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Sample records for flux utilises dans

  1. Changements dans l'utilisation des terres et la santé humaine dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans l'est de l'Himalaya, l'utilisation des terres change en raison de la croissance ... Au Népal, les chercheurs enquêteront sur les causes de la malnutrition qui ... de l'établissement sur l'environnement (y compris la pollution) et invitera les ... Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the ...

  2. Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approche expérimentale de l'utilisation de glyphosate dans le contrôle de Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtaceae), une espèce envahissante dans la réserve communautaire de la forêt d'Analalava-Foulpointe (Madagascar)

  3. Approches de l'utilisation des eaux usées urbaines dans l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 févr. 2011 ... Quant aux systèmes de traitement des eaux financés par le CRDI qui utilisent la laitue d'eau à Dakar ... les eaux usées dans les cultures de salade, produit qui se mange cru. » .... Rompre le cycle de la pauvreté urbaine.

  4. Fast neutron flux in heavy water reactors; Flux de neutrons rapides dans les piles a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbois, J; Katz, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-07-01

    The possibility of calculating the fast neutron flux in a natural uranium-heavy water lattice by superposition of the individual contributions of the different fuel elements was verified using a one-dimension Monte-Carlo code. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental measurements done in the core and reflector of the reactor AQUILON. (author) [French] La possibilite de calculer le flux de neutrons rapides dans un reseau d'uranium naturel a eau lourde par superposition des apports des divers barreaux, a ete verifiee en utilisant un code Monte-Carlo monodimensionel. Les resultats obtenus concordent avec des mesures experimentales effectuees dans le coeur et reacteur de la pile Aquilon. (auteurs)

  5. Neutron flux determinations in the reactors G2 and G3 during operation; Releves du flux neutronique dans les reacteurs G2 et G3 en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulinier, C; Faurot, P; Sagot, M; Teste du Bailler, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    After demonstrating the sensitivity of the distribution of power in a production reactor to a deformation caused by dissymmetries of reactivity in the reactor, the authors describe the method of neutron flux determination devised for the reactors G2 and G3 under working conditions; the detector used is a tungsten or nickel wire, the {gamma} activity of which is measured with an ionisation chamber. Several flux determinations are given as examples to illustrate the sensitivity of the method. (author) [French] Apres avoir mis en evidence la sensibilite de la repartition de la puissance dans un reacteur de production a une deformation provoquee par de faibles dissymetries de reactivite dans le reacteur, les auteurs decrivent la methode de releve du flux neutronique mise au point pour les reacteurs G2 et G3 en puissance; le detecteur utilise est un fil de tungstene ou de nickel dont l'activite {gamma} est mesuree a l'aide d'une chambre d'ionisation. Quelques releves de flux illustrant la sensibilite de la methode sont donnes a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  6. A new detector for the measurement of neutron flux in nuclear reactors; Nouvelle methode de mesure des flux de neutrons dans les reacteurs atomiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L; Labeyrie, J; Tarassenko, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The detector described is designed for the instantaneous measurement of thermal neutron fluxes, in the presence of high {gamma} ray activity; this detector can withstand temperatures as high as 500 deg. C. It is based on the following principle: radioactive atoms resulting from heavy-nucleus fission are carried by a gas flow to a detector recording their {beta} and {gamma} disintegration. Thermal neutron fluxes as low as few neutrons per cm{sup 2} per second can be measured. This detector may be used to control a nuclear reactor, to plot the thermal flux distribution with an excellent definition (1 mm{sup 2}) for fluxes higher than 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}/s. The time response of the system to a sharp variation of flux is limited, in case of large fluxes, to the transit time of the gas flow between the fission product emitter and the detector; of the order of one tenth of a sec per meter of piping. The detector may also be applied for spectroscopy of fission products eider than 0,1 s. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit un appareil permettant la mesure instantanee des flux de neutrons thermiques accompagnes de flux intenses de rayons {gamma} et situes dans des enceintes pouvant etre portees a des temperatures superieures a 500 deg. C. On utilise la radioactivite des atomes resultant de la fission des noyaux lourds; ces atomes sont entraines par un courant gazeux vers un detecteur de radioactivite qui enregistre leurs desintegrations {beta} et {gamma}. On peut mesurer des flux partir de quelques neutrons thermiques par cm{sup 2} et par seconde. L'appareil permet de suivre la puissance d'un reacteur atomique, de tracer des cartes de densite de neutrons avec une tres bonne definition (1 mm{sup 2}) dans le cas de flux superieurs a 10{sup 8} cm{sup 2}/s. Le temps de reponse du systeme a une variation du flux de neutrons est limite, poes flux importants, par le temps de transit du gaz entre l'emetteur de produits de fission et le detecteur: soit quelques dizaines de

  7. Operation of a direct current transformer used as a 'flux pump'; Fonctionnement du transformateur a courant continu utilise en 'pompe a flux'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanels, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The author derives the equations governing the operation of a flux pump with a superconducting transformer. He shows that these exists a limiting value of the current in the charge coil and that the limit is independent of this coil. (author) [French] L'auteur etablit les equations de fonctionnement d'une pompe a flux a transformateur supraconducteur, il montre l'existence d'une limite, du courant dans la self de charge et l'independance de cette limite vis-a-vis de cette self. (auteur)

  8. Phyto-diversite et utilisations des espaces verts prives dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    85,02 %), d'ornement (45,10 %), de jeux (13,24 %) ou comme potager (8,16 %). Leurs espèces végétales sont exploitées par les populations dans les domaines alimentaire (87,8 %), médicinal (76 %), d'ombrage (75,8 %), ornemental (39,8 ...

  9. Prospects for the Use of Plutonium in Reactors; Prospective d'Utilisation du Plutonium dans les Reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossoul, E.; Haubert, P. [BELGONUCLEAIRE (Belgium); Hirschberg, D.; Morlet, E. [International Business Machines of Belgium, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    The introduction, at an increasing rate, of power reactors using slightly enriched uranium will inevitably lead to the production of considerable quantities of plutonium over the next decade. Fast reactors will not be capable of absorbing this material before 1980. The question thus arises of whether one should store the plutonium far future use in fast reactors, recycle it in existing thermal reactors, or try to sell it. The problem has been studied for an electric power generating system that does not foresee selling the plutonium produced by its reactors and does not buy plutonium outside, which enables a good approximation to be made and eliminates the major unknown quantity represented by the future market price of plutonium. Assuming within this system a programme that provides for the construction of power reactors of a given type and capacity at specific dates, the utilization of the plutonium produced can be optimized by linear programming techniques so as to minimize the discounted total cost of the power generated over a given period. A later stage consists in optimizing, by various techniques, not only the utilization but also the production of plutonium by appropriate selection of the power reactor types to be constructed. (author) [French] L'implantation, a un rythme croissant, de centrales nucleaires a uranium legerement enrichi entrainera la production ineluctable d'une quantite importante de plutonium au cours de la prochaine decennie. Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides ne seront capables d'absorber cette production qu'apres 1980. La question se pose donc de savoir s'il est preferable de stocker le plutonium en vue de son utilisation ulterieure dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides plutot que de le recycler dans les reacteurs actuels a neutrons thermiques ou d'essayer de le vendre. Ce probleme a ete etudie dans le cadre d'un systeme de production d'energie electrique qui ne prevoirait pas la vente du plutonium produit par ses reacteurs nucleaires ni

  10. Perceptions et facteurs déterminant l'utilisation des asticots dans l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 févr. 2016 ... Poultry farmers in Group 1 differ from those of Groups 2 and 3 by their herd size and ..... Cette matrice a été soumise à une classification ... utilisant la fonction kmeans du package cluster. ... l'ensemble des caractéristiques des enquêtés a montré .... classes d'occurrence ont montré que les aviculteurs.

  11. Approches de l'utilisation des eaux usées urbaines dans l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 févr. 2011 ... Ils proposent une classification des différents types d'eaux usées (directes, indirectes, traitées, non traitées, dirigées et non dirigées), soulignent combien il est nécessaire d'utiliser une approche fondée sur les moyens de subsistance et ciblée sur les agriculteurs, insistent sur des directives pragmatiques ...

  12. On some uses of the recording op fission fragments occurring in insulators; Sur quelques utilisations de l'enregistrement des fragments de fission dans les isolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mory, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    thermiques: on peut mesurer des flux integres s'etendant de 10{sup 3} a 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}, suivant la methode utilisee; - dosimetrie de neutrons rapides: en utilisant des sources de fragments de fission a seuil, on peut facilement mesurer des doses d'interet biologique de l'ordre du rem; - dosage d'impuretes fissiles en tres faible concentration: on peut determiner des concentrations atomiques de l'ordre de 10{sup 9}, limite jamais atteinte par les procedes usuels; - etude des elements fissiles contenus dans les poussieres atmospheriques. On donne ensuite brievement les resultats d'un essai d'automatisation du comptage des traces par mesure de la resistivite electrique de la membrane irradiee. On expose enfin les avantages et les inconvenients de ces detecteurs solides, notamment par rapport aux emulsions nucleaires dont les utilisations sont a peu pres identiques. (auteur)

  13. Comprendre l'accès aux outils numériques et leur utilisation dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'accès à Internet est devenu une priorité pour les pays en développement. Selon une étude de la Banque mondiale publiée en 2009, un accroissement de 10 % de la pénétration de la large bande engendre une augmentation de 1,4 % du produit intérieur brut dans les pays à faible revenu. De récentes études révèlent ...

