sludge (lime sludge has been utilized in mortar. Two types of mortar (type I and II with four binder combinations have been tried. Binder I consists of 70% fly ash (FA and 30% lime sludge (LS , 0 % gypsum (G, binder II is 70% FA, 30% LS and 1% G, binder III is 50% FA, 30% LS and 20% cement and the binder IV is 40% FA, 40% LS with 20% cement. The effect of various combinations on strength has been discussed here. This paper outlines the composition of the composite material, method of preparation of mortar specimen, testing procedure and salient results thereof.

  13. Use of lignite fly ash as an additive in alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation of wastewater sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocaer, F.O.; Alkan, U.; Baskaya, H.S. [Uludag University, Bursa (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering & Architecture

    2003-10-01

    The possibility of using lignite fly ash in low doses for reducing the pathogen levels in wastewater sludge was investigated. The results showed that using fly ash alone in doses of 40%,80% and 120% (on a dry weight basis), did not produce an alkaline environment for an efficient removal of pathogens. However, using fly ash in conjunction with the minimum amount of quicklime may act as an effective way of fecal coliform removal in both alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation processes. It was shown that using fly ash in doses of 80% and 120% in alkaline stabilisation and pasteurisation processes prevented the pH decays and regrowth of pathogens during 60 days of storage period. The results of the study confirmed that alkaline pasteurisation process produces a product which is more resistant to pH decays and regrowth of fecal coliforms compared to that of alkaline stabilisation. Consequently, the overall results of this study indicated that the minimum lime and fly ash dosages required to generate a Class B biosolid were 10-15% and 80%, respectively. On the other hand, heating sludge to 50{degree}C prior to the addition of 10-15% quicklime and 80% fly ash followed by further heating to 70{degree}C and then sustaining at this temperature for 30 minutes were sufficient to generate a Class A biosolid.

  14. Utilisation of fly ash for the management of heavy metal containing primary chemical sludge generated in a leather manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G.; Rao, B.P.; Ghanamani, A.; Rajamani, S. [Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India). Dept. of Environmental Technology

    2003-07-01

    The present study aims at disposal of primary chemical sludge generated in the tanning industry by solidification and stabilization process using flyash generated from thermal power plant along with binders and also on evaluating the leachability of heavy metal from the solidified product. The primary chemical sludge containing heavy metals iron and chromium were obtained from a garment leather manufacturing company at Chennai in India. The sludge was dried in open environment and it was powdered to fine size in a grinder. Binding increases stabilization of heavy metal in calcined sludge with refractory binders such as clay, fly ash, lime and ordinary Portland cement. Fly ash can be considered as the additional binder for producing stronger bricks, with high metal fixation efficiency, and minimum rate of removal of heavy metal and minimum diffusion co-efficient. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. EFFECT OF FLY ASHES AND SEWAGE SLUDGE ON Fe, Mn, Al, Si AND Co UPTAKE BY GRASS MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Antonkiewicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of sewage sludge for environmental management of fly ashes landfill site affects chemical composition of plants. The aim of the present investigations was learning the effect of growing doses of municipal sewage sludge on the yield and uptake of Fe, Mn, Al, Si and Co by grass mixture used for environmental management of fly ashes landfill. The experimental design comprised of 5 objects differing by a dose of municipal sewage sludge supplied per 1 hectare: I. control, II. 25 t d.m., III. 50 t d.m., IV. 75 t d.m. and V. 100 t d.m. Application of sewage sludge resulted in the increase in yield. The content of analyzed elements in the grass mixture depended significantly on sewage sludge dose. Increasing doses of sewage sludge caused marked increase in Mn and Co contents, while they decreased Fe, Al and Si contents in the grass mixture. It was found that growing doses of sewage sludge caused an improvement of Fe to Mn ratio value in the grass mixture. Assessing the element content in the grass mixture in the view of forage value, it was found that Fe and Mn content did not meet the optimal value. Si content in plants was below the optimal value.

  16. Soil microbial population and nitrogen fixation in peanut under fly ash and sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-06-01

    Surface disposal of municipal sludge and industrial wastes is an old practice that recently has been attracting concerns due to associated soil, air and water pollution. Wise utilization and recycling of these wastes in agricultural land brings in the much-needed organic and mineral matter to the soil. However, the assimilative capacity of the soil with respect to its physical, chemical and biological properties and the performance of crop grown, needs thorough investigation. Industrial wastes like fly ash (FA) from Thermal Power Plant and Sewage Sludge from municipal and city activities (untreated and treated CW) are some such important organic based waste resources having a potentiality for recycling in the agricultural land. The characteristics of these wastes with respect to their pH, plant nutrient and heavy metals content differs. Fly ash, being a burnt residue of coal, is rich in essential mineral elements and also has capacity in neutralizing soil acidity and supplying the nutrients to the plants (Molliner and Street, 1982). Sewage sludge application also has a significant influence on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. The soil biological systems can be altered by new energy input for the organisms, which is reflected by changes in the micro and macrobiological populations, in turn influencing the synthesis and decomposition of soil organic substances, nutrient availability, interactions with soil inorganic components and other exchanges with physical and chemical properties (Clapp et al, 1986). So far, much information is known regarding changes in physico-chemical properties of soil and performance of crop due to applications of such wastes. However, long term studies are needed to improve our understanding of the effects of land application of such wastes on soil biological systems (McGrath et al. 1995). It is known that native soil microbial population is responsible for decomposition of organic matter and recycling of nutrients

  17. Instruction manual: Fly ash stabilised sludge (FSS) as liner material; Vaegledning: Flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam (FSA) som taetskikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carling, Maria; Haakansson, Karsten; Macsik, Josef; Mossakowska, Agnes; Rogbeck, Yvonne

    2007-06-15

    Several old waste sites are on the verge to be closed up during the next ten years. The function of a liner is to limit the amount of water that is infiltrated to the waste. This leads to high demand on a liner's permeability, shear strength and durability. Several pilot studies have been followed up where fly ash stabilised sewage sludge (FSS) was used as liner. The results show that FSS has low hydraulic conductivity (low permeability) and that it meets the demands put on a liner for non-hazardous wastes. Closure with FSS as liner puts special demands on the materials, the mixing action and during installation. The aim of this instruction manual is that it will work as an aid to manufacture and install liner, based on fly ash and sewage sludge, which fulfils functional demands. The manual contains a description of geotechnical and environmental demands to accomplish. This includes the following; manufacturing, storing, installation and follow up/control. This instruction manual is aimed for those who are planning closures of a landfill with FSS and need guidance to plan, carry out and control the liner construction. The manual can also be used by environmental agencies in order to control that the closure is done appropriately. Sewage sludge and fly ash from different producers can have varying properties. The quality of the used materials can change the FSS mixture's material properties and thereby also its permeability and durability. Both raw materials and mixtures should thereby be investigated according to material parameters. The mixtures dry solid content is a critical parameter as both shear strength and handling properties will be effected. In order to acquire sufficient amount of raw material storing is often required. Several aspects must then be counted on, as the properties of the raw materials can be altered. Manufacturing FSS must be done with the same material properties that have been investigated and evaluated in laboratory. Different

  18. Possible Applications of Hardening Slurries with Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Environmental Protection Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falacinski, Paweł; Szarek, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge - a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. This type of hardening slurry with various types of additives, e.g. coal combustion products, is used in the construction of cut-off walls in hydraulic structures. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e. density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a usefulness criteria. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology. It also suggests directions for further research to fully identify other potential uses of this by-product in this field.

  19. Production of lightweight aggregates from washing aggregate sludge and fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Rodas, Magdalena

    2010-05-01

    Increasing generation of wastes is one of the main environmental problems in industrialised countries. Heat treatment at high temperatures can convert some types of wastes into ceramic products with a wide range of microstructural features and properties (Bethanis et al., 2004). A lightweight aggregate (LWA) is a granular material with a bulk density (bd) not exceeding 1.20 g/cm3 or with a particle density not exceeding 2.00 g/cm3 (UNE-EN-13055-1, 2003). They have become a focus of interest because the low particle density and the low bulk density entail a decrease in the load transmitted to the ground, and less work and effort are required to transport them (De' Gennaro et al., 2004). The benefits associated with these low densities, which are due to the formation of voids and pores, are very good thermal and acoustic insulation and materials with a good resistance to fire (Benbow, 1987; Fakhfakh et al., 2007). The objective was to recycle fly ash, used motor oil from cars and mineral wastes from washing aggregate sludge, in order to obtain a usable material such as lightweight aggregates, and also to ensure that they are of good quality for different applications. Raw materials have been physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. On the basis of the results obtained, they were mixed, milled to a grain size of less than 200 μm (Yasuda, 1991), formed into pellets, pre-heated for 5 min and sintered in a rotary kiln at 1150°C, 1175°C, 1200°C and 1225°C for 10 and 15 min at each temperature (Theating). Effects of raw material characteristics, heating temperature and dwell time on the following LWAs properties were determined: loss on ignition (LOI), bloating index (BI), loose bulk density (bd), apparent and dry particle density (ad, dd), voids (H), water absorption (WA24h) and compressive strength (S). The products obtained were lightweight aggregates in accordance with norm UNE-EN-13055-1 (bd ≤1.20 g/cm3 or particle density ≤2.00 g/cm3). LWAs

  20. Pemanfaatan limbah abu terbang (fly ash) , abu dasar (bottom ash) batubara dan limbah padat (sludge) industri karet sebagai bahan campuran pada pembuatan batako

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal, Hendri

    2012-01-01

    Brick-making research has been conducted from a mixture of fly ash as a cement mixed with aggregate materials based bottom ash and sludge, and sand, where fly ash and cement used as an adhesive matrix. The percentage addition of fly ash is 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of initial weight of cement. The percentage addition of bottom ash and sludge as an aggregate is 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of initial weight of sand with the time of hardening for 28 days. Parameter tests performed include: metals...

  1. Comparative Study on the Leaching Characteristics of Industrial Sludge and Fly Ash using KSLP and TCLP Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.K.; Hwang, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Leaching characteristics of industrial sludge and fly ash using Korean Standard Leaching Procedure (KSLP) and Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were studied. Possibilities of re-adsorption of heavy metal ions on the surface of sludge and ash during the course of leaching were also investigated. KSLP looked relatively more aggressive than the TCLP in leaching heavy metal ions. Concentrations of metal ions leached in both the methods, however, were found very low in comparison to the concentration of ions present in the original samples. In case of sludge, heavy metal ions showed relatively high rate of leaching at fourth and fifth stages of sequential extraction while ash showed high rate of leaching at the first three stages of extraction. Some of the concentrations of heavy metal ions leached out in the tests also found to be adsorbed on the surface of sludge and ash. Heavy metal ions present in high concentrations in the sample showed lower rate of adsorption than their leaching rate. No distinct difference in the results of KSLP and TCLP was observed. However, variations in the leaching results could be due to the different nature of hazardous waste and leaching conditions. More information like kinetics of leaching, mineralogical characteristics of waste and site characteristics of landfill were required to predict more accurate leaching behavior of ions in natural conditions. (author)

  2. Ternary blends containing demercurated lighting phosphor and MSWI fly ash as high-performance binders for stabilizing and recycling electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Wu, Chia-Teng; Wu, Chang-En; Hsieh, Lin-Huey; Li, Chang-Chien; Lain, Chi-Yuan; Chu, Wei

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes the solidification and stabilization of electroplating sludge treated with a high-performance binder made from portland type-I cement, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, and lighting phosphor powder (called as cement-fly ash-phosphor binder, CFP). The highest 28-day unconfined compressive strength of the CFP-treated paste was 816 kg/cm(2) at a ratio of cement to fly ash to lighting phosphor powder of 90:5:5; the strength of this composition also fulfilled the requirement of a high-strength concrete (>460 kg/cm(2) at 28 days). The CFP-stabilized sludge paste samples passed the Taiwanese EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test and, therefore, could be used either as a building material or as a controlled low-strength material, depending on the sludge-to-CFP binder ratio.

  3. Radionuclides in sewage sludge and problems of use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.; Brunner, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactive contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclide in the sewage sludge was to be found. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge shows the highest specific activities. These enriched radionuclides seem to be absorbed from the sludge. Yet they can be utilized by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium repens and Secale cereale, where the rate of absorption amounted 15-33% (inCi/kg dry weight plant:nCi/kg dry weight soil X 100) (transfer factors). This is why fertilization with radioactive contaminated sewage sludge seems to cause problems. In further experiments an extraction of radionuclides from ashed sewage sludge was shown. By acidifying the mobile phasis an increase in radioactivity in the eluated fractions was achieved. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Pilot study with fly ash stabilised sewage sludge as hydraulic barrier layer; Pilotfoersoek med flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam (FSA) som taetskikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Maurice, Christian; Mossakowska, Agnes; Eklund, Caroline

    2005-10-01

    A lot of landfills will be closed and finally covered during the next five to ten years. The design and construction of final closure caps, especially the landfill liner, are carried out to reduce the amount of water percolating through the landfill as to minimize the effect on the surrounding environment for a long time span. Earlier studies has indicated that sewage sludge stabilized with fly ash, resulting in a product called FSA, has a good potential to be used as landfill liner. In this project a large field test with FSA was carried out at a landfill under closure. The objective of the project was to study the following in depth: Manufacturing and construction regarding mainly technical and economical aspects; Permeability, stability and settlement as well as leachability; Durability, a key aspect. Environmental authorities advice that a closure cap shall guarantee function for several hundreds of years. The field tests were conducted at the landfill Dragmossen which is located south of Aelvkarleby in Sweden. During the field test approximately 1,500 tonnes FSA was manufactured. The FSA liner was installed on an area of 2,400 m{sup 2} with a thickness of 0,55 m. Parallel to the ongoing investigations at the landfill, laboratory studies were carried out to study the rate of biological decomposition of the liner. The results show that the manufactured FSA can be used as landfill liner in a large scale. The homogeneous quality, strength and low permeability of FSA is even better than the set criteria. The demands on the contained materials, fly ash and sewage sludge, are high and have to fulfil certain quality requirements for example regarding the water and dry solid content. The field test also showed that it is feasible to store fly ash and sewage sludge during at least two weeks to enable manufacturing in a larger scale. Mixing fly ash and sewage sludge will result in an odour due to bad smell and exit of ammonium gases. The odour fades away quickly after

  5. Oil-Sludge Extended Asphalt Mastic Filled with Heavy Oil Fly Ash and Cement Waste for Waterproofing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycling as an economic disposal process for many hazardous waste materials has become a popular means of conserving our planet’s scarce and diminishing natural resources. This paper is a study of the influence of oil sludge (OS on the physical behavior and performance of asphalt filled with heavy oil fly ash (HOFA, cement kiln dust (CKD and limestone dust (LMD. Conventional asphalt consistency tests in addition to a new bond strength (BS test were conducted on the modified asphalt mastics. The results were statistically analyzed and assessed in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 332 and ASTM D 449 specifications. Too much OS resulted in strength deterioration of the asphalt mastic, which can be compensated for by filling the mastic with HOFA. OS interacts constructively with the fillers to improve their effectiveness in raising the softening point (SP and viscosity of the asphalt, and also in reducing its penetration and ductility. Even though sludge mastics hold promise as suitable composites for damp proofing and waterproofing, the resulting low flash point (FP and SP of some of these mastics make their suitability for roofing applications questionable.

  6. Basic Physical – Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sičáková Alena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The binding potential of fly ash (FA as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  7. Basic Physical - Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sičáková, Alena; Števulová, Nadežda

    2017-06-01

    The binding potential of fly ash (FA) as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm) FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm) one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden) can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

  8. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  9. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail: ncsn@fct.unl.pt; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  10. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Lopes, M.H.; Mendes, B.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Santos Oliveira, J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  11. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  12. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  13. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ), calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments

  14. Guidelines for leaching studies on coal fly ash and other solid wastes with special reference to the use of radioanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Environmental pollution has many causes. One of the most important sources is that associated with the large quantities of solid wastes produced by modern industrial societies - materials such as coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and mine tailings. Not only do these give rise to physical problems of disposal - due to the enormous quantities involved - but also, in the long run, they may pose some serious environmental risks. Questions arise as to what will happen to them as a result of interacting with rain or groundwater. Will their toxic components eventually migrate out of waste depositories and contaminate the environment, including groundwater? Nuclear analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, are not sufficient in themselves to provide a complete answer to the questions. Nevertheless, they have unique properties which enable them to determine many of the important bulk constituents of solid wastes and to explore how toxic and other trace elements can be removed from them by leaching with different kinds of water (e.g. rain water, groundwater and sea water). This report attempts to explore some of these issues and to offer guidance on how nuclear analytical techniques may be applied in a standardized way, thus helping to ensure that the results reported by different laboratories will be compatible and comparable with each other. 20 refs, 10 figs, 3 tabs

  15. Flyash and sewage sludge as liner material - Preparations for a pilot test with fly-ash stabilised sewage sludge as landfill liner; Linermaterial med aska och roetslam - Underlag foer genomfoerande av pilotfoersoek med stabiliserat avloppsslam som taetskiktsmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, J.; Rogbeck, Y.; Svedberg, B.; Uhlander, O. [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Mossakowska, A. [Stockholm Vatten AB (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a new liner material based on biofuel fly ash and sewage sludge and to plan for a pilot test with this new liner (FSA) on a landfill. The investigation shows that FSA has potential to fulfil technical and economical requirements as well as requirements of durability. This project constitutes part of a larger one, where the overall aim is to collect information/experience of FSA as a liner for presentation in a handbook. During the conducted laboratory work recipes for mixture proportions for application as landfill liner were controlled according to technical and environmental aspects. A recipe for FSA material has been prepared, which has permeability values lower than 10-9 m/s. This low permeability can assure a low percolation of precipitated water through the landfill liner, < 50 litre/m{sup 2}/year. FSA has sufficient un-drained shear strength and has an estimated slow bio-degradation, which can assure a long duration period. Based on results from tests conducted in this and other projects, where FSA materials were tested, necessary quality verifications has been conducted for the ingredients bio-fly-ash and sewage sludge and for the FSA-mixture. The FSA materials potential as liner increases with darker colour (bordering black). FSA-40 is a mixture of 40 % dry solid (DS) fly ash and 60 % DS sewage sludge, and FSA-60 is a mixture containing 60 % DS fly ash and 40 % DS sewage sludge and so on. Some important parameters of the ingredient materials are DS content (or water content) and pH and CaO content of the fly ash. A liner made of FSA should have surrounding layers of high water containing capacity in order to protect the FSA-liner from drying. The drainage and oxidation protection layers have to transport precipitated water as well as contain sufficient pore water in order to be an oxygen barrier above the liner (FSA). In addition, the investigation shows that a paddle blender should be used in order to guarantee a

  16. Research on sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) for synthetic and municipal wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter (BAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaqin; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Renbo; Yue, Min; Han, Shuxin; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui

    2009-11-01

    Sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and clay ceramic particles (CCP) were employed in two lab-scale up-flow biological aerated filters (BAF) for wastewater treatment to investigate the availability of SFCP used as biofilm support compared with CCP. For synthetic wastewater, under the selected hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 h, respectively, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N) in SFCP reactor were all higher than those of CCP reactor all through the media height. Moreover, better capabilities responding to loading shock and faster recovery after short intermittence were observed in the SFCP reactor compared with the CCP reactor. For municipal wastewater treatment, which was carried out under HRT of 0.75 h, air-liquid ratio of 7.5 and backwashing period of 48 h, the SFCP reactor also performed better than the CCP reactor, especially for the removal of NH(4)(+)-N.

  17. Experimental on fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding to improve the performance of a circulating fluidized bed boiler co-burning coal sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lunbo; Xu, Guiling; Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Changsui [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of reducing carbon content in fly ash, fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding (FARBF) technology was applied to a 75 t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler burning mixture of coal and coal sludge. And industrial experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of FARBF technology on the combustion performance and pollutant emission characteristics of the CFB boiler. Results show that as the recirculation rate of fly ash increases, the CFB dense bed temperature decreases while the furnace outlet temperature increases, and the temperature distribution in the furnace becomes uniform. Compared with the conditions without fly ash recirculation, the combustion efficiency increases from 92 to 95% when the recirculation rate increases to 8 t/h, and the desulfurization efficiency also increases significantly. As the recirculation rate increases, the emissions of NO and CO decrease, but the particulate emission increases. The present study indicates that FARBF technology can improve the combustion performance and desulfurization efficiency for the CFB boilers burning coal sludge, and this can bring large economical and environmental benefits in China.

  18. Products based on the mixes of fly ashes and fibre sludge (fibre-ashes) for road construction; Produkter baserade paa blandningar av flygaska och fiberslam (fiberaskor) foer vaegbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Pentti; Maijala Aino; Macsik, Josef

    2005-03-01

    The project has derived benefits from the earlier Finnish research and development as well as from the experience in the fibre-ash materials for geotechnical applications. The fly ashes used for the project have been taken from the same sources as the fly ashes for the earlier Vaermeforsk project 870: FACE. The project's objective was to develop construction materials based on mixtures of fibre sludge and fly ash for geotechnical applications, and for the final commercialisation of the fibre-ash materials. The mixtures are based on fly ashes from energy production (bark, peat and sludge used for incineration) and on kaolin containing fibre sludge from the paper industry. With help of laboratory tests the project has been searching for fibre ashes with excellent technical characteristics like good frost resistance combined with a good bearing capacity and resilience in geotechnical structures. The project's results has given additional knowledge about alternative road construction materials to construct technically good, sustainable and environmentally friendly roads and other constructions with lower costs than the conventional constructions. The results of laboratory tests have shown that this is possible. However, it has to be verified with help of field tests and pilot constructions. The first tasks of the project were to make choices of the appropriate fibre sludge and fly ashes for the project targets. The laboratory tests have been carried out in the geotechnical laboratory of Ramboll Finland Oy (earlier SCC Viatek Oy, SGT - later in the report SGT). After arrival of all test material in the laboratory the test programme started in order to find out the most optimal fibre-ash mixtures with or without any activator. The most potential mixtures were tested for their geotechnical long-term properties (mainly resistance against climatic load) and for their environmental risk potential. The results comprise of several technically, environmentally and

  19. Predicting the co-melting temperatures of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and sewage sludge ash using grey model and neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Kae-Long; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Tien-Chin; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2011-03-01

    A grey model (GM) and an artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to predict co-melting temperature of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and sewage sludge ash (SSA) during formation of modified slag. The results indicated that in the aspect of model prediction, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPEs) were between 1.69 and 13.20% when adopting seven different GM (1, N) models. The MAPE were 1.59 and 1.31% when GM (1, 1) and rolling grey model (RGM (1, 1)) were adopted. The MAPEs fell within the range of 0.04 and 0.50% using different types of ANN. In GMs, the MAPE of 1.31% was found to be the lowest when using RGM (1, 1) to predict co-melting temperature. This value was higher than those of ANN2-1 to ANN8-1 by 1.27, 1.25, 1.24, 1.18, 1.16, 1.14 and 0.81%, respectively. GM only required a small amount of data (at least four data). Therefore, GM could be applied successfully in predicting the co-melting temperature of MSWI fly ash and SSA when no sufficient information is available. It also indicates that both the composition of MSWI fly ash and SSA could be applied on the prediction of co-melting temperature.

  20. Evaluation of robustness of fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) as liner - Durability, percolation and drainage water quality; Bedoemning av laangtidsegenskaper hos taetskikt bestaaende av flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam, FSA - Bestaendighet, taethet och ytutlakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Laendell, Maerta; Haakansson, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    This project shows that fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) is watertight and resistant as liner in landfills. The presented results can lead to that more landfills will use FSS as liner, and landfills already using FSS together with geomembrane, can leave out the latter without risking contamination of the drainage water collected by the closure construction

  1. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

  2. Degradation rate of sludge/fly ash mixture used as landfill liner; Nedbrytningshastigheten foer taetskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    In order to be able to use mixtures of ash and sludge as landfill liner an important aspect is to demonstrate that the degradation of organic matter is slow enough. Therefore, the goal of this project has been to find out for how long a landfill liner material of sludge and ash will be stable and keep its function. The degradation of organic material in two different mixtures of sludge and ash has been studied in laboratory experiments. The rate of degradation was then estimated for barriers of sludge and ash, taking into account construction techniques (mixture, compaction, water content), climate conditions (freezing, drying) and biological processes (NaN{sub 3} additive). The effect of the degradation on the permeability has also been quantified. Organic material may disappear for the landfill liner material through 1) initial leaching of soluble organic material, 2) leaching of organic material after chemical reactions or 3) evaporation during biological degradation. Bacterial activity was not found in the sludge/ash mixtures during the experiments. Therefore, the organic material is probably reduced mainly though leaching according to 1) and 2). The leached amount of TOC (total organic carbon) was measured for all samples of sludge/ash in several experimental cycles. The leached amount of TOC was compared to the initial amount of TOC in the material. The results show a small initial reduction of organic material through leaching but the TOC content in the material is then stabilized. In relation to the total weight of the material the leaching of TOC was similar for the mixtures with 80 % ash and 20 % ash. However, this means that a larger amount of TOC was leached out from the mixtures with a high ash content since the initial amount of organic material was smaller. General conclusions about which ash-sludge ratio that is suitable for a landfill liner material could not be drawn from the experiments from a degradation point of view. If the initial

  3. Pyrolysis of the mixture of MSWI fly ash and sewage sludge for co-disposal: Effect of ferrous/ferric sulfate additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuyan; Yang, Fan; Chen, Fangfang; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Dezhen; Dai, Xiaohu

    2018-05-01

    Co-pyrolysis with sewage sludge was proved to be an efficient pre-treatment for sanitary landfill of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA). In this study, to improve the stabilization effect of heavy metals, mixed ferrous/ferric sulfate was added into the FA/SS mixture before pyrolysis. To examine the feasibility of the landfill of co-pyrolysis char, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (HJ/T300) was conducted. In addition, physio-chemical characteristics of char were also tested to explain the stability of heavy metals, including the speciation, mineralogical composition and the morphological features of them. The results indicated that within the range that the obtained char could meet the standard for landfill (GB16889-2008), the appropriate addition of mixed ferrous/ferric sulfates benefit to raising the FA ratio in the FA/SS mixture. The maximum ratio of 67 wt% is achieved when the additive was 1.5 wt% of dried SS (based on iron element) and the pyrolysis temperature was 500 °C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The performance of biological anaerobic filters packed with sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and commercial ceramic particles (CCP) during the restart period: effect of the C/N ratios and filter media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qinyan; Han, Shuxin; Yue, Min; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Qian; Yu, Hui; Zhao, Yaqin; Qi, Yuanfeng

    2009-11-01

    Two lab-scale upflow biological anaerobic filters (BAF) packed with sludge-fly ash ceramic particles (SFCP) and commercial ceramic particles (CCP) were employed to investigate effects of the C/N ratios and filter media on the BAF performance during the restart period. The results indicated that BAF could be restarted normally after one-month cease. The C/N ratio of 4.0 was the thresholds of nitrate removal and nitrite accumulation. TN removal and phosphate uptake reached the maximum value at the same C/N ratio of 5.5. Ammonia formation was also found and excreted a negative influence on TN removal, especially when higher C/N ratios were applied. Nutrients were mainly degraded within the height of 25 cm from the bottom. In addition, SFCP, as novel filter media manufactured by wastes-dewatered sludge and fly ash, represented a better potential in inhibiting nitrite accumulation, TN removal and phosphate uptake due to their special characteristics in comparison with CCP.

  5. [Effects of sulphur compounds on the volatile characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash from the MSW and sewage sludge co-combustion plant during the disposal process with higher temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu

    2012-11-01

    Fly ash sample was collected from a MSW co-combustion with sewage sludge plant and the volatilization of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was investigated before and after the water washing of fly ash, meanwhile, the influence of adding different sulphur compounds (S, NaS, Na2 SO3, Na2 SO4) on the volatilization of heavy metals was studied. The results showed that the contents of Zn, Pb and Mn were high, the Ni content was low and the Cd content reached 29.4 mg x kg(1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn increased, while that of Cd reduced in the fly ash after water washing. TG-DTG curves of fly ash showed highest weight loss in ranges of 579-732 degrees C and 949-1 200 degrees C, with 690 degrees C and 1 154 degrees C as the inflection point temperatures. The volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, following the order of Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Pb was more than 80% and that of Cu was less than 30%. After water washing, the volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, with the order of Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Zn was more than 20%. With the pretreatment of adding Na2 SO3 and Na2 SO4, the evaporation rates of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) were significantly decreased. After adding S, the evaporation rate of Zn was reduced, whereas the addition of Na2S reduced the evaporation rates of Cd and Zn. The evaporation rates of the four heavy metals were all reduced after adding Na2S in the washed fly ash. The evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were reduced with addition of S and Na2SO3 and the evaporation rate of Cd was reduced by adding the four sulfides. The results can provide a basis for the harmless disposal and maximized resource utilization and recycling of fly ash.

  6. Sludge busters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  7. Sludge busters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Max

    2010-07-15

    Full text: A few years ago, For Earth developed low energy sub-surface aeration systems to increase the biological activity in the wastewater sludge ponds. Then came the idea to introduce probiotic bacteria to really ramp up the process, which promises massive time and cost savings in sludge management. Increasing the volumes of specific bacteria reactivates the sludge, accelerating biological nutrient removal in general and, by tailoring the bacteria, targeting specific organic waste types. The technology is already running at more than 30 councils across NSW and in some commercial settings, such as dairy farms. Shane McKibbin, GM of For Earth, said the 'Probiotic, Low Energy Aeration System' offers considerable upside. “The cost savings have been enormous with some councils, including the work done at Woolgoolga Water Reclamation Plant at Coffs Harbour,” he said. Sludge settling in wastewater treatment plant lagoons is typically pumped out, centrifuged to remove water and then landfilled. In Woolgoolga's case that process was costing Coffs Harbour Water $150 a cubic metre; McKibbin said they've slashed that to a measly $5 a cubic metre. An array of 'industrial air stones' is dropped 1m below the surface to create an oxygenated blanket across the surface, overcoming the tendency of sludge ponds to stagnate. The key though is floating probiotic dosing lines across the surface, which kick-starts the probiotics process. “Previously, some operators just wanted to throw it on with a bucket, so the bacteria would get thrown into one corner of the pond. But since we introduced the dosing system it has really improved the overall performance,” said McKibbin.The dosing pump system automatically applies the bacteria into the dosing line according to a specified program, ensuring the probiotics are spread out across the pond and across the week. “I would say it improves and accelerates the result by 30 per cent,” he adds. “The biggest problem was that

  8. Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm forenvironment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plantgrowth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed.Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimentalstudies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated withtype of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/hadetermined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash.Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined thegrowth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilizedvariant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in thepresence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.

