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Sample records for flux-linkage profile measurement

  1. Investigation of Flux-Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched-Reluctance Motors and Permanent-Magnet Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2009-01-01

    own limitations and constraints. In this paper, first an investigation and comparison of existing measurement methods is reported. Next, a simple pure AC flux linkage measurement method is discussed and evaluated, which does not require a search coil. Experimental results are given, obtained using...

  2. Some remarks about flux linkage and inductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computational electromagnetics there is an increasing demand for various coupled simulations. One example is the coupling between field and circuit simulation for the description of electromagnetic devices. In the context of such couplings, theoretical questions arise as well. How can a field device be represented as an equivalent multiport circuit element? What is meant by flux linkage if the considered conductors are not filamentary? What is meant by inductance if the magnetic media exhibit nonlinear behaviour? These questions and their answers are not new. However, according to the author’s view, these issues are not sufficiently addressed in the usual textbooks. The aim of the paper is therefore to (hopefully answer the questions concisely and correctly. The modern language of differential forms will be employed for this purpose.

  3. Determination of Flux linkage Characteristics and Inductance of a Submersible Switched Reluctance Motor using Software Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Maruthachalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM is an old member of the Electric Machines Family. It’s simple structure, ruggedness and inexpensive manufacturing capability make it more attractive for Industrial applications. Now, the applications of switched reluctance motors in various industrial fields are tried by many engineers. However, switched reluctance motors are not used so far in submersible underwater motor for agriculture purposee. The torque developed by an SRM is dependent on the change of flux-linkage and rotor position. The flux linkage characteristic of the motor is required to make the control circuit. Since the SRM is non-linear in nature, estimation and calculation of the flux linkage characteristics is very difficult. Approach: With the flux tube method concept a simple algorithm is being developed in a MATLAB. ANSYS Software is used to determine the flux distribution at various rotor positions. Results: The aligned and unaligned flux linkage values for theoretical calculation at a current of 7 A is 72.7 mwb and 13.79 mwb respectively. With FEA simulation the obtained value is 92.73 mwb and 19.175. Conclusion: In this and, a simplified method for the determination of flux linkage characteristics of submersible SRM using MATLAB has been presented. The obtained value has been validated with the ANSYS FEM method. the calculated unaligned and aligned inductance values of a 4- phase, 3 hp, 220 V Submersible SRM using simplified MATLAB method very much matches with the ANSYS FEM Method.

  4. Method to eliminate flux linkage DC component in load transformer for static transfer switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Mao, Chengxiong; Lu, Jiming; Wang, Dan; Tian, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS) based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2 ~ 30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  5. Method to Eliminate Flux Linkage DC Component in Load Transformer for Static Transfer Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many industrial and commercial sensitive loads are subject to the voltage sags and interruptions. The static transfer switch (STS based on the thyristors is applied to improve the power quality and reliability. However, the transfer will result in severe inrush current in the load transformer, because of the DC component in the magnetic flux generated in the transfer process. The inrush current which is always 2~30 p.u. can cause the disoperation of relay protective devices and bring potential damage to the transformer. The way to eliminate the DC component is to transfer the related phases when the residual flux linkage of the load transformer and the prospective flux linkage of the alternate source are equal. This paper analyzes how the flux linkage of each winding in the load transformer changes in the transfer process. Based on the residual flux linkage when the preferred source is completely disconnected, the method to calculate the proper time point to close each phase of the alternate source is developed. Simulation and laboratory experiments results are presented to show the effectiveness of the transfer method.

  6. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D finite-element models (FEMs) of electrical machines. Accurate computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D FEM is not an easy task. Compared to the existing energy-perturbation method, the new technique......-perturbation method. The new method proposed is validated using experimental results on two different permanent magnet machines....

  7. STRUCTURAL SYNTHESIS OF A STABILIZING ROBUST CONTROLLER OF THE ROTOR FLUX LINKAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Khlopenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim is to structural synthesis of robust stabilizing control of the rotor flux vector control system of induction motor. Methodology. Synthesis controller structure was carried out in two stages. The first stage constructed a mathematical model of the channel of the rotor flux with parametric uncertainty and calculated transfer function of H∞-suboptimal controller by method of the mixed sensitivity. The second stage was carried out the expansion of the transfer function of the continued fraction for the Euclidean algorithm. This fraction was used to construct the controller structural scheme. Results. Computer modeling of the transfer function of H∞-suboptimal controller. Achieved decomposition found the transfer function of the continued fraction. The flow diagram of suboptimal H∞-controller with a proportional and integrating links and a few summers. The curves of transient rotor flux linkage in packages Robust Control Toolbox and Simulink. They coincide in the steady state, but differ among themselves in the transition. Originality. We developed the method of structural synthesis of robust stabilizing controller of the flux linkage rotor, H∞-suboptimal structural scheme of which is presented in the form of simple compounds integrating and proportional elements of the same order as the controller with the strictly correct transfer function, and takes into account the parametric uncertainty of control object. The results of the simulation of transient processes in a variety of packages MATLAB applications confirms the adequacy and small sensitivity of the system to parametric perturbation. Practical value. The resulting structure of the controller makes it possible to carry out the modernization of electric control systems, in use, with minimal financial costs.

  8. 三相ZVS逆变器磁链轨迹%Locus of Flux Linkage for Three-Phase ZVS Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国呈; 许春雨; 孙承波; 屈克庆; Taniguchi Katsunori

    2005-01-01

    ZVS(zero voltage switching) PWM(pulse width modulation) inverters have attracted much attention recently. The basic idea is to use ZVS circuit as the main circuit of inverter resonance at the beginning of every carrier period so that each power device can commutate when voltage of the main circuit' s DC bus line is zero. To ensure the resonant circuit to operate properly, sawtooth with alternate slope (positive or negative) is used as carrier. But the time of zero voltage vectors with such PWM pattern is greatly different from traditional hard-switching PWM pattern. This paper discusses the locus of flux linkage under soft-switching PWM pattern by using space voltage vector. It is pointed out that, under the hard-switching PWM pattern, speed of flux linkage is adjusted by zero space voltage vector. When soft-switching PWM pattern is used, however, effective time of space voltage vector varies considerably, sometimes even without zero space voltage vector. Therefore non-zero space voltage vector has been used to make the speed of flux linkage locus equal to that of hard-switching PWM pattern. The cause of current distortion in soft-switching PWM inverters is also discussed. Based on the flux linkage locus circle, corresponding compensation methods are proposed. Experimental results show that the described method can effectively improve output current waveform of inverter.

  9. A Novel Method to Magnetic Flux Linkage Optimization of Direct-Driven Surface-Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based on Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to magnetic flux linkage optimization of a direct-driven surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (D-SPMSG. A new compact representation of the D-SPMSG nonlinear dynamic differential equations to reduce system parameters is established. Furthermore, the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of new D-SPMSG equations in the process of varying magnetic flux linkage are considered, which are illustrated by Lyapunov exponent spectrums, phase orbits, Poincaré maps, time waveforms and bifurcation diagrams, and the magnetic flux linkage stable region of D-SPMSG is acquired concurrently. Based on the above modeling and analyses, a novel method of magnetic flux linkage optimization is presented. In addition, a 2 MW D-SPMSG 2D/3D model is designed by ANSYS software according to the practical design requirements. Finally, five cases of D-SPMSG models with different magnetic flux linkages are simulated by using the finite element analysis (FEA method. The nephograms of magnetic flux density are agreement with theoretical analysis, which both confirm the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  10. Sensor-less Field Oriented Control of Wind Turbine Driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Using Flux Linkage and Back EMF Estimation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porselvi Thayumanavan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at the speed control of the wind turbine driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG by sensor-less Field Oriented Control (FOC method. Two methods of sensor-less FOC are proposed to control the speed and torque of the PMSG. The PMSG and the full-scale converter have an increasing market share in variable speed Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS. When compared to the Induction Generators (IGs, the PMSGs are smaller, easier to control and more efficient. In addition, the PMSG can operate at variable speeds, so that the maximum power can be extracted even at low or medium wind speeds. Wind turbines generally employ speed sensors or shaft position encoders to determine the speed and the position of the rotor. In order to reduce the cost, maintenance and complexity concerned with the sensor, the sensor-less approach has been developed. This study presents the sensor-less control techniques using the flux-linkage and the back EMF estimation methods. Simulations for both the methods are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulated waveforms of the reference speed, the measured speed, the reference torque, the measured torque and rotor position are shown for both the methods.

  11. Spectrum Analysis of Wind Profiling Radar Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮征; 慕瑞琪; 魏鸣; 葛润生

    2014-01-01

    Unlike previous studies on wind turbulence spectrum in the planetary boundary layer, this investigation focuses on high-altitude (1-5 km) wind energy spectrum and turbulence spectrum under various weather conditions. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used to calculate the wind energy and turbulence spectrum density at high altitudes (1-5 km) based on wind profiling radar (WPR) measurements. The turbulence spectrum under stable weather conditions at high altitudes is expressed in powers within a frequency range of 2 × 10-5-10-3 s-1, and the slope b is between -0.82 and -1.04, indicating that the turbulence is in the transition from the energetic area to the inertial sub-range. The features of strong weather are reflected less obviously in the wind energy spectrum than in the turbulence spectrum, with peaks showing up at different heights in the latter spectrum. Cold windy weather appears over a period of 1.5 days in the turbulence spectrum. Wide-range rainstorms exhibit two or three peaks in the spectrum over a period of 15-20 h, while in severe convective weather conditions, there are two peaks at 13 and 9 h. The results indicate that spectrum analysis of wind profiling radar measurements can be used as a supplemental and helpful method for weather analysis.

  12. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas, E-mail: hadas.katz@monash.edu [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Rossouw, Chris J. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle-a 'thickness profile' image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by 'shot noise'. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to 'thickness profile' images. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The response in analysed across a range of conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  13. Flux Linkage Model with Nonlinear Electromagnetic Characteristics in Switched Reluctance Motor%开关磁阻电机非线性电磁特性的磁链模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘湘陵

    2015-01-01

    开关磁阻电机调速系统具有直流和交流调速系统的优点,在航空航天、机械电子、家电等领域获得了广泛的应用。由于开关磁阻电机的磁路饱和、涡流、磁滞效应等产生的非线性,使其精确的数学模型非常复杂,且难以解析计算。本文采用理论推导和曲线拟合的方法,根据开关磁阻电机定子的相电感表达函数,计算得到其电磁特性和拟合曲线,并与实测的磁链数据对比研究,从而推导出开关磁阻电机运动电势和增量电感的解析表达式,为其在线控制系统的设计和研究提供了指导。%Switched reluctance motor(SRM)has the advantages of DC and AC speed regulation system,which is widely used in aviation, aerospace,machinery,electronics,and household electrical appliances etc.On account of magnetic circuit saturation, eddy current and hysteresis effect of nonlinear of the SRM,whose precise mathematical model is very complex, and hard to analyze.In the paper,the method of theoretical derivation and curve fitting were adopted to calculate the electromagnetic characteristics according to the SRM stator phase inductance expression function.Compared with the measured data of flux linkage,we deduced the analytical expression of the SRM movement potential and incremental inductance,which provides a design and research guide for its online control system.

  14. 基于扩展磁链的永磁同步牵引电机失磁在线监测%On-line Demagnetization Detection of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Traction Motor Based on Extended Flux Linkage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刚; 罗意平; 张昌凡; 赵凯辉

    2016-01-01

    An online permanent magnet demagnetization failures detection method based on a minimum order ex‐tended flux linkage sliding mode observer was presented for torque closed‐loop control system of interior per‐manent magnet synchronous traction motor . After the establishment of a mathematical model in the two‐phase stationary reference frame for the demagnetization fault ,a variable rate reaching law sliding mode observer was built by using the extended flux linkage as state variables , to realize the reconstruction of torque and perma‐nent magnet flux linkage . The estimation method can accurately track the torque and permanent magnet flux linkage , with a shorter transient time , smaller overshoot in the dynamic process of the system , higher obser‐vation precision and stronger system robustness , It can offer real‐time accurate torque feedback and permanent magnet flux linkage information for the improvement of the control performance and reliability of the traction drive system of the permanent magnet synchronous motor . Then the RT‐LAB real‐time simulation was used to build the simulation model of hardware in the loop . The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method .%针对内置式永磁同步牵引电机转矩闭环控制系统,提出一种基于最小阶扩展磁链滑模变结构观测器的永磁体失磁在线监测方法。通过建立两相静止坐标系下永磁同步牵引电机失磁故障的数学模型,以扩展磁链为状态变量,构建变速趋近律滑模状态观测器,实现了转矩和永磁体磁链的重构。该方法能够准确观测转矩和永磁体磁链信息,系统动态响应速度快,动态过程超调小,观测精度高,系统鲁棒性更强,可为提高永磁同步电机牵引传动系统的控制性能和可靠性实时提供准确的转矩反馈和转子磁链信息。基于RT‐LAB搭建了硬件在环仿真试验系统,

  15. 一种磁链轨迹跟踪的PWM方法及其特性分析%PWM method of flux linkage trajectory tracking and analysis of its characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德会; 柳振凉; 夏晓昊; 张忠远

    2013-01-01

    A frequency control underlying implementation of induction motor was suggested based on flux linkage trajectory tracking.By changing the operate mode of inverter,the actual flux linkage was produced to tracking the reference flux linkage circle,and the corresponding pulse width modulation (PWM) waveform was also generated.The basic theoretical computing equation was deduced,a specific control strategy was suggested,and the characteristics of the PWM waveform generated was analyzed.Simulations and experimental results show that the modulation index is up to 1,and the voltage utilization is same as SVPWM,while 15.47% higher than SPWM.Furthermore,the existence of error upper limit was verified,which provides a quantitative basis for further analysis of the accuracy.%提出一种基于磁链轨迹跟踪策略的电动机变频调速方法.该方法不通过空间电压矢量的合成,而直接通过实际磁链矢量来跟踪基准磁链圆轨迹,再由跟踪的结果决定逆变器的开关状态模式,从而实现对脉冲宽度调制(PWM)波的调制输出.对该方法的基本原理进行推导,给出具体的控制策略,并对其产生的PWM波形特性进行系统分析.仿真及物理实验结果表明,该方法幅度调制比可达到1,电压利用率与空间矢量脉宽调制(SVPWM)方法相同,比正弦波脉宽调制(SPWM)提高15.47%;同时验证了其跟踪误差上限的存在性,为进一步分析该方法精确度提供了定量依据.该方法为变频调速的底层实现提供了另一种可行的途径.

  16. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  17. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  18. Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with SDSS10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this article we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.

  19. Exploration of ion temperature profile measurements at JET using the upgraded neutron profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marocco, D.; Esposito, B.; Riva, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    The neutron profile monitor (NPM), routinely used at the Joint European Torus for neutron emissivity profile measurements, consists of two fan-shaped arrays of collimators and each line of sight (LOS) is equipped with a NE213 liquid organic scintillator for simultaneous measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutrons. A digital system developed in ENEA has replaced the analog acquisition electronics and now enables the NPM to perform spatially resolved neutron spectrometry by providing neutron pulse height spectra (PHS) for each LOS. However, the NPM was not originally designed as a spectrometer and, therefore, lacks several key features, such as detailed measurements of the detector response functions and the presence of detector stability monitors. We present a proof of principle of ion temperature profile measurements derived from the NPM PHS in high plasma current discharges using simulated detector response functions.

  20. Absolute beam emittance measurements at RHIC using ionization profile monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Connolly, R [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Summers, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    In the past, comparisons between emittance measurements obtained using ionization profile monitors, Vernier scans (using as input the measured rates from the zero degree counters, or ZDCs), the polarimeters and the Schottky detectors evidenced significant variations of up to 100%. In this report we present studies of the RHIC ionization profile monitors (IPMs). After identifying and correcting for two systematic instrumental errors in the beam size measurements, we present experimental results showing that the remaining dominant error in beam emittance measurements at RHIC using the IPMs was imprecise knowledge of the local beta functions. After removal of the systematic errors and implementation of measured beta functions, precise emittance measurements result. Also, consistency between the emittances measured by the IPMs and those derived from the ZDCs was demonstrated.

  1. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonst......Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  2. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Structural Engineering and Materials; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonstrated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA.

  3. A note on some measures of profile agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R

    2008-03-01

    Profile similarity or agreement is increasingly used in personality research and clinical practice and has potential applications in many other fields of psychology. I compared 4 measures of profile agreement--the Pearson r, Cattell's (1949) r(p), McCrae's (1993) r(pa), and an intraclass correlation coefficient (double entry), ICC(DE)--using both broad factor and specific facet profiles. Matched versus mismatched self-ratings/other ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) were used as criteria. At the factor level, r(pa) and ICC(DE) were comparable, and both were superior to r(p) in distinguishing matched versus mismatched profiles. At the facet level, ICC(DE) was superior to the other coefficients. The Pearson r performed better than expected.

  4. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Van Belle, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.

    1994-07-01

    Gamma-ray emission from plasma-impurity reactions caused by minority ICRH accelerating fuel ions to MeV energies has been measured using the JET neutron profile monitor. A successful data analysis technique has been used to isolate the RF-induced gamma-ray emission that was detected, enabling profiles of gamma-ray emission to be obtained. The 2-d gamma-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Measurement Error Effects of Beam Parameters Determined by Beam Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-01-01

    A conventional method to determine beam parameters is using the profile measurements and converting them into the values of twiss parameters and beam emittance at a specified position. The beam information can be used to improve transverse beam matching between two different beam lines or accelerating structures. This work is related with the measurement error effects of the beam parameters and the optimal number of profile monitors in a section between MEBT (medium energy beam transport) and QWR (quarter wave resonator) of RAON linear accelerator.

  6. Microwave Measurements of Moisture Distributions in the Upper Soil Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, A. M.; Hancock, G. D.; Waite, W. P.; Scott, H. D.; Rand, J. A.

    1984-07-01

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of microwave remote sensing systems to detect the moisture status of a silt loam soil exhibiting abrupt changes in moisture content near the surface. Laboratory soil profiles were prepared with a discontinuous moisture boundary in the subsurface. Reflectivity measurements of these profiles were made with a bistatic reflectometer operating over the frequency ranges of 1-2 and 4-8 GHz (wavelength ranges of 30-15 and 7.5-3.75 cm, respectively). These measurements exhibited a well-developed coherent interference pattern in good agreement with a simple two-layer reflectivity model. Field measurements of bare soil surfaces were conducted for initially saturated profiles and continued for extended periods of drying. During drying, coherent interference patterns similar to those observed in the laboratory were detected. These appear to be due to steep moisture gradients occurring between drying layers near the surface. The field results were modeled by a five-segment linear moisture profile with one or two steep segments and a multilayer reflectivity program. Agreement between model and field response over the frequency range was used to estimate the depth of drying layers within the soil. These depths were monitored over the second and third drying cycles. Formation of the drying layers under field conditions appears to be influenced by drying time, tillage, and evaporative demand. In any case, it appears that the coherent effects caused by nonuniform moisture profiles may substantially affect the reflectivity of even rough soil surfaces.

  7. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  8. Modeling dune response using measured and equilibrium bathymetric profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauver, Laura A.; Thompson, David M.; Sallenger, Asbury H.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal engineers typically use numerical models such as SBEACH to predict coastal change due to extreme storms. SBEACH model inputs include pre-storm profiles, wave heights and periods, and water levels. This study focuses on the sensitivity of SBEACH to the details of pre-storm bathymetry. The SBEACH model is tested with two initial conditions for bathymetry, including (1) measured bathymetry from lidar, and (2) calculated equilibrium profiles. Results show that longshore variability in the predicted erosion signal is greater over measured bathymetric profiles, due to longshore variations in initial surf zone bathymetry. Additionally, patterns in predicted erosion can be partially explained by the configuration of the inner surf zone from the shoreline to the trough, with surf zone slope accounting for 67% of the variability in predicted erosion volumes.

  9. Retrieval of ozone profiles from GOMOS limb scattered measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tukiainen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument on board the Envisat satellite measures the vertical composition of the atmosphere using the stellar occultation technique. While the night-time occultations of GOMOS have been proven to be of good quality, the daytime occultations are more challenging due to weaker signal-to-noise ratio. During daytime GOMOS measures limb scattered solar radiation in addition to stellar radiation. In this paper we introduce a retrieval method that determines ozone profiles between 20–60 km from GOMOS limb scattered solar radiances. GOMOS observations contain a considerable amount of stray light at high altitudes. We introduce a method for removing stray light and demonstrate its feasibility by comparing the corrected radiances against those measured by the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph & Infra Red Imaging System instrument. For the retrieval of ozone profiles, a standard onion peeling method is used. The first comparisons with other data sets suggest that the retrieved ozone profiles in 22–50 km are within 10% compared with the GOMOS night-time occultations and within 15% compared with OSIRIS. GOMOS has measured about 350 000 daytime profiles since 2002. The retrieval method presented here makes this large amount of data available for scientific use.

  10. Tethered acoustic doppler current profiler platforms for measuring streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmel, Michael S.; Stewart, James A.; Morlock, Scott E.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey tested and refined tethered-platform designs for measuring streamflow. Platform specifications were developed, radio-modem telemetry of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data and potential platform-hull sources were investigated, and hulls were tested and evaluated.

  11. Significant improvements in long trace profiler measurement performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bresloff, C.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A Modifications made to the Long Trace Profiler (LTP II) system at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory have significantly improved the accuracy and repeatability of the instrument The use of a Dove prism in the reference beam path corrects for phasing problems between mechanical efforts and thermally-induced system errors. A single reference correction now completely removes both error signals from the measured surface profile. The addition of a precision air conditioner keeps the temperature in the metrology enclosure constant to within {+-}0.1{degrees}C over a 24 hour period and has significantly improved the stability and repeatability of the system. We illustrate the performance improvements with several sets of measurements. The improved environmental control has reduced thermal drift error to about 0.75 microradian RMS over a 7.5 hour time period. Measurements made in the forward scan direction and the reverse scan direction differ by only about 0.5 microradian RMS over a 500mm, trace length. We are now able to put 1-sigma error bar of 0.3 microradian on an average of 10 slope profile measurements over a 500mm long trace length, and we are now able to put a 0.2 microradian error bar on an average of 10 measurements over a 200mm trace length. The corresponding 1-sigma height error bar for this measurement is 1.1 run.

  12. Measurements of electron density profiles using an angular filter refractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberberger, D., E-mail: dhab@lle.rochester.edu; Ivancic, S.; Hu, S. X.; Boni, R.; Barczys, M.; Craxton, R. S.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14636 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A novel diagnostic technique, angular filter refractometry (AFR), has been developed to characterize high-density, long-scale-length plasmas relevant to high-energy-density physics experiments. AFR measures plasma densities up to 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3} with a 263-nm probe laser and is used to study the plasma expansion from CH foil and spherical targets that are irradiated with ∼9 kJ of ultraviolet (351-nm) laser energy in a 2-ns pulse. The data elucidate the temporal evolution of the plasma profile for the CH planar targets and the dependence of the plasma profile on target radius for CH spheres.

  13. Lidar method of measurement of atmospheric extinction and ozone profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a method of measurement of atmospheric extinction and of ozone profiles by use of the backscatter signal from a monostatic lidar is given. The central feature of the procedure involves a measurement of the ratio of the Raman backscatter returns of both the oxygen and nitrogen atmospheric content. Because the ratio of the number density of both species is known to high accuracy, the measurement itself becomes a measure of the ratio of two transmissions to altitude along with a ratio of the two system constants. The calibration measurement for determining the value of the ratio of the two system constants or electro-optical conversion constants is accomplished by a lidar measurement of identical atmospheric targets while at the same time interchanging the two optical filters in the two optical channels of the receiver. More details of the procedure are discussed. Factoring this calibrated value into the measured O2/N2 profile ratio provides a measured value of the ratio of the two transmissions. Or equivalently, it provides a measurement of the difference of the two extinction coefficients at the O2 and N2 Raman wavelengths as a function of the height.

  14. Antiproton beam profile measurements using Gas Electron Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Spanggaard, Jens; Tranquille, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X_0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEgIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  15. On the way to high dynamic range beam profile measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egberts, Jan; Artikova, Sayyora [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Welsch, Carsten [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute of Accelerator Science and Technology (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    A thorough understanding of halo formation and its possible control is highly desirable for essentially all particle accelerators. Particles outside the beam core are not only lost for further experiments, they are also likely to hit the drift chamber and thereby activate the beam pipe, which makes work on the accelerator costly and time consuming. A well-established technique for transverse beam profile measurements is synchrotron radiation (SR) for high energy and high luminosity accelerators like the LHC or CTF3. At much lower beam energies, an alternative for transverse beam profile measurements based on the direct measurement of light is optical transition radiation (OTR) or the insertion of a luminescent screen. What applies for essentially all these light generation processes, is that the light intensity is over a wide range proportional to the particle density, which makes the optical analysis of such light an ideal tool for beam profile measurements. A particular challenge, however, is to distinguish the particles in the tail regions of the beam distribution from the much more intense beam core. In this contribution, we present results from laboratory measurements on two different devices that might form the technical base of a future beam halo monitor: the novel SpectraCam XDR camera system and a flexible masking technique based on a DMD micro mirror array.

  16. Analysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Allaart, M.; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2015-04-01

    A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles using an ozonesonde balloon. In total, 63 launches with ascending and descending profiles were performed between 2006 and 2010. The measured uncalibrated actinic flux profiles are analysed using the Doubling-Adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model. Values of the cloud optical thickness (COT) along the flight track were taken from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) product. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux profile is evaluated on the basis of the cloud modification factor (CMF) at the cloud top and cloud base, which is the ratio between the actinic fluxes for cloudy and clear-sky scenes. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected: the largest enhancement occurs at the cloud top due to multiple scattering. The actinic flux decreases almost linearly from cloud top to cloud base. Above the cloud top the actinic flux also increases compared to clear-sky scenes. We find that clouds can increase the actinic flux to 2.3 times the clear-sky value at cloud top and decrease it to about 0.05 at cloud base. The relationship between CMF and COT agrees well with DAK simulations, except for a few outliers. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost. It is worth further developing the instrument and launching it together with atmospheric chemistry composition sensors.

  17. Electro-0ptical Bunch Profile Measurement at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, R; Farabolini, W; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Martyanov, M; Mazzoni, S; Timeo, L; Rey, S; Jamison, S; Gillespie, W; Walsh, D

    2013-01-01

    A new electro-optic bunch profile monitor has recently been installed in CLIC Test Facility 3 at CERN. The monitor is based on an electro-optic spectral decoding scheme which reconstructs the longitudinal profile of the electron bunch by measuring its Coulomb field. The system uses a 780 nm fibre laser system, transported over a 20m long distance to the interaction chamber, where a ZnTe crystal is positioned close to the beam. The assembly also contains a traditional OTR screen, which is coupled to a second optical line and used to adjust the temporal overlap between the laser and the electron pulse. This paper presents the detection system in detail, as well as reporting on the first measurements performed with beam.

  18. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  19. 128 slice computed tomography dose profile measurement using thermoluminescent dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehhon, N.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Ang, W. C.; Musa, Y.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice marks the needs to understand the dose descriptor and dose profile. The purposes of the current study were to determine the CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIair) in 128 slice CT scanner and to evaluate the single scan dose profile (SSDP). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) were used to measure the dose profile of the scanner. There were three sets of CT protocols where the tube potential (kV) setting was manipulated for each protocol while the rest of parameters were kept constant. These protocols were based from routine CT abdominal examinations for male adult abdomen. It was found that the increase of kV settings made the values of CTDIair increased as well. When the kV setting was changed from 80 kV to 120 kV and from 120 kV to 140 kV, the CTDIair values were increased as much as 147.9% and 53.9% respectively. The highest kV setting (140 kV) led to the highest CTDIair value (13.585 mGy). The p-value of less than 0.05 indicated that the results were statistically different. The SSDP showed that when the kV settings were varied, the peak sharpness and height of Gaussian function profiles were affected. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of dose profiles for all protocols were coincided with the nominal beam width set for the measurements. The findings of the study revealed much information on the characterization and performance of 128 slice CT scanner.

  20. Neutron emission profiles and energy spectra measurements at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomelli, L. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, 0X14 3DB, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Conroy, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, 0X14 3DB, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Belli, F.; Riva, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Roma (Italy); Gorini, G. [Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy and Istituto di Física del Plasma Piero Caldirola, Milan (Italy); Horton, L.; Joffrin, E.; Lerche, E.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, 0X14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2014-08-21

    The Joint European Toras (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world. It is devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D) or Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. JET has been upgraded over the years and recently it has also become a test facility of the components designed for ITER, the next step fusion machine under construction in Cadarache (France). JET makes use of many different diagnostics to measure the physical quantities of interest in plasma experiments. Concerning D or DT plasmas neutron production, various types of detectors are implemented to provide information upon the neutron total yield, emission profile and energy spectrum. The neutron emission profile emitted from the JET plasma poloidal section is reconstructed using the neutron camera (KN3). In 2010 KN3 was equipped with a new digital data acquisition system capable of high rate neutron measurements (<0.5 MCps). A similar instrument will be implemented on ITER and it is currently in its design phase. Various types of neutron spectrometers with different view lines are also operational on JET. One of them is a new compact spectrometer (KM12) based on organic liquid scintillating material which was installed in 2010 and implements a similar digital data acquisition system as for KN3. This article illustrates the measurement results of KN3 neutron emission profiles and KM 12 neutron energy spectra from the latest JET D experimental campaign C31.

  1. A Moored Underwater Energy Conservation System for Profiling Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There is a need to obtain the hydrologic data including ocean current, wave, temperature and so on in the South China Sea. A new profiling instrument which does not suffer from the damage due to nature forces or incidents caused by passing ships, is under development to acquire data from this area. This device is based on a taut single point mid-water mooring system. It incorporates a small, instrumented vertically profiling float attached via an electromechanical cable to a winch integral with the main subsurface flotation. On a pre-set schedule, the instrument float with sensors is winched up to the surface if there is no ship passing by, which is defined by an on-board miniature sonar. And it can be immediately winched down to a certain depth if the sonar sensor finds something is coming. Since, because of logistics, the area can only be visited once for a long time and a minimum of 10 times per day profiles are desired, energy demands are severe. To respond to these concerns, the system has been designed to conserve a substantial portion of the potential energy lost during the ascent phase of each profile and subsequently use this energy to pull the instrument down. Compared with the previous single-point layered measuring mode,it is advanced and economica1. At last the paper introduces the test in the South China Sea.

  2. Measurements of temperature profiles at the exit of small rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, M; Harshbarger, F C

    1966-02-01

    The sodium line reversal technique was used to determine the reversal temperature profile across the exit of small rockets. Measurements were made on one 73-kg thrust rocket, and two 23-kg thrust rockets with different injectors. The large rocket showed little variation of reversal temperature across the plume. However, the 23-kg rockets both showed a large decrease of reversal temperature from the axis to the edge of the plume. In addition, the sodium line reversal technique of temperature measurement was compared with an infrared technique developed in these laboratories.

  3. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  4. Retrieval of ozone profiles from GOMOS limb scattered measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tukiainen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument on board the Envisat satellite measures the vertical composition of the atmosphere using the stellar occultation technique. While the night-time data of GOMOS are proved to be of good quality, the daytime observations are more challenging due to poorer signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper we present an alternative technique, which uses GOMOS limb scattered radiances instead of the stellar signal, to retrieve stratospheric ozone profiles. Like for many other limb-viewing instruments, GOMOS observations contain stray light at high altitudes. We introduce a method for removing the stray light and demonstrate its feasibility by comparing the corrected radiances against those from the OSIRIS (Optical Spectrograph & Infra Red Imaging System instrument. For the retrieval of ozone profiles, an onion peeling method is used. The first validation results suggest that the retrieval of stratospheric ozone is possible with a typical accuracy better than 10% at 22–50 km. GOMOS has measured about 350 000 daytime profiles since 2002. The new retrieval method presented here makes this large amount of data finally available for scientific use.

  5. MODELLING AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A ROAD PROFILE MEASURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Patel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During a vehicle development program, load data representing severe customer usage is required. The dilemma faced by a design engineer during the design process is that during the initial stage, only predicted loads estimated from historical targets are available, whereas the actual loads are available only at the fag end of the process. At the same time, changes required, if any, are easier and inexpensive during the initial stages of the design process whereas they are extremely costly in the latter stages of the process. The use of road profiles and vehicle models to predict the load acting on the whole vehicle is currently being researched. This work hinges on the ability to accurately measure road profiles. The objective of the work is to develop an algorithm, using MATLAB Simulink software, to convert the input signals into measured road profile. The algorithm is checked by the MATLAB Simulink 4 degrees of freedom half car model. To make the whole Simulink model more realistic, accelerometer and laser sensor properties are introduced. The present work contains the simulation of the mentioned algorithm with a half car model and studies the results in distance, time, and the frequency domain.

  6. Employing Beam-Gas Interaction Vertices for Transverse Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rihl, Mariana; Baglin, Vincent; Barschel, Colin; Bay, Aurelio; Blanc, Frederic; Bravin, Enrico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Chritin, Nicolas; Dehning, Bernd; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Gaspar, Clara; Gianì, Sebastiana; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Greim, Roman; Haefeli, Guido; Hopchev, Plamen; Jacobsson, Richard; Jensen, Lars; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Jurado, Nicolas; Kain, Verena; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kirn, Thomas; Kuhn, Maria; Luthi, Berengere; Magagnin, Paolo; Matev, Rosen; Nakada, Tatsuya; Neufeld, Niko; Panman, Jaap; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Salvant, Benoit; Schael, Stefan; Schneider, Olivier; Schwering, Georg; Tobin, Mark; Veness, Raymond; Veyrat, Quentin; Vlachos, Sotiris; Wlochal, Michael; Xu, Zhirui; von Dratzig, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of high-energy beam particles with residual gas offer a unique opportunity to measure the beam profile in a non-intrusive fashion. Such a method was successfully pioneered* at the LHCb experiment using a silicon microstrip vertex detector. During the recent Large Hadron Collider shutdown at CERN, a demonstrator Beam-Gas Vertexing system based on eight scintillating-fibre modules was designed**, constructed and installed on Ring 2 to be operated as a pure beam diagnostics device. The detector signals are read out and collected with LHCb-type front-end electronics and a DAQ system consisting of a CPU farm. Tracks and vertices will be reconstructed to obtain a beam profile in real time. Here, first commissioning results are reported. The advantages and potential for future applications of this technique are discussed.

  7. Measuring Neutron Star Radii via Pulse Profile Modeling with NICER

    CERN Document Server

    Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Morsink, Sharon; Baubock, Michi

    2015-01-01

    The Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics payload that will be placed on the International Space Station. Its primary science goal is to measure with high accuracy the pulse profiles that arise from the non-uniform thermal surface emission of rotation-powered pulsars. Modeling general relativistic effects on the profiles will lead to measuring the radii of these neutron stars and to constraining their equation of state. Achieving this goal will depend, among other things, on accurate knowledge of the source, sky, and instrument backgrounds. We use here simple analytic estimates to quantify the level at which these backgrounds need to be known in order for the upcoming measurements to provide significant constraints on the properties of neutron stars. We show that, even in the minimal-information scenario, knowledge of the background at a few percent level for a background-to-source countrate ratio of 0.2 allows for a measurement of the neutron star compactness to better t...

  8. Effects of Carbon Depth Profile on INS Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielopolski, L.

    2007-12-01

    Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) is a new system for measuring carbon in soil in situ that is non-destructive. In addition the INS can be used in stationary or scanning modes of operation enabling type of measurements not possible till now. It is based on counting 4.44 MeV characteristic gamma rays emitted from carbon nuclei undergoing inelastic neutron scattering with fast, 14 MeV, neutrons. Because of the attenuation of the neutrons, on their way in, and of the gamma rays, on their way out, the large volume of about 0.3 m3 sampled by the INS system causes it to respond preferentially to carbon atoms located near the surface. Thus, the carbon signal depends on the variations in the carbon depth profile; however, this dependence is reduced by an averaging process resulting from the large footprint of about 1 m2 of the INS system. The encountered variability in the depth profiles on small 30 cm scale and on large field size scale is presented for various fields. We also show results of Monte Carlo simulations of the INS response to various carbon depth profiles. Experimentally we show that depending on the field conditions, i.e. profound variability in the carbon depth profile or extensive changes in the carbon distribution in the field, the scanning results with the INS system may differ from the mean value calculated from few INS discrete stationary measurements. Since the static measurements are analogous to conventional chemical analysis using soil cores, it raises the question which type of measurement is more representative of the field carbon content; the discrete chemical analysis using geostatistical considerations or continuous field scanning made possible with the INS system. Clearly the new INS methodology introduces novel capabilities for soil carbon analysis not possible with the conventional approach of dry combustion. The advantages and pitfalls of the INS system with the need to defining practical new calibration concepts for it are discussed in

  9. Development of a New Generation of Optical Slope Measuring Profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, V.V.; Takacs, P.; McKinney, W.R.; Assoufid, L.; Siewert, F.; Zeschke, T.

    2011-10-26

    A collaboration including all DOE synchrotron laboratories and industrial vendors of X-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group, has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler - the Optical Slope Measuring System (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be <50 nrad for the current and future metrology of X-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable, and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  10. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V., E-mail: vvyashchuk@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Takacs, Peter Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McKinney, Wayne R. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Assoufid, Lahsen [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY-II, Albert-Einstein-Street 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    A collaboration including all DOE synchrotron laboratories and industrial vendors of X-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group, has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler-the Optical Slope Measuring System (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be <50 nrad for the current and future metrology of X-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable, and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  11. Development of a new generation of optical slope measuring profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Takacs, Peter Z.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-09-16

    A collaboration, including all DOE synchrotron labs, industrial vendors of x-ray optics, and with active participation of the HBZ-BESSY-II optics group has been established to work together on a new slope measuring profiler -- the optical slope measuring system (OSMS). The slope measurement accuracy of the instrument is expected to be<50 nrad for the current and future metrology of x-ray optics for the next generation of light sources. The goals were to solidify a design that meets the needs of mirror specifications and also be affordable; and to create a common specification for fabrication of a multi-functional translation/scanning (MFTS) system for the OSMS. This was accomplished by two collaborative meetings at the ALS (March 26, 2010) and at the APS (May 6, 2010).

  12. Hamiltonian Evolution of Monokinetic Measures with Rough Momentum Profile

    KAUST Repository

    Bardos, Claude W.

    2014-12-27

    Consider a monokinetic probability measure on the phase space (Formula presented.) , i.e. (Formula presented.) where Uin is a vector field on RN and ρin a probability density on RN. Let Φt be a Hamiltonian flow on RN × RN. In this paper, we study the structure of the transported measure (Formula presented.) and of its integral in the ξ variable denoted ρ(t). In particular, we give estimates on the number of folds in (Formula presented.) , on which μ(t) is concentrated. We explain how our results can be applied to investigate the classical limit of the Schrödinger equation by using the formalism of Wigner measures. Our formalism includes initial momentum profiles Uin with much lower regularity than required by the WKB method. Finally, we discuss a few examples showing that our results are sharp.

  13. Atmospheric Temperature Profile Measurements Using Mobile High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razenkov, Ilya I.; Eloranta, Edwin W.

    2016-06-01

    The High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison discriminates between Mie and Rayleigh backscattering [1]. It exploits the Doppler effect caused by thermal motion of molecules, which broadens the spectrum of the transmitted laser light. That allows for absolute calibration of the lidar and measurements of the aerosol volume backscatter coefficient. Two iodine absorption filters with different absorption line widths (a regular iodine vapor filter and Argon buffered iodine filter) allow for atmospheric temperature profile measurements. The sensitivity of the measured signal-to-air temperature ratio is around 0.14%/K. The instrument uses a shared telescope transmitter-receiver design and operates in eyesafe mode (the product of laser average power and telescope aperture equals 0.1 Wm2 at 532 nm).

  14. Atmospheric Temperature Profile Measurements Using Mobile High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razenkov Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison discriminates between Mie and Rayleigh backscattering [1]. It exploits the Doppler effect caused by thermal motion of molecules, which broadens the spectrum of the transmitted laser light. That allows for absolute calibration of the lidar and measurements of the aerosol volume backscatter coefficient. Two iodine absorption filters with different absorption line widths (a regular iodine vapor filter and Argon buffered iodine filter allow for atmospheric temperature profile measurements. The sensitivity of the measured signal-to-air temperature ratio is around 0.14%/K. The instrument uses a shared telescope transmitter-receiver design and operates in eyesafe mode (the product of laser average power and telescope aperture equals 0.1 Wm2 at 532 nm.

  15. High Resolution Shear Profile Measurements in Entangled Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Hayes, Keesha A.

    2008-11-17

    We use confocal microscopy and particle image velocimetry to visualize motion of 250-300 nm. fluorescent tracer particles in entangled polymers subject to a rectilinear shear flow. Our results show linear velocity profiles in polymer solutions spanning a wide range of molecular weights and number of entanglements (8≤Z≤56), but reveal large differences between the imposed and measured shear rates. These findings disagree with recent reports that shear banding is a characteristic flow response of entangled polymers, and instead point to interfacial slip as an important source of strain loss. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  16. Measurement of Current Profile in a Tokamak Through AC Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The plasma current is modulated with an alternating current (ac) component in a frequency range of 90 Hz~900 Hz in the plateau discharge phase in the CT-6B tokamak. A plasma electric conductivity profile in a form of (1 - r2/a2)α with a parameter α, which is fitted with the experimental data, can be determined. The effects of magnetic shear in a tokamak field configuration on the current penetration are taken into account in the numerical simulation. The measurement method and obtained results are discussed.

  17. Enzyme activity measurement via spectral evolution profiling and PARAFAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Andreas; Meyer, Anne S.; Garcia, Javier Lopez

    2013-01-01

    The recent advances in multi-way analysis provide new solutions to traditional enzyme activity assessment. In the present study enzyme activity has been determined by monitoring spectral changes of substrates and products in real time. The method relies on measurement of distinct spectral...... fingerprints of the reaction mixture at specific time points during the course of the whole enzyme catalyzed reaction and employs multi-way analysis to detect the spectral changes. The methodology is demonstrated by spectral evolution profiling of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral fingerprints using...

  18. Measuring the longitudinal bunch profile at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, A E; Bettoni, S; Braun†, H H; Corsini, R; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Shaker, H; Soby, L; Skowronski, P K; Tecker, F; Velasco, M

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) is being built and commissioned by an international collaboration in order to test the feasibility of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) two-beam acceleration scheme. The monitoring and control of the bunch length throughout the CTF3 complex is important since this affects the efficiency and the stability of the final RF power production process. Bunch length diagnostics therefore form an essential component of the beam instrumentation at CTF3. This paper presents longitudinal profile measurements based on Streak camera and non-destructive RF power and microwave spectrometry techniques.

  19. Normalized velocity profiles of field-measured turbidity currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingping

    2010-01-01

    Multiple turbidity currents were recorded in two submarine canyons with maximum speed as high as 280 cm/s. For each individual turbidity current measured at a fixed station, its depth-averaged velocity typically decreased over time while its thickness increased. Some turbidity currents gained in speed as they traveled downcanyon, suggesting a possible self-accelerating process. The measured velocity profiles, first in this high resolution, allowed normalizations with various schemes. Empirical functions, obtained from laboratory experiments whose spatial and time scales are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, were found to represent the field data fairly well. The best similarity collapse of the velocity profiles was achieved when the streamwise velocity and the elevation were normalized respectively by the depth-averaged velocity and the turbidity current thickness. This normalization scheme can be generalized to an empirical function Y = exp(–αXβ) for the jet region above the velocity maximum. Confirming theoretical arguments and laboratory results of other studies, the field turbidity currents are Froude-supercritical.

  20. Pre-correction of projected gratings for surface profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lu, Hua

    2008-11-01

    This paper discusses errors caused by unequal grating pitch in applying the phase-shifted digital grating projection method for object profile measurement. To address the related issues, a new scheme is proposed to effectively improve the uniformity of the projected grating pitch across the object surface with no additional hardware cost. The improvement is mainly realized via a grating pitch pre-correction algorithm assisted by Digital Speckle/Image Correlation (DSC/DIC). DIC is utilized to accurately determine the surface grating pitch variation when an originally equal-pitched grating pattern is slant projected to the surface. With the actual pitch distribution function determined, a pre-corrected grating with unequal pitch is generated and projected, and the iterative algorithm reaches a constant pitched surface grating. The mapping relationship between the object surface profile (or out-of-plane displacement) and the fringe phase changes is obtained with a real-time subtraction based calibration. A quality guide phase unwrapping method is also adopted in the fringe processing. Finally, a virtual reference phase plane obtained by a 3-point plane fitting algorithm is subtracted to eliminate the carrier phase. The study shows that a simple optical system implemented with the mentioned improvements remarkably increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the measurement.

  1. Residual Gas Fluorescence for Profile Measurements at the GSI UNILAC

    CERN Document Server

    Forck, P

    2002-01-01

    The high beam currents, delivered at the LINAC at GSI (UNILAC) can destroy intercepting diagnostics within one macro-pulse. As an alternative for a non-destructive profile measurement the methode for residual-gas-fluorescence is investigated. The fluorescence light is emitted by the N2 molecules of the residual gas at the blue wavelength range and can be monitored with a modern CCD-camera. The images are transferred via digital bus (IEEE 1394 'FireWire') and the profiles are generated by analysis of the images with a modern software tool (National Instruments 'LabView'). Due to the short beam pulses (about 0.2 ms) the light intensities emitted by the residual gas are low and require a high amplification (gain >106) which is realized with an image intensifier with double MCP (multi channel plate), connected with a fiber taper to the CCD-chip. The design parameters of the optics and electronics are discussed as well as the advantages of the digital data transmission. Measurements with heavy ion beams of several...

  2. Estimation of road profile variability from measured vehicle responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauriat, W.; Mattrand, C.; Gayton, N.; Beakou, A.; Cembrzynski, T.

    2016-05-01

    When assessing the statistical variability of fatigue loads acting throughout the life of a vehicle, the question of the variability of road roughness naturally arises, as both quantities are strongly related. For car manufacturers, gathering information on the environment in which vehicles evolve is a long and costly but necessary process to adapt their products to durability requirements. In the present paper, a data processing algorithm is proposed in order to estimate the road profiles covered by a given vehicle, from the dynamic responses measured on this vehicle. The algorithm based on Kalman filtering theory aims at solving a so-called inverse problem, in a stochastic framework. It is validated using experimental data obtained from simulations and real measurements. The proposed method is subsequently applied to extract valuable statistical information on road roughness from an existing load characterisation campaign carried out by Renault within one of its markets.

  3. Lidar Aerosol Profiles Measured From Halifax During Summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, L.; Duck, T. J.; Doyle, J.; Harris, R.; Beauchamp, S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere were obtained with a high-power Raman Lidar from Halifax, Nova Scotia (44.63N, 63.58W) on the East Coast of Canada during Summer 2007. Observations throughout the troposphere at high temporal resolution were made possible by using a new dual-receiver setup. The lidar was operated in clear-sky conditions, and several long duration (> 80 hours) data sets were obtained. The measurements reveal the presence of boundary-layer aerosols during episodes of pollution transport from the Eastern US and Canada, and are compared with surface measurements of ozone and other species. Boundary layer development, entrainment and mixing are evident in the data. Structured plumes at higher altitudes are traced back to biomass burning events throughout North America. Aerosols were also observed on two occasions at 15 km in altitude, and are most likely due to pyroconvection. The measurements are being used to help understand transport and mixing processes, and to form a climatology of aerosol export from North America during the summer months.

  4. On Machine Capacitance Dimensional and Surface Profile Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Ralph

    1993-01-01

    A program was awarded under the Air Force Machine Tool Sensor Improvements Program Research and Development Announcement to develop and demonstrate the use of a Capacitance Sensor System including Capacitive Non-Contact Analog Probe and a Capacitive Array Dimensional Measurement System to check the dimensions of complex shapes and contours on a machine tool or in an automated inspection cell. The manufacturing of complex shapes and contours and the subsequent verification of those manufactured shapes is fundamental and widespread throughout industry. The critical profile of a gear tooth; the overall shape of a graphite EDM electrode; the contour of a turbine blade in a jet engine; and countless other components in varied applications possess complex shapes that require detailed and complex inspection procedures. Current inspection methods for complex shapes and contours are expensive, time-consuming, and labor intensive.

  5. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  6. Temperature Profile Measurements During Heat Treatment of BSCCO 2212 Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, Alvin; /Fermilab

    2011-04-14

    The temperature profile of two different BSCCO 2212 coils has been analyzed. The profiles are obtained from thermocouples imbedded in the windings during the heat treatment that activates the 2212. The melting and freezing of the 2212 is clearly observed. A model that describes the data and can be used to guide the processing of new coils has been developed. We have obtained the thermal history of two BSCCO coils, one from NHMFL (1) that had 10 layers of 1 mm diameter wire with 0.15 mm insulation and a second coil from OST that had 24 layers with similar insulation and conductor size. Both coils had thermocouples imbedded in the windings and excellent recordings of the temperature over the whole reaction cycle were available for analysis. There are several features that we will address in this note. Measurements have shown that the I{sub c} of the conductor is a sensitive function of its thermal history. This brings up the question of the absolute accuracy of the thermometry in the range around 882 C, the MP of 2212. The reference for the treatment profile is really related to this MP and to small deviations around it. Since the heat of fusion of 2212 is rather large, it generates a clear signal during the melting and cooling transition that automatically generates the relative temperature markers. The physics is the same as the way ice in water maintains an isothermal environment until it is all melted. A related question is the thermal response time of the coil package. The temperature cycles that are being used to optimize strand and small coils can have rapid changes easily implemented whereas a large coil may have such a large thermal time constant that the optimum cycle may not be attainable. A simple analytical model that works well for small solenoids has been developed and an ANSYS (5) program that works for larger coils with more complicated geometry has been set up but will not be discussed in this note.

  7. Radiation profiles measured through clouds using a return glider radiosonde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf; Kivi, Rigel

    2016-04-01

    With new and improved radiation sensors in a small glider aircraft vertical flights through clouds have been conducted. This new Return Glider Radiosonde (RG-R) is lifted up with double balloon technique to keep the radiation instruments as horizontal as possible during ascent. The RG-R is equipped with a routine radiosonde to transmit the data to a ground station and an autopilot to fly the glider radiosonde back to the launch site, where it lands autonomous with a parachute. The RG-R was successfully tested and deployed for tropospheric and stratospheric radiation measurements up to 30 hPa (24 km altitude) at the GRUAN sites Payerne (Switzerland) and Sodankylä (Finland). Radiation profiles and the radiation budget through the atmosphere during different daytimes and under cloud-free and cloudy situations will be shown in relation to temperature and humidity at the surface and in the atmosphere. The RG-R flight characteristics and new measurement possibilities will also be discussed.

  8. Offshore wind profiling using light detection and ranging measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Gryning, Sven-Erik;

    2009-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of the ZephlR (R), a continuous-wave, focused light detection and ranging (LiDAR) wind profiler, to observe offshore winds and turbulence characteristics were tested during a 6 month campaign at the tronsformer/platform of Hams Rev, the world's largest wind form....... The LiDAR system is a ground-based sensing technique which avoids the use of high and costly meteorological masts. Three different inflow conditions were selected to perform LiDAR wind profiling. Comparisons of LiDAR mean wind speeds against cup anemometers from different masts showed high correlations...... for the open sea sectors and good agreement with their longitudinal turbulence characteristics. Cup anemometer mean wind speed profiles were extended with LiDAR profiles up to 161 m on each inflow sector. The extension resulted in a good profile match for the three surrounding masts. These extended profiles...

  9. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  10. Instantaneous velocity profile measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Instantaneous wall shear stress and streamwise velocities have been measured simultaneously in a flat-plate, turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number in an effort to provide experimental support for large eddy simulations. Data were obtained using a buried-wire, wall shear gage and a hot-wire rake positioned in the log region of the flow. Fluctuations of the instantaneous U(+) versus Y(+) profiles about a mean law of the wall are shown to be significant and complex. Peak cross-correlation values between wall shear stress and the velocities are high, and reflect the passage of a large structure inclined at a small angle to the wall. Estimates of this angle are consistent with those made by other investigators. Conditional sampling techniques were used to detect the passage of various sizes and types of flow disturbances (events), and to estimate their mean frequency of occurrence. Events characterized by large aand sudden streamwise accelerations were found to be highly coherent throughout the log region and were strongly correlated with large fluctuations in wall shear stress. Phase randomness between the near-wall quantities and the outer velocities was small. The results suggest that the flow events detected by conditional sampling applied to velocities in the log region may be related to the bursting process.

  11. Estimating the Retrievability of Temperature Profiles from Satellite Infrared Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A method is developed to assess retrievability, namely the retrieval potential for atmospheric temperature profiles, from satellite infrared measurements in clear-sky conditions. This technique is based upon generalized linear inverse theory and empirical orthogonal function analysis. Utilizing the NCEP global temperature reanalysis data in January and July from 1999 to 2003, the retrievabilities obtained with the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder/3 (HIRS/3)sounding channel data are derived respectively for each standard pressure level on a global scale. As an incidental result of this study, the optimum truncation number in the method of generalized linear inverse is deduced too. The results show that the retrievabilities of temperature obtained with the two datasets are similar in spatial distribution and seasonal change characteristics. As for the vertical distribution, the retrievabilities are low in the upper and lower atmosphere, and high between 400 hPa and 850 hPa. For the geographical distribution, the retrievabilities are low in the low-latitude oceanic regions and in some regions in Antarctica, and relatively high in mid-high latitudes and continental regions. Compared with the HIRS/3 data, the retrievability obtained with the AIRS data can be improved by an amount between 0.15 and 0.40.