  14. L’utilisation des strat��gies d’apprentissage d’une langue dans un environnement des TICE L’utilisation des stratégies d’apprentissage d’une langue dans un environnement des TICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Atlan

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des différences individuelles qui caractérisent les apprenants s'intègre de plus en plus dans les travaux en didactique des langues. L'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage est un type de différences individuelles qui semble être assez sensible à l'environnement pédagogique. Cet article rend compte d'une étude expérimentale entreprise avec des étudiants français en IUT qui avait pour objectif de déterminer si l'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage par un apprenant de langues est influencée par la technologie de l'information et de la communication (TIC utilisée pour la présentation d'une tâche d'apprentissage. Le "Strategy Inventory for Language Learning" d'Oxford a été utilisé comme instrument lors de cette étude. L'étude a montré qu'il y a effectivement interaction entre la TIC utilisée et le choix de stratégies effectué par l'apprenant et les résultats permettent de tirer quelques conclusions quant à l'utilité d'un entraînement spécifique à l'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage en présence des technologies de l’information et de la communication pour l’enseignement (TICE.The study of the individual differences which characterize learners is becoming more and more common in language learning research, and the use of learning strategies is an instance of individual differences which seems to be rather sensitive to the pedagogical environment. This article reports on an experimental study undertaken with students in a French technical college to determine if the use of learning strategies by a foreign language student is influenced by the technology used to present a language learning task. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was the principal instrument used for this study. The study showed that there was indeed some interaction between the technology used and the choice of learning strategies and the results lead to some interesting considerations on the usefulness

  15. Calculation of the thermal utilisation factor in a cell made up of a given number of concentric media; Calcul du facteur d'utilisation thermique dans une cellule formee d'un nombre quelconque de milieux concentriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, A; Benoist, P; Guionnet, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The method of calculating the thermal utilisation factor, described in a previous report, is extended to the case of a cylindrical cell containing a given number of concentric media, certain of which may be empty. A collision by collision method is used in all but the peripheral medium, which may be treated by a theory of controlled diffusion. A programme for the IBM 650 calculator has been based on this method. Some numerical results are presented. An equivalent matrix formulation, due to C. Guionnet, is given as an appendix. (author) [French] La methode de calcul du facteur d'utilisation thermique, exposee dans un rapport precedent, est etendue au cas d'une cellule cylindrique comportant un nombre quelconque de milieux concentriques, certains de ces milieux pouvant etre vides. On utilise une methode choc par choc dans tous les milieux excepte le milieu peripherique qui peut etre traite par une theorie de diffusion ajustee. La methode a fait l'objet d'un programme pour le calculateur IBM 650. Quelques resultats numeriques sont presentes. Une formulation matricielle equivalente, due a C. Guionnet, est exposee en annexe. (auteur)

  16. Utilisation de l'espace dans la communauté de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Quelques aspects de la mise en valeur et de l'exploitation agro-pastorale du terroir de San Juan sont présentés à l'aide d'une série de cartes et de tableaux: carte de l'intensité de l'utilisation annuelle de la terre, circuit annuel du bétail, système foncier, évolution de l'irrigation au cours de l'année, rotation des cultures à proximité du village, rotation de terres d'altitude, évolution du bétail et enfin systèmes de mise en valeur du sol, on étudie en conclusion deux types d'évolution possibles de ce village. -Una serie de mapas y de cuadros presenta algunos aspectos del manejo y de 1a explotación agropastoral del terruño de la Comunidad de San Juan, teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones naturales ,y socioculturales: mapa de la intensidad del uso anual de la tierra con respecto al riego, rotación del ganado durante el año, sistema predial, evolución del riego a lo largo del año, rotación de los cultivos entre los corrales ubicados cerca del pueblo, rotación de los cultivos en las tierras de altura, evolución del ganado y sistemas de uso del suelo. Se examinan en conclusión dos tipos de evolución posibles para el pueblo. Some aspects of agro-pastoral management and exploitation in the San Juan lands are presented with a series of maps and tables: map of annual land utilization intensity, annual cattle rotation, land tenure system, irrigation process during the year, rotation of crops near the village, rotation of altitude lands, cattle evolution and soil use systems. Finally, two possible types of evolution for this village are discussed.

  17. Relative measurement of the fluxes of thermal, resonant and rapid neutrons in reactor G1; Mesures relatives des flux thermique, resonnant et rapide dans le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R.; Mazancourt, T. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    We sought to determine the behavior of the thermal, resonant and rapid neutron fluxes in the multiplier-reflector transition region, in the two principal directions of the system. We have also measured the variation of these different fluxes in the body of the multiplier medium in a canal filled with graphite and in an empty canal. The results are given in the form of curves representing: - the variation of the ratio of the thermal flux to the rapid flux in axial and radial transitions - the behavior of the thermal and resonant fluxes and the variation of their ratio in the same regions. (author) [French] Nous avons cherche a determiner le comportement des differents flux, thermique, resonnant et rapide a la transition milieu multiplicateur-reflecteur dans les deux directions principales du reseau. Nous avons egalement mesure la variation de ces differents flux au sein du milieu multiplicateur dans un canal rempli de graphite et dans un canal vide. Les resultats sont donnes sous forme de courbe representant: - La variation du rapport du flux thermique au flux rapide aux transitions axiale et radiale - L'allure des flux thermique et resonnant et la variation de leur rapport dans les memes regions. (auteur)

  18. Relative measurement of the fluxes of thermal, resonant and rapid neutrons in reactor G1; Mesures relatives des flux thermique, resonnant et rapide dans le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, R; Mazancourt, T de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    We sought to determine the behavior of the thermal, resonant and rapid neutron fluxes in the multiplier-reflector transition region, in the two principal directions of the system. We have also measured the variation of these different fluxes in the body of the multiplier medium in a canal filled with graphite and in an empty canal. The results are given in the form of curves representing: - the variation of the ratio of the thermal flux to the rapid flux in axial and radial transitions - the behavior of the thermal and resonant fluxes and the variation of their ratio in the same regions. (author) [French] Nous avons cherche a determiner le comportement des differents flux, thermique, resonnant et rapide a la transition milieu multiplicateur-reflecteur dans les deux directions principales du reseau. Nous avons egalement mesure la variation de ces differents flux au sein du milieu multiplicateur dans un canal rempli de graphite et dans un canal vide. Les resultats sont donnes sous forme de courbe representant: - La variation du rapport du flux thermique au flux rapide aux transitions axiale et radiale - L'allure des flux thermique et resonnant et la variation de leur rapport dans les memes regions. (auteur)

  19. Modèles de réutilisation des amphithéâtres antiques dans la formation des tissus urbains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Lefebvre

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Après l’abandon des jeux à la fin de l’Antiquité, les amphithéâtres ont été réutilisés de manière variée dans les villes médiévales et modernes. La modélisation graphique de plusieurs scénarios de réutilisation en Angleterre, en France et en Italie, aboutit à l’identification de trois dynamiques élémentaires qui permettent de mieux comprendre l’héritage de ces édifices dans la formation du tissu urbain.

  20. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie. (auteur)

  1. Utilisation des sous-produits agroalimentaires dans l’alimentation des poissons d’élevage en Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimou Nestor B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue l’impact de l’utilisation des sous-produits agroalimentaires dans l’alimentation des poissons d’élevage en Côte d’Ivoire. Une enquête a été réalisée en 2013 dans quinze principales zones piscicoles sur les caractéristiques technico-économiques des fermes, le profil socio-économique des promoteurs et les pratiques aquacoles, particulièrement l’alimentation des poissons. Les résultats révèlent que 71 % des pisciculteurs enquêtés utilisent des sous-produits agricoles durant au moins un stade de production. Parmi eux, 53 % utilisent exclusivement des sous-produits. Le son de riz (52 % et le mélange de sons de riz et de maïs (28 % sont les plus utilisés. Les prix moyens de ces sous-produits varient entre 20 et 105 FCFA/kg. Oreochromis niloticus et Heterotis niloticus sont les principales espèces élevées en polyculture sur les fermes. Les sous-produits sont utilisés en système semi-intensif, extensif et en rizipisciculture, en majorité en zone rurale. Les pisciculteurs sont pour la plupart des agriculteurs, âgés de plus de 40 ans. Les taux d’utilisation des sous-produits sont plus élevés dans les régions de l’Ouest, du Centre-Ouest et du Sud-Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire, par rapport à celles du Sud et de l’Est. Les rendements des fermes sont relativement faibles (544 à 2445 kg/ha/an, avec des gains moyens quotidiens de 0,87 et 9,97 g/j pour le tilapia et l’heterotis respectivement. L’analyse des stratégies des acteurs suggère la nécessité de définir des mécanismes d’accompagnement et de financement de la pisciculture, afin que ces acteurs puissent améliorer les formulations alimentaires à partir des matières premières locales et accessibles.