  9. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Sludge recovery machine comprising a hollow centrifuge, a vertical pipe for feeding in a liquid containing sludge and a sliding rake pressing against the internal wall of the centrifuge to dislodge and move the sludge, a power drive for spinning the centrifuge at high speed and a rotating drying table to take the sludge and dry it [fr

  10. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  11. Radioactivity partitioning of oil sludge undergoing incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    1997-01-01

    Oil sludge waste is a controlled item under the Atomic Energy Act (Act 304) 1984 of which the radioactivity content shall be subjected to analysis. Apart from that the treatment method also shall be approved by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). Thus, an analysis of the oil sludge for MSE fluidized incinerator was conducted to comply with above requirements using various techniques. Further screening analysis of fly ash as well as bed material were done to study the effect of incinerating the sludge. This paper highlights the analysis techniques and discusses the results with respect to the radioactivity level and the fate of radionuclides subjected to the processing of the waste

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  14. Operational experience at the Sludge Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Sludge Treatment Facility (STF) at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant has been in operation since April 1987. The facility was designed to encapsulate hazardous sludge wastes in a cement matrix. Fixation will allow the waste to meet or exceed applicable compressive strength and leachability requirements. Thus, the grout mixture complies with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines as a nonhazardous waste. The grout mixture is based upon a recipe formulation developed after several years of waste stream characterization and formulation studies. The wastes to be treated at the STF are wastes impounded in two ponds. The ponds have a combined capacity of 4.5 million gallons of sludge. The sludge is transferred from the ponds to a 15,000-gallon capacity storage tank by the use of a dredge. The grout mixture recipe dictates the amount of sludge, cement, fly ash, and admixture required for weighing per batch. All ingredients are weighed and then transferred to a tilt or high energy mixer for mixing. The grout mixture is then transferred to 89- or 96-gallon steel drums. The drums are placed in a storage yard designed for a point source discharge from the yard

  15. Bacterial regrowth potential in alkaline sludges from open-sun and covered sludge drying beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, U.; Topac, F.O.; Birden, B.; Baskaya, H.S. [Uludag University, Gorukle (Turkey). Dept. of Environmnetal Engineering

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the regrowth potentials of wastewater sludges dried in two pilot-scale drying processes namely, Open-Sun Sludge Drying Bed (OSDB) and Covered Sludge Drying Bed (CSDB). Quicklime and/or coal fly ash were added to raw sludge samples prior to drying processes in order to enhance bacterial inactivation. Following three drying cycles (March-April, June-July and August-October), sludge samples were taken from the beds for the regrowth experiments. Addition of alkaline materials prevented the regrowth of faecal coliforms in all rewetted samples except for the samples obtained after the rainfall events in OSDB. Rewetting of these samples in the regrowth experiments increased faecal coliform numbers by 3.5-7 log units. In contradiction, the observed bacterial numbers in rewetted alkaline samples from CSDB were below the EPA Class B criterion (2 million MPN g{center_dot} 1) dry sludge). The combination of additional heat from solar collectors, protection from the rain and the unfavourable living conditions owing to alkaline materials appeared to inactivate bacteria more effectively in CSDB and hence eliminated regrowth potential more efficiently.

  16. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmo, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  17. K basins sludge removal sludge pretreatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuels Program is in the process of planning activities to remove spent nuclear fuel and other materials from the 100-K Basins as a remediation effort for clean closure. The 105 K- East and K-West Basins store spent fuel, sludge, and debris. Sludge has accumulated in the 1 00 K Basins as a result of fuel oxidation and a slight amount of general debris being deposited, by settling, in the basin water. The ultimate intent in removing the sludge and fuel is to eliminate the environmental risk posed by storing fuel at the K Basins. The task for this project is to disposition specific constituents of sludge (metallic fuel) to produce a product stream through a pretreatment process that will meet the requirements, including a final particle size acceptable to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). The purpose of this task is to develop a preconceptual design package for the K Basin sludge pretreatment system. The process equipment/system is at a preconceptual stage, as shown in sketch ES-SNF-01 , while a more refined process system and material/energy balances are ongoing (all sketches are shown in Appendix C). Thus, the overall process and 0535 associated equipment have been conservatively selected and sized, respectively, to establish the cost basis and equipment layout as shown in sketches ES- SNF-02 through 08

  18. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  19. Carbon-14 in sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.R.; Coleman, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of C-14 in high-level waste is needed to establish the amount of C-14 that will be released to the environment either as off-gas from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) or as a component of saltstone. Available experimental data confirmed a low level of C-14 in soluble waste, but no data was available for sludge. Based on the processes used in each area, Purex LAW sludge in F-area and HM HAW sludge in H-area will contain the bulk of any sludge produced by the cladding. Accordingly, samples from Tank 8F containing Purex LAW and Tank 15H containing HM HAW were obtained and analyzed for C-14. These two waste types constitute approximately 70% of the total sludge inventory now stored in the waste tanks. Results from analyses of these two sludge types show: the total C-14 inventory in sludge now stored in the waste tanks is 6.8 Ci; C-14 releases to the atmosphere from the DWPF will average approximately 0.6 Ci annually at the projected sludge processing rate in the DWPF. 4 references, 2 tables

  20. Activated sludge model No. 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujer, W.; Henze, M.; Mino, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 3 (ASM3) can predict oxygen consumption, sludge production, nitrification and denitrification of activated sludge systems. It relates to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) and corrects for some defects of ASM I. In addition to ASM1, ASM3 includes storage of org...

  1. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  2. Co-combustion of tannery sludge in a commercial circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Jiang, Xuguang; Lv, Guojun; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Co-combusting hazardous wastes in existing fluidized bed combustors is an alternative to hazardous waste treatment facilities, in shortage in China. Tannery sludge is a kind of hazardous waste, considered fit for co-combusting with coal in fluidized bedboilers. In this work, co-combustion tests of tannery sludge and bituminous coal were conducted in a power plant in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province. Before that, the combustion behavior of tannery sludge and bituminous were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Tannery sludge presented higher reactivity than bituminous coal. During the co-combustion tests, the emissions of harmful gases were monitored. The results showed that the pollutant emissions met the Chinese standard except for NOx. The Concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) in three exit ash flows (bottom ash in bed, fly ash in filter, and submicrometer aerosol in flue gas) were analyzed. The results of mono-combustion of bituminous coal were compared with those of co-combustion with tannery sludge. It was found that chromium enriched in fly ash. At last, the leachability of fly ash and bottom ash was analyzed. The results showed that most species were almost equal to or below the limits except for As in bottom ashes and Cr in the fly ash of co-combustion test. The concentrations of Cr in leachates of co-combustion ashes are markedly higher than that of coal mono-combustion ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  4. Dewatering of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.

    1984-01-01

    A filter rig has been designed and built. Simulated magnox and alumino ferric hydroxide sludges have been successfully filtered on this equipment and both types of sludge produced a clear filtrate and a cake. The flow rates were low. The cake often partially remained adhered to the filter membrane instead of dropping clear during the filter cleaning cycle. This filtration technique can only be used on sludges which form a non-binding cake. Permeability of the membrane can be altered by stretching. Irradiation of the membrane showed that it should withstand 20 to 50 M.rads. (author)

  5. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.; Gevaudan, P.P.

    1977-01-01

    There is a hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analyses carried out on sludge samples obtained from purification plants in the Eastern and Southern part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of them survive more than nine months after application to the soil. Conventional processes for disinfection, liming and heat, make the sludge unsuitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification of structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to the type of microorganism. Some of them are eliminated at rather low doses (200 krad), but mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. The security dose is estimated to be approx. 1000 krad

  6. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.R.; Cunnane, J.C.; Helt, J.E.

    1994-12-01

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  7. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  9. Test plan, sludge retrieval, sludge packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides direction for the cold testing of tools, equipment and systems which will be installed and operated in K-East (KE) Basin in support of the sludge retrieval and packaging project. The technical uncertainties related to the effectiveness of sludge retrieval procedures and equipment require that cold testing be completed before installation in KE Basin to identify and resolve existing problems, and to optimize the efficiency of all equipment and systems used. This plan establishes the responsibilities, test requirements, and documentation requirements necessary to complete cold tests of: (1) equipment with no potential for plant use; (2) prototype equipment and systems which may be upgraded for use in K-Basin; and (3) plant equipment and systems requiring cold acceptance testing prior to plant use. Some equipment and systems may have been subject to a formal design review and safety assessment; the results of which will be included as supporting documents to the operational readiness review (ORR)

  10. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology. The work...

  11. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  12. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-01-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  13. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  15. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  16. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  17. Sewage sludges disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1977-01-01

    There is an hygienic risk in using biological sewage sludges for agriculture. Systematic analysis carried out on sludges samples obtained from purification plants in East and South part of France, show the almost uniform presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Some of it survive more than 9 months after soil application. Conventional process for disinfection: liming and heat are not suitable for agricultural use. On the other hand, irradiation involves no modification in structure and composition of sludges. Radiation doses required for disinfection vary according to microorganisms. If some of them are eliminated with rather light doses (200 krad) mycobacteria, viruses and eggs of worms resist to more important doses. Security dose is estimated around 1000 krad

  18. Experimental studies on pulp and paper mill sludge ash behavior in fluidized bed combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latva-Somppi, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology

    1998-11-01

    Ash formation during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of pulp and paper mill sludges has been experimentally studied on an industrial and bench scale. The methods included aerosol measurements, chemical and crystalline composition analyses, thermogravimetry and electron microscopy. Fly ash mass and number size distributions and elemental enrichment in submicron particles and bottom ash were measured. Fly ash, bottom ash and ash deposits were characterized and their formation mechanisms are discussed. During combustion the fine paper-making additives in sludge, clay minerals and calcite, sintered fanning porous agglomerates. The fly ash mass mean size was 7.5 - 15 lam and the supermicron particles included 93.6 - 97.3 % of the fly ash. Condensation of the volatilized inorganic species formed spherical submicron particles in the fly ash. Their mass concentration was almost negligible when co-firing paper mill sludges and wood. This suggests that the fraction of the volatilized inorganic species in the paper mill sludges was low. Results from pulp mill sludge and bark co-firing were different. A clear mass mode below 0.3 pm, presenting 2.2 - 5.0 weight-% of the fly ash was detected. The condensed species included K, Na, S and Cl. Their mass fraction was higher in the pulp mill sludge than in the paper mill sludge. Evidently this resulted in increased volatilization and formation of condensed particles. The following trace elements were enriched in the submicron ash during pulp mill sludge and wood co-firing: As, Cd, Rb and Pb. The main part of the volatile species was, however, captured in the bulk ash. Presumably, this was due to the high surface area concentration in the bulk ash. Sludge moisture was observed to reduce the inorganic species volatilization. Probably steam vaporization from the wet sludge through the burning layer decreased combustion temperatures on char surface and less char was produced. Hence, the volatilization of ash forming species was

  19. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  20. Thermal power sludge – properties, treatment, utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sisol

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a knowledge about properties of thermal power sludge from coal combustion in smelting boilers is presented. The physical and technological properties of slag – granularity, density, specific, volume and pouring weight, hardness and decoupling – together with chemical properties influence its exploitation. The possibility of concentrating the Fe component by the mineral processing technologies (wet low-intenzity magnetic separation is verified. An industrial use of the slag in civil engineering, e.g. road construction, was realised. The slag-fly ashes are directly utilized in the cement production as a substitute of a part of natural raw materials. For the use of slag as the stoneware in the road construction, all the criteria are fulfilled.

  1. Ultrasonic reduction of excess sludge from the activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Zhang Panyue; Yang Jinmei; Chen Yanming

    2007-01-01

    Sludge treatment has long become the most challenging problem in wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies showed that ozone or chlorine effectively liquefies sludge into substrates for bio-degradation in the aeration tank, and thus reduces the excess sludge. This paper employs ultrasound to reduce the excess sludge from the sequential batch reactor (SBR) system. Partial sludge was disintegrated into dissolved substrates by ultrasound in an external sono-tank and was then returned to the SBR for bio-degradation. The results showed that ultrasound (25 kHz) effectively liquefied the sludge. The most effective conditions for sludge reduction were as following: sludge sonication ratio of 3/14, ultrasound intensity of 120 kW/kgDS, and sonication duration of 15 min. The amount of excess sludge was reduced by 91.1% to 17.8 mg/(L d); the organic content and settleability of sludge in the SBR were not impacted. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 81.1%, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 17-66%, and high phosphorus concentration in the effluent was observed

  2. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  3. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  4. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...... rheological measurements. Moreover, the rheological models are not very trustworthy and remain very “black box”. More insight in the physical background needs 30 to be gained. A model-based approach with dedicated experimental data collection is the key to address this.......Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling......, leading to varying results and conclusions. In this paper, a vast amount of papers are critically reviewed with respect to this and important flaws are highlighted with respect to rheometer choice, rheometer settings and measurement protocol. The obtained rheograms from experimental efforts have...

  5. Environmental evaluation of sewage sludge co-combustion in a pilot FBC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Helena Lopes; P. Abelha; I. Cabrita; J.F.Santos Oliveira; I. Gulyurtlu [INETI/DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of combustion of coal alone with that of a mixture of coal with sewage sludge with respect to flue gas emissions, the behaviour of heavy metals and potential environmental consequences of disposal of ashes produced. Co-combustion with sludge did not result in greater NOx, SO{sub 2}, HCl and CO emissions and the use of air staging and the addition of limestone proved to be effective to reduce NOx and SO{sub 2}. The mixing of sludge gave rise to an increase in amounts of heavy metals released, especially for Cd, Pb and Hg. However, as they were associated with particles greater than 1 {micro}m, the application of efficient flue gas treatment devices could decrease their emissions to the atmosphere. Metals were essentially retained in ashes captured in the bed and in the cyclones and most of the Hg was adsorbed in fly ashes that contained unburned carbon. The leachability of metals and organic matter present in the sludge decreased with combustion. The evaluation of the acid neutralization capacity (ANC) showed that ashes became more resistant to acidification than the parent sludge. Globally, this study concludes that the implication of the combustion of sludge is that it can reduce the negative impact on the environment compared with the traditional direct use of sludge in soils. 22 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Nutrient supply to reed canary grass as a bioenergy crop. Intercropping and fertilization with ash or sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindvall, Eva

    2012-07-01

    Production of renewable energy from herbaceous crops on agricultural land is of great interest since fossil fuels need to be replaced with sustainable energy sources. Reed canary grass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea L. is an interesting species for this purpose. The aim of this thesis was to study different approaches to reduce the requirement of mineral fertilizers in RCG production for bioenergy purposes. Paper I describes a study where fertilization effects and risk of heavy metal enrichment were studied, using annual applications of ash for seven years. Ash from co-combustion of RCG and municipal wastes (mixed ash), pure RCG ash and commercial fertilizers were compared. The experiment was harvested each spring. Paper II describes an ongoing study in which the effects of intercropping RCG in mixture with nitrogen-fixing perennial legumes are examined in two experiments, in combination with various fertilization treatments. Three fertilization treatments were applied: high N, low N (half of the high N) and low N + RCG ash/sewage sludge. A delayed harvest method was used; cutting the biomass in late autumn and harvesting in spring. Besides dry matter yield, the N-fixation rate was estimated. The results from paper I showed no differences between treatments in the dry matter yields or in the heavy metal concentrations in the biomass. Soil samples, taken when the experiment was finished, showed differences between treatments for Cd, Pb and Zn only in the uppermost soil level, highest levels for the mixed ash treatment. The results in paper II showed that at one site the legume proportion in the mixtures was low and did not affect RCG growth negatively. The high N treatment gave a higher spring yield than the low N treatments. Mean rates of N2-fixation in the first production year were 12-28, 33-40 and 55 kg N ha-1 kg for goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.), plots, respectively. At the

  7. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosjes, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  8. Radioactivity in sludge: tank cleaning procedures and sludge disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the oil and gas industry management of alpha-active sludge is made more complex by the presence of hydrocarbons and heavy metals. This presentation discusses the origin of radioactivity in sludge, management of risk in terms of safe working procedures, storage and possible disposal options. The several options will generally involve aspects of dilution or of concentration; issues to be discussed will include sludge farming, bioremediation and incineration. (author)

  9. Minimization of Excess Sludge in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Reza Momeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plant represents a rising challenge in activated sludge processes. Hence, the minimization of excess sludge production was investigated by increasing the dissolved oxygen in aeration basin. Units of the pilot include: Primary sedimentation tank, aeration basin, secondary sedimentation tank, and return sludge tank. Volume of aeration basin is 360 l and influent flow rate is 90 L/h. Influent of pilot is taken from effluent of grit chamber of Isfahan's North Wastewater treatment plant. The experiments were done on different parts of pilot during the 5 month of study. Results show that increase of dissolved oxygen in aeration tank affect on decrease of excess sludge. Increase of dissolved oxygen from 0.5 to 4.5 mg/L resulted in 25% decrease of excess sludge. Variation of dissolved oxygen affect on settleability of sludge too. By increase of dissolved oxygen, SVI decreased and then increased. Value of 1-3 mg/L was the adequate range of dissolved oxygen by settleability of sludge and optimum range was 2-2.5 mg/L. It could be concluded by increasing of dissolved oxygen up to of 3 mg/L, sludge settleability significant decreased.

  10. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  11. Sewage sludge irradiation with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disinfection of sewage sludge by irradiation has been discussed very intensively in the last few months. Powerful electron accelerators are now available and the main features of the irradiation of sewage sludge with fast electrons are discussed and the design parameters of such installations described. AEG-Telefunken is building an irradiation plant with a 1.5 MeV, 25 mA electron accelerator, to study the main features of electron irradiation of sewage sludge. (author)

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  14. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeder, C.J.; Zanders, E.; Raphael, T.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required. (orig.) [de

  15. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  16. Effects of sulfur on lead partitioning during sludge incineration based on experiments and thermodynamic calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yong; Huang, Shu-jie; Sun, Shui-yu; Ning, Xun-an; He, Rui-zhe; Li, Xiao-ming; Chen, Tao; Luo, Guang-qian; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu-Jie; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Fu, Jie-wen

    2015-04-01

    Experiments in a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were conducted to investigate the impact of sulfur compounds on the migration of lead (Pb) during sludge incineration. Representative samples of typical sludge with and without the addition of sulfur compounds were combusted at 850 °C, and the partitioning of Pb in the solid phase (bottom ash) and gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) was quantified. The results indicate that three types of sulfur compounds (S, Na2S and Na2SO4) added to the sludge could facilitate the volatilization of Pb in the gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) into metal sulfates displacing its sulfides and some of its oxides. The effect of promoting Pb volatilization by adding Na2SO4 and Na2S was superior to that of the addition of S. In bottom ash, different metallic sulfides were found in the forms of lead sulfide, aluminosilicate minerals, and polymetallic-sulfides, which were minimally volatilized. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that sulfur stabilizes Pb in the form of PbSO4(s) at low temperatures (incineration process mainly depended on the gas phase reaction, the surface reaction, the volatilization of products, and the concentration of Si, Ca and Al-containing compounds in the sludge. These findings provide useful information for understanding the partitioning behavior of Pb, facilitating the development of strategies to control the volatilization of Pb during sludge incineration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dewatering properties of differently treated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase

  18. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  19. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  20. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipid profiling in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenfen; Wu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luyao; Liu, Xiaohui; Qi, Juanjuan; Wang, Xueying; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-06-01

    High value-added reutilization of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is essential in sustainable development in WWTPs. However, despite the advantage of high value reutilization, this process must be based on a detailed study of organics in sludge. We used the methods employed in life sciences to determine the profile of lipids (cellular lipids, free fatty acids (FFAs), and wax/gum) in five sludge samples obtained from three typical WWTPs in Beijing; these samples include one sludge sample from a primary sedimentation tank, two activated sludge samples from two Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic (A2/O) tanks, and two activated sludge samples from two membrane bioreactor tanks. The percentage of total raw lipids varied from 2.90% to 12.3%. Sludge from the primary sedimentation tank showed the highest concentrations of lipid, FFA, and wax/gum and the second highest concentration of cellular lipids. All activated sludge contained an abundance of cellular lipids (>54%). Cells in sludge can from plants, animals, microbes and so on in wastewater. Approximately 14 species of cellular lipids were identified, including considerable high value-potential ceramide (9567-38774 mg/kg), coenzyme (937-3897 mg/kg), and some phosphatidylcholine (75-548 mg/kg). The presence of those lipid constituents would thus require a wider range of recovery methods for sludge. Both cellular lipids and FFAs contain an abundance of C16-C18 lipids at high saturation level, and they serve as good resources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of Hydroxysodalite From Paper Sludge Ash Using NaOH-LiOH Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Wajima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxysodalite zeolite was synthesized at 90 oC from paper sludge ash, which is industrial wastes in paper manufacturing, using NaOH-LiOH mixed solution. Paper sludge ash was discharged from paper making plant as industrial wastes, and the amount is increasing annually. The new utilization of paper sludge ash is desired. Hydroxysodalite can be used to remove HCl gas at high temperature, and there are papers for hydroxysodalite synthesis from various ashes, for example, coal fly ash. In my previous study, hydroxysodalite can be synthesized from paper sludge ash. However, little information can be available on the synthesis of hydroxysodalite from paper sludge ash. Therefore, we attempted to examine the synthesis of hydroxysodalite from paper sludge ash using NaOH-LiOH mixtures. Hydroxysodalite [Na6Al6Si6O24‧8H2O] was obtained in the mixed solution with Li / (Li + Na ratios smaller than 0.25, while katoite [Ca3Al2(SiO4(OH8] was formed in the mixed solutions with the other molar ratios, due to the dissolution of gehlenite [Ca2Al2SiO7]. The observed concentrations of Si and Al in the solution during the reaction explain the synthesis of reaction products, which depends on alkali species.

  3. Treatment of radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.; Payne, B.J.; Pegler, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sludge e.g. that which may accumulate in irradiated nuclear fuel element storage ponds, is treated by pumping it from a settling tank to a particle separator, conveniently a hydrocyclone and a sloping plate separator, the liquid being returned to the settling tank and the solids being metered into a drum pre-lined with dry cement. The drums are in a containment box in which they are transferred to a mixing station where the particles and cement are mixed and thence to a curing station. After curing the drums are embedded in cement in outer containers for transport to a long-term storage site. (author)

  4. Physical and chemical factors affecting sludge consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Blimkie, M.E.; Lavoie, P.A

    1997-09-01

    Chemical reactions between sludge components and precipitation reactions within the pores of the existing sludge are shown to contribute to the consolidation of sludge under steam generator operating conditions. Simulations of sludge representative of plants with a mixed iron/copper feedtrain suggest that as the conditions in the feedtrain become more oxidizing the sludge will become harder with a higher nickel ferrite content. The precipitation of feedwater impurities introduced by condenser leaks and of zinc silicate, which is produced in plants with brass condenser tubes and silica in the makeup water, contribute significantly to sludge consolidation. Sodium phosphate is also shown to be an agent of sludge consolidation. (author)

  5. Flies without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Renata; Lau, Joyce; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Gardiol, Alejandra; Woods, C Geoffrey; Khodjakov, Alexey; Raff, Jordan W

    2006-06-30

    Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.

  6. Wasting Away: To Sludge or Not to Sludge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nicolle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a century of high standards of sanitation, food and water safety in North America are often taken for granted. Recent outbreaks of illness attributed to food and water contamination, however, have challenged this complacency. Now, sludge is added to the list of concerns. Sewage sludge is the muddy substance that remains after the treatment of municipal sewage. This material includes not only human waste, but also household and industrial toxic wastes disposed of in local sewers. Federal and provincial Canadian regulations support the use of this material as fertilizer, within acceptable guidelines, as does the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. The safety of sludge, however, is questioned by some individuals and groups. Specifically, the risk of infectious agents and toxins to workers or other exposed individuals, and the potential for heavy metals and organic chemicals to be transferred from sludge-treated fields into crops are concerns.

  7. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 · 1/2 H 2 O), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O), unreacted limestone (CaCO 3 ), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column

  8. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent

  9. Co-conditioning and dewatering of chemical sludge and waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G R; Liu, J C; Lee, D J

    2001-03-01

    The conditioning and dewatering behaviors of chemical and waste activated sludges from a tannery were studied. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), and bound water content were used to evaluate the sludge dewatering behaviors. Zeta potentials were also measured. Experiments were conducted on each sludge conditioned and dewatered separately, and on the sludge mixed at various ratios. Results indicate that the chemical sludge was relatively difficult to be dewatered, even in the presence of polyelectrolyte. When the waste activated sludge was mixed with the chemical sludge at ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively, the dewaterability of chemical sludge improved remarkably while the relatively better dewaterability of the waste activated sludge deteriorated only to a limited extent. As the mixing ratios became 4:1 and 8:1, the dewaterability of the mixed sludge was equal to that of the waste activated sludge. The optimal polyelectrolyte dosage for the mixed sludge was equal to or less than that of the waste activated sludge. It is proposed that the chemical sludges act as skeleton builders that reduce the compressibility of the mixed sludge whose dewaterability is enhanced. Bound water contents of sludge decreased at low polyelectrolyte dosage and were not significantly affected as polyelectrolyte dosage increased. Advantages and disadvantages of co-conditioning and dewatering chemical sludge and waste activated sludge were discussed.

  10. Fluidized-bed-combustion ash for the solidification and stabilization of a metal-hydroxide sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, K L; Behr-Andres, C

    1998-01-01

    Fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) ash is a by-product from a developing technology for coal-fired power plants that will economically reduce air emissions to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act. FBC ash has physical and chemical properties similar to Portland cement, but only has moderate success as a pozzolan in concrete applications due to low compressive strengths. However, FBC ash has proven effective for use as a binder for the solidification and stabilization (S/S) of metal-bearing sludges. Physical and chemical characterization procedures were used to analyze FBC ash and a metal-bearing sludge obtained from a hazardous waste treatment facility to develop 12 different S/S mix designs. The mix designs consist of four binder designs to evaluate sludge-to-binder ratios of approximately 0, 0.5, and 1. Portland cement is used as a control binder to compare unconfined compressive strengths and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses from different ratios of the FBC ash streams: fly ash, char, and spent bed material (SBM). Compressive strengths ranging from 84 lbs per square inch (psi) to 298 psi were obtained from various mix designs containing different sludge-to-ash ratios cured for 28 days. All the mix designs passed the TCLP. Recoveries from leaching for each metal were less than 5% for most mix designs. Results of unconfined compressive strengths, TCLP, and percent recovery calculations indicate that the mix design containing approximately a 1:1 ratio of fly ash to char-and-sludge is the best mix design for the S/S of the metal-bearing sludge.

  11. [Effects of chlorides on Cd transformation in a simulated grate incinerator during sludge incineration process ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yong; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Sun, Shui-yu; Luo, Guang-qian; Li, Xiao-ming; Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu- jie; Yang, Zuo-yi; Zhao, Su-ying

    2014-09-01

    The effects of organic chloride-PVC and inorganic chloride-NaCl on Cd partitioning during sludge incineration with adding Cd(CH3COO)2 . 2H2O to the real sludge were investigated using a simulated tubular incineration furnace. And transformation and distribution of Cd were studied in different sludge incineration operation conditions. The results indicated that the partitioning of Cd tended to be enhanced in the fly ash and fule gas as the chloride content increasing. The migration and transformation of Cd-added sludge affected by different chloride were not obvious with the increasing of chloride content. With increasing temperature, organic chloride (PVC) and inorganic chloride (NaC1) can reduce the Cd distribution in the bottom ash. However, the effect of chlorides, the initial concentration and incineration time on Cd emissions had no significant differences. Using SEM-EDS and XRD technique, different Cd compounds including CdCl2, Na2CdCl4, K2CdCl6, K2CdSiO4 and NaCdO2 were formed in the bottom ash and fly ash after adding NaCl to the sludge. In contrast, after adding PVC to the sludge, the Na2CdCl4 and CdCl2 were the main forms of Cd compounds, at the same time, K4CdCI6 and K6CdO4 were also formed. The two different mechanisms of chlorides effects on Cd partitioning were affected by the products of Cd compound types and forms.

  12. Steam generator sludge removal apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, B.W.; Werner, C.E.; Klahn, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to equipment for cleaning steam generators and in particular to a high pressure fluid lance for cleaning sludge off the steam generator tubes away from an open tube lane. 6 figs

  13. Processing method for radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Kaneko, Masaaki.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive sludges contained in a storage tank is controlled, thereafter, a filter is charged into a processing vessel to continuously conduct dewatering. Then, the radioactive sludges and an oxidizer are mixed by stirring using a stirring impeller and by vibrations using a vibrator. At the same time, thermic rays are irradiated by using infrared ray lamps to heat and decompose them. Since thermic rays reach the center of the radioactive sludges by the infrared ray lamps, ion exchange resins are sufficiently decomposed and carbonized into inorganic material. Then, a filling hardener such as mortar cement having a good flowability is charged to solidify the wastes. With such procedures, radioactive sludges can be stored under a stable condition for a long period of time by decomposing organic materials into inorganic materials and solidifying them. Further, an operator's radiation exposure dose can remarkably be reduced by applying a predetermined and a stabilization treatment in an identical processing vessel. (N.H.)

  14. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  15. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  16. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  18. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices

  19. Reuse and recycling options for solid prescribed industrial wastes and brown coal fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum Hailu, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of detailed investigation of the possible use of stabilised sludge and brown coal fly ash as raw material ingredients for road construction and manufacture of building bricks. The thesis is organised into seven chapters including a general introduction chapter. A literature review of solid waste management practices employed in Australia and some selected countries are discussed (chapter 1) together with waste generation from power station...

  20. Evaluation of physical stability and leachability of Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) solidified chemical sludge generated from textile wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Hema; Pandey, Suneel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge from textile wastewater treatment plants using Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) containing fly ash. ► Physical engineering (compressive strength and block density) indicates that sludge has potential to be reused for construction purpose after stabilization/solidification. ► Leaching of heavy metals from stabilized/solidified materials were within stipulated limits. ► There is a modification of microstructural properties of PPC with sludge addition as indicated by XRD and SEM patterns. - Abstract: The chemical sludge generated from the treatment of textile dyeing wastewater is a hazardous waste as per Indian Hazardous Waste Management rules. In this paper, stabilization/solidification of chemical sludge was carried out to explore its reuse potential in the construction materials. Portland Pozzolona Cement (PPC) was selected as the binder system which is commercially available cement with 10–25% fly ash interground in it. The stabilized/solidified blocks were evaluated in terms of unconfined compressive strength, block density and leaching of heavy metals. The compressive strength (3.62–33.62 MPa) and block density (1222.17–1688.72 kg/m 3 ) values as well as the negligible leaching of heavy metals from the stabilized/solidified blocks indicate that there is a potential of its use for structural and non-structural applications.

  1. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Starved air combustion-solidification/stabilization of primary chemical sludge from a tannery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarnalatha, S. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramani, K. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthi, A. Geetha [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sekaran, G. [Department of Environmental Technology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-600 020, Tamil Nadu (India)]. E-mail: ganesansekaran@hotmail.com

    2006-09-01

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in tannery sludge causes severe ground water contamination in the case of land disposal and chronic air pollution during incineration. In the present investigation, the sludge was subjected to flow-through column test to evaluate the concentration of leachable organics (tannin, COD and TOC) and heavy metal ions (Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}) present in it. The dried sludge was incinerated at 800 deg. C in an incinerator under starved oxygen supply (starved-air combustion) to prevent the conversion of Cr{sup 3+} to Cr{sup 6+}. The efficiency of starved air combustion was studied under different loading rates of sludge. The calcined sludge was solidified/stabilized using fly ash and Portland cement/gypsum. The solidified bricks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 83-156 kg/cm{sup 2}. The stabilization of chromium (III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). Leachability studies on solidified bricks were carried out to determine the metal fixation and dissolved organic (as COD) concentration in the leachate.

  3. Devolatilization of oil sludge in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Han, Xiangxin

    2011-01-30

    Devolatilization of oil sludge pellets was investigated in nitrogen and air atmosphere in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB). Devolatilization times were measured by the degree of completion of the evolution of the volatiles for individual oil sludge pellets in the 5-15 mm diameter range. The influences of pellet size, bed temperature and superficial fluidization velocity on devolatilization time were evaluated. The variation of devolatilization time with particle diameter was expressed by the correlation, τ(d) = Ad(p)(N). The devolatilization time to pellet diameter curve shows nearly a linear increase in nitrogen, whereas an exponential increase in air. No noticeable effect of superficial fluidization velocity on devolatilization time in air atmosphere was observed. The behavior of the sludge pellets in the BFB was also focused during combustion experiments, primary fragmentation (a micro-explosive combustion phenomenon) was observed for bigger pellets (>10mm) at high bed temperatures (>700 °C), which occurred towards the end of combustion and remarkably reduce the devolatilization time of the oil sludge pellet. The size analysis of bed materials and fly ash showed that entire ash particle was entrained or elutriated out of the BFB furnace due to the fragile structure of oil sludge ash particles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, B.D.