  12. Measuring protoplanetary disk gas surface density profiles with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Jonathan P Williams Conor

    2016-01-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best (2014) to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, Mgas = 0.048 solar masse, and accretion disk characteristic size Rc = 213au and gradient gamma = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2--1 image and indicates an abundance ratio [13CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2--1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 Jupiter masses at 150pc, ALMA observations with a resolutio...

  13. Temperature Profile Measurements During Heat Treatment of BSCCO 2212 Coils

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The temperature profile of two different BSCCO 2212 coils has been analyzed. The profiles are obtained from thermocouples imbedded in the windings during the heat treatment that activates the 2212. The melting and freezing of the 2212 is clearly observed. A model that describes the data and can be used to guide the processing of new coils has been developed.

  14. Burying of channel optical waveguides: relation between near-field measurement and Ag concentration profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wan-Shao; Liu, Yen-Huang; Barkman, Ondrej; Prajzler, Vaclav; Stanek, Stanislav; Nekvindova, Pavla

    2015-01-01

    Two-step field-assisted ion-exchanged waveguides have been fabricated on a glass substrate. The concentration profiles of the exchanged ions were measured with electron microprobe. The waveguides were characterized under scanning electron microscope and optical microscope for the investigation of burying structures. Guiding mode patterns were characterized with near-field measurement, where symmetric profiles were observed for the burying-type waveguide. The refractive index profiles were also measured with a modified end-fire coupling method. The relation between ion concentration profiles and index profiles were compared for the waveguides with different fabrication process.

  15. Measurement of inner and/or outer profiles of pipes using ring beam devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, T.; Yoshizawa, T.

    2009-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and industry. Here we propose a measurement method for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without any contact probe. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In the hitherto-tried experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been highly evaluated and usability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disklike light beam sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated in a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose an improved method for measuring the external profile in addition to the internal profile. In our arrangement, one pair of concaved conical mirrors is used for the external profile measurement. In combination with the inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of the inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of newly proposed principle. Now we are aiming to realize simultaneous measurement of the internal

  16. Quantitative Two-Dimensional Dopant Profile Measurement on Semiconductors by Scanning Probe Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunji

    1995-01-01

    A Scanning Capacitance Microscope (SCM) has been built to measure two-dimensional (2D) dopant density profiles on semiconductor materials. A quasi-one-dimensional(1D) analytical model has been constructed for inverting the measured SCM data to dopant profile. Local Capacitance -Voltage (C-V) measurements have been performed on n ^+/n and p^+/n ion implanted silicon wafers and systematic results have been obtained. Dopant profile measurements by SCM have been performed on both top surfaces and cross-sectional surfaces of ion implanted silicon wafers. After inversion, a good agreement has been found between the SCM profile and the profiles obtained by other independent methods such as Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Spreading Resistance Profiling (SRP), and process simulation (SUPREM IV). The dissertation presented here consists of four chapters. The first chapter introduces the dopant profile measurement and gives a review of existing doping profiling methods. The advantages of SCM for dopant profile measurement are discussed in this chapter. The second chapter concentrates on the instrumentation of SCM, SCM tip preparation, and silicon sample preparation for dopant profile measurement by SCM. The third chapter describes the tip/sample modeling by which the measured capacitance signal is inverted to dopant profile. The calculation of the electrostatic force between a tip and semiconductor sample as a function of dopant density is also presented in this chapter. Finally, in the fourth chapter, the SCM measurement results are presented and the inverted 2D profiles are compared with the results obtained by other independent methods. A discussion about measurement sensitivity, spatial resolution, modeling errors, and future works is presented.

  17. Tropospheric O3 measurement by simultaneous differential absorption lidar and null profiling and comparison with sonde measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Tetsuo; Fujii, Takashi; Cao, Nianwen; Nemoto, Koshichi; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2001-09-01

    A differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system consisting of two identical tunable laser systems and a single optical receiver is applied to measurement of O3 concentration profiles in the lower troposphere. Each laser is capable of emitting two wavelengths on alternate pulses, so the system is capable of simultaneous measurement of two species in the same wavelength region. We set the two lasers to emit at identical wavelength pairs consisting of on wavelength 285.0 nm and off wavelength 290.1 nm for simultaneous measurement of two null profiles, one at each wavelength, and two DIAL profiles, or O3 concentration profiles. Null profiles are useful in estimating instrumental error and checking the vertical range interval in which the DIAL profiles are accurate. Null and DIAL profiles are obtained for vertical range 1000 to 4000 m using neutral density filters of different transmissions to prevent the strong return signals from close range from saturating the photodetector. The obtained O3 concentration profiles agree with simultaneous O3 sonde measurements. An evaluation of the measurement error shows that the average O3 measurement error for vertical range 1000 to 4000 m was 3.4 ppb, or 8% relative to the average O3 concentration of 42.3 ppb, most of which is due to statistical error. The error due to differential Mie attenuation and differential backscatter gradient was found to be 0.5 ppb.

  18. Torque Closed-loop Vector Control Based on Extended Flux Linkage Observer of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor%基于扩展磁链观测的永磁同步电机转矩闭环矢量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑英; 占琦; 张兴; 郭磊磊; 周岩峰

    2014-01-01

    The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) used in wind turbine and electric vehicle situations usually has to directly track the torque command issued by the main control system.As a matter of fact,however,no torque test components such as a torque sensor is available in an actual system.So the exact acquisition of the observed torque is of utmost importance for the torque control system.To enhance the torque observer performance,this paper proposes a real-time stator flux linkage observation method based on a minimum extended flux linkage observer,through which the stator flux linkage and the electrical torque are calculated.The proposed stator flux linkage observer is not only free from the flaws of the traditional pure integral strategy,such as saturation,phase shift,amplitude deviation,and so on,but also,as a pure integral strategy,is robust for parameter deviation, namely, the precision of the observed torque is basically unaffected by the direct-and quadrature-axis inductance and the rotor flux linkage.Simulations and experiments on an 11kW PMSM have validated the performance of the proposed method.%用于风力发电和电动汽车等特殊应用场合中的永磁同步电机(PMSM)驱动器通常需要直接跟踪主控系统下发的转矩指令,而实际系统中通常不安装扭矩仪等转矩检测部件,因此,电磁转矩的准确获取对高精度转矩闭环至关重要。文中提出了一种基于最小阶扩展磁链观测器的实时定子磁链观测方案,并在此基础上完成电磁转矩的观测计算。该定子磁链观测方案不仅可以避免传统方案造成的积分饱和、相位或幅值偏差等不利影响,而且该观测方案具有较强的参数鲁棒性,其转矩观测计算精度基本不受PMSM交、直轴电感以及转子磁链的影响。11 kW的 PMSM仿真与实验验证了该方案的可行性和有效性。

  19. Single-step spatial rotation error separation technique for the ultraprecision measurement of surface profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Maosheng; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Wang, Fan; Liu, Entao; Ji, Lin

    2014-01-20

    To improve the measurement accuracy of the profilometer for large optical surfaces, a new single-step spatial rotation error separation technique (SSEST) is proposed to separate the surface profile error and spindle spatial rotation error, and a novel SSEST-based system for surface profile measurement is developed. In the process of separation, two sets of measured results at the ith measurement circle are obtained before and after the rotation of error separation table, the surface profile error and spatial rotation error of spindle can be determined using discrete Fourier-transform and harmonic analysis. Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate that SSEST can accurately separate spatial rotation error of spindle from the measured surface profile results within the range of 1-100 upr and improve the accuracy of surface profile measurements.

  20. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  1. Analysis of the Influence of Fibre Diameter on Wirescanner Beam Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    King, Quentin

    1988-01-01

    It is often important to be able to measure beam profiles in regions where the beam size is very small. Following concern that the profile measurement might be affected by having a beam size of the same order as the diameter of the wirescanner fibre, the effect was analysed numerically, and the results are presented.

  2. A Simple Superresolution Approach of Multipath Delay Profiles Measured by PN Correlation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Time resolution of multipath delay profiles measured by using autocorrelation of pseudonoise (PN) code sequence is generally limitec by the chip rate of the PN code sequence. In this paper, we propose a simple method to improve the time resolution of delay profiles measured by the PN correlation method. Effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by indoor wireless propagation experiments.

  3. A comparison on radar range profiles between in-flight measurements and RCS-predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, R. van der; Ewijk, L.J. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The validation of Radar Cross Section (RCS) prediction techniques against real measurements is crucial to acquire confidence in predictions when measurements are nut available. In this paper we present the results of a comparison on one-dimensional signatures, i.e. radar range profiles. The profiles

  4. Sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer for real-time surface profile measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guotian He; Xiangzhao Wang; Aijun Zeng; Feng Tang

    2007-01-01

    A sinusoidal phase-modulating (SPM) laser diode (LD) interferometer for real-time surface profile measurement is proposed and its principle is analyzed. The phase signal of the surface profile is detected from the sinusoidal phase-modulating interference signal using a real-time phase detection circuit. For 60 × 60 measurement points of the surface profile, the measuring time is 10 ms. A root mean square (RMS) measurement repeatability of 3.93 nm is realized, and the measurement resolution reaches 0.19 nm.

  5. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kanjirakat; Reza Sadr

    2016-01-01

    We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2–water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase ...

  6. Modeling and Experimental Tests of a Mechatronic Device to Measure Road Profiles Considering Impact Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, A.; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    profile by means of gravitational and spring forces. Accelerometers are attached above the rolling wheels and the wheels follow the profiles of a rough ground. After integrating the acceleration signal twice and measuring the vehicle displacement the road profiles can be achieved. It is important...... to highlight that the aim of this device is to independently measure two road profiles, without the influence of the vehicle dynamics where the mechanism is attached. Before the mechatronic mechanism is attached to a real vehicle, its dynamic behavior must be known. A theoretical analysis of the mechanism...

  7. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2016-01-01

    We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2-water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  8. Near-wall velocity profile measurement for nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kanjirakat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform near-wall velocity measurements of a SiO2–water nanofluid inside a microchannel. Nanoparticle image velocimetry measurements at three visible depths within 500 nm of the wall are conducted. We evaluate the optical properties of the nanofluid and their effect on the measurement technique. The results indicate that the small effect of the nanoparticles on the optical properties of the suspension have a negligible effect on the measurement technique. Our measurements show an increase in nanofluid velocity gradients near the walls, with no measurable slip, relative to the equivalent basefluid flow. We conjecture that particle migration induced by shear may have caused this increase. The effect of this increase in the measured near wall velocity gradient has implications on the viscosity measurement for these fluids.

  9. On the measurement by EDX of diffusion profiles of Ni/Cu assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    To characterise (inter)diffusion in materials, concentration profiles can be measured by EDX. It allows one to determine the chemical composition with a very good accuracy if measurement artefacts are accounted for. Standard phenomena (such as X-ray fluorescence) are usually corrected by commercial software. However, the effect of the pear-shaped volume of X-ray emission on the concentration profiles has to be considered. The paper describes the origin of this artefact, its consequences on measurements and will provide a practical solution (based on signal processing methods) to deconvolute the actual concentration profiles (or the diffusion coefficient) from the raw measurements.

  10. Validation of the "Security Needs Assessment Profile" for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, B W M; Au-Yeung, C C Y; Chan, A W L; Chan, L S Y; Yuen, K K; Leung, H W; Yan, C K; Ng, K K; Lai, A C H; Davies, S; Collins, M

    2017-05-17

    Mapping forensic psychiatric services with the security needs of patients is a salient step in service planning, audit and review. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients was not yet available. This study aimed to develop and validate the Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile for measuring the profiles of security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. The Security Needs Assessment Profile by Davis was translated into Chinese. Its face validity, content validity, construct validity and internal consistency reliability were assessed by measuring the security needs of 98 Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Principal factor analysis for construct validity provided a six-factor security needs model explaining 68.7% of the variance. Based on the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the internal consistency reliability was rated as acceptable for procedural security (0.73), and fair for both physical security (0.62) and relational security (0.58). A significant sex difference (p=0.002) in total security score was found. The Chinese version of the Security Needs Assessment Profile is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing the security needs of Chinese forensic psychiatric inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling and measurements of bunch profiles at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, S. [Crete U.; Antoniou, F. [Liverpool U.; Argyropoulos, T. [CERN; Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Hostettler, M. [CERN; Papaphilippou, Y. [CERN

    2017-07-20

    The bunch profiles in the LHC are often observed to be non-Gaussian, both at Flat Bottom (FB) and Flat Top (FT) energies. Especially at FT, an evolution of the tail population in time is observed. In this respect, the Monte-Carlo Software for IBS and Radiation effects (SIRE) is used to track different types of beam distributions. The impact of the distribution shape on the evolution of bunch characteristics is studied. The results are compared with observations from the LHC Run 2 data.

  12. EAST equilibrium current profile reconstruction using polarimeter-interferometer internal measurement constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. P.; Lao, L. L.; Liu, H. Q.; Ding, W. X.; Zeng, L.; Luo, Z. P.; Ren, Q. L.; Huang, Y.; Huang, J.; Brower, D. L.; Hanada, K.; Chen, D. L.; Sun, Y. W.; Shen, B.; Gong, X. Z.; Xiao, B. J.; Wan, B. N.

    2017-03-01

    The first equilibrium reconstruction of EAST current-density profile based on internal Faraday rotation measurements provided by the POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) diagnostic is demonstrated using the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code. EFIT incorporates 11 simultaneous line-integrated density and Faraday effect measurements from POINT to self-consistently reconstruct the equilibrium toroidal current density profile using a Faraday rotation reconstruction algorithm. It is shown that the POINT measurements can be applied to improve the accuracy of core plasma current density and q profile on EAST. Comparisons of magnetic surfaces and the q profile reconstructed using external magnetic data against those using magnetic and POINT data are presented. Equilibrium reconstructions using POINT data are found to be consistent with sawtooth phenomena. The sensitivity of equilibrium reconstruction to POINT measurements indicates Faraday rotation provides important constraints for determining the current profile.

  13. The Australian MRI-Linac Program: measuring profiles and PDD in a horizontal beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, J.; George, A.; Alnaghy, S. J.; Causer, T.; Alharthi, T.; Glaubes, L.; Dong, B.; Goozee, G.; Liney, G.; Holloway, L.; Keall, P.

    2017-02-01

    The Australian MRI-Linac consists of a fixed horizontal photon beam combined with a MRI. Commissioning required PDD and profiles measured in a horizontal set-up using a combination of water tank measurements and gafchromic film. To validate the methodology, measurements were performed comparing PDD and profiles measured with the gantry angle set to 0 and 90° on a conventional linac. Results showed agreement to within 2.0% for PDD measured using both film and the water tank at gantry 90° relative to PDD acquired using gantry 0°. Profiles acquired using a water tank at both gantry 0 and 90° showed agreement in FWHM to within 1 mm. The agreement for both PDD and profiles measured at gantry 90° relative to gantry 0° curves indicates that the methodology described can be used to acquire the necessary beam data for horizontal beam lines and in particular, commissioning the Australian MRI-linac.

  14. A lidar system for measuring atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Korb, C. Laurence; Milrod, Jeffry; Walden, Harvey

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of a differential absorption lidar system capable of remotely measuring the vertical structure of tropospheric pressure and temperature are described. The measurements are based on the absorption by atmospheric oxygen of the spectrally narrowband output of two pulsed alexandrite lasers. Detailed laser output spectral characteristics, which are critical to successful lidar measurements, are presented. Spectral linewidths of 0.026 and 0.018 per cm for the lasers were measured with over 99.99 percent of the energy contained in three longitudinal modes.

  15. A new technique for measurements of the urethra pressure profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, M; Ulmsten, U

    1976-01-01

    A new standardized technique for continuous recording of the urethral pressure profile simultaneously with intravesical pressure has been developed. The pressures were recorded using two micr-transducers enclosed in a thin Dacron catheter. The catheter moved with a constant speed through the urethra with the aid of a specially designed instrument. This instrument is described. Twenty-five healthy women were examined. The patients were divided into two groups: (A) 10 postmenopausal women, and (B) 15 fertile women. The results of the recordings showed that the functional length and the absolute length of the urethra could be reproduced with an error of less than 1 mm. The maximal pressure amplitude was significantly less in group A.

  16. Synergetic ground-based methods for remote measurements of ozone vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyev, Yuriy; Kostsov, Vladimir; Virolainen, Yana

    2013-05-01

    The technique of combining ground-based measurements in infrared and microwave spectral regions in order to achieve higher accuracy of ozone profile retrieval in extensive altitude ranges is described and analyzed. The information content, errors, altitude ranges and vertical resolution of ozone profile retrieval have been studied on the basis of numerical simulation of synergetic experiments. Optimal conditions of measurements are defined and requirements to additional information are formulated. The first results on ozone vertical profile retrieval using groundbased measurements of FTIR-spectrometer and microwave radiometer are given.

  17. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2014-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  18. Measurements of dimensional accuracy using linear and scanning profile techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A; Huggett, R; Zissis, A

    1992-01-01

    Various measurement methods have been described for the determination of dimensional accuracy and stability of denture base materials. This investigation introduces a computerised coordinate measuring machine (CCMM) and compares it with two methods routinely used for assessment of the accuracy of fit of denture base materials. The results demonstrate that the three methods (digital calipers, optical comparator, and CCMM) are acceptable for linear measurement. The CCMM was also used in its scanning mode to define and to quantify the contour changes of the resin bases. The advantages of the CCMM become apparent when two-dimensional changes require assessment.

  19. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a Geopr...

  20. Sources of errors in the measurements of underwater profiling radiometer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Silveira, N.; Suresh, T.; Talaulikar, M.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Lotlikar, A.

    There are various sources of errors from the measurements of optical parameters using a radiometer, which can be classified as mode of deployment, instrument and environment. The errors from the deployment are primarily from the ship...

  1. LHC Beam Instrumentation: Beam Profile Measurements (2/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a full suite of sophisticated beam instrumentation which has been essential for rapid commissioning, the safe increase in total stored beam power and the understanding of machine optics and accelerator physics phenomena. These lectures will introduce these systems and comment on their contributions to the various stages of beam operation. They will include details on: the beam position system and its use for real-time global orbit feedback; the beam loss system and its role in machine protection; total and bunch by bunch intensity measurements; tune measurement and feedback; diagnostics for transverse beam size measurements, abort gap monitoring and longitudinal density measurements. Issues and problems encountered along the way will also be discussed together with the prospect for future upgrades.

  2. A measurement model of multiple intelligence profiles of management graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Heamalatha; Awang, Siti Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    In this study, developing a fit measurement model and identifying the best fitting items to represent Howard Gardner's nine intelligences namely, musical intelligence, bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence are the main interest in order to enhance the opportunities of the management graduates for employability. In order to develop a fit measurement model, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied. A psychometric test which is the Ability Test in Employment (ATIEm) was used as the instrument to measure the existence of nine types of intelligence of 137 University Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) management graduates for job placement purposes. The initial measurement model contains nine unobserved variables and each unobserved variable is measured by ten observed variables. Finally, the modified measurement model deemed to improve the Normed chi-square (NC) = 1.331; Incremental Fit Index (IFI) = 0.940 and Root Mean Square of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.049 was developed. The findings showed that the UTeM management graduates possessed all nine intelligences either high or low. Musical intelligence, mathematical/logical intelligence, naturalist intelligence and spiritual intelligence contributed highest loadings on certain items. However, most of the intelligences such as bodily kinaesthetic intelligence, visual/spatial intelligence, verbal/linguistic intelligence interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence possessed by UTeM management graduates are just at the borderline.

  3. Measurement of deuterium ion temperature profiles at TEXTOR-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, E.; Euringer, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Jaspers, R. [FOM Inst. voor Plasmafysica `Rijnhuizen`, Association EURATOM-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) has been used to compare results on ion temperatures from several diagnostics at TEXTOR-94. The question of whether the typically measured width of impurity spectral lines is representative for the main ion temperature T{sub I}, is addressed by applying CXRS to the Balmer-alpha spectrum of deuterium. The importance of the halo effect is found not to be severe for the T{sub I} measurements. T{sub I} is lower than the impurity temperatures for low-density discharges with neutral beam heating. The time evolution of T{sub I} and the toroidal rotation were also measured during sawtooth oscillations. From this a lower bound for the ion heat diffusivity {chi}{sub I}{sup HP} of {approx} 2 m{sup 2} s{sup -1} has been deduced. (author).

  4. IMAGE PROFILE AREA CALCULATION BASED ON CIRCULAR SAMPLE MEASUREMENT CALIBRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A practical approach of measurement calibration is presented for obtaining the true area of the photographed objects projected in the 2-D image scene. The calibration is performed using three circular samples with given diameters. The process is first to obtain the ratio mm/pixel in two orthogonal directions, and then use the obtained ratios with the total number of pixels scanned within projected area of the object of interest to compute the desired area. Compared the optically measured areas with their corresponding true areas, the results show that the proposed method is quite encouraging and the relevant application also proves the approach adequately accurate.

  5. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  6. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument (panel

  7. Measuring Resiliency in Youth: The Resiliency Attitudes and Skills Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtes, Karen P.; Allen, Lawrence R.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development and validation of a self-report instrument for measuring resiliency in youth for recreation and other social services, noting that the instrument is not yet ready for use under all conditions and that while use of structural equation modeling removes some subjectivity, results of this type of analysis are still left to…

  8. Development of an inner profile measurement instrument using a ring beam device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, T.; Wakayama, T.

    2010-11-01

    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and other industrial applications. Here we describe recent development of our measurement principle for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without using any contact type stylus. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In our hitherto trial experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been evaluated in many cases and availability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disk-like light sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument at this point. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated into a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose potentially possible method for measurement of external profile at the same time with internal profile. If one pair of concave mirrors are used in our arrangement, external profile is captured. In combination with inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of here proposed

  9. Opto-thermal Moisture Content and Moisture Depth Profile Measurements in Organic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Peng; GUO Xin-xin; CUI Ying-xin; Robert E. Imhof; Dane Bicanic

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements. In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture content of fruit (tomato, grape, etc. ) skins, and to study the relationship between fruits ripening process and their surface moisture and moisture depth profiles.

  10. Measurement of the temperature profile during evaporation of water and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbanova Ekaterina G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature profiles across a liquid–gas layers at normal atmospheric conditions are measured for water and ethanol. A thin liquid layer is locally heated from the bottom and evaporates from the liquid–gas interface. Micro-thermocouple with the sensor element thickness of 3 μm is used for measurements. It is shown that the temperature profile has a different character for different liquids.

  11. A subharmonic detrending or data-smoothing approach for longitudinal road profile measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used figure-of-merits for longitudinal road profiles such as the International Roughness Index (IRI) and the Ride Number (RN) are based on statistical properties. Raw measured longitudinal road profile data may contain large trending components especially when the measurements are made...... without significantly corrupting the short wavelength content of the profile data. The method called sub-harmonic detrending works by fitting sub-harmonic sinusoids to the data followed by circular filtering in order to remove the trend. The method is also well suited for data-smoothing....

  12. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  13. Estimation of volcanic ash emission profiles using ceilometer measurements and transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Lok; Geiß, Alexander; Gasteiger, Josef; Wagner, Frank; Wiegner, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the number of active remote sensing systems grows rapidly, since several national weather services initiated ceilometer networks. These networks are excellent tools to monitor the dispersion of volcanic ash clouds and to validate chemical transport models. Moreover, it is expected that the can be used to refine model calculations to better predict situations that might be dangerous for aviation. As a ceilometer can be considered as a simple single-wavelength backscatter lidar, quantitative aerosol profile information, i.e., the aerosol backscatter coefficient (βp) profile, can be derived provided that the ceilometer is calibrated. Volcanic ash concentration profile can then be estimated by using prior optical properties of volcanic ash. These profiles are then used for the inverse calculation of the emission profile of the volcanic eruption, thus, improving one of the most critical parameters of the numerical simulation. In this study, the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) is used to simulate the dispersion of volcanic ash. We simulate the distribution of ash for a given time/height grid, in order to compute the sensitivity functions for each measurements. As an example we use ceilometer measurements of the German weather service to reconstruct the temporal and spatial emission profile of Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. We have also examined the sensitivity of the retrieved emission profiles to different measurement parameters, e.g., geolocation of the measurement sites, total number of measurement sites, temporal and vertical resolution of the measurements, etc. The first results show that ceilometer measurements in principle are feasible for the inversion of volcanic ash emission profiles.

  14. Optimal sets of measurement data for profile reconstruction in scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, H.; Rathsfeld, A.; Scholze, F.; Bär, M.; Dersch, U.

    2007-06-01

    We discuss numerical algorithms for the determination of periodic surface structures from light diffraction patterns. With decreasing feature sizes of lithography masks, increasing demands on metrology techniques arise. Scatterometry as a non-imaging indirect optical method is applied to simple periodic line structures in order to determine parameters like side-wall angles, heights, top and bottom widths and to evaluate the quality of the manufacturing process. The numerical simulation of diffraction is based on the finite element solution of the Helmholtz equation. The inverse problem seeks to reconstruct the grating geometry from measured diffraction patterns. Restricting the class of gratings and the set of measurements, this inverse problem can be reformulated as a non-linear operator equation in Euclidean spaces. The operator maps the grating parameters to special efficiencies of diffracted plane wave modes. We employ a Gauss-Newton type iterative method to solve this operator equation. The reconstruction properties and the convergence of the algorithm, however, is controlled by the local conditioning of the non-linear mapping. To improve reconstruction and convergence, we determine optimal sets of efficiencies optimizing the condition numbers of the corresponding Jacobians. Numerical examples are presented for "chrome on glass" masks under the wavelength 632.8 nm and for EUV masks.

  15. Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    High spectral resolution and nanometer sized foci of 3rd generation SR beamlines can only be achieved by means of ultra precise optical elements. The improved brilliance and the coherence of free electron lasers (FEL) even push the accuracy limits and make the development of a new generation of ultra precise reflective optical elements mandatory. Typical elements are wave front preserving plane mirrors (lengths of up to 1 m, residual slope errors ˜0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for the micro-roughness) and curved optical elements like spheres, toroids or elliptical cylinder (residual slope error ˜0.25 μrad (rms) and better). These challenging specifications and the ongoing progress in finishing technology need to be matched by improved accuracy metrology instruments. We will discuss the results of recent developments in the field of metrology made in the BESSY-II-optics laboratory (BOL) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), by the use of vertical angle comparator (VAC) in use to calibrate the nanometer optical component measuring machine (NOM). The BESSY-NOM represents an ultra accurate type of slope measuring instruments characterized by an accuracy of 0.05 μrad (rms) for plane substrates and 0.2 μrad (rms) for significant curved surfaces.

  16. Vertical profile measurements of carbonylsulfide in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    Measurements of COS in the altitude region between 17 and 30 km were made, using a whole air sampling technique with subsequent gaschromatographic analysis. The data show COS mixing-ratios from about 200 pptv at 17 km decreasing to less then 20 pptv at about 28 km. This behaviour is in qualitative agreement with the model-calculations by Turco et al. (1981). From the correlation with CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 the lifetime with respect to removal in the stratosphere is calculated to be 69±28 years. This corresponds to a sink of between 47 and 112 * 109 g of COS per year in the stratosphere. Comparing this number to the estimated fluxes needed to sustain the background sulfuric-acid aerosol confirms that most of the non-volcanic aerosol is produced by the oxidation of COS in the stratosphere.

  17. Study on measurement of refractive index profile of GI-POF by light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifen, Jiang; Xiang'e, Han

    2009-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the study on measurement of refractive index profile of graded-index polymer optical fiber (GI-POF) by light scattering. Using Generalized Airy theory and Debye series of an inhomogeneous cylinder, the scattering intensity distributions are obtained of Airy structure of rainbows for different refractive index profile. The results show that positions of Airy peaks depend closely on refractive index profile of GI-POF. Since each order of rainbow penetrates it to different depths, such methods could be used to provide information of the refractive index profile of GI-POF. For GI-POF with given diameter, positions of Airy peaks of rainbows are simulated as a function of refractive index profile, which can be used to inverse unknown parameters of refractive index profile. The least square method is used in inversion of refractive index profile with the given refractive index of the cladding. The results obtained agree with theoretical values with high precision. The method has the advantages of non-instructive and on-line measurement, and can be used for the measurement of other inhomogeneous droplets.

  18. Development of ultrasonic velocity profile method for flow rate measurements of power plant (effect of measurement volume on turbulent flow measurement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroshige, Kikura; Gentaro, Yamanaka; Tsuyoshi, Taishi; Masanori, Aritomi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Yasushi, Takeda [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Michitsugu, Mori [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Ultrasonic Velocity Profile method has many advantages for flow rate measurement of power plant over the conventional flow measurement methods, such as measurement of the instantaneous velocity profile along the measuring line and its applicability to opaque liquids. Furthermore, the method has an advantage of being non-intrusive. Hence, it is applicable to various flow conditions, although it requires a relatively large measurement volume. In this paper, the effects of the measurement volume on the mean velocity profile for flow rate measurements of power plant and the Reynolds stress measurement have been investigated for fully developed turbulent pipe flows in a vertical pipe. The results are then compared with data obtained by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). (authors)

  19. Study on error analysis and accuracy improvement for aspheric profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huimin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fang, Fengzhou

    2017-06-01

    Aspheric surfaces are important to the optical systems and need high precision surface metrology. Stylus profilometry is currently the most common approach to measure axially symmetric elements. However, if the asphere has the rotational alignment errors, the wrong cresting point would be located deducing the significantly incorrect surface errors. This paper studied the simulated results of an asphere with rotational angles around X-axis and Y-axis, and the stylus tip shift in X, Y and Z direction. Experimental results show that the same absolute value of rotational errors around X-axis would cause the same profile errors and different value of rotational errors around Y-axis would cause profile errors with different title angle. Moreover, the greater the rotational errors, the bigger the peak-to-valley value of profile errors. To identify the rotational angles in X-axis and Y-axis, the algorithms are performed to analyze the X-axis and Y-axis rotational angles respectively. Then the actual profile errors with multiple profile measurement around X-axis are calculated according to the proposed analysis flow chart. The aim of the multiple measurements strategy is to achieve the zero position of X-axis rotational errors. Finally, experimental results prove the proposed algorithms achieve accurate profile errors for aspheric surfaces avoiding both X-axis and Y-axis rotational errors. Finally, a measurement strategy for aspheric surface is presented systematically.

  20. Vertical profile and aerosol size distribution measurements in Iceland (LOAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Vignelles, Damien; Verdier, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Cold climate and high latitudes regions contain important dust sources where dust is frequently emitted, foremost from glacially-derived sediments of riverbeds or ice-proximal areas (Arnalds, 2010; Bullard, 2013). Iceland is probably the most active dust source in the arctic/sub-arctic region (Dagsson-Waldhauserova, 2013). The frequency of days with suspended dust exceeds 34 dust days annually. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin; it is very dark in colour and contains sharp-tipped shards with bubbles. Such properties allow even large particles to be easily transported long distances. Thus, there is a need to better understand the spatial and temporal variability of these dusts. Two launch campaigns of the Light Optical Aerosols Counter (LOAC) were conducted in Iceland with meteorological balloons. LOAC use a new optical design that allows to retrieve the size concentrations in 19 size classes between 0.2 and 100 microm, and to provide an estimate of the main nature of aerosols. Vertical stratification and aerosol composition of the subarctic atmosphere was studied in detail. The July 2011 launch represented clean non-dusty season with low winds while the November 2013 launch was conducted during the high winds after dusty period. For the winter flight (performed from Reykjavik), the nature of aerosols strongly changed with altitude. In particular, a thin layer of volcanic dust was observed at an altitude of 1 km. Further LOAC measurements are needed to understand the implication of Icelandic dust to the Arctic warming and climate change. A new campaign of LAOC launches is planned for May 2014. Reference: Arnalds, O., 2010. Dust sources and deposition of aeolian materials in Iceland. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences 23, 3-21. Bullard, J.E., 2013. Contemporary glacigenic inputs to the dust cycle. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38, 71-89. Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P., Arnalds O., Olafsson H. 2013. Long-term frequency and characteristics of dust storm events in

  1. Relative vegetation profiles in a Neotropical forest: comparison of lidar instrumentation and field-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, F. B.; Palace, M. W.; Ducey, M.; Czarnecki, C.; Zanin Shimbo, J.; Mota e Silva, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered to be some of the most structurally complex forests in the world. Understanding vegetation height structure in these forests can aid in understanding the spatial temporal components of disturbance, from blowdowns to gap dynamics. Vegetation profiles can be used to better estimate carbon storage and flux across the landscape. Using light detection and ranging (lidar) data collected at La Selva, Costa Rica from four instruments (three airborne, one terrestrial) at four times since 2005, and field data collected in January 2012, we generated relative vegetation profiles for twenty plots in La Selva. Relative vegetation profiles were derived from lidar data by accounting for obscured plant material through a log transformation of the cumulative proportion of observations (percent canopy closure). Profiles were derived from field data using two different sets of allometric equations describing crown shape and tree height. We conducted a cluster analysis on similarity matrices developed in R (version 2.14.1) using three different metrics (sum of squares, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Kolmogorov-Smirnov D statistic) and identified general similarity between lidar profiles. Results were consistent across each of the three similarity metrics. Three distinct clusters were found, with profiles from three airborne lidar instruments, two profiles from a terrestrial lidar instrument, and profiles derived from field data forming the clusters. Our results indicate that although estimating lidar relative vegetation profiles from field data was not possible, terrestrial lidar relative vegetation profiles are generally similar to airborne relative vegetation profiles. Given the rapidity and repeatability of terrestrial lidar measurements, these results show promise for terrestrial lidar instruments to collect plot-specific data on forest structure and vertical distribution of plant material. Furthermore, identifying relationships between terrestrial and

  2. Measuring vertical oxygen profiles in the hyporheic zone using planar optodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-04-01

    On of the key parameters, controlling biogeochemical reactions in the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the distribution of oxygen. A reliable measurement of the vertical oxygen distribution is an important tool to understand the dynamic fluctuations of the aerobic zone within the HZ. With repeated measurements of continuous profiles, mixing of surface water and groundwater as well as the consumption of oxygen can be evaluated. We present a novel approach for the in situ measurements of vertical oxygen distribution in the riverbed using a planar optode. The luminescence based optode measurement enables a non invasive measurement without consumption of oxygen, no creation of preferential flow paths and only minimal disturbance of the flow field. Possible atmospheric contamination by pumping pore water into a vessel can be avoided and the readings are independent of flow velocity. A self manufactured planar optode is wrapped around an acrylic tube and installed in the riverbed. The measurement is performed by vertically moving a profiler-piston inside the acrylic tube. The piston holds a robust polymer optical fibre which emits a modulated light signal through the acrylic glass to the optode-foil and transmits the induced luminescence signal back to a commercially available trace oxygen meter. Temperature compensation is accomplished using a depth-oriented temperature probe nearby and processing the raw data within a Matlab script. Robust and unbiased oxygen profiles are obtained by averaging multiple consecutive measurements. To ensure a constant velocity of the profiler for replicating the exact measuring depths, an electric motor device is used. First results at our test site show a variable oxygen profile down to 40 cm depth which is strongly influenced by stream level and upwelling groundwater conditions. The measured oxygen profiles will serve as input parameter for a 3D solute transport and chemical reaction subsurface model of the HZ.

  3. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  4. Improved measures for the cross-national comparison of age profiles of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude; Bell, Martin; Charles-Edwards, Elin

    2014-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate the application of a concise set of measures intended to encapsulate key features of the age profile of internal migration and highlight the significant differences that exist between nations in these profiles. Model schedules have been the most common method of comparing internal migration patterns but issues related to the estimation and interpretation of their parameters hinder their use for cross-national comparison. We demonstrate that the interpretation of exponential coefficients as rates of ascent and descent does not best reflect the slopes of migration age profiles, and we propose more consistent measures based on the rate of change in migration intensity. We demonstrate, through correlation and factor analysis, that most of the inter-country variance in migration age profiles is captured by the age at and intensity of peak migration. The application of these two indicators to 25 countries reveals significant differences between regions.

  5. Error Correction of Measured Unstructured Road Profiles Based on Accelerometer and Gyroscope Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a noncontact acquisition system composed of several time synchronized laser height sensors, accelerometers, gyroscope, and so forth in order to collect the road profiles of vehicle riding on the unstructured roads. A method of correcting road profiles based on the accelerometer and gyroscope data is proposed to eliminate the adverse impacts of vehicle vibration and attitudes change. Because the power spectral density (PSD of gyro attitudes concentrates in the low frequency band, a method called frequency division is presented to divide the road profiles into two parts: high frequency part and low frequency part. The vibration error of road profiles is corrected by displacement data obtained through two times integration of measured acceleration data. After building the mathematical model between gyro attitudes and road profiles, the gyro attitudes signals are separated from low frequency road profile by the method of sliding block overlap based on correlation analysis. The accuracy and limitations of the system have been analyzed, and its validity has been verified by implementing the system on wheeled equipment for road profiles’ measuring of vehicle testing ground. The paper offers an accurate and practical approach to obtaining unstructured road profiles for road simulation test.

  6. Roller Profile Online Measurement Based on Ultrasonic Circulation Pulse-echo Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Shu-hui; XU Feng-rong

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet the high precision requirement of wide steel strip in industry field, a novel online measurement of roller profile based on sonic circulation and pulse-echo technology was introduced. All kinds of the factors influencing the accuracy of roller profile online measurement were analyzed in detail and error compensation analysis of system was accordingly presented. In order to reduce count error, field program gate array(FPGA) was introduced and a highprecision data acquisition system was designed based on digital phase-shift technology. Experiments indicate that the standard deviation of measure data was 7.27 μm, which showed the feasibility and validity of the proposed method, and realized the roll profile measurement with high precision.

  7. Effect of beam profile measurement on arc therapy plan quality assurance: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leonard H; Malajovich, Irina; Reyhan, Meral L; Xue, Jinyu; Park, Joo Han

    2017-05-01

    We present an example when profile measurement and modeling of an Elekta Agility multileaf collimator (MLC) had a large effect specifically on arc therapy plan quality assurance (QA) results using ArcCheck. ArcCheck absolute dose measurements of these plans were systematically lower than planned by 3-10%. Failing QA results were seen even with unmodulated static and conformal arcs. Furthermore, the effect was found to be dependent on collimator angle, with worse results associated with near-zero collimator angles. In contrast, step-and-shoot QA results were not affected. Changing the beam model to match steeper profile measurements obtained using a different measurement device resolved the problem. This case study demonstrates that conventional gamma index analysis can be sensitive to small profile modeling changes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. A rocket radiobeacon experiment on the electron concentration profile measurements in the bottomside of the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, V. M.; Lvova, G. P.; Guliaeva, T. L.; Pakhomov, S. V.; Glotov, A. P.

    The possibility of measuring the electron density profile in the height interval 70-110 km with a two-frequency coherent transmitter set mounted on a 'small' geophysical rocket of type M-100 is investigated. Results are presented of measurements using the phase Doppler method carried out at middle latitudes in May 1979 and February 1980. Good consistency of the profiles measured for the D and E regions of the ionosphere with those of IRI is not always obtained, even when the correct helio and geophysic conditions of the experiments are given for calculations with IRI.

  9. Comparison of NO2 vertical profiles from satellite and ground based measurements over Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Pavan; Bortoli, Daniele; Costa, Maria João; Silva, Ana Maria; Ravegnani, Fabrizio; Giovanelli, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The Intercomparison of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical profiles, derived from the satellite based HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) measurements and from the ground based UV-VIS spectrometer GASCOD (Gas Analyzer Spectrometer Correlating Optical Differences) observations at the Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS), in Antarctica, are done for the first time. It is shown here that both datasets are in good agreement showing the same features in terms of magnitude, profile structure, a...

  10. Depth profile of In and As in Si measured by RBS with He and C ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Q.; Fang, Z. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Ophel, T.R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1993-12-31

    The depth profile of As and In implanted into Si have been measured by RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) with 2 MeV He ions and 6 MeV C ions. Advantages of enhanced depth and mass resolution with C ions have been demonstrated over the conventional He RBS. More reliable information for the depth profile of In and As in Si has been obtained. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Measuring the Quality of Inclusive Practices: Findings from the Inclusive Classroom Profile Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukakou, Elena P.; Winton, Pam J.; West, Tracey A.; Sideris, John H.; Rucker, Lia M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Inclusive Classroom Profile (ICP), an observation measure designed to assess the quality of classroom practices in inclusive preschool programs. The measure was field tested in 51 inclusive classrooms. Results confirmed and extended previous research findings, providing…

  12. Tropospheric profile of NO2 over the Po Valley measured with scan DOAS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masieri, S.; Bortoli, D.; Petritoli, A.; Kostadinov, I.; Premuda, M.; Ravegnani, F.; Carnevale, C.; Pisoni, E.; Volta, M.; Giovanelli, G.

    2009-09-01

    A simple method to determine the vertical distribution of a pollutant gas, namely NO2, by means of the spectral measurements obtained with a scan-DOAS spectrometer, is presented. The developed technique can be summarized as follows: i) a series of quasi simultaneous measurements in the zenith and in others directions allowing for the determination of the Slant Column Density of NO2 for different elevation angles; ii) an active DOAS measurement for the determination of the NO2 concentration at the ground; iii) a set of Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) calculation of the scattering distance from the spectrometer, for a set of visibility values; iv) a recursive procedure of profile calculation starting from the first measurement and subtracting the value of NO2 Slant Column Density (SCD) retrieved from the measurement taken at the previous angle of sight. Measurements are carried out during summer 2007 in S. Pietro Capofiume (Bologna-Italy). The vertical distribution for NO2 obtained with the above described method has been compared with the profiles calculated with the GAMES (Gas Aerosol Modelling Evaluation System) model. The results of this comparison show some differences between the modelled and the measured profiles, probably due to box approximations in RTM calculation for measured profiles and to the large pixel grid (about 10x10 km2), for model evaluation.

  13. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  14. Image processing techniques for measuring non-uniform film thickness profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, S.V.; Liu, An-Hong; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnique Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The long term objective of this research program is to determine the fluid flow and drying characteristics of thin liquid/solid films using image processing techniques such as Image Analyzing Interferometry (IAI) and Image Scanning Ellipsometry (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the effectiveness of IAI and ISE to measure nonuniform film thickness profiles. Steady-state, non-isothermal profiles of evaporating films were measured using IAI. Transient thickness profiles of a draining film were measured using ISE. The two techniques are then compared and contrasted. The ISE can be used to measure transient as well as steady-state profiles of films with thickness ranging from 1 nm to > 20 {mu}m, whereas IAI can be used to directly measure Steady-state and transient profiles of only films thicker than about 100 nm. An evaluation of the reflected intensity can be used to extend the use of the IAI below 100 nm.

  15. Investigations on the spatial resolution of autocollimator-based slope measuring profilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, F., E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II—Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Buchheim, J.; Höft, T.; Zeschke, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II—Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schindler, A.; Arnold, T. [IOM—Leibniz Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-05-11

    During the last decade, autocollimator-based slope measuring profilers like the Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine (NOM) at BESSY-II have become standard instrument for the ultra-precise characterization of synchrotron optics with nanometer accuracy. Due to the increasing demand for highest accuracy, which can be provided by these profilers, further investigations are necessary to understand the performance of these instruments. Besides the achievable accuracy, it is of particular interest to characterize the possible spatial resolution of such instrumentation. The performance of the BESSY-NOM was characterized by means of sinusoidal and chirped surface profiles. A dedicated sample was prepared using the Atmospheric Plasma Jet Machining technology at the IOM—Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V. We report on our tests on the NOM, the interferometer measurements done for comparison as well as the sample preparation.

  16. Non-contact precision profile measurement to rough-surface objects with optical frequency combs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoe, Taro; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we developed a new method for the high precision and contactless profile measurement of rough-surfaced objects using optical frequency combs. The uncertainty of the frequency beats of an optical frequency comb is very small (relative uncertainty is 10-10 in our laboratory). In addition, the wavelengths corresponding to these frequency beats are long enough to measure rough-surfaced objects. We can conduct high-precision measurement because several GHz frequency beats can be used if the capability of the detector permits. Moreover, two optical frequency combs with Rb-stabilized repetition frequencies are used for the measurement instead of an RF frequency oscillator; thus, we can avoid the cyclic error caused by the RF frequency oscillator. We measured the profile of a wood cylinder with a rough surface (diameter is approximately 113.2 mm) and compared the result with that of coordinate measuring machine (CMM).

  17. Calculation of the Scattered Radiation Profile in 64 Slice CT Scanners Using Experimental Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Akbarzadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important parameters in x-ray CT imaging is the noise induced by detected scattered radiation. The detected scattered radiation is completely dependent on the scanner geometry as well as size, shape and material of the scanned object. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the scattered radiation in x-ray CT should be quantified for development of robust scatter correction techniques. Empirical methods based on blocking the primary photons in a small region are not able to extract scatter in all elements of the detector array while the scatter profile is required for a scatter correction procedure. In this study, we measured scatter profiles in 64 slice CT scanners using a new experimental measurement. Material and Methods: To measure the scatter profile, a lead block array was inserted under the collimator and the phantom was exposed at the isocenter. The raw data file, which contained detector array readouts, was transferred to a PC and was read using a dedicated GUI running under MatLab 7.5. The scatter profile was extracted by interpolating the shadowed area. Results: The scatter and SPR profiles were measured. Increasing the tube voltage from 80 to 140 kVp resulted in an 80% fall off in SPR for a water phantom (d=210 mm and 86% for a polypropylene phantom (d = 350 mm. Increasing the air gap to 20.9 cm caused a 30% decrease in SPR. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a novel approach for measurement of scattered radiation distribution and SPR in a CT scanner with 64-slice capability using a lead block array. The method can also be used on other multi-slice CT scanners. The proposed technique can accurately estimate scatter profiles. It is relatively straightforward, easy to use, and can be used for any related measurement.

  18. Development of ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method for velocity profile and flowrate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Sanehiro; Furuichi, Noriyuki; Shimada, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel technique for measuring the velocity profile and flowrate in a pipe. This method, named the ultrasonic pulse-train Doppler method (UPTD), has the advantages of expanding the velocity range and setting the smaller measurement volume with low calculation and instrument costs in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic pulse Doppler method. The conventional method has limited measurement of the velocity range due to the Nyquist sampling theorem. In addition, previous reports indicate that a smaller measurement volume increases the accuracy of the measurement. In consideration of the application of the conventional method to actual flow fields, such as industrial facilities and power plants, the issues of velocity range and measurement volume are important. The UPTD algorithm, which exploits two pulses of ultrasound with a short interval and envelope detection, is proposed. Velocity profiles calculated by this algorithm were examined through simulations and excellent agreement was found in all cases. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the algorithm was also estimated. The result indicates that UPTD can measure velocity profiles with high accuracy, even under a small SNR. Experimental measurements were conducted and the results were evaluated at the national standard calibration facility of water flowrate in Japan. Every detected signal forms a set of two pulses and the enveloped line can be observed clearly. The results show that UPTD can measure the velocity profiles over the pipe diameter, even if the velocities exceed the measurable velocity range. The measured flowrates were under 0.6% and the standard deviations for all flowrate conditions were within  ±0.38%, which is the uncertainty of the flowrate measurement estimated in the previous report. In conclusion, UPTD provides superior accuracy and expansion of the velocity range.

  19. Direct localised measurement of electrical resistivity profile in rat and embryonic chick retinas using a microprobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald van Lintel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an alternative technique to perform a direct and local measurement of electrical resistivities in a layered retinal tissue. Information on resistivity changes along the depth in a retina is important for modelling retinal stimulation by retinal prostheses. Existing techniques for resistivity-depth profiling have the drawbacks of a complicated experimental setup, a less localised resistivity probing and/or lower stability for measurements. We employed a flexible microprobe to measure local resistivity with bipolar impedance spectroscopy at various depths in isolated rat and chick embryo retinas for the first time. Small electrode spacing permitted high resolution measurements and the probe flexibility contributed to stable resistivity profiling. The resistivity was directly calculated based on the resistive part of the impedance measured with the Peak Resistance Frequency (PRF methodology. The resistivity-depth profiles for both rat and chick embryo models are in accordance with previous mammalian and avian studies in literature. We demonstrate that the measured resistivity at each depth has its own PRF signature. Resistivity profiles obtained with our setup provide the basis for the construction of an electric model of the retina. This model can be used to predict variations in parameters related to retinal stimulation and especially in the design and optimisation of efficient retinal implants.

  20. Measurement of dynamic gas disengagement profile by using an analog output level gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilineni, S.; Koelle, M.; Xu, H.

    The dynamic gas disengagement profile was measured in a 0.14 m diameter and 3.66 m high plexiglas column by using an analog output gauge, which was connected to a data acquisition system. This analog output gauge is a high accuracy continuous measurement level gauge. It is made up of a wave guide, a float, a motion or stress sensing device and a probe housing. The fluid level at any gas velocity is obtained by using the data acquisition system. The dynamic gas disengagement profile produced one slope in the bubble flow and two slopes in the churn turbulent flow representing unimodal and bimodal distributions of bubbles.

  1. AUTOSCALA software improvements: topside-plasmasphere profiles and TEC model assisted by AIS ionosonde measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, C.; Ippolito, A.; Scotto, C.; Ciraolo, L.

    2012-12-01

    The group of Upper Atmosphere Physics at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) developed Autoscala, a computer program for automatic scaling of the critical frequency foF2 and other ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms. Autoscala includes a routine that automatically estimates the electron density profile below F layer peak height hmF2, by adjusting the parameters of a model according to the recorded ionogram [Scotto (2009)]. Recently we have introduced a new algorithm for modeling upper ionosphere and plasmasphere electron density profiles following the approach suggested by Kutiev et al. (2009). In particular, these model uses the parameters of F layer peak (foF2, hmF2, scale height at hmF2) to obtain scale heights that are useful to construct H- and O+ density profiles, and consequently N(h) profile (given as the sum of the former two). Integrating electron density profiles we are then able to obtain a real time TEC estimation above the considered ionospheric station. A first validation of the model is carried out for data measured at Rome ionospheric station (Italy, 41°54' N 12°28' E) using independent TEC measurements from GPS receivers. References: Scotto, C. (2009). Electron density profile calculation technique for Autoscala ionogram analysis. Advances in Space Research, 44(6), 756-766. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.037 Kutiev, I., Marinov, P., Belehaki, a., Reinisch, B., & Jakowski, N. (2009). Reconstruction of topside density profile by using the topside sounder model profiler and digisonde data. Advances in Space Research, 43(11), 1683-1687. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2008.08.017

  2. Harmonized dataset of ozone profiles from satellite limb and occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a HARMonized dataset of OZone profiles (HARMOZ based on limb and occultation measurements from Envisat (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY, Odin (OSIRIS, SMR and SCISAT (ACE-FTS satellite instruments. These measurements provide high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles covering the altitude range from the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere in years 2001–2012. HARMOZ has been created in the framework of European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative project. The harmonized dataset consists of original retrieved ozone profiles from each instrument, which are screened for invalid data by the instrument teams. While the original ozone profiles are presented in different units and on different vertical grids, the harmonized dataset is given on a common pressure grid in netcdf format. The pressure grid corresponds to vertical sampling of ~ 1 km below 20 km and 2–3 km above 20 km. The vertical range of the ozone profiles is specific for each instrument, thus all information contained in the original data is preserved. Provided altitude and temperature profiles allow the representation of ozone profiles in number density or mixing ratio on a pressure or altitude vertical grids. Geolocation, uncertainty estimates and vertical resolution are provided for each profile. For each instrument, optional parameters, which might be related to the data quality, are also included. For convenience of users, tables of biases between each pair of instruments for each month, as well as bias uncertainties, are provided. These tables characterize the data consistency and can be used in various bias and drift analyses, which are needed, for instance, for combining several datasets to obtain a long-term climate dataset. This user-friendly dataset can be interesting and useful for various analyses and applications, such as data merging, data validation, assimilation and scientific research. Dataset is available at: http

  3. Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Raut

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements has been applied to airborne observations performed during the Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile-de-France (ESQUIF, enabling the retrieval of vertical profiles for the aerosol complex refractive index (ACRI and single-scattering albedo with a vertical resolution of 200 m over Paris area. The averaged value over the entire planetary boundary layer (PBL for the ACRI is close to 1.51(±0.02–i0.017(±0.003 at 532 nm. The single-scattering albedo of the corresponding aerosols is found to be ~0.9 at the same wavelength. A good agreement is found with previous studies for urban aerosols. A comparison of vertical profiles of ACRI with simulations combining in situ measurements and relative humidity (RH profiles has highlighted a modification in aerosol optical properties linked to their history and the origin of the air mass. The determination of ACRI in the atmospheric column enabled to retrieve vertical profiles of extinction coefficient in accordance with lidar profiles measurements.