  2. Neutron flux in a periodical slab geometry (1960); Flux neutronique dans un milieu multiplicateur perturbe par la presence de lames planes (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, J de; Mathelot, P; Cadhilac, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the present report, we explain an original method to perform exact calculations of neutron flux in either of two geometries: a slab surrounded by an infinite multiplying medium or a periodical, one dimensional array of two different media. (author) [French] La methode exposee dans ce rapport permet de calculer exactement la distribution du flux dans un milieu multiplicateur infini dont l'uniformite est perturbee par l'interposition d'une lame plane de nature differente, ou dont l'heterogeneite est de caractere periodique et unidimensionnel. (auteur)

  3. Use of gamma spectroscopy in activation analysis; Utilisation de la spectrographie gamma dans l'analyse par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Brief review of the principles of activation analysis: calculation of activities, decay curves, {beta} absorption curves, examples of application. - Principle and description of the {gamma} spectrograph. - Practical utilisation of the {gamma} spectrograph: analysis by activation, analysis by {beta} - x fluorescence. - Sensitivity limit of the method and precision of the measurements. - Possible improvements to the method: {gamma} spectroscopy with elimination of the Compton effect. (author) [French] Bref rappel des principes de l'analyse par activation: calcul des activites, courbes de decroissance, courbes d'absorption {beta}, exemples d'utilisation. - Principe et description du spectrographe {gamma}. - Utilisation pratique de la spectrographie {gamma}: analyse par activation, analyse par fluorescence {beta} - x. - Limite de sensibilite de la methode et precision des mesures. - Ameliorations possibles de la methode: spectrographe {gamma} avec elimination de l'effet Compton. (auteur)

  4. Le recours aux modeles dans l'enseignement de la biologie au secondaire : Conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants et modes d'utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Madeleine

    Le recours aux modeles et a la modelisation est mentionne dans la documentation scientifique comme un moyen de favoriser la mise en oeuvre de pratiques d'enseignement-apprentissage constructivistes pour pallier les difficultes d'apprentissage en sciences. L'etude prealable du rapport des enseignantes et des enseignants aux modeles et a la modelisation est alors pertinente pour comprendre leurs pratiques d'enseignement et identifier des elements dont la prise en compte dans les formations initiale et disciplinaire peut contribuer au developpement d'un enseignement constructiviste des sciences. Plusieurs recherches ont porte sur ces conceptions sans faire de distinction selon les matieres enseignees, telles la physique, la chimie ou la biologie, alors que les modeles ne sont pas forcement utilises ou compris de la meme maniere dans ces differentes disciplines. Notre recherche s'est interessee aux conceptions d'enseignantes et d'enseignants de biologie au secondaire au sujet des modeles scientifiques, de quelques formes de representations de ces modeles ainsi que de leurs modes d'utilisation en classe. Les resultats, que nous avons obtenus au moyen d'une serie d'entrevues semi-dirigees, indiquent que globalement leurs conceptions au sujet des modeles sont compatibles avec celle scientifiquement admise, mais varient quant aux formes de representations des modeles. L'examen de ces conceptions temoigne d'une connaissance limitee des modeles et variable selon la matiere enseignee. Le niveau d'etudes, la formation prealable, l'experience en enseignement et un possible cloisonnement des matieres pourraient expliquer les differentes conceptions identifiees. En outre, des difficultes temporelles, conceptuelles et techniques peuvent freiner leurs tentatives de modelisation avec les eleves. Toutefois, nos resultats accreditent l'hypothese que les conceptions des enseignantes et des enseignants eux-memes au sujet des modeles, de leurs formes de representation et de leur approche

  5. Description of methods for making activation detectors for use in nuclear reactors; Description des procedes de fabrication des detecteurs d'activation utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, R; Le Coguie, R; Leger, P; Salon, L; Thierry, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A brief description of methods currently used for making activation detectors, thin films and various deposits used in nuclear reactors. The thicknesses required vary from about a few tenths of a micron to a few tenths of a millimeter. Different techniques are used for fixing the large variety of elements: rolling, moulding, painting, electrolysis, vacuum deposition, thin films, wires, enamels, protective linings, etc. (authors) [French] Expose succinct des procedes actuellement mis en oeuvre pour la realisation des detecteurs d'activation, feuilles minces et depots divers utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires. La gamme des epaisseurs necessaires s'etendant approximativement des dixiemes de micrometre aux dixiemes de millimetre. La diversite des elements a fixer justifiant les techniques differentes selon les cas: laminage, moulage, peinture, electrolyse, depot sous vide, couches minces, fils, emaux, revetements protecteurs, etc. (auteurs)

  6. Uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation sources in biological studies in U. A. R; Utilisation des radioisotopes et des sources de rayonnement dans les etudes biologiques en RAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashish, S. E. [Radiobiology Department, U. A. R. Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo, United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    1970-01-15

    An attempt is made to give examples rather than a review of the uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation sources in biological studies in U.A.R. Studies along these lines started early in 1955 and are still progressing. The prospects of future developments and improvements are unlimited. The studies are classified according to the radio technique adopted. The techniques so far used in U.A.R. include all the techniques known elsewhere. Some detailed modifications and combinations of more than one technique have been successfully introduced. Both in basic and applied biological studies, one or more of the following techniques have been applied, namely tracer technique, isotopic dilution analysis, autoradiography, radiochromatography and electrophoresis, double or multi-bioassays, radioactivation analysis, neutron absorption analysis, and use of different radiation source for somatic and/or genetic effect studies. Mass spectrometry for stable isotopic studies in the field of biology has been recently used. Studies undertaken in the applied fields of biology e. g, in medicine (diagnosis and therapy) and agriculture (soil, plant and animal) have proved extremely valuable from the practical and developmental points of view. (author) [French] Le mémoire a pour objet d'illustrer plutôt que d'exposer systématiquement les utilisations des radioisotopes et des sources de rayonnement dans des études biologiques en République Arabe Unie. Ces études, entreprises au début de 1955, se poursuivent. Les possibilités de développement et de perfectionnement sont illimitées. Les études sont classées d'après la radiotechnique adoptée. Les techniques régulièrement utilisées jusqu' à présent en République Arabe Unie couvrent toute la gamme des techniques connues ailleurs. On a réussi à apporter des modifications de détail et à combiner plusieurs techniques. Dans les études de biologie tant fondamentale qu' appliquée, une ou plusieurs des techniques suivantes

  7. Utilisation des structures géotechniques pour l’extraction d’énergie dans les routes

    OpenAIRE

    Dupray, Fabrice; Minon, Sophie; Schurmann, Clémentine Eléonore; Laloui, Lyesse

    2010-01-01

    Les géostructures énergétiques ont vu un important développement depuis leurs premières réalisations au début des années 1980. Elles permettent par la circulation d’un fluide caloporteur dans des parois enterrées ou des pieux une forte récupération d’énergie géothermique de surface pour un coût modique (pompe à chaleur). Une des pistes de développement les plus récentes consiste à étendre leur usage à de nouveaux ouvrages enterrés, que l’on rencontre dans le cas des tunnels, ou à de nouveaux ...

  8. L'UTILISATION DE LA PENSÉE LEAN DANS LE CONTEXTE DE LA RESPONSABILITÉ SOCIALE DE L'ENTREPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BRICIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilité sociale est un concept toujours plus présent dans l'économie actuelle. Les préoccupations des entreprises dans ce domaine sont dues aux avantages apportés par la mise en pratique de ce concept à moyen et à long terme. Étant donné l'intérêt progressif manifesté envers la responsabilité sociale d'une part, vue comme facteur compétitif pour le succès d'une affaire, et de la pensée lean d'autre part, comme étant la plus importante philosophie de management de notre époque, le but de cet article est de présenter les deux concepts et d'analyser la relation d'entre eux. Les résultats de la recherche ont mis en évidence le fait que la littérature spécialisée offre des arguments forts concernant la relation d'entre la pensée lean et la responsabilité sociale, mais les entreprises qui ont mis en pratique la pensée lean dans leurs activités peuvent être considérées comme des entreprises socialement responsables.

  9. Oxygen titration in sodium. The mercury method and its use for very low values; Dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium. La methode au mercure : son utilisation dans le cas de tres faibles teneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champeix, L; Darras, R; Duflo, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The mercury method for the oxygen titration in sodium has now been known for ten years and is probably the more frequently used. In this text, precision are given to what extent it is valuable when used in microanalysis. Details are given on the apparatus, its manipulation and its calibration. After testing, we have decided to use flame spectroscopy to titrate the sodium hydroxide formed. Discussions are exposed on the errors due to the presence of sodium chloride and calcium. Results are examined from the point of view of their reproducibility and accuracy. If great care is taken, this method allows oxygen titration in sodium even for values below 10 ppm with satisfactory precision. (author) [French] La methode au mercure pour le dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium est connue depuis une dizaine d'annees, elle est probablement la plus utilisee. Nous avons voulu preciser dans quelle mesure elle etait valable dans le domaine des faibles teneurs avec une precision acceptable. Nous decrivons en detail l'appareil utilise pour l'analyse, le mode operatoire et la methode d'etalonnage. Nos essais nous ont conduit a adopter la spectrographie de flamme pour le dosage de la soude formee, les erreurs introduites par la presence de chlorure de sodium et de calcium sont discutes. Les resultats obtenus sont examines du point de vue de la reproductibilite, de la justesse. Moyennant un mode operatoire tres soigne, cette methode permet le dosage de l'oxygene dans le sodium, meme a des teneurs inferieures a 10 ppm avec une precision satisfaisante. (auteur)

  10. The use of tracers in the study of the ionic permeability of the nerve; Utilisation des indicateurs nucleaires dans l'etude de la permeabilite ionique du nerf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinnebault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The use of the radioactive tracers {sup 24}Na and {sup 42}K, and the electrophysiological fine study carried out on the plant Cephalopods nervous cells have made it possible, during ten years, to study the relationships between the electrical phenomena observed during the propagation of the nervous impulse and the ionic movements which occur at the cell membrane between the intra- and extra-cellular media. In the state of rest, the nerve fibres present a certain permeability towards sodium and potassium, a permeability which allows the renewal, from the extra-cellular medium, of the cations contained in the cytoplasm. At the moment of the passage of the nervous impulse, it is possible to demonstrate a temporary increase in the permeability towards the sodium which causes the entry of Na{sup +} ions into the nerve fibre, whilst, a few milliseconds later, the increase in the potassium permeability causes the departure of an equivalent quantity of K{sup +} ions. A recovery phase follows the passage of the nervous impulse, during which the original ionic conditions are re-established. If the potassium movements can be considered as passive, the expulsion of Na{sup +} requires, on the part of the cell, the use of a part of the metabolic energy. (author) [French] L'utilisation des indicateurs radioactifs {sup 24}Na et {sup 42}K, et l'etude electrophysiologique fine realisee sur des cellules nerveuses geantes de Cephalopodes a permis, depuis une dizaine d'annees, d'etudier les rapports entre les phenomenes electriques observes lors de la propagation de l'influx nerveux et les mouvements ioniques qui s'effectuent au niveau de la membrane cellulaire entre milieux intracellulaire et extracellulaire. A l'etat de repos, les fibres nerveuses possedent pour le sodium et le potassium, une permeabilite qui permet le renouvellement, a partir du milieu extracellulaire des cations contenus dans le cytoplasme. Au moment du passage de l'influx nerveux, on peut mettre en evidence une