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque

  5. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  6. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  7. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    non-Newtonian sludges (Xu et al., 1993; Spinosa and Lotita, 2001; .... [11]. Analysis and typical applications. Laminar/turbulent transition. For most sewage sludges the ... on Transport and Sedimentation of Solid Particles - Ghent, September.

  8. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often

  9. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  10. Biological sludge solubilisation for reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Yao, Y; Kihara, Y

    2006-01-01

    A novel sludge disintegration system (JFE-SD system) was developed for the reduction of excess sludge production in wastewater treatment plants. Chemical and biological treatments were applied to disintegrate excess sludge. At the first step, to enhance biological disintegration, the sludge was pretreated with alkali. At the second step, the sludge was disintegrated by biological treatment. Many kinds of sludge degrading microorganisms integrated the sludge. The efficiency of the new sludge disintegration system was confirmed in a full-scale experiment. The JFE-SD system reduced excess sludge production by approximately 50% during the experimental period. The quality of effluent was kept at quite a good level. Economic analysis revealed that this system could significantly decrease the excess sludge treatment cost.

  11. The role and control of sludge age in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2010-01-01

    The sludge age is the most fundamental and important parameter in the design, operation and control of biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (AS) systems. Generally, the better the effluent and waste sludge quality required from the system, the longer the sludge age, the larger the biological reactor and the more wastewater characteristics need to be known. Controlling the reactor concentration does not control sludge age, only the mass of sludge in the system. When nitrification is a requirement, sludge age control becomes a requirement and the secondary settling tanks can no longer serve the dual purpose of clarifier and waste activated sludge thickeners. The easiest and most practical way to control sludge age is with hydraulic control by wasting a defined proportion of the reactor volume daily. In AS plants with reactor concentration control, nitrification fails first. With hydraulic control of sludge age, nitrification will not fail, rather the plant fails by shedding solids over the secondary settling tank effluent weirs.

  12. Integral study of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sewage sludges are the by-product generated during the treatment process of waste water, and they are conformed by a solid phase which origin is the accumulation of pollutant materials which has been added to water during natural and anthropogenic activities. Its handling is one of the most serious problems faced by water treatment plants which involve the production, gathering, transportation, re utilization and final disposal of sewage sludges. The main purpose of this project is to perform a technical evaluation of the process of sewage sludge irradiation for its possible application as a choice for treatment and final disposal. Irradiation with gammas from Cobalt-60 shows effectiveness in disinfestation of sewage sludges, since they reduce six times the microbial population with a 7 KGy dose. In like manners with doses of 10 KGy is possible to bring down in 70 % the concentration of organic compounds, as well as to eliminate the presence of 6 to 22 organic compounds on samples of sewage sludges. The whole content of this work is presented in six sections: Introduction, Antecedents, Methodology, Conclusions, Suggestions and Bibliography. (Author)

  13. Excess sludge reduction in activated sludge processes by integrating ultrasound treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Elvira, S.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Plaza, F. I.; Garralon, G.; Fdz-Polanco, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biological sludge produced in the activated sludge process can be minimised modifying the water line, the sludge line or the final disposal strategy. Selecting the water line the general idea is to reduce the sludge producing the yield coefficient by means of the called lysis cryptic growth process. The main techniques referenced in literature are onization, chlorination and chemical and heat treatment. Ultrasounds are widely used to increase anaerobic biodegradability but are not reported as system to control excess sludge production. (Author)

  14. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  15. 40 CFR 61.54 - Sludge sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sludge sampling. 61.54 Section 61.54... sampling. (a) As an alternative means for demonstrating compliance with § 61.52(b), an owner or operator... days prior to a sludge sampling test, so that he may at his option observe the test. (c) Sludge shall...

  16. Heavy metals precipitation in sewage sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchioretto, M.M.; Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.

    2005-01-01

    There is a great need for heavy metal removal from strongly metal-polluted sewage sludges. One of the advantages of heavy metal removal from this type of sludge is the possibility of the sludge disposal to landfill with reduced risk of metals being leached to the surface and groundwater. Another

  17. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises twenty-three participants from twenty-one countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the second research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the IAEA in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques used include neutron activation analysis, particle-induced X-ray emission and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the third research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes and have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Effect of pulse current on energy consumption and removal of heavy metals during electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian Ran

    pathways to unacceptable dosages, leading to intolerable adverse effects on both public health and the environment. In the last decades, soil and water remediation have gained growing awareness, as the necessity becomes clearer for development of such techniques for elimination of the negative impact from......: transport of water (electroosmosis) and ions (electromigration), with electromigration being the most important transport process when treating heavy metal contaminated soils. Electrodialytic remediation (EDR), one of the enhanced electrochemical remediation techniques, is developed at the Technical...... compartments. Therefore no current is wasted for carrying ions from one electrode compartment to the other. The EDR technique has been tested for decontamination of a variety of different heavy metal polluted particulate materials: mine tailings, soil, different types of fly ashes, sewage sludge, freshwater...

  20. Chemical modeling of waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.

    1996-10-01

    The processing of waste from underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other facilities will require an understanding of the chemical interactions of the waste with process chemicals. Two aspects of sludge treatment should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids, and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns. It is likely that the treatment of waste tank sludge will begin with washing, followed by basic or acidic leaching. The dissolved materials will be in a solution that has a high ionic strength where activity coefficients are far from unity. Activity coefficients are needed in order to calculate solubilities. Several techniques are available for calculating these values, and each technique has its advantages and disadvantages. The techniques adopted and described here is the Pitzer method. Like any of the methods, prudent use of this approach requires that it be applied within concentration ranges where the experimental data were fit, and its use in large systems should be preceded by evaluating subsystems. While much attention must be given to the development of activity coefficients, other factors such as coprecipitation of species and Ostwald ripening must also be considered when one aims to interpret results of sludge tests or to predict results of treatment strategies. An understanding of sludge treatment processes begins with the sludge tests themselves and proceeds to a general interpretation with the aid of modeling. One could stop with only data from the sludge tests, in which case the table of data would become an implicit model. However, this would be a perilous approach in situations where processing difficulties could be costly or result in concerns for the environment or health and safety

  1. Critical operational parameters for zero sludge production in biological wastewater treatment processes combined with sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2005-09-01

    Mathematical models were developed to elucidate the relationships among process control parameters and the effect of these parameters on the performance of anoxic/oxic biological wastewater processes combined with sludge disintegrators (A/O-SD). The model equations were also applied for analyses of activated sludge processes hybrid with sludge disintegrators (AS-SD). Solubilization ratio of sludge in the sludge disintegrator, alpha, hardly affected sludge reduction efficiencies if the biomass was completely destructed to smaller particulates. On the other hand, conversion efficiency of non-biodegradable particulates to biodegradable particulates, beta, significantly affected sludge reduction efficiencies because beta was directly related to the accumulation of non-biodegradable particulates in bioreactors. When 30% of sludge in the oxic tank was disintegrated everyday and beta was 0.5, sludge reduction was expected to be 78% and 69% for the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes, respectively. Under this condition, the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is the amount of sludge disintegrated divided by the reduced sludge, was calculated to be around 4. Due to the sludge disintegration, live biomass concentration decreased while other non-biodegradable particulates concentration increased. As a consequence, the real F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M. The effluent COD was maintained almost constant for the range of sludge disintegration rate considered in this study. Nitrogen removal efficiencies of the A/O-SD process was hardly affected by the sludge disintegration until daily sludge disintegration reaches 40% of sludge in the oxic tank. Above this level of sludge disintegration, autotrophic biomass concentration decreases overly and TKN in the effluent increases abruptly in both the A/O-SD and AS-SD processes. Overall, the trends of sludge reduction and effluent quality according to operation parameters matched well with experimental results

  2. FINE PARTICAL AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Wayne S. Seames; Art Fernandez

    2003-09-21

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and pulverized coal. The objective was to determine potential tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} mitigation through using a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel, such as municipal sewage sludge, and the emergence of other potential problems such as the emission of toxic fly ash particles. The work led to new insight into mechanisms governing the partitioning of major and trace metals from the combustion of sewage sludge, and mixtures of coal and sewage sludge. The research also showed that the co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge emitted fine particulate matter that might potentially cause greater lung injury than that from the combustion of either coal alone or municipal sewage sludge alone. The reason appeared to be that the toxicity measured required the presence of large amounts of both zinc and sulfur in particles that were inhaled. MSS provided the zinc while coal provided the sulfur. Additional research showed that the toxic effects could most likely be engineered out of the process, through the introduction of kaolinite sorbent downstream of the combustion zone, or removing the sulfur from the fuel. These results are consequences of applying ''Health Effects Engineering'' to this issue. Health Effects Engineering is a new discipline arising out of this work, and is derived from using a collaboration of combustion engineers and toxicologists to mitigate the potentially bad health effects from combustion of this biomass fuel.

  3. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  4. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  5. Sludge cleaning in the steam generators: sludge Lancing e IBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro, E.; Gonzalez, S.; Calderon, N.

    2013-01-01

    IBERDROLA Engineering and Construction has echoed the need for plants to remove oxide deposits (sludge) located on the secondary side, on the bottom plate and into the tube bundle steam steam generators. Therefore, and with its partner SAVAC SRA has developed a specific system consisting of applying a capillary water at very high pressure applied directly to the location of these oxides. (Author)

  6. Improved waste-activated sludge dewatering using sludge/oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-07

    Oct 7, 2014 ... 2Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791, ... conventional heating methods in chemical reactions is becom- ... the dewaterability of sludge and reduces the organic matter ..... It is unlikely that this technique will be applied in.

  7. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  8. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  9. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  10. Filterability of membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge: impacts of polyelectrolytes and mixing with conventional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Cinar, Ozer; Kitis, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the filterability of MBR sludge and its mixture with conventional activated sludge (CAS). In addition, the impacts of type and dose of various polyelectrolytes, filter type and sludge properties on the filterability of both MBR and Mixed sludges were determined. Specific cake resistance (SCR) measured by the Buchner funnel filtration test apparatus and the solids content of the resulting sludge cake were used to assess the dewaterability of tested sludges. The type of filter paper used in Buchner tests affected the results of filterability for MBR, CAS and Mixed sludges. SCR values and optimum polyelectrolyte doses increased with increasing MLSS concentrations in the MBR, which suggested that increase in MLSS concentrations accompanied by increases in EPS and SMP concentrations and a shift toward smaller particles caused poorer dewaterability of the MBR sludge. The significant differences observed among the filterability of CAS and MBR sludges suggested that MLSS alone is not a good predictor of sludge dewaterability. Combining CAS and MBR sludges at different proportions generally improved their dewaterability. Combining MBR sludges having typically high MLSS and EPS concentrations with CAS having much lower MLSS concentrations may be an option for full-scale treatment plants experiencing sludge dewaterability problems. Better filterability and higher cake dry solids were achieved with cationic polyelectrolytes compared to anionic and non-ionic ones for all sludge types tested.

  11. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. R.; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Nielsen, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time laboratory results demonstrating electrodialytic removal of Cd from wastewater sludge, which is a method originally developed for soil remediation. During the remediation a stirred suspension of wastewater sludge was exposed to an electric dc field. The liquid....../solid (ml/g fresh sludge) ratio was between 1.4 and 2. Three experiments were performed where the sludge was suspended in distilled water, citric acid or HNO"3. The experimental conditions were otherwise identical. The Cd removal in the three experiments was 69, 70 and 67%, respectively, thus the removal...... was approximately the same. Chemical extraction experiments with acidic solutions showed that 5-10 times more Cd could be extracted from decomposed sludge than from fresh sludge. It is likely that the mobilization of Cd during decomposition of the sludge contributes to the efficient removal of Cd...

  12. Influence of the co-firing on the leaching of trace pollutants from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Izquierdo; Natalia Moreno; Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Esther Alvarez; Diano Antenucci; Henk Nugteren; Yolanda Luna; Constantino Fernandez-Pereira [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    The (co)-firing of low-cost alternative fuels is expected to increase in the forthcoming years in the EU because of the economic and environmental benefits provided by this technology. This study deals with the impact of the different coal/waste fuel ratio of the feed blend on the mineralogy, the chemical composition and especially on the leaching properties of fly ash. Different blends of coal, petroleum coke, sewage sludge, wood pellets, coal tailings and other minor biomass fuels were tested in PCC (pulverised coal combustion) and FBC (fluidized bed combustion) power plants. The co-firing of the studied blends did not drastically modify the mineralogy, bulk composition or the overall leaching of the fly ash obtained. This suggests that the co-firing process using the alternative fuels studied does not entail significant limitations in the re-use or management strategies of fly ash. 34 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Effects of sulfur on lead partitioning during sludge incineration based on experiments and thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-yong, E-mail: www053991@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Shu-jie; Sun, Shui-yu; Ning, Xun-an; He, Rui-zhe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Xiao-ming [Guangdong Testing Institute of Product Quality Supervision, Guangzhou 510330 (China); Chen, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Guang-qian [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Fu, Jie-wen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was carried out. • Effects of three types of sulfurs on Pb distribution were investigated. • The mechanism for three types of sulfurs acting on Pb partitioning were proposed. • Lead partitioning and species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified. - Abstract: Experiments in a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were conducted to investigate the impact of sulfur compounds on the migration of lead (Pb) during sludge incineration. Representative samples of typical sludge with and without the addition of sulfur compounds were combusted at 850 °C, and the partitioning of Pb in the solid phase (bottom ash) and gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) was quantified. The results indicate that three types of sulfur compounds (S, Na{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) added to the sludge could facilitate the volatilization of Pb in the gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) into metal sulfates displacing its sulfides and some of its oxides. The effect of promoting Pb volatilization by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S was superior to that of the addition of S. In bottom ash, different metallic sulfides were found in the forms of lead sulfide, aluminosilicate minerals, and polymetallic-sulfides, which were minimally volatilized. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that sulfur stabilizes Pb in the form of PbSO{sub 4}(s) at low temperatures (<1000 K). The equilibrium calculation prediction also suggested that SiO{sub 2}, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing materials function as condensed phase solids in the temperature range of 800–1100 K as sorbents to stabilize Pb. However, in the presence of sulfur or chlorine or the co-existence of sulfur and chlorine, these sorbents were inactive. The effect of sulfur on Pb partitioning in the sludge incineration process mainly depended on the gas phase reaction, the surface reaction, the volatilization of products, and the

  14. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  15. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  16. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  17. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  18. Sludge stabilization operability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.S.

    1994-01-01

    Document provides the results of the Operability Test Procedure performed to test the operability of the HC-21C thermal stabilization process for sludge. The OTP assured all equipment functioned properly and established the baseline temperature profile for glovebox HC-21C

  19. Thermal analysis of kieselguhr sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s currently necessary to clarify the mechanisms of thermodynamic and mass transfer processes in capillary porous media. In this paper we obtain the thermogravimetric curves of evaporation drying kieselguhr sludge. It is also an analysis of the curves, allowing to choose the optimum conditions of drying.

  20. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  1. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  2. Radiation disinfection of sewage sludge and composting of the irradiated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-01-01

    In the radiation disinfected sewage sludge, its stabilization is necessary with the composting. In this disinfected sludge, there is no need of keeping it at high temperature at the cost of fermentation velocity. The fermentation velocity can thus be set to obtain its maximum value. In sewage sludge utilization of farm land, to prevent the contamination with pathogenic bacteria and the secondary pollution, the radiation disinfection of dehydrated sludge and the composting of the disinfected sludge have been studied. The disinfection effect when an electron accelerator is used for the radiation source is described. Then, the composting of the disinfected sludge is described in chemical kinetics of the microorganisms. (Mori, K.)

  3. Effects of Sludge-amendment on Mineralization of Pyrene and Microorganisms in Sludge and Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, C; Gejlsbjerg, B; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    . Sludge-amendment enhanced the mineralization of pyrene in the soil compared to soil without sludge, and the most extensive mineralization was observed when the sludge was kept in a lump. The number of protozoa, heterotrophic bacteria and pyrene-mineralizing bacteria was much higher in the sludge compared...... to the soil. The amendment of sludge did not affect the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil, which indicated that organic contaminants in the sludge had a little effect on the number of protozoa and bacteria in the surrounding soil...

  4. Hexavalent chromium removal using aerobic activated sludge batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The following Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: activated sludge alone; activated sludge with an external electron donor (5 g/. of lactose); activated sludge with PAC addition (4 g/.); activated sludge with both PAC and lactose; and PAC alone. The results reported here showed that activated sludges are capable of ...

  5. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  6. Evaluation of the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.S.; Silver, W.J.; Coles, D.G.; Lamson, K.C.; McIntyre, D.R.; Mendoza, B.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential hazard associated with the use of sludge containing plutonium as a soil conditioner for food crops. Conditions were chosen that would maximize exposure to the 239 Pu in the sludge through resuspension and in plant content and thus approximated the maximum potential hazards due to the inhalation and ingestion pathways. The estimated 50-year radiation doses to the pulmonary region of the lung, bone, and liver based on the results of the inhalation experiment are 6 x 10 -4 rem, 1.2 x 10 -3 rem, and 0.55 x 10 -4 rem, respectively. Similarly, the 50-year radiation doses attributable to ingestion of the sludge-grown vegetables were 2.2 x 10 -5 rem to the bone and 1.5 x 10 -5 rem to the liver. Thus, the inhalation pathway is the more critical of the two. The maximum permissible annual doses to the lungs, bone, and the liver for a member of the general public are 1.5, 3.0, and 1.5 rem, respectively. Thus, the maximum credible 50-year lung, bone, and liver dose commitments associated with the use of the 239 Pu-contaminated sludge as a soil conditioner are approximately 4.0 x 10 -2 percent of the annual maximum permissible dose. Under more realistic exposure circumstances, one might expect less drying of the sludge, less resuspension of dust and flying dirt before and during rototilling, and a much smaller sludge vegetable consumption rate. The conservative assumptions made in this analysis tend to assure that actual radiation doses would be even less than those calculated. (auth)

  7. Sludge combustion in fluidized bed reactors at laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirone, R.; Cammarota, A.

    2001-01-01

    The combustion of a dried sewage sludge in laboratory scale fluidized bed has been studied in Naples by the Istituto di ricerche sulla combustione (Irc) in the framework of a National project named Thermal Process with Energy Recovery to be used in laboratory and pre-pilot scale apparatus. The attention has been focused on emissions of unreacted carbon as elutriated fines, on the emissions of pollutant gases and on the assessment of the inventory of fly- and bottom ashes. The combustion behaviour of sewage sludge has been compared with those of a market available Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass from Mediterranean area (Robinia Pseudoacacia) and with that of a South African bituminous coal. Stationary combustion tests were carried out at 850 0 C by feeding particles in the size range 0-1 mm into a bed of silica sand without any sorbent addition. The fluidized bed combustor has been operated, at a superficial gas velocity of 0.4 m/s and different excesses of air ranging between 14 and 98%. Relatively high combustion efficiency, larger than 98.9% has been obtained in experiments carried out with sewage sludge and excess of air larger than 20%. These values, are comparable with those obtained in previously experimental activity carried out under similar operative conditions with a South Africa Bituminous coal (97-98%). It is larger than those obtained by using a Tyre Derived Fuel (89-90%) and the Robinia Pseudoacacia Biomass (93-93%). The relative importance of carbon fines elutriation, CO emissions and volatile bypassing the bed in determining the loss of combustion efficiency has been evaluated for the different fuels tested [it

  8. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  9. Sludge derived fuel technique of sewage sludge by oil vacuum evaporation drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seokhwan; Lim, Byungran; Lee, Sookoo

    2010-01-01

    Sewage sludge contains high content of organic materials and its water content is also very high about 80% even after filtration process. Landfill as a sludge treatment methods can cause odor problem and leachate production which can derive the secondary contamination of soil and groundwater. The ocean dumping will be prohibited according to the London Convention and domestic stringent environmental regulation. Based on domestic agenda on organic sewage sludge treatment, the ocean disposal will be prohibited from 2012, thus alternative methods are demanded. Sludge derived fuel (SDF) technology can alleviate the emission of greenhouse gas and recover energy from sludge. For proper treatment and SDF production from sludge, the vacuum evaporation and immersion frying technology was adopted in this research. This technology dries moisture in sludge after mixing with oil such as Bunker C oil, waste oil or waste food oil etc. Mixing sludge and oil secures liquidity of organic sludge to facilitate handling throughout the drying process. The boiling temperature could be maintained low through vacuum condition in whole evaporation process. This study was performed to find the optimum operating temperature and pressure, the mixing ratio of sludge and oil. Finally, we could obtained SDF which moisture content was less than 5%, its heating value was over 4,500 kcal/ kg sludge. This heating value could satisfy the Korean Fuel Standard for the Recycle Products. Assessed from the perspective of energy balance and economic evaluation, this sludge drying system could be widely used for the effective sludge treatment and the production of SDF. (author)

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for each...

  11. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  12. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  13. Cementitious stabilization of chromium, arsenic, and selenium in a cooling tower sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting studies and treatment method development under the treatability exclusion of RCRA for those mixed wastes for which treatment methods and capabilities have yet to be defined. One of these wastes is a radioactive cooling tower sludge. This paper presents some results of a treatability study of the stabilization of this cooling tower sludge in cementitious waste forms. The sample of the cooling tower sludge obtained for this study was found to be not characteristically hazardous in regard to arsenic, barium, chromium, lead, and selenium, despite the waste codes associated with this waste. However, the scope of this study included spiking three RCRA metals to two orders of magnitude above the initial concentration to test the limits of cementitious stabilization. Chromium and arsenic were spiked at concentrations of 200, 2,000, and 20,000 mg/kg, and selenium was spiked at 100, 1,000, and 10,000 mg/kg (concentrations based on the metal in the sludge solids). Portland cement, Class F fly ash, and slag were selected as stabilizing agents in the present study. Perlite, a fine, porous volcanic rock commonly used as a filter aid, was used as a water-sorptive agent in this study in order to control bleed water for high water contents. The highly porous perlite dust absorbs large amounts of water by capillary action and does not present the handling and processing problems exhibited by clays used for bleed water control

  14. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  16. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  17. Environmental sustainability of wastewater sludge treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer-Souchet, Florence; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    treatment for municipal waste water. A special focus area in Neptune is sludge handling because the sludge amount is expected to increase due to advanced waste water treatment. The main sludge processing methods assessed in Neptune can be divided into two categories: disintegration processes before...... anaerobic digestion (thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound disintegration) and inertisation processes performed at high temperatures (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, wet oxidation) but they all aim at volume reduction and removal of biodegradable compounds before safe sludge disposal or reuse of its...... resources. As part of a sustainability assessment (or “best practice evaluation”), a comparison between the existing and new sludge handling techniques have been done by use of life cycle assessment (LCA).The concept of induced impacts as compared to avoided impacts when introducing a new sludge treatment...

  18. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, DandD requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution

  19. Sewage sludge and how to sell it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, I M

    1977-10-01

    Largo, Florida dries its sludge and sells it as fertilizer for $80 to $169/T. The sludge processing plant capable of turning common sludge into a dry, pelletized soil conditioner was only slightly more expensive than the previously proposed concrete drying beds which would have required disposal of the dried residue. The city's experience in setting up the plant and marketing the finished product is discussed. The true advantage of selling heat-dried sludge is that residents of the surrounding area, knowing the value of the product to their lawns and shrubs, will provide the transportation for the product and the physical labor to spread it over an area wider than most municipalities could afford to own or operate. The current production cost of $140/T is high, but the addition of a sludge prethickener-conditioner process and expected future economies of scale as the volume of sludge treated increases should lower per ton costs.

  20. Composting of gamma-radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, H.; Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    The composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge has been studied since 1978, aiming to present a new process of sludge composting for agricultural uses. This process is composed of two steps: irradiation step to disinfect sludge, and composting step to remove odor and easily decomposable organics in sludge. In this paper, the gamma-irradiation effect on sludge cake and composting condition of irradiated sludge are discussed. (author)

  1. Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined

  2. Use of a water treatment sludge in a sewage sludge dewatering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Justyna; Cimochowicz-Rybicka, Małgorzata; Kryłów, Małgorzata

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research study was to determine whether a sewage sludge conditioning had any impact on sludge dewaterability. As a conditioning agent a water treatment sludge was used, which was mixed with a sewage sludge before a digestion process. The capillary suction time (CST) and the specific filtration resistance (SRF) were the measures used to determine the effects of a water sludge addition on a dewatering process. Based on the CST curves the water sludge dose of 0.3 g total volatile solids (TVS) per 1.0 g TVS of a sewage sludge was selected. Once the water treatment sludge dose was accepted, disintegration of the water treatment sludge was performed and its dewaterability was determined. The studies have shown that sludge dewaterability was much better after its conditioning with a water sludge as well as after disintegration and conditioning, if comparing to sludge with no conditioning. Nevertheless, these findings are of preliminary nature and future studies will be needed to investigate this topic.

  3. An Economic comparison of sludge irradiation and alternative methods of municipal sludge treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, S.B.; McGuire, H.E.

    1977-11-01

    The relative economics of radiation treatment and other sludge treatment processes are reported. The desirability of radiation treatment is assessed in terms of cost and the quality of the treated sludge product. The major conclusions of this study are: radiation treatment is a high-level disinfection process. Therefore, it should only be considered if high levels of disinfection are required for widespread reuse of the sludge; the handling, transporting and pathogen growback problems associated with disinfected wet sludge makes it less attractive for reuse than dry sludge; radiation of composted sludge produces a product of similar quality at less cost than any thermal treatment and/or flash drying treatment option for situations where a high degree of disinfection is required; and heavy metal concerns, especially cadmium, may limit the reuse of sludge despite high disinfection levels. It is recommended that radiation treatment of sludge, particularly dry sludge, continue to be studied. A sensitivity analysis investigating the optimal conditions under which sludge irradiation operates should be instigated. Furthermore, costs of adding sludge irradiation to existing sludge treatment schemes should be determined.

  4. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  5. Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

    2003-01-31

    The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  6. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  7. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  8. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  9. Where to dispose of the sewage sludge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'proper' course for the disposal of sewage sludge is a topic that has continually sparked intense discussion for years. New legal regulations have developed which have significantly changed the disposal structure. Nevertheless, the consumer market of agriculture products has an increasing influence on sewage sludge recycling possibilities. In this report, the changes in sewage sludge disposal within the last ten years and the expected development is pointed out. On account of legal guidelines and of political market influences, the thermal recycling of sewage sludge is considered as the future solution, which should, however, be adapted according to marginal situations. (author)

  10. Rheological properties of disintegrated sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    The rheology of the sludge provides information about the capacity and the flow, which in the case of project tasks for the hydraulic conveying installation is an important control parameter. Accurate knowledge of the rheological properties of sludge requires the designation of rheological models. Models single and multiparameter (Ostwald, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley'a, and others) allow an approximation of flow curves, and the determination of the boundaries of the flow of modified sludge allows you to control the process compaction or are dewatered sludge undergoing flow. The aim of the study was to determine the rheological parameters and rheological models of sludge conditioned by physical methods before and after the process of anaerobic digestion. So far, studies have shown that the application of conditioning in the preparation of sewage sludge increases shear stress, viscosity as well as the limits of flow in relation to the untreated sludge. Offset yield point by the application of a conditioning agent is associated with decreased flowability tested sludge, which has also been observed by analyzing the structure of the prepared samples. Lowering the yield point, and thus the shear stress was recorded as a result of the fermentation test of disintegrated sludge.

  11. Radioactive contamination of sewage sludge. Preliminary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C J; Zanders, E; Raphael, T

    1986-01-01

    Because of the radioactivity released through the explosion of the nuclear reactor near Chernobyl radionuclides have been accumulated to a significant extent in sewage sludge in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is demonstrated for samples from four activated sludge plants according to a recent recommendation of the German Commission for Radiation Protection, there is until now no reason to deviate from the common practices of sludge disposal or incineration. The degree of radioactive contamination of plant materials produced on farm lands on which sewage sludge is being spread cannot be estimated with sufficient certainty yet. Additional information is required.

  12. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  13. A review of modeling approaches in activated sludge systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Key words: Mathematical modeling, water, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, activated sludge systems. INTRODUCTION ... sedimentation processes which take place in the aeration ...... activated sludge waste water treatment systems.

  14. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  15. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  16. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    definition of ageing?), and that the word ageing (or senescence) has a fairly precise .... Populations that evolved increased longevity and egg production late in life, as a .... life-span exceeding 120 days whereas flies from control populations ...

  17. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...

  18. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  19. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant; Desenvolvimento de tijolos com incorporacao de cinzas de carvao e lodo provenientes de estacao de tratamento de agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-07-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  20. Effects of different sludge disintegration methods on sludge moisture distribution and dewatering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    A key step in sludge treatment is sludge dewatering. However, activated sludge is generally very difficult to be dewatered. Sludge dewatering performance is largely affected by the sludge moisture distribution. Sludge disintegration can destroy the sludge structure and cell wall, so as change the sludge floc structure and moisture distribution, thus affecting the dewatering performance of sludge. In this article, the disintegration methods were ultrasound treatment, K2FeO4 oxidation and KMnO4 oxidation. The degree of disintegration (DDCOD), sludge moisture distribution and the final water content of sludge cake after centrifuging were measured. Results showed that three disintegration methods were all effective, and K2FeO4 oxidation was more efficient than KMnO4 oxidation. The content of free water increased obviously with K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidations, while it decreased with ultrasound treatment. The changes of free water and interstitial water were in the opposite trend. The content of bounding water decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and increased slightly with KMnO4 oxidation, while it increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. The water content of sludge cake after centrifuging decreased with K2FeO4 oxidation, and did not changed with KMnO4 oxidation, but increased obviously with ultrasound treatment. In summary, ultrasound treatment deteriorated the sludge dewaterability, while K2FeO4 and KMnO4 oxidation improved the sludge dewaterability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Speciation of mercury in sludge solids: washed sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lourie, A. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-24

    The objective of this applied research task was to study the type and concentration of mercury compounds found within the contaminated Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (SRS LWS). A method of selective sequential extraction (SSE), developed by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences1,2 and adapted by SRNL, utilizes an extraction procedure divided into seven separate tests for different species of mercury. In the SRNL’s modified procedure four of these tests were applied to a washed sample of high level radioactive waste sludge.

  2. Pathogen reduction in sludges by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    There is international interest in the use of ionizing radiation in waste water and sludge treatment. Results of programs to study effects of radiation on disease-causing microbes commonly found in wastewater sludges will be discussed. Although emphasis will be on the work conducted at Sandia Laboratories, the discussion will include work in progress in West Germany, France, South Africa, and other countries

  3. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a secondary role in terms of their degree of diffusion. The agronomical value of domestic sewage sludge is a proved question, which may be hidden by the presence of several pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds and pathogens. In this way, the sustainability of sewage sludge agricultural disposal requires a value judgment based on knowledge and evaluation of the level of pollution of both sewage sludge and soil. The article analyzed a typical Italian case study, a water management system of small communities, applying the criteria of evaluation of the last official document of European Union about sewage sludge land application, the “Working Document on Sludge (3rd draft, 2000”. The report brought out good sewage sludge from small wastewater treatment plants and soils quality suggesting a sustainable application.

  4. Electron beam disinfection of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    1992-01-01

    Electron beam treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge for safe reutilization was performed. Ranges of total bacterial counts and total coliforms in the sludge were from 1.5 x 10 8 to 1.6 x 10 9 and from 2.2 x 10 7 to 1.5 x 10 8 per wet gram, respectively. Total bacterial counts decreased about 5 log cycles after irradiating 5 kGy and irradiation with 2 kGy was enough to kill all coliforms in sewage sludge. The survival curves of total bacteria, obtained by irradiation in oxygen atmosphere, approached to that in nitrogen atmosphere with the increase of sludge thickness. No effects of dose rate and electron energy were found when the sludge layers were thin enough. Continuous disinfection of sewage sludge cake, with the maximum feed rate of 300 kg-sludge/hr, was successfully performed with a Cockcroft-Walton type electron accelerator, a sludge pump and a flat nozzle. (J.P.N.)