  4. Linear chirped slope profile for spatial calibration in slope measuring deflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siewert, F., E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de; Zeschke, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Institut für Nanometer Optik und Technologie, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Arnold, T.; Paetzelt, H. [Leibnitz Institut für Oberflächen Modifizierung Leipzig e.V., IOM, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Yashchuk, V. V. [Lawerence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Slope measuring deflectometry is commonly used by the X-ray optics community to measure the long-spatial-wavelength surface figure error of optical components dedicated to guide and focus X-rays under grazing incidence condition at synchrotron and free electron laser beamlines. The best performing instruments of this kind are capable of absolute accuracy on the level of 30-50 nrad. However, the exact bandwidth of the measurements, determined at the higher spatial frequencies by the instrument’s spatial resolution, or more generally by the instrument’s modulation transfer function (MTF) is hard to determine. An MTF calibration method based on application of a test surface with a one-dimensional (1D) chirped height profile of constant amplitude was suggested in the past. In this work, we propose a new approach to designing the test surfaces with a 2D-chirped topography, specially optimized for MTF characterization of slope measuring instruments. The design of the developed MTF test samples based on the proposed linear chirped slope profiles (LCSPs) is free of the major drawback of the 1D chirped height profiles, where in the slope domain, the amplitude strongly increases with the local spatial frequency of the profile. We provide the details of fabrication of the LCSP samples. The results of first application of the developed test samples to measure the spatial resolution of the BESSY-NOM at different experimental arrangements are also presented and discussed.

  5. Novel analysis technique for measuring edge density fluctuation profiles with reflectometry in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Tsujimura, T.; Akiyama, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Emoto, M.; Tanaka, K.; Michael, C. A.

    2017-07-01

    A new method for measuring density fluctuation profiles near the edge of plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been developed utilizing reflectometry combined with pellet-induced fast density scans. Reflectometer cutoff location was calculated by proportionally scaling the cutoff location calculated with fast far infrared laser interferometer (FIR) density profiles to match the slower time resolution results of the ray-tracing code LHD-GAUSS. Plasma velocity profile peaks generated with this reflectometer mapping were checked against velocity measurements made with charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) and were found to agree within experimental uncertainty once diagnostic differences were accounted for. Measured density fluctuation profiles were found to peak strongly near the edge of the plasma, as is the case in most tokamaks. These measurements can be used in the future to inform inversion methods of phase contrast imaging (PCI) measurements. This result was confirmed with both a fixed frequency reflectometer and calibrated data from a multi-frequency comb reflectometer, and this method was applied successfully to a series of discharges. The full width at half maximum of the turbulence layer near the edge of the plasma was found to be only 1.5-3 cm on a series of LHD discharges, less than 5% of the normalized minor radius.

  6. Clear air boundary layer spaced antenna wind measurement with the Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Cohn

    Full Text Available Spaced antenna (SA wind measurement techniques are applied to Multiple Antenna Profiler (MAPR data to evaluate its performance in clear air conditions. MAPR is a multiple antenna 915 MHz wind profiler developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR and described in Cohn et al. (1997, designed to make high resolution wind measurements. Previous reported measurements with MAPR were restricted to precipitation because of low signal to noise (SNR and signal to ground-clutter (SCR ratios. By using a standard pulse-coding technique and upgrading the profiler control software, increases in average power and SNR were achieved, making routine measurements in clear air possible. Comparison of winds measured by MAPR and by a sonic anemometer on a nearby 300 m tower show correlation coefficients in the range of R2 = 0.75 – 0.80, and an average absolute error of ~ 1.4 m s - 1 . This compares favorably with the agreement typically found in wind profiler comparisons. We also consider the use of the parameter ah , which is related to the value of the cross-correlation function at its zero crossing. This parameter is a data quality indicator and possibly a key component in a ground clutter removal technique.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology; instruments and techniques – Radio science (remote sensing

  7. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  8. Electron density profile measurements from hydrogen line intensity ratio method in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YooSung; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Yang, Jeong-hun; Kim, SeongCheol; Kim, Young-Gi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Yang, Seongmoo; Jo, Jungmin; Oh, Soo-Ghee; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Electron density profiles of versatile experiment spherical torus plasmas are measured by using a hydrogen line intensity ratio method. A fast-frame visible camera with appropriate bandpass filters is used to detect images of Balmer line intensities. The unique optical system makes it possible to take images of Hα and Hβ radiation simultaneously, with only one camera. The frame rate is 1000 fps and the spatial resolution of the system is about 0.5 cm. One-dimensional local emissivity profiles have been obtained from the toroidal line of sight with viewing dumps. An initial result for the electron density profile is presented and is in reasonable agreement with values measured by a triple Langmuir probe.

  9. Reaching Higher Densities for Laboratory White Dwarf Photospheres to Measure Spectroscopic Line Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Falcon, Ross E; Gomez, T A; Schaeuble, M; Nagayama, T; Montgomery, M H; Winget, D E; Rochau, G A

    2016-01-01

    As part of our laboratory investigation of the theoretical line profiles used in white dwarf atmosphere models, we extend the electron-density ($n_{\\rm e}$) range measured by our experiments to higher densities (up to $n_{e}\\sim80\\times10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$). Whereas inferred parameters using the hydrogen-$\\beta$ spectral line agree among different line-shape models for $n_{\\rm e}\\lesssim30\\times10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, we now see divergence between models. These are densities beyond the range previously benchmarked in the laboratory, meaning theoretical profiles in this regime have not been fully validated. Experimentally exploring these higher densities enables us to test and constrain different line-profile models, as the differences in their relative H-Balmer line shapes are more pronounced at such conditions. These experiments also aid in our study of occupation probabilities because we can measure these from relative line strengths.

  10. Self-presentation and emotional contagion on Facebook: new experimental measures of profiles' emotional coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Guazzini, Andrea; Cecchini, Cristina; Milani, Monica; Vilone, Daniele; Meringolo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Social Networks allow users to self-present by sharing personal contents with others which may add comments. Recent studies highlighted how the emotions expressed in a post affect others' posts, eliciting a congruent emotion. So far, no studies have yet investigated the emotional coherence between wall posts and its comments. This research evaluated posts and comments mood of Facebook profiles, analyzing their linguistic features, and a measure to assess an excessive self-presentation was introduced. Two new experimental measures were built, describing the emotional loading (positive and negative) of posts and comments, and the mood correspondence between them was evaluated. The profiles "empathy", the mood coherence between post and comments, was used to investigate the relation between an excessive self-presentation and the emotional coherence of a profile. Participants publish a higher average number of posts with positive mood. To publish an emotional post corresponds to get more likes, comments and recei...

  11. Measurement of velocity profiles of nanofluids in laminar channel flow using Particle Image Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Arun K.; Kulkarni, Parimal P.; Singh, R.K.; Verma, Pumendra [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (India). Reactor Engineering Div.; Gandhi, Mayur [University Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2014-06-15

    The objective of the paper is to measure the velocity profiles of water based nanofluids for flow through channels in order to understand whether the nanofluids behave Newtonian. For this purpose, experiments were carried for flow through a rectangular channel in laminar regime. Four different nanofluids were used, i.e. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CuO, TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} with base fluid as water. Experiments were conducted at low concentration of these particles. The velocity profiles were measured using Particle Image Velocimetry. The results indicate that the velocity profiles are similar for all the fluids indicating the flows to be Newtonian. (orig.)

  12. Toothbrush probe for instantaneous measurement of radial profile in tokamak boundary plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Kazuya; Sengoku, Seio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Amemiya, Hiroshi

    1997-04-01

    A new probe for the instantaneous measurement of radial profiles of the boundary scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma has been developed in a tokamak. Five asymmetric double-probe chips are aligned in parallel to a strong magnetic field in the boundary plasma in a tokamak. This probe is named the `toothbrush probe` and can measure the ion temperature as well as the electron temperature and the plasma density in the SOL plasma within only one tokamak plasma shot. First, only one asymmetric probe is mounted on the divertor plate and it is tried to determine the ion temperature. Then, a manufactured toothbrush probe is mounted in the SOL plasma and the radial plasma profiles are simultaneously obtained. Data on the e-folding length of the plasma profile obtained by the toothbrush probe can determine the information on the transport properties such as the diffusion coefficient and the thermal conductivity of electrons and ions. (author)

  13. Measurements of radial profiles of ion cyclotron resonance heating on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falabella, S.

    1988-05-11

    A small Radial Energy Analyzer (REA) was used on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), at Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate the radial profiles of ion temperature, density, and plasma potential during Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH). The probe has been inserted into the central-cell plasma at temperatures of 200 eV and densities of 3 x 10/sup 12/cm/sup /minus 3// without damage to the probe, or major degradation of the plasma. This analyzer has indicated an increase in ion temperature from near 20 eV before ICRH to near 150 eV during ICRH, with about 60 kW of broadcast power. The REA measurements were cross-checked against other diagnostics on TMX-U and found to be consistent. The ion density measurement was compared to the line-density measured by microwave interferometry and found to agree within 10 to 20%. A radial intergral of n/sub i/T/sub i/ as measured by the REA shows good agreement with the diamagnetic loop measurement of plasma energy. The radial density profile is observed to broaden during the RF heating pulses, without inducing additional radial losses in the core plasma. The radial profile of plasma is seen to vary from axially peaked, to nearly flat as the plasma conditions carried over the series of experiments. To relate the increase in ion temperature to power absorbed by the plasma, a power balance as a function of radius was performed. The RF power absorbed is set equal to the sum of the losses during ICRH, minus those without ICRH. This method accounts for more than 70% of the broadcast power using a simple power balance model. The measured radial profile of the RF heating was compared to the calculations of two codes, ANTENA and GARFIELD, to test their effectiveness as predictors of power absorption profiles for TMX-U. 62 refs., 63 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Direct measurements of air layer profiles under impacting droplets using high-speed color interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der R.C.A.; Tran, A.T.; Lohse, D.; Sun, C.

    2012-01-01

    A drop impacting on a solid surface deforms before the liquid makes contact with the surface. We directly measure the time evolution of the air layer profile under the droplet using high-speed color interferometry, obtaining the air layer thickness before and during the wetting process. Based on the

  15. Continuous measurements of discharge from a horizontal acoustic Doppler current profiler in a tidal river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Buschman, F.A.; Vermeulen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can be mounted horizontally at a river bank, yielding single-depth horizontal array observations of velocity across the river. This paper presents a semideterministic, semistochastic method to obtain continuous measurements of discharge from horizontal ADCP

  16. Measuring Proximity Among Affect Profiles in Hermans' Self-Confrontation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, A.L.M. van; Mey, H.R.A. de

    2009-01-01

    In the Self-Confrontation Method (SCM), proximity relations among affect profiles of valuations are traditionally represented by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient. In this article, we address a variety of technical and practical problems when using a correlational measure as a means for

  17. Detonation wave profiles measured in plastic bonded explosives using 1550 nm photon doppler velocimetry (PDV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel (nate) J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was varied to produce varied distance to detonation, and therefore varied support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of {approx} 3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of {approx} 6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55 C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25 {+-} 0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4 {+-} 0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (> 2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (<< 50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  18. Plasma Profile Measurements for Laser Fusion Research with the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The grid image refractometer of the Nike laser facility (Nike-GIR) has demonstrated the capability of simultaneously measuring electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) profiles of coronal plasma. For laser plasma instability (LPI) research, the first Nike-GIR experiment successfully measured the plasma profiles in density regions up to ne ~ 4 ×1021 cm-3 (22% of the critical density for 248 nm light of Nike) using an ultraviolet probe laser (λp = 263 nm). The probe laser has been recently replaced with a shorter wavelength laser (λp = 213 nm, a 5th harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser) to diagnose a higher density region. The Nike-GIR system is being further extended to measure plasma profiles in the on-going experiment using 135°-separated Nike beam arrays for the cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) studies. We present an overview of the extended Nike-GIR arrangements and a new numerical algorithm to extract self-consistant plasma profiles with the measured quantities. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  19. Profile grid monitor and first measurement results at the MedAustron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Repovz, M; Kerschbaum, A; Osmic, F; Schwarz, S; Burtin, G

    2013-01-01

    MedAustron is a synchrotron based ion beam therapy center located in Wiener Neustadt/Austria. The MedAustron accelerator design is based on CERN’s Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study (PIMMS) [1] and is currently in the accelerator installation and beam commissioning phase. One of the basic measurements for commissioning of an accelerator is also beam profile measurement. The beam at the end of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line and in the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line (after the fast deflector) is pulsed. Due to pulsed beam the Wire Scanner Monitor (WSX) cannot be used. To measure a beam profile at these locations a new monitor has been developed – Profile Grid Monitor (PGX). The PGX is also known as harp grid monitor and it contains 64 wires positioned vertically and 64 wires horizontally for measuring the beam profile in both transverse planes. The PGX acquires the current of all 128 wires simultaneously, converts it to voltage, digitizes the values and processes the co...

  20. Radial profile and q dependence of electron heat diffusion measured with ech modulation in RTP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantica, P.; Peters, M.; De Luca, F.; DeLauri, A.; Gorini, G.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Jacchia, A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Perturbative measurements of the electron thermal diffusivity (chi(pert)) in the RTP tokamak are presented. Electron temperature perturbations are induced by on- and off-axis modulated electron cyclotron heating (MECH) and the sawtooth instability. The radial profile of chi(pert) is deduced from the

  1. Detonation Wave Profiles Measured in Plastic Bonded Explosives Using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, R. L.; Bartram, B. D.; Sanchez, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was changed from shot to shot in order to produce varied distances to detonation. In this way, we tuned the support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of ≈3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of ≈6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55° C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25±0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4±0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (>2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (≪50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  2. Measurements and Modelling of the Wind Speed Profile in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, Charlotte B.

    2008-12-01

    We present measurements from 2006 of the marine wind speed profile at a site located 18 km from the west coast of Denmark in the North Sea. Measurements from mast-mounted cup anemometers up to a height of 45 m are extended to 161 m using LiDAR observations. Atmospheric turbulent flux measurements performed in 2004 with a sonic anemometer are compared to a bulk Richardson number formulation of the atmospheric stability. This is used to classify the LiDAR/cup wind speed profiles into atmospheric stability classes. The observations are compared to a simplified model for the wind speed profile that accounts for the effect of the boundary-layer height. For unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions the boundary-layer height could be neglected, whereas for stable conditions it is comparable to the measuring heights and therefore essential to include. It is interesting to note that, although it is derived from a different physical approach, the simplified wind speed profile conforms to the traditional expressions of the surface layer when the effect of the boundary-layer height is neglected.

  3. Measuring Proximity Among Affect Profiles in Hermans' Self-Confrontation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, A.L.M. van; Mey, H.R.A. de

    2009-01-01

    In the Self-Confrontation Method (SCM), proximity relations among affect profiles of valuations are traditionally represented by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient. In this article, we address a variety of technical and practical problems when using a correlational measure as a means for stu

  4. Measurements and modeling of the wind profile up to 600 meters at a flat coastal site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This study shows long-term ABL wind profile features by comparing long-range wind lidar measurements and the output from a mesoscale model. The study is based on one-year pulsed lidar (Wind Cube 70) measurements of wind speed and direction from 100 to 600 meters with vertical resolution of 50...... as function of height. It is found that 1) WRF is generally under predicting both the profiles of the measured wind speed, direction and power density, 2) the scatter of observations to model results of the wind speed does not change significantly with height between 100 and 600 meters, and 3) the scale (A......) and shape (k) parameters of the Weibull dis-tribution above 100 m. The latter signifies that the model suggests a wider distri-bution in the wind speed compared to measurements....

  5. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  6. Measuring Beach Profiles along a Low-Wave Energy Microtidal Coast, West-Central Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring storm-induced dramatic beach morphology changes and long-term beach evolution provides crucial data for coastal management. Beach-profile measurement using total station has been conducted along the coast of west-central Florida over the last decade. This paper reviews several case studies of beach morphology changes based on total-station survey along this coast. The advantage of flexible and low-cost total-station surveys is discussed in comparison to LIDAR (light detection and ranging method. In an attempt to introduce total-station survey from a practical prospective, measurement of cross-shore beach profile in various scenarios are discussed, including: (1 establishing a beach profile line with known instrument and benchmark locations; (2 surveying multiple beach profiles with one instrument setup; (3 implementation of coordinate rotation to convert local system to real-earth system. Total-station survey is a highly effective and accurate method in documenting beach profile changes along low-energy coasts.

  7. Vertical Structure of the Wind Speed Profile at the North Sea Offshore Measurement Platform FINO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical wind speed profile in the lowest 100m of the marine atmospheric boundary layer has been characterized from data collected at the FINO1 offshore research platform in the German North Sea sector for 2005. Located in 30m of water, the platform has a dense vertical array of meteorological instrumentation to measure wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence characteristics. Along measurements of the ocean temperature and surface waves, the platform is well-equipped to characterize wind properties in the near-surface boundary layer. Preliminary analysis reveals a high incidence of vertical wind speed profiles that deviate significantly from Monin-Obukhov similarity theory with wind speed inflections that suggest decoupled layers near the surface. The presentation shows how the properties of the vertical wind speed profile change mainly depending on the wind speed, wind direction, and time of year. The results are significant because there are few reports of inflections in the vertical wind speed profile over the ocean and there is an a priori assumption that the vertical wind speed profile varies smoothly according to similarity theory. There are possible consequences for the wind energy development in terms of understanding the forces acting on offshore wind turbines whose rotors sweep across heights 150-200m above the sea surface.

  8. Phase-referenced probe interferometer for biological surface profiling and displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang-Yen, Christopher; Chu, Mark C.; Seung, H. Sebastian; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2007-12-01

    We present a probe-based, phase-referenced low coherence interferometer in which the reference field is provided by a fiber end reflection. A gradient-index microlens focuses light onto a sample and collects reflected light. We use the probe interferometer to measure surface profiles of the compound eye of a housefly (Musca domestica) and measure nanometer-scale vibrations in a test sample.

  9. Development of a low-cost measurement system for cutting edge profile detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregor Gerstorfer; Bernhard G.Zagar

    2011-01-01

    The use of a compact disk(CD) pickup head as a displacement measurement system is described.The components contained in a pickup head are explained and how they are combined to obtain the functionality of a pickup head.The application of measuring a knife edge profile is introduced.The results reveal some insuffiencies with the current system.The cutting edge's radius of curvature can be estimated.

  10. Phase Determination Method to Directly Measure Intensity and Frequency of Temporal Profiles of Attosecond EUV Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yu-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ A new method of phase determination is presented to directly measure the intensity and frequency temporalprofiles of attosecond EUV pulses. The profiles can be reconstructed from the photoelectron energy spectra measured with two different laser intensities at 0° and 180° with respect to the linear laser polarization using a cross correlation between the femtosecond laser and the attosecond EUV. The method has a temporal measurement range from a quarter to about half of a laser oscillation period. The time resolution depends on the jitter and control precision of laser and EUV pulses. This method improves the time resolution in measuring attosecond EUV pulses.

  11. Modelling and Measurements of Bunch Profiles at the LHC Flat Bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Stefania; Muller, Juan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Trad, Georges

    2016-01-01

    At the LHC flat bottom the interplay between a series of effects (i.e. intrabeam scattering, longitudinal beam manipulations, non-linearities of the machine, etc) can lead to a population of the tails of the beam distributions, which may become non-Gaussian. This paper presents observations of the evolution of particle distributions in the LHC flat bottom. Novel distribution functions are employed to represent the beam profiles, and used as a guideline for generalising emittance growth rate estimations due to IBS. Finally, an attempt is made to benchmark an IBS Monte-Carlo simulation code, able to track 3D particle distributions, with the measured beam profile evolutions.

  12. Measurement of HL-2A NBI Beam Profile and Beam Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU He; CAO Jianyong; JIANG Shaofeng; LUO Cuiwen; TANG Lixin; LEI Guangjiu; RAO Jun; LI Bo

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the operation parameters of the beam line of NBI on HL-2A,features of the beam line,including the beam profile and the power deposited on components and injected into the tokamak plasma,were measured.The operational parameters of the four sources on the beam line were optimized with the monitor of the beam profile and beam power,and the transmission efficiency of the NBI injected power was therefore increased.A beam diagnostic system for the beam line of the NBI system on HL-2A as well as the diagnosed results was also presented.

  13. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan;

    2012-01-01

    , wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations......The wind speed represents the main exogenous signal applied to a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) and determines its behavior. The erratic variation of the wind speed, highly dependent on the given site and on the atmospheric conditions, makes the wind speed quite difficult to model. Moreover...

  14. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Troyan, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2006-01-09

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to complete a continuous time series of the vertical profile of water vapor for selected 30-day periods from each of the fixed ARM sites. In order to accomplish this metric, a new technique devised to incorporate radiosonde data, microwave radiometer data and analysis information from numerical weather forecast models has been developed. The product of this analysis, referred to as the merged sounding value-added product, includes vertical profiles of atmospheric water vapor concentration and several other important thermodynamic state variables at 1-minute time intervals and 266 vertical levels.

  15. The use of radiochromic films to measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M.A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Unidad PET/CT-Ciclotron, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: avilarod@uwalumni.com; Wilson, J.S.; McQuarrie, S.A. [Edmonton PET Centre, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    The use of radiochromic films as a simple and inexpensive tool to accurately measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators is described. In this study, metallic foils of different materials and thicknesses were irradiated with 17.8 MeV protons and autoradiographic images of the beam strike were acquired by exposing pieces of RCF in direct contact with the irradiated foils. The films were digitalized using a conventional scanner and images were analyzed using DoseLab. Beam intensity distributions, isodose curves and linear beam profiles of the digitalized images were acquired.

  16. The use of radiochromic films to measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Rodriguez, M A; Wilson, J S; McQuarrie, S A

    2009-11-01

    The use of radiochromic films as a simple and inexpensive tool to accurately measure and analyze the beam profile of charged particle accelerators is described. In this study, metallic foils of different materials and thicknesses were irradiated with 17.8MeV protons and autoradiographic images of the beam strike were acquired by exposing pieces of RCF in direct contact with the irradiated foils. The films were digitalized using a conventional scanner and images were analyzed using DoseLab. Beam intensity distributions, isodose curves and linear beam profiles of the digitalized images were acquired.

  17. The substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woicik, P.A.; Stewart, S.H.; Pihl, R.O.; Conrod, P.J.

    2009-12-01

    The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) is based on a model of personality risk for substance abuse in which four personality dimensions (hopelessness, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity, and sensation seeking) are hypothesized to differentially relate to specific patterns of substance use. The current series of studies is a preliminary exploration of the psychometric properties of the SURPS in two populations (undergraduate and high school students). In study 1, an analysis of the internal structure of two versions of the SURPS shows that the abbreviated version best reflects the 4-factor structure. Concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the SURPS is supported by convergent/divergent relationships between the SURPS subscales and other theoretically relevant personality and drug use criterion measures. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the SURPS is confirmed and evidence is provided for its test-retest reliability and validity with respect to measuring personality vulnerability to reinforcement-specific substance use patterns. In Study 3, the SURPS was administered in a more youthful population to test its sensitivity in identifying younger problematic drinkers. The results from the current series of studies demonstrate support for the reliability and construct validity of the SURPS, and suggest that four personality dimensions may be linked to substance-related behavior through different reinforcement processes. This brief assessment tool may have important implications for clinicians and future research.

  18. A Model for Converting Solid State Fermentation Growth Profiles Between Absolute and Relative Measurement Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Viccini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed for converting between the two measurement bases commonly used in the construction of growth profiles in solid-state fermentation, namely absolute mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(initial dry matter and relative mass ratio m(dry biomass/m(dry matter. These are not equivalent, due to the loss of dry matter as CO2 during the fermentation. The model is equally applicable to any biomass component used in indirect measurements of growth, such as protein. Use of the model to convert absolute mass ratio of the biomass profiles for the growth of Rhizopus oligosporus to a relative basis gave profiles that agreed well with the experimentally determined relative biomass profiles. This agreement was obtained for three different fermentations using the same set of parameter values in the model, namely a yield coefficient of m(protein/m(dry substrate = 0.2 g/g and a maintenance coefficient of zero, giving confidence in the reliability of the model. The model was then used to show that the measurement basis used can affect the form of the curve and therefore can also affect the conclusion drawn about the type of kinetics shown by the organism, with the extent of this effect depending on the length of time that growth occurs and the values of the yield and maintenance coefficients. This work shows that great care must be taken in drawing conclusions about growth kinetics in solid-state fermentation.

  19. Experimental measurements of the detonation wave profile in a TATB based explosive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decaris L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results of the experimental measurements of the detonation wave profile of the TATB based plastic bonded explosive T2 (97 w. % of TATB using VISAR and Heterodyne Velocimetry (HV – same as Photon Doppler Velocimetry. The experiment consists in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. In order to obtain the particle velocity history in the reaction zone, we measure particle velocity at the interaction of the detonation front with an aluminized window or the free surface velocity of a metallic foil. Lithium Fluoride (LIF, PMMA and steel have been tested. Several shots have been performed for different lengths of explosive. We compare the VISAR and HV measurements. With LIF and steel, VISAR and HV diagnostics give very similar profiles. The ZND profile obtained on LIF is resolved with both techniques. With PMMA, HV gives a more accurate profile than VISAR in the reaction zone. There is no evidence of the influence of the explosive cylinder length.

  20. Atmospheric profiles at the southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their relevance to air shower measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bluemer, J.; Engel, R.; Gora, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Unger, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-07-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focusing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  1. Asymmetric ion track nanopores for sensor technology. Reconstruction of pore profile from conductometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Pavel Yu; Blonskaya, Irina V.; Orelovitch, Oleg L.; Sartowska, Bozena A.; Spohr, Reimar

    2012-06-01

    We reconstruct the profile of asymmetric ion track nanopores from an algorithm developed for conductometric measurements of symmetric nanopores. The validity of the reconstruction is supported by FESEM observations. Our analysis reveals that asymmetric pores fabricated by one-sided etching are funnel-like and not conical. The analysis provides the constriction diameter and the pore profile as a function of etching time. The reconstruction of the pore profile defines the starting conditions of asymmetric nanopores at breakthrough. The deviation from the conical shape is most pronounced at the pore tip. This critical zone dominates transport properties relevant to ion conductance, selectivity, current rectification, resistive pulse sensing and biosensors. The classical cone approximation used until now underestimates the tip diameter by a factor of two. As transport processes in nanopores depend in a highly nonlinear way on the constriction diameter the presented reconstruction must be taken into account when studying ionic and molecular transport processes in asymmetric pores.

  2. Atmospheric Profiles at the Southern Pierre Auger Observatory and their Relevance to Air Shower Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Engel, R; Gora, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Unger, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of atmospheric conditions on altitude and time have to be known at the site of an air shower experiment for accurate reconstruction of extensive air showers and their simulations. The height-profile of atmospheric depth is of particular interest as it enters directly into the reconstruction of longitudinal shower development and of the primary energy and mass of cosmic rays. For the southern part of the Auger Observatory, the atmosphere has been investigated in a number of campaigns with meteorological radio soundings and with continuous measurements of ground-based weather stations. Focussing on atmospheric depth and temperature profiles, temporal variations are described and monthly profiles are developed. Uncertainties of the monthly atmospheres that are currently applied in the Auger reconstruction are discussed.

  3. Method for measuring radial impurity emission profiles using correlations of line integrated signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Drake, J.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-04-01

    A method of determining radial impurity emission profiles is outlined. The method uses correlations between line integrated signals and is based on the assumption of cylindrically symmetric fluctuations. Measurements at the reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R show that emission from impurities expected to be close to the edge is clearly different in raw as well as analyzed data to impurities expected to be more central. Best fitting of experimental data to simulated correlation coefficients yields emission profiles that are remarkably close to emission profiles determined using more conventional techniques. The radial extension of the fluctuations is small enough for the method to be used and bandpass filtered signals indicate that fluctuations below 10kHz are cylindrically symmetric. The novel method is not sensitive to vessel window attenuation or wall reflections and can therefore complement the standard methods in the impurity emission reconstruction procedure.

  4. Modeling and Experimental Tests of a Mechatronic Device to Measure Road Profiles Considering Impact Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza, A.; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    Vehicles travel at different speeds and, as a consequence, experience a broad spectrum of vibrations. One of the most important source of vehicle vibration is the road profile. Hence the knowledge of the characteristics of a road profile enables engineers to predict the dynamic behavior...... to highlight that the aim of this device is to independently measure two road profiles, without the influence of the vehicle dynamics where the mechanism is attached. Before the mechatronic mechanism is attached to a real vehicle, its dynamic behavior must be known. A theoretical analysis of the mechanism...... the mechanism components. By modeling impacts between a wheel and the road by Newton´s Law, the complete dynamics of the system can be predicted, and the operational range (velocity limits) of the mechanism can be defined based on the mathematical model. Key words: multibody dynamics, impact dynamics and road...

  5. Measurement of thickness profiles of glass plates by analyzing Haidinger fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Eun; Kim, Jiung; Cha, Myoungsik

    2017-03-01

    We report what we believe is a novel method for measuring the thickness profiles of plane parallel plates by analyzing their Haidinger fringes. When an extended monochromatic source is viewed through a ∼1-mm-thick plate, concentric transmission-type Haidinger fringes can easily be observed. Small variations in the plate thickness result in changes in the radii of the ring fringes. In this study, we scanned 20-mm-diameter fused silica and BK7 plates while tracing a specific ring in each fringe pattern to measure the thickness profiles of the plates, achieving an uncertainty of 2 nm in the measurements of the thickness differences between two locations on each plate.

  6. A comparison of vertical velocity variance measurements from wind profiling radars and sonic anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Bianco, Laura; Johnston, Paul; Wilczak, James M.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of turbulence in the planetary boundary layer are critical for developing and evaluating boundary layer parameterizations in mesoscale numerical weather prediction models. These observations, however, are expensive and rarely profile the entire boundary layer. Using optimized configurations for 449 and 915 MHz wind profiling radars during the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA), improvements have been made to the historical methods of measuring vertical velocity variance through the time series of vertical velocity, as well as the Doppler spectral width. Using six heights of sonic anemometers mounted on a 300 m tower, correlations of up to R2 = 0. 74 are seen in measurements of the large-scale variances from the radar time series and R2 = 0. 79 in measurements of small-scale variance from radar spectral widths. The total variance, measured as the sum of the small and large scales, agrees well with sonic anemometers, with R2 = 0. 79. Correlation is higher in daytime convective boundary layers than nighttime stable conditions when turbulence levels are smaller. With the good agreement with the in situ measurements, highly resolved profiles up to 2 km can be accurately observed from the 449 MHz radar and 1 km from the 915 MHz radar. This optimized configuration will provide unique observations for the verification and improvement to boundary layer parameterizations in mesoscale models.

  7. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  8. A new centering method of the measuring probe for spiral scanning-based surface profile measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-Lin; Zeng, Pei-Yang; Ju, Bing-Feng; Zhou, Zhao-Zhong; Xu, Shaoning; Sun, Anyu

    2017-02-01

    Spiral scanning is a high-efficiency scanning mode for surface profile measurement systems. The most important priority to realize the spiral scanning mode is to accurately align the measuring probe with the rotational centre of the spindle. This paper proposes a novel centre alignment method of the measuring probe, which is considered to be suitable for any type of spiral scanning surface measurement systems. The proposed method, which only needs a tilted flat mirror as the artefact, makes the time-consuming centre alignment process of the measuring probe become much easier and faster. The operational steps of the proposed method are presented. Experiments have also been carried out based on a self-developed optical profiler with spiral scanning operation to verity the feasibility of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of conducting a fast alignment (only takes 3 min) while maintaining a high alignment accuracy. Evaluation of the alignment accuracy shows that the centering error is less than 10 µm on the mechanical guide rail stage and about 1.7 µm on the air-bearing stage.

  9. Measurements of noninterceptive fluorescence profile monitor prototypes using 9 MeV deuterons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Carmona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two types of noninterceptive optical monitors, based on gas fluorescence, have been designed for use on the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc that is currently under development (a 125 mA, 9 MeV, 175 MHz continuous wave deuteron beam. These diagnostics offer a technique to characterize the transverse beam profile for medium to high current hadron beams, without intercepting the beam core. This paper reports on beam tests using the prototype monitors developed for LIPAc. Tests were carried out at an experimental line of the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores cyclotron, using 9 MeV deuterons with beam currents from 0.4 to 40  μA. In addition, transverse beam profile measurements were performed under high background radiation (e.g. gamma dose rate up to 83  mSv/h. Preliminary cross-checks with different profilers, as well as a systematic scan of beam current and vacuum pressures and tests with different injected gases (nitrogen and xenon have been performed. In this work, we present a brief description of the experimental setup and the first measurements obtained with these prototype profilers plus a discussion of the first analysis of the background signal in a detector as a function of radiation background.

  10. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Cluster Profiles Measured with the South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Plagge, T; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H -M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; George, E M; Hall, N R; Halverson, N W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Marrone, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Williamson, R; Zahn, O

    2009-01-01

    We present Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements of 15 massive X-ray selected galaxy clusters obtained with the South Pole Telescope. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster signals are measured at 150 GHz, and concurrent 220 GHz data are used to reduce astrophysical contamination. Radial profiles are computed using a technique that takes into account the effects of the beams and filtering. In several clusters, significant SZ decrements are detected out to a substantial fraction of the virial radius. The profiles are fit to the beta model and to a generalized NFW pressure profile, and are scaled and stacked to probe their average behavior. We find model parameters that are consistent with previous studies: beta=0.86 and r_core/r_500 = 0.20 for the beta model, and (alpha, beta, gamma, c_500)=(1.0,5.5,0.5,1.0) for the generalized NFW model. Both models fit the SPT data comparably well, and both are consistent with the average SZ profile out to the virial radius. The integrated Compton-y parameter Y_SZ is computed for eac...

  11. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF:Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility). Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment sus- pension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  12. Dose profile monitoring with carbon ions by means of prompt-gamma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Le Foulher, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J.M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Laboratoire de Controle Non-Destructif par Rayonnements Ionisants (France); Poizat, J.C.; Ray, C.; Testa, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-03-15

    A key point in the quality control of ion therapy is real-time monitoring and imaging of the dose delivered to the patient. Among the possible signals that can be used to make such a monitoring, prompt gamma-rays issued from nuclear fragmentation are possible candidates, provided the correlation between the emission profile and the primary beam range can be established. By means of simultaneous energy and time-of-flight discrimination, we could measure the longitudinal profile of the prompt gamma-rays emitted by 73 MeV/u carbon ions stopping inside a PMMA target. This technique allowed us to minimize the shielding against neutrons and scattered gamma rays, and to find a good correlation between the prompt-gamma profile and the ion range. This profile was studied as a function of the observation angle. By extrapolating our results to higher energies and realistic detection efficiencies, we showed that prompt gamma-ray measurements make it feasible to control in real time the longitudinal dose during ion therapy treatments.

  13. Airborne and ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, C. Laurence; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Dombrowski, Mark; Weng, Chi Y.

    1989-01-01

    The first high accuracy remote measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile have been made. The measurements were made with a differential absorption lidar system that utilizes tunable alexandrite lasers. The absorption in the trough between two lines in the oxygen A-band near 760 nm was used for probing the atmosphere. Measurements of the two-dimensional structure of the pressure field were made in the troposphere from an aircraft looking down. Also, measurements of the one-dimensional structure were made from the ground looking up. Typical pressure accuracies for the aircraft measurements were 1.5-2 mbar with a 30-m vertical resolution and a 100-shot average (20 s), which corresponds to a 2-km horizontal resolution. Typical accuracies for the upward viewing ground based measurements were 2.0 mbar for a 30-m resolution and a 100-shot average.

  14. Concept of spinsonde for multi-cycle measurement of vertical wind profile of tropical cyclones

    CERN Document Server

    Poh, Chung-How

    2014-01-01

    Tropical cyclones and cyclogenesis are active areas of research. Chute-operated dropsondes jointly developed by NASA and NCAR are capable of acquiring high resolution vertical wind profile of tropical cyclones. This paper proposes a chute-free vertical retardation technique (termed as spinsonde) that can accurately measure vertical wind profile. Unlike the expendable dropsondes, the spinsonde allows multi-cycle measurement to be performed within a single flight. Proof of principle is demonstrated using a simulation software and results indicate that the GPS ground speed correlates with the wind speeds to within +/-5 km/h. This technique reduces flying weight and increases payload capacity by eliminating bulky chutes. Maximum cruising speed (Vh) achieved by the spinsonde UAV is 372 km/h.

  15. Precision Measurement of Cylinder Surface Profile on an Ultra-Precision Machine Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. C.; Noh, Y. J.; Arai, Y.; Gao, W.; Park, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of the surface straightness profile of a cylinder workpiece on an ultra-precision machine tool which has a T-base design with a spindle, an X-slide and a Z-slide. The movement range of the X-slide is 220 mm and that of the Z-slide is 150 mm, which have roller bearings in common. Two capacitive sensors are employed to scan a cylinder workpiece mounted on the spindle along the Z-axis. The straightness error motion of the Z-slide is measured to be approximately 100 nm by the reversal method. The straightness profile of the cylinder workpiece is evaluated to be approximately 400 nm by separation of the motion error, simultaneously.

  16. Measurement of the Beam Longitudinal Profile in a Storage Ring by Non-Linear Laser Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid-state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of un trapped particles, and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets ("ghost bunches").

  17. Measurement of the beam longitudinal profile in a storage ring bynon-linear laser mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-05-03

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of untrapped particles and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets (''ghostbunches'').

  18. Siderophile Element Profile Measurements in Iron Meteorites Using Laser Ablation ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H. C.; Watson, E. B.; McDonough, W. F.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the behaviour of siderophile elements during cooling of iron meteorites can lead to insight into the general thermal histories of the meteorites as well as their respective parent bodies. Traditionally trace element analyses in meteorites have been done using techniques that only measure the average concentration in each phase. With these methods, all of the spatial information with respect to the distribution of an element within one phase is lost. Measuring concentration profiles of trace elements in meteorites is now possible, with the advent of high-resolution analytical techniques such as laser ablation, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with spatial resolution <20 microns. [e.g. 1,2] and secondary ion mass spectrometry [3]. These profiles can give more insight into both the partitioning and diffusive behavior of siderophile elements in metal systems relevant to iron meteorites, as well as parent body cooling rates.

  19. Micro-particle image velocimetry for velocity profile measurements of micro blood flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Katie L; Fenech, Marianne

    2013-04-25

    Micro-particle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to visualize paired images of micro particles seeded in blood flows. The images are cross-correlated to give an accurate velocity profile. A protocol is presented for μPIV measurements of blood flows in microchannels. At the scale of the microcirculation, blood cannot be considered a homogeneous fluid, as it is a suspension of flexible particles suspended in plasma, a Newtonian fluid. Shear rate, maximum velocity, velocity profile shape, and flow rate can be derived from these measurements. Several key parameters such as focal depth, particle concentration, and system compliance, are presented in order to ensure accurate, useful data along with examples and representative results for various hematocrits and flow conditions.

  20. Influence of a laser profile in impedance mismatch techniques applied to carbon EOS measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Aliverdiev; D.Batani; R.Dezulian

    2013-01-01

    We present a recent numerical analysis of impedance mismatch technique applied to carbon equation of state measurements.We consider high-power laser pulses with a Gaussian temporal profile of different durations.We show that for the laser intensity(≈1014W/cm2)and the target design considered in this paper we need to have laser pulses with rise-time less than 150 ps.

  1. Development of a Standard Maritime C2N Profile Using Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    MEASUREMENTS THESIS Gregory M. Anderson, B.S. Second Lieutenant, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. Steven T. Fiorino Chair Lt Col Kevin S. Bartlett, Ph.D...Standard turbulence profile, Model fitting iv Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following people for their contributions: Dr. Steven Fiorino for...Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), vol. 111, no. D9, 2006. 10. G. K. Rutledge , J. Alpert, and W. Ebisuzaki, “NOMADS: A climate

  2. On Ultrasonic MTI Measurement of Velocity Profiles in Blood-Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn A.J. Angelsen

    1981-04-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis of Doppler frequency estimators proposed to be used in ultrasonic MTI measurements of velocity profiles in blood flow, is given. The estimators give an output in form of a single analogue voltage and the relation of the output to the Doppler spectrum is discussed. Three new estimators are also proposed. All estimators work fairly well for narrow-band Doppler spectra, but errors are found when broad-band spectra are present.

  3. Prospects for Measuring Neutron-Star Masses and Radii with X-Ray Pulse Profile Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the amplitudes and shapes of the X-ray pulsations observed from hot, rotating neutron stars provides a direct method for measuring neutron-star properties. This technique constitutes an important part of the science case for the forthcoming NICER and proposed LOFT X-ray missions. In this paper, we determine the number of distinct observables that can be derived from pulse profile modeling and show that using only bolometric pulse profiles is insufficient for breaking the degeneracy between inferred neutron-star radius and mass. However, we also show that for moderately spinning (300-800 Hz) neutron stars, analysis of pulse profiles in two different energy bands provides additional constraints that allow a unique determination of the neutron-star properties. Using the fractional amplitudes of the fundamental and the first harmonic of the pulse profile in addition to the amplitude and phase difference of the spectral color oscillations, we quantify the signal-to-noise ratio necessary to achieve a speci...

  4. Stratospheric CH4 and CO2 profiles derived from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noël

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric profiles of methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 have been derived from solar occultation measurements of the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY. The retrieval is performed using a method called "Onion Peeling DOAS" (ONPD which combines an onion peeling approach with a weighting function DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy fit. By use of updated pointing information and optimisation of the data selection and of the retrieval approach the altitude range for reasonable CH4 could be extended to about 17 to 45 km. Furthermore, the quality of the derived CO2 has been assessed such that now the first stratospheric profiles of CO2 from SCIAMACHY are available. Comparisons with independent data sets yield an estimated accuracy of the new SCIAMACHY stratospheric profiles of about 5–10 % for CH4 and 2–3 % for CO2. The accuracy of the products is currently mainly restricted by the appearance of unexpected vertical oscillations in the derived profiles which need further investigation. Using the improved ONPD retrieval, CH4 and CO2 stratospheric data sets covering the whole SCIAMACHY time series (August 2002–April 2012 and the latitudinal range between about 50 and 70° N have been derived. Based on these time series, CH4 and CO2 trends have been estimated, which are in reasonable agreement with total column trends for these gases. This shows that the new SCIAMACHY data sets can provide valuable information about the stratosphere.

  5. Retrieval of Water Vapor Profiles with Radio Occultation Measurements Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new method applying an artificial neural network (ANN) to retrieve water vapor profiles in the troposphere is presented. In this paper, a fully-connected, three-layer network based on the backpropagation algorithm is constructed. Month, latitude, altitude and bending angle are chosen as the input vectors and water vapor pressure as the output vector. There are 130 groups of occultation measurements from June to November 2002 in the dataset. Seventy pairs of bending angles and water vapor pressure profiles are used to train the ANN, and the sixty remaining pairs of profiles are applied to the validation of the retrieval. By comparing the retrieved profiles with the corresponding ones from the Information System and Data Center of the Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload for Geoscientific Research and Application (CHAMP-ISDC), it can be concluded that the ANN is relatively convenient and accurate. Its results can be provided as the first guess for the iterative methods or the non-linear optimal estimation inverse method.

  6. Superluminescent diode interferometer using sinusoidal phase modulation for step-profile measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, O; Ikeada, Y; Suzuki, T

    1998-08-01

    We propose an interferometer in which the relationship between the degree of coherence (DCH) and the optical path difference (OPD) is utilized for determining an OPD longer than a wavelength. A superluminescent diode is employed as the source of the interferometer, and sinusoidal phase-modulating interferometry is used to detect the DCH and the phase of the interference signal. The combination of the OPD determined from the DCH and the phase of an interference signal enables us to measure an OPD longer than a wavelength with a high accuracy of a few nanometers. Experimental results show clearly the usefulness of the interferometer for a step-profile measurement.

  7. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using 210Pbex measurements and Bayesian inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kruijt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of its potential significance for soil organic matter (SOM cycling, the vertical SOM distribution in the profile should be considered in models. To mechanistically predict the SOM profile, three additional processes should be represented compared to bulk SOM models: (vertically distributed rhizodeposition, mixing due to bioturbation, and movement with the liquid phase as dissolved organic matter. However, the convolution of these processes complicates parameter estimation based on the vertical SOM distribution alone. Measurements of the atmospherically produced isotope 210Pbex may provide the additional information needed to constrain the processes. Since 210Pbex enters the soil at the surface and bind strongly to organic matter it is an effective tracer for SOM transport. In order to study the importance of root input, bioturbation, and liquid phase transport for SOM profile formation we performed Bayesian parameter estimation of the previously developed mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. 13 parameters, related to decomposition and transport of organic matter, were estimated for the soils of two temperate forests with strongly contrasting SOM profiles: Loobos (the Netherlands and Hainich (Germany. Measurements of organic carbon stocks and concentrations, decomposition rates, and 210Pbex profiles were used in the optimization. For both sites, 3 optimizations were performed in which stepwise 210Pbex data and prior knowledge were added. The optimizations yielded posterior distributions with several cases (modes which were characterized by the dominant organic matter (OM pool: non-leachable slow OM, leachable slow OM, or root litter. For Loobos, the addition of 210Pbex data to the optimization clearly indicated which case was most likely. For Hainich, there is more uncertainty, but the most likely case produced by the optimization agrees well with other measurements. For both sites the most likely case of the final optimization was one

  8. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Achtert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This holds particularly within the planetary boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of winds with a random error below 0.2 m s−1, comparable to the measurement error of standard radiosondes. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  9. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtert, P.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Moat, B. I.; Prytherch, J.; Persson, P. O. G.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-11-01

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne Doppler measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This held true particularly within the atmospheric boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of vertical winds with a random error below 0.2 m s-1. The comparison of lidar-measured wind and radio soundings gives a mean bias of 0.3 m s-1 (2°) and a mean standard deviation of 1.1 m s-1 (12°) for wind speed (wind direction). The agreement for wind direction degrades with height. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  10. Maximum key-profile correlation (MKC) as a measure of tonal structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, A H

    1994-09-01

    Tonal structure is musical organization on the basis of pitch, in which pitches vary in importance and rate of occurrence according to their relationship to a tonal center. Experiment 1 evaluated the maximum key-profile correlation (MKC), a product of Krumhansl and Schmuckler's key-finding algorithm (Krumhansl, 1990), as a measure of tonal structure. The MKC is the maximum correlation coefficient between the pitch class distribution in a musical sample and key profiles, which indicate the stability of pitches with respect to particular tonal centers. The MKC values of melodies correlated strongly with listeners' ratings of tonal structure. To measure the influence of the temporal order of pitches on perceived tonal structure, three measures (fifth span, semitone span, and pitch contour) taken from previous studies of melody perception were also correlated with tonal structure ratings. None of the temporal measures correlated as strongly or as consistently with tonal structure ratings as did the MKC, and nor did combining them with the MKC improve prediction of tonal structure ratings. In Experiment 2, the MKC did not correlate with recognition memory of melodies. However, melodies with very low MKC values were recognized less accurately than melodies with very high MKC values. Although it does not incorporate temporal, rhythmic, or harmonic factors that may influence perceived tonal structure, the MKC can be interpreted as a measure of tonal structure, at least for brief melodies.

  11. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Achtert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne Doppler measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This held true particularly within the atmospheric boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of vertical winds with a random error below 0.2 m s−1. The comparison of lidar-measured wind and radio soundings gives a mean bias of 0.3 m s−1 (2° and a mean standard deviation of 1.1 m s−1 (12° for wind speed (wind direction. The agreement for wind direction degrades with height. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  12. Non-destructive profile measurement of intensive heavy ion beams; Zerstoerungsfreie Profilmessung intensiver Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Frank

    2010-02-08

    Within the framework of the FAIR-project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at GSI (Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research), high intensity beams from protons to uranium ions with kinetic energies up to 30 AGeV are foreseen. Present GSI-accelerators like the UNILAC and the Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS-18) with a magnetic rigidity of 18 Tm will be used as injectors for the future synchrotron (SIS-100). Their beam current will be increased by up to two orders of magnitude. An accurate beam position and beam profile measurement is mandatory for a safe operation of transport sections, in particular in front of production targets (Fragment Separator (FRS)-target, anti p-production-target and Warm Dense Matter (WDM)-targets). Conventional intercepting profile monitors will not withstand the thermal stress of intensive ion beams, particularly for low energy applications or focused beams. For transverse profile determination a non-intercepting Beam Induced Fluorescence (BIF)-monitor was developed, working with residual gas. The BIF-monitor exploits fluorescence light emitted by residual gas molecules after atomic collisions with beam ions. Fluorescence-images were recorded with an image-intensified camera system, and beam profiles were obtained by projecting these images. Within the scope of this dissertation the following topics have been investigated: The photon yield, profile shape and background contribution were determined for different ion species (H{sup +}, S{sup 6+}, Ar{sup 18+}, K{sup +}, Ni{sup 9+}, Xe{sup 48+}, Ta{sup 24+}, Au{sup 65+}, U{sup 73+}), beam energies (7.7 AkeV-750 AMeV), gas pressures (10{sup -6}-3 mbar) and gas species (N{sub 2}, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). Applying an imaging spectrograph and narrowband 10 nm interference filters, the spectral response was mapped and associated with the corresponding gas transitions. Spectrally resolved beam profiles were also obtained form the spectrographic images. Major results are the light yield showing a

  13. Sensorless Control of Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Wind Generator Based on SFDICT Rotor Flux Linkage Position Integrator%基于SFDICT磁链位置积分器的直驱永磁风力发电机无传感器控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芬; 金新民; 周啸; 赵新; 童亦斌

    2012-01-01

    针对兆瓦级直驱永磁风力发电机的特点,采用一种基于带坐标变换的饱和反馈双积分器(SFDICT)磁链位置的无传感器控制技术。介绍了该技术的实现原理,分析了SFDICT在不同限幅值、不同谐波含量下的工作特性,提出了SFDICT在各限幅值下的误差分析公式。在此基础上提出小限幅值加角度补偿法进行磁链位置估算,并对其进行了实验验证。结果表明,该方法可同时达到较佳的控制精度和较小的定子电流谐波,具有较好的转矩动、稳态跟踪性能,且工程实现较为简单。%Given the characteristics of MW-level direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous generator(PMSG), a sensorless control based on SFDICT rotor flux linkage position integrator is presented. Its implementation principle is introduced. In addition, performance of SFDICT under different harmonic components and different limits is discussed in depth. Furthermore, error evaluation formula under different limits is proposed. Based on it, small limit method with angle compensation is proposed. Finally, experiment results indicate the proposed method can get better accuracy and current of good quality. Results also show its excellent steady and dynamic performance as well as easy implementation.

  14. Measurement of ion velocity profiles in a magnetic reconnection layer via current sheet jogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G.; Yoo, J.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Dorfman, S.; Lawrence, E.; Myers, C.; Tharp, T.

    2011-10-01

    In many laboratory plasmas, constructing stationary Langmuir and Mach probe arrays with resolution on the order of electron skin depth is technically difficult, and can introduce significant plasma perturbations. However, complete two- dimensional profiles of plasma density, electron temperature, and ion flow are important for studying the transfer of energy from magnetic fields to particles during magnetic reconnection. Through the use of extra ``Shaping Field'' coils in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the inward motion of the current sheet in the reconnection layer can be accelerated, or ``jogged,'' allowing the measurement of different points across the sheet with stationary probes. By acquiring data from Langmuir probes and Mach probes at different locations in the MRX with respect to the current sheet center, profiles of electron density and temperature and a vector plot of two-dimensional ion velocity in the plane of reconnection are created. Results from probe measurements will be presented and compared to profiles generated from computer simulation.

  15. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties over central Illinois and comparison with surface and satellite measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Sheridan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1 measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2 relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. The primary profile location was within 15 km of the NOAA/ESRL surface aerosol monitoring station near Bondville, Illinois. Identical instruments at the surface and on the aircraft ensured that the data from both platforms would be directly comparable and permitted a determination of how representative surface aerosol properties were of the lower column. Aircraft profiles were also conducted occasionally at two other nearby locations to increase the frequency of A-Train satellite underflights for the purpose of comparing in situ and satellite-retrieved aerosol data. Measurements of aerosol properties conducted at low relative humidity over the Bondville site compare well with the analogous surface aerosol data and do not indicate any major sampling issues or that the aerosol is radically different at the surface compared with the lowest flyby altitude of ~ 240 m above ground level. Statistical analyses of the in situ vertical profile data indicate that aerosol light scattering and absorption (related to aerosol amount decreases substantially with increasing altitude. Parameters related to the nature of the aerosol (e.g., single-scattering albedo, Ångström exponent, etc., however, are relatively constant throughout the mixed layer, and do not vary as much as the aerosol amount throughout the profile. While individual profiles often showed more variability, the median in situ single-scattering albedo was 0.93–0.95 for all sampled altitudes. Several parameters (e.g., submicrometer scattering fraction, hemispheric backscattering fraction, and

  16. The Valuable Role of Measuring Serum Lipid Profile in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Ghahremanfard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum lipid levels are not only associated with etiology, but also with prognosis in cancer. To investigate this issue further, we aimed to evaluate the serum levels of lipids in association with the most important prognostic indicators in cancer patients at the start of chemotherapy. Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, using existing medical records obtained from 2009–2014, the data of all incident cancer cases in Iranian patients referred to the Semnan oncology clinic for chemotherapy were analyzed. Data on demographics, cancer type, prognostic indicators (e.g. lymph node involvement, metastasis, and stage of disease, as well as the patient’s lipid profile were collected. We used multiple logistic regression models to show the relationship between prognosis indicators and lipid profile adjusting for age, gender, and type of cancer. Results: The data of 205 patients was gathered. We found a significant difference in the lipid profile between different types of cancers (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian. With the exception of high-density lipoprotein levels in women, which were higher than in men, the means of other lipid profiles were similar between the genders. There was a significant association between higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL >110mg/dL in the serum and metastasis (adjusted odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–3.5. No significant association was reported between lipid profile and lymph nodes involvement and stage of the disease. Conclusion: Our study suggested a benefit of measuring serum levels of lipids for predicting cancer progression. Increased LDL levels can be considered a predictive factor for increasing the risk of metastasis.