  11. Technical note concerning the use of cellulose ester filtering membranes in the determination of plutonium in urine; Note technique sur l'utilisation des membranes filtrantes d'esters de cellulose dans le dosage du plutonium dans les urines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harduin, J C; Montels, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, la Hague (France)

    1968-07-01

    During the last stage of the determination of plutonium in biological media, cellulose ester filtering membranes are used for collecting, with the help of a special device, the very fine precipitate resulting from the co-precipitation of plutonium and lanthanum fluorides. The membranes are then dried, and stuck on to flat watch-glasses for a {alpha} counting. A method is then given for purifying the lanthanum so as to keep the background noise during counting as low as possible. (author) [French] Dans la phase terminale du dosage du plutonium dans les milieux biologiques, on utilise les membranes filtrantes d'esters de cellulose pour recueillir, a l'aide d'un dispositif particulier, le precipite tres tenu resultant de la co-precipitation plutonium-lanthane sous forme de fluorure - Les membranes sont ensuite sechees puis collees sur verre de montre plat avant d'etre passees au compteur alpha. Un mode de purification du lanthane est ensuite donne afin de ne pas augmenter le bruit de fond des appareils de comptage. (auteur)

  12. La réutilisation des eaux usées traitées en agriculture dans la délégation de Mornèg, en Tunisie

    OpenAIRE

    Selmi , Salah; Elloum , Mohamed; Hammami , Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    International audience; La rareté de l'eau en Tunisie justifie tout investissement supplémentaire pour la mobilisation et la mise à la disposition de l'eau dans les différents secteurs économiques, selon sa qualité et son usage potentiel. La réutilisation des eaux usées, après leur traitement, entre dans le cadre de la stratégie de mobilisation et de développement des ressources en eau du pays. En irrigation et par rapport aux ressources conventionnelles, la contribution des eaux usées traité...

  13. Utilisation de la visioconférence dans un programme de FLE : tâches communicatives et interactions orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gaveau

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Le projet FR 2003 est un cours expérimental de Français Langue Étrangère (FLE qui conjugue un mode apprentissage présentiel intensif au Centre de Linguistique Appliquée à Besançon puis distant à l'université Sophia à Tokyo au Japon via une plate-forme de téléformation. Cette dernière phase qui avait pour but de prolonger l'apprentissage du français et l'expérience de l'environnement francophone du groupe d'apprenants japonais a donné lieu à une série d'activités orales (jeux de rôle, interviews, débats, travaux et présentations de projets à travers l'utilisation régulière d'une station de visioconférence connectée à Internet. Les échanges entre apprenants et enseignants à l'intérieur de ces environnements numériques ont été enregistrés et font apparaître la visioconférence comme un outil privilégié pour le développement de tâches communicatives et interactives orales en FLE.

  14. Study of the effect of the energy spectrum and of the total flux on the damage produced by neutrons in solids; Contribution a l'etude de l'influence du spectre et du flux integre sur les dommages crees par les neutrons dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulieu, P.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie

  15. SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie de programmes Java5

    OpenAIRE

    Barais , Olivier

    2006-01-01

    2 ième Journée sur l'Ingénièrie Dirigée par les Modèles; Ce document présente succinctement SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie d'applications écrites en Java. L'accent dans cette courte présentation est mis sur les cas d'utilisation possibles de cette brique logicielle et l'intérêt des choix techniques retenus : le framework EMF pour l'expression du méta-modèle afin de favoriser l'interopérabilité avec d'autres outils et l'intégration ...

  16. Utilisation de dispositifs a transfert de charge pour la detection de muons cosmiques dans un contexte de tomographie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Ouellet, Laurence Olivier

    775 mum respectively, which translates to 28 000 and 76 000 electron-hole pairs as signal for the two thicknesses. All the results obtained through Geant4 are consistent with the known theory of energy deposits in thin semiconductor materials. A practical experimentation was also considered, using an astronomical camera DMK51 AU02.AS to capture a series of images hidden from light with the camera turned towards the sky. The pixels presenting a high intensity are considered to be the consequence of the passage of a muon. The expected rate of detection according to the size of the detector was 0.372 muons per minute but the results were 0.1578 muons per minute for data taken inside Polytechnique and 0.1615 for images taken outside. Therefore, the presence of about two meters of concrete above the camera does not significantly affect the detectable muon flux. However, the ratio of 40 % between expected signal and the observations is explained by the small size of the sensitive area of a pixel when compared to its total size. Components such as electrodes and differently doped silicon occupy a certain area in the pixel causing it, in the eyes of the muon, to be much smaller. A smaller pixel will ensure a smaller expected muon flux. Also, the possibility that the energy deposition is simply too small in some cases to be detected is also studied in the results section and solutions to resolve this problem are presented in the conclusion.

  17. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature; Etude de quelques echangeurs mineraux utilisables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J; Platzer, R; Bittel, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Fourre, J [Societe le Carbone Lorraine, 75 - Paris (France); Wey, R [Faculte des Sciences de Strasbourg, Lab. de Mineralogie, 67 (France)

    1958-07-01

    these impurities (that is to say capable of de-mineralizing polluted water). This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation. (author) [French] L'etude de l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions a haute temperature a ete essentiellement faite en vue de l'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs. On connait l'interet qu'il y a a garder dans un circuit de reacteur de l'eau de tres haute resistivite (plusieurs centaines a quelques millions {omega}.cm): abaissement de la corrosion, abaissement du taux de radiolyse, abaissement de la radioactivite des circuits et canalisations, les elements autres que les constituants de l'eau transportes par celle-ci devenant generalement radioactifs par leur passage au coeur du reacteur. Si la circulation d'eau se fait a des temperatures inferieures a 45 deg. C, les resines echangeuses d'ions organiques utilisees en lit melange resolvent tres bien le probleme de l'epuration en continu. Par contre, pour des temperatures plus elevees surtout au-dessus de 100 deg. C, leur utilisation n'est pas possible, la degradation de ces hauts polymeres etant tres rapide. De meme, l'action des rayonnements, par exemple ceux des produits fixes par les echangeurs d'ions, detruit irremediablement les chaines organiques constituant le squelette de ces echangeurs. Nous avons donc cherche d'es composes pouvant assurer une bonne deionisation de l'eau, mais de structures telles qu'elles ne soient pas deteriorees par l'action de la temperature et des rayonnements. Nous nous sommes particulierement orientes dans trois voies: - echangeurs d'ions naturels a structure minerale (argile du type montmorillonite), - composes mineraux naturels traites pour leur conferer les proprietes d'echangeurs d'ions (charbons actives), - composes mineraux synthetiques (sels tres peu solubles, phosphate et hydroxyde de zirconium et de thorium). Dans ces etudes, nous nous sommes attaches a obtenir des produits stables en presence d'eau a haute temperature, tres insolubles et non

  18. Spatial flux instabilities, and their control in the graphite gas power reactors; Les instabilites spatiales du flux et leur controle dans les reacteurs de puissance graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailly, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Radial-azimuthal and axial spatial flux instabilities in graphite-gas reactors are studied by means of an analytical approach. Results are checked with those which are given by two dimensional (r, z and r, {theta}) kinetic models programmed for an IBM 7094 computer. At least, conclusions on the control of instabilities obtained from these models are reported. (author) [French] Les instabilites spatiales du flux dans les reacteurs graphite-gaz, radiales et azimutales d'une part, axiales d'autre part, sont etudiees au moyen d'une formulation analytique. Les resultats sont confrontes avec ceux que fournissent des modeles cinetiques a deux dimensions (r, z et r, {theta}) programmes sur IBM 7094. On donne enfin les conclusions relatives au controle de ces instabilites que ces modeles ont permis de degager. (auteur)

  19. Biological monochromator with a high flux in the visible spectrum; Un monochromateur biologique a haut flux dans le visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, M; Guerin de Montgareuil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The object is to carry out research into photosynthesis using energetic illuminations similar to those employed with white light studies. The limitations are due mainly to the source. A comparison of various possible solutions has led to the choice of the sun used in conjunction with 4 large gratings. In an intermediate stage, a description is given of a medium-aperture monochromator with a 3 kW xenon arc and a single grating. With this set-up it is possible to obtain the following performance, given as an example; energy illumination, 1.3 mW/cm{sup 2} over a surface of 50 cm{sup 2} and for a bandwidth at half-height of 50 Angstroms. (authors) [French] L'objectif est de poursuivre en lumiere monochromatique des etudes de photosynthese avec des eclairements energetiques analogues a ceux qu'on utilise en lumiere blanche. Les limitations se situent principalement au niveau de la source. Une comparaison effectuee entre differentes solutions possibles conduit a preconiser l'emploi du soleil associe a 4 grands reseaux. En etape intermediaire on decrit un monochromateur de moyenne ouverture, avec un arc au xenon de 3 kW et un seul reseau, qui permet d'atteindre les performances suivantes donnees a titre d'exemple: eclairement energetique de 1,3 mW/cm{sup 2} sur une surface de 50 cm{sup 2} et pour une bande passante a mi-hauteur de 50 Angstroems. (auteurs)