  5. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  6. Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada-Ferreira, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Thesis entitled “Filterability and Sludge Concentration in Membrane Bioreactors” aims at explaining the relation between Mixed Liquid Suspended Solids (MLSS) concentration, the amount of solids in the wastewater being treated, also designated as sludge, and filterability, being the ability of

  7. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  8. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  9. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste sludge resuspension and transfer: development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.; Mackey, T.S.

    1980-02-01

    The six Gunite waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain about 400,000 gal of sludge that has precipitated from solution and settled during the 35 years these tanks have been in service. Eventual decommissioning of the tanks has been proposed. The first part of this program is to resuspend the accumulated sludge, to transfer it to new storage tanks in Melton Valley, and to dispose of it by the shale-fracturing process. On the basis of preliminary information, a tentative operational concept was adopted. The sludge in each tank would be resuspended by hydraulic sluicing and pumped from the tank. This resuspended sludge would be treated as necessary to keep the particles in suspension and would be pumped to the new waste-storage tanks. Subsequently the sludge would be pumped from the tanks, combined with a cement-base mix, and disposed of by the shale-fracturing facility. Verification of the feasibility of this concept required development effort on characterization of the sludge and development of techniques for resuspending the sludge and for keeping it in suspension. These development efforts are described in this report. Sections of the report describe both the known properties of the sludge and the tests of grinding methods investigated, discuss tests of various suspenders, describe tests with cement-base mixes, summarize hot-cell tests on actual sludge samples, and describe tests that were made at a mockup of a Gunite tank installation. On the basis of the tests made, it was concluded that reslurrying and resuspension of the sludge is quite feasible and that the suspensions can be made compatible with cement mixes

  11. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting 'loss-on-ignition' was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs

  12. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  13. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author)

  14. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: financial viability case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinwood, J.F.; Kotler, J. (Nordion International Inc., Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1. Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs; 2. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs; 3. Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. (author).

  15. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  16. The beneficial usage of water treatment sludge as pottery product ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of sludge from water treatment operations has become a major problem in Malaysia. The problem becomes acute because of scarcity of space for installation of sludge treatment facilities and disposal of treated sludge. Traditionally, treated sludge from water treatment plant will be sent to landfill for disposal.

  17. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  18. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska

    2016-01-01

    The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal metho...

  19. Factors affecting the consolidation of steam generator sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C. W.; Shamsuzzaman, K.; Tapping, R. L.

    1993-02-15

    It is hypothesized that sludge consolidation is promoted by chemical reactions involving the various sludge constituents, although the hardness of the final product will also depend on the total porosity. Oxidizing conditions and higher temperatures produce a harder sludge. The precipitation of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, a potential binding agent, may also promote sludge consolidation. Several solutions to prevent sludge consolidation are suggested. (Author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs.

  20. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of fly ash from co-combustion of wood and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal content in fly ash from biomass combustion, such as straw, wood and sludge, often needs reducing before the ash can be used as fertilizer for agricultural land or as a component in the production of construction materials. In this study, fly ash from a boiler fueled with wood chips...... and straw was treated either by electrodialytic remediation (EDR) directly or by a combination of EDR and pre-wash with distilled water to investigate the possibilities of reducing the heavy metal content and reusing nutrients as fertilizer and bulk material in construction materials. Different experimental....../pre-wash-EDR treated ash mainly contained quartz, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of K salts had disappeared. This shows that the potassium fertilizer potential was lost in the treated ashes, but the quartz mineral is beneficial in construction materials, such as ceramics. The K fertilizer could be recovered...

  2. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  3. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelsen, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining

  4. ALARA ASSESSMENT OF SETTLER SLUDGE SAMPLING METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSEN LA

    2009-01-30

    The purpose of this assessment is to compare underwater and above water settler sludge sampling methods to determine if the added cost for underwater sampling for the sole purpose of worker dose reductions is justified. Initial planning for sludge sampling included container, settler and knock-out-pot (KOP) sampling. Due to the significantly higher dose consequence of KOP sludge, a decision was made to sample KOP underwater to achieve worker dose reductions. Additionally, initial plans were to utilize the underwater sampling apparatus for settler sludge. Since there are no longer plans to sample KOP sludge, the decision for underwater sampling for settler sludge needs to be revisited. The present sampling plan calls for spending an estimated $2,500,000 to design and construct a new underwater sampling system (per A21 C-PL-001 RevOE). This evaluation will compare and contrast the present method of above water sampling to the underwater method that is planned by the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) and determine if settler samples can be taken using the existing sampling cart (with potentially minor modifications) while maintaining doses to workers As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and eliminate the need for costly redesigns, testing and personnel retraining.

  5. Virological investigations on inadiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epp, C.

    1980-08-01

    The virusinactivating activity of a Co 60 -irradiation pilot plant at Geiselbullach/Munich was to be examined. We investigated 16 impure sewage water, 15 purified sewage water, 32 raw sladge samples, 62 digested sludge samples before irradiation, 52 digested sludge samples after irradiation and 9 raw sludge samples after irradiation. We completed these investigations by adding poliovaccinevirus type 1 to the digested sludge before irradiation and by adding suspensions of pure virus in MEM + 2% FBS packed in synthetic capsules and mixtures of virus and sludge packed in synthetic capsules to the digested sludge. After the irradiation we collected the capsules and determined the virustiter. The testviruses were poliovaccinevirus type 1, poliowildvirus type 1, echovirus type 6, coxsackie-B-virus type 5, coxsackie-A-virus type 9 and adenovirus type 1. In the field trial the irradiation results were like the laboratory results assuming that the sewage sludge was homogenized enough by digestion and the solid particle concentration was not more than 3%. The D-value was 300-400 krad for enteroviruses and 700 krad for adenovirus. (orig.) [de

  6. A microbiological study on sewage sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermkiattipong, Ngamnit; Ito, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1990-09-01

    Isolation and identification of salmonellae in sewage sludge cake and radiation sensitivities of the isolated strains were studied. Disinfection of the sludge by heat or radiation and effect of such treatment on composting were also carried out. Five groups of O-antigen and seven serotypes of salmonellae were identified from the sludge cakes. D 10 values of the salmonellae in phosphate buffer were ranged from 0.16 to 0.22 kGy and those in sludge were about three times larger. Total bacterial counts and coliforms in the sludges were determined to be 4.6 x 10 7 - 5.1 x 10 9 and 1.3 x 10 5 - 1.1 x 10 9 colony forming unit (cfu/g). After irradiation at 20 kGy by gamma ray or electron beam, decrease of total bacterial count was 5 - 7 log cycles and a dose of 5 kGy was enough to eliminate all of the coliforms. Coliforms decreased rapidly by heating at 65degC, but only one log cycle decrease was observed in total bacterial count. By heating at 100degC, total bacterial count decreased rapidly. Two peaks were observed in CO 2 evolution curves of radiation disinfected sludge composting, but only one peak in heat disinfected sludge composting. (author)

  7. A review on sludge dewatering indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Vu Hien Phuong; Nguyen, Tien Vinh; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuth; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Dewatering of sludge from sewage treatment plants is proving to be a significant challenge due to the large amounts of residual sludges generated annually. In recent years, research and development have focused on improving the dewatering process in order to reduce subsequent costs of sludge management and transport. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to establish reliable indices that reflect the efficiency of sludge dewatering. However, the evaluation of sludge dewaterability is not an easy task due to the highly complex nature of sewage sludge and variations in solid-liquid separation methods. Most traditional dewatering indices fail to predict the maximum cake solids content achievable during full-scale dewatering. This paper reviews the difficulties in assessing sludge dewatering performance, and the main techniques used to evaluate dewatering performance are compared and discussed in detail. Finally, the paper suggests a new dewatering index, namely the modified centrifugal index, which is demonstrated to be an appropriate indicator for estimating the final cake solids content as well as simulating the prototype dewatering process.

  8. Radioactivity of sludge in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T.

    1989-05-01

    Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants was studied to determine its radionuclide concentrations. Measurements were made to find out whether any radionuclides from the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto and from hospitals and medical laboratories could be detected in sludge additional to those originating from global and Chernobyl fallout. In the treatment process of water, aluminium sulphate sludge is developed at treatment plants using surface water. This kind of sludge was measured since it also concentrates radionuclides. Fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear power station after the accident predominated in all sewage sludge samples in Finland. In 1987 six different radionuclides originating from the Chernobyl fallout were detected in sewage sludge. In spring when the snow melted and large quantities of run off water flowed into the treatment plants, the activity concentrations clearly increased, but then started decreasing again. At the end of the year the highest measured 137 Cs activity concentrations were below 1000 Bq kg -1 dry weight. The highest activity concentration in sludge originated from iodine used fro medical purposes

  9. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B.; Barrios, J.A.; Mendez, J.M.; Diaz, J.

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible of more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision of the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; the adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of theses issues. (author)

  10. Stabilization/solidification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boura, Panagiota; Katsioti, Margarita; Tsakiridis, Petros; Katsiri, Alexandra

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate a viable alternative for the final disposal of sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants by its use as an additive in developing new construction materials. For this purpose, several mixtures of sludge- cement and sludge-cement and jarosite/alunite precipitate were prepared. Jarosite/alunite precipitate is a waste product of a new hydrometallurgical process. Two kinds of sludge were used: primary sludge from Psyttalia Wastewater Treatment Plant, which receives a considerable amount of industrial waste, and biological sludge from Metamorphosi Wastewater Treatment Plant. Various percentages of these sludges were stabilized/solidified with Portland cement and Portland cement with jarosite/alunite. The specimens were tested by determination of compressive strength according to the methods described by European Standard EN 196. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as Thermogravimetry-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) were used to determine the hydration products in 28 days. Furthermore, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test for heavy metals (TCLP), were carried out in order to investigate the environmental compatibility of these new materials. (author)

  11. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  12. Cost and effectiveness comparisons of various types of sludge irradiation and sludge pasteurization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation from 137 Cs, a major constituent of nuclear fuel reprocessing waste, can be used to sterilize sewage sludge. This paper compares the effectiveness and cost of heat pasteurization, irradiation, and thermoradiation (simultaneous heating/irradiation), three competing methods of sludge disinfection. The cost of irradiation and thermoradiation is slightly higher than heat pasteurization costs for liquid sludges, although minor changes in oil availability or prices could change this. If the viral destruction could be done easily by other means, a 500-kilorad irradiation dose would be effective and less costly. For dry sewage sludges, irradiation is as effective and much less costly than any of the liquid sludge disinfection processes. Irradiation of compost appears to be cheaper and more practical than any heat pasteurization process for the dry sludge (the insulating property of the compost makes heating difficult). 6 tables, 2 fig

  13. Modeling Aspects Of Activated Sludge Processes Part I: Process Modeling Of Activated Sludge Facilitation And Sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H. I.; EI-Ahwany, A.H.; Ibrahim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Process modeling of activated sludge flocculation and sedimentation reviews consider the activated sludge floc characteristics such as: morphology viable and non-viable cell ratio density and water content, bio flocculation and its kinetics were studied considering the characteristics of bio flocculation and explaining theory of Divalent Cation Bridging which describes the major role of cations in bio flocculation. Activated sludge flocculation process modeling was studied considering mass transfer limitations from Clifft and Andrew, 1981, Benefild and Molz 1983 passing Henze 1987, until Tyagi 1996 and G. Ibrahim et aI. 2002. Models of aggregation and breakage of flocs were studied by Spicer and Pratsinis 1996,and Biggs 2002 Size distribution of floes influences mass transfer and biomass separation in the activated sludge process. Therefore, it is of primary importance to establish the role of specific process operation factors, such as sludge loading dynamic sludge age and dissolved oxygen, on this distribution with special emphasis on the formation of primary particles

  14. Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, N.; Izquierdo, M.; Font, O.; Moreno, T.; Diez, S.; Vazquez, E.; Barra, M.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of geopolymer matrixes from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes as the sole source of silica and alumina has been studied in order to assess both their capacity to immobilise the potentially toxic elements contained in these coal (co-)combustion by-products and their suitability to be used as cement replacements. The geopolymerisation process has been performed using (5, 8 and 12 M) NaOH solutions as activation media and different curing time (6-48 h) and temperature (40-80 o C) conditions. Synthesised geopolymers have been characterised with regard to their leaching behaviour, following the DIN 38414-S4 [DIN 38414-S4, Determination of leachability by water (S4), group S: sludge and sediments. German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge. Institut fuer Normung, Berlin, 1984] and NEN 7375 [NEN 7375, Leaching characteristics of moulded or monolithic building and waste materials. Determination of leaching of inorganic components with the diffusion test. Netherlands Normalisation Institute, Delft, 2004] procedures, and to their structural stability by means of compressive strength measurements. In addition, geopolymer mineralogy, morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. It was found that synthesised geopolymer matrixes were only effective in the chemical immobilisation of a number of elements of environmental concern contained in fly ashes, reducing (especially for Ba), or maintaining their leachable contents after the geopolymerisation process, but not for those elements present as oxyanions. Physical entrapment does not seem either to contribute in an important way, in general, to the immobilisation of oxyanions. The structural stability of synthesised geopolymers was mainly dependent on the glass content of fly ashes, attaining at the optimal activation conditions (12 M NaOH, 48 h, 80 o C

  15. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  16. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongpat, S.; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  17. Using Ecosan sludge for crop production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jimenez, B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available %) was low, but not enough to completely inactivate microorganisms (below 30?40% in general and ,5% for Ascaris eggs, according to Feachem et al., 1983). The N content (0.2?0.34%) was in the normal range for domestic sludge (0.2?0.6%) if the N contribution... et al. (2003), indicated that faecal coliforms may survive .1,000 d in Ecosan sludge, while Ascaris may be completely inactivated. The helminth ova content (29.8 ^ 2.9 eggs/g TS) was less than expected for sludge from developing countries (ranging...

  18. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongpat, S. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author).

  19. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  20. Screening the possibility for removing cadmium and other heavy metals from wastewater sludge and bio-ashes by an electrodialytic method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2007-01-01

    in wastewater sludge and bio-ashes (straw and wood) using an electrodialytic method. The waste products were treated as stirred suspensions. During the remediation the suspension was acidified from water splitting at the anion exchange membrane and the acidification mobilized Cd that was removed...... with Cd, and the wood ash had a high initial pH (13.3). The mass of wastewater sludge and bio-ashes decreased during treatment but the concentration of other heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn) was not increased to exceed limiting values in remediated matrix.......Both wastewater sludge and fly ash from combustion of biomass (bio-ash) have traditionally been applied to agricultural land in Denmark. However, Cd concentrations often exceed limiting values. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the possibility for reducing the Cd concentration...

  1. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-05

    Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400-800°C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leachability and physical stability of solidified and stabilized pyrite cinder sludge from dye effluent treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerkez Đurđa V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with exploring the possibilities of using solidification/stabilization (S/S treatment for toxic sludge generated in dye effluent treatment, when pyrite cinder is used as catalytic iron source in the modified heterogeneous Fenton process. S/S treatment was performed by using different clay materials (kaolin, bentonite and native clay from the territory of Vojvodina and fly ash in order to immobilize toxic metals and arsenic presented in sludge. For the evaluation of the extraction potential of toxic metals and the effectiveness of the S/S treatment applied, four single-step leaching tests were performed. Leaching test results indicated that all applied S/S treatments were effective in immobilizing toxic metals and arsenic presented in sludge. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of pozzolanic products, and compressive strength measurement proved the treatment efficacy. It can be concluded that the S/S technique has significant potential for solving the problem of hazardous industrial waste and its safe disposal. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43005 i br. TR37004

  3. Sewage sludge disintegration by high-pressure homogenization: a sludge disintegration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Panyue; Ma, Boqiang; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Xin

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) technology was applied as a pretreatment to disintegrate sewage sludge. The effects of homogenization pressure, homogenization cycle number, and total solid content on sludge disintegration were investigated. The sludge disintegration degree (DD(COD)), protein concentration, and polysaccharide concentration increased with the increase of homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number, and decreased with the increase of sludge total solid (TS) content. The maximum DD(COD) of 43.94% was achieved at 80 MPa with four homogenization cycles for a 9.58 g/L TS sludge sample. A HPH sludge disintegration model of DD(COD) = kNaPb was established by multivariable linear regression to quantify the effects of homogenization parameters. The homogenization cycle exponent a and homogenization pressure exponent b were 0.4763 and 0.7324 respectively, showing that the effect of homogenization pressure (P) was more significant than that of homogenization cycle number (N). The value of the rate constant k decreased with the increase of sludge total solid content. The specific energy consumption increased with the increment of sludge disintegration efficiency. Lower specific energy consumption was required for higher total solid content sludge.

  4. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-07-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD{sub i}nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  5. Effect of seed sludge on characteristics and microbial community of aerobic granular sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Pan, Yuejun; Zhang, Kun; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated by using different kinds of seed sludge in sequencing batch airlift reactor. The influence of seed sludge on physical and chemical properties of granular sludge was studied; the microbial community structure was probed by using scanning electron microscope and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The results showed that seed sludge played an important role on the formation of aerobic granules. Seed sludge taken from beer wastewater treatment plant (inoculum A) was more suitable for cultivating aerobic granules than that of sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (inoculum B). Cultivated with inoculum A, large amount of mature granules formed after 35 days operation, its SVI reached 32.75 mL/g, and SOUR of granular sludge was beyond 1.10 mg/(g x min). By contrast, it needed 56 days obtaining mature granules using inoculum B. DGGE profiles indicated that the dominant microbial species in mature granules were 18 and 11 OTU when inoculum A and B were respectively employed as seed sludge. The sequencing results suggested that dominant species in mature granules cultivated by inoculum A were Paracoccus sp., Devosia hwasunensi, Pseudoxanthomonas sp., while the dominant species were Lactococcus raffinolactis and Pseudomonas sp. in granules developed from inoculum B.

  6. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie D; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during the resting period. As the resting period proceeded, atmospheric air re-entered the pore space at all depth levels. The methane (CH 4 ) concentration was at its highest during the first part of the resting period, and then declined as the sludge residue became more dewatered and thereby aerated. In the pore space, the concentration of CH 4 often exceeded the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, the total emission of CO 2 from the surface of the sludge residue exceeded the total emission of CH 4 , suggesting that CO 2 was mainly produced in the layer of newly applied sludge and/or that CO 2 was emitted from the sludge residue more readily compared to CH 4 .

  7. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD i nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  8. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  9. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  10. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  11. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  12. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  13. Investigation on the Rheological Behavior of Fly Ash Cement Composites at Paste and Concrete Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Hemalatha; Mapa, Maitri; Kushwaha, Rakhi

    2018-06-01

    Towards developing sustainable concrete, nowadays, high volume replacement of cement with fly ash (FA) is more common. Though the replacement of fly ash at 20-30% is widely accepted due to its advantages at both fresh and hardened states, applicability and acceptability of high volume fly ash (HVFA) is not so popular due to some adverse effects on concrete properties. Nowadays to suit various applications, flowing concretes such as self compacting concrete is often used. In such cases, implications of usage of HVFA on fresh properties are required to be investigated. Further, when FA replacement is beyond 40% in cement, it results in the reduction of strength and in order to overcome this drawback, additions such as nano calcium carbonate (CC), lime sludge (LS), carbon nano tubes (CNT) etc. are often incorporated to HVFA concrete. Hence, in this study, firstly, the influence of replacement level of 20-80% FA on rheological property is studied for both cement and concrete. Secondly, the influence of additions such as LS, CC and CNT on rheological parameters are discussed. It is found that the increased FA content improved the flowability in paste as well as in concrete. In paste, the physical properties such as size and shape of fly ash is the reason for increased flowability whereas in concrete, the paste volume contributes dominantly for the flowability rather than the effect due to individual FA particle. Reduced density of FA increases the paste volume in FA concrete thus reducing the interparticle friction by completely coating the coarse aggregate.

  14. Alkaline coal fly ash amendments are recommended for improving rice-peanut crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, D.K.; Ghosh, B.C. [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indi an Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal (India); Rautaray, S.K. [RRLRRS, Gerua Via-Hajo, Dist-Kamrup, Assam (India)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment investigating amendments of organic material including farmyard manure, paper factory sludge and crop residues combined with fly ash, lime and chemical fertilizer in a rice-peanut cropping system was conducted during 1997-98 and 1998-99 at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. The soil was an acid lateritic (Halustaf) sandy loam. For rice, an N:P:K level of 90:26.2:33.3 kg/ha was supplied through the organic materials and chemical fertilizer to all the treatments except control and fly ash alone. The required quantities of organic materials were added to supply 30 kg N/ha and the balance amount of N, P and K was supplied through chemical fertilizer. Amendment materials as per fertilization treatments were incorporated to individual plots 15 days before planting of rice during the rainy season. The residual effects were studied on the following peanut crop with application of N:P:K at 30:26.2:33.3 kg/ha through chemical fertilizer alone in all treatments, apart from the control. An application of fly ash at 10 t/ha in combination with chemical fertilizer and organic materials increased the grain yield of rice by 11% compared to chemical fertilizer alone. The residual effect of both lime and fly ash applications combined with direct application of chemical fertilizer increased peanut yields by 30% and 24%, respectively, compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Treatments with fly ash or lime increased P and K uptake in both the crops and oil content in peanut kernel compared to those without the amendments. Alkaline coal fly ash proved to be a better amendment than lime for improving productivity of an acid lateritic soil and enriching the soil with P and K.

  15. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  16. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  17. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  18. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  19. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, A C [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs.

  20. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  1. Use of sludge as ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, L.C.; Vianna, R.S.C.; Campos, V.; Rosa, A.H.; Buechler, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, with increase amounts of sludge derived from the treatment of domestic sewage put pressure into research on systems for the adequate use of these materials. The aim of the present work is to study the use of sludge ash, from sintering and calcinated process, as a raw material for the ceramic industry. Using the sewage sludge ashes as ceramic raw material there will be no contamination of soil and underground water. Metals and toxic compounds like Al, Fe, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn oxides were analyzed and characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The leached material was chemically analyzed where the integration of oxides into the ceramic matrix of sludge ash was observed. Residual decomposition was analyzed by TG, DTG and DTA curves. (author)

  2. Rheological characterisation of municipal sludge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Markis, Flora; Yap, Shao Dong; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Slatter, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable sludge management is becoming a major issue for wastewater treatment plants due to increasing urban populations and tightening environmental regulations for conventional sludge disposal methods. To address this problem, a good understanding of sludge behaviour is vital to improve and optimize the current state of wastewater treatment operations. This paper provides a review of the recent experimental works in order for researchers to be able to develop a reliable characterization technique for measuring the important properties of sludge such as viscosity, yield stress, thixotropy, and viscoelasticity and to better understand the impact of solids concentrations, temperature, and water content on these properties. In this context, choosing the appropriate rheological model and rheometer is also important. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Resistance capability of microaerobic granular sludge for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-02-08

    Feb 8, 2012 ... The resistance capability to pH shock of microaerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) ... process with chlorine gas in pulp and paper, leather and spinning ... nitrifying bacteria in the aerobic zone, and then trans-.

  4. Bacteriological studies on dairy waste activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, A.D.

    1966-01-01

    Dairy-waste activated sludge was examined for bacterial composition and response to different conditions. Strains isolated were classified mainly into three groups: predominantly coryneform bacteria (largely Arthrobacter), some Achromobacteraceae and a small groups of Pseudomonadaceae.

  5. grown on soil amended with sewage sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Corresponding ... Key Words: Sewage sludge, Green amaranth, Phytoextraction, Heavy metals. ..... Wastewater-irrigated Areas of Titagarh,.

  6. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  7. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  8. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  9. Enhancement of biogas production from sewage sludge by addition of grease trap sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, A.; Neczaj, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of grease trap sludge is interesting option for sewage sludge digestion. • Co-digestion of grease trap sludge and sewage sludge improved efficiency of process. • The anaerobic digestion can be carried out at short hydraulic retention time. • Long chain fatty acids concentration was below the ranges for inhibition of anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Despite having many benefits, a low degree of volatile solids removal as well as long retention time are the main factors limiting the performance of the anaerobic digestion. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with other organic waste (for example fat rich materials) is one of the few potential ways to enhance the performance of the anaerobic digestion. In this article, the effects of adding fatty rich materials on the performance and stability of semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated on a 6 l laboratory-scale reactor (working volume equal to 5.5 l). The reactor was operated in a semi-continuous mode with a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. The data presented in this paper relate to the period in which the grease trap sludge accounted for 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18% of the mixture on the volatile solids basis. The results clearly indicate that the addition of fat rich materials like grease trap sludge can lead to a satisfactory increase in biogas yield in digester treating sewage sludge. The results showed that co-digestion can enhance the biogas yield by 28–82% compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge alone (control sample). Moreover, the addition of grease trap sludge to digesters resulted in increased volatile solids removal from 44.38% (control sample) to 57.77% (feedstock with 14% addition of grease trap sludge). It was found that the increase of grease trap sludge in the feedstock had a direct impact on the biogas production and methane yield. This proposal has also been confirmed by statistical analysis such as Pearson correlation coefficients and

  10. Sustainability of Domestic Sewage Sludge Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Bruna Rizzardini; Daniele Goi

    2014-01-01

    Activated sludge is now one of the most widely used biological processes for the treatment of wastewaters from medium to large populations. It produces high amounts of sewage sludge that can be managed and perceived in two main ways: as a waste it is discharged in landfill, as a fertilizer it is disposed in agriculture with direct application to soil or subjected to anaerobic digestion and composting. Other solutions, such as incineration or production of concrete, bricks and asphalt play a s...

  11. Physical inactivation and stabilization of sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, D.

    1979-07-01

    High temperature conditioning of sludge is a stabilization process that insures sterilization. Both thermal pasteurization and irradiation are inactivation processes. Viruses and parasites are inactivated at 70-80 0 C. Total bacterial destruction requires higher temperatures and/or detention time. Radio sensitivity of pathogens and pertinent treatment parameters are examined. If sludge is to be land disposed, disinfection requires irradiation doses ranging 500 Krad; if cattle feeding is considered, the required dose is 1 Mrad

  12. Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Activated Sludge and Aerobic Biofilm Reactors is the fifth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The first part of the book is devoted to the activated sludge process, covering the removal of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus.A detailed analysis of the biological reactor (aeration tank) and the final sedimentation tanks is provided. The second part of the book covers aerobic biofilm reactors, especially trickling filters, rotating biological contractors and submerged ae...

  13. Modeling of Activated Sludge Floc Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim H. Mustafa; G. Ibrahim; Ali Elkamel; A. H. Elahwany

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: The activated sludge system needs to improve the operational performance and to achieve more effective control. To realize this, a better quantitative understanding of the biofloc characteristics is required. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Study the biofloc characteristics from kinetics-mass transfer interaction point of view by quantification of the weight of the aerobic portion of the activated sludge floc to the total floc weight. (ii) Study the effect of bulk...

  14. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  15. Effect of phosphorous transformation on the reduction of PM{sub 10} formation during Co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuo, J.K.; Dong, M.; Li, G.D.; Li, S.Q.; Song, Q.; Yao, Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Key Lab. of Thermal Science and Power Engineering; Duan, L. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Co-combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge with coal will become increasingly widely used, regarded as an important incineration method with the high thermal efficiency, low emissions, low investment and operating costs. However, the presence of phosphorus in fine particle has gained increased attention due to its environmental adverse affection and deactivation of SCR DeNOx catalysts. Therefore, the behavior of phosphorus in fine particles during co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge was investigated in a 25 kW quasi one-dimensional down-fired pulverized coal combustor, where PM{sub 10} was collected from the furnace centerline in the outlet of flue gas cooler by using a two-stage nitrogen-aspirated, water-cooling isokinetic sampling probe followed a 13-stage electric low pressure impactor. Then the formation mechanism of PM{sub 10} was investigated by observing the different fractions of sewage sludge in the coal. Similar to the coal combustion, the particle-size-distributions (PSD) of PM{sub 10} mass concentration by co-combustion of sewage sludge with coal exhibit two distinct modes separated by a fraction of 0.157-0.263 {mu}m, ultrafine mode and intermediate mode. With the sewage sludge blended sludge up to 15% (thermal ratio), the mass concentration of the total fly ash and PM{sub 10+} (Dp > 10 {mu}m) vastly increased from 1,088 and 547 mg/Nm{sup 3} (during coal combustion) to 5,059 and 4,403 mg/Nm{sup 3}. However, the mass concentration of fine particulates, such as PM{sub 1}, PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} was maintained at the emission level of coal combustion. When the fraction of sewage sludge less than 15%, the mass concentration of fine particle is higher than the emission during coal combustion, while the growth rate is only by the 3.6, 7.9 and 4.8% of the total concentration of fly ash (5% thermal). The change of the PSD of mass concentration during co- combustion of sewage sludge and coal, mainly was caused by the interaction between Si, Al and Ca, Fe

  16. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required.

  17. Separation of SRP waste sludge and supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Sludges and supernates were separated from Savannah River Plant waste slurries by centrifugation and sand filtration. This separation, a portion of a conceptual process for solidification and long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes, was tested in shielded cells with small-scale process equipment. Procedures for the separation were developed in tests with nonradioactive materials. Then, in 13 tests with actual sludges and supernates, solids removal ranged from 90 to 99.2 vol percent and averaged 96.4 vol percent after two passes through a basket-type centrifuge. Concentrates from the tests, containing 0.05 to 0.2 vol percent solids, were clarified by sand filter columns to produce solutions of the soluble salts with less than 0.01 vol percent solids. About 700 liters of salt solution and 8 kilograms of washed, dried sludges were separated in the tests. Effects of sludge type, flocculant, flow rates, and batch size were evaluated. Washing and drying of centrifuged sludges were studied, and two types of dryers were tested. Ruthenium volatility during drying was negligible. Washing efficiency was determined by analyses of wash solutions and sludge products

  18. Summary status of K Basins sludge characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A number of activities are underway as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) related to the processing and disposing of sludge in the 105-K Basins (K Basins). Efforts to rigorously define data requirements for these activities are being made using the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. Summaries of current sludge characterization data are required to both help support this DQO process and to allow continued progress with on-going engineering activities (e.g., evaluations of disposal alternatives). This document provides the status of K Basins sludge characterization data currently available to the Nuclear Fuel Evaluations group. This group is tasked by the SNFP to help develop and maintain the characterization baseline for the K Basins. The specific objectives of this document are to: (1) provide a current summary (and set of references) of sludge characterization data for use by SNFP initiatives, to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and to support on-going initiatives; (2) submit these data to an open forum for review and comment, and identify additional sources of significant data that may be available; (3) provide a summary of current data to use as part of the basis to develop requirements for additional sludge characterization data through the DQO process; (4) provide an overview of the intended activities that will be used to develop and maintain the sludge characterization baseline

  19. Reuse of industrial sludge as construction aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J H; Show, K Y; Hong, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Industrial wastewater sludge and dredged marine clay are high volume wastes that needed enormous space at landfill disposal sites. Due to the limitation of land space, there is an urgent need for alternative disposal methods for these two wastes. This study investigates the possibility of using the industrial sludge in combination with marine clay as construction aggregates. Different proportions of sludge and clay were made into round and angular aggregates. It was found that certain mix proportions could provide aggregates of adequate strength, comparable to that of conventional aggregates. Concrete samples cast from the sludge-clay aggregates yield compressive strengths in the range of 31.0 to 39.0 N/mm2. The results showed that the round aggregates of 100% sludge and the crush aggregates of sludge with up to 20% clay produced concrete of compressive strengths which are superior to that of 38.0 N/mm2 for conventional aggregate. The study indicates that the conversion of high volume wastes into construction materials is a potential option for waste management.