  17. CT false-profile view of the hip: a reproducible method of measuring anterior acetabular coverage using volume CT data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needell, Steven D.; Borzykowski, Ross M. [Boca Radiology Group, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Carreira, Dominic S.; Kozy, John [Broward Health Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    2014-11-15

    To devise a simple, reproducible method of using CT data to measure anterior acetabular coverage that results in values analogous to metrics derived from false-profile radiographs. Volume CT images were used to generate simulated false-profile radiographs and cross-sectional false-profile views by angling a multiplanar reformat 115 through the affected acetabulum relative to a line tangential to the posterior margin of the ischial tuberosities. The anterolateral margin of the acetabulum was localized on the CT false-profile view corresponding with the cranial opening of the acetabular roof. Anterior center edge angle (CEA) was measured between a vertical line passing through the center of the femoral head and a line connecting the center of the femoral head with the anterior edge of the condensed line of the acetabulum (sourcil). Anterior CEA values measured on CT false-profile views of 38 symptomatic hips were compared with values obtained on simulated and projection false-profile radiographs. The CT false-profile view produces a cross-sectional image in the same obliquity as false-profile radiographs. Anterior CEA measured on CT false-profile views were statistically similar to values obtained with false-profile radiographs. CT technologists quickly mastered the technique of generating this view. Inter-rater reliability indicated this method to be highly reproducible. The CT false-profile view is simple to generate and anterior CEA measurements derived from it are similar to those obtained using well-positioned false-profile radiographs. Utilization of CT to assess hip geometry enables precise control of pelvic inclination, eliminates projectional errors, and minimizes limitations of image quality inherent to radiography. (orig.)

  18. Experimental estimation of the photons visiting probability profiles in time-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, P; Kacprzak, M; Weigl, W; Borowska-Solonynko, A; Krajewski, P; Zolek, N; Ciszek, B; Maniewski, R; Liebert, A

    2012-12-07

    A time-gated intensified CCD camera was applied for time-resolved imaging of light penetrating in an optically turbid medium. Spatial distributions of light penetration probability in the plane perpendicular to the axes of the source and the detector were determined at different source positions. Furthermore, visiting probability profiles of diffuse reflectance measurement were obtained by the convolution of the light penetration distributions recorded at different source positions. Experiments were carried out on homogeneous phantoms, more realistic two-layered tissue phantoms based on the human skull filled with Intralipid-ink solution and on cadavers. It was noted that the photons visiting probability profiles depend strongly on the source-detector separation, the delay between the laser pulse and the photons collection window and the complex tissue composition of the human head.

  19. Measurement of tropospheric CO2 and aerosol extinction profiles with Raman lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peitao Zhao; Yinchao Zhang; Lian Wang; Kaifa Cao; Jia Su; Shunxing Hu; Huanling Hu

    2008-01-01

    A prototype Raman lidar was designed for monitoring tropospheric CO2 profile and other scientific investigatious.The third harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (354.7-nm wavelength) was used as stimulated light source to provide nighttime measurements.Filter with high rejection ratio performance was used to extract CO2 Raman signals from Rayleigh-Mie scattering signals effectively.To improve the real time monitoring function,a two-channel signal collection system was designed to collect CO2 and N2 Raman scattering signals simultaneously. The N2 Raman scattering signals were used to retrieve aerosol extinction coefficient.Typical features of CO2 concentration profile and aerosol extinction coefficient in Herei were presented.The mixing ratio of atmospheric CO2 in Hefei can reach about 360-400 ppmv.

  20. Classification of dissolution profiles in terms of fractional dissolution rate and a novel measure of heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lánský, Petr; Weiss, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Dissolution profiles are classified in accordance with the shape of fractional dissolution rate function. This function is constant in time for the classical first-order model and, in this case, the dissolution is described by a monoexponential function. Therefore, any deviation of the fractional dissolution rate from the constant level suggests the presence of different (nonlinear/nonhomogenous) mechanisms in the dissolution process. The shapes of the fractional dissolution rate depend on the type of the model of dissolution; thus, classification with respect to this function is proposed as a tool for model selection. The Kullback-Leibler information distance is proposed for measuring similarity between two different drug dissolution profiles. The method is applied mainly to compare the first-order model, which characterizes a homogenous dosage form, with other common descriptors of dissolution and with experimental data.

  1. Simulation and measurement of AES depth profiles; a case study of the C/Ta/C/Si system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommer, Ludomir; Jablonski, Alexander; Kotis, László; Safran, Gyorgy; Menyhárd, Miklós

    2010-04-01

    A multilayer sample (C (23.3 nm)/Ta (26.5 nm)/C (22.7 nm)/Si substrate) was submitted to AES depth profiling by Ar + ions of energy 1 keV and angles of incidence of 72°, 78°, and 82°. The shapes of the as-measured depth profiles were strongly different emphasizing that the ion-bombardment conditions strongly affects the shapes of measured depth profiles. We simulated the depth profile measured at an angle of incidence of 72° by calculating the backscattering factor, applying attenuation lengths available in the literature, and simulating the ion-bombardment-induced specimen alteration with a TRIDYN simulation and a trial and error method. The good agreement between the calculated and measured depth profiles justified the method applied.

  2. Measuring and modeling suspended sediment concentration profiles in the surf zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles across the surf zone were measured in a large-scale three-dimensional movable bed laboratory facility (LSTF: Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility. Sediment suspension under two different types of breaking waves, spilling and plunging breakers, was investigated. The magnitudes and shapes of the concentration profiles varied substantially at different locations across the surf zone, reflecting the different intensities of breaking-induced turbulence. Sediment suspension at the energetic plunging breaker-line was much more active, resulting in nearly homogeneous concentration profiles throughout most of the water column, as compared to the reminder of the surf zone and at the spilling breaker-line. Four suspended sediment concentration models were examined based on the LSTF data, including the mixing turbulence length approach, segment eddy viscosity model, breaking-induced wave-energy dissipation approach, and a combined breaking and turbulence length model developed by this study. Neglecting the breaking-induced turbulence and subsequent sediment mixing, suspended sediment concentration models failed to predict the across-shore variations of the sediment suspension, especially at the plunging breaker-line. Wave-energy dissipation rate provided an accurate method for estimating the intensity of turbulence generated by wave breaking. By incorporating the breaking-induced turbulence, the combined breaking and turbulence length model reproduced the across-shore variation of sediment suspension in the surf zone. The combined model reproduced the measured time-averaged suspended sediment concentration profiles reasonably well across the surf zone.

  3. Comparing shear-wave velocity profiles inverted from multichannel surface wave with borehole measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Hunter, J.A.; Harris, J.B.; Ivanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent field tests illustrate the accuracy and consistency of calculating near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). S-wave velocity profiles (S-wave velocity vs. depth) derived from MASW compared favorably to direct borehole measurements at sites in Kansas, British Columbia, and Wyoming. Effects of changing the total number of recording channels, sampling interval, source offset, and receiver spacing on the inverted S-wave velocity were studied at a test site in Lawrence, Kansas. On the average, the difference between MASW calculated Vs and borehole measured Vs in eight wells along the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada was less than 15%. One of the eight wells was a blind test well with the calculated overall difference between MASW and borehole measurements less than 9%. No systematic differences were observed in derived Vs values from any of the eight test sites. Surface wave analysis performed on surface data from Wyoming provided S-wave velocities in near-surface materials. Velocity profiles from MASW were confirmed by measurements based on suspension log analysis. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality controls for wind measurement of a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler under strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zheng, Chaorong; Wu, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Wind profilers have been widely adopted to observe the wind field information in the atmosphere for different purposes. But accuracy of its observation has limitations due to various noises or disturbances and hence need to be further improved. In this paper, the data measured under strong wind conditions, using a 1290-MHz boundary layer profiler (BLP), are quality controlled via a composite quality control (QC) procedure proposed by the authors. Then, through the comparison with the data measured by radiosonde flights (balloon observations), the critical thresholds in the composite QC procedure, including consensus average threshold T1 and vertical shear threshold T3, are systematically discussed. And the performance of the BLP operated under precipitation is also evaluated. It is found that to ensure the high accuracy and high data collectable rate, the optimal range of subsets is determined to be 4 m/s. Although the number of data rejected by the combined algorithm of vertical shear examination and small median test is quite limited, it is proved that the algorithm is quite useful to recognize the outlier with a large discrepancy. And the optimal wind shear threshold T3 can be recommended as 5 ms-1/100 m . During patchy precipitation, the quality of data measured by the four oblique beams (using the DBS measuring technique) can still be ensured. After the BLP data are quality controlled by the composite QC procedure, the output can show good agreement with the balloon observation.

  5. Measurements of Turbulence Dissipation Rates in the Planetary Boundary Layer from Wind Profiling Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, K.; Bianco, L.; Wilczak, J. M.; Johnston, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    When forecasting winds at a wind plant for energy production, the turbulence parameterizations are crucial for understanding wind plant performance. Recent research shows that the turbulence (eddy) dissipation rate in planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes introduces significant uncertainty in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Thus, developing the capability to measure dissipation rates in the PBL will allow for identification of weaknesses in, and improvements to the parameterizations. We use data from a 915-MHz wind profiling radar at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory, collected during the XPIA campaign in spring 2015, to identify the critical parameters for measuring eddy dissipation rates using the spectral width method. Radar set-up parameters (e.g., spectral resolution), post-processing techniques (e.g., filtering for non-atmospheric signals), and spectral averaging, are optimized to capture the most accurate power spectrum for measuring spectral widths for use in the computation of the eddy dissipation rates. These estimates are compared to six heights of turbulence-measuring sonic anemometers from 50 - 300 m on a co-located 300 m tower as verification, showing encouraging results. These methods are then applied to the wind profiling radar data being collected in the Wind Forecasting Improvement Project 2 (WFIP2), a DOE funded campaign that aims to improve the ability to forecast hub-height winds from WRF-based models. This campaign uses of a suite of field observations, including many wind profiling radars, in the Columbia River Gorge, a location with complex terrain where turbulence parameterizations are critical for wind energy prediction.

  6. Mars dayside temperature from airglow limb profiles : comparison with in situ measurements and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Jean-Claude; Bougher, Stephen; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Stiepen, A.

    The thermal structure of the Mars upper atmosphere is the result of the thermal balance between heating by EUV solar radiation, infrared heating and cooling, conduction and dynamic influences such as gravity waves, planetary waves, and tides. It has been derived from observations performed from different spacecraft. These include in situ measurements of orbital drag whose strength depends on the local gas density. Atmospheric temperatures were determined from the altitude variation of the density measured in situ by the Viking landers and orbital drag measurements. Another method is based on remote sensing measurements of ultraviolet airglow limb profiles obtained over 40 years ago with spectrometers during the Mariner 6 and 7 flybys and from the Mariner 9 orbiter. Comparisons with model calculations indicate that they both reflect the CO_2 scale height from which atmospheric temperatures have been deduced. Upper atmospheric temperatures varying over the wide range 270-445 K, with a mean value of 325 K were deduced from the topside scale height of the airglow vertical profile. We present an analysis of limb profiles of the CO Cameron (a(3) Pi-X(1) Sigma(+) ) and CO_2(+) doublet (B(2) Sigma_u(+) - X(2) PiΠ_g) airglows observed with the SPICAM instrument on board Mars Express. We show that the temperature in the Mars thermosphere is very variable with a mean value of 270 K, but values ranging between 150 and 400 K have been observed. These values are compared to earlier determinations and model predictions. No clear dependence on solar zenith angle, latitude or season is apparent. Similarly, exospheric variations with F10.7 in the SPICAM airglow dataset are small over the solar minimum to moderate conditions sampled by Mars Express since 2005. We conclude that an unidentified process is the cause of the large observed temperature variability, which dominates the other sources of temperature variations.

  7. Can pyrene probes be used to measure lateral pressure profiles of lipid membranes? Perspective through atomistic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franova, M. D.; Vattulainen, I.; Ollila, O. H. S.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral pressure profile of lipid bilayers has gained a lot of attention, since changes in the pressure profile have been suggested to shift the membrane protein conformational equilibrium. This relation has been mostly studied with theoretical methods, especially with molecular dynamics...... determinant of the excimer/monomer fluorescence ratio. Thus, the results do not support the usage of di-pyr-PC molecules to measure the shape of the lateral pressure profile. We yet discuss how the probes could potentially be exploited to gain qualitative insight of the changes in pressure profile when lipid...... simulations, since established methods to measure the lateral pressure profile experimentally have not been available. The only experiments that have attempted to gauge the lateral pressure profile have been done by using di-pyrenyl-phosphatidylcholine (di-pyr-PC) probes. In these experiments, the excimer...

  8. Soil Profile Analytical Database for Europe (SPADE): Reconstruction and Validation of the Measured Data (SPADE/M)

    OpenAIRE

    Hiederer, Roland; JONES Robert J A; Daroussin, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europe of Measured profiles (SPADE/M) was created to provide a common structure for storing harmonized information on typical soil profile properties of European soils. The main difficulty encountered in constructing the database was the transfer of the source data from individual electronic spreadsheet pages to the more rigid structure of a relational database. The data in spreadsheet format had been collected more than 12 years earlier but pressure wa...

  9. On the suitability of longitudinal profile measurements using Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation for high current proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Barros, Joanna; Vieille-Grosjean, Mélissa; Kittelmann, Irena Dolenc; Thomas, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    The use of Smith-Purcell radiation to measure electrons longitudinal profiles has been demonstrated at several facilities in the picosecond and sub-picosecond range. There is a strong interest for the development of non intercepting longitudinal profile diagnostics for high current proton beams. We present here results of simulations on the expected yield of longitudinal profile monitors using Smith-Purcell radiation for such proton beams.

  10. Lidar profilers in the context of wind energy–a verification procedure for traceable measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschall, Julia; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn;

    2012-01-01

    for lidar profilers that enables us to achieve the required traceability. The procedure is based on a direct comparison of the measurements from the lidar and reference sensors mounted on a mast at various height levels. First, the data are corrected and filtered to obtain a representative data set ensuring...... are both used to correct the lidar measurements and to derive a corresponding uncertainty budget. A significant limitation of the procedure is the considerable uncertainty introduced by the reference sensors themselves. The decision as to whether to apply the derived correction as a lidar calibration......, the existing standards only permit the use of cup anemometers as standard instruments. The main issue preventing the use of remote sensors in such standards is the need to maintain the traceability of the measurements in the international standard system. In this paper, we describe a verification procedure...

  11. Effects of Spot Size on Neutron-Star Radius Measurements from Pulse Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauböck, Michi; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the effects of spot size on pulse profiles of moderately rotating neutron stars. Specifically, we quantify the bias introduced in radius measurements from the common assumption that spots are infinitesimally small. We find that this assumption is reasonable for spots smaller than 10°-18° and leads to errors that are ≤10% in the radius measurement, depending on the location of the spot and the inclination of the observer. We consider the implications of our results for neutron star radius measurements with the upcoming and planned X-ray missions NICER and LOFT. We calculate the expected spot size for different classes of sources and investigate the circumstances under which the assumption of a small spot is justified.

  12. Effects of Spot Size on Neutron-Star Radius Measurements from Pulse Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Baubock, Michi; Ozel, Feryal

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the effects of spot size on pulse profiles of moderately rotating neutron stars. Specifically, we quantify the bias introduced in radius measurements from the common assumption that spots are infinitesimally small. We find that this assumption is reasonable for spots smaller than 10-18$^\\circ$ and leads to errors that are $\\le$10% in the radius measurement, depending on the location of the spot and the inclination of the observer. We consider the implications of our results for neutron star radius measurements with the upcoming and planned X-ray missions NICER and LOFT. We calculate the expected spot size for different classes of sources and investigate the circumstances under which the assumption of a small spot is justified.

  13. Validation of Ozone Profiles Retrieved from SAGE III Limb Scatter Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Didier F.; Taha, Ghassan

    2007-01-01

    Ozone profiles retrieved from Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) limb scatter measurements are compared with correlative measurements made by occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III and HALOE [Halogen Occultation Experiment]), a limb scatter instrument (Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System [OSIRIS]) and a series of ozonesondes and lidars, in order to ascertain the accuracy and precision of the SAGE III instrument in limb scatter mode. The measurement relative accuracy is found to be 5-10% from the tropopause to about 45km whereas the relative precision is found to be less than 10% from 20 to 38km. The main source of error is height registration uncertainty, which is found to be Gaussian with a standard deviation of about 350m.

  14. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  15. Measurement of the near-wall velocity profile for a nanofluid flow inside a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics and anomalous heat transfer enhancements have been reported in the past for colloidal suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a fluid (nanofluids). However, such augmentations may manifest itself by study of fluid flow characteristics near in the wall region. Present experimental study reports near-wall velocity profile for nanofluids (silicon dioxide nanoparticles in water) measured inside a microchannel. An objective-based nano-Particle Image Velocimetry (nPIV) technique is used to measure fluid velocity within three visible depths, O(100nm), from the wall. The near-wall fluid velocity profile is estimated after implementing the required corrections for optical properties and effects caused by hindered Brownian motion, wall-particle interactions, and non-uniform exponential illumination on the measurement technique. The fluid velocities of nanofluids at each of the three visible depths are observed to be higher than that of the base fluid resulting in a higher shear rate in this region. The relative increase in shear rates for nanofluids is believed to be the result of the near-wall shear-induced particle migration along with the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles. This research is funded by NPRP grant # 08-574-2-239 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation).

  16. Multipass beam position, profile, and polarization measurements using intense photon target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabekov, I.P.; Neil, G.R. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Karabekian, S.; Musakhanian, V. [Yerevan Physics Inst., Erevan (Armenia)

    1994-05-01

    The Compton scattering of a circularly polarized laser beam condensed by an optical resonator can be used for multipass measurement of beam profile, position, and polarization in CEBAF`s 250-m-long linac straight sections. The position and profile of the beam will be measured with an accuracy of {approximately}10 {mu}m in about 200 seconds and beam polarization with 10% accuracy in 100 seconds when the lowest beam energy is 500 MeV and the beam current is 100 {mu}A. For higher energies the times for measurement are much less. The photon target is within an optical resonator having a quality factor of 50. The Nd:Yag 5 W CW laser photon beam at wavelength {lambda} = 0.532 nm will have a waist {omega}{sub o} {approximately}30 {mu}m and a Rayleigh range of about 10 mm. Scanning the electron beams in the linac sections by this photon beam at a crossing angle of 0.1 rad will send to a proportional detector installed after the spreader magnet scattered photons with energies sharply correlated with the energy of the electrons.

  17. Flying spot laser triangulation scanner using lateral synchronization for surface profile precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Ren, Yongjie; Liu, Changjie; Zhu, Jigui

    2014-07-10

    High-speed surface profile measurement with high precision is crucial for target inspection and quality control. In this study, a laser scanner based on a single point laser triangulation displacement sensor and a high-speed rotating polygon mirror is proposed. The autosynchronized scanning scheme is introduced to alleviate the trade-off between the field of view and the range precision, which is the inherent deficiency of the conventional triangulation. The lateral synchronized flying spot technology has excellent characteristics, such as programmable and larger field of view, high immunity to ambient light or secondary reflections, high optical signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum shadow effect. Owing to automatic point-to-point laser power control, high accuracy and superior data quality are possible when measuring objects featuring varying surface characteristics even in demanding applications. The proposed laser triangulation scanner is validated using a laboratory-built prototype and practical considerations for design and implementation of the system are described, including speckle noise reduction method and real-time signal processing. A method for rapid and accurate calibration of the laser triangulation scanner using lookup tables is also devised, and the system calibration accuracy is generally smaller than ±0.025  mm. Experimental results are presented and show a broad application prospect for fast surface profile precision measurement.

  18. Indoor and outdoor measurements of vertical concentration profiles of airborne particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, A; Deuchar, C N; Colls, J J

    1998-05-04

    Vertical concentration profiles of various particle size ranges of airborne particulate matter were measured from ground level up to 3 m, in outdoor and indoor environments. Indoor measurements were carried out in an electronics workshop, while two outdoor environments were chosen: a street canyon cutting across a town and an open field situated in a semi-rural environment. The novel measurement technique employed in this experimental work, which can also be used to determine vertical concentration gradients of pollutants other than airborne particles in different environments, is given particular attention. Analyses of the collected data for the environments considered are presented and some conclusions and plausible explanations of the profiles are discussed. The workshop and street canyon environments exhibited larger concentrations and vertical concentration gradients as compared to the sports field. This indicates that people breathing at different heights are subjected to different concentrations of airborne particulate matter, which has implications for sitting air pollution monitors intended for protection of public health and estimation of human exposure.

  19. Studies of longitudinal profile of electron bunches and impedance measurements at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Yadav, S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Shrivastava, B. B.; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Puntambekar, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    Indus-2 is a 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We study the longitudinal profile of electrons in Indus-2 by using dual sweep synchroscan streak camera at visible diagnostic beamline. In this paper, the longitudinal profiles of electron bunch are analyzed by filling beam current in a single bunch mode. These studies are carried at injection energy (550 MeV) and at ramped beam energy (2.5 GeV). The effects of the wakefield generated interactions between the circulating electrons and the surrounding vacuum chamber are analyzed in terms of measured effects on longitudinal beam distribution. The impedance of the storage ring is obtained by fitting the solutions of Haissinski equation to the measured bunch lengthening with different impedance models. The impedance of storage ring obtained by a series R+L impedance model indicates a resistance (R) of 1350±125 Ω, an inductance (L) of 180±25 nH and broadband impedance of 2.69 Ω. These results are also compared with the values obtained from measured synchronous phase advancing and scaling laws. These studies are very useful in better understanding and control of the electromagnetic interactions.

  20. Optimal tuning and calibration of bendable mirrors with slope measuring profilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Wayne; Kirschman, Jonathan; MacDowell, Alastair; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2009-06-22

    We describe a technique to optimally tune and calibrate bendable x-ray optics for sub-micron focusing. The focusing is divided between two elliptically cylindrical reflecting elements, a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair. Each optic is shaped by applying unequal bending couples to each end of a flat mirror. The developed technique allowsoptimal tuning of these systems using surface slope data obtained with a slope measuring instrument, the long trace profiler (LTP). Due to the near linearity of the problem, the minimal set of data necessary for the tuning of each bender, consists of only three slope traces measured before and after a single adjustment of each bending couple. The data are analyzed with software realizing a method of regression analysis with experimentally found characteristic functions of the benders. The resulting approximation to the functional dependence of the desired shape provides nearly final settings. Moreover, the characteristic functions of the benders found in the course of tuning, can be used for retuning to a new desired shape without removal from the beamline and re-measuring. We perform a ray trace, using profiler data for the finally tuned optics, predicting the performance to be expected during use of the optics on the beamline.

  1. Measurement of the nTOF beam profile in the second experimental area (EAR2) using a silicon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Suljik, Fidan

    2017-01-01

    A new beam line and a second experimental area (EAR2) have been recently built at the neutron Time-Of-Flight (nTOF) facility at CERN. The characterization of the neutron beam in terms of spatial profile is a prerequisite for high accuracy cross-sections measurements. A silicon strip detector equipped with a neutron converter has been used to determine the beam profile as a function of incident neutron energy, in particular neutron beam profile has been measured from thermal energy up to 10 eV. Preliminary results have been compared with those collected with a MicroMegas detector also installed during the measurement.

  2. Measured depth-dependence of waveguide invariant in shallow water with a summer profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Altan; Fialkowski, Laurie T; Schindall, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Acoustic-intensity striation patterns were measured in the time-frequency domain using an L-shaped array and two simultaneously towed broadband (350-650 Hz) sources at depths above and below the thermocline under summer profile conditions. Distributions of the waveguide invariant parameter β, extracted from the acoustic striation patterns, peak at different values when receivers are above or below the thermocline for a source that is below the thermocline. However, the distributions show similar characteristics when the source is above the thermocline. Experimental results are verified by a numerical analysis of phase slowness, group slowness, and relative amplitudes of acoustic modes.

  3. Maximum entropy algorithm and its implementation for the neutral beam profile measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Wook; Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A tomography algorithm to maximize the entropy of image using Lagrangian multiplier technique and conjugate gradient method has been designed for the measurement of 2D spatial distribution of intense neutral beams of KSTAR NBI (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research Neutral Beam Injector), which is now being designed. A possible detection system was assumed and a numerical simulation has been implemented to test the reconstruction quality of given beam profiles. This algorithm has the good applicability for sparse projection data and thus, can be used for the neutral beam tomography. 8 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  4. Rayleigh beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, S

    2014-12-01

    Millimeter-wavelength Rayleigh scattering from water droplets in a cloud is proposed as a means of generating a bright beacon for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope. A λ=3  mm transmitter, with an output power of a few watts, illuminating a stratiform cloud, can generate a beacon with the same flux as Mars in 10 GHz bandwidth, but the beacon has a narrow line width, so it is extremely bright. The key advantage of the beacon is that it can be used at any time, and positioned anywhere in the sky, as long as there are clouds.

  5. TWIST SPRINGBACK MEASUREMENT OF AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE PROPELLER BLADE BASED ON PROFILE DEVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Baharuddin Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrical defects that are attributable to springback are among the major defects induced by the sheet metal forming process. Such defects are critical for sections with varying thickness, such as Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV propeller blades. In this study, the springback in the twist-bending of an AA6061 propeller blade was quantified by comparing the targeted and manufactured profiles obtained using the commercial three-dimensional surface measurement technique. The results show that the twist springback becomes larger as the twist angle increases. Similarly, the twist springback increases with increasing deformation ratio.

  6. Evaluation of absolute phase for 3D profile measurement using fringe projection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengtao Huang; Zhuangde Jiang; Bing Li; Suping Fang

    2006-01-01

    A new method of absolute phase evaluation for three-dimensional (3D) profile measurement using fringe projection is presented, which combines the gray code and the phase shift technique. Two kinds of fringe patterns are projected onto the object surface respectively, one is sinusoidal intensity distribution used for phase demodulation and the other is gray code fringe pattern for unwrapping. These images are acquired by camera and stored into computer. The absolute phase is obtained by analyzing these images. The validity of this method is verified experimentally. The method is superior to other phase unwrapping methods.

  7. Measurement the Thermal Profile of Steelmaking Ladle with Subsequent Evaluation the Reasons of Lining Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlček J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the operational measurement, of which content was to determine ladle thermal profile, there were analysed causes of possible damage of lining in steel ladles by steel breakout through the ladle shell. There exists connection between thermal state of ladle lining during the operation and its lifetime. There were reached to the conclusion that the cause of failure in the lining of ladle is except for high temperature of bath, also wide interval of temperature change during the tap operation, in consequence with possible insufficient pre-heating of ladle, discontinuous operation of aggregate and damage of insulating lining layer, respectively deformation of ladles shell.

  8. Towards the development of a hybrid-integrated chip interferometer for online surface profile measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Martin, H; Jiang, X

    2016-06-01

    Non-destructive testing and online measurement of surface features are pressing demands in manufacturing. Thus optical techniques are gaining importance for characterization of complex engineering surfaces. Harnessing integrated optics for miniaturization of interferometry systems onto a silicon wafer and incorporating a compact optical probe would enable the development of a handheld sensor for embedded metrology applications. In this work, we present the progress in the development of a hybrid photonics based metrology sensor device for online surface profile measurements. The measurement principle along with test and measurement results of individual components has been presented. For non-contact measurement, a spectrally encoded lateral scanning probe based on the laser scanning microscopy has been developed to provide fast measurement with lateral resolution limited to the diffraction limit. The probe demonstrates a lateral resolution of ∼3.6 μm while high axial resolution (sub-nanometre) is inherently achieved by interferometry. Further the performance of the hybrid tuneable laser and the scanning probe was evaluated by measuring a standard step height sample of 100 nm.

  9. Refinement of the ice absorption spectrum in the visible using radiance profile measurements in Antarctic snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Ghislain; Libois, Quentin; Arnaud, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Ice is a highly transparent material in the visible. According to the most widely used database (IA2008; Warren and Brandt, 2008), the ice absorption coefficient reaches values lower than 10-3 m-1 around 400 nm. These values were obtained from a vertical profile of spectral radiance measured in a single snow layer at Dome C in Antarctica. We reproduced this experiment using an optical fiber inserted in the snow to record 56 profiles from which 70 homogeneous layers were identified. Applying the same estimation method on every layer yields 70 ice absorption spectra. They present a significant variability but absorption coefficients are overall larger than IA2008 by 1 order of magnitude at 400-450 nm. We devised another estimation method based on Bayesian inference that treats all the profiles simultaneously. It reduces the statistical variability and confirms the higher absorption, around 2 × 10-2 m-1 near the minimum at 440 nm. We explore potential instrumental artifacts by developing a 3-D radiative transfer model able to explicitly account for the presence of the fiber in the snow. The simulation shows that the radiance profile is indeed perturbed by the fiber intrusion, but the error on the ice absorption estimate is not larger than a factor of 2. This is insufficient to explain the difference between our new estimate and IA2008. The same conclusion applies regarding the plausible contamination by black carbon or dust, concentrations reported in the literature are insufficient. Considering the large number of profiles acquired for this study and other estimates from the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), we nevertheless estimate that ice absorption values around 10-2 m-1 at the minimum are more likely than under 10-3 m-1. A new estimate in the range 400-600 nm is provided for future modeling of snow, cloud, and sea-ice optical properties. Most importantly, we recommend that modeling studies take into account the large uncertainty of the ice

  10. Validation of streamflow measurements made with M9 and RiverRay acoustic Doppler current profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Office of Surface Water (OSW) previously validated the use of Teledyne RD Instruments (TRDI) Rio Grande (in 2007), StreamPro (in 2006), and Broadband (in 1996) acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for streamflow (discharge) measurements made by the USGS. Two new ADCPs, the SonTek M9 and the TRDI RiverRay, were first used in the USGS Water Mission Area programs in 2009. Since 2009, the OSW and USGS Water Science Centers (WSCs) have been conducting field measurements as part of their stream-gaging program using these ADCPs. The purpose of this paper is to document the results of USGS OSW analyses for validation of M9 and RiverRay ADCP streamflow measurements. The OSW required each participating WSC to make comparison measurements over the range of operating conditions in which the instruments were used until sufficient measurements were available. The performance of these ADCPs was evaluated for validation and to identify any present and potential problems. Statistical analyses of streamflow measurements indicate that measurements made with the SonTek M9 ADCP using firmware 2.00–3.00 or the TRDI RiverRay ADCP using firmware 44.12–44.15 are unbiased, and therefore, can continue to be used to make streamflow measurements in the USGS stream-gaging program. However, for the M9 ADCP, there are some important issues to be considered in making future measurements. Possible future work may include additional validation of streamflow measurements made with these instruments from other locations in the United States and measurement validation using updated firmware and software.

  11. Bias in mean velocities and noise in variances and covariances measured using a multistatic acoustic profiler: the Nortek Vectrino Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. E.; Schindfessel, L.; McLelland, S. J.; Creëlle, S.; De Mulder, T.

    2017-07-01

    This paper compiles the technical characteristics and operating principles of the Nortek Vectrino Profiler and reviews previously reported user experiences. A series of experiments are then presented that investigate instrument behaviour and performance, with a particular focus on variations within the profile. First, controlled tests investigate the sensitivity of acoustic amplitude (and Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR) and pulse-to-pulse correlation coefficient, R 2, to seeding concentration and cell geometry. Second, a novel methodology that systematically shifts profiling cells through a single absolute vertical position investigates the sensitivity of mean velocities, SNR and noise to: (a) emitted sound intensity and the presence (or absence) of acoustic seeding; and (b) varying flow rates under ideal acoustic seeding conditions. A new solution is derived to quantify the noise affecting the two perpendicular tristatic systems of the Vectrino Profiler and its contribution to components of the Reynolds stress tensor. Results suggest that for the Vectrino Profiler: 1. optimum acoustic seeding concentrations are ~3000 to 6000 mg L-1 2. mean velocity magnitudes are biased by variable amounts in proximal cells but are consistently underestimated in distal cells; 3. noise varies parabolically with a minimum around the ‘sweet spot’, 50 mm below the transceiver; 4. the receiver beams only intersect at the sweet spot and diverge nearer to and further from the transceiver. This divergence significantly reduces the size of the sampled area away from the sweet spot, reducing data quality; 5. the most reliable velocity data will normally be collected in the region between approximately 43 and 61 mm below the transceiver.

  12. Prediction of Facial Profile Based on Morphometric Measurements and Profile Characteristics of Permanent Maxillary Central Incisor Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of facial profile from dental morphometrics has been a subject of great interest in forensic odontology. The use of teeth to draw a profile and facial features is valuable in times of mass disasters when body remains are unavailable due to extreme destruction. This study aims to identify and evaluate applicable parameters in the permanent maxillary central incisors and the face of an individual. A correlation of these parameters establishes a mathematical equation that further charts a tooth-facial profile table. Thirty soft and hard tissue landmarks on the face in the frontal and the lateral profiles (using standardized photographs and seven landmarks on the facial/labial surface of the clinical crown of the permanent maxillary central incisor (using casts of the maxilla were identified for the study. Based on these, a set of eight horizontal and seven vertical parameters on the face and four parameters on the tooth were created for the assessment. Internal and external correlations between the two were carried out and statistically analyzed. A logistic regression was made to predict the probability of the parameters most likely to be reproduced in the creation of the facial profile, based on tooth morphometrics. The results indicated a definite correlation between the facial and the tooth parameters. Among the multiple parameters, a definite correlation in the horizontal dimension could be established between the mouth width and the mesiodistal width (MDW of the tooth. In the vertical dimension, a definite relationship existed between the crown height of the tooth and the width of the midface (zygoma-mandible. There exist divergences in the correlation of tooth and facial parameters.

  13. Megha-Tropiques/SAPHIR measurements of humidity profiles: validation with AIRS and global radiosonde network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Kumar, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    The vertical profiles of humidity measured by SAPHIR (Sondeur Atmospherique du Profil d' Humidité Intropicale par Radiométrie) on-board Megha-Tropiques satellite are validated using Atmosphere Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and ground based radiosonde observations during July-September 2012. SAPHIR provides humidity profiles at six pressure layers viz., 1000-850 (level 1), 850-700 (level 2), 700-550 (level 3), 550-400 (level 4) 400-250 (level 5) and 250-100(level 6) hPa. Segregated AIRS observations over land and oceanic regions are used to assess the performance of SAPHIR quantitatively. The regression analysis over oceanic region (125° W-180° W; 30° S-30° N) reveal that the SAPHIR measurements agrees very well with the AIRS measurements at levels 3, 4, 5 and 6 with correlation coefficients 0.79, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.78 respectively. However, at level 6 SAPHIR seems to be systematically underestimating the AIRS measurements. At level 2, the agreement is reasonably good with correlation coefficient of 0.52 and at level 1 the agreement is very poor with correlation coefficient 0.17. The regression analysis over land region (10° W-30° E; 8° N-30° N) revealed an excellent correlation between AIRS and SAPHIR at all the six levels with 0.80, 0.78, 0.84, 0.84, 0.86 and 0.65 respectively. However, again at levels 5 and 6, SAPHIR seems to be underestimating the AIRS measurements. After carrying out the quantitative comparison between SAPHIR and AIRS separately over land and ocean, the ground based global radiosonde network observations of humidity profiles over three distinct geographical locations (East Asia, tropical belt of South and North America and South Pacific) are then used to further validate the SAPHIR observations as AIRS has its own limitations. The SAPHIR observations within a radius of 50 km around the radiosonde stations are averaged and then the regression analysis is carried out at the first five levels of SAPHIR. The comparison is not carried out at sixth

  14. Precision and Resolution on Tore-Supra Ece Electron Temperature Profile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségui, J. L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.

    2003-02-01

    A 16-channel heterodyne radiometer, 2 GHz spaced, is used on Tore-Supra to measure the electron cyclotron emission in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the O mode and 94 -126 GHz for the Xmode. In the equatorial plane, a dual polarisation gaussian optics lens antenna, with a perpendicular line of sight (with respect to the magnetic field), gives ECE measurements with very low refraction and Doppler effects. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This improves time stability calibration and gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94 -110 Ghz RF band for polarisation studies. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 Ghz) in order to perform temperature measurements during ECRH plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the vacuum vessel by using a 600°C black body, a digital signal averaging on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper placed directly in front of it, and a simulation window without Fabry-Pérot effects. The calibration precision leads to ECE temperature profiles which are very consistent with Thomson scattering measurements and guarantees a good stability of the ECE profiles for small changes on the magnetic field (absolute precision +/-6%, relative precision between channels +/-3%). Post-pulse data processing takes routinely into account the total magnetic field (Bvacuum with ripple, Bpara, Bdia, Bpol, all with analytical formulations), the radial relativistic shift (analytical formulation is used), the refractionREFID="9789812705082_0032FN001"> (cut-offs detection with safety margin to avoid strong refraction), the nonthermal ECE spectraREFID="9789812705082_0032FN001"> during LHCD (using an electron density threshold criterion). These previous analytical formulations are compatible with real time processing. Relativistic radial broadening simulations show that it is useful to fulfil 32 channels (1GHz spaced).

  15. Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Ilaria; Curci, Gabriele; Falasca, Serena; Ferrero, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Analysis and high resolution modelling of black carbon vertical profiles measured over three Italian valleys Ilaria Gandolfi1,2, Gabriele Curci1,2, Serena Falasca1,2, Luca Ferrero3 1 Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 2 Center of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy 3 POLARIS Research Centre, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milan, Italy Last decades were characterized by a growing interest in aerosols: mainly for their effect on human health and on the energy balance of solar and planetary radiation, thus their role in climate change. In this study, we analyze the evolution of vertical profile of black carbon (BC) through tethered balloon observations and chemistry-transport modelling. Black carbon is regarded as the second most important anthropogenic climate forcing agent and its concentration varies significantly depending on the altitude and the sources on the territory. In winter of 2010 University Of Milan Bicocca conducted three intensive measurements campaigns over three Italian basin valleys (Terni, Po Valley, Passiria Valley). The choice of the valleys was made taking into consideration the orography and the river basin structure. The measurement campaign was based on a helium-filled tethered balloon, on which the instrumentation for the analysis has been mounted; the instrumentation consisted on a meteorological station, an OPC, a cascade impactor and a micro-Aethalometer. Subsequently, at University of L'Aquila simulations were produced to help interpretation of these vertical aerosol profiles (mass, composition and distribution) and related optical properties (scattering, absorption) using a chemistry-transport model (WRF-CHIMERE) at high horizontal resolution (1 km). The analysis focused primarily on the calculation of the heating rate and of the Direct Radiative Effect (DRE), and on the analysis of the

  16. Precision measuring technique and its application to the profile measurement of aircraft structure model; Seimitsusokutei gijutsu to sono kokuki kozo mokei keijo sokutei eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, T.; Inoue, I. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper introduces some measuring apparatuses which seem to be necessary for the precision measurement and some basic matters regarding measuring techniques for readers who are concerned with precision measurement. In the second half, this paper mainly explains the measurement of two-and three-dimensional coordinates by many examples of profile measurement which were done using a wind tunnel testing aircraft model. 11 refs., 300 figs., 97 tabs.

  17. Ozone profiles retrieved from SCIMACHY Chappuis-Wulf limb scatter measurements using MART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.

    2010-12-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument, launched on the Envisat satellite in March 2002, will measure the earthshine radiance, simultaneously from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared (NIR), in the three viewing geometries nadir, limb, and occultation. These measurements will be used to retrieve both the total amount and vertical profiles of a large number of atmospheric constituents. In this paper, stratospheric ozone profiles between 15 and 40 km altitude are retrieved on 3 km grids from SCIMACHY limb scattered radiance in the Chappuis-Wulf band. It employs a new multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) coupled with the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. Radiance normalization and wavelength pairing is applied to radiance as an intermediate step, using the wavelengths 525 nm, 600 nm and 675 nm. The sensitivity of ozone retrieval by this method to tangent altitude pointing, surface albedo, aerosol and cloud parameters is studied, the results show that the retrieval impact due to tangent altitude pointing bias is the biggest can be up to 75% with 1 km shift, and the impact of albedo is limited within 5%. The effect of boundary visibility and cloud parameters can be ignored since these impact is too small. The effectiveness of the retrieval is demonstrated using a set of coincident SCIMACHY product at Hefei that shows a mean bias of less than 12% between 15 and 40 km, and with a better accuracy of 5% from 16 to 36 km.

  18. Neutron spatial flux profile measurement in compact subcritical system using miniature neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mayank; Desai, Shraddha S.; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Bajpai, Shefali; Patel, Tarun; Sinha, Amar

    2015-02-01

    A zero power multiplying assembly in subcritical regime serves as a benchmark for validating subcritical reactor physics. The utilization of a subcritical assembly for the determination of nuclear parameters in a multiplying medium requires a well-defined neutron flux to carry out the experiments. For this it is necessary to know the neutron flux profile inside a subcritical system. A compact subcritical assembly BRAHMMA has been developed in India. The experimental channels in this assembly are typically less than 8 mm diameter. This requires use of miniature detectors that can be mounted in these experimental channels. In this article we present the thermal neutron flux profile measurement in a compact subcritical system using indigenously developed miniature gas filled neutron detectors. These detectors were specially designed and fabricated considering the restrictive dimensional requirements of the subcritical core. Detectors of non-standard size with various sensitivities, from 0.4 to 0.001 cps/nv were used for neutron flux of interest ranging from 103 to 107 n-cm-2 s-1. A comparison of measured neutron flux using these detectors and simulated Monte Carlo calculations are also presented in this article.

  19. Estimation of AFM tip shape and status in linewidth and profile measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqiang; Jiang, Zhuangde; Jing, Weixuan; Prewett, Philip D; Jiang, Kyle

    2011-12-01

    An atomic force microscopy image is a dilation of the specimen surface with the probe tip. Tips wear or are damaged as they are used. And AFM tip shape and position status make AFM images distorted. So it is necessary to characterize AFM tip shape and position parameters so as to reconstruct AFM images. A geometric model-based approach is presented to estimate AFM tip shape and position status by AFM images of test specimens and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of AFM tip. In this model, the AFM tip is characterized by using a dynamic cone model. The geometric relationship between AFM tip and the sample structure is revealed in linewidth and profile measurement. The method can easily calculate the tip parameters including half-cone angle, installation angle, scanning tilting angle and curvature radius, and easily estimate the position status of AFM tip when AFM tip moves on the specimen. The results of linewidth and profile measurement are amended accurately through this approach.

  20. Measuring the Absolute Height and Profile of the Mesospheric Sodium Layer using a Continuous Wave Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, D J; Redfern, R M; Ageorges, N; Fews, H

    2003-01-01

    We have developed and tested a novel method, based on LIDAR, of measuring the height and profile of the mesospheric sodium layer using a continuous wave laser. It is more efficient than classical LIDAR as the laser is on for 50% of the time, and so can in principle be used during laser guide star adaptive optics observations. It also has significant advantages over direct imaging techniques because it does not require a second telescope, is almost independent of the atmospheric conditions, and avoids triangulation problems in determining the height. In the long term, regular monitoring using this method would allow a valuable database of sodium layer profiles, heights, and return flux measurements to be built up which would enable observatory staff astronomers to schedule observations optimally. In this paper we describe the original experiment carried out using the ALFA laser guide star system at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. We validate the method by comparing the LIDAR results with those obtained from s...

  1. Gravitational Lens Recovery with GLASS: Measuring the mass profile and shape of a lens

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, Jonathan P; Saha, Prasenjit

    2014-01-01

    We use a new non-parametric gravitational modelling tool -- GLASS -- to determine what quality of data (strong lensing, stellar kinematics, and/or stellar masses) are required to measure the circularly averaged mass profile of a lens and its shape. GLASS uses an under-constrained adaptive grid of mass pixels to model the lens, searching through thousands of models to marginalise over model uncertainties. Our key findings are as follows: (i) for pure lens data, multiple sources with wide redshift separation give the strongest constraints as this breaks the well-known mass-sheet or steepness degeneracy; (ii) a single quad with time delays also performs well, giving a good recovery of both the mass profile and its shape; (iii) stellar masses -- for lenses where the stars dominate the central potential -- can also break the steepness degeneracy, giving a recovery for doubles almost as good as having a quad with time delay data, or multiple source redshifts; (iv) stellar kinematics provide a robust measure of the ...

  2. Beam profile measurement on HITU transducers using a thermal intensity sensor technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, V.; Sonntag, S.; Jenderka, K.-V.

    2011-02-01

    Thermal intensity sensors based on the transformation of the incident ultrasonic energy into heat inside a small cylindrical absorber have been developed at PTB in the past, in particular to determine the acoustic output of medical diagnostic ultrasound equipment. Currently, this sensor technique is being expanded to match the measurement challenges of high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) fields. At the high acoustic power levels as utilized in the clinical application of HITU transducers, beam characterization using hydrophones is critical due to the possible damage of the sensitive and expensive measurement devices. Therefore, the low-cost and robust thermal sensors developed offer a promising alternative for the determination of high intensity output beam profiles. A sensor prototype with a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm was applied to the beam characterization of an HITU transducer operated at several driving amplitude levels. Axial beam plots and lateral profiles at focus were acquired. The absolute continuous wave output power was, in addition, determined using a radiation force balance.

  3. Field representation of a watt balance magnet by partial profile measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets with high-permeability yokes have been widely used in watt balances for supplying a robust and strong magnetic field at the coil position. Subjected to the mechanical realization, only several $B_r(z)$ (radial magnetic field along the vertical direction) profiles can be measured by coils for field characterization. In this article, we present an algorithm that can construct the global magnetic field of the air gap based on $N(N\\geq1)$ additional measurements of $B_r(z)$ profiles. The proposed algorithm is realized by polynomially estimating the $B_z(r)$ function with analysis of basic relations between two magnetic components in air gap, i.e., $B_r(r,z)$ and $B_z(r,z)$, following the Maxwell's equations. The algorithm, verified by FEM simulations, can characterize the three-dimensional contribution of the magnetic field for a watt balance magnet with acceptable accuracy, which would supply basic field parameters for alignment and misalignment corrections.

  4. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  5. Measurement of a small vertical emittance with a laser wire beam profile monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakai

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe in this paper a measurement of vertical emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF damping ring at KEK with a laser wire beam profile monitor. This monitor is based on the Compton scattering process of electrons with a laser light target which is produced by injecting a cw laser beam into a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. We installed the monitor at a straight section of the damping ring and measured the vertical emittance with three different ring conditions. In all cases, the ATF ring was operated at 1.28 GeV in a single bunch mode. When the ring was tuned for ultralow emittance, the vertical emittance of ε_{y}=(1.18±0.08×10^{-11}   mrad was achieved. This shows that the ATF damping ring has realized its target value also vertically.

  6. Direct measurement of relative permeability in rocks from unsteady-state saturation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianinejad, Amir; Chen, Xiongyu; DiCarlo, David A.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a method to measure liquid relative permeability in rocks directly from transient in situ saturation profiles during gravity drainage experiments. Previously, similar methods have been used for sandpacks; here, this method is extended to rocks by applying a slight overpressure of gas at the inlet. Relative permeabilities are obtained in a 60 cm long vertical Berea sandstone core during gravity drainage, directly from the measured unsteady-state in situ saturations along the core at different times. It is shown that for obtaining relative permeability using this method, if certain criteria are met, the capillary pressure of the rock can be neglected. However, it is essential to use a correct gas pressure gradient along the core. This involves incorporating the pressure drop at the outlet of the core due to capillary discontinuity effects. The method developed in this work obtains relative permeabilities in unsteady-state fashion over a wide range of saturations quickly and accurately.

  7. Ground-based microwave measuring of middle atmosphere ozone and temperature profiles during sudden stratospheric warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, A. M.; Shvetsov, A. A.; Krasilnikov, A. A.; Kulikov, M. Y.; Karashtin, D. A.; Mukhin, D.; Bolshakov, O. S.; Fedoseev, L. I.; Ryskin, V. G.; Belikovich, M. V.; Kukin, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    We carried out the experimental campaign aimed to study the response of middle atmosphere on a sudden stratospheric warming in winter 2011-2012 above Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (56N, 44E). We employed the ground-based microwave complex for remote sensing of middle atmosphere developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Science. The complex combines two room-temperature radiometers, i.e. microwave ozonometer and the stratospheric thermometer. Ozonometer is a heterodyne spectroradiometer, operating in a range of frequencies that include the rotation transition of ozone molecules with resonance frequency 110.8 GHz. Operating frequency range of the stratospheric thermometer is 52.5-5.4 GHz and includes lower frequency edge of 5 mm molecular oxygen absorption bands and among them two relatively weak lines of O2 emission. Digital fast Fourier transform spectrometers developed by "Acqiris" are employed for signal spectral analysis. The spectrometers have frequency range 0.05-1 GHz and realizes the effective resolution about 61 KHz. For retrieval vertical profiles of ozone and temperature from radiometric data we applied novel method based on Bayesian approach to inverse problem solution, which assumed a construction of probability distribution of the characteristics of retrieved profiles with taking into account measurement noise and available a priori information about possible distributions of ozone and temperature in the middle atmosphere. Here we introduce the results of the campaign in comparison with Aura MLS data. Presented data includes one sudden stratospheric warming event which took place in January 13-14 and was accompanied by temperature increasing up to 310 K at 45 km height. During measurement period, ozone and temperature variations were (almost) anti-correlated, and total ozone abundance achieved a local maxima during the stratosphere cooling phase. In general, results of ground-based measurements are in good agreement with

  8. Profile measurement of concave spherical mirror and a flat mirror using a high-speed nanoprofiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Koji; Kitayama, Takao; Matsumura, Hiroki; Kojima, Takuya; Uchikoshi, Junichi; Higashi, Yasuo; Endo, Katsuyoshi

    2013-05-16

    Ultraprecise aspheric mirrors that offer nanofocusing and high coherence are indispensable for developing third-generation synchrotron radiation and X-ray free-electron laser sources. In industry, the extreme ultraviolet (wavelength: 13.5 nm) lithography used for high-accuracy aspheric mirrors is a promising technology for fabricating semiconductor devices. In addition, ultraprecise mirrors with a radius of curvature of less than 10 mm are needed in many digital video instruments. We developed a new type of nanoprofiler that traces the normal vector of a mirror's surface. The principle of our measuring method is that the normal vector at each point on the surface is determined by making the incident light beam on the mirror surface and the reflected beam at that point coincide, using two sets of two pairs of goniometers and one linear stage. From the acquired normal vectors and their coordinates, the three-dimensional shape is calculated by a reconstruction algorithm. The characteristics of the measuring method are as follows: the profiler uses the straightness of laser light without using a reference surface. Surfaces of any shape can be measured, and there is no limit on the aperture size. We calibrated this nanoprofiler by considering the system error resulting from the assembly error and encoder scale error, and evaluated the performance at the nanometer scale. We suppressed the effect of random errors by maintaining the temperature in a constant-temperature room within ±0.01°C. We measured a concave spherical mirror with a radius of curvature of 400 mm and a flat mirror and compared the results with those obtained using a Fizeau interferometer. The profiles of the mirrors were consistent within the range of system errors.

  9. Measurements of Spatial Line Emission Profiles in the Main Scrape-Off Layer of the DIII-D Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, M; Ellis, R; Brooks, N; Fenstermacher, M; Lasnier, C; Meyer, W; Moller, J

    2009-06-05

    A video camera system is described that measures the spatial distribution of visible line emission emitted from the main scrape-off layer (SOL) of plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. A wide-angle lens installed on an equatorial port and an in-vessel mirror which intercepts part of the lens view provide simultaneous tangential views of the SOL on the low-field and high-field sides of the plasma's equatorial plane. Tomographic reconstruction techniques are used to calculate the 2-D poloidal profiles from the raw data, and 1-D poloidal profiles simulating chordal views of other optical diagnostics from the 2-D profiles. The 2-D profiles can be compared with SOL plasma simulations; the 1-D profiles with measurements from spectroscopic diagnostics. Sample results are presented which elucidate carbon transport in plasmas with toroidally uniform injection of methane and argon transport in disruption mitigation experiments with massive gas jet injection.