  20. Examining Informal Learning using Mobile Devices in the Healthcare Workplace / Examen de l’apprentissage informel par l’utilisation d’appareils mobiles dans le milieu des soins de santé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy (Willy Fahlman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of workplace learning and informal learning are not new to adult education and pedagogy. However, the use of mobile devices as learning tools for informal learning in the workplace is an understudied area. Using theories on informal learning and constructivism as a framework, this paper explores informal learning of registered nurses using mobile devices to meet their learning needs for continuing professional education, professional development, and continuing competence within the challenging healthcare workplace. In this mixed methods study, participants used their devices for self-directed informal learning with non-collaborative strategies/processes for evidence-based support, new procedures/treatments, professional development, patient/client teaching, and maintaining competency. Positive perceptions were articulated. Minimal differences were associated to the nurses’ age. However, workplace-related influences were relevant to the informal learning experiences with the mobile devices. L'étude de l'apprentissage en milieu de travail et de l’apprentissage informel n’est pas nouvelle dans le domaine de l'éducation des adultes et de la pédagogie. Cependant, l'utilisation d'appareils mobiles comme outils pour l'apprentissage informel en milieu de travail est un domaine peu étudié. En utilisant comme cadre d’analyse des théories de l'apprentissage informel et le constructivisme, cet article examine l'apprentissage informel des infirmières utilisant des appareils mobiles pour répondre à leurs besoins d'apprentissage en contexte de formation professionnelle continue, de perfectionnement professionnel et de maintien de leurs compétences dans le milieu difficile de la santé. Dans cette étude à méthodologies mixtes, les participants ont utilisé leurs appareils pour un apprentissage autodirigé informel à l’aide de stratégies et de processus non collaboratifs permettant un appui sur des données factuelles, pour

  1. Preparation and properties of thin films used in activity determinations with a 4 {pi} counter; Preparation et proprietes des films minces utilises dans les determinations d'activite au compteur 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannez, M.; Le Gallic, Y.; Thenard, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Comparative study of various methods of preparing thin films, for use as source holders in the 4 {pi} counter, and of measuring their thickness. Comparative study of various properties: mechanical resistance; heat resistance; ageing; resistance of rhodopas, polystyrene, formvar and cellulose acetate films to the action of various chemical agents. (author) [French] Etude comparee de divers procedes de preparation de films minces, destines a etre utilises comme supports de sources dans le compteur 4 {pi} et de la mesure de leur epaisseur. Etude comparee de diverses proprietes: resistance mecanique; resistance a la chaleur; vieillissement; resistance a l'action de divers agents chimiques de films de rhodopas, polystyrene, formvar et acetate de cellulose. (auteur)

  2. L’utilisation de quelques outils web 2.0 et la création de tâches actionnelles comme stratégie d’accompagnement dans le processus d’enseignement/ apprentissage de FLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Janneth Baquero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article montre les résultats d’une étude de recherche sur l’utilisation de quelques outils web 2.0 sur une plateforme virtuelle comme stratégie d’accompagnement dans le processus d’enseignement/apprentissage du Français Langue Étrangère, désormais fle. Ce travail a pour objectif l’observation et l’analyse d’une plateforme virtuelle pour proposer des tâches actionnelles en nous servant des outils web 2.0, lesquels sont plus en accord avec un étudiant-acteur-social d’après la perspective actionnelle privilégiée par le Cadre Commun Européen de Référence pour l'Enseignement des Langues Étrangères.

  3. Preparation and properties of thin films used in activity determinations with a 4 {pi} counter; Preparation et proprietes des films minces utilises dans les determinations d'activite au compteur 4 {pi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannez, M; Le Gallic, Y; Thenard, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Comparative study of various methods of preparing thin films, for use as source holders in the 4 {pi} counter, and of measuring their thickness. Comparative study of various properties: mechanical resistance; heat resistance; ageing; resistance of rhodopas, polystyrene, formvar and cellulose acetate films to the action of various chemical agents. (author) [French] Etude comparee de divers procedes de preparation de films minces, destines a etre utilises comme supports de sources dans le compteur 4 {pi} et de la mesure de leur epaisseur. Etude comparee de diverses proprietes: resistance mecanique; resistance a la chaleur; vieillissement; resistance a l'action de divers agents chimiques de films de rhodopas, polystyrene, formvar et acetate de cellulose. (auteur)

  4. Tests on dynamic corrosion by water. Influence of the passage of a heat flux on the corrosion kinetics. pH measurement in water at high temperature; Essais de corrosion dynamique par l'eau. Influence du passage d'un flux thermique sur la cinetique de corrosion. Mesure du pH dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Grall, L.; Hure, J.; Saint-James, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France); Le peintre [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1958-07-01

    The passage of a heat flux through the surface of a metal placed in a corrosive medium influences the rate of corrosion, these being higher than under adiabatic conditions. The apparatus developed for corrosion tests is described, it is possible to obtain with this equipment: 1) Heat fluxes greater than 200 W/cm{sup 2}, across aluminium canning, which is cooled by water (temperature 50 deg. C), circulating with flow rates of the order of 5 to 6 m/s. 2) Heat fluxes which can go up to 150 W/cm{sup 2}, across canning of zircaloy or stainless steel. The cooling fluid is pressurized water at a temperature around 280 deg. C, the flow-rate of circulation reaching 6 m/s. The results obtained on aluminium canning are studied from the viewpoint of corrosion, paying particular attention to cavitation phenomena which can cause serious damage in certain special circumstances. After developing a glass electrode system capable of supporting high pressures, the authors have investigated materials capable of functioning as a hydrogen electrode and of resisting satisfactorily corrosion by water at 200 deg. C. Various possibilities have been examined: electrodes of special glasses, quartz, metals, with a membrane etc... The results of the various tests and the practical limits of utilisation are given. (author)Fren. [French] Le passage d'un flux thermique a travers la surface d'un metal place dans un milieu corrosif influence les vitesses de corrosion, celles-ci etant plus elevees que dans des conditions adiabatiques. On decrit les appareils mis au point, pour essais de corrosion. Ils permettent d'obtenir: 1) A travers des gaine aluminium des flux thermiques depassant 200 W /cm{sup 2}. Les gaines sont refroidies par l'eau (temperature 50 deg. C), circulant a des vitesses de l'ordre de 5 a 6 m/s. 2) A travers des gaines en zircaloy ou acier inoxydable des flux thermiques pouvant s'elever a 150 W/cm{sup 2}. Le fluide de refroidissement est de l

  5. Experimental study of heat exchange coefficients, critical heat flux and charge losses, using water-steam mixtures in turbulent flow in a vertical tube; Etude experimentale des coefficients d'echanges thermiques, des flux de chaleur critiques et des pertes de charge avec des melanges eau-vapeur en ecoulement turbulent dans un tube vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P; De La Harpe, A; Rebiere, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Two stainless steel tubes were used (with diameters of 5 and 10 mm, lengths 400 and 600 mm respectively), heated electrically (50 Hz). The mixture flows from top to bottom. The work was carried out mainly on mixtures of high concentration (x > 0.1), at pressures between 50 and 60 kg/cm{sup 2}, flowing as a liquid film on the walls of the tube with droplets suspended in the central current of steam. By analysis of the heat transfer laws the exchange mechanisms were established, and the conditions under which the critical heat flux may be exceeded without danger of actual burnout were determined. In this way high output concentrations (x{sub s} > 0.9) may be obtained. An attempt has been made to find out to what extent existing correlation formulae can be used to account for the phenomena observed. It is shown that those dealing with exchange coefficients can only be applied in a first approximation in cases where exchange by convection is preponderant, and only below the critical flux. The formulae proposed by WAPD and CISE do not give a satisfactory estimation of the critical heat flux, and the essential reasons for this inadequacy are explained. Lastly, the Martinelli and Nelson method may be used to an approximation of 30 per cent for the calculation of charge losses. (author) [French] On a utilise deux tubes en acier inox (avec des diametres de 5 et 10 mm, et des longueurs respectives 400 et 600 mm) chauffes electriquement (50 Hz). Le melange s'ecoule de haut en bas. Les etudes ont porte plus specialement sur des melanges de titres eleves (x > 0,1) a des pressions comprises entre 60 et 90 kg/cm{sup 2} dont l'ecoulement se fait avec film liquide annulaire et gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur de vapeur. Par l'analyse des lois de transfert de chaleur, on a precise les mecanismes d'echanges et l'on a d'autre part determine dans quelles conditions le flux de chaleur critique peut etre depasse sans danger de 'burnout' proprement dit. On peut ainsi obtenir des

  6. Tests on dynamic corrosion by water. Influence of the passage of a heat flux on the corrosion kinetics. pH measurement in water at high temperature; Essais de corrosion dynamique par l'eau. Influence du passage d'un flux thermique sur la cinetique de corrosion. Mesure du pH dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Grall, L; Hure, J; Saint-James, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Berthod, [Societe Grenobloise d' Etudes et d' Applications Hydrauliques, 38 (France); peintre, Le [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1958-07-01

    The passage of a heat flux through the surface of a metal placed in a corrosive medium influences the rate of corrosion, these being higher than under adiabatic conditions. The apparatus developed for corrosion tests is described, it is possible to obtain with this equipment: 1) Heat fluxes greater than 200 W/cm{sup 2}, across aluminium canning, which is cooled by water (temperature 50 deg. C), circulating with flow rates of the order of 5 to 6 m/s. 2) Heat fluxes which can go up to 150 W/cm{sup 2}, across canning of zircaloy or stainless steel. The cooling fluid is pressurized water at a temperature around 280 deg. C, the flow-rate of circulation reaching 6 m/s. The results obtained on aluminium canning are studied from the viewpoint of corrosion, paying particular attention to cavitation phenomena which can cause serious damage in certain special circumstances. After developing a glass electrode system capable of supporting high pressures, the authors have investigated materials capable of functioning as a hydrogen electrode and of resisting satisfactorily corrosion by water at 200 deg. C. Various possibilities have been examined: electrodes of special glasses, quartz, metals, with a membrane etc... The results of the various tests and the practical limits of utilisation are given. (author)Fren. [French] Le passage d'un flux thermique a travers la surface d'un metal place dans un milieu corrosif influence les vitesses de corrosion, celles-ci etant plus elevees que dans des conditions adiabatiques. On decrit les appareils mis au point, pour essais de corrosion. Ils permettent d'obtenir: 1) A travers des gaine aluminium des flux thermiques depassant 200 W /cm{sup 2}. Les gaines sont refroidies par l'eau (temperature 50 deg. C), circulant a des vitesses de l'ordre de 5 a 6 m/s. 2) A travers des gaines en zircaloy ou acier inoxydable des flux thermiques pouvant s'elever a 150 W/cm{sup 2}. Le fluide de refroidissement est de l'eau sous pression a une temperature