  20. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. (Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  1. Method of treating radioactive sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Ichihashi, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    For removing water content from sludge wastes, filtration or steam condensation may be considered, but none of them can sufficiently reduce the water content since filtration may cause clogging and steam treatment has a limit in the condensation. In view of the above, radioactive sludge wastes are dehydrated by an electroosmotic process in a vessel and then dehydrated solid contents are solidified in the vessel. Since the sludge wastes are mainly composed o fion exchange resins and iron oxides deposited to the resins, when a DC voltage is applied to the sludges containing such solid contents, a force tending to premeate them through the fine pores in the filter is exerted to water. As a result, only water is removed while the solids are being held on the filters. Since the moving direction of water is different depending on the property of the sludges, the polarity of the electrodes may be changed depending on the nature of the sludges. Thus, volume reduction can be improved and treating conditions can be controlled easily by a simple device. (N.H.)

  2. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  3. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  4. Reasonable management plan of sludge in sewage disposal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Kyu Jin; Koo, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The compost method, which is widely used as a sewage disposal recycling in Korea, is now basically impossible to recycle sludge to compost by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry announcement. Therefore, the disposal of sludge will be much harder with reducing the amount of sludge used as compost. The amount of sludge other than using as compost is very small, so the development of various sludge recycling and use will be needed with regulations. This study was implemented to help the establishment of sewage sludge recycling policy in Korea. 30 refs., 17 figs., 58 tabs.

  5. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, 'Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge'). The purpose of this technical

  6. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  7. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  8. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  9. Sludge treatment facility preliminary siting study for the sludge treatment project (A-13B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WESTRA, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates various sites in the 100 K area and 200 areas of Hanford for locating a treatment facility for sludge from the K Basins. Both existing facilities and a new standalone facility were evaluated. A standalone facility adjacent to the AW Tank Farm in the 200 East area of Hanford is recommended as the best location for a sludge treatment facility

  10. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...... out from the proces and usually dewatered before further handling. The separation process is costly. Moreover, the separation process depends on the composition and the properties of the sludge. The best separation is obtained for sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells...... and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Polyvalent ions improve the floc strangth and improve the separation whereas monovalent ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion and industry) reduces impair the separation. Further high pH impairs the separation process due to floc disintegration...

  11. Wastewater and sludge management and research in Oman: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar Abdul Khaliq, Suaad; Ahmed, Mushtaque; Al-Wardy, Malik; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed; Choudri, B S

    2017-03-01

    It is well recognized that management of wastewater and sludge is a critical environmental issue in many countries. Wastewater treatment and sludge production take place under different technical, economic, and social contexts, thus requiring different approaches and involving different solutions. In most cases, a regular and environmentally safe wastewater treatment and associated sludge management requires the development of realistic and enforceable regulations, as well as treatment systems appropriate to local circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to provide useful information about the current wastewater and sludge treatment, management, regulations, and research in Oman. Based on the review and discussion, the wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman has been evolving over the years. Further, the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman. Wastewater treatment and sludge management in Oman have been evolving over the years. Sludge utilization has been a challenge due to its association with human waste. Therefore, composting of sewage sludge is the best option in agriculture activities. Sludge and wastewater utilization can add up positively in the economic aspects of the country in terms of creating jobs and improving annual income rate. The number of research projects done on wastewater reuse and other ongoing ones related to the land application of sewage sludge should encourage revision of existing standards, regulations, and policies for the management and beneficial use of sewage sludge in Oman.

  12. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  13. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  14. Characteristics of oil sludge from crude oil terminal and behaviors of the naturally occurring radioactive materials and heavy metals on combustion of the sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu

    2001-01-01

    The study on the characteristics and behaviors of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and heavy metals (HM) in the oil sludge from the crude oil terminal were performed using Gamma Spectroscopy (GM), Neutron Activation Analysis Instrumental (NAAI) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). GM and NAAI were used to analyze the concentrations of radionuclides whereas NAAI as well as ICP-MS techniques were applied for HM. The samples were then combusted at temperature ranging from 100 degree Celsius - 800 degree Celsius for a period of 30-150 minutes. The ashes produced were then analyzed again for the various elemental concentrations by the above techniques. The percentage of volatilization was then derived mathematically. The concentration of Ra-226 (123 Bq/ kg) and Ra-228 (117 Bq/ kg) in the oil sludge are higher compared with their parent U-238 (32.12 Bq/ kg) and Th-232 (35.36 Bq/ kg). The concentration of HM such as As (13.30 ppm), Cr (46 ppm) and Zn (4287 ppm) in the oil sludge are also higher compared with As (7.5 ppm), Cr (43 ppm) and Zn (36 ppm) contain in the Malaysian normal soil. The heating value for crude oil sludge is 9000 kJ/ kg which is below the value for self-sustaining combustion (11000 kJ/ kg). The percentage of volatilization varies from 2-70 % depends on the elements, temperature and period of combustion. Uranium was found to volatile more than other elements. Higher temperatures (>500 degree Celsius) and longer exposure time (>90 minutes) promoted metal and radionuclide volatilization significantly more than 20 %. Based on the first order kinetic reaction, a new global mathematical model was developed (Q e =1-e -k e t ). This model can predict the percentage of volatilization for the various elements contain in the sludge if the temperature and time of combustion are known. With this known percentage of volatilization, the concentration of various elements present in the bottom and fly ashes can be deduced. From

  15. Screening the possibility for removing cadmium and other heavy metals from wastewater sludge and bio-ashes by an electrodialytic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne J.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2007-01-01

    Both wastewater sludge and fly ash from combustion of biomass (bio-ash) have traditionally been applied to agricultural land in Denmark. However, Cd concentrations often exceed limiting values. The present study is a preliminary investigation of the possibility for reducing the Cd concentration in wastewater sludge and bio-ashes (straw and wood) using an electrodialytic method. The waste products were treated as stirred suspensions. During the remediation the suspension was acidified from water splitting at the anion exchange membrane and the acidification mobilized Cd that was removed to the electrode compartments. Even though the matrices were very different the remediation was successful in all cases. After treatment the Cd concentration in the ashes allowed for spreading at agricultural land and the limiting concentration of 0.8 mg Cd/kg for the wastewater sludge was almost reached (0.84 and 0.88 mg Cd/kg). The main differences of the waste products influencing the remediation process were: the sludges had a high content of organic particles that were mobilized by electrophoresis and fouled the anion exchange membrane; the straw-ash contained a lot of chloride, which formed anionic complexes with Cd, and the wood ash had a high initial pH (13.3). The mass of wastewater sludge and bio-ashes decreased during treatment but the concentration of other heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu and Zn) was not increased to exceed limiting values in remediated matrix

  16. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CIIANAIT DUMINIIG MA𔃼I1 FXCURSIOH /~o --- ~A 0- /10 CMFIGURE 4 AL-PHA-JETr ELEVATOR CONTROL CINEMATIC ; LP HEINi" KINEMATIC HORIZONTAL STABILIZER...ih-flight simulation is the ultimale assessment techntque providing high realism , flexibility, and credibility. rhe utilization (,f an in-fli:,ht si...1london, UK ()PERATIONAL H-ELICOPTER IIN - FLIGHT SIMULATOR (HIGH REALISM ) I(HIGH FLEAiBILITY Fligt t A tehrtqueTechnology implementation Flight t

  17. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    al estudio de los Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psichodidae). Phlebotomus del grupo anthophorus en Guatemala. Rev. Colegio Mdd. Guatemala 22:187-193...studied in detail. A review of the North American Phiebotominae is in progress. Unclassie SECRIT CLASSFICTIO O TH PGE~ en om nteed 4[ AD_____ STUDIES OF...Diptera, Psychodidae) in Belize, Central America. Bull . Ent. Res. 65:595-599. Young, D.G. 1979. A review of the bloodsucking psychodid flies of Colombia

  18. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  19. Nuclear safety of extended sludge processing on tank 42 and 51 sludge (DWPF sludge feed batch one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemons, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sludge in tanks 42 and 51 is to be washed with inhibited water to remove soluble salts and combined in tank 51 in preparation for feed to DWPF. Since these tanks contain uranium and plutonium, the process of washing must be evaluated to ensure subcriticality is maintained. When the sludge is washed, inhibited water is added, the tank contents are slurried and allowed to settle. The sludge wash water is then decanted to the evaporator feed tank where it is fed to the evaporator to reduce the volume. The resulting evaporator concentrate is sent to a salt tank where it cools and forms crystallized salt cake. This salt cake will later be dissolved, processed in ITP and sent to Z-Area. This report evaluates the supernate and sludge during washing, the impact on the evaporator during concentration of decanted wash water, and the salt tank where the concentrated supernate is deposited. The conclusions generated in this report are specific to the sludge currently contained in tanks 42 and 51

  20. Degradation of slime extracellular polymeric substances and inhibited sludge flocs destruction contribute to sludge dewaterability enhancement during fungal treatment of sludge using filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms responsible for the sludge dewaterability enhanced by filamentous fungi during fungal treatment of sludge were investigated in the present study. The filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1, isolated from waste activated sludge, enhanced sludge dewaterability by 82.1% to achieve the lowest value of normalized sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), 8.18 × 10(10) m · L/kg · g-TSS. During the fungal treatment of sludge, 57.8% of slime extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and 51.1% of polysaccharide in slime EPS were degraded, respectively, by Mucor sp. GY-1, contributing to the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Slime EPS is much more available for Mucor sp. GY-1 than either LB-EPS or TB-EPS that bound with microbial cells. In addition, filamentous fungus Mucor sp. GY-1 entrapped small sludge particles and inhibited the destruction of sludge flocs larger than 100 μm, thus enhancing sludge dewaterability, during fungal treatment of sludge using Mucor sp. GY-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The importance of ash for the favourable properties of sewage sludge in co-firing; Askans betydelse foer roetslams goda samfoerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, K.; Jones, F.; Niklasson, F.; Ryde, D. [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas, (Sweden); Gustafsson, G. [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Herstad Svaerd, S. [WSP Kraft and Vaerme, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Sewage sludge has been shown to have positive properties during cofiring with difficult fuels. The sludge mitigates deposition and corrosion which occur because of the fuels content of chlorine and alkali. The reason for the positive properties of sludge are its content of sulphur, phosphorus and aluminium silicates. Its high content of ash has also been discussed because the fly ash would constitute a large surface for alkali chlorides to condensate on and thereby avoid condensation on e.g. superheater surfaces. The ash could also blast the surface and thereby keeping them clean. The present project aims at testing the hypothesis that the ash in the sludge mitigates the deposition. Tests have been performed with synthetically produced waste pellets of which some were doped with inert particles in form of aluminium oxide. The tests were done in a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed. Deposit probes collected deposits during the combustion of doped and un-doped waste pellets, and the deposits were chemically analysed. The result shows that the inert particles do not have any effect on the amount of hard attached deposits. The particles ended up on the lee side of the probe where they deposited because of gravitation, but they could be easily removed. The remaining deposit was analysed and the effect of inert particles was a small decrease of the content of chlorine. Tests were also performed with pellets doped with sludge. In this case the amount of deposit and its content of chlorine decreased significantly. Different sewage sludges have different properties. The present results show that sludge for cofiring should not be chosen for its amount of ash but rather for its content of sulphur, phosphorous and aluminium.

  2. The importance of ash for the favourable properties of sewage sludge in co-firing; Askans betydelse foer roetslams goda samfoerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, K.; Jones, F.; Niklasson, F.; Ryde, D. [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden); Gustafsson, G. [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Herstad Svaerd, S. [WSP Kraft and Vaerme, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Sewage sludge has been shown to have positive properties during cofiring with difficult fuels. The sludge mitigates deposition and corrosion which occur because of the fuels content of chlorine and alkali. The reason for the positive properties of sludge are its content of sulphur, phosphorus and aluminium silicates. Its high content of ash has also been discussed because the fly ash would constitute a large surface for alkali chlorides to condensate on and thereby avoid condensation on e.g. superheater surfaces. The ash could also blast the surface and thereby keeping them clean. The present project aims at testing the hypothesis that the ash in the sludge mitigates the deposition. Tests have been performed with synthetically produced waste pellets of which some were doped with inert particles in form of aluminium oxide. The tests were done in a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed. Deposit probes collected deposits during the combustion of doped and un-doped waste pellets, and the deposits were chemically analysed. The result shows that the inert particles do not have any effect on the amount of hard attached deposits. The particles ended up on the lee side of the probe where they deposited because of gravitation, but they could be easily removed. The remaining deposit was analysed and the effect of inert particles was a small decrease of the content of chlorine. Tests were also performed with pellets doped with sludge. In this case the amount of deposit and its content of chlorine decreased significantly. Different sewage sludges have different properties. The present results show that sludge for cofiring should not be chosen for its amount of ash but rather for its content of sulphur, phosphorous and aluminium.

  3. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes work to examine the gas generation behavior of actual K East (KE) Basin floor, pit and canister sludge. Mixed and unmixed and fractionated KE canister sludge were tested, along with floor and pit sludges from areas in the KE Basin not previously sampled. The first report in this series focused on gas generation from KE floor and canister sludge collected using a consolidated sampling technique. The third report will present results of gas generation testing of irradiated uranium fuel fragments with and without sludge addition. The path forward for management of the K Basin Sludge is to retrieve, ship, and store the sludge at T Plant until final processing at some future date. Gas generation will impact the designs and costs of systems associated with retrieval, transportation and storage of sludge

  4. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water. ... the remediation of an oily sludge, which was part of the waste stream from the improvement ... m3 of fresh water respectively while 'treatment' reactors C and D received ...

  5. Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power-law friction ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ... When predicting pressure gradients for the flow of sludges in pipes, the ...

  6. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-08

    Jan 8, 2010 ... metal loads comparable to Danish sewage sludge, and it exceeds the Danish quality criteria for ... The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the whole plant is .... sludge will contain an important part of the XOCs which were.

  7. Microwave enhanced digestion of aerobic SBR sludge | Kennedy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MWs) for improving characteristics of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) sludge to enhance mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Effects of pretreatment temperature, MW irradiation intensity and solids concentration on sludge characterisation ...

  8. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen ...

  9. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  10. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soi...... legal limits for land application of the sludge. Our results suggest that biosolids from the studied STW can be valorised in agriculture, especially as soil conditioner....

  11. Municipal Sewage Sludge Drying Treatment by an Composite Modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Na Wei

    2012-01-01

    A sludge composite modifier (SCM) which comprises a mixture of three cementitious components was proposed for sludge drying and stabilization. Effect of SCM components on sludge moisture content was analyzed using uniform design and the optimum composition of SCM was determined by computer-aided modeling and optimization. To compare the drying effect of SCM, quicklime, and Portland cement, the effects of material content and curing time on moisture content of sludge were also studied. The res...

  12. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, A. P.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two primary objectives. The first is to understand the physical properties and behavior of the Hanford transuranic (TRU) tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging, and transportation for disposal at WIPP. The second primary objective is to develop a fundamental understanding of these sludge suspensions by correlating the macroscopic properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of this research effort will enhance the existing understanding of agglomeration phenomena and the properties of complex colloidal suspensions. In addition, the knowledge gained and capabilities developed during this effort will aid in the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites. These objectives will be accomplished by: (1) characterizing the TRU sludges contained in the Hanford tanks that are intended for shipment to WIPP; (2) determining the physical behavior of the Hanford TRU tank sludges under conditions that might exist during treatment and packaging; (3) and modeling the retrieval, treatment, and packaging operations that will be performed at Hanford to dispose of TRU tank sludges

  13. Supercritical water gasification of sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Yamaguchi, D. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an attractive technology for producing fuels from biomass and waste materials. As a result of greenhouse gas emissions and issues related to local air pollutants, hydrogen production from these renewable energy resources has been gaining in popularity. Disposal of sewage sludge is another environmental problem that have led to severe regulations. Incineration has been one of the most commonly used means of sewage sludge disposal. Thermal gasification produces gaseous fuel, making it a better option over incineration. However, due to its high moisture content, this process is not feasible to make use of sewage sludge directly. In order to analyze SCWG of sewage sludge, it has been determined that equilibrium analysis is most suitable since the maximum achievable amount of hydrogen in a given reacting condition can be estimated. The equilibrium model can be divided into two types of models, namely stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric. This paper presented the results of a study that used a computer program to develop a nonstoichiometric model with the direct Gibbs free energy minimization technique. In addition, various biomass were simulated for comparisons in order to identify if sewage sludge is a potential feedstock for hydrogen production. Last, the effects of reaction pressure and temperature on product distribution were also examined. It was shown that the proposed model is capable of estimating the product distribution at equilibrium. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  14. Recovery of phosphorus from sewerage treatment sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuilova, Anastasia

    1999-07-01

    This thesis is a review of the current state of technologies for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater and sludge, and the recovery and re-use of phosphorus. It explains the need for phosphorus removal and describes the current removal processes. Focus is given to phosphorus crystallisation processes and to the processes which treat sewage treatment sludges into potential sources of phosphorus. An interesting possibility to recover phosphorus from sewage sludge by use of Psenner fractionation is also discussed. By this method, the following phosphate fractions of technological significance may be distinguished: (1) redox sensitive phosphates, mainly bound to Fe(OH){sub 3}; (2) phosphate adsorbed to surfaces (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), exchangeable against OH{sup -}, and alkali-soluble phosphate; (3) phosphate bound to CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3} and in apatite; and (4) organically bound phosphate. The basic removal mechanisms, process schemes and treatment results are described. Two experiments with three different types of sludges from Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant in Stockholm were performed in the laboratory. It was shown that the addition of sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid cause the significant release of phosphate (about 80%) for all types of sludges. If a whole Psenner fractionation was performed the phosphate release is approximately 100%.

  15. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  16. Odorants and malodors associated with land application of biosolids stabilized with lime and coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laor, Yael; Naor, Moshe; Ravid, Uzi; Fine, Pinchas; Halachmi, Ilan; Chen, Yona; Baybikov, Rima

    2011-01-01

    Malodor emissions limit public acceptance of using municipal biosolids as natural organic resources in agricultural production. We aimed to identify major odorants and to evaluate odor concentrations associated with land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludges (Class B) and their alkaline (lime and coal fly ash)-stabilized products (Class A). These two types of biosolids were applied at 12.6 tonnes ha(-1) (dry weight) to microplots of very fine clayey Vertisol in the Jezreel Valley, northern Israel. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the biosolids before and during alkaline stabilization and after incorporation into the soil were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Odor concentrations at the plots were evaluated on site with a Nasal Ranger field olfactometer that sniffed over a defined land surface area through a static chamber. The odors emitted by anaerobically digested sewage sludges from three activated sludge water treatment plants had one characteristic chemical fingerprint. Alkaline stabilization emitted substantial odors associated with high concentrations of ammonia and release of nitrogen-containing VOCs and did not effectively reduce the potential odor annoyance. Odorous VOCs could be generated within the soil after biosolids incorporation, presumably because of anaerobic conditions within soil-biosolids aggregates. We propose that dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide, which seem to be most related to the odor concentrations of biosolids-treated soil, be used as potential chemical markers for the odor annoyance associated with incorporation of anaerobically digested sewage sludges. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Fate of return activated sludge after ozonation: an optimization study for sludge disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ozlem; Filibeli, Ayse

    2012-09-01

    The effects of ozonation on sludge disintegration should be investigated before the application of ozone during biological treatment, in order to minimize excess sludge production. In this study, changes in sludge and supernatant after ozonation of return activated sludge were investigated for seven different ozone doses. The optimum ozone dose to avoid inhibition of ozonation and high ozone cost was determined in terms of disintegration degree as 0.05 g O3/gTS. Suspended solid and volatile suspended solid concentrations of sludge decreased by 77.8% and 71.6%, respectively, at the optimum ozone dose. Ozonation significantly decomposed sludge flocs. The release of cell contents was proved by the increase of supernatant total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP). While TN increased from 7 mg/L to 151 mg/L, TP increased from 8.8 to 33 mg/L at the optimum ozone dose. The dewaterability and filterability characteristics of the ozonated sludge were also examined. Capillary suction time increased with increasing ozone dosage, but specific resistance to filtration increased to a specific value and then decreased dramatically. The particle size distribution changed significantly as a result of floc disruption at an optimum dose of 0.05 gO3/gTS.

  18. Properties of bacterial radioresistance observed in sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H; Ito, H; Takehisa, M [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Iizuka, H

    1981-09-01

    The changes in radiosensitivities of bacteria in sludge were investigated. The coliforms are more radioresistant in raw sludge than in cake (dewatered sludge). This radioresistance of coliforms was observed not only in raw sludge but also in the cake diluted with water. The radioresistance was independent of the difference of treatment plant, kind of sludge, and season. The oxygen effect on the radioresistance was not observed, but the resistance was changed during storage of sludge. Escherichia coli isolated from sludge was radiosensitive in buffer, but its radiosensitivity was protected by the water-extracts of sludge. On the other hand, radioresistant bacteria were present in total bacteria of sludge irradiated at 2 Mrad. However, the dominant flora in the irradiated sludge consisted of radiosensitive bacteria (mainly Pseudomonas). When a strain of radiosensitive Pseudomonas was irradiated in raw sludge and diluted cake, the radiosensitivity was remarkably protected. From these results, it is suggested that a factor affecting the radiosensitivity of bacteria is present in sludge.

  19. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration on sludge microbial activity and dewaterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huan; Jin Yiying; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Wang Zhiyu; Nie Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic treatment can disintegrate sludge, enhance microbial activity and improve sludge dewaterability at different energy inputs. To find their relationship, the three phenomena during ultrasonic treatment were investigated synchronously, and an experimental model was established to describe the process of ultrasonic sludge disintegration. Analysis results showed that the changes of sludge microbial activity and dewaterability were dependent on sludge disintegration degree during ultrasonic treatment. When sludge disintegration degree was lower than 20%, sludge flocs were disintegrated into micro-floc aggregates and the microbial activity increased over 20%. When sludge disintegration degree was over 40%, most cells were destroyed at different degree, and sludge activity decreased drastically. Only when sludge disintegration degree was 2-5%, sludge dewaterability was improved with the conditioning of FeCl 3 . It was also found that the sonication with low density and long duration was more efficient than sonication with high density and short duration at the same energy input for sludge disintegration, and a transmutative power function model can be used to describe the process of ultrasonic disintegration

  20. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration on sludge microbial activity and dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Li; Yiying, Jin; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Zhiyu, Wang; Yongfeng, Nie

    2009-01-30

    Ultrasonic treatment can disintegrate sludge, enhance microbial activity and improve sludge dewaterability at different energy inputs. To find their relationship, the three phenomena during ultrasonic treatment were investigated synchronously, and an experimental model was established to describe the process of ultrasonic sludge disintegration. Analysis results showed that the changes of sludge microbial activity and dewaterability were dependent on sludge disintegration degree during ultrasonic treatment. When sludge disintegration degree was lower than 20%, sludge flocs were disintegrated into micro-floc aggregates and the microbial activity increased over 20%. When sludge disintegration degree was over 40%, most cells were destroyed at different degree, and sludge activity decreased drastically. Only when sludge disintegration degree was 2-5%, sludge dewaterability was improved with the conditioning of FeCl(3). It was also found that the sonication with low density and long duration was more efficient than sonication with high density and short duration at the same energy input for sludge disintegration, and a transmutative power function model can be used to describe the process of ultrasonic disintegration.

  1. Keynote address: Federal overview of municipal sludge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    The proper disposal of sewage sludge is becoming an increasing problem on solid waste management systems throughout the country. Currently 18,000 municipal wastewater treatment plants are generating about 5 million tons of sludge a year. This is expected to double in the next 8 to 10 years. The environmental aspects of sludge disposal are discussed

  2. Properties of bacterial radioresistance observed in sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ito, Hitoshi; Takehisa, Masaaki; Iizuka, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    The changes in radiosensitivities of bacteria in sludge were investigated. The coliforms are more radioresistant in raw sludge than in cake (dewatered sludge). This radioresistance of coliforms was observed not only in raw sludge but also in the cake diluted with water. The radioresistance was independent of the difference of treatment plant, kind of sludge, and season. The oxygen effect on the radioresistance was not observed, but the resistance was changed during storage of sludge. Escherichia coli isolated from sludge was radiosensitive in buffer, but its radiosensitivity was protected by the water-extracts of sludge. On the other hand, radioresistant bacteria were present in total bacteria of sludge irradiated at 2 Mrad. However, the dominant flora in the irradiated sludge consisted of radiosensitive bacteria (mainly Pseudomonas). When a strain of radiosensitive Pseudomonas was irradiated in raw sludge and diluted cake, the radiosensitivity was remarkably protected. From these results, it is suggested that a factor affecting the radiosensitivity of bacteria is present in sludge. (author)

  3. Photovoltaic's silica-rich waste sludge as supplementary cementitious material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quercia, G.; Van der Putten, J.J.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste sludge, a solid recovered from wastewater of photovoltaic-industries, composes of agglomerates of nano-particles like SiO2 and CaCO3. This sludge deflocculates in aqueous solutions into nano-particles smaller than 1000 nm. Thus, this sludge is potentially hazardous waste when is improperly

  4. Processed wastewater sludge for improvement of mechanical properties of concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Diaz, Carlos, E-mail: cbd0044@yahoo.com [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Martinez-Barrera, Gonzalo [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Km.12, San Cayetano C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Gencel, Osman [Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Bartin University, 74100 Bartin (Turkey); Bernal-Martinez, Lina A. [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, km 14.5, Unidad El Rosedal, C.P. 50200, Toluca, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Brostow, Witold [Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized Materials (LAPOM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Advanced Research and Technology (CART), University of North Texas, 1150 Union Circle 305310, Denton, TX 76203-5017 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electrochemical methods produce less amount of residual sludge as compared with chemical procedures. {yields} Wastewater sludge contains a large amount of water. {yields} The residual sludge is used to prepare cylinder specimen concrete. {yields} There are improvements in the elastic modulus of the concrete when is prepared with residual sludge. - Abstract: Two problems are addressed simultaneously. One is the utilisation of sludge from the treatment of wastewater. The other is the modification of the mechanical properties of concrete. The sludge was subjected to two series of treatments. In one series, coagulants were used, including ferrous sulphate, aluminium sulphate or aluminium polyhydroxychloride. In the other series, an electrochemical treatment was applied with several starting values of pH. Then, concretes consisting of a cement matrix, silica sand, marble and one of the sludges were developed. Specimens without sludge were prepared for comparison. Curing times and aggregate concentrations were varied. The compressive strength, compressive strain at yield point, and static and dynamic elastic moduli were determined. Diagrams of the compressive strength and compressive strain at the yield point as a function of time passed through the minima as a function of time for concretes containing sludge; therefore, the presence of sludge has beneficial effects on the long term properties. Some morphological changes caused by the presence of sludge are seen in scanning electron microscopy. A way of utilising sludge is thus provided together with a way to improve the compressive strain at yield point of concrete.

  5. Examination of sludge from the Hanford K Basins fuel canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of sludges with a high uranium content have been retrieved from the fuel canisters in the Hanford K West and K East basins. The composition of these samples contrasts markedly with the previously reported content of sludge samples taken from the K East basin floor. Chemical composition, chemical reactivity, and particle size of sludge are summarized in this paper

  6. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of the UASB reactor depends largely on the settling properties and stability of the sludge bed which comprises the anaerobic active biomass. The solid-liquid separation behaviour of the sludge bed in 2 UASB reactors (R1 at 35oC and R2 at 20oC) fed with primary sewage sludge and sulphate was investigated ...

  7. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to develop a model governing seepage losses in sewage sludge drying bed. The model will assist in the design of sludge drying beds for effective management of wastes derived from households' septic systems. In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture ...

  8. Physical and biochemical changes in sludge upon Tubifex tubifex predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Khadem, A.F.; Foreman, Christine M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Worm predation (WP) on activated sludge leads to increased sludge degradation rates, irrespective of the type of worm used or reactor conditions employed. However, the cause of the increased sludge degradation rates remains unknown. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the physical and

  9. Technology for improving sludge concentration; Odei noshukusei kaizen gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Sludge generating in a sewage treatment plant is disposed through the processes such as concentration, dehydration, and incineration in sludge disposal facilities. In recent years, there has been a trend that this sludge increases in volume as well as worsens in the concentration. A case is predictable where the sludge load to the dehydrating process is so large that the sludge can no longer be processed in sufficient quantity. In the meantime, if sludge is ozone-treated, viscous substance on the surface of sludge particles can be separated with a comparatively small amount of ozone, with sludge concentration enhanced. At Meidensha, an experimental plant was set up for the ozone treatment of sludge in a sludge intensive treatment plant of a metropolis, with a verification experiment carried out for a sludge concentration improving system by ozone. As a result of comparison of the treatment performance between an assessment system for performing ozone treatment and a reference system for not performing, the average value of the sludge concentration of a gravity concentration tank was 1.9% of the reference system against 1.7% of the assessment system in a continuous treatment experiment in the summer, while the solid collection ratio was 65.8% of the reference system against 95.5% of the assessment system, enabling a superior improving effect to be obtained. (NEDO)

  10. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  11. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2010-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous generate electricity. Stable power generation (145±5 mW/m2) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency...... of an effective system to treatment of sewage sludge and simultaneous recover energy....

  12. Rheology of Savannah River Site Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 51 HLW radioactive sludge represents a major portion of the first batch of sludge to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge will determine if the waste sludge can be pumped by the current DWPF process cell pump design and the homogeneity of melter feed slurries. The rheological properties of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer system. Rheological properties of Tank 51 radioactive sludge/Frit 202 slurries increased drastically when the solids content was above 41 wt %. The yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge and sludge/frit slurries fall within the limits of the DWPF equipment design basis. The apparent viscosities also fall within the DWPF design basis for sludge consistency. All the results indicate that Tank 51 waste sludge and sludge/frit slurries are pumpable throughout the DWPF processes based on the current process cell pump design, and should produce homogeneous melter feed slurries

  13. The hydraulic transportation of thickened sludges | Slatter | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industries which pump sludges are under continuous pressure to decrease water content, and increase concentration. Environmentally superior disposal techniques are demanding that such sludges have high mechanical strength properties. This results in a sludge with an increasing viscous character. At high ...

  14. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... sludge instead of imported commercial anaerobic granulated sludge. Over the ... biogas, granulated anaerobic sludge, industrial wastewater. ... production of methane by methanogenic bacteria. Compared with other treatment processes, USAB ... effluent collector; 8, gas outlet; 9, gas collector; 10, side-arm ...

  15. Efficiency of a pilot-scale integrated sludge thickening and digestion reactor in treating low-organic excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Liu, Hongxia; Tang, Chuandong; de Koning, Jaap; Spanjers, Henri

    2012-06-01

    The sludge production from medium- and small-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region is low and non-stable; especially, the organic content in this sludge is low (near 40% of VS/TS). An integrated thickening and digestion (ISTD) reactor was developed to treat this low-organic excess sludge. After a flow test and start-up experiment of the reactor, a running experiment was used to investigate the excess sludge treatment efficiency under five different excess sludge inflows: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 400 L/d (a mixture of excess sludge and primary sludge in a volume ratio of 9:1). This trial was carried out in the wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing, which covers 80% of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, under the following conditions: (1) sludge was heated to 38-40 degrees C using an electrical heater to maintain anaerobic mesophilic digestion; (2) the biogas produced was recirculated to mix raw sludge with anaerobic sludge in the reactor under the flow rate of 12.5 L/min. There were three main results. Firstly, the flow pattern of the inner reactor was almost completely mixed under the air flow of 12.0 L/min using clear water. Secondly, under all the different sludge inflows, the water content in the outlet sludge was below 93%. Thirdly, the organic content in the outlet sludge was decreased from 37% to 30% and from 24% to 20%, whose removal ratio was in relation to the organic content of the inlet sludge. The excess sludge treatment capacity of the ISTD reactor was according to the organic content in the excess sludge.