  10. Measurement of Rapid Protein Diffusion in the Cytoplasm by Photo-Converted Intensity Profile Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Gura Sadovsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence microscopy methods presently used to characterize protein motion in cells infer protein motion from indirect observables, rather than measuring protein motion directly. Operationalizing these methods requires expertise that can constitute a barrier to their broad utilization. Here, we have developed PIPE (photo-converted intensity profile expansion to directly measure the motion of tagged proteins and quantify it using an effective diffusion coefficient. PIPE works by pulsing photo-convertible fluorescent proteins, generating a peaked fluorescence signal at the pulsed region, and analyzing the spatial expansion of the signal. We demonstrate PIPE’s success in measuring accurate diffusion coefficients in silico and in vitro and compare effective diffusion coefficients of native cellular proteins and free fluorophores in vivo. We apply PIPE to measure diffusion anomality in the cell and use it to distinguish free fluorophores from native cellular proteins. PIPE’s direct measurement and ease of use make it appealing for cell biologists.

  11. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  12. Technical Note: Influence of Compton currents on profile measurements in small-volume ion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanny, Sean; Sperling, Nicholas; Parsai, E. Ishmael, E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo Medical Center, 1325 Conference Drive, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Holmes, Shannon [Standard Imaging, 3120 Deming Way, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This work is to evaluate the effects of Compton current generation in three small-volume ionization chambers on measured beam characteristics for electron fields. Methods: Beam scans were performed using Exradin A16, A26, and PTW 31014 microchambers. Scans with varying chamber components shielded were performed. Static point measurements, output factors, and cable only irradiations were performed to determine the contribution of Compton currents to various components of the chamber. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate why one microchamber showed a significant reduction in Compton current generation. Results: Beam profiles demonstrated significant distortion for two of the three chambers when scanned parallel to the chamber axis, produced by electron deposition within the wire. Measurements of ionization produced within the cable identified Compton current generation as the cause of these distortions. The size of the central collecting wire was found to have the greatest influence on the magnitude of Compton current generation. Conclusions: Microchambers can demonstrate significant (>5%) deviations from properties as measured with larger volume chambers (0.125 cm{sup 3} and above). These deviations can be substantially reduced by averaging measurements conducted at opposite polarities.

  13. Accuracy and analysis of long-radius measurement with long trace profiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haixian Ye; Liming Yang

    2011-01-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) is proposed to measure radius of curvature (R) and surface figure of a long-radius spherical surface in an optical shop. Equipped with a motorized rotary stage and a two-dimensional tilt stage, the LTP scans the full aperture and calculates the absolute radius of curvature of each scanning line based on the least square method. Nonlinear error and manufacture error difference between (-enter and the edge are obtained by comparing R results. The R-limit is validated and expressed as D/R, where D is the aperture of the mirror under tost. A full-aperture three-dimensional figure is also reconstructed based on triangle interpolation.%The long trace profiler (LTP) is proposed to measure radius of curvature (R) and surface figure of a longradius spherical surface in an optical shop.Equipped with a motorized rotary stage and a two-dimensional tilt stage,the LTP scans the full aperture and calculates the absolute radius of curvature of each scanning line based on the least square method.Nonlinear error and manufacture error difference between center and the edge are obtained by comparing R results.The R-limit is validated and expressed as D/R,where D is the aperture of the mirror under test.A full-apertnre three-dimensional figure is also reconstructed based on triangle interpolation.Large optical observing systeus and hngc 1aser installations demand numerons large-scale spherical and aspherical lenses with loug focal length.Array laser installatinns,in particular,strictly demand consistency of focal length.Metrology for long focal length lens has considerable influence on the performance of these optical systems.Focal length can be calculated from the radius of curvature.Thus,developing an instrument for direct long-radius surface measurement tan ensure precision of the long focal length and improve manufacturing efficiency.

  14. Comparison of Measurements of Profile Stiffness in HSX to Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gavin

    2014-10-01

    Tokamaks and stellarators have observed significant differences in profile stiffness, defined as the ratio of the transient thermal diffusivity obtained from heat pulse propagation to the diffusivity obtained from steady-state power balance. Typically, stellarators have measured stiffness values below 2 and tokamaks have observed stiffness greater than 4. In this paper we present the first results on stiffness measurements in the quasihelically symmetric experiment HSX in which the neoclassical transport is comparable to that in a tokamak and turbulent transport dominates throughout the plasma. Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) is used to measure the local electron temperature perturbation from modulating the ECRH system on HSX. Spectral analysis of the ECE data yields a profile of the perturbed amplitude and a resulting transient electron thermal diffusivity that is close to the steady-state diffusivity. This evidence of a lack of stiffness in HSX agrees with the scaling of the steady-state heat flux with temperature gradient. The experimental data is compared to gyrokinetic calculations using the GENE code with two kinetic species. Linear calculations demonstrate that the Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) is the dominant long-wavelength microturbulence instability with growth rates that scale linearly with electron temperature gradient. Nonlinear gyrokinetic flux tube simulations indicate that the TEM contributes significantly to the saturated heat fluxes in HSX, shifting the transport-carrying wavenumbers to larger values than in typical Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) turbulence. A set of nonlinear simulations are being executed, examining the saturated nonlinear heat flux as a function of the electron temperature gradient, to obtain a stiffness value from the simulations to compare with experimental results. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-93ER54222.

  15. CLASH-X: A comparison of lensing and X-ray techniques for measuring the mass profiles of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, Megan; Voit, G. Mark; Hoffer, Aaron; Baldi, Alessandro [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Mahdavi, Andisheh [San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Umetsu, Keiichi; Czakon, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ettori, Stefano [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Merten, Julian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bartelmann, Mattias [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Benitez, Narciso [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), C/Camino Bajo de Huétor 24, Granada E-18008 (Spain); Bouwens, Rychard [Leiden Observatories, Niels Bohrweb 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Ford, Holland [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gastaldello, Fabio [INAF-IASF, via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Grillo, Claudio [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Infante, Leopoldo, E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.edu [Dept Astronomía-Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, 22 Santiago (Chile); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present profiles of temperature, gas mass, and hydrostatic mass estimated from new and archival X-ray observations of CLASH clusters. We compare measurements derived from XMM and Chandra observations with one another and compare both to gravitational lensing mass profiles derived with CLASH Hubble Space Telescope and Subaru Telescope lensing data. Radial profiles of Chandra and XMM measurements of electron density and enclosed gas mass are nearly identical, indicating that differences in hydrostatic masses inferred from X-ray observations arise from differences in gas-temperature measurements. Encouragingly, gas temperatures measured in clusters by XMM and Chandra are consistent with one another at ∼100-200 kpc radii, but XMM temperatures systematically decline relative to Chandra temperatures at larger radii. The angular dependence of the discrepancy suggests that additional investigation on systematics such as the XMM point-spread function correction, vignetting, and off-axis responses is yet required. We present the CLASH-X mass-profile comparisons in the form of cosmology-independent and redshift-independent circular-velocity profiles. We argue that comparisons of circular-velocity profiles are the most robust way to assess mass bias. Ratios of Chandra hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE) mass profiles to CLASH lensing profiles show no obvious radial dependence in the 0.3-0.8 Mpc range. However, the mean mass biases inferred from the weak-lensing (WL) and SaWLens data are different. As an example, the weighted-mean value at 0.5 Mpc is (b) = 0.12 for the WL comparison and (b) = –0.11 for the SaWLens comparison. The ratios of XMM HSE mass profiles to CLASH lensing profiles show a pronounced radial dependence in the 0.3-1.0 Mpc range, with a weighted mean mass bias value rising to (b) ≳ 0.3 at ∼1 Mpc for the WL comparison and (b) ≈ 0.25 for the SaWLens comparison. The enclosed gas mass profiles from both Chandra and XMM rise to a value ≈1/8 times the total

  16. A system for vertical profile measurements of sensible heat and chemical concentrations near the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyppoenen, M.; Walden, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The design, construction and measurements of a computer controlled system applicable to flux measurements of a scalar quantity by the gradient technique are described. Accuracy requirements for the measured variables which are used for flux calculations are considered, together with some practical aspects concerning data storage and control. The construction includes the hardware and the data acquisition, sample intake, and temperature measurement systems. The measurements comprise laboratory tests of the temperature probes and the hardware as well as field tests over wheat and grass land for temperature and wind speed and ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) concentration profiles. The hardware takes care of most of the operation and only the necessary part is done by the software. The data acquisition system is flexible, accepting the input of either digital and/or analog signals. It also controls the whole system, storing all the data in a single data file. The sample intake unit is designed to take continuous samples in to the monitors as well as grab samples into the canisters. Samples can be selected from one to four levels with no dead volumes in the sampling tubes. The temperature measurement system is constructed using a pair of temperature probes, Pt-100, which are connected to the same signal processing card, in order to remove the offset of the electronic components as well as the bias associated with single probes. This ensures the accuracy of the probes down to 0.005 deg C. According to the field measurements, the relative error limits for the sensible heat fluxes varied from 7 to 20 % in an unstable atmospheric situation. For the ozone flux, the error limits varied from 20 to 100 %, indicating a much poorer accuracy of the monitor compared to the temperature probes. (orig.) 16 refs.

  17. First Measurements of the Longitudinal Bunch Profile at SLAC Using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation at 28GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, V.; Doucas, G.; Ottewell, B.; Perry, C.; /Oxford U.; Kimmitt, M.F.; /Essex U.; Arnold, R.; Molloy, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Coherent Smith-Purcell radiation has been demonstrated as a technique for measuring the longitudinal profile of charged particles bunches in the low to intermediate energy range. However, with the advent of the International Linear Collider, the need has arisen for a non-invasive method of measuring the bunch profile at extremely high energies. Smith-Purcell radiation has been used for the first time in the multi-GeV regime to measure the longitudinal profile of the 28GeV SLAC beam. The experiment has both successfully determined the bunch length, and has also demonstrated its sensitivity to bunch profile changes. The challenges associated with this technique, and its prospects as a diagnostic tool are reported here.

  18. Optimization of the AC-gradient method for velocity profile measurement and application to slow flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartäusch, Ralf; Helluy, Xavier; Jakob, Peter Michael; Fidler, Florian

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a spectroscopic method to measure slow flow. Within a single shot the velocity distribution is acquired. This allows distinguishing rapidly between single velocities within the sampled volume with a high sensitivity. The technique is based on signal acquisition in the presence of a periodic gradient and a train of refocussing RF pulses. The theoretical model for trapezoidal bipolar pulse shaped gradients under consideration of diffusion and the outflow effect is introduced. A phase correction technique is presented that improves the spectral accuracy. Therefore, flow phantom measurements are used to validate the new sequence and the simulation based on the theoretical model. It was demonstrated that accurate parabolic flow profiles can be acquired and flow variations below 200 μm/s can be detected. Three post-processing methods that eliminate static background signal are also presented for applications in which static background signal dominates. Finally, this technique is applied to flow measurement of a small alder tree demonstrating a typical application of in vivo plant measurements.

  19. Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurements biased by sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D.S.; Wagner, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    A negative bias in discharge measurements made with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) is attributed to the movement of sediment on or near the streambed, and is an issue widely acknowledged by the scientific community. The integration of a differentially corrected global positioning system (DGPS) to track the movement of the ADCP can be used to avoid the systematic bias associated with a moving bed. DGPS, however, cannot provide consistently accurate positions because of multipath errors and satellite signal reception problems on waterways with dense tree canopy along the banks, in deep valleys or canyons, and near bridges. An alternative method of correcting for the moving-bed bias, based on the closure error resulting from a two-way crossing of the river, is presented. The uncertainty in the mean moving-bed velocity measured by the loop method is shown to be approximately 0.6cm/s. For the 13 field measurements presented, the loop method resulted in corrected discharges that were within 5% of discharges measured utilizing DGPS to compensate for moving-bed conditions. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  20. [Measurements of CO2 Concentration Profile in Troposphere Based on Balloon-Borne TDLAS System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Liu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jian-guo; Kan, Rui-feng; Xu, Zhen-yu; Ruan, Jun; Yuan, Song

    2015-10-01

    The main source and sink of CO2 in the atmosphere are concentrated in the troposphere. It is of great significance to the study of CO2 flux and global climate change to obtain the accurate tropospheric CO2 concentration profile. For the characteristics of high resolution, high sensitivity and fast response of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), a compact balloon-borne system based on direct absorption was developed to detect the CO2 concentration profiles by use of the 2 004. 02 nm, R(16), v1+v3 line without the interfere of H2O absorption and the CO2 density of the number of molecules below 10 km in the troposphere was obtained. Due to the balloon-borne environment, a compact design of one single board integrated with laser driver, signal conditioning, spectra acquiring and concentration retrieving was developed. Limited by the working capability and hardware resources of embedded micro-processor, the spectra processing algorithm was optimized to reduce the time-cost. Compared with the traditional TDLAS sensors with WMS technique, this system was designed based on the direct absorption technique by means of an open-path Herriott cell with 20 m optical-path, which avoided the process of standardization and enhanced the environmental adaptation. The universal design of hardware and software platform achieved diverse gas measuring by changing the laser and adjusting some key parameters in algorithm. The concept of compact design helped to reduce the system's power and volume and balanced the response speed and measure precision. The power consumes below 1.5 W in room temperature and the volume of the single board is 120 mm x 100 mm x 25 mm, and the measurement accuracy is ± 0.6 x 10(-6) at 1.5 s response time. It has been proved that the system can realize high precision detection of CO2 profile at 15 m vertical resolution in troposphere and TDLAS is an available method for balloon-borne detection.

  1. A two-compartment phantom for VOI profile measurements in small-bore 31P MR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhoff, Babro; Stubgaard, Max; Stensgaard, Anders

    1998-01-01

    A two-compartment gel phantom for VOI profile measurements in volume-selective 31P spectroscopy in small-bore units is presented. The phantom is cylindrical with two compartments divided by a very thin (30 microm) polyethene film. This thin film permits measurements with a minimum of susceptibility...... from the two compartments was measured for each position and the data were evaluated following differentiation. We have found this phantom suitable for VOI profile measurements of ISIS in small-bore systems. The phantom forms a useful complement to recommended phantoms for small bore-spectroscopy...

  2. Detection of universality of dark matter profile from Subaru weak lensing measurements of 50 massive clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Niikura, Hiroko; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Martino, Rossella; Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    We develop a novel method of measuring the lensing distortion profiles of clusters with stacking the scaled amplitudes of background galaxy ellipticities as a function of the scaled centric radius according to the NFW prediction of each cluster, based on the assumption that the different clusters in a sample follow the universal NFW profile. First we demonstrate the feasibility of this method using both the analytical NFW model and simulated halos in high-resolution $N$-body simulations. We then apply, as a proof of concept, this method to the Subaru weak lensing data and the XMM/Chandra X-ray observables for a sample of 50 massive clusters in the redshift range $0.15\\le z\\le 0.3$, where their halo masses range over an order of magnitude. To estimate the NFW parameters of each cluster, we use the halo mass proxy relation of X-ray observables, based on either the hydrostatic equilibrium or the gas mass, and then infer the halo concentration from the model $c(M)$ relation. We evaluate a performance of the NFW s...

  3. Line-profile variations in radial-velocity measurements: Two alternative indicators for planetary searches

    CERN Document Server

    Figueira, P; Pepe, F; Lovis, C; Nardetto, N

    2013-01-01

    Aims. We introduce two methods to identify false-positive planetary signals in the context of radial-velocity exoplanet searches. The first is the bi-Gaussian cross-correlation function fitting, and the second is the measurement of asymmetry in radial-velocity spectral line information content, Vasy. Methods. We make a systematic analysis of the most used common line profile diagnosis, Bisector Inverse Slope and Velocity Span, along with the two proposed ones. We evaluate all these diagnosis methods following a set of well-defined common criteria and using both simulated and real data. We apply them to simulated cross-correlation functions created with the program SOAP and which are affected by the presence of stellar spots, and to real cross-correlation functions, calculated from HARPS spectra, for stars with a signal originating both in activity and created by a planet. Results. We demonstrate that the bi-Gaussian method allows a more precise characterization of the deformation of line profiles than the sta...

  4. Measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Khaled

    2016-10-01

    Preliminary measurements of profiles of aerosol/cloud in the lower atmosphere using a homemade stationary groundbased lidar system will be presented. In addition, information on basic characteristics and performance of the lidar system will be provided. Aerosol/Cloud lidar system in monostatic coaxial configuration uses the fundamental (1064 nm) and the second harmonic (532 nm) of a pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser to provide information on the relative concentration and spatial distribution of aerosol particles and cloud water droplets. Beam expander is used to reduce the laser beam divergence before to be transmitted into the atmosphere. In this study, high-resolution vertical profiles from the near ground up to 15 km altitude are obtained. A Newtonian telescope of diameter 400 mm with an adjustable field of view (FOV) is used to collect the elastic backscattered signal. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used for the 532 nm wavelength detection channel, while an avalanche photodiode (APD) is used for the 1064 nm wavelength detection channel. The optoelectronic detection channels use two similar very high frequency preamplification circuit. Data are acquired with a nominal spatial resolution of 7.5 m using a 12-bit 20 MHz analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for each channel. Many functions, such as, range determination, background subtraction, digitization, and averaging are performed by the receiver subsystem. In addition, spatial resolution and linear dynamic range were optimized during signal processing.

  5. Using measured soil water contents to estimate evapotranspiration and root water uptake profiles - a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderle, M.; Hildebrandt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of plants in soil water relations, and thus ecosystem functioning, requires information about root water uptake. We evaluated four different complex water balance methods to estimate sink term patterns and evapotranspiration directly from soil moisture measurements. We tested four methods. The first two take the difference between two measurement intervals as evapotranspiration, thus neglecting vertical flow. The third uses regression on the soil water content time series and differences between day and night to account for vertical flow. The fourth accounts for vertical flow using a numerical model and iteratively solves for the sink term. None of these methods requires any a priori information of root distribution parameters or evapotranspiration, which is an advantage compared to common root water uptake models. To test the methods, a synthetic experiment with numerical simulations for a grassland ecosystem was conducted. Additionally, the time series were perturbed to simulate common sensor errors, like those due to measurement precision and inaccurate sensor calibration. We tested each method for a range of measurement frequencies and applied performance criteria to evaluate the suitability of each method. In general, we show that methods accounting for vertical flow predict evapotranspiration and the sink term distribution more accurately than the simpler approaches. Under consideration of possible measurement uncertainties, the method based on regression and differentiating between day and night cycles leads to the best and most robust estimation of sink term patterns. It is thus an alternative to more complex inverse numerical methods. This study demonstrates that highly resolved (temporally and spatially) soil water content measurements may be used to estimate the sink term profiles when the appropriate approach is used.

  6. Effect of H- stripped electrons on the LINAC4 profile measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Duraffourg, M; Focker, GJ; Hessler, C; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Vuitton, C; Zocca, F

    2013-01-01

    At CERN's LINAC4 it is foreseen to measure transverse beam profiles by means of Secondary Emission wire grids (normally referred to as SEM monitors or SEM grids) and Beam Wire Scanners (BWS). Following observations at the SNS linac BWS, that showed cross-talk between wire signals attributed to scattering of H- stripped electrons, it was decided to investigate this effect for the LINAC4 case. The interaction of electron beams with Carbon and Tungsten wires was studied through Monte Carlo simulations (FLUKA code), analytical calculations, particle tracking simulations in EM fields (CST Particle Studio) and a laboratory experiment based on a 70 keV electron beam, well reproducing the case of 128 MeV H- ions.

  7. Exact method for determining subsurface radioactivity depth profiles from gamma spectroscopy measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Van Siclen, Clinton DeW

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface radioactivity may be due to transport of radionuclides from a contaminated surface into the solid volume, as occurs for radioactive fallout deposited on soil, or from fast neutron activation of a solid volume, as occurs in concrete blocks used for radiation shielding. For purposes including fate and transport studies of radionuclides in the environment, decommissioning and decontamination of radiation facilities, and nuclear forensics, an in situ, nondestructive method for ascertaining the subsurface distribution of radioactivity is desired. The method developed here obtains a polynomial expression for the radioactivity depth profile, using a small set of gamma-ray count rates measured by a collimated detector directed towards the surface at a variety of angles with respect to the surface normal. To demonstrate its capabilities, this polynomial method is applied to the simple case where the radioactivity is maximal at the surface and decreases exponentially with depth below the surface, and to the ...

  8. Smooth connection method of segment test data in road surface profile measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hu-Ming; Ma, Ying; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Kai-Bin; Xie, Fei

    2012-01-01

    It's reviewed that the measurement system of road surface profile and the calculation method of segment road test data have been introduced. Because of there are sudden vertical steps at the connection points of segment data which will influence the application of road surface data in automotive engineering. So a new smooth connection method of segment test data is proposed which revised the sudden vertical steps connection by the Signal Local Baseline Adjustment (SLBA) method. Besides, there is an actual example which mentioned the detailed process of the smooth connection of segment test data by the SLBA method and the adjusting results at these connection points. The application and calculation results show that the SLBA method is simple and has achieved obvious effect in smooth connection of the segment road test data. The method of SLBA can be widely applied to segment road surface data processing or the long period vibration signal processing.

  9. Thickness dependent CARS measurement of polymeric thin films without depth-profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dae Sik; Jeoung, Sae Chae; Chon, Byung-Hyuk

    2008-02-18

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is demonstrated to be a promising optical method for the characterization of polymer films with film thickness varying between 180 nm to 4300 nm. In case of PMMA films with a thickness of few hundreds of nanometers, the observed CARS signal was mainly associated with the interference effect of large nonresonant CARS field from glass substrate and the weak resonant field of PMMA. The dependence of resonant CARS intensity of PMMA film on film thickness is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction on a CARS field. The current work offers potential possibilities of noninvasive thickness measurement of polymeric thin film of thickness less than 180 nm by multiplex CARS microscopy without depth-profiling.

  10. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  11. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  12. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Shallcross

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from cyclic perfluorocarbon tracer experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study dispersion over a large vertical gradient. These gradients are then compared with classical Gaussian profiles of the relevant stability classes over a range of distances as well as interpretation of data with reference to both anemometry and LIDAR measurements made. Data are then compared with an operational model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign looking at dosage compared with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analysis illustrates the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  13. Comparison of shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler and moored current measurements in the Equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chereskin, T. K.; Regier, L. A.; Halpern, D.

    1987-01-01

    Depth-averaged current shears computed from shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and moored Savonius rotor and vane vector-averaging current meter (VACM) measurements are compared at 35, 62.5, 100 and 140 m depths within 7 km of each other near 0 deg, 140 deg W during a 12-day interval in November 1984. The agreement between the VACM and ADCP shears was excellent. The average root-mean-square difference of hourly shear values was small, approximately 0.0021/s, and the average correlation coefficient was 0.90. Spectral estimates were equivalent to within a 95 percent significance level and the VACM and ADCP shears were 95 percent statistically coherent with zero phase difference for frequencies below 0.2 cycles per hour.

  14. Measuring Compositions in Organic Depth Profiling: Results from a VAMAS Interlaboratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shard, A. G.; Havelund, Rasmus; Spencer, Steve J.; Gilmore, I. S.; Alexander, Morgan R.; Angerer, Tina B.; Aoyagi, Satoka; Barnes, Jean P.; Benayad, Anass; Bernasik, Andrzej; Ceccone, Giacomo; Counsell, Jonathan D.; Deeks, Christopher; Fletcher, John S.; Graham, Daniel J.; Heuser, Christian; Lee, Tae G.; Marie, Camille; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Mishra, Gautam; Rading, Derk; Renault, Oliver; Scurr, David J.; Shon, Hyun K.; Spampinato, Valentina; Tian, Hua; Wang, Fuyi; Winograd, Nicholas; Wu, Kui; Wucher, Andreas; Zhou, Yufan; Zhu, Zihua

    2015-07-23

    We report the results of a VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) interlaboratory study on the measurement of composition in organic depth profiling. Layered samples with known binary compositions of Irganox 1010 and either Irganox 1098 or Fmoc-pentafluoro-L-phenylalanine in each layer were manufactured in a single batch and distributed to more than 20 participating laboratories. The samples were analyzed using argon cluster ion sputtering and either X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) or Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to generate depth profiles. Participants were asked to estimate the volume fractions in two of the layers and were provided with the compositions of all other layers. Participants using XPS provided volume fractions within 0.03 of the nominal values. Participants using ToF-SIMS either made no attempt, or used various methods that gave results ranging in error from 0.02 to over 0.10 in volume fraction, the latter representing a 50% relative error for a nominal volume fraction of 0.2. Error was predominantly caused by inadequacy in the ability to compensate for primary ion intensity variations and the matrix effect in SIMS. Matrix effects in these materials appear to be more pronounced as the number of atoms in both the primary analytical ion and the secondary ion increase. Using the participants’ data we show that organic SIMS matrix effects can be measured and are remarkably consistent between instruments. We provide recommendations for identifying and compensating for matrix effects. Finally we demonstrate, using a simple normalization method, that virtually all ToF-SIMS participants could have obtained estimates of volume fraction that were at least as accurate and consistent as XPS.

  15. Measuring Compositions in Organic Depth Profiling: Results from a VAMAS Interlaboratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shard, Alexander G; Havelund, Rasmus; Spencer, Steve J; Gilmore, Ian S; Alexander, Morgan R; Angerer, Tina B; Aoyagi, Satoka; Barnes, Jean-Paul; Benayad, Anass; Bernasik, Andrzej; Ceccone, Giacomo; Counsell, Jonathan D P; Deeks, Christopher; Fletcher, John S; Graham, Daniel J; Heuser, Christian; Lee, Tae Geol; Marie, Camille; Marzec, Mateusz M; Mishra, Gautam; Rading, Derk; Renault, Olivier; Scurr, David J; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Spampinato, Valentina; Tian, Hua; Wang, Fuyi; Winograd, Nicholas; Wu, Kui; Wucher, Andreas; Zhou, Yufan; Zhu, Zihua; Cristaudo, Vanina; Poleunis, Claude

    2015-08-20

    We report the results of a VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) interlaboratory study on the measurement of composition in organic depth profiling. Layered samples with known binary compositions of Irganox 1010 and either Irganox 1098 or Fmoc-pentafluoro-l-phenylalanine in each layer were manufactured in a single batch and distributed to more than 20 participating laboratories. The samples were analyzed using argon cluster ion sputtering and either X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to generate depth profiles. Participants were asked to estimate the volume fractions in two of the layers and were provided with the compositions of all other layers. Participants using XPS provided volume fractions within 0.03 of the nominal values. Participants using ToF-SIMS either made no attempt, or used various methods that gave results ranging in error from 0.02 to over 0.10 in volume fraction, the latter representing a 50% relative error for a nominal volume fraction of 0.2. Error was predominantly caused by inadequacy in the ability to compensate for primary ion intensity variations and the matrix effect in SIMS. Matrix effects in these materials appear to be more pronounced as the number of atoms in both the primary analytical ion and the secondary ion increase. Using the participants' data we show that organic SIMS matrix effects can be measured and are remarkably consistent between instruments. We provide recommendations for identifying and compensating for matrix effects. Finally, we demonstrate, using a simple normalization method, that virtually all ToF-SIMS participants could have obtained estimates of volume fraction that were at least as accurate and consistent as XPS.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS & LIPID PROFILE IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is now a global epidemic called as “globesity”. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension is the important cardiovascular disease risk factors that are associated with obesity. Cardiovascular risk is counted partly by metabolic alterations associated with abdominal obesity, disturbances in plasma glucose homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism. AIM: To determine the level risk of coronary artery disease (CAD in the study group depending on waist circumference (WC & Body mass index (BMI. Secondly, to compare the anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in the three groups. MATERIALS & METHODS: Study comprised of three groups: group I (n=30 type II diabetes mellitus, group II (n=30 primary essential hypertension, group III (n=30 hypertensive diabetics. WC, Weight & Height were measured. Lipid profile was estimated. Blood pressure was recorded. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. RESULTS: The Mean & Standard Deviations (SD values for WC & BMI in Group I were seen to be highest in group II 88.1±15.06 & 28.69±4.7 respectively. Statistically significant difference seen in systolic blood pressure between three groups with F value of 18.29 & p value of <0.001. Diastolic blood pressure also showed statistically significant difference in the three groups with F value 21.92 of & p value of < 0.001. statistically significant difference in HDL levels with p value of <0.05, serum cholesterol/ HDL ratio with p value of <0.05 and highly significant difference in triglyceride levels between three groups with p value of <0.001. Conclusion: Waist circumference is a better anthropometric marker as compared to BMI to assess the CAD risk. All the three groups had risk of CAD, but Hypertensive diabetics had highest predisposition for CAD

  17. SU-E-T-645: Qualification of a 2D Ionization Chamber Array for Beam Steering and Profile Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, S [MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States); Balter, P [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rose, M [Sun Nuclear Inc., Melbourne, FL (Australia); Simon, W [Sun Nuclear Corp, Melbourne, FL (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Establish a procedure for beam steering and profile measurement using a 2D ionization chamber array and show equivalence to a water scanning system. Methods: Multiple photon beams (30×30cm{sup 2} field) and electron beams (25×25cm{sup 2} cone) were steered in the radial and transverse directions using Sun Nuclear’s IC PROFILER (ICP). Solid water was added during steering to ensure measurements were beyond the buildup region. With steering complete, servos were zeroed and enabled. Photon profiles were collected in a 30×30cm{sup 2} field at dmax and 2.9 cm depth for flattened and FFF beams respectively. Electron profiles were collected with a 25×25cm{sup 2} cone and effective depth (solid water + 0.9 cm intrinsic buildup) as follows: 0.9 cm (6e), 1.9 cm (9e), 2.9 cm (12e, 16e, 20e). Profiles of the same energy, field size and depth were measured in water with Sun Nuclear’s 3D SCANNER (3DS). Profiles were re-measured using the ICP after the in-water scans. Profiles measured using the ICP and 3DS were compared by (a) examining the differences in Varian’s “Point Difference Symmetry” metric, (b) visual inspection of the overlaid profile shapes and (c) calculation of point-by-point differences. Results: Comparing ICP measurements before and after water scanning showed very good agreement indicating good stability of the linac and measurement system. Comparing ICP Measurements to water phantom measurements using Varian’s symmetry metric showed agreement within 0.5% for all beams. The average magnitude of the agreement was within 0.2%. Comparing ICP Measurements to water phantom measurements using point-by-point difference showed agreement within 0.5% inside of 80% area of the field width. Conclusion: Profile agreement to within 0.5% was observed between ICP and 3DS after steering multiple energies with the ICP. This indicates that the ICP may be used for steering electron beams, and both flattened and FFF photon beams. Song Gao: Sun Nuclear

  18. Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Sudhakar, Katta; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Mescheryakov, G; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Ulyanov, A; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Demianov, A; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, V; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Onengüt, G; Ozkurt, Halil; Polatoz, A; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Esendemir, Akif; Gamsizkan, Halil; Güler, M; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Senchishin, V; Hauptman, John M; Abdullin, Salavat; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Los, Serguei; O'Dell, Vivian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Machado, Emanuel; Rohlf, James; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Podrasky, V; Sanzeni, Christopher; Winn, Dave; Akgun, Ugur; Ayan, S; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Karmgard, Daniel John; Ruchti, Randy; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Bodek, Arie; De Barbaro, Pawel; Budd, Howard; Chung, Yeon Sei; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T

    2007-01-01

    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are...

  19. Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.

  20. The effect of detector nonlinearity on WFIRST PSF profiles for weak gravitational lensing measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Plazas, Andrés A; Kannawadi, Arun; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rhodes, Jason D; Smith, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing (WL) is one of the most powerful techniques to learn about the dark sector of the universe. To extract the WL signal from astronomical observations, galaxy shapes must be measured and corrected for the point spread function (PSF) of the imaging system with extreme accuracy. Future WL missions (such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, WFIRST) will use a family of hybrid nearinfrared CMOS detectors (HAWAII-4RG) that are untested for accurate WL measurements. Like all image sensors, these devices are subject to conversion gain nonlinearities (voltage response to collected photo-charge) that bias the shape and size of bright objects such as reference stars that are used in PSF determination. We study this type of detector nonlinearity (NL) and show how to derive requirements on it from WFIRST PSF size and ellipticity requirements. We simulate the PSF optical profiles expected for WFIRST and measure the fractional error in the PSF size and the absolute error in the PSF elliptici...

  1. LOCAL VELOCITY PROFILES MEASURED BY PIV IN AN VESSEL AGITATED BY RUSHTON TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Šulc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics and flow field were measured in an agitated vessel using 2-D Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (2-D TR PIV. The experiments were carried out in a fully baffled cylindrical flat bottom vessel 300 mm in inner diameter. The tank was agitated by a Rushton turbine 100 mm in diameter. The velocity fields were measured for three impeller rotation speeds 300 rpm, 450 rpm and 600 rpm and the corresponding Reynolds numbers in the range 50 000 < Re < 100 000, which means that the fully-developed turbulent flow was reached. In accordance with the theory of mixing, the dimensionless mean and fluctuation velocities in the measured directions were found to be constant and independent of the impeller rotational speed. The velocity profiles were averaged, and were expressed by Chebyshev polynomials of the 1st order. Although the experimentally investigated area was relatively far from the impeller, and it was located in upward flow to the impeller, no state of local isotropy was found. The ratio of the axial rms fluctuation velocity to the radial component was found to be in the range from 0.523 to 0.768. The axial turbulence intensity was found to be in the range from 0.293 to 0.667, which corresponds to a high turbulence intensity.

  2. Membrane fluidity profiles as deduced by saturation-recovery EPR measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times of spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Feix, Jimmy B; Hyde, James S; Subczynski, Witold K

    2011-10-01

    There are no easily obtainable EPR spectral parameters for lipid spin labels that describe profiles of membrane fluidity. The order parameter, which is most often used as a measure of membrane fluidity, describes the amplitude of wobbling motion of alkyl chains relative to the membrane normal and does not contain explicitly time or velocity. Thus, this parameter can be considered as nondynamic. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (T(1)(-1)) obtained from saturation-recovery EPR measurements of lipid spin labels in deoxygenated samples depends primarily on the rotational correlation time of the nitroxide moiety within the lipid bilayer. Thus, T(1)(-1) can be used as a convenient quantitative measure of membrane fluidity that reflects local membrane dynamics. T(1)(-1) profiles obtained for 1-palmitoyl-2-(n-doxylstearoyl)phosphatidylcholine (n-PC) spin labels in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes with and without 50 mol% cholesterol are presented in parallel with profiles of the rotational diffusion coefficient, R(⊥), obtained from simulation of EPR spectra using Freed's model. These profiles are compared with profiles of the order parameter obtained directly from EPR spectra and with profiles of the order parameter obtained from simulation of EPR spectra. It is shown that T(1)(-1) and R(⊥) profiles reveal changes in membrane fluidity that depend on the motional properties of the lipid alkyl chain. We find that cholesterol has a rigidifying effect only to the depth occupied by the rigid steroid ring structure and a fluidizing effect at deeper locations. These effects cannot be differentiated by profiles of the order parameter. All profiles in this study were obtained at X-band (9.5 GHz).

  3. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi, E-mail: hiratsuka.junichi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  4. 2D spatial profile measurements of potential fluctuation with heavy ion beam probe on the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Nishiura, M.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, K.; Takahashi, H.; Igami, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional spatial profiles of potential fluctuation were measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). For 2D spatial profile measurements, the probe beam energy has to be changed, which requires the adjustment of many deflectors in the beam transport line to optimize the beam trajectory, since the transport line of LHD-HIBP system is long. The automatic beam adjustment system was developed, which allows us to adjust the beam trajectory easily. By analyzing coherence between potential fluctuation and magnetic probe signal, the noise level of the mode power spectrum of the potential fluctuation can be reduced. By using this method, the 2D spatial profile of potential fluctuation profile was successfully obtained.

  5. System for measuring temporal profiles of scintillation at high and different linear energy transfers by using pulsed ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Masanori; Kurashima, Satoshi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Atsushi; Asai, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a system for measuring the temporal profiles of scintillation at high linear energy transfer (LET) by using pulsed ion beams from a cyclotron. The half width at half maximum time resolution was estimated to be 1.5-2.2 ns, which we attributed mainly to the duration of the pulsed ion beam and timing jitter between the trigger signal and the arrival of the ion pulse. The temporal profiles of scintillation of BaF2 at different LETs were successfully observed. These results indicate that the proposed system is a powerful tool for analyzing the LET effects in temporal profiles of scintillation.

  6. System for measuring temporal profiles of scintillation at high and different linear energy transfers by using pulsed ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshimizu, Masanori, E-mail: koshi@qpc.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Asai, Keisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-07 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kurashima, Satoshi [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Kimura, Atsushi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Iwamatsu, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a system for measuring the temporal profiles of scintillation at high linear energy transfer (LET) by using pulsed ion beams from a cyclotron. The half width at half maximum time resolution was estimated to be 1.5–2.2 ns, which we attributed mainly to the duration of the pulsed ion beam and timing jitter between the trigger signal and the arrival of the ion pulse. The temporal profiles of scintillation of BaF{sub 2} at different LETs were successfully observed. These results indicate that the proposed system is a powerful tool for analyzing the LET effects in temporal profiles of scintillation.

  7. Innovative real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement under large beam current irradiation for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, M., E-mail: m_takada@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kamada, S.; Suda, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M. [Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., 3-5-7 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0063 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, H. [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2, Ami Ami-Cho, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Endo, S. [Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Hamano, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Arai, S.; Higashimata, A. [Sanki Industry Co., 318-6, Sannoh, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0002 (Japan)

    2012-10-11

    We developed a real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement on a target under large beam current irradiation, and without any complex radiation detectors or electrical circuits. We measured the beam profiles on a target by observing the target temperature using an infrared-radiation thermometer camera. The target temperatures were increased and decreased quickly by starting and stopping the beam irradiation within 1 s in response speed. Our method could trace beam movements rapidly. The beam size and position were calibrated by measuring O-ring heat on the target. Our method has the potential to measure beam profiles at beam current over 1 mA for proton and deuteron with the energy around 3 MeV and allows accelerator operators to adjust the beam location during beam irradiation experiments without decreasing the beam current.

  8. Assessment of measurement error due to sampling perspective in the space-based Doppler lidar wind profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, S. H.; Emmitt, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A Multipair Algorithm (MPA) has been developed to minimize the contribution of the sampling error in the simulated Doppler lidar wind profiler measurements (due to angular and spatial separation between shots in a shot pair) to the total measurement uncertainty. Idealized wind fields are used as input to the profiling model, and radial wind estimates are passed through the MPA to yield a wind measurement for 300 x 300 sq km areas. The derived divergence fields illustrate the gradient patterns that are particular to the Doppler lidar sampling strategy and perspective.

  9. Ground-Based Remote or In Situ Measurement of Vertical Profiles of Wind in the Lower Troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer

    2017-02-24

    Knowledge of winds in the lower troposphere is essential for a range of applications, including weather forecasting, transportation, natural hazards, and wind energy. This presentation focuses on the measurement of vertical profiles of wind in the lower troposphere for wind energy applications. This presentation introduces the information that wind energy site development and operations require, how it used, and the benefits and problems of current measurements from in-situ measurements and remote sensing. The development of commercial Doppler wind lidar systems over the last 10 years are shown, along with the lessons learned from this experience. Finally, potential developments in wind profiling aimed at reducing uncertainty and increasing data availability are introduced.

  10. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties and the solar heating rate estimated by combining sky radiometer and lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Rei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Aoyagi, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    The SKYLIDAR algorithm was developed to estimate vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer (SKYNET) and lidar (AD-Net) measurements. The solar heating rate was also estimated from the SKYLIDAR retrievals. The algorithm consists of two retrieval steps: (1) columnar properties are retrieved from the sky radiometer measurements and the vertically mean depolarization ratio obtained from the lidar measurements and (2) vertical profiles are retrieved from the lidar measurements and the results of the first step. The derived parameters are the vertical profiles of the size distribution, refractive index (real and imaginary parts), extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Sensitivity tests were conducted by applying the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the simulated sky radiometer and lidar data for vertical profiles of three different aerosols, continental average, transported dust, and pollution aerosols. The vertical profiles of the size distribution, extinction coefficient, and asymmetry factor were well estimated in all cases. The vertical profiles of the refractive index and single-scattering albedo of transported dust, but not those of transported pollution aerosol, were well estimated. To demonstrate the performance and validity of the SKYLIDAR algorithm, we applied the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the actual measurements at Tsukuba, Japan. The detailed vertical structures of the aerosol optical properties and solar heating rate of transported dust and smoke were investigated. Examination of the relationship between the solar heating rate and the aerosol optical properties showed that the vertical profile of the asymmetry factor played an important role in creating vertical variation in the solar heating rate. We then compared the columnar optical properties retrieved with the SKYLIDAR algorithm to those produced with the more established scheme SKYRAD.PACK, and the surface solar irradiance calculated from the SKYLIDAR

  11. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Dorf, M.; H. Bösch; Butz, A.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Engel, A.; Goutail, F.; Grunow, K.; Hendrick, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; Naujokat, B.; J.-P. Pommereau; Van Roozendael, M.; Sioris, C.; Stroh, F.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM). Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a...

  12. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  13. Stratospheric Profiling of HDO from Far InfraRed Limb Measurements by TELIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Doicu, Adrian; Trautmann, Thomas; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Water vapour is the dominant greenhouse gas in the troposphere and has been increasing in the stratosphere as well. It is generally believed that stratospheric water vapor affects ozone chemistry in the stratosphere. HDO, one of the rare isotopologues, has been recently monitored by several operational satellite instruments by detecting thermal emission in the infrared and microwave range.The balloon-borne TELIS (TErahertz and submillimeter LImb Sounder) instrument has been cooperatively developed by a consortium of European institutes, i.e. DLR (German Aerospace Center), SRON (Netherlands Institute for Space Research), and RAL (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory). Together with MIPAS-B and mini-DOAS operated by KIT (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) and Heidelberg University, respectively, TELIS was installed on a stratospheric balloon gondola and has participated in four scientific campaigns since 2009. The high spectral resolution spectrometer TELIS allows the vertical information of the rare isotopologues between about 10 and 40 km by resolving power of individual lines. The concentration profile of HDO in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere can be observed by both the 1.8 THz (far infrared) channel and the 480-650 GHz (submillimeter) channel. For the far infrared frequency channel, the HDO product is retrieved from the 1818.50 GHz transition. We make use of the retrieval code PILS (Profile Inversion for Limb Sounding) to carry out the inversion and to assess the accuracy of the retrieval product.In this work, we present the HDO retrievals from the 2009-2011 winter polar campaigns. The outcome of this comparison helps us to better understand the measurement capabilities of the TELIS instrument and to make contribution to cross-validation of these spaceborne sensors.

  14. Using Multispectral Imaging to Measure Temperature Profiles and Emissivity of Large Thermionic Dispenser, Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.F. Simmons; C.M. Fortgang; D.B. Holtkamp

    2001-09-01

    Thermionic dispenser cathodes are widely used in modern high-power microwave tubes. Use of these cathodes has led to significant improvement in performance. In recent years these cathodes have been used in electron linear accelerators (LINACs), particularly in induction LINACs, such as the Experimental Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Relativistic Test Accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. For induction LINACs, the thermionic dispenser cathode provides greater reproducibility, longer pulse lengths, and lower emittance beams than does a field emission cathode. Los Alamos National Laboratory is fabricating a dual-axis X-ray radiography machine called dual-axis radiograph hydrodynamic test (DARHT). The second axis of DARHT consists of a 2-kA, 20-MeV induction LINAC that uses a 3.2-MeV electron gun with a tungsten thermionic-dispenser cathode. Typically the DARHT cathode current density is 10 A/cm{sup 2} at 1050 C. Under these conditions current density is space-charge limited, which is desirable since current density is independent of temperature. At lower temperature (the temperature-limited regime) there are variations in the local current density due to a nonuniform temperature profile. To obtain the desired uniform current density associated with space-charge limited operation, the coolest area on the cathode must be at a sufficiently high temperature so that the emission is space-charge limited. Consequently, the rest of the cathode is emitting at the same space-charge-limited current density but is at a higher temperature than necessary. Because cathode lifetime is such a strong function of cathode temperature, there is a severe penalty for nonuniformity in the cathode temperature. For example, a temperature increase of 50 C means cathode lifetime will decrease by a factor of at least four. Therefore, we are motivated to measure the temperature profiles of our large-area cathodes.

  15. Tropospheric profiles of wet refractivity and humidity from the combination of remote sensing data sets and measurements on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hurter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We reconstruct atmospheric wet refractivity profiles for the western part of Switzerland with a least-squares collocation approach from data sets of (a zenith path delays that are a byproduct of the GPS (global positioning system processing, (b ground meteorological measurements, (c wet refractivity profiles from radio occultations whose tangent points lie within the study area, and (d radiosonde measurements. Wet refractivity is a parameter partly describing the propagation of electromagnetic waves and depends on the atmospheric parameters temperature and water vapour pressure. In addition, we have measurements of a lower V-band microwave radiometer at Payerne. It delivers temperature profiles at high temporal resolution, especially in the range from ground to 3000 m a.g.l., though vertical information content decreases with height. The temperature profiles together with the collocated wet refractivity profiles provide near-continuous dew point temperature or relative humidity profiles at Payerne for the study period from 2009 to 2011. In the validation of the humidity profiles, we adopt a two-step procedure. We first investigate the reconstruction quality of the wet refractivity profiles at the location of Payerne by comparing them to wet refractivity profiles computed from radiosonde profiles available for that location. We also assess the individual contributions of the data sets to the reconstruction quality and demonstrate a clear benefit from the data combination. Secondly, the accuracy of the conversion from wet refractivity to dew point temperature and relative humidity profiles with the radiometer temperature profiles is examined, comparing them also to radiosonde profiles. For the least-squares collocation solution combining GPS and ground meteorological measurements, we achieve the following error figures with respect to the radiosonde reference: maximum median offset of relative refractivity error is −16% and quartiles are 5% to

  16. A LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars: average profiles, dispersion measures, flux densities, and spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bilous, A; Kramer, M; Keane, E; Hessels, J; Stappers, B; Malofeev, V; Sobey, C; Breton, R; Cooper, S; Falcke, H; Karastergiou, A; Michilli, D; Osłowski, S; Sanidas, S; ter Veen, S; van Leeuwen, J; Verbiest, J; Weltevrede, P; Zarka, P; Grießmeier, J -M; Serylak, M; Bell, M; Broderick, J; Eislöffel, J; Markoff, S; Rowlinson, A

    2015-01-01

    We present first results from a LOFAR census of non-recycled pulsars. The census includes almost all such pulsars known (194 sources) at declinations Dec$> 8^\\circ$ and Galactic latitudes |Gb|$> 3^\\circ$, regardless of their expected flux densities and scattering times. Each pulsar was observed contiguously in the frequency range from 110$-$188 MHz and for $\\geq 20$ minutes, recording full-Stokes data. We present the dispersion measures, flux densities, and calibrated total intensity profiles for the 158 pulsars detected in the sample. The median uncertainty in census dispersion measures ($1.5 \\times 10^{-4}$ pc cm$^{-3}$) is ten times smaller, on average, than in the ATNF pulsar catalogue. We combined census flux densities with those in the literature and fitted the resulting broadband spectra with single or broken power-law functions. For 48 census pulsars such fits are being published for the first time. Typically, the choice between single and broken power-laws, as well as the location of the spectral bre...

  17. Equations of bark thickness and volume profiles at different heights with easy-measurement variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellini, J. M.; Galarza, M.; Burns, S. L.; Martinez-Pastur, G. J.; Lencinas, M. V.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop equations of thickness profile and bark volume at different heights with easy-measurement variables, taking as a study case Nothofagus pumilio forests, growing in different site qualities and growth phases in Southern Patagonia. Data was collected from 717 harvested trees. Three models were fitted using multiple, non-lineal regression and generalized linear model, by stepwise methodology, iteratively reweighted least squares method for maximum likelihood estimation and Marquardt algorithm. The dependent variables were diameter at 1.30 m height (DBH), relative height (RH) and growth phase (GP). The statistic evaluation was made through the adjusted determinant coefficient (r2-adj), standard error of the estimation (SEE), mean absolute error and residual analysis. All models presented good fitness with a significant correlation with the growth phase. A decrease in the thickness was observed when the relative height increase. Moreover, a bark coefficient was made to calculate volume with and without bark of individual trees, where significant differences according to site quality of the stands and DBH class of the trees were observed. It can be concluded that the prediction of bark thickness and bark coefficient is possible using DBH, height, site quality and growth phase, common and easy measurement variables used in forest inventories. (Author) 23 refs.

  18. A Spinning Mirror for Fast Angular Scans of EBW Emission for Magnetic Pitch Profile Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A tilted spinning mirror rapidly steers the line of sight of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) emission radiometer at the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In order to resist high mechanical stresses at rotation speeds of up to 12,000 rpm and to avoid eddy current induced magnetic braking, the mirror consists of a glass-reinforced nylon substrate of a special self-balanced design, coated with a reflecting layer. By completing an angular scan every 2.5-10ms, it allows one to characterize with good time resolution the Bernstein-extraordinary-ordinary mode-conversion efficiency as a function of the view angles. Angular maps of conversion efficiency are directly related to the magnetic pitch angle at the cutoff layer for the ordinary mode. Hence, measurements at various frequencies provide the safety factor profile at the plasma edge. Initial measurements and indications of the feasibility of the diagnostic are presented. Moreover, angular scans indicate the best launch conditions for EBW heating.

  19. Acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements in coastal and estuarine environments: examples from the Tay Estuary, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewetzer, Silke F. K.; Duck, Robert W.; Anderson, James M.

    1999-08-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) provide a means to measure the components of water current velocities in three dimensions. Such instruments have been used widely by the oil industry in deep offshore waters but their application to nearshore coastal and estuarine environments has been principally confined to the USA. Using examples of ADCP datasets acquired from the macrotidal Tay Estuary, eastern Scotland, the principles of field deployment, data acquisition and forms of output are critically summarised. It is shown, for the first time in the Tay Estuary, that vertical current velocities are significant and are particularly so in downwelling zones associated with the development and passage of axially convergent tidal fronts. The improved understanding of three-dimensional water and suspended sediment dynamics in coastal and estuarine waters is crucial to, inter alia, the sustainable management of effluent discharges and, in more general terms, it is predicted on the basis of the Tay case study, that ADCP measurements afford significant opportunities to refine understanding of geomorphological processes in a variety of aquatic environments worldwide.

  20. Speckle measurements of density and temperature profiles in a model gas circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, P. C.; Panousis, E.; Carstensen, J.; Doiron, C. B.; Färber, R.

    2015-01-01

    Speckle imaging was used to measure the density and temperature distribution in the arc zone of a model high voltage circuit breaker during the high current phase and under conditions simulating those present during current-zero crossings (current-zero-like arc); the arc was stabilized by a transonic, axial flow of synthetic air. A single probe beam was used; thus, accurate reconstruction was only possible for axially symmetric gas flows and arc channels. The displacement of speckles with respect to a reference image was converted to a line-of-sight integrated deflection angle, which was in turn converted into an axially symmetric refractive index distribution using a multistep process that made use of the inverse Radon transform. The Gladstone-Dale relation, which gives the index of refraction as a function of density, was extended to high temperatures by taking into account dissociation and ionization processes. The temperature and density were determined uniquely by assuming that the pressure distribution in the case of cold gas flow (in the absence of an arc) is not modified significantly by the arc. The electric conductivity distribution was calculated from the temperature profile and compared to measurements of the arc voltage and to previous results published in the literature for similar experimental conditions.

  1. A Quantum Gas Jet for Non-Invasive Beam Profile Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, EB; Lefevre, T; Tzoganis, V; Welsch, C; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    A novel instrument for accelerator beam diagnostics is being developed by using De Broglie-wave focusing to create an ultra-thin neutral gas jet. Scanning the gas jet across a particle beam while measuring the interaction products, the beam profile can be measured. Such a jet scanner will provide an invaluable diagnostic tool in beams which are too intense for the use of wire scanners, such as the proposed CLIC Drive Beam. In order to create a sufficiently thin jet, a focusing element working on the de Broglie wavelength of the Helium atom has been designed. Following the principles of the Photon Sieve, we have constructed an Atomic Sieve consisting of 5230 nano-holes etched into a thin film of silicon nitride. When a quasi-monochromatic Helium jet is incident on the sieve, an interference pattern with a single central maximum is created. The stream of Helium atoms passing through this central maximum is much narrower than a conventional gas jet. The first experiences with this device are presented here, alon...

  2. Retrieval of Vertical Profiles of Liquid Water and Ice Content in Mixed Clouds from Doppler Radar and Microwave Radiometer Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Henri

    1996-01-01

    A new method to retrieve vertical profiles of liquid water content Mw(z), ice water content Mi(z), and ice particle size distribution Ni(D, z), (where D is the ice particle size and z the vertical coordinate) in mixed nonprecipitating clouds using the observations of a zenith-viewing Doppler radar and of a microwave radiometer is proposed. In this method, the profile of the vertical air velocity deduced from Doppler radar measurements is used to describe the rate of production by the updrafts of water. vapor in excess of saturation with respect to ice. Using a Zi Mi power-law relation with an unknown linear parameter (let i, be this parameter) and initially assuming that Zw is negligible with respect to Zi, (where Zw and Zi are the radar reflectivity factors of liquid water and ice particles respectively), the measured radar reflectivity factor profile Zm ( Zi) is inverted to estimate Ni(D, z). From Ni(D, z), the profile of the rate of water vapor that can be consumed by pure deposition on ice particles is calculated. The difference between the rate of production of the exam water vapor and the rate of deposited water vapor is an expression of the rate of liquid water generation at each level. By writing that the integral of the liquid water along the profile has to be equal to the total liquid water deduced from the microwave radiometer measurement, an estimation of the i parameter is obtained. From i, an estimation of the profiles Mw(z), Mi(z), Zw(z), Zi(z) (=Zm Zw), and Ni(D, z) is calculated. If Zw is effectively negligible with respect to Zi, the computation of the retrieved profiles is ended. If not, Zi(z) is corrected and a new estimation of the profiles is computed. The results of the numerical simulation of the algorithm are presented.