  7. Student Perceptions of Using Tablet Technology in Post-Secondary Classes / Perceptions des étudiants quant à l’utilisation des tablettes électroniques dans les classes universitaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin F Mang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses students’ attitudes towards using tablets, such as the Apple iPad, in university classes. Tablets are found to be a substitute for laptop computers. Students initially expressed a great deal of optimism regarding the technology, and, although their views diminished slightly as they gained experience with using a tablet, their attitude towards the technology remained overwhelmingly positive. Most students experienced an easy transition from using a laptop to using a tablet. Furthermore, once students adopted the tablets in place of their laptops for in-class use, the types of tasks they performed with the tablets differed from the types of tasks they had previously performed with the laptop. Overall, the tablets reduced the incidence of off-task behaviour during lectures such as using chat and social networking applications. Cet article évalue les attitudes des étudiants quant à l’utilisation de tablettes électroniques telles que le iPad d’Apple dans les classes universitaires. Les tablettes sont considérées comme des substituts aux ordinateurs portables. Les étudiants ont d’abord exprimé beaucoup d’optimisme à l’égard de cette technologie, et bien que leur perception se soit légèrement dégradée avec l’expérience de la tablette, leur attitude envers la technologie est restée très positive. La plupart des étudiants ont effectué une transition facile entre l’utilisation d’un ordinateur portable et celle d’une tablette. En outre, une fois que les étudiants ont adopté en classe les tablettes à la place de leurs ordinateurs portables, les types de tâches qu’ils accomplissaient avec les tablettes ont différé des celles qu’ils effectuaient précédemment avec l’ordinateur portable. Dans l’ensemble, les tablettes ont réduit les cas de comportements hors tâche durant les cours, comme l’utilisation du tchat et des réseaux sociaux.

  8. Barriers to Systemic, Effective, and Sustainable Technology Use in High School Classrooms / Obstacles à l’utilisation systémique, efficace et durable de la technologie dans les salles de classe des écoles secondaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Scott Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Technology and High School Success (THSS initiative was to encourage innovative strategies focused on improving provincial high school completion rates, using technology and student-centered learning to engage student interest. The primary purpose of this paper is to report on barriers that impede systemic, effective and sustainable technology integration within schools. Even with teacher and administrative support and commitment for THSS, evaluative research indicated minimal change in system capacity as a result of the initiative. Three primary barriers to program sustainability were: 1 schools and school districts did not leverage the opportunity to revisit their existing vision(s, 2 schools and school districts did not use data to make changes, and 3 limited access to technology. Le but de l’initiative « Technology and High School Success (THSS » était d'encourager des stratégies novatrices visant à améliorer le taux d’achèvement des études secondaires dans la province de l’Alberta en utilisant la technologie et un apprentissage centré sur l'élève afin de susciter l'intérêt des élèves. L'objectif principal de cet article est de rendre compte des obstacles entravant l'intégration systémique, efficace et durable de la technologie dans les écoles. La recherche évaluative a révélé des changements minimes dans la capacité systémique à la suite de l'initiative, et ce, malgré l’appui et l’engagement des enseignants et des administrateurs envers le THSS. Les trois obstacles principaux à la viabilité du programme sont les suivants: 1 les écoles et les districts scolaires n'ont pas profité de l’occasion pour revoir leur(s vision(s, 2 les écoles et les districts scolaires n'ont pas utilisé les données pour effectuer des changements, et 3 l'accès limité à la technologie.

  9. Extraction apparatus used in the treatment of irradiated fuels; Les appareils d'extraction utilises dans le traitement des combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Talmont, X [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The two qualities necessary in an extractor in the case of solvent extraction of radioactive materials are that they should occupy little space and require little maintenance. In this paper various types of apparatus designed to this effect are examined: firstly mixer-decanter types with mechanical shaking and with shaking and decantation ultrasonically accelerated; then pulsed columns; finally hydro-cyclones. The chemical engineering studies peculiar to the running, supply and control of each of these extractors are described in detail. In certain cases some results obtained on radioactive solutions on a pilot scale are given. (author) [French] Faible encombrement, peu d'entretien, telles sont les deux qualites qu'un extracteur doit posseder dans le cas d'extraction par solvant de matieres radioactives. Dans ce texte seront examines differents types d'appareils concus dans cet esprit: d'abord les appareils typez melangeurs-decanteurs a agitation mecanique, a agitation et decantation accelerees aux ultra-sons; puis les colonnes pulsees; enfin les hydrocyclones. Pour chacun de ces extracteurs seront detaillees les etudes de genie chimique propres a son fonctionnement, a son alimentation, a son controle. Pour certains seront notes quelques resultats obtenus sur des solutions radioactives a l'echelle pilote. (auteur)

  10. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  11. Pertinence de l’utilisation du modèle de Toulmin dans l’analyse de corpus The relevance of Toulmin’s model in case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel de Jonge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A travers cette réflexion, nous montrons comment le modèle de Toulmin, en tant qu’outil logico-argumentatif, peut aider à la description de mécanismes rhétoriques et argumentatifs opérant au sein du discours. Ce modèle permet en effet de mettre en avant la justification d’un argument et d’analyser comment celle-ci s’articule à son fondement, vu comme le cadre topique dans lequel cette justification s’inscrit. Nous examinons le cas particulier des Déclarations des droits de l’homme, exemplaire dans cette perspective d’analyse. Leur structure est divisée en trois catégories: préambule, proclamation, articles, qui correspondent à la structure du raisonnement argumentatif justification-conclusion. L’analyse de ce corpus permet, d’une part, de vérifier des hypothèses à propos de la topique des droits de l’homme et de son articulation au sein des discours, d’autre part de jeter les bases d’une méthode d’analyse toulminienne qui suppose la corrélation entre le fondement au sens technique que lui donne Toulmin et le fondement en tant qu’instance psycho-cognitive qui dépend de facteurs cognitifs tant que culturels. L’analyse montre en effet les différences de vision du monde qui peuvent être dégagées de la comparaison des schémas toulminiens. La présence du génocide et des actes barbares au sein de la justification de la Déclaration universelle des droits de l’homme de 1948 est centrale pour comprendre le renversementde perspective sur les droits de l’homme par rapport à la Déclaration de 1789. En 1789, les droits de l’homme étaient proclamés comme moyens d’accéder au bonheur ; alors qu’en 1948 ils sont une condition nécessaire de non-reproduction des actes barbares. Les conséquences pour les discours sont très importantes, puisque dans le premier cas, l’orateur va se positionner dans un cadre utopiste pour argumenter ; alors que dans le second l’expérience traumatique de

  12. Application of radioisotope techniques to the study of endemic goitre on Idjwi Island; Utilisation de methodes radioisotopiques dans l' etude du goitre endemique de l'Ile Idjwi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delange, F.; Thilly, C.; Pourbadc, P.; Ermans, A. M. [CEMUBAC auprès de l' IRSAC, Lwiro (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the); Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    1970-01-15

    On a world-wide scale endemic goitre represents one of the major problems of public health inasmuch as at least 200 million people are affected by this disease. Endemic goitre is particularly prevalent in Africa. The authors have recently undertaken a study of endemic goitre on Idjwi Island (Lake Kivu). The inhabitants of this island comprise an isolated population group. The island is geographically divided into a north and south zone with only occasional contact between the populations of the two zones. The entire population of the island has been examined and three zones can be distinguished as far as the prevalence of goitre is concerned: in the north of the island the number of cases is very high (averaging 54.4% of the population), whereas it drops to 5.3% in a limited region in the south-west; in the south and south-east of the island it is somewhere between the two. Radioisotope techniques have been applied to the study of three basic public health aspects of the disease. (author) [French] Le goitre endémique constitue à l’échelle mondiale un des problèmes majeurs de la santé publique puisque 200 millions de sujets au moins sont atteints par la maladie. Les endémies goitreuses sont particulièrement importantes en Afrique. Les auteurs ont entrepris récemment l'étude de l’endémie goitreuse de l'îleIdjwi (lac Kivu). Cette île constitue un groupe isolé de population. Elle est séparée géographiquement en deux zones: nord et sud. Les contacts entre les populations de ces deux zones sont épisodiques. La totalité de la population de l’île a été examinée. Trois zones peuvent être distinguées en ce qui concerne la prévalence du goitre: dans le nord de l’île elle est très élevée (valeur moyenne 54,4% de la population); par contre elle tombe à 5,3% dans une région limitée du sud-ouest; dans le sud et le sud-est de l’île elle est intermédiaire entre les deux premières. Des méthodes radioisotopiques ont été appliquées à l

  13. MODÉLISATION DES FLUX DE CHALEUR GÉNÉRÉS PAR FROTTEMENT GLISSANT DANS UN CONTACT CUIVRE-ACIER TRAVERSÉ PAR UN COURANT ÉLECTRIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BOUCHOUCHA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Le problème de la conduction de la chaleur dans un contact électrique glissant cuivre–acier est étudié. Le couple fonctionne dans des conditions atmosphériques et est donc refroidi par convection naturelle à travers les faces latérales. En utilisant l'équation de la chaleur, un modèle de calcul de la température interfaciale a été élaboré. A l'aide de la méthode des volumes finis, les résultats de la température en fonction de la charge normale, la vitesse de glissement et le courant électrique sont donnés. Une comparaison avec la méthode d'Archard est faite. Les résultats montrent une bonne concordance. Une discussion globale du modèle élaboré et son application dans les contacts électriques glissants a été dégagée.