  16. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  17. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  18. Electron beam treatment of wastewaters and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Various procedures for decreasing the health risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludges are discussed including land storage, thermophilic digestion, autothermal aerobic digestion, the Porteus Process, the Zimpro Process, incineration, pyrolysis, thermal pasteurisation, composting, lime utilisation, flash drying and radiation techniques. A fully automated sludge irradiation facility at Geiselbullach near Munich and an electron accelerator experimental plant near Boston are described. Advantages and disadvantages are given for both processes. Costs of electron radiation treatment of sewage sludges (a slurry containing 5 per cent solids) for a city the size of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of R900 000 per year at a dose rate of 4 000 Gy, which would produce a product of reasonable hygienic quality but not necessarily meet the criteria laid down by local authority medical officers at all times. In order to reduce costs it would be necessary to have a readily available market to dispose of disinfected material

  19. Electron beam treatment of wastewaters and sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, D W [City Health Dept., Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1980-12-01

    Various procedures for decreasing the health risks associated with the disposal of sewage sludges are discussed including land storage, thermophilic digestion, autothermal aerobic digestion, the Porteus Process, the Zimpro Process, incineration, pyrolysis, thermal pasteurisation, composting, lime utilisation, flash drying and radiation techniques. A fully automated sludge irradiation facility at Geiselbullach near Munich and an electron accelerator experimental plant near Boston are described. Advantages and disadvantages are given for both processes. Costs of electron radiation treatment of sewage sludges (a slurry containing 5 per cent solids) for a city the size of Johannesburg is estimated to be in the order of R900,000 per year at a dose rate of 4,000 Gy, which would produce a product of reasonable hygienic quality but not necessarily meet the criteria laid down by local authority medical officers at all times. In order to reduce costs it would be necessary to have a readily available market to dispose of disinfected material.

  20. Utilization of irradiated sludge for fish feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Syamsu, Suwirma; Subagyo, Lydia Andini

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the use of irradiated sludge pellet for fish feed, namely pellet A consisting of irradiated sludge and shrimp waste (1:3); pellet B consisting of irradiated sludge and commercial pellet (1:2). Pellet C, which is a commercial fish feed, was used as control. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was used in this experiment. The feed pellet with a dose of 5% of total body weight was given 3 times per day. The results of the experiments showed that based on food conversion for the relative growth of the catfishes, and heavy metal content, pellet A was the best. No contamination of Salmonella or Shigella bacteria was detected in each pellet. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs, 1 fig

  1. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  2. Sanitizing effects of sewage sludge irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu

    2005-01-01

    A large quantity of pathogenic organisms were found in sewage sludge. An investigation was carried out on the relationship in the chain of sludge-soil-vegetable between the survival of pathogenic organisms and the irradiation dosage. After irradiation with 5-6 kGy, coliform group reduced 3 log cycles, and ascarid ova were completely eliminated with a dose of 1 kGy, making the water matched the standard quality of irrigating water. In the soil applied with irradiated sewage sludge, the total bacteria and coliforms group count reduced to one tenth, and alive ascarid ova was not detected. The coliform group on the Chinese cabbage was extremely low and reached the standard of fresh eating. (authors)

  3. Tank 5 Model for Sludge Removal Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEE, SI

    2004-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics methods have been used to develop and provide slurry pump operational guidance for sludge heel removal in Tank 5. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operating pumps and their orientation under steady-state indexed and transient oscillation modes. A model used for previous analyses has been updated to add the valve housing distribution piping and pipe clusters of the cooling coil supply system near pump no. 8 to the previous tank Type-I model. In addition, the updated model included twelve concrete support columns. This model would provide a more accurate assessment of sludge removal capabilities. The model focused on removal of the sludge heel located near the wall of Tank 5 using the two new slurry pumps. The models and calculations were based on prototypic tank geometry and expected normal operating conditions as defined by Tank Closure Project Engineering. Computational fluid dynamics models of Tank 5 with different operating conditions were developed using the FLUENT (trademark) code. The modeling results were used to assess the efficiency of sludge suspension and removal operations in the 75-ft tank. The models employed a three-dimensional approach, a two-equation turbulence model, and an approximate representation of flow obstructions. The calculated local velocity was used as a measure of sludge removal and mixing capability. For the simulations, modeling calculations were performed with indexed pump orientations until an optimum flow pattern near the potential location of the sludge heel was established for sludge removal. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 3801 gpm flowrate per nozzle could remove the sludge from the tank with a 101 in liquid level, based on a historical minimum sludge suspension velocity of 2.27 ft/sec. The only exception is the region within maximum 4.5 ft distance from the tank wall boundary at the

  4. Development of a test method to access the sludge reduction potential of aquatic organisms in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, B.R.; Klapwijk, A.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the development of a quantitative sludge reduction test method, which uses the sludge consuming aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae). Essential for the test are sufficient oxygen supply and the presence of a non-stirred layer of sludge for burrowing of

  5. The chemical and mechanical differences between alginate-like exopolysaccharides isolated from aerobic flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Sharma, P. K.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in the gel matrix of aerobic granular sludge and normal aerobic flocculent sludge. From both types of sludge that fed with the same municipal sewage, the functional gel-forming exopolysaccharides, alginate-like exopolysaccharides, were isolated. These two

  6. Design characteristics of the Sludge Mobilization System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project is being processed into low-level waste and solidified in cement. High-level waste also stored underground will be vitrified and solidified into canistered glass logs. To move the waste from where it resides at the Waste Tank Farm to the Vitrification Facility requires equipment to prepare the storage tanks for low-level and high-level waste processing, equipment to mobilize and mix the radioactive sludge into a homogeneous slurry, and equipment to transfer the slurry for vitrification. The design of the Sludge Mobilization System has incorporated the necessary components to effect the preparation and transfer of waste in five operational phases. The first phase of the Sludge Mobilization System, which began in 1987, prepared the waste tanks to process radioactive liquid for delivery to the Cement Solidification System and to support the mobilization equipment. The second phase, beginning in 1991, will wash the sludge that remains after the liquid supernatant is decanted to prepare it for mobilization operations. The third phase will combine the contents of various waste tanks into one tank. The fourth phase will resuspend and mix the contents of the high-level waste tank. The fifth and final phase of the Sludge Mobilization System will entail transferring the waste mixture to the Vitrification Facility for processing into glass logs. Provisions for recycling the waste streams or slurries within the tank farm or for returning process streams to the Waste Tank Farm from the Vitrification Facility are also included in the final phase. This document addresses the Sludge Mobilization System equipment design characteristics in terms of its use in each of the five operational phases listed above

  7. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of excess activated sludge suspensions was carried at temperatures ranging from 423 K to 523 K and under pressure 0.2-4.0 MPa. Changes of total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in a solid and liquid phase were measured during these studies. At the temperature 423 K, after 2 h of the process, TOC concentration in the reaction mixture decreased by 15-18% of the initial value. At 473 K total organic carbon removal from activated sludge suspension increased to 30%. It was also found that the solubilisation of particulate organic matter strongly depended on the process temperature. At 423 K the transfer of TOC from solid particles into liquid phase after 1 h of the process reached 25% of the initial value, however, at the temperature of 523 K the conversion degree of 'solid' TOC attained 50% just after 15 min of the process. In the article a lumped kinetic model of the process of activated sludge thermohydrolysis has been proposed. It was assumed that during heating of the activated sludge suspension to a temperature in the range of 423-523 K two parallel reactions occurred. One, connected with thermal destruction of activated sludge particles, caused solubilisation of organic carbon and an increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase (hydrolysate). The parallel reaction led to a new kind of unsolvable solid phase, which was further decomposed into gaseous products (CO(2)). The collected experimental data were used to identify unknown parameters of the model, i.e. activation energies and pre-exponential factors of elementary reactions. The mathematical model of activated sludge thermohydrolysis appropriately describes the kinetics of reactions occurring in the studied system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  9. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  10. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  11. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  12. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  13. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawieja Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4, it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  14. Energy potential of the modified excess sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieja, Iwona

    2017-11-01

    On the basis of the SCOD value of excess sludge it is possible to estimate an amount of energy potentially obtained during the methane fermentation process. Based on a literature review, it has been estimated that from 1 kg of SCOD it is possible to obtain 3.48 kWh of energy. Taking into account the above methane and energy ratio (i.e. 10 kWh/1Nm3 CH4), it is possible to determine the volume of methane obtained from the tested sludge. Determination of potential energy of sludge is necessary for the use of biogas as a source of power generators as cogeneration and ensure the stability of this type of system. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the energy potential of excess sludge subjected to the thermal and chemical disintegration. In the case of thermal disintegration, test was conducted in the low temperature 80°C. The reagent used for the chemical modification was a peracetic acid, which in an aqueous medium having strong oxidizing properties. The time of chemical modification was 6 hours. Applied dose of the reagent was 1.0 ml CH3COOOH/L of sludge. By subjecting the sludge disintegration by the test methods achieved an increase in the SCOD value of modified sludge, indicating the improvement of biodegradability along with a concomitant increase in their energy potential. The obtained experimental production of biogas from disintegrated sludge confirmed that it is possible to estimate potential intensity of its production. The SCOD value of 2576 mg O2/L, in the case of chemical disintegration, was obtained for a dose of 1.0 ml CH3COOH/L. For this dose the pH value was equal 6.85. In the case of thermal disintegration maximum SCOD value was 2246 mg O2/L obtained at 80°C and the time of preparation 6 h. It was estimated that in case of thermal disintegration as well as for the chemical disintegration for selected parameters, the potential energy for model digester of active volume of 5L was, respectively, 0.193 and 0,118 kWh.

  15. Overview of present and future sludge regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonetti, R.

    1980-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is mandated by several acts of Congress to develop sludge management regulations. These include the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, Clean Water Act, Marine Resources and Sanctuaries Act, Clean Air Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act. Congress had two main goals: the protection of the public health and the promotion of the use of sludge as a natural resource. This presentation will review the development of present and anticipated regulation as they seek to support achievement of these goals

  16. Potential priority pollutants in sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Christensen, Nina; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    compounds using their inherent properties and environmental fate it was shown that 99 XOCs could be classified as being hazardous with regard to the solid phase and 23 were found to be priority pollutants in the subsequent hazard assessment. The final selected priority pollutants can act as indicators when...... assessing sludge quality. They were compared with European legislations and discussed in regard for pointing out the need for mitigation such as substitution. Furthermore, the potential need for implementation of sludge treatment trains in order to meet the society's needs was addressed....

  17. PENERAPAN ELEKTROOSMOSIS UNTUK PENGERINGAN SLUDGE DARI PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Darmawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APPLICATION OF ELECTROOSMOSIS FOR DEWATERING OF SLUDGE FROM WASTE WATER TREATMENT. Wastewater treatment produces semi-solid residue (sludge that must be handled carefully during dumping and discharge to avoid polluting the environment. A low cost and easy treatment of dewatering is needed. This research aimed to apply electroosmosis technique for dewatering sludge in order to seek for parameters that can efficiently reduce water content of sludge, including range of voltage, type of electrodes, and distance between electrodes; and to determine the effect of electroosmosis processes on changes of chemical characteristics of sludge. The results showed that: (1 electroosmosis dewatering occurred on the sludge taken from waste water treatment of landfill but not on sludge from water purification plant (PDAM, (2 direct current voltage of 30 volts was the optimum voltage, (3 copper rod cathode provided electroosmosis process as good as stainless steel cathode and both were better than the woven stainless steel cathode, (4 the dewatering time to reduce 1200% (w/w water content to about 400% was about 40 hours for sludge of 2500 cm3 in volume (laboratory bench scale, (5 the anode need to reinserted gradually approaching the cathode due to current lost when the water content at the anode point reached 400% and sludge at the point shrink, and (6 some chemical elements in the sludge decreased significantly after treatment. Pengolahan limbah cair menghasilkan residu berupa bahan semi padat yang dikenal sebagai sludge. Sludge tersebut juga perlu dikelola penyimpanan dan pembuangannya agar tidak mencemari lingkungan. Salah satu pengelolaan sludge yang perlu dilakukan adalah pengeringan (dewatering. Salahsatu teknik dewatering yang mungkin diterapkan ialah teknik elektroosmosis, yaitu teknik yang memanfaatkan adanya pergerakan air pada media poros di dalam medan istrik searah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari parameter sistem dewatering secara

  18. Irradiation treatment of sewage sludge: History and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang

    1998-01-01

    This paper first reviews the history of irradiation treatment of sewage sludge in the world. The first sludge irradiation plant was built in Geiselbullach, West Germany in 1973 and used 60 Co as irradiation source. Since then, many sludge irradiators were constructed in U.S.A., India, Japan, Canada, Poland, etc., which used 60 Co, 137 Cs or electron beam as irradiation sources. The paper then describes some basic research on irradiation treatment of sewage sludge including optimization of irradiation parameters, synergistic effect of radiation with heat, oxygenation, irradiation-composting and potential applications of treated sludge. Some proposals have been suggested for further development of this technology in the future

  19. Revegetation of mined land using waste water sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopper, W E; Kerr, N

    1980-01-01

    The benefits of using sludge to reclaim land that has been used for strip mining is explained. Pennsylvania State University developed demonstration plots and used various types of sludges to illustrate this. One application of sludge is sufficient to supply plant nutrients for 3-5 years. After sludge application and incorporation, the site was broadcast seeded with grasses and legumes. Other trials and their results are noted. All show no detrimental effects on vegetation, the soil or groundwater quality due to sludge application.

  20. Co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A co-ordinated research programme on the use of nuclear and nuclear-related techniques in the study of environmental pollution associated with solid wastes was started by the Agency in December 1987 and now comprises nineteen participants from seventeen countries. Topics of interest in this programme include studies of atmospheric aerosols, coal fly ash, incinerator ash, sewage sludge and a variety of other environmental specimens contaminated with solid wastes. The analytical techniques being used in this programme include neutron activation analysis (NAA), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF). This report summarizes the discussions that took place during the first research co-ordination meeting. Working papers presented by the participants are included as annexes. The main outcome of the meeting was agreement to include a ''core'' programme comprising studies of (1) aerosols collected from areas of low and high pollution, (2) coal fly ash composition, and (3) leaching of toxic elements from coal fly ash

  1. On the influence of sewage sludge irradiation by gamma radiation on the sludge properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegemann, W.

    1976-01-01

    The gamma irradiation is a technically usable method to disinfect sewage sludge. Furthermore, the slurry properties are also improved. After 24 hours' thickening time, a significantly smaller volume of concentrated thick slurry could be removed compared to untreated sludge. On the other hand, a dilution occurs with pasteurization if the heat is introduced by steam, and the initial concentration could not be achieved again even after thickening for 24 hours. The drainability of the treated sludge was also improved by irradiation, expressed by a reduction of the specific filter resistance. The costs are essentially determined by the radiation sources used. If it is technically possible to process reactor wastes in such a manner that they can be used in slurry radiation plants, costs of 3.50-4.00 DM/m 3 treated sludge seem possible. (orig.) [de

  2. Settling properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Saad, Azlina; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Ibrahim, Naimah; Yasina Yusuf, Sara; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Aerobic granulation technology is applied to treat domestic and industrial wastewater. The Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) cultivated has strong properties that appears to be denser and compact in physiological structure compared to the conventional activated sludge. It offers rapid settling for solid:liquid separation in wastewater treatment. Aerobic granules were developed using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aerobic - anaerobic mode with 8 cycles in 24 hr. This study examined the settling velocity performance of cultivated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM). The elemental composition in both AGS and AGSM were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that AGSM has higher settling velocity 30.5 m/h compared to AGS.

  3. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  4. Placement of radium/barium sludges in tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.L.; Multamaki, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Currently radium is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate the radium as radium/barium sulphate. The precipitate is allowed to settle in sedimentation basins prior to discharge of the effluent. The sedimentation basins are not suitable for final disposal of the sludge, and placement of the sludges in the tailings area has been proposed. The geochemical environment of fresh tailings areas was characterized as an acidic, oxidized surface zone underlain by an alkaline, reduced zone comprising the rest of the tailings. The quantity of sludge produced was estimated to be small relative to the quantity of tailings, and therefor a relatively small amount of radium would be added to the tailings disposal area by the addition of sludge. To confirm whether sludge addition affected radionuclide solubilization, laboratory leaching tests were conducted on slurries of acid leach tailings, and sludge-tailings mixtures. Radium in the (Ra,Ba)SO 4 sludge was at least as stable as radium in the tailings, and the sludge was able to absorb radium released from the tailings. The addition of sludge did not affect uranium and thorium solubilization. From these results it appears that the placement of sludge in tailings areas would not adversely affect the stability of radionuclides in the tailings or sludge. (auth)

  5. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  6. Biohydrogen production using waste activated sludge disintegrated by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • Combined alkali-irradiation treatment achieved the highest solubilization of sludge. - Abstract: The biohydrogen production using the disintegrated and dissolved sludge by gamma irradiation was studied. The experimental results showed that gamma irradiation and irradiation combined with alkali pretreatment could disintegrate and dissolve waste activated sludge for biohydrogen production. The alkali-irradiation treatment of the sludge at pH = 12 and 20 kGy achieved the highest disintegration and dissolution, i.e., it could destroy the cell walls and release organic matters (such as soluble COD, polysaccharides and protein) into the solution. The disintegrated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for biohydrogen production

  7. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian

    and operation of reed beds and the efficiencies are often lower than predicted. One reason is that the sludge quality varies from plant to plant and even within plants from time to time. No good method exists for measuring the sludge quality with respect to drainage characteristics. A new experimental method...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows......Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...

  8. Recent developments in Sandia Laboratories' sewage sludge irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, H.D.; Brandon, J.R.; Morris, M.E.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Ward, R.L.; McCaslin, B.; Smith, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Pathogen reduction studies show that gamma irradiation is effective in inactivating pathogenic bacteria, parasite ova, and viruses in liquid sludges. Ammonia is shown to be virucidal to poliovirus and several other enteric viruses. Sludge processing costs are relatively economical for composted or dried sludges, but only marginally competitive with costs of heat treatment for liquid sludges. Physical and chemical studies show that effects of irradiation of sludges on dewatering properties are insignificant when compared to the effects of polymer addition. Dried, irradiated undigested sludge has significant nutritional value as a feed supplement for sheep and cattle and in agronomic uses such as greenhouses and field plots. No significant harmful effects have been demonstrated in the feeding program. Product enhancement studies are under way, including schemes for removing nitrogen from wastewaters and adding it to sludges in the form of ammonium salts

  9. The exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Šálek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of little rural wastewater treatment plants have been interested in economic exploitation of sewage sludge in local conditions. The chance is searching simply and natural ways of processing and exploitation stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture. Manure substrate have been obtained by composting waterless sewage sludge including rest plant biomass after closing 6–8 years period of filling liquid sewage sludge to the basin. Main attention was focused on exploitation of swamp plants for dewatering liquid sewage sludge and determination of influence sewage sludge on plants, intensity and course of evapotranspiration and design and setting of drying beds. On the base of determined ability of swamp plants evapotranspiration were edited suggestion solutions of design and operation sludge bed facilities in the conditions of small rural wastewater treatment plant.

  10. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  11. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  12. PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Misuri, Lorenza; Lanciotti, Eudes; Sweetman, Andy; Laschi, Serena; Palchetti, Ilaria

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sewage sludge samples collected from eight Italian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) between June 2009 and March 2010. Total PBDE concentrations ranged from 158.3 to 9427 ng g −1 dw, while deca-BDE (BDE-209) (concentrations ranging from 130.6 to 9411 ng g −1 dw) dominated the congener profile in all the samples, contributing between 77% and 99.8% of total PBDE. The suitability of using a magnetic particle enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was also tested. The ELISA results, expressed as BDE-47 equivalents, were well correlated with those obtained by GC–NCI–MS, with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) of 0.899 and 0.959, depending on the extraction procedure adopted. The risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge addressed to land application was calculated. PEC soil values compared to the relative PNEC soil for penta and deca-BDE suggests that there is a low risk to the soil environment. - Highlights: ► PBDEs in sewage sludge were determined in eight Italian WWTPs for the first time. ► PBDEs concentrations showed differences between the eight investigated WWTPs. ► Deca-BDE (BDE-209) was the dominant congener in all samples. ► The suitability of using ELISA method to analyse PBDEs in sewage sludge was tested. ► The risk assessment of using sewage sludge for land application was evaluated. - Determination of PBDEs in sewage sludge by GC–NCI–MS and ELISA test and risk assessment when sewage sludge is used for land application.

  13. Enhancement of sludge reduction and methane production by removing extracellular polymeric substances from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Mohd Yasin, Nazlina Haiza; Miyazaki, Toshiki; Maeda, Toshinari

    2014-12-01

    The management of waste activated sludge (WAS) recycling is a concern that affects the development of the future low-carbon society, particularly sludge reduction and biomass utilization. In this study, we investigated the effect of removing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which play important roles in the adhesion and flocculation of WAS, on increased sludge disintegration, thereby enhancing sludge reduction and methane production by anaerobic digestion. EPS removal from WAS by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) significantly enhanced sludge reduction, i.e., 49 ± 5% compared with 27 ± 1% of the control at the end the digestion process. Methane production was also improved in WAS without EPS by 8881 ± 109 CH4 μmol g(-1) dry-weight of sludge. Microbial activity was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time polymerase chain reaction, which showed that the hydrolysis and acetogenesis stages were enhanced by pretreatment with 2% EDTA, with a larger methanogenic community and better methane production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial composition of activated sludge - importance for floc and sludge properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Thomsen, Trine R.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2003-07-01

    Activated sludge flocs consist of numerous constituents which, together with other factors, are responsible for floc structure and floc properties. These properties largely determine the sludge properties such as flocculation, settling and dewaterability. In this paper we briefly review the present knowledge about the role of bacteria in relation to floc and sludge properties, and we present a new approach to investigate the identity and function of the bacteria in the activated sludge flocs. The approach includes identification of the important bacteria and a characterization of their physiological and functional properties. It is carried out by use of culture-independent molecular biological methods linked with other methods to study the physiology and function maintaining a single cell resolution. Using this approach it was found that floc-forming properties differed among the various bacterial groups, e.g. that different microcolony-forming bacteria had very different sensitivities to shear and that some of them deflocculated under anaerobic conditions. in our opinion, the approach to combine identity with functional analysis of the dominant bacteria in activated sludge by in situ methods is a very promising way to investigate correlations between presence of specific bacteria, and floc and sludge properties that are of interest. (author)

  15. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  16. Improvement of sludge dewaterability and removal of sludge-borne metals by bioleaching at optimum pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenwu; Zhou, Lixiang; Zhou, Jun; Song, Xingwei; Wang, Dianzhan

    2012-06-30

    Bio-acidification caused by bio-oxidation of energy substances during bioleaching is widely known to play an important role in improving sludge-borne metals removal. Here we report that bioleaching also drastically enhances sludge dewaterability in a suitable pH level. To obtain the optimum initial concentrations of energy substances and pH values for sludge dewaterability during bioleaching, bio-oxidation of Fe(2+) and S(0) under co-inoculation with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 and their effects on sludge dewaterability and metals removal during sludge bioleaching were investigated. Results indicated that the dosage of energy substances with 2g/L S(0) and 2g/L Fe(2+) could obtain bio-oxidation efficiencies of up to 100% for Fe(2+) and 50% for S(0) and were the optimal dosages for sludge bioleaching. The removal efficiencies of sludge-borne Cu and Cr could reach above 85% and 40%, respectively, and capillary suction time (CST) of bioleached sludge decreased to as low as ∼10s from initial 48.9s for fresh sludge when sludge pH declined to ∼2.4 through bioleaching. These results confirm the potential of bioleaching as a novel method for improving sludge dewaterability as well as removal of metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Attenuation of pyrite oxidation with a fly ash pre-barrier: Reactive transport modelling of column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, R.; Cama, J.; Nieto, J.M.; Ayora, C.; Saaltink, M.W. [University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Dept. of Geology

    2009-09-15

    Conventional permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for passive treatment of groundwater contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) use limestone as reactive material that neutralizes water acidity. However, the limestone-alkalinity potential ceases as inevitable precipitation of secondary metal-phases on grain surfaces occurs, limiting its efficiency. In the present study, fly ash derived from coal combustion is investigated as an alternative alkalinity generating material for the passive treatment of AMD using solution-saturated column experiments. Unlike conventional systems, the utilization of fly ash in a pre-barrier to intercept the non-polluted recharge water before this water reacts with pyrite-rich wastes is proposed. Chemical variation in the columns was interpreted with the reactive transport code RETRASO. In parallel, kinetics of fly ash dissolution at alkaline pH were studied using flow-through experiments and incorporated into the model. In a saturated column filled solely with pyritic sludge-quartz sand (1: 10), oxidation took place at acidic conditions (pH 3.7). According to SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} release and pH, pyrite dissolution occurred favourably in the solution-saturated porous medium until dissolved O{sub 2} was totally consumed. In a second saturated column, pyrite oxidation took place at alkaline conditions (pH 10.45) as acidity was neutralized by fly ash dissolution in a previous level. At this pH Fe release from pyrite dissolution was immediately depleted as Fe-oxy(hydroxide) phases that precipitated on the pyrite grains, forming Fe-coatings (microencapsulation). With time, pyrite microencapsulation inhibited oxidation in practically 97% of the pyritic sludge. Rapid pyrite-surface passivation decreased its reactivity, preventing AMD production in the relatively short term.

  18. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by

  19. Operator assisted optimization of sludge dewatering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik

    1991-01-01

    by the operator. By graphical presentation and an advisory service these data are used to support the operator in his dewatering operations and to secure a running optimization of the sludge dewatering. Evaluations show that this system is a useful tool for data collection and presentation and that the data...

  20. Predicting the degradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard; Parker, Wayne; Zhu, Henry; Houweling, Dwight; Murthy, Sudhir

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify methods for estimating anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS streams were generated in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater and WAS properties were initially determined through simulation of SBR operation with BioWin (EnviroSim Associates Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada). Samples of WAS from the SBRs were subsequently characterized through respirometry and batch anaerobic digestion. Respirometry was an effective tool for characterizing the active fraction of WAS and could be a suitable technique for determining sludge composition for input to anaerobic models. Anaerobic digestion of the WAS revealed decreasing methane production and lower chemical oxygen demand removals as the SRT of the sludge increased. BioWin was capable of accurately describing the digestion of the WAS samples for typical digester SRTs. For extended digestion times (i.e., greater than 30 days), some degradation of the endogenous decay products was assumed to achieve accurate simulations for all sludge SRTs.

  1. Oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Baochen; Cui Fuyi; Jing Guolin; Xu Shengli; Huo Weijing; Liu Shuzhi

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation of oily sludge in supercritical water is performed in a batch reactor at reaction temperatures between 663 and 723 K, the reaction times between 1 and 10 min and pressure between 23 and 27 MPa. Effect of reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, pressure, O 2 excess and initial COD on oxidation of oily sludge is investigated. The results indicate that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate of 92% can be reached in 10 min. COD removal rate increases as the reaction time, temperature and initial COD increase. Pressure and O 2 excess have no remarkable affect on reaction. By taking into account the dependence of reaction rate on COD concentration, a global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data. The resulting pre-exponential factor was 8.99 x 10 14 (mol L -1 ) -0.405 s -1 ; the activation energy was 213.13 ± 1.33 kJ/mol; and the reaction order for oily sludge (based on COD) is 1.405. It was concluded that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging oily sludge processing technology.

  2. Biological treatment of sludge digester liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loosdrecht, M C M; Salem, S

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen removal in side stream processes offers a good potential for upgrading wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that need to meet stricter effluent standards. Removing nutrients from these internal process flows significantly reduces the N-load to the main treatment plant. These internal flows mainly result from the sludge processing and have a high temperature and a high concentration of ammonia. Therefore, the required reactor volumes as well as the required aerobic SRT are small. Generally, biological treatment processes are more economical and preferred over physical-chemical processes. Recently, several biological treatment processes have been introduced for sludge water treatment. These processes are available now on the activated sludge market (e.g. SHARON, ANAMMOX and BABE processes). The technologies differ in concept and in the limitations guiding the application of these processes for upgrading WWTPs. This paper reviews and compares different biological alternatives for nitrogen removal in side streams. The limitations for selecting a technology from the available ones in the activated sludge market are noted and analysed. It is stressed that the choice for a certain process is based on more aspects than pure process engineering arguments.

  3. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...

  4. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-03-01

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 55/sup 0/C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities.

  5. Sumi-sludge system; Sumisurajji system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    The subject facilities, delivered to Kakegawa City, Shizuoka Prefecture, in December, 1999, are the first machine by the heavy load denitrification processing system adaptive to purifying tank sludge 'Sumi-sludge system'. It enhanced the capacity of 84 kl/day by about 30% to 109 kl/day through the remodeling of the existing facilities. Its major specifications are capacity: 109 kl/day (human wastes 18 kl/day, purifying tank sludge 91 kl/day) and final effluent quality: pH 5.8-8.6, BOD 10 mg/l or less, COD 20 mg/l or less, SS 10 mg/l or less, T-N 10 mg/l or less, T-P 1 mg/l or less, chromaticity 30 degrees or less, coliform group quantity 3,000 pieces/ml or less. It has the following features. (1) Bio-treatment load is reduced by dehydrating human wastes and purifying tank sludge in the prestage of the bio-treatment. (2) Bio-treatment and flocculation separating treatment are integrated. (3) A high-speed flocculation sedimentation tank 'Sumi-thickner' is employed in the solid-liquid separator, enabling stable solid-liquid separation. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  7. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-03-01

    The potential for the transmission of parasites, such as Entamoeba sp., schistosomes, and nematodes such as Ascaris sp., to man through the use of sewage sludges as fertilizer is reviewed. The eggs of Ascaris have been found to be the most resistant of these parasites to normal sludge treatment methods. Results of studies on the effectiveness of heat and ionizing radiation treatments reported show that a treatment of 55 0 C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron beam was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities

  8. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  9. Respirometry techniques and activated sludge models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, O.; Spanjers, H.; Holba, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to explain results of respirometry experiments using Activated Sludge Model No. 1. In cases of insufficient fit of ASM No. 1, further modifications to the model were carried out and the so-called "Enzymatic model" was developed. The best-fit method was used to determine the effect of

  10. Disinfection of sewage sludge with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the Geiselbullach sewage treatment plant near Munich, sewage irradiation by a 60 Co source is being investigated on a technical scale. 145 m 3 of sewage sludge are irradiated per day and then used as field fertilizer. (orig./HBR) [de

  11. Sludge irradiation disinfection for beneficial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Papers given at the symposium are included in this volume. The symposium was organized to facilitate the transfer of information on the use of sludge irradiation as a process to further reduce pathogens. State-of-the-art gamma radiation of dried sewage solids is reviewed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Hydrogen production from paper sludge hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kádár, Z.; Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Szengyel, Z.; Reczey, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of 'renewable' hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga

  13. Synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukuru, Godefroid; Jian, Yang

    2005-01-01

    A study on a pilot plant accomplishing synchronous municipal sewerage-sludge stabilization was conducted at a municipal sewerage treatment plant. Stabilization of sewerage and sludge is achieved in three-step process: anaerobic reactor, roughing filter and a microbial-earthworm-ecofilter. The integrated ecofilter utilizes an artificial ecosystem to degrade and stabilize the sewerage and sludge. When the hydraulic retention time(HRT) of the anaerobic reactor is 6 h, the hydraulic load(HL) of the bio-filter is 16 m3/(m2 x d), the HL of the eco-filter is 5 m3/(m2 x d), the recycle ratio of nitrified liquor is 1.5, the removal efficiency is 83%-89% for COD(Cr), 94%-96% for BOD5, 96%-98% for SS, and 76%-95% for NH3-N. The whole system realizes the zero emission of sludge, and has the characteristics of saving energy consumption and operational costs.