  3. Measurements and modeling of transport and impurity radial profiles in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldkepp, M.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Dux, R.; Menmuir, S.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-09-01

    Radial impurity profiles of oxygen in the rebuilt reversed field pinch EXTRAP T2R [P. R. Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)] have been measured with a multichannel spectrometer. Absolute ion densities for oxygen peak between 1-4×1010cm-3 for a central electron density of 1×1013cm-3. Transport simulations with the one-dimensional transport code STRAHL with a diffusion coefficient of 20m2 s-1 yield density profiles similar to those measured. Direct measurement of the ion profile evolution during pulsed poloidal current drive suggests that the diffusion coefficient is reduced by a factor ˜2 in the core but remains unaffected toward the edge. Core transport is not significantly affected by the radial magnetic field growth seen at the edge in discharges without feedback control. This indicates that the mode core amplitude remains the same while the mode eigenfunction increases at the edge.

  4. The Way We Measure: Comparison of Methods to Derive Radial Surface Brightness Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, S P C; de Jong, R S

    2016-01-01

    The breaks and truncations in the luminosity profile of face-on spiral galaxies offer valuable insights in their formation history. The traditional method of deriving the surface photometry profile for face-on galaxies is to use elliptical averaging. In this paper, we explore the question whether elliptical averaging is the best way to do this. We apply two additional surface photometry methods, one new: principle axis summation, and one old that has become seldom used: equivalent profiles. These are compared to elliptically averaged profiles using a set of 29 face-on galaxies. We find that the equivalent profiles match extremely well with elliptically averaged profiles, confirming the validity of using elliptical averaging. The principle axis summation offers a better comparison to edge-on galaxies.

  5. The Effect of Detector Nonlinearity on WFIRST PSF Profiles for Weak Gravitational Lensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas, A. A.; Shapiro, C.; Kannawadi, A.; Mandelbaum, R.; Rhodes, J.; Smith, R.

    2016-10-01

    Weak gravitational lensing (WL) is one of the most powerful techniques to learn about the dark sector of the universe. To extract the WL signal from astronomical observations, galaxy shapes must be measured and corrected for the point-spread function (PSF) of the imaging system with extreme accuracy. Future WL missions—such as NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)—will use a family of hybrid near-infrared complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detectors (HAWAII-4RG) that are untested for accurate WL measurements. Like all image sensors, these devices are subject to conversion gain nonlinearities (voltage response to collected photo-charge) that bias the shape and size of bright objects such as reference stars that are used in PSF determination. We study this type of detector nonlinearity (NL) and show how to derive requirements on it from WFIRST PSF size and ellipticity requirements. We simulate the PSF optical profiles expected for WFIRST and measure the fractional error in the PSF size (ΔR/R) and the absolute error in the PSF ellipticity (Δe) as a function of star magnitude and the NL model. For our nominal NL model (a quadratic correction), we find that, uncalibrated, NL can induce an error of ΔR/R = 1 × 10-2 and Δe 2 = 1.75 × 10-3 in the H158 bandpass for the brightest unsaturated stars in WFIRST. In addition, our simulations show that to limit the bias of ΔR/R and Δe in the H158 band to ˜10% of the estimated WFIRST error budget, the quadratic NL model parameter β must be calibrated to ˜1% and ˜2.4%, respectively. We present a fitting formula that can be used to estimate WFIRST detector NL requirements once a true PSF error budget is established.

  6. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  7. REAL-TIME STABILITY AND PROFILE COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT LTPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QIAN, S.; WANG, D.J.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a precise angle measurement instrument, with a sensitivity and accuracy that can be in the sub-micron radian range. LTP characteristics depend on the particular LTP system schematic design, and the quality of components and assembly. The conditions of temperature, alignment, and mirror support during the measurement process vary between different laboratories, which influences significantly the test repeatability and accuracy. In this paper we introduce a direct comparison method to test the same object at the same point in the same environment at the same time by using two LTPs, which significantly increases the reliability of the comparison. A compact, portable LTP (PTLTP), which can be carried to different laboratories around the world, is used for comparison testing. Stability Comparison experiments between the LTP II at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), and the PTLTP of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) reveal significant differences in performance between the instruments. The experiment is set up so that each optical head simultaneously records both its own sample probe beam and also the probe beam from the other optical head. The two probe beams are reflected from same point on the mirror. Tests show that the stability of the PTLTP with a monolithic beam splitter is 10 times better than the stability of the LTP II which has a separated beam splitter unit. A scheme for comparing scanning measurements of a mirror is introduced. Experimental results show a significant difference between the two LTPs due mainly to distortions in the optical components inside the optical head. A new scheme is proposed for further mirror comparison scanning tests.

  8. Gamma-ray-based measurement of concentration distribution in pipe flow of settling slurry: vertical profiles and tomographic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupička Jan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Principles of gamma-ray-based measurement are summarized and their application is demonstrated on an operation of the radiometric facility installed in the test loop for slurry flows at the Institute of Hydrodynamics. The facility is able to measure vertical profiles of chord-averaged concentrations and concentration maps in the pipe cross section. A methodology of measurement is proposed including detection and quantification of random and systematic errors. Experimental results are discussed in the light of the proposed methodology. Experimentally determined vertical profiles of concentration are presented for slurry flows of four different fractions of glass beads. The tomographic application of the radiometric device is demonstrated on a measured concentration map and a suitable image reconstruction method is tested. High reliability of measured concentration distributions is proved except for regions near the pipe wall. The radiometric method is shown to be a useful tool for measurement of concentration distribution in slurry flow through a pipe.

  9. GSSML: An Observations and Measurements profile for GlobalSoilMap.net (Oceania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Alistair; Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The Oceania node of the GlobalSoilMap.net consortium has defined GSMML, a profile of the Observations and Measurements (O&M) Geography Markup Language (GML) application schema, to support the delivery of project data using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Services (WFS). This paper describes GSMML, and the results of initial testing, and proposes linkages to other OGC service types and soil data exchange standards. GlobalSoilMap.net will create a global soil dataset providing predictions for twelve agreed soil properties within a three-dimensional grid. The grid consists of 'Spatial Entities' spaced at 3 arc second intervals and extending to a depth of 2 meters with ten physical soil property predictions made at six predefined depth intervals. In addition, two properties predicting the depth of the profile are made for each Spatial Entity. Each prediction must include: an estimate of its uncertainty; its age and that of the source data; and a description of the process used to generate the value. The approach taken in GSMML is to map the GlobalSoilMap.net requirements on to classes within the O&M Observation and Sampling Features packages. The GlobalSoilMap.net Spatial Entities represent a sampling regime across the earth's terrestrial surface and are modelled as nested O&M 'SF_SpatialSamplingFeatures'. The property predictions are related 'OM_Observation' instances that carry the result, age properties, estimation process, and uncertainty. GSMML defines two concrete classes ('GSM_PrimarySpatialEntity' and 'GSM_SecondarySpatialEntity') with no properties of their own that specialize the SF_SpatialSamplingFeature. Uncertainty is encoded by adopting the UncertML profile of O&M. The schema is accompanied by a set of conformance classes to constrain content, and Semantic Web vocabularies that define the observed properties. Test GSMML services show that a WFS can only reliably support the provision of comprehensive data for requests returning a few hundred

  10. On the nature of the Madagascar dipoles: An analysis from Argo profiling floats and altimetry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Ridderinkhof, Herman; de Ruijter, Will P. M.; Maas, Leo R. M.

    2016-04-01

    The South East Madagascar Current (SEMC) flows poleward along the eastern coast of Madagascar as a western boundary current which further south provides some of the source waters of the Agulhas Current, either directly or in the form of eddies. We investigate the region of dipole formation south of Madagascar combining vertical T/S profiles from Argo floats, altimetry measurements and an existing eddy detection algorithm. Results from our analysis show that the dipole consists of an anticyclonic intrathermocline eddy (ITE) formed on its southern flank and a cyclonic ITE formed on its northern flank. Both lobes of the dipole exhibit similar T/S properties throughout the water column, although vertically shifted within the thermocline depending on its nature: upward in a cyclonic ITE and downward in an anticyclonic ITE. A subsurface salinity maximum of about 35.5 psu characterizes the upper layers with Subtropical Surface Water (STSW). At intermediate levels, a well defined path of South Indian Central Water (SICW) extends throughout the water column up to reach a minimum in salinity of 34.5 psu, corresponding to Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Below, at deep layers, the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is found. The intrathermocline nature of the Madagascar dipoles has not been previously reported and represents an important feature to be considered when assessing the heat and salt fluxes driven by eddy movement and contributing to the Agulhas Current. Unlike surface eddies, intrathermocline eddies strongly influence the intermediate/deeper layers in the oceans and, hence, may have a larger contribution in the spreading rates and pathways of water masses. Because the intrathermocline nature of eddies is invisible to altimetry measurements, these results stress the importance of combining altimetry with historical records of Argo profiles which uncover eddy dynamics below the sea surface. Lastly, we further investigate from altimetry the area of dipole formation

  11. Measurement of the profiles of disorder-induced localized resonances by local tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, J; Yüce, E; Combrié, S; De Rossi, A; Mosk, A P; .,

    2016-01-01

    Near the band edge of photonic crystal waveguides, localized modes appear due to disorder. We demonstrate a new method to elucidate spatial profile of the localized modes in such systems using precise local tuning. Using deconvolution with the known thermal profile, the spatial profile of a localized mode with quality factor ($Q$) $>10^5$ is successfully reconstructed with a resolution of $2.5 \\ \\mu $m.

  12. Current Profile Measurements from Moderate to Strong Lower Hybrid Single-Pass Damping on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Wallace, G. M.; Scott, S. D.; Shiraiwa, S.; Faust, I.; Parker, R. R.

    2015-11-01

    Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) is an effective tool to non-inductively drive up to 100% of the plasma current on Alcator C-Mod. Measurements with an upgraded MSE diagnostic show that the fast-electron current profile is broader than the Ohmic current profile but still located the plasma core in agreement with strongly centrally peaked fast electron bremsstrahlung (FEB) measurements. Scans in a regime of high current drive efficiency across a range of density, LHCD power, launched n||, and plasma current show the driven current profile, FEB profile shapes, and current drive efficiency are sensitive only to total plasma current. Simulations using ray-tracing Fokker Planck codes show that the rays make 1-3 bounces through the plasma edge to bridge the spectral gap. Although in agreement with the total current, the simulations qualitatively disagree with experiment regarding current and FEB profiles as well as sensitivity to power and density. Simulations at higher plasma temperature and current predict stronger single-pass damping and preliminary experiments show increased current drive efficiency. Experiments to determine if the profile discrepancies persist when the ray bounces play a reduced role are planned, including companion experiments in D and He resulting in different edge plasma conditions. This work was performed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, a DoE Office of Science user facility, and is supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams; Elektronenstrahl-Diagnostik zur Bestimmung vom transversalen Profil intensiver Ionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-11-03

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  14. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams; Elektronenstrahl-Diagnostik zur Bestimmung vom transversalen Profil intensiver Ionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-11-03

    A non-invasive diagnostic method for the experimental determination of the transverse profile of an intense ion beam has been developed and investigated theoretically as well as experimentally within the framework of the present work. The method is based on the deflection of electrons when passing the electromagnetic field of an ion beam. To achieve this an electron beam is employed with a specifically prepared transversal profile. This distinguish this method from similar ones which use thin electron beams for scanning the electromagnetic field [Roy et al. 2005; Blockland10]. The diagnostic method presented in this work will be subsequently called ''Electron-Beam-Imaging'' (EBI). First of all the influence of the electromagnetic field of the ion beam on the electrons has been theoretically analyzed. It was found that the magnetic field causes only a shift of the electrons along the ion beam axis, while the electric field only causes a shift in a plane transverse to the ion beam. Moreover, in the non-relativistic case the magnetic force is significantly smaller than the Coulomb one and the electrons suffer due to the magnetic field just a shift and continue to move parallel to their initial trajectory. Under the influence of the electric field, the electrons move away from the ion beam axis, their resulting trajectory shows a specific angle compared to the original direction. This deflection angle practically depends just on the electric field of the ion beam. Thus the magnetic field has been neglected when analysing the experimental data. The theoretical model provides a relationship between the deflection angle of the electrons and the charge distribution in the cross section of the ion beam. The model however only can be applied for small deflection angles. This implies a relationship between the line-charge density of the ion beam and the initial kinetic energy of the electrons. Numerical investigations have been carried out to clarify the

  15. Gamma-ray-based measurement of concentration distribution in pipe flow of settling slurry: vertical profiles and tomographic maps

    OpenAIRE

    Krupička, Jan; Matoušek, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Principles of gamma-ray-based measurement are summarized and their application is demonstrated on an operation of the radiometric facility installed in the test loop for slurry flows at the Institute of Hydrodynamics. The facility is able to measure vertical profiles of chord-averaged concentrations and concentration maps in the pipe cross section. A methodology of measurement is proposed including detection and quantification of random and systematic errors. Experimental results are disc...

  16. Comparison of high latitude electron density profiles obtained with the GPS radio occultation technique and EISCAT measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stolle

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a comprehensive view on high latitude processes by applying different observation techniques, the SIRCUS campaign was initiated in 2001/2002. This paper compares electron density profiles derived from CHAMP radio occultation data and those measured with the EISCAT facility. Since ionospheric profiling with the help of space-based received GPS is a relatively new technique, validations with established independent instruments are of crucial need. We present 28 profiling events for quasi-statistical analyses, which occurred during the SIRCUS campaigns and describe some of them in more detail. We found out that the majority of profile comparisons in electron density peak value and height, as well as in TEC, lie within the error ranges of the two methods. Differences in the ionospheric quantities do not necessarily occur when the locations of the occultation and of the radar site show considerable distances. Differences are more pronounced when the ionosphere is remarkably structured.

  17. Si1- x Ge x /Si Interface Profiles Measured to Sub-Nanometer Precision Using uleSIMS Energy Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. J. H.; Hase, T. P. A.; Sanchez, A. M.; Rowlands, G.

    2016-10-01

    The utility of energy sequencing for extracting an accurate matrix level interface profile using ultra-low energy SIMS (uleSIMS) is reported. Normally incident O2 + over an energy range of 0.25-2.5 keV were used to probe the interface between Si0.73Ge0.27/Si, which was also studied using high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). All the SIMS profiles were linearized by taking the well understood matrix effects on ion yield and erosion rate into account. A method based on simultaneous fitting of the SIMS profiles measured at different energies is presented, which allows the intrinsic sample profile to be determined to sub-nanometer precision. Excellent agreement was found between the directly imaged HAADF-STEM interface and that derived from SIMS.

  18. Measurements of the Spatial Variability of Mean Wind Profiles Using Multiple Doppler Lidars over Distances less than 1 Km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, R. M.; Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Iungo, V.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Quelet, P. T.; Wolfe, D. E.; Oncley, S.; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A. M.; Delgado, R.; McCaffrey, K.

    2015-12-01

    Small differences in wind speed can translate to large differences in wind energy (WE) revenues, so WE decision making requires accurate measurements of wind profiles through the turbine rotor layer of the lower atmosphere. Advances in understanding and modeling of boundary-layer processes, also needed by WE, requires such measurements through an even deeper layer—at least the lowest few hundreds of meters. An important use for such accurate measured wind-profile data is in the initiation and verification of NWP models. This prospect raises several fundamental questions, such as, what does the modeled profile represent, how was the measured profile determined, and what if the profile had been measured from a different site within the grid cell? To address these questions, two experiments were conducted at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in modestly complex terrain downwind of the mountains. The Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) in June-July 2014 featured 5 Doppler lidars (2 scanning), and XPIA in April-May 2015, 11 Doppler lidars, including 5 scanning systems. Two broad goals of these projects were to assess differences in scanning and other data acquisition procedures on the measurements, addressed in (Pichugina et al.) at this conference, and to evaluate the effects of varying spatial separations on differences in the measured winds, addressed in the present paper. Sonic anemometers every 50 m on the 300-m BAO tower were used as a reference for the wind calculations, as well as another profile location. Lidar scan data indicated terrain-related regions of stronger flow within the scan volume of more than 1 m/s that were at least semi-recurrent. This variability produced significant differences in mean rotor-level winds by 2 identical profiling lidars separated by 500 m. During XPIA, four of the scanning Doppler lidars performed intersecting elevation scans (vertical-slice or "RHI") to create 'virtual towers' at various separation

  19. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Measurements in the Tailrace at John Day Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Chris B.; Dibrani, Berhon; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Titzler, P. Scott; Dennis, Gary W.

    2006-01-30

    Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were used to measure water velocities in the tailrace at John Day Dam over a two-week period in February 2005. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Hydraulic Design Section, Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The objective of this project was therefore to collect field measurements of water velocities in the near-field draft tube exit zone as well as the far-field tailrace to be used for improving these models. Field data were collected during the project using five separate ADCPs. Mobile ADCP data were collected using two ADCPs mounted on two separate boats. Data were collected by either holding the boat on-station at pre-defined locations for approximately 10 minutes or in moving transect mode when the boat would move over large distances during the data collection. Results from the mobile ADCP survey indicated a complex hydrodynamic flow field in the tailrace downstream of John Day Dam. A large gyre was noted between the skeleton section of the powerhouse and non-spilling portion of the spillway. Downstream of the spillway, the spillway flow is constrained against the navigation lock guide wall, and large velocities were noted in this region. Downstream of the guide wall, velocities decreased as the spillway jet dispersed. Near the tailrace island, the flow split was measured to be approximately equal on Day 2 (25.4 kcfs spillway/123 kcfs total). However, approximately 60% of the flow passed along the south shore of the island on Day 1 (15.0 kcfs spillway/150 kcfs total). At a distance of 9000 ft downstream of the dam, flows had equalized laterally and were generally uniform over the cross section. The collection of water velocities near the draft tube exit of an operating turbine unit is not routine, and equipment capable of measuring 3D water velocities in these zones are at the forefront of hydraulic measurement technology. Although the feasibility of

  20. Measurement of transverse Jc profiles of coated conductors using a magnetic knife of permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenisch, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, F M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ashworth, S P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coulter, J Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matias, Vlad [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The transverse J{sub c} distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured non-destructively with high resolution using a 'magnetic knife' made of permanent magnets. The method utilizes the strong depression of J{sub c} in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low (including zero) magnetic field, in a surrounding higher field, is moved transversely across the sample in order to reveal the critical-current density distribution. The net resolution of this device is approximately 65 {micro}m, and the J{sub c} resolution is better than 0.5%. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J{sub c} distribution in the sample. The J{sub c} profile was correlated with other sample properties of coated conductors prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Because of its straight-forward and inexpensive design, this J{sub c} imaging technique can be a powerful tool for quality control in coated-conductor production.

  1. The Skipheia Wind Measurement Station. Instrumentation, Wind Speed Profiles and Turbulence Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasen, S.E.

    1995-10-01

    This thesis describes the design of a measurement station for turbulent wind and presents results from an analysis of the collected data. The station is located at Skipheia near the south-west end of Froeya, an island off the coast of Mid-Norway. The station is unique for studies of turbulent winds because of the large numbers of sensors, which are located at various heights above ground up to 100 m, a sampling rate of 0.85 Hz and storage of the complete time series. The frequency of lightning and atmospheric discharges to the masts are quite high and much effort has gone into minimizing the damage caused by lightning activity. A major part of the thesis deals with data analysis and modelling. There are detailed discussions on the various types of wind sensors and their calibration, the data acquisition system and operating experiences with it, the database, data quality control, the wind speed profile and turbulence. 40 refs., 78 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Characterization of rheumatoid arthritis subtypes using symptom profiles, clinical chemistry and metabolomics measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman A van Wietmarschen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. METHODS: In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. RESULTS: The questionnaire items 'Red joints', 'Swollen joints', 'Warm joints' suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP and rheumatoid factor (RHF levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. CONCLUSION: Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient.

  3. Measurement Of Transverse Jc Profiles Of Coated Conductors Using A Magnetic Knife Of Permanent Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, F M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ashworth, S P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coulter, J Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matias, Vlad [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The transverse J{sub c} distribution in YBCO coated conductors was measured nondestructively with high resolution using a 'magnetic knife' made of permanent magnets. The method utilizes the strong depression of J{sub c} in applied magnetic fields. A narrow region of low (including zero) magnetic field, in a surrounding higher field, is moved transversely across the sample in order to reveal the critical-current density distribution. The net resolution of this device is approximately 65 {mu}m, and the J{sub c} resolution is better than 0.5%. A Fourier series inversion process was used to determine the transverse J{sub c} distribution in the sample. The J{sub c} profile was correlated with other sample properties of coated conductors prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Because of its straight-forward and inexpensive design, this J{sub c} imaging technique can be a powerful tool for quality control in coated-conductor production.

  4. Measurement and analysis of three 1.5-GPa shock-wave profiles in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnes, R.H.; Tonks, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    Three wave-profile experiments were performed on OFE fully annealed (600{degree}C for one hour) copper using a 101.6-mm-diam gas gun at impact velocities of 86 m/s. A symmetric impact produced a 1.5-GPa shock wave in the target. A sapphire window was bonded to the front (non-impact) face of the target, and a four-detector push-pull velocity interferometer (VISAR) measured the velocity of the copper/sapphire interface. The impactor thickness (4 mm) was the same in all experiments, the target thicknesses were 10, 20, and 30 mm. The stresses and strains, including the deviatoric stresses and strains, have been extracted from these data using a quasi-Lagrangian analysis. (The waves are not steady.) The use of three separate shots in Lagrangian analysis yields only approximate results for the deviatoric stresses; but the results for the normal stresses, and for the strains, are fairly accurate. Even though the strain rates fall in the Hopkinson bar regime, the mechanism of dislocation motion appears to be dislocation drag, as is the case for stronger shock waves in Cu.

  5. Measuring functional status of stroke patients with the Sickness Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuling, J; Greidanus, J; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1993-01-01

    Measuring outcome of stroke treatment has focused mostly on Activities of Daily Living. In our study we investigated the impact of stroke on the patient's daily life and the course of functional status over time. A community-based cohort of stroke patients was examined with the Barthel ADL Index and the Sickness Impact Profile at fixed intervals post-stroke. Data were compared with those of an elderly control group in the community. The scores of the stroke group on all the subscales of the SIP were much worse than in the control group. The differences were greatest for house management, recreation/pastime and mobility. While there was significant improvement of the mean Barthel score between 8 and 26 weeks post-stroke, the mean SIP scores at these intervals did not change, with the exception of the subscale house management, which showed some improvement. It would appear that the impact of stroke on daily life is greatest in the fields of house management, recreation/pastime and mobility.

  6. Profiling Space Heating Behavior in Chilean Social Housing: Towards Personalization of Energy Efficiency Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bunster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Global increases in the demand for energy are imposing strong pressures over the environment while compromising the capacity of emerging economies to achieve sustainable development. In this context, implementation of effective strategies to reduce consumption in residential buildings has become a priority concern for policy makers as minor changes at the household scale can result in major energy savings. This study aims to contribute to ongoing research on energy consumer profiling by exploring the forecasting capabilities of discrete socio-economic factors that are accessible through social housing allocation systems. Accordingly, survey data gathered by the Chilean Ministry of Social Development was used identify key characteristics that may predict firewood usage for space heating purposes among potential beneficiaries of the Chilean social housing program. The analyzed data evidences strong correlations between general household characteristics and space heating behavior in certain climatic zones, suggesting that personalized delivery of energy efficiency measures can potentially increase the effectiveness of initiatives aimed towards the reduction of current patterns of consumption.

  7. Direct measurements of the effect of biomass burning over the Amazon on the atmospheric temperature profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Remer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols suspended in the atmosphere interact with solar radiation and clouds, thus change the radiation energy fluxes in the atmospheric column. In this paper we measure changes in the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of the smoke loading and the cloudiness, over the Amazon basin, during the dry seasons (August and September of 2005–2008. We show that as the aerosol optical depth (AOD increases from 0.02 to a value of ~0.6, there is a decrease of ~4°C at 1000 hPa, and an increase of ~1.5°C at 850 hPa. The warming of the aerosol layer at 850 hPa is likely due to aerosol absorption when the particles are exposed to direct illumination by the sun. The large values of cooling in the lower layers could be explained by a combination of aerosol extinction of the solar flux in the layers aloft together with an aerosol-induced increase of cloud cover which shade the lower atmosphere. We estimate that the increase in cloud fraction due to aerosol contributes about half of the observed cooling in the lower layers.

  8. Technical Development of Profile Measurement for the Soft X-Ray Via Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Taku; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hidume, Kentaro; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Minamiguchi, Shuichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Ueyama, Daisuke; Urakawa, Junji; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    A compact X-ray source is called for such various fields as material development, biological science, and medical treatment. At Waseda University, we have already succeeded to generate the soft X-ray of the wavelength within so-called water window region (250-500eV) via Compton backward scattering between 1047nm Nd:YLF laser and 4.2MeV high quality electron beam. Although this method equips some useful characters, e.g. high intensity, short pulse, energy variableness, etc, the X-ray generating system is compact enough to fit in tabletop size. In the next step, there rises two principal tasks, that is, to make the soft X-ray intensity higher, and to progress X-ray profile measurement techniques as preliminary experiments for biomicroscopy. Specifically, we utilize two-pass amp for the former, and irradiate X-ray to a resist film which is previously exposed by UV lamp or get images with X-ray CCD for the latter. In this conference, we will show the experimental results and some future plans.

  9. Do Students with Dyslexia Have a Different Personality Profile as Measured with the Big Five?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Wim; Verguts, Ellen; Callens, Maaike; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies are available about the personality profile of higher education students with dyslexia and to which extent this could be any different from their non-dyslexic peers. Aims and Sample(s): To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-

  10. Measurements and Mesoscale Modeling of Autumnal Vertical Ozone Profiles in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical measurements of ozone were made using a tethered balloon at the Linyuan site in Kaohsiung County, southern Taiwan. Ozone was monitored at altitudes of 0, 100, 300, 500, and 1000 m from November 23 to 25 in 2005. The potential temperature profiles revealed a stable atmosphere during the study period, largely because of the dominance of the high-pressure system and nocturnal radiation cooling close to the surface. The mixing height was low (50 - 300 m, particularly in the late night and early morning. The surface ozone concentrations that were predicted using TAPM (The Air Pollution Model were high (33.7 - 119 ppbv in the daytime (10:00 - 16:00 and were low (10 - 40 ppbv at other times; the predictions of which were consistent with the observations. The simulated surface ozone concentrations reveal that costal lands typically had higher ozone concentrations than those inland, because most industrial parks are located in or close to the boundaries of Kaohsiung City. Both measurements and simulations indicate that daytime ozone concentrations decreased quickly with increasing height at altitudes below 300 m; while nighttime ozone concentrations were lower at low altitudes (50 to 300 m than at higher altitudes, partly because of dry deposition and titration of surface ozone by the near-surface nitrogen oxides (NOx and partly because of the existence of the residual layer above the stable nocturnal boundary layer. The simulations show a good correlation between the maximum daytime surface ozone concentration and average nighttime ozone concentration above the nocturnal boundary layer.

  11. a Compact Dial LIDAR for Ground-Based Ozone Atmospheric Profiling Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R.; Carrion, W.; Pliutau, D.; Ganoe, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    ozone profiles from 100 to 200-m above ground. To obtain an ozone atmospheric measurement, the transmitter sends a laser pulse into the atmosphere at alternating on-line and off-line wavelengths (500Hz each line). The 527-nm green laser output is always transmitted giving a return from atmospheric aerosols. Examples of ozone profiles in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia will be presented. The system has been configured to enable mobile operation from a trailer which is environmentally controlled, and is towed with a truck to sites that are equipped with power. The objective is to make the system mobile such that it can be setup at remote sites to support major air quality field campaigns.

  12. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-Measured Pressure Profiles from the Bolocam X-ray/SZ Galaxy Cluster Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Sayers, Jack; Mantz, Adam; Golwala, Sunil R; Ameglio, Silvia; Downes, Tom P; Koch, Patrick M; Lin, Kai-Yang; Maughan, Ben J; Molnar, Sandor M; Moustakas, Leonidas; Mroczkowski, Tony; Pierpaoli, Elena; Shitanishi, Jennifer A; Siegel, Seth; Umetsu, Keiichi; Van der Pyl, Nina

    2012-01-01

    We describe Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements and analysis of the intracluster medium (ICM) pressure profiles of a set of 45 massive galaxy clusters imaged using Bolocam at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We have used masses determined from Chandra X-ray observations to scale each cluster's profile by the overdensity radius R500 and the mass-and-redshift-dependent normalization factor P500. We deproject the average pressure profile of our sample into 13 logarithmically spaced radial bins between 0.07R500 and 3.5R500. We find that a generalized Navarro, Frenk, and White (gNFW) profile describes our data with sufficient goodness-of-fit and best-fit parameters (C500, alpha, beta, gamma, P0 = 1.18, 0.86, 3.67, 0.67, 4.29). We also use the X-ray data to define cool-core and disturbed subsamples of clusters, and we constrain the average pressure profiles of each of these subsamples. We find that given the precision of our data the average pressure profiles of disturbed and cool-core clusters are co...

  13. Construction of measurement uncertainty profiles for quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms based on interlaboratory validation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarthur, Roy; Feinberg, Max; Bertheau, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the size of uncertainty associated with the measurement of products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The method is based on the uncertainty profile, which is an extension, for the estimation of uncertainty, of a recent graphical statistical tool called an accuracy profile that was developed for the validation of quantitative analytical methods. The application of uncertainty profiles as an aid to decision making and assessment of fitness for purpose is also presented. Results of the measurement of the quantity of GMOs in flour by PCR-based methods collected through a number of interlaboratory studies followed the log-normal distribution. Uncertainty profiles built using the results generally give an expected range for measurement results of 50-200% of reference concentrations for materials that contain at least 1% GMO. This range is consistent with European Network of GM Laboratories and the European Union (EU) Community Reference Laboratory validation criteria and can be used as a fitness for purpose criterion for measurement methods. The effect on the enforcement of EU labeling regulations is that, in general, an individual analytical result needs to be 1.8% to demonstrate noncompliance with a labeling threshold of 0.9%.

  14. Risø 1978: Further Investigations into the Effects of Local Terrain Irregularties on Tower-Measured Wind Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, E. W.; Taylor, P. A.; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    Observations of flow over complex terrain taken at Risø during June–July 1978 and numerical studies confirm earlier findings that small variations in surface elevation have significant effects on mean wind profiles. Measured shear stresses in the nonequilibrium region of the flow are consistent w...

  15. Balloon measurements of the vertical ionization profile over southern Israel and comparison to mid-latitude observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Roy; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, Giles; Artamonov, Anton; Usoskin, Ilya

    2016-11-01

    Airborne measurements using meteorological balloons were conducted for the first time from southern Israel (geographic 30°35'N, 34°45'E geomagnetic 27°6'N 112°23'E) for measuring the vertical ionization profile during solar cycle 24. The results show the differences (increase of 30%) in count rates as we proceed from solar maximum toward solar minimum. The observed altitude of maximum ionization (the Regener-Pfotzer maximum) was between 17-20 km, and it agrees well with results from other simultaneous measurements conducted at different latitudes (Reading, UK and Zaragoza-Barcelona, Spain). When compared with predictions of an analytical model, we find a highly significant correlation (R2=0.97) between our observations and the computed ionization profiles. The difference in count rates can be attributed to the height of the tropopause due to the model using a US standard atmosphere that differs from the measured atmospheric parameters above Israel.

  16. Three-dimensional visualization of velocity profiles in the ascending aorta in dogs, measured with a hot-film anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, P K; Hasenkam, J M

    1983-01-01

    Three-dimensional blood velocity profiles were registered in the ascending aorta of dogs approximately 2 and 5 cm above the aortic valves by means of constant temperature hot-film anemometry. The velocity was measured at 41 predetermined points of measurement evenly distributed over the cross-sectional area. Later data analyses using a three-dimensional plotting system, visualized velocity profiles at 200 time intervals during one mean heart cycle. The overall appearance of the profiles was that of a flat transitional flow with a slight skewness. The highest velocity was found nearer to the posterior and left vessel wall. The skewness started during top systole and persisted to the beginning of diastole. Furthermore, many small velocity fluctuations were seen during top systole, but they might also be caused by secondary rotational flow phenomena. This new three-dimensional and dynamic method for visualizing velocity profiles seems to offer advantages, as it demonstrates the total velocity profile all over the cross-sectional area.

  17. The measurement capabilities of cross-sectional profile of Nanoimprint template pattern using small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Eiji; Taniguchi, Rikiya; Itoh, Masamitsu; Omote, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Ogata, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Naoya

    2016-05-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is one of the most potential candidates for the next generation lithography for semiconductor. It will achieve the lithography with high resolution and low cost. High resolution of NIL will be determined by a high definition template. Nanoimprint lithography will faithfully transfer the pattern of NIL template to the wafer. Cross-sectional profile of the template pattern will greatly affect the resist profile on the wafer. Therefore, the management of the cross-sectional profile is essential. Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) technique has been proposed as one of the method for measuring cross-sectional profile of periodic nanostructure pattern. Incident x-rays are irradiated to the sample surface with very low glancing angle. It is close to the critical angle of the total reflection of the x-ray. The scattered x-rays from the surface structure are detected on a two-dimensional detector. The observed intensity is discrete in the horizontal (2θ) direction. It is due to the periodicity of the structure, and diffraction is observed only when the diffraction condition is satisfied. In the vertical (β) direction, the diffraction intensity pattern shows interference fringes reflected to height and shape of the structure. Features of the measurement using x-ray are that the optical constant for the materials are well known, and it is possible to calculate a specific diffraction intensity pattern based on a certain model of the cross-sectional profile. The surface structure is estimated by to collate the calculated diffraction intensity pattern that sequentially while changing the model parameters with the measured diffraction intensity pattern. Furthermore, GI-SAXS technique can be measured an object in a non-destructive. It suggests the potential to be an effective tool for product quality assurance. We have developed a cross-sectional profile measurement of quartz template pattern using GI-SAXS technique. In this

  18. CART and GSFC raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Turner, D. D.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Schwenner, G.; Evans, K. D.; Goldsmith, J. E. M.; Tooman, T.

    1998-01-01

    The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, we have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), we have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and ,daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, we derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. We also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S(sub a) (i.e. 'lidar ratio'). Furthermore, we use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.

  19. Do Students with Dyslexia Have a Different Personality Profile as Measured with the Big Five?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tops, Wim; Verguts, Ellen; Callens, Maaike; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies are available about the personality profile of higher education students with dyslexia and to which extent this could be any different from their non-dyslexic peers. Aims and Sample...

  20. A quantitative measure of the structure of gamma-ray burst time profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrade, John P.; Fishman, G.; Horack, J.; Meegan, C.; Moore, P.; Paciesas, W.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    A cursory examination of cosmic gamma-ray burst time profiles indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of structure. In the first approximation, there seem to be two types of profiles; smooth ones with little structure and highly variable ones with lots of structure. To put this observation to the test, we have examined the statistical nature of the profile derivative to choose which parameter might best be called the burst 'spikiness'. We have found that a good estimator is given by a count of the number of 'spikes' (defined by a specific numerical recipe) and not by the rms deviations from either a pre-burst background or any type of moving average background. The application of this parameter to 30 burst time histories shows it to be consistent over a wide range of profile types. The analysis also reveals a preferred average time between spikes of approximately 1.5 seconds.

  1. Aspects of quality control of wind profiler measurements in complex topography

    OpenAIRE

    Maruri, M.; J. A. Romo; L. Gomez

    2014-01-01

    It is well known in the scientific community that some remote sensing instruments assume that sample volumes present homogeneous conditions within a defined meteorological profile. At complex topographic sites and under extreme meteorological conditions, this assumption may be fallible depending on the site, and it is more likely to fail in the lower layers of the atmosphere. This piece of work tests the homogeneity of the wind field over a boundary layer wind profiler radar...

  2. Quality aspects of the measurements of a wind profiler in a complex topography

    OpenAIRE

    Maruri, M.; J. A. Romo; L. Gomez

    2013-01-01

    It is well known amongst the scientific community that some remote sensing instruments have assumed that sample volumes present homogeneous conditions within a defined meteorological profile. At complex topographic sites and under extreme meteorological conditions, this assumption may be fallible depending on the site, and it is more likely to fail in the lower layers of the atmosphere. This piece of work tests the homogeneity of the wind field over a boundary layer wind profiler radar locate...

  3. NO2 Profile retrieval using airborne multi axis UV-visible skylight absorption measurements over central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bruns

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent development in ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric constituents by UV/visible absorption measurements of scattered light is the simultaneous use of several directions with small elevation angles in addition to the traditional zenith-sky pointing. The different light paths through the atmosphere enable the vertical distribution of some atmospheric absorbers such as NO2, BrO or O3 to be retrieved. In this study, the amount of profile information that can be retrieved from such measurements on aircraft is investigated for the trace gas NO2. A Sensitivity study on synthetic data is performed for a combination of four lines of sight (LOS (0°(nadir, 88°, 92°, and 180° (zenith and three wavelength regions [center wavelengths: 362.5 nm, 437.5 nm, and 485.0 nm]. The method used in this work is a combination of two previously established methods described in Petritoli et al. (2002 and Wang et al. (2004. The investigation presented here demonstrates the potential of this LOS/wavelengths setup to retrieve a significant amount of profile information from airborne multiax is differential optical absorption spectrometer (AMAXDOAS measurements with a vertical resolution of 3.0 to 4.5 km in the lower troposphere and 2.0 to 3.5 km near flight altitude. Above 13 km the profile information content of AMAXDOAS measurements is sparse. The retrieval algorithm used in this work is the AMAXDOAS profile retrievalalgorithm (APROVAL. Further, retrieved profiles with a significant amount (up to 3.2 ppbv of NO2 in the boundary layer over the Po-valley (Italy are presented. Airborne multiaxis measurements are thus a promising tool for atmospheric studies in the troposphere.

  4. RETRIEVING ATMOSPHERIC SOUNDING PROFILES AROUND TYPHOON YUNNA USING INFRARED HYPERSPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS AIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bing; LIU Jian-wen; BAI Jie; LI Yao-dong; GAO Shou-ting

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we derived atmospheric profiles of temperature, moisture, and ozone, along with surface emissivity, skin temperature, and surface pressure, from infrared-sounder radiances under clear sky (cloudless) condition. Clouds were detected objectively using the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder under a relatively low spatial resolution and cloud-mask information from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer under a high horizontal resolution; this detection was conducted using space matching.Newton's nonlinear physical iterative solution technique is applied to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) to retrieve temperature profiles, relative humidity profiles, and surface variables simultaneously. This technique is carried out by using the results of an eigenvector regression retrieval as the background profile and using corresponding iterative forms for the weighting functions of temperature and water-vapor mixing ratio. The iterative forms are obtained by applying the variational principle to the RTE. We also compared the retrievals obtained with different types of observations. The results show that the retrieved atmospheric sounding profile has great superiority over other observations by accuracy and resolution. Retrieved profiles can be used to improve the initial conditions of numerical models and used in areas where conventional observations are sparse, such as plateaus, deserts, and seas.

  5. "Cloud Slicing" : A New Technique to Derive Tropospheric Ozone Profile Information from Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, J. R.; Chandra, S.; Bhartia, P. K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique denoted cloud slicing has been developed for estimating tropospheric ozone profile information. All previous methods using satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. By combining total tropospheric column ozone (denoted TCO) measurements from the convective cloud differential (CCD) method with 100-400 hPa upper tropospheric column ozone amounts from cloud slicing, it is possible to estimate 400-1000 hPa lower tropospheric column ozone and evaluate its spatial and temporal variability. Results for both the upper and lower tropical troposphere show a year-round zonal wavenumber 1 pattern in column ozone with largest amounts in the Atlantic region (up to approx. 15 DU in the 100-400 hPa pressure band and approx. 25-30 DU in the 400-1000 hPa pressure band). Upper tropospheric ozone derived from cloud slicing shows maximum column amounts in the Atlantic region in the June-August and September-November seasons which is similar to the seasonal variability of CCD derived TCO in the region. For the lower troposphere, largest column amounts occur in the September-November season over Brazil in South America and also southern Africa. Localized increases in the tropics in lower tropospheric ozone are found over the northern region of South America around August and off the west coast of equatorial Africa in the March-May season. Time series analysis for several regions in South America and Africa show an anomalous increase in ozone in the lower

  6. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  7. GIS-measured walkability, transit, and recreation environments in relation to older Adults' physical activity: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Michael; Adams, Marc A; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Buman, Matthew P; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    An infrequently studied question is how diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features relate to physical activity (PA) for older adults. We derived patterns of geographic information systems- (GIS) measured BE features and explored how they accounted for differences in objective and self-reported PA, sedentary time, and BMI in a sample of older adults. Senior Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=714, aged 66-97years, 52.1% women, 29.7% racial/ethnic minority) were sampled in 2005-2008 from the Seattle-King County, WA and Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC regions. Participants' home addresses were geocoded, and net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit density, and public park and private recreation facility density measures for 1-km network buffers were derived. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these GIS-based measures. In multilevel regression models, profiles were compared on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. LPAs yielded three profiles: low walkability/transit/recreation (L-L-L); mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M); and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). Three PA outcomes were more favorable in the HHH than the LLL profile group (difference of 7.2min/day for MVPA, 97.8min/week for walking for errands, and 79.2min/week for walking for exercise; all ps<0.02). The most and least activity-supportive BE profiles showed greater differences in older adults' PA than did groupings based solely on a 4-component walkability index, suggesting that diverse BE features are important for healthy aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of aerosol vertical profile variability on retrievals of aerosol optical thickness from NOAA AVHRR measurements in the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rozwadowska

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The expected influence of variability in atmospheric aerosolprofiles on retrievals of aerosol optical thickness (AOTfrom NOAA AVHRR measurements is analysed. In particular, thebias in the AOT retrieval due to the assumption of a climatologicalaerosol profile in the retrieval algorithm is studied. The biasis defined as the difference between AOT retrieved with analgorithm using a climatological aerosol profile, and the actual AOTemployed in the calculations of radiances at the top of the atmosphere(TOA. The TOA radiances are simulated by means of the MODTRANcode for different aerosol profiles. Atmospheric conditions andsolar and satellite angles used in the bias simulations are typicalof the Baltic region. In the simulations, the maximum absolutevalue of the bias amounts to nearly 40% in channel 2 and 14%in channel 1 of AVHRR.

  9. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. O. Reges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1; 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2. Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  10. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-07-13

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  11. SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH-MEASURED PRESSURE PROFILES FROM THE BOLOCAM X-RAY/SZ GALAXY CLUSTER SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, J.; Czakon, N. G.; Golwala, S. R.; Downes, T. P.; Mroczkowski, T.; Siegel, S. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mantz, A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ameglio, S.; Pierpaoli, E.; Shitanishi, J. A. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Koch, P. M.; Lin, K.-Y.; Umetsu, K. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Maughan, B. J.; Van der Pyl, N. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol Bs8 ITL (United Kingdom); Molnar, S. M. [LeCosPA Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Moustakas, L., E-mail: jack@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We describe Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect measurements and analysis of the intracluster medium (ICM) pressure profiles of a set of 45 massive galaxy clusters imaged using Bolocam at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We deproject the average pressure profile of our sample into 13 logarithmically spaced radial bins between 0.07R{sub 500} and 3.5R{sub 500}, and we find that a generalized Navarro, Frenk, and White (gNFW) profile describes our data with sufficient goodness-of-fit and best-fit parameters (C{sub 500}, {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, P{sub 0} = 1.18, 0.86, 3.67, 0.67, 4.29). We use X-ray data to define cool-core and disturbed subsamples of clusters, and we constrain the average pressure profiles of each of these subsamples. We find that, given the precision of our data, the average pressure profiles of disturbed and cool-core clusters are consistent with one another at R {approx}> 0.15R{sub 500}, with cool-core systems showing indications of higher pressure at R {approx}< 0.15R{sub 500}. In addition, for the first time, we place simultaneous constraints on the mass scaling of cluster pressure profiles, their ensemble mean profile, and their radius-dependent intrinsic scatter between 0.1R{sub 500} and 2.0R{sub 500}. The scatter among profiles is minimized at radii between {approx_equal} 0.2R{sub 500} and {approx_equal} 0.5R{sub 500}, with a value of {approx_equal} 20%. These results for the intrinsic scatter are largely consistent with previous analyses, most of which have relied heavily on X-ray derived pressures of clusters at significantly lower masses and redshifts compared to our sample. Therefore, our data provide further evidence that cluster pressure profiles are largely universal with scatter of {approx_equal} 20%-40% about the universal profile over a wide range of masses and redshifts.

  12. Improved profile fitting and quantification of uncertainty in experimental measurements of impurity transport coefficients using Gaussian process regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Marzouk, Y.; Howard, N. T.; White, A. E.; Rice, J. E.; Walk, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    The need to fit smooth temperature and density profiles to discrete observations is ubiquitous in plasma physics, but the prevailing techniques for this have many shortcomings that cast doubt on the statistical validity of the results. This issue is amplified in the context of validation of gyrokinetic transport models (Holland et al 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 052301), where the strong sensitivity of the code outputs to input gradients means that inadequacies in the profile fitting technique can easily lead to an incorrect assessment of the degree of agreement with experimental measurements. In order to rectify the shortcomings of standard approaches to profile fitting, we have applied Gaussian process regression (GPR), a powerful non-parametric regression technique, to analyse an Alcator C-Mod L-mode discharge used for past gyrokinetic validation work (Howard et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 063002). We show that the GPR techniques can reproduce the previous results while delivering more statistically rigorous fits and uncertainty estimates for both the value and the gradient of plasma profiles with an improved level of automation. We also discuss how the use of GPR can allow for dramatic increases in the rate of convergence of uncertainty propagation for any code that takes experimental profiles as inputs. The new GPR techniques for profile fitting and uncertainty propagation are quite useful and general, and we describe the steps to implementation in detail in this paper. These techniques have the potential to substantially improve the quality of uncertainty estimates on profile fits and the rate of convergence of uncertainty propagation, making them of great interest for wider use in fusion experiments and modelling efforts.

  13. Cross-shore profile and coastline changes of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, based on measurements and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. PROSPATHOPOULOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the changes of cross-shore profile and the coastline of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, are studied by using topographic profiles, sediment analysis and a numerical simulation model. The work is motivated by the considerable erosion problems caused to an extended portion of the coast north of the studied area due to the construction of a craft shelter, and its scope is two-fold: to help in understanding the dynamics of the beach based on results of the field work and to proceed a step further, studying the responses of this beach by numerical simulation, utilizing the topographic and sediment field data and measured wave data. The study of the cross-shore profiles, as well as the sediment analysis of the samples obtained along the profiles, revealed the morphological features of the coast under study and provided information concerning the dynamic zones in each profile. The sediment grain size reduces from south to north, following the direction of the longshore currents generated in the area. The results of the numerical simulation concerning the coastline evolution are found to be in agreement with the qualitative estimations and visual observations of existing coastal changes to the broader area.

  14. Cross-shore profile and coastline changes of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, based on measurements and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. PROSPATHOPOULOS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the changes of cross-shore profile and the coastline of a sandy beach in Pieria, Greece, are studied by using topographic profiles, sediment analysis and a numerical simulation model. The work is motivated by the considerable erosion problems caused to an extended portion of the coast north of the studied area due to the construction of a craft shelter, and its scope is two-fold: to help in understanding the dynamics of the beach based on results of the field work and to proceed a step further, studying the responses of this beach by numerical simulation, utilizing the topographic and sediment field data and measured wave data. The study of the cross-shore profiles, as well as the sediment analysis of the samples obtained along the profiles, revealed the morphological features of the coast under study and provided information concerning the dynamic zones in each profile. The sediment grain size reduces from south to north, following the direction of the longshore currents generated in the area. The results of the numerical simulation concerning the coastline evolution are found to be in agreement with the qualitative estimations and visual observations of existing coastal changes to the broader area.

  15. Interpreting aerosol lidar profiles to better estimate surface PM2.5 for columnar AOD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, D. Allen; Tsai, Tzu-Chin; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chang, Shuenn-Chin; Jeng, Yung-Jyh; Chiang, Wei-Li; Lin, Neng-Hui

    2013-11-01

    Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) products have been used to estimate surface PM2.5 in different parts of the world. However, some revealed good but some relatively poorer relationship between AOD and PM2.5. The increasingly available lidar-based aerosol extinction profiles provide insights into the boundary layer as well as residual above it. Here we report a study in Taiwan using four-year (2006-2009) MPLNet data to characterize aerosol vertical distribution. We derived haze layer height (HLH) from MPLNet aerosol extinction profiles and classified profile differences by mean PBL extinction (MPE) and near-surface extinction (NSE). The former represents the mean extinction within boundary layer and the latter the closest extinction to surface. The comparison of MPE versus NSE leads to three distinct classifications of aerosol profiles to help interpret the relationship between AOD and PM2.5. The approximation of normalizing AODAERONET by HLH closely follows MPE in correlating with PM2.5 (≥0.8 with respect to season or ≥0.85 with respect to profile classification). The correlation resulted from AODMODIS/HLH is systematically lower than that derived by AODAERONET/HLH. PM2.5 values are overall better estimated by profile classification than those derived by season. Better performance of PM2.5 is obtained with the approximation (i.e., normalizing AOD by HLH) than that using AOD only. The performance metrics used in quantifying the relationship reveal improvements in uncertainty by 2.9 μg m-3 (or 20%) with AODAERONET/HLH and 2.3 μg m-3 (or 15%) with AODMODIS/HLH in comparison to using AOD only.

  16. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on the Anthropometric Measurements, Lipid Profiles and Fasting Blood Glucose in the Healthy Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepide Mahluji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on anthropometric measures, improving lipid profile biomarkers, and fasting blood glucose level in obese people. Methods: This randomized, double- blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 obese participants in the 18-45 age range for one month. The participants were randomly divided into the intervention group, who received 30 mg/d zinc gluconate, and the placebo group who received 30mg/d starch. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI, weight and waist circumference were recorded before and at the end of study. Lipid profile biomarkers and fasting blood glucose were determined using enzymatic procedure. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA test was run to compare the post-treatment values of the two groups, and t-test was conducted to compare within group changes. Results: Serum zinc concentration was increased significantly in intervention group (p=0.024. BMI and body weight was significantly decreased (p=0.030 and p=0.020, respectively. Lipid profile biomarkers and fating blood glucose did not change significantly but triglyceride level was significantly decreased (p=0.006 in the intervention group. Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that zinc supplementation improves BMI, body weight, and triglyceride concentration without considerable effects on lipid profile and glucose level. Zinc can be suggested as a suitable supplementation therapy for obese people, but more studies are needed to verify the results.

  17. Determination of the entropy change profile of a cylindrical lithium-ion battery by heat flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashko, K. A.; Mityakov, A. V.; Mityakov, V. Y.; Sapozhnikov, S. Z.; Jokiniemi, J.; Pyrhönen, J.

    2016-10-01

    The popularity of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries has increased over the recent years. Because of the strong dependence of the Li-ion battery operation characteristics on temperature, heat generation in the battery has to be taken into account. The entropy change of a Li-ion battery has a significant influence on heat generation, especially at a low C-rate current. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the entropy change profile in the estimation of heat generation. In the paper, a method to determine the entropy change (ΔS) profile by heat flux measurements of a cylindrical Li-ion cell is proposed. The method allows simultaneous measurements of the thermal diffusivity and ΔS of the cylindrical cell. The thermal diffusivity and ΔS measurements are carried out by a gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS). The comparison between the ΔS profile determined by the GHFS method with that obtained using a standard potentiometric method clearly shows that the entropy change measurements could be made by using a GHFS. Even though the uncertainty of the reported method is higher than that of the potentiometric method, a significant decrease in the experiment time compared with the potentiometric method is a major advantage of this method.

  18. Impact of using different ozone cross sections on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME ultraviolet measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of using three different cross section data sets on ozone profile retrievals from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME ultraviolet measurements (289–307 nm, 326–337 nm. These include Bass-Paur, Brion, and GOME flight model cross sections (references below. Using different cross sections can significantly affect the retrievals, by up to 12 Dobson Units (DU, 1 DU=2.69×1016 molecules cm−2 in total column ozone, up to 10 DU in tropospheric column ozone, and up to 100% in retrieved ozone values for individual atmospheric layers. Compared to using the Bass-Paur and GOME flight model cross sections, using the Brion cross sections not only reduces fitting residuals by 15–60% in the Huggins bands, but also improves retrievals, especially in the troposphere, as seen from validation against ozonesonde measurements. Therefore, we recommend using the Brion cross section for ozone profile retrievals from ultraviolet measurements. The total column ozone retrieved using the GOME flight model cross sections is systematically lower, by 7–10 DU, than that retrieved using the Brion and Bass-Paur cross sections and is also systematically lower than Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS observations. This study demonstrates the need for improved ozone cross section measurements in the ultraviolet to improve profile retrievals of this key atmospheric constituent.