  14. Utiliser le capital religieux pour réduire la pauvreté ? Une étude de cas de la migration transfrontalière dans le sud de la Chine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La notion de capital religieux de Laurence Iannaccone met en relief la capacité des individus à puiser des ressources dans les pratiques religieuses ou fondées sur la foi, puis à convertir ce capital religieux en capital humain, social et financier. Les processus d’accumulation et de conversion du capital ont d’importantes incidences sur la réduction de la pauvreté. Cependant, cet article sur les expériences transfrontalières vécues par des migrantes chinoises pauvres dans le sud de la Chine donne à penser que le capital religieux est réparti de manière très inégale au sein des communautés de migrants. La pratique religieuse requiert à la fois du temps et des ressources, si bien que chez les personnes très pauvres, d’importantes contraintes entravent l’accès au capital religieux. L’article révèle certains signes de conversion du capital religieux chez les migrants, mais les causes profondes de la pauvreté, comme les discriminations sociales, n’ont pas été abordées comme il se doit. Pire encore, les membres de la classe dirigeante utilisent les symboles et les rituels religieux pour renforcer leur domination. L’article montre qu’il faut accorder plus d’importance à l’effet distributionnel du capital religieux pour que les pauvres puissent mieux en bénéficier.

  15. L'érosion et le ruissellement des sols rouges dans les monts de Zariffet-Algérie : utilisation de simulation de pluies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAHMANI ABDELMADJID

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Red - soil erosion and runoff in Zariffet - Algérie Mountains: utilising rain simulation. Soil is slowly renewable resource and once lost, gives a field that will not be as productive for many years. Over time, even small soil losses accumulate to reduced returns. The results obtained by rain simulation tests show that there are relationships between the solid filler (C and runoff (Kr especially when the soil is dry. All the results obtained have shown that the intensity of runoff and erosion is c losely related to the surface states, they even related to land use, slope and rainfall. The interaction of all these parameters is the origin of the genesis of runoff inducing soil loss. In parallel to these factors studied, other factors seem to increase the soil's susceptibility to erosion in the area Zariffet: increasingly extended water deficit, management practices that no longer follow bioclimatic changing environment and especially natural fire frequency. The simulation method, very useful approach, enabled to have significant results on the behavior of the soil and the factors involved on short notice

  16. Utilisation de mélanges non-azéotropiques dans les cycles thermodynamiques à compression Use of Non-Azeotropic Mixtures in Thermodynamic Compression Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosino J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation de mélanges non-azéotropiques comme fluides frigorigènes présente différents avantages en ce qui concerne le fonctionnement des installations de réfrigération / conditionnement / chauffage mettant en oeuvre des cycles thermodynamiques à compression avec changement de phase. En outre, de tels mélanges représentent une alternative intéressante aux corps purs actuellement recherchés pour résoudre les problèmes d'environnement liés à la destruction de la couche d'ozone. Cet article analyse les connaissances acquises concernant la mise en oeuvre d'une telle solution. The use of non-azeotropic mixtures as refrigerants has various advantages concerning the operating of refrigeration / air-conditioning / heating installations implementing thermodynamic compression cycles with a phase change. Likewise, such mixtures represent an interesting alternative to pure components which are now being looked to as a solution to environmental problems linked to the destruction of the ozone layer. This article analyzes what is known about the implementation of such a solution.

  17. Élaboration, fiabilité et utilisation d’un outil de mesure de l’environnement alimentaire dans les supermarchés de quatre quartiers de Montréal (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Jalbert-Arsenault

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : L’environnement alimentaire constitue un domaine propice si l'on veut influencer les habitudes alimentaires de la population. Cette étude visait à élaborer un outil de mesure de l’environnement alimentaire dans les commerces et à caractériser l’environnement alimentaire dans un secteur de Montréal (Canada possédant un niveau de revenu de faible à moyen. Méthodologie : Nous avons développé un outil, la Mesure de l’environnement alimentaire du consommateur dans les supermarchés (MEAC-S et nous l’avons mis à l’essai pour en confirmer la fiabilité. Nous avons utilisé la MEAC-S pour évaluer l’environnement alimentaire de consommation de 17 supermarchés dans quatre quartiers de Montréal. Nous avons mesuré la longueur d’étalage, la diversité, le prix, le nombre de présentoirs et la position en magasin des fruits et légumes (FL et des produits alimentaires ultra-transformés (PAUT. Nous avons également évalué la qualité des FL frais. La taille du magasin a été estimée en utilisant la longueur totale d’étalage mesurée pour toutes les catégories d’aliments. Nous avons effectué des corrélations de Spearman entre ces indicateurs de l’environnement alimentaire. Résultats : Les analyses de fiabilité ont donné des résultats satisfaisants pour la plupart des indicateurs. La caractérisation de l’environnement alimentaire a révélé une grande variabilité de la longueur d’étalage, de la diversité et du prix des FL entre les supermarchés ainsi qu’une mise en valeur disproportionnée des PAUT. Le nombre de présentoirs de PAUT hors de leur emplacement principal de vente variait de 7 à 26 et ces produits occupaient de 8 à 33 positions stratégiques en magasin, alors que le nombre de présentoirs hors de l’emplacement principal de vente de FL frais était supérieur à 1 dans seulement 2 des 17 magasins évalués et qu’ils occupaient un maximum de 2 emplacements strat

  18. Utilisation de quelques éléments minéraux dans la différenciation des vins de Galice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Latorre

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available La composition métallique de 44 vins de 6 cépages différents a été étudiée. Tous les cépages ont été cultivés sur le même type de terrain avec des conditions identiques. Les vins ont été élaborés en suivant les mêmes procédés de vinification. Les techniques de pattern recognition (analyse en composantes principales, analyse discriminante et KNN ont été appliquées aux données métalliques obtenues. La teneur métallique des vins est en rapport avec le cépage correspondant pour Mencía, Godello et Jerez. Des teneurs métalliques similaires ont été trouvées dans les vins des cépages Treixadura, Torrontés et Dona Branca.

  19. Principle of a liquid nitrogen irradiation device and its realization for use in a swimming-pool type reactor; Principe d'un dispositif d'irradiation a azote liquide et sa realisation pour utilisation dans une pile piscine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochirol, L; Doulat, J; Weil, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The problem of pile irradiation of samples immersed in liquid nitrogen has been solved with total elimination of explosion hazards and high reliability (no moving parts). The principle of the device is that of a double bath: one of high purity nitrogen cools the samples at the level of the core; a second of commercial nitrogen is located above the first one, outside the high radiation field, and works as a continuous condenser for the pure nitrogen, the flow-back of which is provided simply by gravity. The apparatus described in detail here has been designed for a swimming-pool pile. It was so designed as to provide absolute protection against radiations and to allow the irradiated samples to be easily removed in the cold condition. This apparatus has been in operation for several months. In a fast flux greater than 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s and a {gamma}-flux of the order of 10{sup 8} roentgens/h, the consumption of liquid nitrogen is of the order of 100 liters a day. (author) [French] On a resolu le probleme de l'irradiation en pile d'echantillons immerges dans l'azote liquide en construisant un appareil d'un fonctionnement sur (aucune partie n'est mobile) qui elimine completement les dangers d'explosion. Le principe de l'appareil est celui d'un double bain: l'un, d'azote pur, refroidit les echantillons au niveau du coeur du reacteur; l'autre, d'azote commercial, est situe au-dessus du premier, hors du champ de rayonnement intense, et sert de condenseur continu pour l'azote pur. Ce dernier ainsi reliquefie regagne son bain par simple gravite. L'appareil decrit en detail ici, est concu pour une pile piscine. Il a ete etudie de facon a ne creer aucune fuite de rayonnement et a permettre la recuperation aisee des echantillons irradies sans rechauffage de ceux-ci. Cet appareil est en fonctionnement depuis plusieurs mois. Dans un flux rapide superieur a 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s et un flux {gamma} de l'ordre de 10{sup 8} roentgens/h, la consommation d

  20. Measurement of the thermal utilisation factor of the reactor G1; Mesure du facteur d'utilisation thermique du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The thermal utilisation factor of the lattice of the reactor G1 has been measured by applying the autoradiographic technique to thin detectors irradiated in the cell. The experimental apparatus is described, and the results compared with those obtained by calculation based on various formulae. The results of the study of the thermal flux distribution in a cell containing a thorium rod of the same diameter as the uranium rods in the lattice are also given. The precision of the measurements is discussed. Value found: f diameter 26 = 0.8949 {+-} 0,005. (author) [French] Le facteur d'utilisation thermique du reseau du reacteur G1 a ete mesure en appliquant la technique de l'autoradiographie a des detecteurs minces irradies dans la cellule. Les dispositifs experimentaux sont decrits et les resultats sont compares a ceux obtenus par le calcul a partir de diverses formules. Les resultats de l'etude de la distribution du flux thermique dans une cellule contenant une barre de thorium de meme diametre que les barres d'uranium du reseau sont egalement indiques. La precision des mesures est discutee. Valeur trouvee: f diametre 26 = 0,8949 {+-} 0,005. (author)

  1. Improvement of spectrographic analyses by the use of a mechanical packer in the arc distillation technique; Amelioration de l'analyse spectrograpique par l'utilisation d'un tasseur mecanique dans la methode de distillation dans l'arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffereau, M; Deniaud, S; Pichotin, B; Violet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    One studies improvement of spectrographic analysis by the 'carrier distillation' method with the help of a mechanical device. Experiments and advantages of such an apparatus are given (precision and reproducibility improvement, operator factor suppression). A routine apparatus (French patent no 976.493) is described. (authors) [French] On etudie l'amelioration des analyses spectrographiques par la methode de distillation avec entra eur dans l'arc au moyen d'un tasseur mecanique. On indique les experiences realisees et les avantages de l'emploi d'un tel appareil (amelioration de la precision et de la reproductibilite, suppression du facteur operateur). On decrit l'appareil de routine objet du brevet no 976.493 du 29 mai 1964. (auteurs)

  2. Dans quelle mesure la mise en place des navettes autonomes dans les zones périphériques de Genève pourrait remplacer l’utilisation des véhicules privés ?