  14. Survey of radiation effect on sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'selmi, Nadia Ammar

    2005-01-01

    The high nutrient and organic matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amandment for famers. the presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for utilisation of sladge to agriculture land. Radiation is a convenable method of sewage treatment. (author)

  15. Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2000-01-01

    About four or five distinct reprocessing technologies were used at various times in Hanford's history. After removing U and Pu (or later 137Cs and 90Sr), the strongly acidic HLW was ''neutralized'' to high pH (>13) and stored in steel-lined tanks. High pH was necessary to prevent tank corrosion. While each technology produced chemically distinct waste, all wastes were similar in that they were high pH, concentrated, aqueous solutions. Dominant dissolved metals were Fe and/or Al, usually followed by Ni, Mn, or Cr. In an effort to reduce waste volume, many of the wastes were placed in evaporators or allowed to ''self-boil'' from the heat produced by their own radioactive decay. Consequently, today's HLW has been aging at temperatures ranging from 20 to 160 C. Previous studies of synthetic HLW sludge analogues have varied in their exact synthesis procedures and recipes, although each involved ''neutralization'' of acidic nitrate salt solutions by concentrated NaOH. Some recipes included small amounts of Si, SO4 2-, CO3 2-, and other minor chemical components in the Hanford sludges. The work being conducted at the University of Colorado differs from previous studies and from parallel current investigations at Sandia National Laboratories in the simplicity of the synthetic sludge we are investigating. We are emphasizing the dominant role of Fe and Al, and secondarily, the effects of Ni and Si on the aging kinetics of the solid phases in the sludge

  16. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  17. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  18. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  19. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  20. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  1. Hydrogen Evolution and Sludge Suspension During the Preparation of the First Batch of Sludge at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.; Lee, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The first batch of High Level Radioactive Sludge for the Defense Waste Processing Facility is being prepared in two 4.9 million liter waste tanks. The preparation involves removing water soluble salts by washing (water addition, sludge suspension, settling and decantation). Sludge suspension is accomplished using long shafted slurry pumps that are mounted on rotating turntables. During the sludge suspension runs in 1993 and 1994, the slurry pumps' cleaning radius was determined to be less than that expected from previous determinations using synthetic sludge in a full size waste tank mockup. Hydrogen concentrations in the tanks' vapor space were monitored during the sludge suspension activities. As expected, the initial agitation of the sludge increased the hydrogen concentration, however, with the controls in place the hydrogen concentration was maintained below seven percent of the lower flammability limit

  2. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  3. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that the...

  4. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  5. Environmentally compatible sewage sludge disposal; Umweltgerechte Klaerschlammentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik; Schwedes, J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

    1997-09-01

    Cleaning of municipal and industrial waste water is done by means of biological processes: micro-organisms degrade pollutants. The resulting products are, besides cleaned waste water, sewage sludge and surplus sludge. Their disposal involves ecological and economic problems. One approach to their partial disposal is their degradation in a digester. Approximately one half of the organic substance is converted by anaerobic bacteria into energy-rich biogas. Optimization of this digestion process accelerates the anaerobic degradation process, increases the accruing amount of digester gas and reduces the volume of digested sludge to be disposed of. With these objectives, the Institute fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik is conducting research into the mechanical treatment of micro-organisms remaining in surplus sludge by means of different treatment devices. The project is sponsored under the programme of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG ``Biological processes with dispersive solids``. Mechanical treatment renders the cell constituents exploitable to anaerobic bacteria; the resulting sludge degradation is more rapid and more complete. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Zur Reinigung haeuslicher und industrieller Abwaesser werden biologische Prozesse eingesetzt. Dabei sorgen Mikroorganismen fuer den Abbau der Verunreinigungen. Neben dem gereinigten Abwasser fallen Primaer- und Ueberschussschlamm an, deren Entsorgung oekologische und oekonomische Probleme verursacht. Ein Weg zur partiellen Beseitigung dieser Klaerschlaemme ist ihr Abbau in einem Faulbehaelter. Dabei wird etwa die Haelfe der organischen Substanz durch anaerobe Bakterien zu einem energiereichen Biogas umgewandelt. Eine Optimierung dieses Faulprozesses beinhaltet: 1. Beschleunigung des anaeroben Abbauprozesses, 2. Erhoehung der anfallenden Faulgasmenge und 3. Reduzierung der zu entsorgenden Faulschlammenge. Mit diesen Zielsetzungen wird am Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik im Rahmen der DFG

  6. Counter current decantation washing of HLW sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 51 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks with typical dimensions 25.9 meters (85 feet) diameter and 10 meters (33 feet) high. Nearly 114 million liters (30 M gallons) of HLW waste is stored in these tanks in the form of insoluble solids called sludge, crystallized salt called salt cake, and salt solutions. This waste is being converted to waste forms stable for long term storage. In one of the processes, soluble salts are washed from HLW sludge in preparation for vitrification. At present, sludge is batch washed in a waste tank with one or no reuse of the wash water. Sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrite are added to the wash water for tank corrosion protection; the large volumes of spent wash water are recycled to the evaporator system; additional salt cake is produced; and sodium carbonate is formed in the washed sludge during storage by reaction with CO 2 from the air. High costs and operational concerns with the current washing process prompts DOE and WSRC to seek an improved washing method. A new method should take full advantage of the physical/chemical properties of sludge, experience from other technical disciplines, processing rate requirements, inherent process safety, and use of proven processes and equipment. Counter current solids washing is a common process in the minerals processing and chemical industries. Washing circuits can be designed using thickeners, filters or centrifuges. Realizing the special needs of nuclear work and the low processing rates required, a Counter Current Decantation (CCD) circuit is proposed using small thickeners and fluidic pumps

  7. Combustion characteristics of biodried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zongdi; Yang, Benqin; Jahng, Deokjin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, effects of biodrying on the characteristics of sewage sludge and the subsequent combustion behavior were investigated. 7-Day of biodrying removed 49.78% of water and 23.17% of VS initially contained in the sewage sludge and increased lower heating value (LHV) by 37.87%. Meanwhile, mass contents of C and N decreased from 36.25% and 6.12% to 32.06% and 4.82%, respectively. Surface of the biodried sewage sludge (BDSS) appeared granulated and multi-porous, which was thought to facilitate air transfer during combustion. According to thermogravimetric (TG) analysis coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) with a heating rate of 10 °C/min from 35 °C to 1000 °C, thermally-dried sewage sludge (TDSS) and BDSS lost 74.39% and 67.04% of the initial mass, respectively. In addition, combustibility index (S) of BDSS (8.67 × 10 -8  min -2  K -3 ) was higher than TDSS. TG-MS analyses also showed that less nitrogenous gases were generated from BDSS than TDSS. It was again showed that the average CO and NO concentrations in exit gas from isothermal combustion of BDSS were lower than those from TDSS, especially at low temperatures (≤800 °C). Based on these results, it was concluded that biodrying of sewage sludge was an energy-efficient water-removal method with less emission of air pollutants when BDSS was combusted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO 3 solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO 3 solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s

  9. Enhancing the use of waste activated sludge as bio-fuel through selectively reducing its heavy metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Appels, Lise

    2007-06-18

    Power plant or cement kiln co-incineration are important disposal routes for the large amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS) which are generated annually. The presence of significant amounts of heavy metals in the sludge however poses serious problems since they are partly emitted with the flue gases (and collected in the flue gas dedusting) and partly incorporated in the ashes of the incinerator: in both cases, the disposal or reuse of the fly ash and bottom ashes can be jeopardized since subsequent leaching in landfill disposal can occur, or their "pozzolanic" incorporation in cement cannot be applied. The present paper studies some physicochemical methods for reducing the heavy metal content of WAS. The used techniques include acid and alkaline thermal hydrolysis and Fenton's peroxidation. By degrading the extracellular polymeric substances, binding sites for a large amount of heavy metals, the latter are released into the sludge water. The behaviour of several heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn) was assessed in laboratory tests. Results of these show a significant reduction of most heavy metals.

  10. Analysis of As, Cr and Hg in crude oil sludge by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syazwani Mohd Fadzil; Khoo Kok Sionga, Amran Ab Majid; Sukiman Sarmani

    2009-01-01

    Environment are carrying toxic elements. The aim of this study was to determine As, Cr and Hg elements in crude oil sludge. In this study, crude oil sludge samples from a refining plant at Kerteh, Terengganu was carried out using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The samples were packed and irradiated at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency reactor TRIGA Mark II. Later, the samples were counted using a HPGe detector and were analyzed using the SAMPO 90 software. The certified reference material (CRM) namely NBS Coal Fly Ash 1633a was used as a standard to obtain the concentration average using a comparative method. A total of 11 elements (i.e. As, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Na, Sc, Se and Sr) were determined in all samples. The concentrations of As, Cr and Hg were found to be in the range of 0-18.8, 98.2-124 and 52.8-57.9 μg.g -1 respectively. From the concentration of these elements, the results showed that the value for total As element is low but the values for the total Cr and Hg are considerable higher than the permissible value. However, almost all the potential environmental impacts can be controlled by sludge disposal options such as well-designed, carefully, efficiently and continuously managed, by following accepted guidelines and regulations. (Author)

  11. Fate of heavy metals including mercury in a sewage sludge incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Pudasainee, Deepak; Yoon, Young-Sik; Cho, Sung-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Thermal treatment technology for sewage sludge incineration has several advantages. However, emission of heavy metals including mercury, into the environment from such technology utilization has been a major concern. In this paper heavy metals including mercury emission and distribution behavior within the different streams of a fluidized bed sewage sludge incineration process is presented. Emission of heavy metals and mercury at the inlet and outlet of APCDs and each incoming and outgoing streams were sampled and analyzed. Mercury and its speciation in flue gas were sampled and analyzed by Ontario Hydro Method. Solid and liquid samples were analyzed by US EPA method 7470A and 7471A, respectively. Heavy metals were sampled by US EPA method and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. At the inlet of APCDs Cr, Ni and Pb were mainly enriched in coarse particles whereas, As was enriched in fine particles. Hg emission concentration in flue gas, on average was 326.73 μg/ Sm 3 and 4.44 μg/ Sm 3 at inlet APCDs and the stack emission, overall removal efficiency of APCDs was 98.6%. More than 83.3% of Hg was speciated into oxidized form at the inlet of APCD. Oxidized Hg was removed in wet APCDs leaving behind elemental Hg as dominant species in stack emission. Hg was mainly distributed in waste water (57.5%), other effluent and sludge (27.6%), waste water from spray dry reactor (12.3%), fly ash in hopper (2.5%). Further, detailed investigations would give more reliable mass distribution data and insight to control mercury from such sources. (author)

  12. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Xiaomin; Chen, Dezhen; Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  13. The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I.; Oliveira, J.F.S. [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-06-15

    The behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg during the combustion tests of a dry granular sewage sludge on a fluidized bed combustor pilot (FBC) of about 0.3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of the addition of limestone was also studied in order to retain sulphur compounds and to verify its influence on the retention of heavy metals (HM). Heavy metals were collected and analyzed from different locations of the installation, which included the stack, the two cyclones, and the material removed from the bed. The results showed that the volatility of metals was rather low, resulting in emissions below the legal limits of the new directive on incineration, with the exception of Hg during the mono-combustion tests. The partitioning of metals, except for Hg, appeared to follow that of ashes, amounting to levels above 90% in the bed streams in the mono-combustion case. For co-combustion, there was a lower fixation of HM in the bed ashes, mostly originating essentially from the sewage sludge, ranging between 40% and 80%. It is believed that in this latter case, a slightly higher temperature could have enhanced the volatilization, especially of Cd and Pb. However these metals were then retained in fly ashes captured in the cyclones. In the case of Hg, the volatilisation was complete. The bed ashes were free of Hg and part of Hg was retained in the cyclones and the rest was emitted either with fine ash particles or in gaseous forms. In mono-combustion the Hg emissions from the stack (particles and gas) accounted, for about 50%. This appeared to have significantly decreased in the case of co-combustion, as only about 75% has been emitted, due to the retention effect of cyclone ashes.

  14. Carbonization of heavy metal impregnated sewage sludge oriented towards potential co-disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Xiaomin [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Hu, Yuyan; Feng, Yuheng [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Dai, Xiaohu [National Engineering Research Centre for Urban Pollution Control, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • The carbonization of SS with externally impregnated heavy metals was investigated. • Externally impregnated heavy metals can be immobilized in the SSC. • Higher carbonization temperature help produce non-hazardous SSC. • Incineration FA can be kneaded into SS for co-disposal through co-carbonization. - Abstract: Sewage sludge (SS) is adopted as a stabilizer to immobilize externally impregnated heavy metals through carbonization oriented towards the co-disposal of SS and some hazardous wastes. Firstly Cu and Pb were impregnated into SS to ascertain the impregnating capacity and leaching behaviours of heavy metals in the resulting sewage sludge char (SSC). Meanwhile, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to detect the heavy metal phase in the SSC. The results showed that within 400–800 °C and an impregnating concentration ≨0.5 wt%, more than 90% of the externally impregnated Cu and Pb were remained in the SSC and immobilized. And higher temperatures helped produce non-hazardous SSC. In addition, SEM and XRD analyses revealed that externally impregnated heavy metals could be converted into stable forms and evenly distributed throughout the SSC. In the second step municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (FA) was kneaded into SS and subjected to carbonization; it has been proved that the heavy metals in FA can be well immobilized in the resulting char when FA: SS mass ratio is 1:5. Those results show that sewage sludge can be co-carbonized with wastes contaminated with heavy metals to achieve co-disposal.

  15. A solidification/stabilization process for wastewater treatment sludge from a primary copper smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivšić-Bajčeta Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment sludge from primary copper smelter is characterized as hazardous waste that requires treatment prior disposal due to significant amount of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the feasibility and the effectiveness of solidification/stabilization process of the sludge using fly ash and lime as binders. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS testing, leaching tests (EN 12457-4 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP and Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC test. All samples reached target UCS of 0.35 MPa. Calcium to silicon concentration ratio (cCa/cSi, determined by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF analysis, was identified as main factor governing strength development. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES analyses of solutions after leaching tests showed excellent stabilization of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (above 99 % and arsenic (above 90 % in samples with high Ca(OH2 content. Results of ANC test indicated that buffering capacity of solidified material linearly depended on Ca concentration in FA and lime. Sample with 20 % of binder heaving 50 % of FA and 50 % of lime met all requirements to be safely disposed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34033

  16. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  17. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  18. Considerations in the public acceptance of sewage sludge irradiation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dix, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    Considerations associated with public acceptance of municipal sewage sludge irradiation systems are discussed including the benefit to society, public information and safeguards. Public acceptance of products is based upon the benefit to society as measured by reduced consumer costs, minimization of public risk and enhancement of the quality of life and the environment. When viewed in this positive light, the sludge irradiator has high potential benefits to the community. If large-scale engineering experiments show that sludge irradiation is more cost-effective than other methods, reduced consumer costs would result. Today many sewage plants do not consistently remove pathogens from sludge; sludge irradiation could be an effective method of pathogen removal and result in avoidance of a major public risk. The sludge irradiator may be able to clean up recreational areas, reduce noxious odours from sewage treatment facilities, and reduce the energy requirements for producing fertilizer and soil conditioners and conserve their mineral content. Plant safeguards must be explained to dispel public concern that the contents of the source can be released to the sludge accidentally. This will be the main issue within the technical sector of the public, and the design, procedural and administrative safeguards of the plant must be fully explained. The primary risk associated with sludge irradiators will be the remote possibility of source leakage into the sludge. The various safeguards in sludge irradiation plants are discussed in detail including the form of the radionuclide, encapsulation, the irradiation chamber, safeguards instrumentation, shielding and thermal safeguards. (Author)

  19. [Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on drying characteristics of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Dong; Yang, Yu-Ting; Li, Yan-Long; Niu, Hui-Chang; Wei, Li-Hong; Sun, Yang; Ke, Xin

    2009-11-01

    The high water content of sewage sludge has engendered many inconveniences to its treatment and disposal. While ultrasonic takes on unique advantages on the sludge drying because of its high ultrasonic power, mighty penetrating capability and the ability of causing cavitations. Thus this research studies the characteristics influences of ultrasonic bring to the sludge drying and effects of the exposure time, ultrasonic generator power, temperatures of ultrasonic and drying temperature on the drying characteristics of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that ultrasonic pretreatment could speed up evaporation of the free water in sludge surface and help to end the drying stage with constant speed. In addition, ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the sludge drying efficiency which could be more evident with the rise of the ultrasonic power (100-250 W), ultrasonic temperature and drying temperature. If dried under low temperature such as 105 degrees C, sludge will have premium drying characteristics when radiated under ultrasound for a shorter time such as 3 min. In the end, the ultrasonic treatment is expected to be an effective way to the low-cost sludge drying and also be an important reference to the optimization of the sludge drying process because of its effects on the increase of sludge drying efficiency.

  20. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application. - Synthetic fabric fibers present in wastewater sludge are a semi-quantitative long-term indicator of past sludge application in soils

  1. Sampling and analyses of SRP high-level waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Kelley, J.A.; McMillan, T.S.

    1976-08-01

    Twelve 3-liter samples of high-heat waste sludges were collected from four Savannah River Plant waste tanks with a hydraulically operated sample collector of unique design. Ten of these samples were processed in Savannah River Laboratory shielded cell facilities, yielding 5.3 kg of washed, dried sludge products for waste solidification studies. After initial drying, each batch was washed by settling and decantation to remove the bulk of soluble salts and then was redried. Additional washes were by filtration, followed by final drying. Conclusions from analyses of samples taken during the processing steps were: (a) the raw sludges contained approximately 80 wt percent soluble salts, most of which were removed by the washes; (b) 90 Sr and 238 , 239 Pu remained in the sludges, but most of the 137 Cs was removed by washing; (c) small amounts of sodium, sulfate, and 137 Cs remained in the sludges after thorough washing; (d) no significant differences were found in sludge samples taken from different risers of one waste tank. Chemical and radiometric compositions of the sludge product from each tank were determined. The sludges had diverse compositions, but iron, manganese, aluminum, and uranium were principal elements in each sludge. 90 Sr was the predominant radionuclide in each sludge product

  2. Treatment and disposal of refinery sludges: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, J K; Shekdar, A V

    2003-06-01

    Crude oil is a major source of energy and feedstock for petrochemicals. Oily sludge, bio-sludge and chemical sludge are the major sludges generated from the processes and effluent treatment plants of the refineries engaged in crude oil refining operations. Refineries in India generate about 28,220 tons of sludge per annum. Various types of pollutants like phenols, heavy metals, etc. are present in the sludges and they are treated as hazardous waste. Oily sludge, which is generated in much higher amount compared to other sludges, contains phenol (90-100 mg/kg), nickel (17-25 mg/kg), chromium (27-80 mg/kg), zinc (7-80 mg/kg), manganese (19-24 mg/kg), cadmium (0.8-2 mg/kg), copper (32-120 mg/kg) and lead (0.001-0.12 mg/ kg). Uncontrolled disposal practices of sludges in India cause degradation of environmental and depreciation of aesthetic quality. Environmental impact due to improper sludge management has also been identified. Salient features of various treatment and disposal practices have been discussed. Findings of a case study undertaken by the authors for Numaligarh Refinery in India have been presented. Various system alternatives have been identified for waste management in Numaligarh Refinery. A ranking exercise has been carried out to evaluate the alternatives and select the appropriate one. A detailed design of the selected waste management system has been presented.

  3. Fiscal year 1994 1/25-scale sludge mobilization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, M.R.; Gates, C.M.; Hymas, C.R.; Sprecher, M.A.; Morter, N.J.

    1995-07-01

    There are 28 one-million-gallon double-shell radioactive waste tanks on the Hanford Reservation in southeastern Washington State. The waste in these tanks was generated during processing of nuclear materials. Solids-laden slurries were placed into many of the tanks. Over time, the waste solids have settled to form a layer of sludge in the bottom of these tanks. The sludge layer thickness varies from tank to tank with some having only a few centimeters or no sludge up to some tanks which have about 4.5 m (15 ft) of sludge. It is planned that the waste will be removed from these tanks as part of the overall Hanford site cleanup efforts. Jet mixer pumps are to be placed into the tanks to stir up (mobilize) the sludge and form a uniform slurry suitable for pumping to downstream processing facilities. These mixer pumps use powerful jets of tank fluid directed horizontally out of two, diametrically opposed nozzles near the tank bottom. These fluid jets impinge upon the sludge and stir it up. The amount of sludge mobilized by the mixer pump jets depends not only on the jet properties, but also on the ability of the sludge to resist the jets. It is the goal of the work described in this document to develop the ability to predict how much sludge will be mobilized by the mixer pumps based on the size and velocity of the mixer pump jets and the physical and chemical properties of the tank sludge

  4. Utilization of fly ash for stabilization/solidification of heavy metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermatas, D.; Meng, X. [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Pozzolanic-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) is an effective, yet economic technological alternative to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils and sludges. Fly ash waste materials were used along with quicklime (CaO) to immobilize lead, trivalent and hexavalent chromium present in contaminated clayey sand soils. The degree of heavy metal immobilization was evaluated using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) as well as controlled extraction experiments. These leaching test results along with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses were also implemented to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for immobilization of the heavy metals under study. Finally, the reusability of the stabilized waste forms in construction applications was also investigated by performing unconfined compressive strength and swell tests. Results suggest that the controlling mechanism for both lead and hexavalent chromium immobilization is surface adsorption, whereas for trivalent chromium it is hydroxide precipitation. Addition of fly ash to the contaminated soils effectively reduced heavy metal leachability well below the non-hazardous regulatory limits. However, quicklime addition was necessary in order to attain satisfactory immobilization levels. Overall, fly ash addition increases the immobilization pH region for all heavy metals tested, and significantly improves the stress-strain properties of the treated solids, thus allowing their reuse as readily available construction materials. The only potential problem associated with this quicklime/fly ash treatment is the excessive formation of the pozzolanic product ettringite in the presence of sulfates. Ettringite, when brought in contact with water, may cause significant swelling and subsequent deterioration of the stabilized matrix. Addition of minimum amounts of barium hydroxide was shown to effectively eliminate ettringite formation.

  5. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  6. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from Swiss waste incineration plants and determination of the ash fraction in the nanometer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buha, Jelena; Mueller, Nicole; Nowack, Bernd; Ulrich, Andrea; Losert, Sabrina; Wang, Jing

    2014-05-06

    Waste incineration had been identified as an important source of ultrafine air pollutants resulting in elaborated treatment systems for exhaust air. Nowadays, these systems are able to remove almost all ultrafine particles. However, the fate of ultrafine particles caught in the filters has received little attention so far. Based on the use of engineered nano-objects (ENO) and their transfer into the waste stream, it can be expected that not only combustion generated nanoparticles are found in fly ashes but that many ENO finally end up in this matrix. A more detailed characterization of the nanoparticulate fraction of fly ashes is therefore needed. Physical and chemical characterizations were performed for fly ashes from five selected waste incineration plants (WIPs) with different input materials such as municipal waste, wood and sewage sludge. The intrinsic densities of the fly ashes were in the range of 2.7-3.2 g/cm(3). When the fly ash particle became airborne, the effective density depended on the particle size, increasing from 0.7-0.8 g/cm(3) for 100-150 nm to 2 g/cm(3) for 350-500 nm. The fly ash samples were fractionated at 2 μm, yielding fine fractions (2 μm). The size distributions of the fine fractions in the airborne form were further characterized, which allowed calculation of the percentage of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. We found the highest mass-based percentage was about 0.07%; the number percentage in the fine fraction was in the range of 4.8% to 22%. Comparison with modeling results showed that ENO may constitute a considerable part of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. Chemical analyses showed that for the municipal waste samples Ca and Al were present in higher concentrations in the coarse fraction; for the mixed wood and sludge sample the P concentration was higher in the coarse fraction; for most other samples and elements they were enriched in the fine fraction. Electron microscopic images of fly ashes showed a wide range of

  9. Important operational parameters of membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system for zero excess sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon

    2003-04-01

    In order to prevent excess sludge production during wastewater treatment, a membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system has been introduced, where the disintegrated sludge is recycled to the bioreactor as a feed solution. In this study, a mathematical model was developed by incorporating a sludge disintegration term into the conventional activated sludge model and the relationships among the operational parameters were investigated. A new definition of F/M ratio for the MBR-SD system was suggested to evaluate the actual organic loading rate. The actual F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M ratio in MBR-SD. The kinetic parameters concerning the biodegradability of organics hardly affect the system performance. Instead, sludge solubilization ratio (alpha) in the SD process and particulate hydrolysis rate constant (k(h)) in biological reaction determine the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is related with the overall economics of the MBR-SD system. Under reasonable alpha and k(h) values, SDN would range between 3 and 5 which means the amount of sludge required to be disintegrated would be 3-5 times higher for preventing a particular amount of sludge production. Finally, normalized sludge disintegration rate (q/V) which is needed to maintain a certain level of MLSS in the MBR-SD system was calculated as a function of F/V ratio.

  10. Ultrasonic sludge disintegration for enhanced methane production in anaerobic digestion: effects of sludge hydrolysis efficiency and hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Jonghak

    2012-01-01

    Hydrolysis of waste activated sludge (WAS) has been regarded as the rate limiting step of anaerobic sludge digestion. Therefore, in this study, the effect of ultrasound and hydraulic residence time during sludge hydrolysis was investigated with the goal of enhancing methane production from anaerobic digestion (AD). WAS was ultrasonically disintegrated for hydrolysis, and it was semi-continuously fed to an anaerobic digesters at various hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results of these experiments showed that the solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies when using ultrasonically disintegrated sludge were higher during AD than the control sludge. The longer the HRT, the higher the removal efficiencies of solids and COD, while methane production increased with lower HRT. Sludge with 30% hydrolysis produced 7 × more methane production than the control sludge. The highest methane yields were 0.350 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)(add) and 0.301 m(3)/kg COD(con) for 16 and 30% hydrolyzed sludge, respectively. In addition, we found that excess ultrasound irradiation may inhibit AD since the 50% hydrolyzed sludge produced lower methane yields than 16 and 30% hydrolyzed sludge.

  11. Functions and requirements for 105-KE Basin sludge retrieval and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigenbutz, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    Sludge, and the clouding due to sludge, interferes with basin operation and maintenance activities. This document defines the overall functions and requirements for sludge retrieval and packaging activities to be performed in the 105-KE Basin

  12. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge; Rendimiento agricola de barros cloacales irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E; Sanchez, M [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Centro Atomico Ezeiza

    1999-07-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  13. Use of sewage sludge for agriculture in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    In Japan, the use of sewage sludge and composted sewage sludge is gradually increasing. They are applied not only to agricultural land, but also to golf courses, parks, etc. The presence of heavy metals and pathogens poses a major problem for such utilization of sludge. Composting is a traditional method of sewage treatment. Laws have been introduced and guidelines prepared for proper and safe use of these materials by farmers. Public acceptance plays a crucial role. At a time when environmental preservation is a major issue in almost every aspect of life, greater emphasis will have to be placed on making sludge and compost hygienically acceptable with minimum contamination from pathogenic organisms and heavy metals. The advantages of using sludges as fertilizer for improving and sustaining soil fertility and crop production are many. This paper reviews studies conducted on the use of sewage sludge in agriculture in japan. (author)

  14. Enhancement of anaerobic sludge digestion by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2012-08-01

    To improve anaerobic sludge digestion efficiency, the effects of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) conditions on the anaerobic sludge digestion were investigated. The VS and TCOD were significantly removed with the anaerobic digestion, and the VS removal and TCOD removal increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number; correspondingly, the accumulative biogas production also increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number. The optimal homogenization pressure was 50 MPa for one homogenization cycle and 40 MPa for two homogenization cycles. The SCOD of the sludge supernatant significantly increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number due to the sludge disintegration. The relationship between the biogas production and the sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas and methane production were mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration, which accelerated the anaerobic digestion process and improved the methane content in the biogas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Involved in Sludge Granulation under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….

  16. Effect of sludge behavior on performance of centrifugal contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, A.; Sano, Y.; Takeuchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4-33 Muramatsu Tokai-mura Naka-gun Ibaraki-pref. 319-1194 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing an annular centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction in spent fuel reprocessing, which allows the mixing of aqueous and organic phases in the annular area and their separation from the mixed phase in the rotor. The effects of sludge behavior on the performance of a centrifugal contactor were investigated. Sludge accumulation during the operation of the centrifugal contactor was observed only in the rotor. Based on the sludge accumulation behavior, the effects of rotor sludge accumulation on the performance of phase separation and extraction were investigated using several types of rotors, which simulated different sludge accumulation levels in the separation area. It was confirmed that rotor sludge accumulation would affect the phase separation performance but not the extraction performance. This can be explained by the structure of the centrifugal contactor, wherein the extraction reaction and phase separation mainly proceed in the housing and rotor, respectively.

  17. Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsoyo

    1987-01-01

    Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation. Disinfection of sludge by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation has been investigated. Sludge were obtained from water and waste sanitation department (Dinas Kebersihan) DKI located at Kebon Nanas, Jakarta. Sludge were mixed with bleaching powder at the concentration of 0, 10 and 20 mg/l and then irradiated in multipurpose panoramic batch irradiator (PANBIT) with doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and a dose rate 9 kGy/h. The reducing colony form unit caused by the combined treatment depend on type bacteria observed in sludge. Pathogenic bacteria as Clostridium still survive at a dose of 10 kGy on sludge containing 20 mg/l bleaching powder, but Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio were not detected in this experiment, neither in the control nor in the irradiated samples. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Sewage sludge - What can be done with it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a review of the state-of-the-art in the disposal of the sewage sludge that is left over after treatment of wastewater. Also, developments over the past ten years both in market structures and in legislation are discussed and future developments are reviewed. On account of legislation and political influences on the market, the thermal exploitation of sewage sludge is looked at in depth. The ecological and economic aspects of sewage sludge disposal are examined and the costs of different methods of sewage sludge treatment are compared. Various methods of disposal including dumping, composting, incineration in cement ovens, coal-fired power stations and waste incineration facilities are discussed, as is burning in special sludge incineration plant. A prognosis is made on the development of sewage sludge quantities for Germany, Switzerland and Austria over the next years

  19. 105-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit sludge volume calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, E.N. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The volume of sludge contained in the 100-KW Sandfilter Backwash Pit (SFBWP) was calculated from depth measurements of the sludge, pit dimension measurements and analysis of video tape recordings taken by an underwater camera. The term sludge as used in this report is any combination of sand, sediment, or corrosion products visible in the SFBWP area. This work was performed to determine baseline volume for use in determination of quantities of uranium and plutonium deposited in the pit from sandfilter backwashes. The SFBWP has three areas where sludge is deposited: (1) the main pit floor, (2) the transfer channel floor, and (3) the surfaces and structures in the SFBWP. The depths of sludge and the uniformity of deposition varies significantly between these three areas. As a result, each of the areas was evaluated separately. The total volume of sludge determined was 3.75 M 3 (132.2 ft 3 )

  20. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  1. Efficiency of Worm Reactors in Reducing Sludge Volume in Activated Sludge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Naderi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activated sludge process is the most widely used on a global scale for the biological treatment of both domestic and industrial effluents. One problem associated with the process, however, is the high volume of sludge produced. Excess sludge treatment and disposal account for up to 60% of the total operating costs of urban wastewater treatment plants due to the stringent environmental regulations on excess sludge disposal. These strict requirements have encouraged a growing interest over the last few years in reducing sludge volumes produced at biological treatment plants and a number of physical, chemical, and mechanical methods have been accordingly developed for this purpose. The proposed methods are disadvantaged due to their rather high investment and operation costs. An alternative technology that avoids many of these limitations is the worm reactor. In this study, the characteristics of this technology are investigated while the related literature is reviewed to derive the optimal conditions for the operation of this process in different situations.