  19. CLASH-X: A Comparison of Lensing and X-ray Techniques for Measuring the Mass Profiles of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Megan; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Umetsu, Keiichi; Ettori, Stefano; Merten, Julian; Postman, Marc; Hoffer, Aaron; Baldi, Alessandro; Coe, Dan; Czakon, Nicole; Bartelmann, Mattias; Benitez, Narciso; Bouwens, Rychard; Bradley, Larry; Broadhurst, Tom; Ford, Holland; Gastaldello, Fabio; Grillo, Claudio; Infante, Leopoldo; Jouvel, Stephanie; Koekemoer, Anton; Kelson, Daniel; Lahav, Ofer; Lemze, Doron; Medezinski, Elinor; Melchior, Peter; Meneghetti, Massimo; Molino, Alberto; Moustakas, John; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Nonino, Mario; Rosati, Piero; Sayers, Jack; Seitz, Stella; Van der Wel, Arjen; Zheng, Wei; Zitrin, Adi

    2014-01-01

    We present profiles of temperature, gas mass, and hydrostatic mass estimated from X-ray observations of CLASH clusters. We compare measurements from XMM and Chandra and compare both sets to CLASH gravitational lensing mass profiles. We find that Chandra and XMM measurements of electron density and enclosed gas mass as functions of radius are nearly identical, indicating that any differences in hydrostatic masses inferred from X-ray observations arise from differences in gas-temperature estimates. Encouragingly, gas temperatures measured in clusters by XMM and Chandra are consistent with one another at ~100 kpc radii but XMM temperatures systematically decline relative to Chandra temperatures as the radius of the temperature measurement increases. One plausible reason for this trend is large-angle scattering of soft X-ray photons in excess of that amount expected from the standard XMM PSF correction. We present the CLASH-X mass-profile comparisons in the form of cosmology-independent and redshift-independent c...

  20. NO2 Profile Retrieval using airborne multi axis UV-visible skylight absorption measurements over central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pundt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent development in ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric constituents by UV/visible absorption measurements of scattered light is the simultaneous use of several directions with small elevation angles in addition to the traditional zenith-sky pointing. The different light paths through the atmosphere enable the vertical distribution of some atmospheric absorbers such as NO2, BrO or O3 to be retrieved. In this study, the amount of profile information that can be retrieved from such measurements on aircraft is investigated for the trace gas NO2. A Sensitivity study on synthetic data is performed for a combination of four lines of sight (LOS (0° (nadir, 88°, 92°, and 180° (zenith and three wavelength regions [center wavelengths: 362.5 nm, 437.5 nm, and 485.0 nm]. This investigation demonstrates the potential of this LOS/wavelengths setup to retrieve a significant amount of profile information from airborne multiaxis differential optical absorption spectrometer (AMAXDOAS measurements with a vertical resolution of 3.0 to 4.5 km in the lower troposphere and 2.0 to 3.5 km near flight altitude. Above 13 km the profile information content of AMAXDOAS measurements is sparse. Further, retrieved profiles with a significant amount (up to 3.2 ppbv of NO2 in the boundary layer over the Po-valley (Italy are presented. Airborne multiaxis measurements are thus a promising tool for atmospheric studies in the troposphere.

  1. Wind lidar profile measurements in the coastal boundary layer: comparison with WRF modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Vincent, Claire Louise;

    2012-01-01

    in the amount of observed low level jet. The wind speed predicted by WRF does not improve when a higher resolution is used. Therefore, both the inhomogeneous (westerly) and homogeneous (easterly) flow contribute to a large negative bias in the mean wind speed profile at heights between 100 and 200 m....

  2. The Wind Profile in the Coastal Boundary Layer: Wind Lidar Measurements and Numerical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier; Vincent, Claire Louise; Gryning, Sven-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    . By replacing the roughness value for the land-use category in the model with a more representative mesoscale roughness, the observed bias in friction velocity was reduced. A higher-order PBL scheme simulated the wind profile from the west with a lower wind-speed bias at the top of the PBL. For easterly winds...

  3. Measurement of Plasma Ion Temperature and Flow Velocity from Chord-Averaged Emission Line Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xu Wei

    2011-03-01

    The distinction between Doppler broadening and Doppler shift has been analysed, the differences between Gaussian fitting and the distribution of chord-integral line shape have also been discussed. Local ion temperature and flow velocity have been derived from the chord-averaged emission line profile by a chosen-point Gaussian fitting technique.

  4. Disability and Functional Profiles of Patients with Myasthenia Gravis Measured with ICF Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto; Antozzi, Carlo; Confalonieri, Paolo; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Mantegazza, Renato

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe functional profiles of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), and the relationships among symptoms, activities and environmental factors (EF), by using WHO's International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Patients were consecutively enrolled at the Besta Institute of Milan, Italy.…

  5. Disability and Functional Profiles of Patients with Migraine Measured with ICF Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    To describe the functional profiles of patients with migraine, and the relationships between symptoms, activities and environmental factors, using WHO's International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Patients were consecutively enrolled at the Besta Institute of Milan. The ICF checklist was administered and two count-based indexes developed:…

  6. MEASURING QUALITY-OF-LIFE WITH THE SICKNESS IMPACT PROFILE - A PILOT-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HULSEBOS, RG; BELTMAN, FW; MIRANDA, DD; SPANGENBERG, JFA

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-study was done to investigate the applicability of the sickness impact profile (SIP) in ex-ICU patients. For this study 221 consecutively admitted patients were reviewed retrospectively after excluding children, deceased patients and readmissions. SIP was assessed in these patients by either

  7. Disability and Functional Profiles of Patients with Myasthenia Gravis Measured with ICF Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto; Antozzi, Carlo; Confalonieri, Paolo; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Mantegazza, Renato

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe functional profiles of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), and the relationships among symptoms, activities and environmental factors (EF), by using WHO's International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Patients were consecutively enrolled at the Besta Institute of Milan, Italy.…

  8. One Year of Vertical Wind Profiles Measurements at a Mediterranean Coastal Site of South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Gullì, Daniel; Avolio, Elenio

    2015-01-01

    To exploit wind energy both onshore and offshore in coastal area the effect of the coastal discontinuity is important. The shape of the vertical wind profiles and the related c parameter of the Weibull distribution are impacted by the atmospheric internal boundary layers developing from the coast...

  9. Gem Detectors For the Transverse Profile Measurement of Low Energy Antiprotons and High Energy Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Spanggaard, J; Duarte Pinto, S; Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are finding more and more applications in beam instrumentation. Gas Electron Multiplication is a very similar physical phenomenon to that which occurs in Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), but for small profile monitors GEMs are much more cost effective to produce and maintain. \

  10. MEASURING DARK MATTER PROFILES NON-PARAMETRICALLY IN DWARF SPHEROIDALS: AN APPLICATION TO DRACO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardel, John R.; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Williams, Michael J. [Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Drory, Niv, E-mail: jardel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Avenida Universidad 3000, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-02-15

    We introduce a novel implementation of orbit-based (or Schwarzschild) modeling that allows dark matter density profiles to be calculated non-parametrically in nearby galaxies. Our models require no assumptions to be made about velocity anisotropy or the dark matter profile. The technique can be applied to any dispersion-supported stellar system, and we demonstrate its use by studying the Local Group dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) Draco. We use existing kinematic data at larger radii and also present 12 new radial velocities within the central 13 pc obtained with the VIRUS-W integral field spectrograph on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Our non-parametric Schwarzschild models find strong evidence that the dark matter profile in Draco is cuspy for 20 {<=} r {<=} 700 pc. The profile for r {>=} 20 pc is well fit by a power law with slope {alpha} = -1.0 {+-} 0.2, consistent with predictions from cold dark matter simulations. Our models confirm that, despite its low baryon content relative to other dSphs, Draco lives in a massive halo.

  11. High precision measurement of fuel density profiles in nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.; von Hellermann, M.; Konig, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for deducing fuel density profiles of nuclear fusion plasmas in realtime during an experiment. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to create a mapping between plasma radiation spectra and indirectly deduced hydrogen isotope densities. By combining diffe

  12. The new real-time measurement capabilities of the profiling TARA radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, C.M.H.; Dufournet, Y.; Otto, T.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 10 years, the S-band FM-CW TARA (Transportable Atmospheric RAdar), placed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR), provided in real-time vertical profiles of the Doppler moments. Classical spectral processing was carried out. The polarimetric and multi-beam measu

  13. A study to measure the impact of implementation of 5-S on pipe and profile: A case study of a pipe and profile maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Karkehabadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity improvement plays essential role on cost reduction and production planning in many organizations. There are literally various methods for measuring productivity and improving systems’ capabilities such as total quality management, 5S, etc. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to find out whether implementing 5S could reduce interruptions in production systems in one of pipe and profile manufacturing units located in province of Semnan, Iran. The proposed study compares the mean and standard deviations of waste materials before and after the implementation of 5-S in three different lines and statistical tests indicate that 5-S have made the necessary change on production planning and it could reduce waste materials, significantly.

  14. Direct Detection 1.6?m DIAL / Doppler Lidar for Measurements of CO2 Concentration and Wind Profiles (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y.; Nagasawa, C.; Abo, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of present carbon sources and sinks including their spatial distribution and their variation in time is one of the essential information for predicting future CO2 atmospheric concentration levels. Moreover, wind information is an important parameter for transport simulations and inverse estimation of surface CO2 flux. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and the Doppler wind lidar with the range resolution is expected to measure atmospheric CO2 profiles and wind profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer and lower troposphere from a ground platform. We have succeeded to develop a scanning 1.6 μm DIAL and incoherent Doppler lidar system for simultaneously measuring CO2 concentration and wind speed profiles. Our 1.6 μm DIAL system consists of the Optical Parametric Generator (OPG) transmitter that excited by the LD pumped Nd: YAG laser with high repetition rate (500 Hz) and the receiving optics that included the near-infrared photomultiplier tube with high quantum efficiency operating at the photon counting mode, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) filter to detect a Doppler shift, and a 25 cm telescope [1] [2]. We had developed an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system for 1.6 μm CO2 DIAL[3]. To achieve continuous tuning of the resonant OPO output without mode hopping, it is necessary to vary the OPO cavity length synchronously with the seed-frequency. On the other hand, the OPG does not require a cavity and instead rely on sufficient conversion efficiency to be obtained with a single pass through the crystal. The single-frequency oscillation of the OPG was achieved by injection seeding. The CO2-DIAL was operated with the range-height indicator (RHI) mode, and the 2-D measurement provided inhomogeneity in the boundary layer. Vertical CO2 concentration profiles and wind profiles were also measured simultaneously. The elevation angle was fixed at 52 deg and CO2 concentration profiles were obtained up to 1 km altitude with 200 m height resolution. Vertical

  15. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Mariscal, Jean-François; d'Almeida, Eric; Dahoo, Pierre-Richard; Porteneuve, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  16. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.

    2016-11-01

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  17. Validation and statistical analysis of temperature, humidity profiles and Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) from microwave measurements over Granada (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Andres; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2017-04-01

    Profiles of meteorological variables such as temperature, relative humidity and integrated water vapor derived from a ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR, RPG-HATPRO) are continuously monitored since 2012 at Granada station (Southeastern Spain). During this period up to 210 collocated meteorological balloons, equipped with a radiosonde DFM-09 (GRAWMET), were launched. This study is carried out with a twofold goal. On one hand, a validation of the MWR products such as temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profiles and the IWV from MWR is carried out comparing with radiosonde measurements. The behavior of MWR retrievals under clear and cloudy conditions and for special situations such as inversions has been analyzed. On the other hand, the whole period with continuous measurements is used for a statistical evaluation of the meteorological variables derived from MWR in order to thermodynamically characterize the atmosphere over Granada.

  18. Application of detailed temperature profile measurements for improving data quality check by Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozníková, Gabriela; Fischer, Milan; Orság, Matěj; Trnka, Miroslav; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2015-04-01

    Water plays a key role in the functionality and sustainability of the ecosystems. In the light of the predicted climate change research should be focused on the water cycle and its individual components. Apart from the runoff, the major component of the water balance which drives the water from the ecosystems is represented by the evapotranspiration (ET). One of the standard methods for measuring ET is Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method (BREB). It is based on the assumption that the water vapour and heat are transported by identical eddies with equal efficiency. In fact, this basic premise is based on a more complicated Monin-Obukhov similarity theory that explains the relationship between the profiles of wind, temperature and water vapour in the surface layer of the atmosphere. When BREB method is used we assume that the profiles of temperature and air humidity are ideally logarithmic or at least consistent. However, as this method is usually based on the measurements of temperature and humidity in only two heights, it is difficult to verify this assumption. We therefore conducted a field experiment using 4m high measurement-mast with 20 thermocouples connected to data-logger for detailed measurement of air temperature profile above different covers, e.g. grassland, spring barley, poplar plantation. The main goal of our effort was to capture so called "kink" in the profile of the temperature and verify if the assumptions made by BREB hold under various weather conditions and over different canopies testing the basic requirements of the BREB method use. Finally we devised a technique improving data selection for subsequent ET calculation. This study was funded by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought" No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248,PASED - project supported by Czech program KONTAKT II No. LH12037 "Development of models for assessment of abiotic stresses in selected bioenergy plants" and LD130030 project supporting COST action ES1106.

  19. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  20. Do students with dyslexia have a different personality profile as measured with the big five?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Tops

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies are available about the personality profile of higher education students with dyslexia and to which extent this could be any different from their non-dyslexic peers. AIMS AND SAMPLES: To obtain empirical evidence, we compared the personality profile of a group of 100 Dutch-speaking students with dyslexia with that of a control group of 100 students without learning disabilities. METHODS: The NEO-PI-R based on the Big Five in personality research was used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed no differences in the personality between both groups. This agrees with a recent meta-analysis of English findings (Swanson & Hsieh, 2009, suggesting that students with dyslexia do not perceive themselves differently than their non-dyslexic peers. Practical implications and directions for future research are considered.

  1. A simple and straightforward technique for single shot measurement of terahertz profile

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Sonal; Chakera, J A; Naik, P A

    2016-01-01

    A new detection scheme capable of acquiring the entire spatiotemporal profile of terahertz radiation in a single laser shot is being demonstrated. The design allows temporal resolution of the order of transform-limited pulse duration of the probe, which is an absolute benefit over the compromised resolution of otherwise prevalent single-shot detection schemes based on spectral encoding of terahertz waveform on a temporally chirped readout pulse. This makes the technique perfectly suitable for sensitive spectroscopy studies. The single shot detection technique presented here relies on space-to-time mapping of terahertz temporal profile by use of a converging probe intensity front. The present approach does not require any specialized optics and is implemented using very straightforward alignment procedure. It has shown to reproduce the temporal waveform of terahertz radiation faithfully.

  2. Retrieval of relative humidity profiles and its associated error from Megha-Tropiques measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivira, R.; Brogniez, H.; Mallet, C.; Oussar, Y.

    2013-05-01

    The combination of the two microwave radiometers, SAPHIR and MADRAS, on board the Megha-Tropiques platform is explored to define a retrieval method that estimates not only the relative humidity profile but also the associated confidence intervals. A comparison of three retrieval models was performed, in equal conditions of input and output data sets, through their statistical values (error variance, correlation coefficient and error mean) obtaining a profile of seven layers of relative humidity. The three models show the same behavior with respect to layers, mid-tropospheric layers reaching the best statistical values suggesting a model-independent problem. Finally, the study of the probability density function of the relative humidity at a given atmospheric pressure further gives insight of the confidence intervals.

  3. Profile measurement of a bent neutron mirror using an ultrahigh precision non-contact measurement system with an auto focus laser probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, S.; Guo, J.; Yamada, N. L.; Torikai, N.; Takeda, S.; Furusaka, M.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-07-01

    A bent neutron mirror has been considered as one of the best solutions for focusing neutron beams from the viewpoint of cost-benefit performance. Although the form deviation of the bent profile is expected because of the large spot size, it is difficult to measure due to its geometric limitation. Here, we propose a non-contact measurement system using an auto focus (AF) laser probe on an ultrahigh precision machine tool to precisely evaluate the form deviation of the bent mirror. The AF laser probe is composed of a diode laser, a position sensitive sensor, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a microscope objective lens which is actuated by an electromagnetic motor with 1 nm resolution for position sensing and control. The sensor enables a non-contact profile measurement of a high precision surface without any surface damage in contrast with contact-type ultrahigh precision coordinate measurement machines with ruby styli. In the on-machine measurement system, a personal computer simultaneously acquires a displacement signal from the AF laser probe and 3-axis positional coordinates of the ultrahigh machine tool branched between the linear laser scales and the numerical controller. The acquisition rate of the 4-axis positional data in 1 nm resolution is more than 10 Hz and the simultaneity between the axes is negligible. The profile of a neutron bent mirror was measured from a transparent side using the developed system, and the result proves that the form deviation of the mirror enlarged the the spot size of focused neuron beam.

  4. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  5. Autonomous Measurements of Oceanic Dissolved Nitrate from Commercially Available Profiling Floats Equipped with ISUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    required CTD checks and calibration . If the ISUS were on the upper cap, the position of the fiber optics, and the resulting ISUS calibration , might...intervals between October of 2009 and May of 2013. The ISUS sensor is generally stable over this time with the exception of jump in calibration of ∼1 µmol...Situ Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer : sensor integration into the Apex profiling float. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 30, 1854-1866

  6. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colls, J J; Micallef, A

    1999-09-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM10 and PM2.5) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data.

  7. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A. [Division of Environmental Science, School of Biological Sciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Loughborough LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data.

  8. Vacancy profile in reverse osmosis membranes studied by positron annihilation lifetime measurements and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, A.; Goto, H.; Shintani, T.; Hirose, M.; Suzuki, R.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2013-06-01

    The positron annihilation technique using a slow positron beam can be used for the study of the vacancy profiles in typical reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. In this study, the vacancy profile in the polyamide membrane that exhibits a high permselectivity between ions and water was studied using the positron annihilation technique and molecular dynamics simulations. Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes in the surface region of the membranes were evaluated by using a slow positron beam. The diffusion behavior of Na+ and water in the polyamides was simulated by molecular dynamics (MD) methods using the TSUBAME2 supercomputer at the Tokyo Institute of Technology and discussed with the vacancy profile probed by the o-Ps. The results suggested that the large hydration size of Na+ compared to the vacancy size in the polyamides contributes to the increased diffusivity selectivity of water/Na+ that is related to the NaCl desalination performance of the membrane. Both the hydration size of the ions and the vacancy size appeared to be significant parameters to discuss the diffusivity selectivity of water/ions in typical polyamide membranes.

  9. Measuring molecular abundance profiles from 5 microns ground-based spectroscopy in support of JUNO investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Doriann; Fouchet, Thierry; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Drossart, Pierre; Greathouse, Thomas; Orton, Glenn; Fletcher, Leigh

    2017-04-01

    We report on early results of an observational campaign to support the Juno mission. At the beginning of 2015, using TEXES (Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph), mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), we obtained data cubes of Jupiter in several spectral ranges between 2100 and 2200 cm-1 (4.5 - 4.7 μm) which probes the atmosphere in the 1-4 bar region, with a spectral resolution of R ≈ 7000 and an angular resolution of ≈ 1.5''. This dataset is analyzed by a code which combines a line-by-line radiative transfer model with a non-linear optimal estimation inversion method. The inversion takes into account the abundance profiles of AsH_3, CO, GeH4 and H_2O, as well as clouds contribution, in addtion to the abundance profiles of NH3 and PH_3. We will present the inverted abundance profiles, the spatial distribution of the molecular abundances, their significance for the understanding of Jupiter's atmospheric dynamics, and how this will be useful for the determination of water abundance up to 200 bars, which is one of the main objectives of the instrument MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) mounted on the Juno spacecraft. This work will also be useful to prepare the analysis of the JIRAM (Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper) 5-microns data aboard Juno.

  10. Measuring the thickness of protective coatings on historic metal objects using nanosecond and femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouli, P.; Melessanaki, K.; Giakoumaki, A.; Argyropoulos, V.; Anglos, D.

    2005-08-01

    Depth profile analysis by means of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was investigated with respect to its potential to measure the thickness of different types of thin organic films used as protective coatings on historical and archaeological metal objects. For the materials examined, acrylic varnish and microcrystalline wax, the output from a nanosecond ArF excimer laser at 193 nm was found appropriate for performing a reliable profiling of the coating films leading to accurate determination of the coating thickness on the basis of the number of laser pulses required to penetrate the coating and on the ablation etch rate of the corresponding coating material under the same irradiation conditions. Nanosecond pulses at 248 nm proved inadequate to profile the coatings because of their weak absorption at the laser wavelength. In contrast, femtosecond irradiation at 248 nm yielded well-resolved profiles as a result of efficient ablation achieved through the increased non-linear absorption induced by the high power density of the ultrashort pulses.

  11. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Y; Manabe, T; Kajita, S; Ohno, N; Takagi, M; Tsuchiya, H; Morisaki, T

    2014-09-01

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ~4 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  12. Measuring centimeter-resolution air temperature profiles above land and water using fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Armin; Pfister, Lena; Olesch, Johannes; Thomas, Christoph K.

    2016-04-01

    The precise determination of near-surface air temperature profiles is of special importance for the characterization of airflows (e.g. cold air) and the quantification of sensible heat fluxes according to the flux-gradient similarity approach. In contrast to conventional multi-sensor techniques, measuring temperature profiles using fiber-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) provides thousands of measurements referenced to a single calibration standard at much reduced costs. The aim of this work was to enhance the vertical resolution of Raman scatter DTS measurements up to the centimeter-scale using a novel approach for atmospheric applications: the optical fiber was helically coiled around a meshed fabric. In addition to testing the new fiber geometry, we quantified the measurement uncertainty and demonstrated the benefits of the enhanced-resolution profiles. The fiber-optic cable was coiled around a hollow column consisting of white reinforcing fabric supported by plexiglass rings every meter. Data from two columns of this type were collected for 47 days to measure air temperature vertically over 3.0 and 5.1 m over a gently inclined meadow and over and in a small lake, respectively. Both profiles had a vertical resolution of 1 cm in the lower section near the surface and 5 cm in the upper section with an along-fiber instrument-specific averaging of 1.0 m and a temporal resolution of 30 s. Measurement uncertainties, especially from conduction between reinforcing fabric and fiber-optic cable, were estimated by modeling the fiber temperature via a detailed energy balance approach. Air temperature, wind velocity and radiation components were needed as input data and measured separately. The temperature profiles revealed valuable details, especially in the lowest 1 m above surface. This was best demonstrated for nighttime observations when artefacts due to solar heating did not occur. For example, the dynamics of a cold air layer was detected in a clear night

  13. Estimating suspended solids concentrations from backscatter intensity measured by acoustic Doppler current profiler in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The estimation of mass concentration of suspended solids is one of the properties needed to understand the characteristics of sediment transport in bays and estuaries. However, useful measurements or estimates of this property are often problematic when employing the usual methods of determination from collected water samples or optical sensors. Analysis of water samples tends to undersample the highly variable character of suspended solids, and optical sensors often become useless from biological fouling in highly productive regions. Acoustic sensors, such as acoustic Doppler current profilers that are now routinely used to measure water velocity, have been shown to hold promise as a means of quantitatively estimating suspended solids from acoustic backscatter intensity, a parameter used in velocity measurement. To further evaluate application of this technique using commercially available instruments, profiles of suspended solids concentrations are estimated from acoustic backscatter intensity recorded by 1200- and 2400-kHz broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers located at two sites in San Francisco Bay, California. ADCP backscatter intensity is calibrated using optical backscatterance data from an instrument located at a depth close to the ADCP transducers. In addition to losses from spherical spreading and water absorption, calculations of acoustic transmission losses account for attenuation from suspended sediment and correction for nonspherical spreading in the near field of the acoustic transducer. Acoustic estimates of suspended solids consisting of cohesive and noncohesive sediments are found to agree within about 8-10% (of the total range of concentration) to those values estimated by a second optical backscatterance sensor located at a depth further from the ADCP transducers. The success of this approach using commercially available Doppler profilers provides promise that this technique might be appropriate and useful under certain conditions in

  14. Use of In Situ Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Extinction, and Aerosol Size Distribution Measurements to Test a Method for Retrieving Cloud Condensation Nuclei Profiles From Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Stephen J.; Rissman, Tracey A.; Ellman, Robert; Ferrare, Richard A.; Turner, David; Flynn, Connor; Wang, Jian; Ogren, John; Hudson, James; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; VanReken, Timothy; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2006-01-01

    If the aerosol composition and size distribution below cloud are uniform, the vertical profile of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be retrieved entirely from surface measurements of CCN concentration and particle humidification function and surface-based retrievals of relative humidity and aerosol extinction or backscatter. This provides the potential for long-term measurements of CCN concentrations near cloud base. We have used a combination of aircraft, surface in situ, and surface remote sensing measurements to test various aspects of the retrieval scheme. Our analysis leads us to the following conclusions. The retrieval works better for supersaturations of 0.1% than for 1% because CCN concentrations at 0.1% are controlled by the same particles that control extinction and backscatter. If in situ measurements of extinction are used, the retrieval explains a majority of the CCN variance at high supersaturation for at least two and perhaps five of the eight flights examined. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the humidification factor is not the major limitation of the CCN retrieval scheme. Vertical structure in the aerosol size distribution and composition is the dominant source of error in the CCN retrieval, but this vertical structure is difficult to measure from remote sensing at visible wavelengths.

  15. MegaMorph - multi-wavelength measurement of galaxy structure: complete S\\'ersic profile information from modern surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Häußler, Boris; Vika, Marina; Rojas, Alex L; Barden, Marco; Kelvin, Lee S; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Robotham, Aaron S G; Driver, Simon P; Baldry, I K; Brough, Sarah; Hopkins, Andrew M; Liske, Jochen; Nichol, Robert C; Popescu, Cristina C; Tuffs, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for fitting galaxy profiles which makes use of the full multi-wavelength data provided by modern large optical-near-infrared imaging surveys. We present a new version of GALAPAGOS, which utilises a recently-developed multi-wavelength version of GALFIT, and enables the automated measurement of wavelength dependent S\\'ersic profile parameters for very large samples of galaxies. Our new technique is extensively tested to assess the reliability of both pieces of software, GALFIT and GALAPAGOS on both real ugrizY JHK imaging data from the GAMA survey and simulated data made to the same specifications. We find that fitting galaxy light profiles with multi-wavelength data increases the stability and accuracy of the measured parameters, and hence produces more complete and meaningful multi-wavelength photometry than has been available previously. The improvement is particularly significant for magnitudes in low S/N bands and for structural parameters like half-light radius r...

  16. Measurement of Pion and Proton Longitudinal Shower Profiles up to 20 Nuclear Interaction Lengths with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hakobyan, H; Carli, T; Henriques-Correia, A M

    2006-01-01

    The response of pions and protons in the energy range of 20 to 180 GeV produced at CERN's SPS H8 test beam line in the ATLAS Iron-Scintillator Tile hadron calorimeter has been measured. The testbeam configuration allowed to measure the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths. It is found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. However, protons induce showers that are laterally to the direction of the impinging particle wider. Including the measured total energy response, the pion to proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion induced showers. The data are compared with Geant4 simulations using several hadronic physics lists. The measured longitudinal shower profiles are described by an analytical shower parameterisation within an accuracy of 5-10 %.

  17. [Functional status of the elderly measured with the Sickness Impact Profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, J; Groenier, K H; Schuling, J

    1994-03-01

    The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a generic questionnaire developed to register the consequences of disease for daily life. We examined an open population (N = 232) aged 65 years and older irrespective of their health status by means of the SIP in order to obtain age related reference values. In addition to patient characteristics data on the patient's morbidity and health appraisal were collected. There appeared to be no relation between SIP-scores and sex. Age, however, as well as morbidity and health appraisal were significantly related to SIP-scores. These results emphasize the importance of the availability of age related reference values in outcome studies.

  18. 3D profile measurements of objects by using zero order Generalized Morse Wavelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocahan, Özlem; Durmuş, ćaǧla; Elmas, Merve Naz; Coşkun, Emre; Tiryaki, Erhan; Özder, Serhat

    2017-02-01

    Generalized Morse wavelets are proposed to evaluate the phase information from projected fringe pattern with the spatial carrier frequency in the x direction. The height profile of the object is determined through the phase change distribution by using the phase of the continuous wavelet transform. The phase distribution is extracted from the optical fringe pattern choosing zero order Generalized Morse Wavelet (GMW) as a mother wavelet. In this study, standard fringe projection technique is used for obtaining images. Experimental results for the GMW phase method are compared with the results of Morlet and Paul wavelet transform.

  19. Measuring Knowledge of Mathematical Functions: Validity of Scores and Profiles of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Kelli

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of mathematical functions is expected of university students. This knowledge was measured in this dissertation using two previously untested instruments. The aim of this dissertation was to validate the scores from these measures. The first instrument measured function knowledge in its declarative, procedural, or conditional form. The…

  20. Design of Q-band FMCW reflectometry for electron density profile measurement on the Joint TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghan, Wan; Zhoujun, Yang; Ruobing, Zhou; Xiaoming, Pan; Chi, Zhang; Xianli, Xie; Bowen, Ruan

    2017-02-01

    The Q-band (33-50 GHz) fast sweep frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) reflectometry has been recently developed for electron density profile measurement on the Joint TEXT tokamak. It operates in ordinary mode (O-mode) with a 20 μs sweeping period, covering the density range from 1 × 1019 m-3 to 3 × 1019 m-3. On the bench test, a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) filter is used for the dynamic calibration of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) to obtain a linear frequency sweep. Besides, the use of a power combiner helps to improve the side-band suppression level of the single side-band modulator (SSBM). The reconstructed density profiles are presented, which demonstrate the capability of the reflectometry.

  1. Silicon diodes as an alternative to diamond detectors for depth dose curves and profile measurements of photon and electron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherf, Christian; Moog, Jussi; Licher, Joerg; Kara, Eugen; Roedel, Claus; Ramm, Ulla [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Peter, Christiane [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Center of Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Inst. for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Advanced Technical Coll. Giessen-Friedberg (Germany); Zink, Klemens [Inst. for Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Advanced Technical Coll. Giessen-Friedberg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Depth dose curves and lateral dose profiles should correspond to relative dose to water in any measured point, what can be more or less satisfied with different detectors. Diamond as detector material has similar dosimetric properties like water. Silicon diodes and ionization chambers are also commonly used to acquire dose profiles. Material and Methods: The authors compared dose profiles measured in an MP3 water phantom with a diamond detector 60003, unshielded and shielded silicon diodes 60008 and 60012 and a 0.125-cm{sup 3} thimble chamber 233642 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for 6- and 25-MV photons. Electron beams of 6, 12 and 18 MeV were investigated with the diamond detector, the unshielded diode and a Markus chamber 23343. Results: The unshielded diode revealed relative dose differences at the water surface below +10% for 6-MV and +4% for 25-MV photons compared to the diamond data. These values decreased to less than 1% within the first millimeters of water depth. The shielded diode was only required to obtain correct data of the fall-off zones for photon beams larger than 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} because of important contributions of low-energy scattered photons. For electron radiation the largest relative dose difference of -2% was observed with the unshielded silicon diode for 6 MeV within the build-up zone. Spatial resolutions were always best with the small voluminous silicon diodes. Conclusion: Relative dose profiles obtained with the two silicon diodes have the same degree of accuracy as with the diamond detector. (orig.)

  2. Nanometer profile measurement of large aspheric optical surface by scanning deflectometry with rotatable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Muzheng; Jujo, Satomi; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi

    2011-09-01

    Large aspheric optical mirrors and lens are wildly used in high-tech industry such as huge telescopes and synchrotron radiation facilities. The measurement uncertainty of the surfaces is needed to be under several tens of nanometers. Current methods such as interferometry method are not available for measuring aspheric surface with departure over hundreds of wavelength. In this paper, we proposed a new method called improved 3D deflectometry method. Rotatable optical devices are applied to enlarge the measuring range of autocollimator with highly accuracy but small measuring range. Data processing methods are also proposed to improve the measurement uncertainty. Experimental setup is designed based on proposed method. Spherical concave mirror with curvature radius of 5000 mm is measured successfully. The repeatability (mean standard deviation) of 10 times measurement is less than 10 nanometers.

  3. An Abel transform for deriving line-of-sight wind profiles from LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syndergaard, S.; Kirchengast, G.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a formula for the retrieval of the line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed from future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite-to-satellite infrared laser occultation measurements. The formula involves an Abelian integral transform akin to the Abel transform widely used for deriving refractive index from bending angle in Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation measurements. Besides the Abelian integral transform, the formula is derived from a truncated series expansion of the volume absorption coefficient as a function of frequency and includes a simple absorption-line-asymmetry correction term. A first-order formulation (referred to as the standard formula) is complemented by higher-order terms that can be used for high-accuracy computations. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and perfect knowledge of spectroscopy, the residual l.o.s. wind error from using the standard formula rather than the high-accuracy formula is assessed to be small compared to that anticipated from measurement errors in a real experiment. Applying the new formula just in standard form to future infrared laser transmission profiles would therefore enable the retrieval of l.o.s. stratospheric wind profiles with an accuracy limited mainly by measurement errors, residual spectroscopic errors, and deviations from spherical symmetry.

  4. Investigation the optical and radiative properties of aerosol vertical profile of boundary layer by lidar and ground based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Chou, C.; Lin, P.; Wang, S.

    2011-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer is the air layer near the ground directly affected by diurnal heat, moisture, aerosol, and cloud transfer to or from the surface. In the daytime solar radiation heats the surface, initiating thermal instability or convection. Whereas, the scattering and absorption of aerosols or clouds might decrease the surface radiation or heat atmosphere which induce feedbacks such as the enhanced stratification and change in relative humidity in the boundary layer. This study is aimed to understand the possible radiative effect of aerosols basing on ground based aerosol measurements and lidar installed in National Taiwan University in Taipei. The optical and radiative properties of aerosols are dominated by aerosol composition, particle size, hygroscopicity property, and shape. In this study, aerosol instruments including integrating nephelometer, open air nephelometer, aethalometer are applied to investigate the relationship between aerosol hygroscopicity properties and aerosol types. The aerosol hygroscopicity properties are further applied to investigate the effect of relative humidity on aerosol vertical profiles measured by a dual-wavelength and depolarization lidar. The possible radiative effect of aerosols are approached by vertical atmospheric extinction profiles measured by lidar. Calculated atmospheric and aerosol heating effects was compared with vertical meteorological parameters measured by radiosonde. The result shows light-absorbing aerosol has the potential to affect the stability of planetary boundary layer.

  5. Estimating Liquid Fluxes in Thermally Perturbed Fractured Rock Using Measured Temperature Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2005-02-14

    A new temperature-profile method was recently developed for analyzing perturbed flow conditions in superheated porous media. The method uses high-resolution temperature data to estimate the magnitude of the heat-driven liquid and gas fluxes that form as a result of boiling, condensation, and recirculation of pore water. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of this new method to the more complex flow behavior in fractured formations with porous rock matrix. In such formations, with their intrinsic heterogeneity, the porous but low-permeable matrix provides most of the mass and heat storage capacity, and dominates conductive heat transfer, Fractures, on the other hand, offer highly effective conduits for gas and liquid flow, thereby generating significant convective heat transfer. After establishing the accuracy of the temperature-profile method for fractured porous formations, we apply the method in analyzing the perturbed flow conditions in a large-scale underground heater test conducted in unsaturated fractured porous tuff. The flux estimates for this test indicate a significant reflux of water near the heat source, on the order of a few hundred millimeter per year-much larger than the ambient percolation flux of only a few millimeter per year.

  6. Measuring and Modeling the Fertility Profile of Indigenous People in Pakistan: A Study of the Arians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Abdul Nasir

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Because of no ethnographical survey, ecological and ethnographical studies are available in an underdeveloped area of demographic research in Pakistan. Keeping this view in mind, this paper evaluates the fertility profile of the Arians, an indigenous community in Pakistan. A random sample of 510 ever-married Arian women aged (15-49 years was selected from three districts in Pakistan where most of the Arian population lived. The analysis demonstrated that a minor proportion of Arians women 9.9% do not want to have another child while already they have no children. With the increase in the number of children and maternal age, the desire to have another child drops rapidly after age of 34 years among Arians women in Pakistan. Among all the women, average number of children considered ideal is lower than the average actual number of children. However, they prefer more sons than daughters and consider that there should be at least one male child in the family, revealing preference for son. Overall findings suggest that the fertility profile of Arians women was higher than their national counterparts. Modeling fertility rates is concerned to model fertility curves. Statistical modeling on the three distributions of fertility rates namely, age specific fertility rates, distribution of forward cumulative age specific fertility rates and distribution of backward cumulative age specific fertility rates was carried out. Finally, the cross-validity prediction power technique has been applied to check the validity of these models

  7. Dealloying evidence on corroded brass by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy mapping and depth profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrato, R.; Casal, A.; Mateo, M. P.; Nicolas, G.

    2017-04-01

    The dealloying phenomenon, also called demetalification, is a; consequence of a corrosion problem found in binary alloys where an enrichment of one of the two main elements of the alloy is produced at the expense of the leaching of the other element. In the present work, the ability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection and characterization of dealloying films formed on metal has been tested. For this purpose, specific areas of brass specimens have been subjected to a chemical attack of the surface in order to produce a selective leaching of zinc or dezincification. For the lateral and in-depth characterization of the dealloyed areas by LIBS, depth profiles, 2D and 3D maps have been generated from the treated samples and from a reference non-treated sample. The differences in the maps and depth profiles between the corroded and non-corroded regions have allowed to reveal the localization and extension of the dealloying process along the brass sample surface and to estimate the thickness of the dezincification layers, demonstrating the capability of LIBS technique for the characterization of dealloying phenomena.

  8. Comparison of Blood Cholesterol Profiles Before and After The Measurements of Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ar Rasyid Shadiqin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to compare the blood cholesterol profile, before and after the measurement of maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max in the students of Jurusan Pendidikan Olahraga dan Kesehatan (JPOK pada Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (FKIP Universitas Lambung Mangkurat Banjarmasin.Variables in this study consist of lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG and Maximum Aerobic Capacity (VO2max. The concept of VO2max according to Kent(1994:268: “maximum oxygen volume consumed per minute to show total work capacity, or volume per minute relative to body weight (ml/kg.min”. Operationally, VO2max referred in this study is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be consumed per minute, as measured at progressive run (Bleep Test.The method used in this study is pre-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design. This design implies that a group of subjects are treated for a specific period and the measurements are taken both pre and post.The results: There are changes in blood cholesterol profile after the measurement of maximum oxygen capacity (VO2max, shown by significant decrease of total cholesterol variable, increased HDL, and decreased LDL. Changes in triglyceride variable showed no significant decrease despite the statistic differences. Specific HDL sub-class increasing after exercise is a constructive lipoprotein sub-class whereas LDL is destructive lipoproteins sub-class that might damage the body. Therefore, an increase in HDL and decrease in LDL found in this study appears to be advantageous and consequently might alter the risk of coronary heart disease.

  9. In-situ NO and NO2 profiles measured onboard passenger aircraft over Frankfurt airport in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Florian; Houben, Norbert; Blomel, Torben; Tappertzhofen, Marlon; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    NOx (sum of NO and NO2) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry related to ozone and oxidation capacity (OH and NO3 radicals). The most important sources of NOx in the upper troposphere are lightning, and transport from the boundary layer (combustion processes, from biomass burning, agriculture, and industry/transport/aircraft emissions). In-situ measurements of NOx from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) down to the surface are rare, but important for understanding the local photochemistry and for the assessment of the impact of aviation on the budgets of greenhouse gases such as ozone. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) operates a global-scale monitoring system for atmospheric temperature, trace gases, aerosols and clouds at high spatial resolution by passenger aircraft. The IAGOS NOx instrument is designed for the autonomous measurement of nitrogen oxides over serval months. The measurement principle is based on the well-established chemiluminescence technique, using one channel with sequential measurements of NO and NOx every 50 s. Here, we present vertical profiles of nitrogen oxides from the UTLS down to the surface for day and night time conditions obtained over 12 months in 2015 and 2016. The analysis focuses mainly on Europe, the region with the largest amount of profiles. Other regions (North America, South America and East Asia) will also be discussed. Typically, NO and NO2 varies in the low ppt range in the UT, slightly increasing towards the pressure altitude of 200 hPa. Down to the surface, the values of NO and of NO2 increase up to several ppb. These profiles combined with in-situ water vapor and cloud parameters will be valuable for validation of model and of satellite data in the future.

  10. Aerosol profile information from high resolution oxygen A-Band measurements from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geddes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols are an important factor of the Earth climatic system and they play a key role for air quality and public health. Observations of the oxygen A-Band at 760 nm can provide information on the vertical distribution of aerosols from passive satellite sensors, that can be of great interest for operational monitoring applications with high coverage if the aerosol information is obtained with sufficient precision, accuracy and vertical resolution. To address this issue, retrieval simulations of the aerosol vertical profile retrieval from O2 A Band observations by GOSAT, the upcoming OCO-2 and Sentinel 5-P mission and the proposed CarbonSat mission have been carried out. Precise retrievals of AOD within the boundary layer were found to favour low resolution, high SNR instruments such as Sentinel-5 P, whereas higher resolution instruments such as OCO-2 showed greater performance at higher altitudes and in information content above the boundary layer. Accurate retrievals of the AOD in the 0–2 km range appears difficult from all studied instruments and the retrieval errors typically exceed a value of 0.05. Constraining the surface albedo is a promising and effective way of improving the retrieval of aerosol, but the required level of a priori knowledge is very high. Due to the limited information content of the aerosol profile retrieval, the use of a parameterised aerosol distribution has been assessed and we show that the AOD and height of an aerosol layer can be retrieved well if the aerosol layer is uplifted to the free troposphere but errors are often large for aerosol layers in the boundary layer. Additional errors will be introduced by incorrect assumptions on surface pressure and aerosol type which can both bias retrieved AOD and height by up to 40%. We conclude the aerosol profile retrievals from O2 A Band using existing or upcoming satellite sensors will only provide limited information on aerosols in the boundary layer but such

  11. Use of the measure your medical outcome profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 (Well-Being outcomes measures to evaluate chiropractic treatment: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Barbara I

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to assess the use of the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP2 and W-BQ12 well-being questionnaire for measuring clinical change associated with a course of chiropractic treatment. Methods Chiropractic care of the patients involved spinal manipulative therapy (SMT, mechanically assisted techniques, soft tissue therapy, and physiological therapeutic devices. Outcome measures used were MYMOP2 and the Well-Being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12. Results Statistical and clinical significant changes were demonstrated with W-BQ12 and MYMOP2. Conclusions The study demonstrated that MYMOP2 was responsive to change and may be a useful instrument for assessing clinical changes among chiropractic patients who present with a variety of symptoms and clinical conditions.

  12. Measuring Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation: The Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nelis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to validate a new instrument aimed to assess emotion regulation: the Emotion Regulation Profile-Revised (ERP-R. Exploratory factor analyses yielded two theoretically meaningful factors: down-regulation of negative emotions and up-regulation of positive emotions. Internal reliability scores of the two factors were good. Findings showed evidence of convergent/discriminant validity, with ERP-R scores being independent of non verbal reasoning and verbal skills while positively related to emotional intelligence and to relevant personality dimensions. There was also preliminary evidence of criterion validity. ERP-R scores also demonstrated incremental validity to predict a number of criteria over and above emotional intelligence and emotional stability. Overall, the results show a clear 2 factors solution for the ERP-R and high correlations with convergent and divergent scales as well as good criterion and incremental validities.

  13. Measuring the total and baryonic mass profiles of the very massive CASSOWARY 31 strong lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Claudio; Christensen, L.; Gallazzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    analysis and plasma modelling. We derive a total mass projected within the Einstein radius R-Ein = 70 kpc of (40 +/- 1) x 10(12) M-circle dot, and a central logarithmic slope of -1.7 +/- 0.2 for the total mass density. Despite a very high stellar mass and velocity dispersion of the central galaxy of (3...... +/- 1) x 10(12) M-circle dot and (450 +/- 80) km s(-1), respectively, the cumulative stellar-to-total mass profile of the deflector implies a remarkably low stellar mass fraction of 20 per cent (3-6 per cent) in projection within the central galaxy effective radius R-e = 25 kpc (R = 100 kpc). We also...

  14. An analysis of type F2 software measurement standards for profile surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, L. D.; Leach, R. K.; Lawes, S. D. A.; Blateyron, F.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of ISO 5436 part 2 type F2 reference software for the calculation of profile surface texture parameters that has been performed on the input, implementation and output results of the reference software developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Surface texture parameters have been calculated for a selection of 17 test data files obtained from the type F1 reference data sets on offer from NPL and NIST. The surface texture parameter calculation results show some disagreements between the software methods of the National Metrology Institutes. These disagreements have been investigated further, and some potential explanations are given.

  15. Measurement of the nTOF beam profile with a micromegas detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pancin, J; Aerts, G; Alvarez, H; Andriamonje, Samuel A; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Assimakopoulos, P A; Bacri, C O; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Beer, H; Benlliure, J; Berthier, B; Berthoumieux, E; Boffi, S; Borcea, C; Boscolo-Marchi, E; Bustreo, N; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carlson, Per J; Cennini, P; Chepel, V Yu; Chiaveri, Enrico; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortina-Gil, D; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dababneh, S; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Delbart, A; Derré, J; Dolfini, R; Domingo, C; Duran-Escribano, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Lourenço, L; Ferreira-Marques, R; Frais-Kölbl, H; Furman, W; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gonçalves, I; González-Romero, E M; Goverdovski, A A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martínez, A; Ioannides, K G; Janeva, N; Jeanneau, F; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F K; Kadi, Y; Karamanis, D; Kelic, A; Ketlerov, V; Kitis, G; Köhler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Lacoste, V; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Markov, S; Marrone, S; Martínez-Val, J M; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P; Minguez, E; Molina-Coballes, A; Moreau, C; Neves, F; Oberhummer, Heinz; O'Brien, S; Papadopoulos, I M; Papavengelou, T; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Pérez-Parra, A; Perlado, J; Perrot, L; Peskov, Vladimir; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Policarpo, Armando; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Radici, M; Raman, S; Rapp, W; Reifarth, R; Rejmund, F; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, Carlo; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Savvidis, E; Stéphan, C; Tagliente, G; Taín, J L; Tapia, C; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Terrani, M; Tsangas, N; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarín-Fernández, D; Vincente-Vincente, M; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K; Zanini, L

    2004-01-01

    A Micromegas detector was used in the neutron Time-Of-Flight (n_TOF) facility at CERN to evaluate the spatial distribution of the neutron beam as a function of its kinetic energy. This was achieved over a large range of neutron energies by using two complementary processes: at low energy by capture of a neutron via the **6Li(n, alpha)t reaction, and at high energy by elastic scattering of neutrons on gas nuclei (argon+isobutane or helium+isobutane). Data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and an analytic function fitting the beam profile has been calculated with a sufficient precision to use in neutron capture experiments at the n_TOF facility.

  16. Language and pragmatic profile in children with ADHD measured by Children's Communication Checklist 2nd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, Raija; Loukusa, Soile; Moilanen, Irma; Yliherva, Anneli

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have language and/or pragmatic difficulties compared to typically developing children. Nineteen children with ADHD (age 5-12 years) and nineteen typically developing children (age 5-8 years) were evaluated using the Finnish version of Children's Communication Checklist 2nd edition (CCC-2). The CCC-2 questionnaire was filled in by their parents. According to the CCC-2 questionnaire, differences between the groups were found in linguistic abilities, pragmatics skills, and social interaction. According to the CCC-2 profiles, many children with ADHD may have various kinds of communication difficulties, even if they do not have a diagnosed language disorder.

  17. Clutter and rainfall discrimination by means of doppler-polarimetric measurements and vertical reflectivity profile analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Silvestro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of rainfall rate and other parameters from radar scattering volume is heavily affected by the presence of intense sea and ground clutter and echoes which appears in anomalous propagation condition. To deal with these non meteorological echoes we present a new clutter removal algorithm which combines the results of previous works. The algorithm fully exploits both the Doppler and polarimetric capabilities of the radar used and the analysis of vertical reflectivity profile in order to achieve the better identification of the meteorological and non-meteorological targets. The algorithm has been applied to the C-band radar of Monte Settepani (Savona, Italy, which runs in a high-topography environment. Preliminary results are presented.

  18. One year of vertical wind profiles measurements at a Mediterranean coastal site of South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Federico, Stefano; Gullì, Daniel; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop wind farms projects is challenging to site them on coastal areas both onshore and offshore as suitable sites. Developing projects need high quality databases under a wide range of atmospheric conditions or high resolution models that could resolve the effect of the coastal discontinuity in the surface properties. New parametrizations are important and high quality databases are also needed for formulating them. Ground-based remote sensing devices such as lidars have been shown to be functional for studying the evolution of the vertical wind structure coastal atmospheric boundary layer both on- and offshore. Here, we present results from a year of vertical wind profiles, wind speed and direction, monitoring programme at a site located in the Italian Calabria Region, Central Mediterranean, 600m from the Thyrrenian coastline, where a Lidar Doppler, ZephIr (ZephIr ltd) has been operative since July 2013. The lidar monitors wind speed and direction from 10m up to 300m at 10 vertical levels with an average of 10 minutes and it is supported by a metmast providing: Atmospheric Pressure, Solar Radiation, Precipitation, Relative Humidity, Temperature,Wind Speed and Direction at 10m. We present the characterization of wind profiles during one year period according to the time of the day to transition periods night/day/night classified relating the local scale, breeze scale, to the large scale conditions. The dataset is also functional for techniques for short-term prediction of wind for the renewable energy integration in the distribution grids. The site infrastructure is funded within the Project "Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring" (I-AMICA) (PONa3_00363) by the Italian National Operative Program (PON 2007-2013) and European Regional Development Fund. Real-time data are show on http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?page_id=1122.

  19. The application of thermal conductivity measurements to the Kuqa River profile, China, and implications for petrochemical generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiarui; Gao, Zhiyong; Zhu, Rukai; Luo, Zhong; Zhang, Linyan

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of thermal conductivity of rocks is important to understand the thermal properties of earth materials, the characteristics of terrestrial heat flow, and the formation of oil. In this paper we report thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and heat capacity data for 12 conglomerate, sandstone, and gypsum-bearing samples from the Paleogene Kuqa River profile in Kuqa, China. Samples were measured via the hot disk technique, yielding thermal conductivity values of 0.436 to 0.998 W/mK, thermal diffusivity measurements of 0.395 to 1.314 mm(2)/s, and heat capacity values of 0.439 to 1.717 MJ/m(3)K. These analyses reveal that gypsum-bearing rocks, with their low thermal conductivity, can act as excellent insulators over oil and gas reservoirs, aiding the formation and thermal maturation of petroleum.

  20. An evaluation method of the profile of plasma-induced defects based on capacitance-voltage measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukimasa; Ono, Kouichi; Eriguchi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    Aggressive shrinkage and geometrical transition to three-dimensional structures in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) lead to potentially serious problems regarding plasma processing such as plasma-induced physical damage (PPD). For the precise control of material processing and future device designs, it is extremely important to clarify the depth and energy profiles of PPD. Conventional methods to estimate the PPD profile (e.g., wet etching) are time-consuming. In this study, we propose an advanced method using a simple capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. The method first assumes the depth and energy profiles of defects in Si substrates, and then optimizes the C-V curves. We applied this methodology to evaluate the defect generation in (100), (111), and (110) Si substrates. No orientation dependence was found regarding the surface-oxide layers, whereas a large number of defects was assigned in the case of (110). The damaged layer thickness and areal density were estimated. This method provides the highly sensitive PPD prediction indispensable for designing future low-damage plasma processes.

  1. Experimental verification of bioheat transfer theories: measurement of temperature profiles around large artificial vessels in perfused tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crezee, J; Lagendijk, J J

    1990-07-01

    The verification of thermal models for use in hyperthermia treatment planning is essential. We investigated the heat transfer between a single vessel and the surrounding vascularised tissue, comparing the conventional bioheat transfer theory and the recently developed keff model using analytical and numerical methods. A plastic tube inserted into the tissue of an isolated perfused organ served as an artificial vessel. This enabled us to vary the blood flow in the vessel and in the tissue independently. The organ used was a bovine kidney, turned into a perfused tissue phantom using an alcohol fixation technique. The temperature profile within the tissue was mapped with constantan-manganin thermocouple wire sensors with a total diameter of 50 microns. The temperature profile relative to the temperature difference between the vessel and organ was measured; increased perfusion caused a reduction of the vessel wall temperature but did not affect the width of the profile. Studying the transient tissue temperature after a step-wise change of the blood temperature in the vessel revealed a faster diffusion of heat at higher perfusion rates. These facts are in accordance with the keff model, but not with the conventional heat-sink theory.