  2. Effect of sludge solids to mono-sodium titanate (MST) ratio on MST-treated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team has selected two cesium removal technologies for further development to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process: small tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange. In the CST ion exchange process, incoming salt solution from storage tanks containing entrained sludge solids is pretreated with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and plutonium. The resulting slurry is filtered using a cross-flow filter, with the permeate sent forward to CST ion exchange columns for cesium removal prior to conversion into Class A grout at the Saltstone Facility. The MST and sludge solids are to be sent for vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The High Level Waste Division (HLWD) requested that the Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) study varying the insoluble sludge solids to MST ratio to determine the relative impact of sludge and MST on filter performance. The purpose of this study was not for an exhaustive comprehensive search for an optimized insoluble sludge solids to monosodium titanate (MST) ratio, but as a scoping study to identify any effects of having an excess of either material. This document reports the results obtained

  3. Impact of sludge retention time on sludge characteristics and microbial community in MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuchun; Pan, Jill Ruhsing; Huang, Chihpin; Chang, Chialing

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the impact of sludge retention time (SRT) on sludge characteristics and microbial community and the effect on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The results show that MBR with longer SRT has less fouling propensity, in agreement with other studies, despite the fact that the MBR with longer SRT contained higher MLSS and smaller particle size. However, much more soluble microbial products (SMPs) were released in MBR with shorter SRT. More slime on the membrane surface was observed in MBR with shorter SRT while sludge cakes formed on the membrane surface in MBR with longer SRT. The results show that SMP contributes to the severe fouling observed in MBR with shorter SRT, which is in agreement with other studies showing that SMPs were the major foulants in MBR. Under different SRTs of operation, the bacterial community structures of the sludge obtained by use of polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were almost identical, but those on the membrane surface differed substantially. It suggests that, although SRT has impact on sludge characteristics, it doesn't affect the microbial community in the suspension.

  4. REEMISSION OF MERCURY COMPOUNDS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sewage sludge disposal and cultivation methods consist in storage, agricultural use, compost production, biogas production or heat treatment. The sewage sludge production in municipal sewage sludge treatment plants in year 2013 in Poland amounted to 540.3 thousand Mg d.m. The sewage sludge for agricultural or natural use must satisfy chemical, sanitary and environmental safety requirements. The heavy metal content, including the mercury content, determines the sewage sludge disposal method. Mercury has a high chemical activity and biological form compounds with different properties. The properties of the mercury present in sewage sludge or composts, its potential bioavailability depend on its physicochemical forms. Different forms of mercury, which are found in soil and sediments and sewage sludge, may be determined using various techniques sequential extraction. In order to assess the bioavailability the analysis of fractional of mercury in samples of sewage sludge and composts was made. For this purpose the analytical procedure based on a four sequential extraction process was applied. Mercury fractions were classified as exchangeable (EX, base soluble (BS, acids soluble (AS and oxidizable (OX. This article presents the research results on the mercury compounds contents in sewage sludge subjected to drying process, combustion and in composted sewage sludge. During drying and combustion process of the sewage sludge, mercury transforms into volatile forms that could be emitted into the atmosphere. The mercury fractionation in composted sewage sludge proved that mercury in compost occurs mainly in an organic fraction and in a residual fraction that are scarce in the environment.

  5. Biological sulphate reduction with primary sewage sludge in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-31

    Jul 31, 2009 ... The success of the UASB reactor depends largely on the settling properties and stability of the sludge bed which comprises the anaerobic active biomass. The solid-liquid separation behaviour of the sludge bed in 2 UASB reactors (R1 at 35oC and. R2 at 20oC) fed with primary sewage sludge and sulphate ...

  6. Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Song Chyang; Yu-Chi Wang

    2017-01-01

    For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in ...

  7. Effect of Ionic Strength on Settling of Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    M Ahmadi Moghadam, M Soheili, MM Esfahani

    2005-01-01

    Structural properties of activated sludge flocs were found to be sensitive to small changes in ionic strength. This study investigates the effect of ionic strength on settling of activated sludge. Samples were taken from activated sludge process of Ghazvin Sasan soft drink wastewater treatment plant, then treated with different ionic strengths of KCl and CaCl2 solution, after that the turbidity of supernatant was measured. The results indicated that low ionic strength resulted in a steeper sl...

  8. Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention from simulated tank sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRUMHANSL, JAMES L.; LIU, J.; ARTHUR, SARA E.; HUTCHERSON, SHEILA K.; QIAN, MORRIS; ANDERSON, HOWARD L.

    2000-01-01

    Decommissioning high level nuclear waste tanks will leave small amounts of residual sludge clinging to the walls and floor of the structures. The permissible amount of material left in the tanks depends on the radionuclide release characteristics of the sludge. At present, no systematic process exists for assessing how much of the remaining inventory will migrate, and which radioisotopes will remain relatively fixed. Working with actual sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive. Consequently, methods were developed for preparing sludge simulants and doping them with nonradioactive surrogates for several radionuclides and RCRA metals of concern in actual sludges. The phase chemistry of these mixes was found to be a reasonable match for the main phases in actual sludges. Preliminary surrogate release characteristics for these sludges were assessed by lowering the ionic strength and pH of the sludges in the manner that would occur if normal groundwater gained access to a decommissioned tank. Most of the Se, Cs and Tc in the sludges will be released into the first pulse of groundwater passing through the sludge. A significant fraction of the other surrogates will be retained indefinitely by the sludges. This prolonged sequestration results from a combination coprecipitated and sorbed into or onto relatively insoluble phases such as apatite, hydrous oxides of Fe, Al, Bi and rare earth oxides and phosphates. The coprecipitated fraction cannot be released until the host phase dissolves or recrystallizes. The sorbed fraction can be released by ion exchange processes as the pore fluid chemistry changes. However, these releases can be predicted based on a knowledge of the fluid composition and the surface chemistry of the solids. In this regard, the behavior of the hydrous iron oxide component of most sludges will probably play a dominant role for many cationic radionuclides while the hydrous aluminum oxides may be more important in governing anion releases

  9. Examination into the gamma irradiation of activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, S.; Forster, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    This study has shown that the treatment of activated sludge by gamma irradiation resulted in a deterioration in the filterability, a decrease in the size of the floc particles and an increase in the organic matter present in the sludge supernatant. A significant difference was found between the results obtained for filamentous and non-filamentous sludges in relation to the amount of soluble polysaccharide produced. (author)

  10. Cleaning IBL secondary sludge in the tubular plate steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro de Frutos, E.; Gonzalez Carballo, S.

    2012-01-01

    After cleanings Sludge Lancing using 250bar made from the center lane, identifies an area of solidified remaining sludge on the tube plate. Since late 2010, IBERDROLA-SAVAC has developed Inner System Bundle Lancing (IBL), which locally involves shooting a jet of water at high pressure 590bar directly impacting sludge areas within the tube bundle hard to detach and break into small pieces that can be extracted from GV through a closed circuit suction.

  11. Cement stabilization of hazardous and radioactive electroplating sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Pickett, J.B.; Martin, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Cement stabilization was evaluated for treatment of nickel and uranium in electroplating sludge at the Savannah River Site. Waste forms were prepared by pretreating the sludge and the solidifying it in a variety of cement, cement plus flyash, and cement-flyash-slag mixes. The sludge was also treated by one-step filtration-solidification. Leaching results and processing data indicate the cement solidification is an effective method of treating hazardous-low-level electroplating waste

  12. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  13. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145± 5 mW/m2, 470 Ω) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190±5 mW/m2. The corresponding total...... system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy....

  14. Evaluation of revegetation techniques of a saline flue gas desulfurization sludge pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, L.F.; Artiola, J.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Renewable National Resources

    1999-01-01

    Codisposal of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge with low-volume generating station waste simplifies disposal but creates a saline, high boron (B) waste that may be difficult to revegetate after site closure. Studies on a delta of waste material in a codisposal pond at the coal-fired Coronado Generating Station in eastern Arizona evaluated management techniques, amendments, and plants for revegetating this material. One study investigated leaching and ridging techniques and a second evaluated amendment with manure, wood shavings, and fly ash, Four salt-tolerant grass species and four saltbushes (A triplex spp,) were evaluated in the two studies. Criteria for success were high survival rates and growth, as measured by grass height and shrub height x width. Leaching salts and B from the waste was not necessary for establishment and growth of transplanted shrubs and grasses. Ridging was not a successful technique, due to limited moisture and high levels of salinity and B on these structures. Gardner saltbush (A, gardneri (Moq.) D, Dietr.) and a fourwing saltbush (A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt,) accession from the site were the most successful shrubs and alkali sactonn (Sporobolus airoides (Torr,) Torr. `Saltalk`) was the most successful grass at this disposal pond. Amendment with manure, wood shavings, or fly ash did not increase plant survival. Growth of grasses was improved with all amendments and was greatest with manure, but growth of shrubs was not improved with any amendment. 33 refs., 8 tabs.

  15. Adsorption of Phthalates on Municipal Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates (PAEs are commonly detected in discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plants. This study investigated the removal of six typical PAEs with activated sludge and the results revealed that concentrations of aqueous PAEs decreased rapidly during the beginning 15 min and reached equilibrium within 2 hours due to the adsorption of activated sludge. The process followed first-order kinetic equation, except for dioctyl phthalate (DOP. The factors influencing the adsorption were also evaluated and it was found that higher initial concentrations of PAEs enhanced the removal but affected little the adsorption equilibrium time. The adsorption of PAEs favored lower operating temperature (the optimum temperature was approximately 25°C in this research, which could be an exothermic process. Additionally, lower aqueous pH could also benefit the adsorption.

  16. Studying oily sludge treatment by thermo chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guolin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays surfactants were used to wash oily sludge and reclaim oil. This paper presents the optimum conditions for washing oily sludge with surfactant solutions using the single factor experiment. The agents tested are AEO-9, Peregal O, TritonX-100, sodium metasilicate and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS. In the experiments, four factors affecting residual oil rate are investigated which include liquid/solid mass rate, reaction temperature, reaction time and eluent mass fraction. Results obtained through experimental runs were compared and used to select a kind of agent, in order to get the best cleaning effect. The optimum parameters of these agents are different from others, and under the optimum conditions their treatment effects are better. And the washing effect of Na2SiO3·9H2O is best and its residual oil rate is only about 1.6%.

  17. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, A. H.; Bakker, T. W.; Kramer, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by anaerobic bacteria, and how much cavitation increases the total biogas yield. An increase in yield is only the case if cavitation can further disrupt otherwise inaccessible cell membrane structures and long chain organic molecules. In this study the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on sludge that was already digested for 30 days was investigated. The total biogas yield could indeed be increased. The effect of the backpressure behind the venturi tube on the yield could not yet be established.

  18. Parasites in soil/sludge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandon, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Studies reported herein have shown that a treatment of 55 0 C for 1 hour or more sufficiently reduces the number of viable Ascaris eggs in seeded sludge systems. An absorbed dose of 300 kilorads γ radiation is more than adequate for the same purpose. However, before an unequivocal statement can be made about the effectiveness of either of these treatments in reducing viable ova in real systems, certain qualifying factors must be investigated. There are conflicting reports on the radiation sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in different stages of development. Also, irradiation of composted sludge using an electron-beam (which, for all practical purposes, is equivalent to γ irradiation for a given absorbed dose) was unsuccessful in rendering all naturally-occurring Ascaris ova non-viable, even at 300 kilorads. The significant differences in radiation and heat sensitivities of Ascaris eggs in compost vs liquid systems points out the need to further investigate the effects of moisture levels on these sensitivities

  19. Modelling Analysis of Sewage Sludge Amended Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Carlsen, L.; Vikelsøe, J.

    the plant effluent. The focus in this work is the top soil as this layer is important for the fate of a xenobiotic substance due to the high biological activity. A simple model for the top soil is used where the substance is assumed homogeneously distributed as suggested in the European Union System......The topic is risk assessment of sludge supply to agricultural soil in relation to xenobiotics. A large variety of xenobiotics arrive to the wastewater treatment plant in the wastewater. Many of these components are hydrophobic and thus will accumulate in the sludge solids and are removed from...... for the Evaluation of Substances (EUSES). It is shown how the fraction of substance mass, which is leached, from the top soil is a simple function of the ratio between the degradation half lifetime and the adsorption coefficient. This model can be used in probabilistic risk assessment of agricultural soils...

  20. Cs-137 for irradiation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessel, T.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1973, the Geiselbullach sewage treatment works have been continuously operating their first system for gamma irradiation of sewage sludge. Within the framework of a German-American agreement, nine Cs-137 sources with a total activity of 56.000 Ci have been made available to the works free of charge in 1983, in order to test in practice and to demonstrate the applicability of these radiation sources in comparison to the Co-60 sources exclusively used up to then. This first study on the applicability of Cs-137 as a radiation source for sewage sludge treatment revealed no findings or effects speaking against Cs-137 as a radiation source for this purpose. (orig./RB) [de

  1. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  2. REDUCTION OF EXCESS SLUDGE PRODUCTION IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM BASED ON LYSIS-CRYPTIC GROWTH, UNCOUPLING METABOLISM AND FOLIC ACID ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Velho

    Full Text Available Abstract The following sludge reduction alternatives were tested in wastewater biological reactors: oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA-process; ultrasonic disintegration (UD; chlorination (CH; 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS; and folic acid (FA. Compared to the control system, UD reduced 55% of the sludge production, and greater substrate and nutrient removal efficiency was achieved. CH worsened the sludge settleability and increased the SVI values; the system achieved 25% of sludge reduction. OSA showed 50% and 60% of sludge reduction after 16 and 10 hours under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The observed sludge yield during TCS addition was decreased by 40%, and the sludge settleability worsened. FA presented the highest sludge reduction (75%, and the system improved the nutrient removal efficiency by 30% compared to the control system and maintained the sludge properties. Acute toxicity conducted with Daphnia magna classified the effluent from the sludge reduction systems as non-toxic for discharge into water sources.

  3. Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal

  4. Reduction of excess sludge production using mechanical disintegration devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strünkmann, G W; Müller, J A; Albert, F; Schwedes, J

    2006-01-01

    The usability of mechanical disintegration techniques for the reduction of excess sludge production in the activated sludge process was investigated. Using three different disintegration devices (ultrasonic homogeniser, stirred media mill, high pressure homogeniser) and different operational parameters of the disintegration, the effect of mechanical disintegration on the excess sludge production and on the effluent quality was studied within a continuously operated, laboratory scale wastewater treatment system with pre-denitrification. Depending on the operational conditions and the disintegration device used, a reduction of excess sludge production of up to 70% was achieved. A combination of mechanical disintegration with a membrane bioreactor process with high sludge age is more energy effective concerning reduction of sludge production than with a conventional activated sludge process at lower sludge ages. Depending on the disintegration parameters, the disintegration has no, or only minor, negative effect on the soluble effluent COD and on the COD-removal capacity of the activated sludge process. Nitrogen-removal was slightly deteriorated by the disintegration, whereas the system used was not optimised for nitrogen removal before disintegration was implemented.

  5. Enhancement of ultrasonic disintegration of sewage sludge by aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, He; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Cheng, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Sonication is an effective way for sludge disintegration, which can significantly improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion to reduce and recycle use of sludge. But high energy consumption limits the wide application of sonication. In order to improve ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency and reduce energy consumption, aeration was introduced. Results showed that sludge disintegration efficiency was improved significantly by combining aeration with ultrasound. The aeration flow rate, gas bubble size, ultrasonic density and aeration timing had impacts on sludge disintegration efficiency. Aeration that used in later stage of ultrasonic irradiation with low aeration flow rate, small gas bubbles significantly improved ultrasonic disintegration sludge efficiency. At the optimal conditions of 0.4 W/mL ultrasonic irradiation density, 30 mL/min of aeration flow rate, 5 min of aeration in later stage and small gas bubbles, ultrasonic sludge disintegration efficiency was increased by 45% and one third of ultrasonic energy was saved. This approach will greatly benefit the application of ultrasonic sludge disintegration and strongly promote the treatment and recycle of wastewater sludge. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Future of sewage sludge in disposal; Klaerschlammentsorgung. Quo vadis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechmann, Benjamin [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany). Fachgebiet III 2.4 - Abfalltechnik, Abfalltechniktransfer

    2013-06-01

    The thermal treatment of sewage sludge is changing continuously. In the future, the disposal of sewage sludge is framed and will be adjust by the idea of resource saving. Simultaneously due the amendment of the 17th BImSchV emission control will be encouraged. Although, more than a quarter of the upcoming sludge is incinerated in mono-incineration plants, this amount should be increased. Therefore, it is necessary to build up new capacities of mono-incineration plants. The legal and strategic framework which has an influence on the combustion of sludge will be examined in this paper. (orig.)

  7. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  8. Energy and resource utilization of deinking sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Rui; Wu, Shubin; Lv, Gaojin; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    The thermochemical conversion technique was applied in deinking sludge from the pulp and papermaking industrial to indagate the utilization of sludge biomass to energy, and the pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolytic products of deinking sludge were studied with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer (Py-GC/MS). The static tubular furnace as an applied industrial research was used to study deinking sludge pyrolysis. The solid, gas and liquid of products was characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), gas chromatograph (GC) and gas chromatograph–mass (GC/MS), respectively. The results revealed that the weight-loss process of deinking sludge was a non-isothermal reaction and composed of four stages, i.e. dewater stage, volatile releasing stage, carbon burnout stage and some calcium carbonate decomposition. Pyrolytic products from deinking sludge in the static tubular furnace were comprised of the gaseous (29.78%), condensed liquid (bio-oil, 24.41%) and solid residues (45.81%). The volatiles from deinking sludge pyrolyzing were almost aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. styrene, toluene and benzene and few acids and the solid was calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) that can be reused as paper filler. Deinking sludge was converted into high-grade fuel and chemicals by means of thermochemical conversion techniques, hence, pyrolysis of paper deinking sludge had a promising development on the comprehensive utilization.

  9. Sustainable Development of Sewage Sludge-to-Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang

    2017-01-01

    ) to identify the critical barriers that hinder the sustainable development of sludge-to-energy industry in China and to investigate the cause-effect relationships among these barriers. Accordingly, some policy implications for promoting the sustainable development of sludge-to-energy industry in China were......In order to promote the sustainable development of sludge-to-energy industry and help the decision-makers/stakeholders to select the most sustainable technology for achieving the sludge-to-energy target, this study aims at using grey Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL...

  10. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 HLW radioactive sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. At Savannah River Site, Tank 42 sludge represents on of the first HLW radioactive sludges to be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The rheological properties of unwashed Tank 42 sludge slurries at various solids concentrations were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells at the Savannah River Technology Center using a modified Haake Rotovisco viscometer

  11. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Swedish sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP, and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate, PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.

  12. Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, P J; Joseph, Ammini

    2009-01-15

    Petroleum refineries around the world have adopted different technological options to manage the solid wastes generated during the refining process and stocking of crude oil. These include physical, chemical and biological treatment methods. In this investigation bacterial mediated oil separation is effected. Two strains of Bacillus were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils, and inoculated into slurry of sludge, and sludge-sand combinations. The bacteria could effect the separation of oil so as to form a floating scum within 48h with an efficiency of 97% at < or =5% level of sludge in the sludge-sand mixture. The activity was traced to the production of biosurfactants by bacteria.

  13. Electron ray facilities for the pasteurization of sewage sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuer, D.; Hofmann, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Growing industrialization and the simultaneous increase in population density demand broad preventive measures in the area of waste water and sewage sludges. Electron irradiation is becoming an important tool for disinfection in this field. The AEG-Telefunken sludge pasteurization process works in continuous operation with homogenized sludge at electron energies between 1,0 to 1,5 MeV and a radiation dosage of 4 kJ/kg. The system offers the capabilities for an effective and costadvantageous disinfection of waste sludges of differing consistencies and origins and their harmless reuse as fertilizer in agriculture. (orig.) [de

  14. Analysis of sludge using Proton induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspiazu, J.; Moreno, E.; Andrade, E.; Miranda, J.; Citalan, S.; Moeller, G.; Soler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Regulations to control the huge amounts of sludge produced by wastewater are needed. Sludge generated in conventional sedimentators or anaerobic digesters were characterized by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). It was possible to determine the presence of macro nutrient elements, such as P and K, and secondary nutrients like Ca, S, and Mg. Moreover, heavy elements like Cu, Zn, and Pb were also found. The sludge treatment in anaerobic digesters increased the amount of certain elements Al, Si, S, Cl, and K; decrease in Ca, Ti, and Cu, and no change in V, Cr, and Zn. Possible uses of this sludge are also suggested

  15. Sludge Batch 7B Qualification Activities With SRS Tank Farm Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-01-01

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  16. Enhanced composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on isothermal composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge and liquid chromatography of water extracts of the products were carried out. The optimum temperature and pH were around 50 deg C and 7 to 8, respectively. The repeated use of products as seeds increased the rate of CO 2 evolution. The rate reached a maximum within 10 hours and decreased rapidly, and the CO 2 evolution ceased after about 3 days. The conversion of organic carbon to carbon dioxide attained to about 40% for the repeated use of products as seeds at the optimum conditions. As long as seeds as available were used, no remarkable difference was found in the composting of unirradiated and irradiated sludges. The composting process using radiation, however, can be carried out at the optimum conditions and is expected to shorten the composting period, because it is not necessary to keep fermentation temperature higher to reduce pathogen in sludge. Liquid chromatographic studies of the products showed that low molecular components decreased and higher molecular ones increased with fermentation. An index expressing the degree of reduction of easily decomposable organics was presented. The index also showed that the optimum temperature for fermentation was 50 deg C. (author)

  17. Sludge characterization: the role of physical consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, Ludovico; Wichmann, Knut

    2003-07-01

    The physical consistency is an important parameter in sewage sludge characterization as it strongly affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations. In addition, in many european Directives a reference to the physical consistency is reported as a characteristic to be evaluated for fulfilling the regulations requirements. Further, in many analytical methods for sludge different procedures are indicated depending on whether a sample is liquid or not, is solid or not. Three physical behaviours (liquid, paste-like and solid) can be observed with sludges, so the development of analytical procedures to define the boundary limit between liquid and paste-like behaviours (flowability) and that between solid and paste-like ones (solidity) is of growing interest. Several devices can be used for evaluating the flowability and solidity properties, but often they are costly and difficult to be operated in the field. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the possibility to adopt a simple extrusion procedure for flowability measurements, and a Vicat needle for solidity ones. (author)

  18. On the rheological characteristics of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of rheological behavior of sewage sludges sampled at different stages of waste water treatment. The main attention was focused on dynamic viscosity dependence on temperature, and shear rate. The sludge samples were examined under temperature ranging from 1 °C to 25 °C and under shear rate ranging from 0.34 s−1 to 68 s−1. Rotary digital viscometer (concentric cylinders geometry was used to perform the reological measurements. The solids content of the sludge samples ranged from 0.43 % to 21.45 % (A and C samples, respectively and ash free dry mass from 56.21 % to 67.80 % (A and B samples, respectively. The tested materials were found to be of non–Newtoninan nature and temperature dependent. Measured data were successfully cha­ra­cte­ri­zed by several mathematical models (Arrhenius, Bingham Plastic, Casson Law, Exponential, Gaussian, and IPC Paste in MATLAB® software with satisfying correlations between experimental and computed results. The best match (R2 = 0.999 was received with use of Gaussian model, in both cases, shear rate and temperature dependence. The results are quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design.

  19. Supercritical water oxidation treatment of textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shuzhong; Li, Yanhui; Lu, Jinling; Chen, Senlin; Luo, XingQi

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water. Serious coking occurred during the high pressure water at 250-450°C for the Reactive Orange 7, while at 300 and 350°C for the polyvinyl alcohol. The addition of NaOH not only accelerated the destruction of organic contaminants in the SCWO reactor, but effectively inhibited the dehydration conversion of textile compounds during the preheating process, which was favorable for the treatment system of textile sludge. The corrosion experiment results indicate that the stainless steel 316 could be competent for the body materials of the reactor and the heat exchangers. Furthermore, there was prominent enhancement of sodium hydroxide for the corrosion resistance of 316 in subcritical water. On the contrary the effect was almost none during SCWO.

  20. Web Services Integration on the Fly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leong, Hoe W

    2008-01-01

    .... Given data, software agents and supporting software infrastructure, web services integration on the fly means that human coding is not required to integrate web services into a Web Service Architecture...

  1. Schlieren photography on freely flying hawkmoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Roll, Jesse; Van Kooten, Stephen; Deng, Xinyan

    2018-05-01

    The aerodynamic force on flying insects results from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren , a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth ( Manduca ). Flow features such as leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex, as well as the full vortex system in the wake were visualized directly. Quantification of the flow from the Schlieren images was then obtained by applying a physics-based optical flow method, extending the potential applications of the method to further studies of flying insects. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  3. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  4. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  5. First-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of digested sludge compared with raw sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanableh, A; Imteaz, M

    2008-09-01

    This article presents an assessment of the first-order hydrothermal oxidation kinetics of a selected digested sludge at subcritical ( 374 degrees C) temperatures in the range of 250-460 degrees C. Furthermore, the results were compared with reported oxidation kinetics of raw sludge treated under identical experimental conditions. In the assessment, oxidation was considered to proceed in two steps: (1) decomposition of the particulate, or non-filterable, chemical oxygen demand (PCOD); followed by (2) ultimate oxidation and removal of the total, particulate and soluble, COD. The accumulation and removal of soluble COD (SCOD) was determined from the difference between the rates of sludge decomposition and ultimate oxidation. Using results from batch and continuous-flow hydrothermal treatment experiments, the reacting organic ingredients were separated into groups according to the ease or difficulty at which they were decomposed or removed, with Arrhenius-type activation energy levels assigned to the different groups. The analysis confirmed that within the treatment range of 75% to more than 97% COD removal, the oxidation kinetics of the digested and raw sludges were nearly identical despite differences in the proportions of their original organic ingredients. The original organic ingredients were mostly removed above 75% COD removal, and the oxidation kinetics appeared to be dominated by the removal of acetic acid, an intermediate by-product which constituted 50% to more than 80% of the remaining COD. Furthermore, the oxidation kinetics of both sludge types were consistent with reported first-order oxidation kinetics of pure acetic acid solutions. The resulting kinetic models adequately represented hydrothermal oxidation of digested sludge, in terms of COD and PCOD removals, as well as accumulation and removal of the soluble SCOD.

  6. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  7. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Attracting the attention of a fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can d...

  9. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  10. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  11. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in barley (Hordeum vulgare L cultivated on fly ash dump mixed with compost and natural zeolite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The physic-chemical characteristics of the upper layers of fly ash dumps are very important when phytostabilizationplant selection is carried out. Plants with topsoil well developed roots, like cereals are used to stabilize fly ash dumpsin order to eliminate the deflation, erosion, etc. These plant species could be used in thephytostabilization/phytoextraction variant taking into account their metal hyper accumulation capacity, and also inphytostabilization variant by adequate topsoil treatments when a decrease mobility of metals from soil to plants isachieved and thus a less toxic crop is obtained. This study presents a comparative analysis of the metalbioaccumulation degree in plant tissues (grain and straw of barley cultivated on fly ash variants treated withdifferent quantities of compost in the absence/presence of natural zeolite materials, indigenous volcanic tuff. Theaddition of plant debris and sewage sludge compost mixed with natural zeolite materials has lowered thebioaccumulation of Cr with 49%, of Cu with 29%, Fe with more than 77.5%, in grains and straw when compared tountreated fly ash. Barley plants does not allow for Pb and Ni transfer from the fly ash in the aerial part of tissue.

  12. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  13. Extracellular Polymers in Granular Sludge from Different Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    lysis. ECP contents of 41 to 92 mg · g−1 volatile suspended solids of granules were found depending on the type of granular sludge examined. The content of polysaccharides, protein and lipids in the extracted ECP was quantified. Furthermore, the different methyl esters of the lipids were determined...... of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor from a sugar-containing waste-water to a synthetic waste-water containing acetate, propionate and butyrate resulted in a decrease in both the protein and polysaccharide content and an increase in the lipid content of the extracellular material. Furthermore...

  14. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  15. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  16. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  17. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor: Pt. 3; Sludge and substrate profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H. (British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (CA). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5 litre upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g COD litre{sup -1} at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The results indicated that two sludge distribution regions, a sludge bed and a sludge blanket, as well as two distinct reaction phases, acidogenic and methanogenic, were formed. However, as the substrate loading was increased, the acidogenic region extended into the methanogenic region in the upper portion of the reactor until the whole region was acidogenic, leading to the failure of the reactor. (author).

  18. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  19. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielewicz, Ewa

    2016-10-01

    Breaking down sludge floc (sonodyspergation effect) and destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms forming floc is a direct effect of ultrasonic disintegration of sludge excess. This results in release of organic material by liquid sludge (the sonolysis effect). Desired technological effects of the disintegration are: to shorten the hydrolytic phase of fermentation, to increase the production of biogas (source of renewable energy) and an increased mineralization (stability) of fermented sludge. The presented study demonstrates research covering thickened excess sludge of various physicochemical properties, collected from nine municipal sewage treatment plants. The sludge was subjected to ultrasonic disintegration using three differently constructed disintegrators and different proportions of sonification area. Direct effects of disintegration were monitored and recorded using selected indicators describing changes in the properties of sludge and increase of substance dispersed and dissolved in the supernatant liquid to be filtered. Studies have demonstrated that those (direct) effects of ultrasonic disintegration depend on the physicochemical properties of the sludge (foremost the concentration of dry solids) that determine their variable susceptibility to the disintegration methods. The direct effects also depend on optimal process conditions (which consist of the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator), the geometric proportions of the sonication area and the operating parameters of disintegration (which could be appropriately matched to the characteristics of sludge). The most preferable results were obtained for ultrasonic disintegration of sludge with a dry matter concentration C 0 < 4.2 %. The highest effect of sonolysis-an almost 30-fold increase in the COD dissolved in the supernatant-was obtained for the sludge of lowest dry matter (C 0 = 2.0 %), which was sonicated in a reactor with a short transducer of the largest radiating surface

  20. Project Management Plan 105-KE Basin sludge retrieval and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWethy, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The KE Basin contains over 1,100 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The bulk of this inventory consists of over 50,000 zircaloy clad, uranium metal N-Reactor fuel element assemblies, along with less than half a metric ton of single-pass reactor fuel elements, stored in over 3,600 open top canister assemblies. In addition, sludge containing fissile and fission product material from damaged/degraded fuel has accumulated in the basin. The sludge, particularly the fines, impacts basin operations by clouding the water and making activities requiring a clear view impossible to complete until after sludge settles. Packaging would get the sludge out of the operator's way and allow it to be moved within the basin in a more manageable state. The primary project objective is to develop, procure, and quality the equipment needed to remove all sludge from the KE Basin with minimal dose commitment, minimal cost, and on schedule. The project will provide: (1) the development, testing, and installation of equipment for sludge retrieval and packaging; (2) understanding of and experience with actual sludge through near-term sludge packaging feature tests in the KE Basin; (3) sludge removal and handling equipment required to support debris removal, fuel handling, and other activities involving sludge within the KE Basin; and (4) enlist industry expertise in all phases of the project. This Project Management Plant establishes the organizational responsibilities, control systems, and procedures for the execution of project activities for KE Basin sludge retrieval packaging, to meet programmatic requirements within authorized funding and approved schedules