  2. In situ measurement of PCB pore water concentration profiles in activated carbon-amended sediment using passive samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oen, Amy M P; Janssen, Elisabeth M L; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Eek, Espen; Luthy, Richard G

    2011-05-01

    Vertical pore water profiles of in situ PCBs were determined in a contaminated mudflat in San Francisco Bay, CA, 30 months after treatment using an activated carbon amendment in the upper layer of the sediment. Pore water concentrations were derived from concentrations of PCBs measured in two passive samplers; polyethylene (PE, 51 μm thick) and polyoxymethylene (POM, 17 μm thick) at different sediment depths. To calculate pore water concentrations from PCB contents in the passive samplers, an equilibrium approach and a first-order uptake model were applied, using five performance reference compounds to estimate pore water sampling rates. Vertical pore water profiles showed good agreement among the measurement and calculation methods with variations within a factor of 2, which seems reasonable for in situ measurements. The close agreements of pore water estimates for the two sampler materials (PE and POM) and the two methods used to translate uptake in samplers to pore water concentrations demonstrate the robustness and suitability of the passive sampling approach. The application of passive samplers in the sediment presents a promising method for site monitoring and remedial treatment evaluation of sorbent amendment or capping techniques that result in changes of pore water concentrations in the sediment subsurface.

  3. Calculation and Measurement of Coil Inductance Profile in Tubular Linear Reluctance Motor and its Validation by Three Dimensional FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallanejad, Ali; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports a study of coil inductance profile in all positions of plunger in tubular linear reluctance motors (TLRMs) with open type magnetic circuits. In this paper, maximum inductance calculation methods in winding of tubular linear reluctance motors are described based on energy method. Furthermore, in order to calculate the maximum inductance, equivalent permeability is measured. Electromagnetic finite-element analysis for simulation and calculation of coil inductance in this motor is used. Simulation results of coil inductance calculation using 3-D FEM with coil current excitation is compared to theoretical and experimental results. The comparison yields a good agreement.

  4. The western South China Sea currents from measurements by Argo profiling floats during October to December 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 袁东亮; 李瑞祥; 何蕾

    2010-01-01

    The three dimensional structure of the western boundary current east of the Vietnam coast was determined from measurements by Argo profiling floats which deployed near the east of the Vietnam Coast in October 2007. The trajectories of the Argo floats provided robust evidence that there does exist southward flowing current along the Vietnam coast. The southward current begins at about 15°N, 111°E, flowing along the 1 000 m isobath and extending to 5°N south. The estimated surface and parking depth velocities...

  5. Measurement of the magnetic field profile in the atomic fountain clock FoCS-2 using Zeeman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Devenoges; André, Stefanov; Antoine, Jallageas; Jacques, Morel; Thomas, Südmeyer; Pierre, Thomann

    2016-01-01

    We report the evaluation of the second order Zeeman shift in the continuous atomic fountain clock FoCS-2. Because of the continuous operation and its geometrical constraints, the methods used in pulsed fountain are not applicable. We use here time-resolved Zeeman spectroscopy to probe the magnetic field profile in the clock. The pulses of ac magnetic excitation allow us to measure the Zeeman frequency with spatial resolution and to evaluate the Zeeman shift with an uncertainty smaller than 10E-16 in relative units.

  6. Sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometer with a superluminescent diode for step-profile measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, O; Murata, N; Suzuki, T

    2000-09-01

    In sinusoidal phase-modulating interferometry an optical path length (OPD) larger than a wavelength is measured by detection of sinusoidal phase-modulation amplitude Z(b) of the interference signal that is produced by sinusoidal scanning of the wavelength of a light source. A light source with a large scanning width of wavelength is created by use of a superluminescent laser diode for the error in the measured value obtained by Z(b) to be smaller than half of the central wavelength. In this situation the measured value can be combined with a fractional value of the OPD obtained from the conventional phase of the interference signal. A sinusoidal wavelength-scanning interferometer with the light source measures an OPD over a few tens of micrometers with a high accuracy of a few nanometers.

  7. Suspended sediment profiles derived from spectral attenuation coefficients measurements using neural network method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, G.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Kamath, S.S.

    total suspended matter values from water samples obtained at discrete depths at the same location. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been used to derive suspended matter from the spectral values of beam attenuation coefficients measured using...

  8. Shipboard Measurements of Surface Flux and Near Surface Profiles and Surface Flux Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    suspected that the bow measurements are affected by wave breaking that is similar to the problem in the Licor system. We also note that temperature...vapor mixing ratio measurements with the same Licor systems on the two masts (not shown here) had significant differences and frequent problems, which...is probable due to the sensitivity of Licor sensor to the spays from the breaking waves, especially the system on the bow mast. More careful

  9. Time domain reflectrometry measurements using a movable obstacle for the determination of dielectric profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Will

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Microwave techniques for the measurement of the permittivity of soils including the water content of soils and other materials, especially TDR (time domain reflectometry, have become accepted as routine measurement techniques. This summary deals with an advanced use of the TDR principle for the determination of the water content of soil along a probe. The basis of the advanced TDR technique is a waveguide, which is inserted into the soil for obtaining measurements of the effective soil permittivity, from which the water content is estimated, and an obstacle, which can mechanically be moved along the probe and which acts as a reference reflection for the TDR system with an exactly known position. Based on the known mechanical position of the reference reflection, the measured electrical position can be used as a measure for the effective dielectric constant of the environment. Thus, it is possible to determine the effective dielectric constant with a spatial resolution given by the step size of the obstacle displacement.

    A conventional industrial TDR-system, operating in the baseband, is used for the signal generation and for the evaluation of the pulse delay time of the obstacle reflection. Thus, a cost effective method for the acquisition of the dielectric measurement data is available.

  10. The results of complex optical measurements of vertical temperature profile of the atmos-phere in the winter in Yakutsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolashkin, Semyen; Ignatyev, V. M.; Ammosov, Petr; Koltovskoy, Igor; Titov, Semen; Reshetnikov, Alexander

    The results of simultaneous measurements of atmospheric temperature from 0 to 100 km by lidar, spectrometric and interferometric methods in winter 2008 in Yakutsk are presented. Temperature measurements for the surface layer from 0 to 20-25 km were obtained from radio-sonde data on upper-air station in Yakutsk. Measuring the temperature of the middle atmosphere from 25 to 55-60 km made using Rayleigh Lidar near Yakutsk, with the following parameters: a transmitter Nd-YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse energy of 200 mJ receiver - a telescope with a primary mirror diameter of 60 cm and a focal length of 200 cm, with a photon counting system and a spectrum analyzer. The temperature of the upper atmosphere was meas-ured at three altitude levels: by hydroxyl emission layer at the mesopause (6,2 band) , molecular oxygen radiation using an infrared spectrograph with a CCD camera and atomic oxygen emission line 557.7 nm with Fabry-Perot spectrometer (FPS) at the Maimaga optic range. FPS aperture was 15 cm, gap 1.5 cm, plate’s reflectance 0.85 and finess12. Thus, in this work, we covered by the temperature measuring most of the atmosphere ex-cept for a layer of the mesosphere from 60 to 87 km. For comparison, also are used CIRA model and the AURA MLS instrument (MicroLimb Sounder) temperature profiles data. Data analysis showed that there is a wave-like change in the vertical temperature profile, which is the result of vertical transmission features planetary waves during a stratospheric warming. This work is supported by the Integration project of the SB RAS No. 106 and RFBR grant No. 12-05-98547-r-vostok-a.

  11. Measuring one-dimensional and two-dimensional impurity density profiles on TEXTOR using combined charge exchange-beam emission spectroscopy and ultrasoft x-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Hellermann, M. von; Jaspers, R.; Donné, A. J. H.; Shmaenok, L.

    2004-10-01

    Two techniques are presented that allow us to measure impurity density profiles in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma. The one-dimensional profiles are gathered by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) in combination with beam emission spectroscopy (BES). Combining CXRS and BES eliminate the need for absolute calibration. For two-dimensional profiles an ultrasoft x-ray tomography system has been developed. The system is spectrally resolved and produces local emissivity profiles of several ionization stages of impurities. Both systems are presently being commissioned. They are complementary and give an insight into the impurity distribution and transport in plasmas.

  12. Temperature, velocity and species profile measurements for reburning in a pulverized, entrained flow, coal combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tree, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen oxide emissions from pulverized coal combustion have been and will continue to be a regulated pollutant for electric utility boilers burning pulverized coal. Full scale combustion models can help in the design of new boilers and boiler retrofits which meet emissions standards, but these models require validation before they can be used with confidence. The objective of this work was to obtain detailed combustion measurements of pulverized coal flames which implement two NO reduction strategies, namely reburning and advanced reburning, to provide data for model validation. The data were also compared to an existing comprehensive pulverized coal combustion model with a reduced mechanism for NO reduction under reburning and advanced reburning conditions. The data were obtained in a 0.2 MW, cylindrical, down-fired, variable swirl, pulverized coal reactor. The reactor had a diameter of 0.76 m and a length of 2.4 m with access ports along the axial length. A Wyodak, sub-bituminous coal was used in all of the measurements. The burner had a centrally located primary fuel and air tube surrounded by heated and variably swirled secondary air. Species of NO, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were measured continuously. Aqueous sampling was used to measure HCN and NH{sub 3} at specific reactor locations. Samples were drawn from the reactor using water quenched suction probes. Velocity measurements were obtained using two component laser doppler anemometry in back-scatter mode. Temperature measurements were obtained using a shielded suction pyrometer. A series of six or more radial measurements at six or more axial locations within the reactor provided a map of species, temperature, and velocity measurements. In total, seven reactor maps were obtained. Three maps were obtained at baseline conditions of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 swirl and 10% excess air. Two maps were obtained under reburning conditions of 0.78 stoichiometric ratio and 1.5 swirl and 0.9 stoichiometric ratio and

  13. Inverse Estimation of Temperature Profiles in Landfills Using Heat Recovery Fluids Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Solisio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to leachate and gas emission analysis, temperature variations in municipal solid waste landfills are routinely monitored for safety and health reasons, such as the increased production of biogas or the danger of spontaneous combustion phenomena if the temperature exceeds 70–75°C. The increasing constraints on greenhouse gas emissions and the convenience of fuel and heat recovery have helped develop a global approach to landfills' operation and maintenance, generally referred to as bioreactor landfill management. The heat recovery piping we are presently designing can be a significant part of this approach. The heat gained by a fluid circulated in a closed network through the landfill is transferred to an external heat exchanger or used directly as warm water. Additionally, it can help reduce landfill temperature levels and control biogas generation. Since the pipes diameter is large enough to allow for a radial temperature gradient, this information can be used for an inverse estimation of the temperature profile in the landfill which constitutes the boundary conditions of the resulting heat transfer problem. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for regularising the resulting ill-posed free boundary estimation problem using sampled data of the heat recovery fluid on exiting the landfill.

  14. Time-resolved wave-profile measurements at impact velocities of 10 km/s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    Development of well-controlled hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step to understand material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not available using conventional gun technology. In this paper, techniques used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light-gas gun to 10 km/s and their use to determine material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock loading and release characteristics of materials impacted by titanium and aluminum fliers launched by the only developed three-stage light-gas gun at 10 km/s. In particular, the Sandia three stage light gas gun, also referred to as the hypervelocity launcher, HVL, which is capable of launching 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm thick by 6 mm to 19 mm diameter plates to velocities approaching 16 km/s has been used to obtain the necessary impact velocities. The VISAR, interferometric particle-velocity techniques has been used to determine shock loading and release profiles in aluminum and titanium at impact velocities of 10 km/s.

  15. Serial measurement of lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Harsh Vardhan; Raizada, Arun; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentration of lipids and lipoproteins changes during the course of acute coronary syndrome as a consequence of the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on the levels of lipid profile and inflammatory markers. We investigated 400 patients with AMI who were admitted within 24 h of onset of symptoms. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined by standard enzymatic methods along with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay) and cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (quantitative ''sandwich'' enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The results indicate a trend of reduced TC, LDL, and HDL, and elevated TG levels, along with pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (p < 0.001), between day 1 and the day 2 serum samples of AMI patients. However, corrections in the serum levels have been observed at day 7. Our results demonstrate significant variations in the mean lipid levels and inflammatory markers between days 1, 2 and 7 after AMI. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum lipids should be assessed within 24 hours after infarction. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. Exact knowledge regarding baseline serum lipids and lipoprotein levels as well as their varying characteristics can provide a rational basis for clinical decisions about lipid lowering therapy. PMID:26535040

  16. Use of speed profile as surrogate measure: Effect of traffic calming devices on crosstown road safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Tsui; García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Urban road safety management is usually characterized by the lack of sufficient, good quality crash data and low budgets to obtain it even though many traffic accidents occur there. For example, 54 percent of road crashes in Spain take place in urban areas, and 10 percent of urban fatal crashes occur on crosstown roads, which are rural roads that traverse small communities. Traffic calming measures (TCMs) are often implemented on these parts of rural roads that traverse small communities in order to reduce both the frequency and severity of crashes by lowering speeds, but evaluation of their effectiveness has been limited. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology using continuous speed profiles to evaluate the safety effectiveness of TCMs on crosstown roads as part of an integrated system in the absence of historical data. Given the strong relationship between speed and crash experience, safety performance can be related to speed. Consequently, speed can be used indirectly as a surrogate safety measure in the absence of crash and speed data. Two indexes were defined in this study as surrogate safety measures based on the continuous speed profile: Ra and Ea. Ra represents the absolute accumulated speed variations relative to the average speed and is inversely related to accumulated speed uniformity; and Ea represents the accumulated speed variations above the speed limit and is directly related to accumulated speeding. Naturalistic data were collected using GPS trackers for 12 scenarios with different TCM spacings. Then, the indexes were applied to individual observed speed profiles (individual analysis) as well as the operating speed profile (global analysis). The values obtained from individual and global analysis were statistically different. Spacing lower than 110m, which was found optimal from previous research, did not allow drivers to modify their speeds as the accumulated speed uniformity was quite similar regardless of the average operating

  17. A modified beam-to-earth transformation to measure short-wavelength internal waves with an acoustic Doppler current profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, A.; Butman, B.; Beardsley, R.C.; Alexander, P.S.; Anderson, S.

    2005-01-01

    The algorithm used to transform velocity signals from beam coordinates to earth coordinates in an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) relies on the assumption that the currents are uniform over the horizontal distance separating the beams. This condition may be violated by (nonlinear) internal waves, which can have wavelengths as small as 100-200 m. In this case, the standard algorithm combines velocities measured at different phases of a wave and produces horizontal velocities that increasingly differ from true velocities with distance from the ADCP. Observations made in Massachusetts Bay show that currents measured with a bottom-mounted upward-looking ADCP during periods when short-wavelength internal waves are present differ significantly from currents measured by point current meters, except very close to the instrument. These periods are flagged with high error velocities by the standard ADCP algorithm. In this paper measurements from the four spatially diverging beams and the backscatter intensity signal are used to calculate the propagation direction and celerity of the internal waves. Once this information is known, a modified beam-to-earth transformation that combines appropriately lagged beam measurements can be used to obtain current estimates in earth coordinates that compare well with pointwise measurements. ?? 2005 American Meteorological Society.

  18. Measurements of femtosecond pulse temporal profile by means of a Michelson interferometer with a Schottky junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yan; Lu, Fang

    2006-12-20

    We introduce a new method for femtosecond pulse shape measurement. The interference of two pulses is employed rather than the second-harmonic generation (SHG). Usually, the measurements of the femtosecond pulse is realized by an interferometer in combination with a nonlinear optical material, while the measurement that we describe is realized by means of a Michelson interferometer with a Schottky junction. Only a metal-semiconductor junction (Schottky junction) is needed, and neither the nonlinear optical material nor a photodetector is included. The two-photon absorption arises when the light is strong enough, while there is only a one-photon absorption when the light is weak. And the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results. In principle, the new technique could be used for the measuring of pulses with any duration and with very low power. Unlike the SHG scheme, in the new method the quality of optics, mechanics, and other elements of the scheme are not essential, and the measurement is easily realized, but the results are quite precise and very sensitive to the light.

  19. Measurement and inference of profile soil-water dynamics at different hillslope positions in a semiarid agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy R.; Erskine, Robert H.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamics of profile soil water vary with terrain, soil, and plant characteristics. The objectives addressed here are to quantify dynamic soil water content over a range of slope positions, infer soil profile water fluxes, and identify locations most likely influenced by multidimensional flow. The instrumented 56 ha watershed lies mostly within a dryland (rainfed) wheat field in semiarid eastern Colorado. Dielectric capacitance sensors were used to infer hourly soil water content for approximately 8 years (minus missing data) at 18 hillslope positions and four or more depths. Based on previous research and a new algorithm, sensor measurements (resonant frequency) were rescaled to estimate soil permittivity, then corrected for temperature effects on bulk electrical conductivity before inferring soil water content. Using a mass-conservation method, we analyzed multitemporal changes in soil water content at each sensor to infer the dynamics of water flux at different depths and landscape positions. At summit positions vertical processes appear to control profile soil water dynamics. At downslope positions infrequent overland flow and unsaturated subsurface lateral flow appear to influence soil water dynamics. Crop water use accounts for much of the variability in soil water between transects that are either cropped or fallow in alternating years, while soil hydraulic properties and near-surface hydrology affect soil water variability across landscape positions within each management zone. The observed spatiotemporal patterns exhibit the joint effects of short-term hydrology and long-term soil development. Quantitative methods of analyzing soil water patterns in space and time improve our understanding of dominant soil hydrological processes and provide alternative measures of model performance.

  20. Resampling soil profiles can constrain large-scale changes in the C cycle: obtaining robust information from radiocarbon measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Prior, C.; Lambie, S.; Tate, K.; Bruhn, F.; Parfitt, R.; Schipper, L.; Wilde, R. H.; Ross, C.

    2006-12-01

    , 1 kg C m-2 or more may be reactive on decadal timescales, supporting evidence of soil C losses from throughout the soil profiles. Information from resampled soil profiles can be combined with additional contemporary measurements to test hypotheses about mechanisms for soil C changes. For example, Δ14C in excess of 200‰ in water extractable dissolved organic C (DOC) from surface soil horizons supports the hypothesis that decadal movement of DOC represents an important translocation of soil C. These preliminary results demonstrate that resampling whole soil profiles can support substantial progress in C cycle science, ranging from updating operational C accounting systems to the frontiers of research. Resampling can be complementary or superior to fixed-depth interval sampling of surface soil layers. Resampling must however be undertaken with relative urgency to maximize the potential interpretive power of bomb-derived radiocarbon.

  1. Measuring the Ultimate Mass of Galaxy Clusters: Redshifts and Mass Profiles from the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS)

    CERN Document Server

    Rines, Kenneth; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Kurtz, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a $\\Lambda$CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these haloes. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1$<$$z$$<$0.3. The survey includes 21,314 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,275 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for $\\sim 200$ cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. The velocity dispersions decline with radius; we demonstrate that the determination of the velocity dispersion is inse...

  2. Penta- and hexa-coordinate ferric hemoglobins display distinct pH titration profiles measured by Soret peak shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Sheetal; Kumar, Amit; Shandilya, Manish; Mukhi, Nitika; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kateriya, Suneel; Kaur, Jagreet; Kundu, Suman

    2016-10-01

    Hemoglobins with diverse characteristics have been identified in all kingdoms of life. Their ubiquitous presence indicates that these proteins play important roles in physiology, though function for all hemoglobins are not yet established with certainty. Their physiological role may depend on their ability to bind ligands, which in turn is dictated by their heme chemistry. However, we have an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of ligand binding for these newly discovered hemoglobins and the measurement of their kinetic parameters depend on their coordination at the heme iron. To gain insights into their functional role, it is important to categorize the new hemoglobins into either penta- or hexa-coordinated varieties. We demonstrate that simple pH titration and absorbance measurements can determine the coordination state of heme iron atom in ferric hemoglobins, thus providing unambiguous information about the classification of new globins. This method is rapid, sensitive and requires low concentration of protein. Penta- and hexa-coordinate hemoglobins displayed distinct pH titration profiles as observed in a variety of hemoglobins. The pentacoordinate distal histidine mutant proteins of hexacoordinate hemoglobins and ligand-bound hexacoordinate forms of pentacoordinate hemoglobins reverse the pH titration profiles, thus validating the sensitivity of this spectroscopic technique.

  3. Beam Profile Measurement of 300 kV Ion Source Test Stand for 1 MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk University, Gyeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, RF ion source, test stand of the ion source and its test results are presented. Beam profile was measured at the downstream from the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using BPM and wire scanner. The RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the total beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. The KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300 kV ion source test stand for a 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. An ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high pressure vessel. The ion source in a high pressure vessel requires high reliability. To confirm the stable operation of the ion source, a test stand was proposed and developed. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify its long-term operation conditions. The test stand consists of a 300 kV high voltage terminal, a battery for the ion source power, a 60 Hz inverter, a 200 MHz RF power, a 5 kV extraction power supply, a 300 kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The beam profile monitor was installed at the downstream from the accelerating tube. Wire scanner and faraday-cup was installed at the end of the chamber.

  4. [Skin cancer: use of preventive measures and demographic profile of a risk group in the city of Botucatu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popim, Regina Célia; Corrente, José Eduardo; Marino, Jaqueline Aparecida Geromel; de Souza, Carolina Arantes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the demographic profile of an at-risk group for skin cancer and to assess the preventive measures taken by the studied individuals and by the employer. The methods chosen was a quantitative study with a sample of 33 mail carriers from the Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos in Botucatu, Brazil. Information regarding the demographic profile, how long the individual had been working for the company, hours of sun exposure, history of sunburns, family cancer history and skin cancer prevention strategies used by the company was collected by means of a questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Fisher's Exact Test at a 5% probability. The predominant age groups were 26-30 and 31-35 years corresponding to 42,42%. The predominant skin color was white (93,94%) and 81,82% of the studied individuals were working in the company for over five years. 63,63% of the interviewees use sunscreen habitually; those who do not explain this with a lack of habit (in 75% of the cases). As refers to supply of protective equipment by the company, 100% of the subjects answered positively. These findings allow characterizing the studied population as a skin cancer risk group. Prophylactic measures in form of educational actions for awareness building should be adopted and stimulated.

  5. A comparison between Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement and texture profile analysis of meat and meat products: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, S.; Tomašević, I.

    2017-09-01

    Texture is one of the most important characteristics of meat and we can explain it as the human physiological–psychological awareness of a number of rheological and other properties of foods and their relations. In this paper, we discuss instrumental measurement of texture by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and texture profile analysis (TPA). The conditions for using the device are detailed in WBSF measurements, and the influence of different parameters on the execution of the method and final results are shown. After that, the main disadvantages are reflected in the non-standardized method. Also, we introduce basic texture parameters which connect and separate TPA and WBSF methods and mention contemporary methods with their main advantage.

  6. Radial profile measurements of plasma pressure-like fluctuations with the heavy ion beam diagnostic on the tokamak ISTTOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, R. B., E-mail: rhenriques@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Malaquias, A.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Silva, C.; Coelho, R.; Figueiredo, H.; Fernandes, H. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-11-15

    The Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic (HIBD) on the tokamak ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Técnico TOKamak) has been modified, in terms of signal conditioning, to measure the local fluctuations of the n{sub e}σ{sub 1,2}(T{sub e}) product (plasma density times the effective ionization cross-section) along the tokamak minor diameter, in 12 sample volumes in the range of −0.7a < r < 0.7a, with a maximum delay time of 1 μs. The corresponding signals show high correlation with the magnetic Mirnov coils in the characteristic MHD frequency range of ISTTOK plasmas and enable the identification of tearing modes. This paper describes the HIBD signal conditioning system and presents a preliminary analysis of the radial profile measurements of local n{sub e}σ{sub 1,2}(T{sub e}) fluctuations.

  7. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1900 - 1940 (NODC Accession 0002118)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other measurements were collected using bottle casts from the SOTRA in the Barents Sea and other locations from 16 May 1900 to 20 October...

  8. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1970 - 1975 (NODC Accession 0002125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1970 - 1975...

  9. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1976 - 1982 (NODC Accession 0002126)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected using bottle in the Barents, Kara, Laptev, White, Norwegian Seas from 1976 - 1982...

  10. Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements from CTD, XBT, and bottle samplers received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center (NODC Accession 0054093)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profiles of temperature, salinity, and other measurements received from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center, Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department as a...

  11. Oceanographic profiles of temperature, salinity, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle in the Atlantic Ocean from the VNIRO institute from 2005-2006 (NCEI Accession 0045650)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profiles of temperature, salinity, and dissolved inorganic nutrients measurements collected using bottle in the Atlantic Ocean from the VNIRO institute...

  12. Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using CTD from R/V Hecla in the North Atlantic during 1996 (NODC Accession 0046839)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature and salinity measurements collected using CTD from R/V Hecla in the North Atlantic during 1996. Data submitted by Garry Dawson...

  13. Temperature profiles and current measurements from the Nathaniel B. Palmer during the 1997 Dovetail cruise in the Southern Ocean (NODC Accession 9900243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data collection includes temperature profiles from CTD casts and current measurements from hull-mounted ADCP system aboard the research vessel Nathaniel B....

  14. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990 (NODC Accession 0002717)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen measurements collected using bottle from multiple platforms in the Azov, Black Seas from 1924-1990

  15. Topside-plasmasphere electron density profiles model by using AIS ionosonde measurements and calibrates GPS TEC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaroni, Claudio; Scotto, Carlo; Ippolito, Alessandro; Ciraolo, Luigi

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Physics group at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) developed Autoscala, a computer program for automatic scaling of the critical frequency foF2 and other ionospheric parameters derived from ionograms. Autoscala includes a routine that automatically estimates the electron density profile below F layer peak height hmF2, by adjusting the parameters of a model according to the recorded ionogram [Scotto (2009)]. By integrating this profile we can estimate bottom-side total electron content (bTEC). By means of a calibration technique [Ciraolo et al. (2007)], we are able to obtain calibrated vertical TEC (vTEC) values from GPS measurements over a receiver station. This method permits to estimate biases of the received signal due to transmitter-receiver hardware configuration. These biases must be eliminated from the GPS data in order to calibrate the experimental slant total electron content (sTEC) along the satellite-receiver line-of-sight (LoS). The difference between vTEC and bottom-side TEC (bTEC) permits to evaluate electron content of the topside ionospheric region (tTEC). Starting from tTEC, bottom-side parameters (foF2, hmF2, scale height at hmF2) obtained by ionosonde and O+ - H+ transition level, we can solve a system of equations based on different ionospheric profiler (Chapman, sech-squared and exponential) the solution of which provides ion scale height [Stankov et al. (2003)]. This last factor is sufficient to establish the vertical distribution of electrons in topside and plasmasphere regions. Obtained vertical profiles could be used to develop a new model for real time estimation of TEC and topside electron density distribution. References: Scotto, C. (2009). Electron density profile calculation technique for Autoscala ionogram analysis. Advances in Space Research, 44(6), 756-766. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2009.04.037 Ciraolo, L., et al. "Calibration errors on experimental slant total electron content (TEC) determined with

  16. Design of a Michelson Interferometer for Quantitative Refraction Index Profile Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, J.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    This book describes the theoretical design of a three camera Michelson interferometer set-up for quantitative refractive index measuerments. Although a two camera system is easier to align and less expensive, a three camera interferometer is preferred because the expected measuring accuracy is much

  17. Objective Sleep Measurement in Typically and Atypically Developing Preschool Children with ADHD-Like Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Waters, Sara; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between preschool children's sleep patterns measured by actigraphy and parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms. Many previous studies have reported sleep problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms. Methods: This study examined a cross-sectional sample of…

  18. Measurement of Gas Hold-up Profiles in Stirred Tank Reactors by Gamma Ray Attenuation Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parasu Veera, U.; Patwardhan, A.W.; Joshi, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gas hold-up is one of the most important hydrodynamic characteristics that is needed for performance estimation, design and scale-up of reactors. The performance of large-scale reactors can be reliably evaluated by measuring the gas hold-up in such reactors. In the present work, local gas hold-up in

  19. Sub-bottom profiling with ambient noise measured on a drifting vertical array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, C.H.; Schippers, P.; Snellen, M.; Weterings, A.

    2005-01-01

    The angle and frequency dependent reflective properties of the seabed can be determined from beam-steered ambient noise measurements on a vertical array of hydrophones. From the up-to-down ratio the beam-smeared modulus square of the plane wave reflection coefficient is obtained. Geo-acoustic parame

  20. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NEAR-BOTTOM DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND SEDIMENT PROFILE CAMERA MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and other environmental authorities regulate concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) as a measure of nutrient-related eutrophication in estuarine and coastal waters. However, in situ DO concentrations are extremely var...

  1. Wind profile modelling using WAsP and "tall" wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2015-01-01

    A and B in the geostrophic drag law was taken into account by specifying a mean offset between the thermal and surface geostrophic wind vector and a mean magnitude of the thermal wind vector. Wind lidar and mast measurements from 11 different sites (that were not used in determining the empirical...

  2. TransCom model simulations of methane: Comparison of vertical profiles with aircraft measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saito, R.; Patra, P.K.; Sweeney, C.; Machida, T.; Krol, M.C.; Houweling, S.; Bousquet, P.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; Belikov, D.; Bergmann, D.; Bian, H.S.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Chipperfield, M.P.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Fraser, A.; Gatti, L.V.; Gloor, E.; Hess, P.; Kawa, S.R.; Law, R.M.; Locatelli, R.; Loh, Z.; Maksyutov, S.; Meng, L.; Miller, J.B.; Palmer, P.I.; Prinn, R.G.; Rigby, M.; Wilson, C.

    2013-01-01

    To assess horizontal and vertical transports of methane (CH4) concentrations at different heights within the troposphere, we analyzed simulations by 12 chemistry transport models (CTMs) that participated in the TransCom-CH4 intercomparison experiment. Model results are compared with aircraft measure

  3. Using speed of sound measurements to constrain the Huygens probe descent profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Zarnecki, John; Hathi, Brijen

    2004-02-01

    The Acoustic Properties Investigation (API) is a set of sensors for acoustic measurements in gases or liquids, making a part of the Surface Science Package (SSP) on the Huygens probe. It consists of two units, API-V (Velocity of sound) and API-S (Sounding). The API-V has two ultrasonic transducers sending and receiving acoustic pulses over an unobstructed path of 15 cm. An accurate timing circuit is measuring the time it takes to propagate over the distance. Measurements are made in both directions to eliminate the effect of a constant drift of the medium. The transducers have been optimised to operate at low pressure (high altitude) and will operate from about 60 km down to the surface. They will also perform well in case of landing in a liquid. The API-S unit is an acoustic sounder, sending short pulses at 15 kHz every second and listening for echoes in between. It will detect droplets in the atmosphere and for the last 100 m it will characterise the acoustic scattering properties of the surface below. It will also give an accurate value for the descend velocity during the last 100 m. In case of landing in a (liquid) lake/ocean it will measure the depth of the late-ocean down to a maximum of about 1000 m. Accurate measurements of the velocity of sound will, together with knowledge on the temperature, enable the mean molecular weight to be calculated along the descent trajectory. The temperature will be measured by complementary sensors inside the SSP Top Hat, near the API-V, and to a high accuracy by the HASI instrument at the periphery of the Huygens probe. The API units and associated electronics has been designed and build at the Research and Scientific Support Department at ESTEC, where also the testing and initial calibration has been done. Detailed calibration has been performed with different gas mixtures and at different temperatures in the Titan simulation chamber at the University of Kent, Canterbury, UK. Further supporting studies are planned in the

  4. Toward an integrated profile of emotional intelligence: introducing a brief measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew H; Cooper, Nicholas J; Hermens, Gerard; Gordon, Evian; Bryant, Richard; Williams, Leanne M

    2005-03-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of research studies have focused on the construct of Emotional Intelligence (EI), which may be broadly defined as the capacity to perceive and regulate emotions in oneself as well as those of others. Researchers have generally adopted an organizational or management focus to the study of EI, however studies which adopt a more integrated perspective by combining psychological with biological measures, may help in further elucidating this relatively abstract construct. The first objective of this paper was to report on the psychometric properties of a brief, self-report measure of EI (Brain Resource Inventory for Emotional intelligence Factors or BRIEF), comprising internal emotional capacity (IEC), external emotional capacity (EEC) and self concept (SELF). Second, we further explored the validity of the measure by assessing the relationships between the BRIEF and variables considered relevant to the understanding of EI (including gender, age, personality, cognitive intelligence and resting state electroencephalography, EEG). The BRIEF possessed sound psychometric properties (internal consistency, r=0.68-0.81; test-retest reliability, r=0.92; construct validity with the Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, r=0.70). As hypothesized, females were found to score higher than males on EI. EI was associated more with personality than with cognitive ability, and EEG was found to explain a significant portion of the variance in EI scores. The finding that low EI is related to underarousal of the left-frontal cortex (increased theta EEG) is consistent with research on patients with depression, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although EI did not display age-related increases, this might relate to the exclusion of adolescents from our sample. In conclusion, examination of the way in which EI measures relate to a complementary range of psychological and biological measures may help to further elucidate this

  5. Effect of pulse profile variations on measurement of eccentricity in orbits of Cen X-3 and SMC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Raichur, Harsha

    2009-01-01

    It has long been argued that better timing precision allowed by satelites like Rossi X-ray Timing Experiments (RXTE) will allow us to measure the orbital eccentricity and the angle of periastron of some of the bright persistent high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and hence a possible measurement of apsidal motion in these system. Measuring the rate of apsidal motion allows one to estimate the apsidal motion constant of the mass losing companion star and hence allows for the direct testing of the stellar structure models for these giant stars present in the HMXBs. In the present paper we use the archival RXTE data of two bright persistent sources, namely Cen X-3 and SMC X-1, to measure the very small orbital eccentricity and the angle of periastron. We find that the small variations in the pulse profiles of these sources rather than the intrinsic timing accuracy provided by RXTE, limit the accuracy with which we can measure arrival time of the pulses from these sources. This influences the accuracy with which one...

  6. Measurement of Velocity Profiles in a scaled Transparent Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea has developed two kinds of TBM for ITER; a Helium cooled solid breeder (HCSB) TBM and a Helium cooled molten lithium (HCML) TBM, respectively. Under the HCML TBM project, a 1/6 scaled mock-up of the TBM FW has been fabricated in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The size of the scaled mock-up is 260 mm height and 444 mm width. As coolant channels in the mock-up, there are rectangular shape of 10 channels with 10 mm height and 20 mm width. The scaled mock-up was manufactured by hot isostatic pressing bonding method using SS316L. Three components of the scaled mock-up were prepared; a front part of cooling channel 10 mm height with 20 mm width, a front cover plate, and a back plate. The front plate and the cover were bonded by welding, and the welded part and the back plate are attached by HIP process. A pair of manifolds, to distribute the coolant uniformly into 10 channels of the scaled mock-up, were designed and fabricated. The designed manifolds were then welded in inlet and outlet positions of the mock-up. To measure the flow distribution in each channel, the ultrasonic flowmeter (UFM) was used and the values were compared to a conventional flowmeter. Before the flow distribution test of the scaled mock-up, a calibration procedure was conducted with a single channel mock-up using the UFM and the flowmeter. The result showed a good agreement between the UFM and the flowmeter values in the single channel. The same test procedure conducted on the scaled mock-up; the velocity of each channel was measured by the UFM and total mass flow rate was measured with the flowmeter. The estimated velocities distributed from the manifold were simulated by ANSYS-CFX. However, there was a discrepancy between the measured and the simulated values. The current manifold could not provide uniform flow rate to the each channel or there would be a measurement error using the UFM in the specified mock-up. This means that the UFM measurement method should be validated

  7. Comparison of AOD, AAOD and column single scattering albedo from AERONET retrievals and in situ profiling measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Kinne, Stefan; Samset, Bjorn

    2017-05-01

    Here we present new results comparing aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) and column single scattering albedo (SSA) obtained from in situ vertical profile measurements with AERONET ground-based remote sensing from two rural, continental sites in the US. The profiles are closely matched in time (within ±3 h) and space (within 15 km) with the AERONET retrievals. We have used Level 1.5 inversion retrievals when there was a valid Level 2 almucantar retrieval in order to be able to compare AAOD and column SSA below AERONET's recommended loading constraint (AOD > 0.4 at 440 nm). While there is reasonable agreement for the AOD comparisons, the direct comparisons of in situ-derived to AERONET-retrieved AAOD (or SSA) reveal that AERONET retrievals yield higher aerosol absorption than obtained from the in situ profiles for the low aerosol optical depth conditions prevalent at the two study sites. However, it should be noted that the majority of SSA comparisons for AOD440 > 0.2 are, nonetheless, within the reported SSA uncertainty bounds. The observation that, relative to in situ measurements, AERONET inversions exhibit increased absorption potential at low AOD values is generally consistent with other published AERONET-in situ comparisons across a range of locations, atmospheric conditions and AOD values. This systematic difference in the comparisons suggests a bias in one or both of the methods, but we cannot assess whether the AERONET retrievals are biased towards high absorption or the in situ measurements are biased low. Based on the discrepancy between the AERONET and in situ values, we conclude that scaling modeled black carbon concentrations upwards to match AERONET retrievals of AAOD should be approached with caution as it may lead to aerosol absorption overestimates in regions of low AOD. Both AERONET retrievals and in situ measurements suggest there is a systematic relationship between SSA and aerosol amount (AOD or aerosol light

  8. EXPERIMENTAL SET UP TO MEASURE COHERENT BREMSSTRAHLUNG AND BEAM PROFILES IN RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; GASNER,D.; MACKAY,W.; MCINTYRE,G.; PEGGS,S.; TEPIKIAN,S.; SERBO,V.; KOTKIN,G.

    2002-06-03

    A proposal for an experiment to detect and measure with an array infrared detector either the infrared radiation from the beam-beam coherent bremsstrahlung or from the synchrotron light from the edge effect of large DX RHIC magnet is described. Predictions for the 100 GeV/nucleon gold and 250 GeV proton signals from both bremsstrahlung and synchtrotron radiation magnet edge effect are shown.

  9. TransCom model simulations of methane: Comparison of vertical profiles with aircraft measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, R.; Patra, PK; C. Sweeney; Machida, T.; Krol, M.; Houweling, S.; Bousquet, P.; Agusti-Panareda, A.; D. Belikov; D. Bergmann; H. Bian; P. Cameron-Smith; Chipperfield, MP; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Fraser, A.

    2013-01-01

    To assess horizontal and vertical transports of methane (CH4) concentrations at different heights within the troposphere, we analyzed simulations by 12 chemistry transport models (CTMs) that participated in the TransCom-CH4 intercomparison experiment. Model results are compared with aircraft measurements at 13 sites in Amazon/Brazil, Mongolia, Pacific Ocean, Siberia/Russia, and United States during the period of 2001-2007. The simulations generally show good agreement with observations for se...

  10. Performance simulation of a spaceborne infrared coherent lidar for measuring tropospheric wind profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Kyoka, Gamo; Mizutani, Kohei; Chikako, Takahashi; Itabe, Toshikazu; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kubota, Takuji; Okamoto, Kozo; Oki, Riko; Satoh, Masaki; Satoh, Yohei

    2014-05-01

    An effort has begun in Japan to develop a spaceborne instrument for measuring tropospheric winds. This project is a collaboration between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI, Japan) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) [1,2]. The aim is to measure the horizontal wind field in the troposphere on a global scale with a precision better than 3 ms-1, and a vertical and horizontal (along the satellite ground track) resolution better than 1 km and 100 km, respectively. In order to support the definition and the development of the instrument, an end-to-end simulator has been implemented including modules for i) simulating the time-dependent laser shot return power, ii) for averaging the spectral power of several returns and iii) for estimating the line-of-sight wind from the Doppler shift of the averaged spectra. The simulations take into account the satellite position and motion along the orbit track, the observational and instrumental characteristics, a 3-D representation of the relevant atmospheric parameters (i.e. wind field, cloud coverage and aerosols distribution) and the Earth surface characteristics. The simulator and the method for estimating the line-of-sight wind will be presented. We will show the results obtained for a payload composed of two 2-μm coherent LIDARs looking in orthogonal directions, and for a satellite moving on a low orbit. The precision, accuracy and the vertical and horizontal resolution of the wind estimates will be discussed. References: [1] S. Ishii, T. Iwasaki, M. Sato, R. Oki, K. Okamoto, T. Ishibashi, P. Baron, and T. Nishizawa, Future Doppler lidar wind measurement from space in Japan, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8529, 2012 [2] S. Ishii, H. Iwai, K. Mizutani, P. Baron, T. Itabe, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, A. Sato and A. Asai, 2-μm coherent LIDAR for CO2 and wind measurements, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8872, 2013

  11. The Feasibility of Sodar Wind Profile Measurements from an Oceanographic Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    with cup anemometer measurements (Jorgenson et. al., 2004). The main difficulty in the CW approach is how to determine range. The ZephIR uses a...Doppler LIDAR – Comparison with Cup Anemometers at RISØ. Proc. European Wind Energy Conference, Delft, April 2004, pp. 1–6. Pierce, Allan D. (1981...misalignment of winds and currents. One way to improve the model in the future would be to equip ASIS with an anemometer , a downward-looking ADCP, and a GPS

  12. Direct measurement of local dissolved oxygen concentration spatial profiles in a cell culture environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Yuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Tsuneda, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Controlling local dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) in media is critical for cell or tissue cultures. Various biomaterials and culture methods have been developed to modulate DO. Direct measurement of local DO in cultures has not been validated as a method to test DO modulation. In the present study we developed a DO measurement system equipped with a Clark-type oxygen microelectrode manipulated with 1 μm precision in three-dimensional space to explore potential applications for tissue engineering. By determining the microelectrode tip position precisely against the bottom plane of culture dishes with rat or human cardiac cells in static monolayer culture, we successfully obtained spatial distributions of DO in the medium. Theoretical quantitative predictions fit the obtained data well. Based on analyses of the variance between samples, we found the data reflected "local" oxygen consumption in the vicinity of the microelectrode and the detection of temporal changes in oxygen consumption rates of cultured cells was limited by the diffusion rate of oxygen in the medium. This oxygen measuring system monitors local oxygen consumption and production with high spatial resolution, and can potentially be used with recently developed oxygen modulating biomaterials to design microenvironments and non-invasively monitor local DO dynamics during culture. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Two Photon Absorption Laser Induced Fluorescence for Neutral Hydrogen Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, Earl E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The magnitude and spatial dependence of neutral density in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is a key physical parameter, particularly in the plasma edge. Modeling codes require precise measurements of the neutral density to calculate charge-exchange power losses and drag forces on rotating plasmas. However, direct measurements of the neutral density are problematic. In this work, we proposed to construct a laser-based diagnostic capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of the neutral density in the edge of plasma in the DIII-D tokamak. The diagnostic concept is based on two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). By injecting two beams of 205 nm light (co or counter propagating), ground state hydrogen (or deuterium or tritium) can be excited from the n = 1 level to the n = 3 level at the location where the two beams intersect. Individually, the beams experience no absorption, and therefore have no difficulty penetrating even dense plasmas. After excitation, a fraction of the hydrogen atoms decay from the n = 3 level to the n = 2 level and emit photons at 656 nm (the Hα line). Calculations based on the results of previous TALIF experiments in magnetic fusion devices indicated that a laser pulse energy of approximately 3 mJ delivered in 5 ns would provide sufficient signal-to-noise for detection of the fluorescence. In collaboration with the DIII-D engineering staff and experts in plasma edge diagnostics for DIII-D from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), WVU researchers designed a TALIF system capable of providing spatially resolved measurements of neutral deuterium densities in the DIII-D edge plasma. The laser systems were specified, purchased, and assembled at WVU. The TALIF system was tested on a low-power hydrogen discharge at WVU and the plan was to move the instrument to DIII-D for installation in collaboration with ORNL researchers. After budget cuts at DIII-D, the DIII-D facility declined to support

  14. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliar, Mikhail [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested

  15. Cloud sensitivity studies for stratospheric and lower mesospheric ozone profile retrievals from measurements of limb scattered solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sonkaew

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Clouds in the atmosphere play an important role in reflection, absorption and transmission of solar radiation affecting trace gas retrievals. The main goal of this paper is to examine the sensitivity of stratospheric and lower mesospheric ozone retrievals from limb-scattered radiance measurements to clouds using the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model and retrieval package. Assuming an aerosol-free atmosphere and Mie phase functions for cloud particles, we compute the relative error of ozone profile retrievals in a cloudy atmosphere if clouds are neglected in the retrieval. To access altitudes from the lower stratosphere up to lower mesosphere, we combine the retrievals in the Chappuis and Hartley ozone absorption bands. We find significant cloud sensitivity of the limb ozone retrievals in the Chappuis bands at lower stratospheric altitudes. The relative error in the retrieved ozone concentrations gradually decreases with increasing altitude and becomes negligible above about 40 km. The parameters with the largest impact on the ozone retrievals are cloud optical thickness, ground albedo and solar zenith angle. Clouds with different geometrical thicknesses or different cloud altitudes have a similar impact on the ozone retrievals for a given cloud optical thickness value, if the clouds are outside the field of view of the instrument. The effective radius of water droplets has a small influence on the error, i.e., less than 0.5% at altitudes above the cloud top height. Furthermore, the impact of clouds on the ozone profile retrievals was found to have a rather small dependence on the solar azimuth angle (less than 1% for all possible azimuth angles. For the most frequent cloud types the total error is below 6% above 15 km altitude, if clouds are completely neglected in the retrieval. Neglecting clouds in the ozone profile retrievals generally leads to a low bias for a low ground albedo and to a high bias for a high ground albedo, assuming that the

  16. Microwave measurements of temperature profiles, integrated water vapour, and liquid water path at Thule Air Base, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Giandomenico; Di Iorio, Tatiana; di Sarra, Alcide; Iaccarino, Antonio; Meloni, Daniela; Mevi, Gabriele; Muscari, Giovanni; Cacciani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    A RPG Humidity And Temperature PROfiler (HATPRO-G2 ) radiometer was installed at Thule Air Base (76.5° N, 68.8° W), Greenland, in June 2016 in the framework of the Study of the water VApour in the polar AtmosPhere (SVAAP) project. The Danish Meteorological Institute started measurements of atmospheric properties at Thule Air Base in early '90s. The Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory (THAAO) has grown in size and observing capabilities during the last three decades through the international effort of United States (NCAR and University of Alaska Fairbanks) and Italian (ENEA, INGV, University of Roma and Firenze) institutions (http://www.thuleatmos-it.it). Within this context, the intensive field campaign of the SVAAP project was aimed at the investigation of the surface radiation budget and took place from 5 to 28 July, 2016. After the summer campaign the HATPRO has continued to operate in order to monitor the annual variability of the temperature profile and integrated water vapour as well as the presence and characteristics of liquid clouds in the Artic environment. The combined use of the HATPRO together with other automatic instruments, such as a new microwave spectrometer (the water Vapour Emission Spectrometer for Polar Atmosphere VESPA-22), upward- and downward-looking pyranometers and pyrgeometers, a zenith-looking pyrometer operating in the 9.6-11.5 µm spectral range, an all sky camera, and a meteorological station, allows to investigate the clouds' physical and optical properties, as well as their impact on the surface radiation budget. This study will present and discuss the first few months of HATPRO observations; the effectiveness of the statistical retrieval used to derive the physical parameters from the HATPRO brightness temperatures will also be investigated through the comparison of the temperature and humidity profiles, and integrated water vapour, with data from radiosondes launched during the summer campaign and in winter time.

  17. Development of a balloon-borne stabilized platform for measuring radiative flux profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, C. D.; Alzheimer, J. M.; Anderson, G. A.; Shaw, W. J.

    1993-03-01

    A stabilized platform has been developed to carry broadband short-wave and long-wave radiometric sensors on the tetherline of a small tethered balloon that ascends through atmospheric depths of up to 1.5 km to obtain vertical profiles of radiative flux and flux divergence for evaluating atmospheric radiative transfer models. The Sky Platform was designed to keep the radiometers level despite unpredictable movements of the balloon and tetherline occasioned by turbulence and wind shear. The automatic control loop drives motors, gears, and pulleys located on two of the vertices of the triangular frame to climb the harness lines to keep the platform level. Radiometric sensors, an electronic compass, and an on-board data acquisition system make up the remainder of the Sky Platform. Because knowledge of the dynamic response of the tether line-platform system is essential to properly close the automatic control loop on the Sky Platform, a Motion Sensing Platform (MSP) was developed to fly in place of the Sky Platform on the tetherline to characterize the Sky Platform's operating environment. This unstabilized platform uses an array of nine solid-state linear accelerometers to measure the lateral and angular accelerations, velocities, and displacements that the Sky Platform will experience. This paper presents field performance tests of the Sky and Motion Sensing Platforms, as conducted at Richland, Washington, on February 17, 1993. The tests were performed primarily to characterize the stabilization system on the Sky Platform. Test flights were performed on this cold winter day from 1400 to 1800 Pacific Standard Time (PST). During this period, temperature profiles were near the dry adiabatic lapse rate. Flights were made through a jet wind speed profile having peak wind speeds of 7 m/s at a height of 100 m AGL. Wind directions were from the northwest. All flights were performed as continuous ascents, rather than ascending in discrete steps with halts at set altitudes.

  18. Silicon detectors for the neutron flux and beam profile measurements of the n_TOF facility at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumarra, Agatino; Cosentino, Luigi; Barbagallo, Massimo; Colonna, Nicola; Damone, Lucia; Pappalardo, Alfio; Piscopo, Massimo; Finocchiaro, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The demand of new and high precision cross section data for neutron-induced reactions is continuously growing, driven by the requirements from several fields of fundamental physics, as well as from nuclear technology, medicine, etc. Several neutron facilities are operational worldwide, and new ones are being built. In the coming years, neutron beam intensities never reached up to now will be available, thus opening new scientific and technological frontiers. Among existing facilities, n_TOF at CERN provides a high intensity pulsed neutron beam in a wide energy range (thermal to GeV) and with an extremely competitive energy resolution that also allows spectroscopy studies. In order to ensure high quality measurements, the neutron beams must be fully characterized as a function of the neutron energy, in particular by measuring the neutron flux and the beam transverse profile with high accuracy. In 2014 a new experimental area (EAR2), with a much higher neutron flux, has been completed and commissioned at n_TOF. In order to characterize the neutron beam in the newly built experimental area at n_TOF, two suitable diagnostics devices have been built by the INFN-LNS group. Both are based on silicon detectors coupled with 6Li converter foils, in particular Single Pad for the flux measurement and Position Sensitive (strips and others) for the beam profile. The devices have been completely characterized with radioactive sources and with the n_TOF neutron beam, fulfilling all the specifications and hence becoming immediately operational. The performances of these devices and their high versatility, in terms of neutron beam intensity, make them suitable to be used in both n_TOF experimental areas. A description of the devices and the main results obtained so far will be presented.

  19. Continuous measurements of suspended sediment loads using dual frequency acoustic Doppler profile signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Alessandro; Guerrero, Massimo; Rüther, Nils; Stokseth, Siri

    2016-04-01

    A huge thread to Hydropower plants (HPP) is incoming sediments in suspension from the rivers upstream. The sediments settle in the reservoir and reduce the effective head as well as the volume and reduce consequently the lifetime of the reservoir. In addition are the fine sediments causing severe damages to turbines and infrastructure of a HPP. For estimating the amount of in-coming sediments in suspension and the consequent planning of efficient counter measures, it is essential to monitor the rivers within the catchment of the HPP for suspended sediments. This work is considerably time consuming and requires highly educated personnel and is therefore expensive. Surrogate-indirect methods using acoustic and optic devices have bee developed since the last decades that may be efficiently applied for the continuous monitoring of suspended sediment loads. The presented study proposes therefore to establish a research station at a cross section of a river which is the main tributary to a reservoir of a HPP and equip this station with surrogate as well as with common method of measuring suspended load concentrations and related flow discharge and level. The logger at the research station delivers data automatically to a server. Therefore it is ensured that also large flood events are covered. Data during flood are of high interest to the HPP planners since they carried the most part of the sediment load in a hydrological year. Theses peaks can hardly be measured with common measurement methods. Preliminary results of the wet season 2015/2016 are presented. The data gives insight in the applicable range, in terms of scattering particles concentration-average size and corresponding flow discharge and level, eventually enabling the study of suspended sediment load-water flow correlations during peak events. This work is carried out as part of a larger research project on sustainable hydro power plants exposed to high sediment yield, SediPASS. SediPASS is funded by the

  20. Measurement and modelling of neon radiation profiles in radiating boundary discharges in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dux, R.; Kallenbach, A.; Bessenrodt-Weberpals, M.; Behringer, K.; Bosch, H.S.; Fuchs, J.C.; Gehre, O.; Mast, F.; Poschenrieder, W.; Murmann, H.; Salzmann, H.; Schweinzer, J.; Suttrop, W. [MPI fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching and Berlin (Germany); ASDEX Upgrade- and NI-Team

    1996-02-01

    The radiation and transport characteristics of ASDEX Upgrade discharges with a neon driven radiative mantle are modelled using a 1-D radial impurity transport code that has been coupled to a simple divertor model describing particle recycling and pumping. The code is well suited to describe the measured impurity line radiation, total, soft X-ray and bremsstrahlung radiation in regions of the plasma which are not dominated by two dimensional effects. The recycling and pumping behaviour of neon as well as the bulk transport of neon for radiative boundary scenarios are discussed. (orig.)