    OpenAIRE

    Safarov, Tim; Konstantas, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Ce travail est basé sur un avant-projet nommé « AVENUE » (Autonomous Vehicles to Evolve to a New Urban Experience) proposé à la Commission européenne des transports et de mobilité. Il s’agit d’un projet qui a pour but de démonter l’utilité que pourraient avoir les véhicules autonomes dans le cadre des transports publics et de mettre en lumière les divers avantages pratiques, économiques, environnementaux et sociaux qu’ils pourraient procurer. Le travail suivant tente avant tout d’explorer l’é...

  3. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author) 197 refs.

  4. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature; Etude de quelques echangeurs mineraux utilisables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J.; Platzer, R.; Bittel, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Fourre, J. [Societe le Carbone Lorraine, 75 - Paris (France); Wey, R. [Faculte des Sciences de Strasbourg, Lab. de Mineralogie, 67 (France)

    1958-07-01

    these impurities (that is to say capable of de-mineralizing polluted water). This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation. (author) [French] L'etude de l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions a haute temperature a ete essentiellement faite en vue de l'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs. On connait l'interet qu'il y a a garder dans un circuit de reacteur de l'eau de tres haute resistivite (plusieurs centaines a quelques millions {omega}.cm): abaissement de la corrosion, abaissement du taux de radiolyse, abaissement de la radioactivite des circuits et canalisations, les elements autres que les constituants de l'eau transportes par celle-ci devenant generalement radioactifs par leur passage au coeur du reacteur. Si la circulation d'eau se fait a des temperatures inferieures a 45 deg. C, les resines echangeuses d'ions organiques utilisees en lit melange resolvent tres bien le probleme de l'epuration en continu. Par contre, pour des temperatures plus elevees surtout au-dessus de 100 deg. C, leur utilisation n'est pas possible, la degradation de ces hauts polymeres etant tres rapide. De meme, l'action des rayonnements, par exemple ceux des produits fixes par les echangeurs d'ions, detruit irremediablement les chaines organiques constituant le squelette de ces echangeurs. Nous avons donc cherche d'es composes pouvant assurer une bonne deionisation de l'eau, mais de structures telles qu'elles ne soient pas deteriorees par l'action de la temperature et des rayonnements. Nous nous sommes particulierement orientes dans trois voies: - echangeurs d'ions naturels a structure minerale (argile du type montmorillonite), - composes mineraux naturels traites pour leur conferer les proprietes d'echangeurs d'ions (charbons actives), - composes mineraux synthetiques (sels tres peu solubles, phosphate et hydroxyde de zirconium et de thorium). Dans ces etudes, nous nous

  6. Investigating the Benefits and Challenges of Using Laptop Computers in Higher Education Classrooms / Étude sur les avantages et les défis associés à l'utilisation d'ordinateurs portables dans les salles de classe d'enseignement supérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Holding Kay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits and challenges using laptop computers (hereafter referred to as laptops inside and outside higher education classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 156 university students (54 males, 102 females enrolled in either education or communication studies. Benefits of using laptops in class were active note taking, particularly when instructors provided materials ahead of time, searching for academic resources, use of subject-specific software, communicating and sharing information with peers, and engaging with online interactive tools. Challenges of using laptops inside the class included surfing the web for personal reasons, social networking with peers and, to a lesser extent, entertainment in the form of watching video podcasts or playing games. Benefits were reported far more often than challenges inside the classroom. Benefits of using laptops outside of class included collaboration with peers, increased productivity, and conducting research. Challenges of using laptops outside of class included surfing the web for personal reasons, social networking, and entertainment. Benefits and challenges were reported equally often outside the classroom. More research needs to be conducted on the extent to which distractions impede learning and productivity inside and outside the class. Cette étude avait pour but d’examiner les avantages et les défis associés à l'utilisation d’ordinateurs portables à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur des salles de classe d’enseignement supérieur. Des données quantitatives et qualitatives ont été recueillies auprès de 156 étudiants universitaires (54 hommes, 102 femmes inscrits dans des programmes d’éducation ou de communication. Les avantages de l'utilisation d’ordinateurs portables en classe incluaient la prise active de notes, en particulier lorsque les instructeurs fournissaient la documentation à l'avance, la

  7. Thermal conductivity of sintered UO{sub 2} under in-pile conditions; Conductibilite thermique de l'UO{sub 2} fritte dans les conditions d'utilisation en pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stora, J P; Bernardy De Sigoyer, B; Delmas, R; Deschamps, P; Lavaud, B; Ringot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    des surfaces pseudo-cylindriques: celles-ci constituent autant de barrieres thermiques s'opposant a l'ecoulement du flux calorifique. On mesure donc une conductibilite thermique apparente k{sub a}(T) inferieure a la valeur intrinseque k(T) de ce parametre. L'efficacite de ces barrieres decroit par reduction du jeu et lorsque la pression exterieure exercee sur l'empilement fracture croit: a la limite, sous contrainte de frettage elevee: k{sub a}(T) {approx_equal} k(T). Dans le domaine de la conduction phononique (T {<=} 1350 deg C), l'expression kw.cm{sup -1}.C{sup -1}=1/(11+0.024*T) rend alors compte de la conductibilite thermique reelle. Au-dela de 1350 deg C la conductibilite thermique se releve. Deux mesures faites en pile jusqu'a 1250 deg C au moyen de cartouches equipees de thermocouples confirment, dans la limite des erreurs experimentales, a la fois l'expression ci-dessus et l'influence, qualitative des contraintes de frettage. Dans la geometrie reelle du 'crayon' combustible d'EL-4 des essais similaires ont ete effectues hors pile et en pile: hors pile les influences du jeu initial, de la nature du gaz remplissant le 'crayon' et de la pression exterieure ont ete etudies et les resultats sont coherents avec les interpretations ci-dessus. Une pression exterieure de 60 kg/cm{sup 2} parait insuffisante pour restaurer completement la conductibilite thermique du combustible. (auteurs)

  8. Le tourisme international dans le monde : logiques des flux et confins de la touristicité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Tatar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available L’histoire du tourisme international des cinquante dernières années peut être décomposée en trois temps : 1/ les décennies de 1950 à 1980, caractérisées par une démocratisation progressive du tourisme soutenue par une croissance économique inégalée ; 2/ la dernière décennie du vingtième siècle, celle d’une euphorie touristique qui voit les frontières s’ouvrir. La fin d’un monde bipolaire annonce bien des espoirs naïfs. Le champ des territoires ouverts au tourisme ne cesse de s’élargir. 3/ La fin du siècle annonce l’âge de maturité du tourisme. Après l’euphorie, les illusions et les désillusions d’un espace touristique mondial sans frontières, les faits, souvent dramatiques ont fait prendre conscience aux touristes la complexité d’un monde où les guerres n’ont jamais cessé. L’espace touristique mondial est articulé autour de trois bassins régionaux : plus de 75% des flux touristiques internationaux, impulsés par les riches métropoles européennes, nord-américaines et asiatique, se cantonnent à dans leur espace régional d’origine. La distribution des flux touristiques dessine une organisation en trois bassins distincts : par ordre d’importance, 1/ le bassin euro-méditerranéen, centré sur la Mer méditerranée, 2/ le bassin Asie orientale-Pacifique, autour des rivages de la mer de Chine, 3/ le bassin Amérique du Nord -Caraïbes, organisé autour de la « Méditerranée américaine ». Les discontinuités s’affirment entre des périphéries mal stabilisées, des prolongements très sélectifs, des marges oubliées ou exclues. Les climats d’insécurité qui touchent certains territoires touristiques visent à fragiliser des périphéries plus sensibles et contraignent l’espace touristique international à se rétracter.The history of international tourism of the last fifty years can be divided  into three stages: 1 / decades from 1950 to 1980, characterized by a

  9. Setting-Up of a Neutron Dosimeter Using Ionographic Tracks in an Insulating Solid; Realisation d'un Dosimetre a Neutrons Utilisant les Traces Ionographiques dans un Solide Isolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfi, N.; Dugnani Lonati, R.; Mangialajo, M. [Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze, Segrate, Milan (Italy)

    1971-06-15

    The use of dielectrics such as mica, glasses and plastic materials for charged particle track recording has been developed in the past years; track recording of fission fragments produced in fissile materials under neutron irradiation is particularly interesting. The method has not as yet been applied to neutron dosimetry owing to the difficulties of track observation and counting using optical microscopes. A method has recently been proposed which results in markedly reduced counting times, electronic counting of the electric discharges between two electrodes through the dielectric which was perforated by the fission fragments. The reasons for adopting this new technique to set-up a neutron dosimeter are: (a) economic advantages, since a rather simple electronic instrumentation will give a reading of the dosimeter, preparation of which can be carried out immediately and at a modest cost; (b) fast reading, since the response can be obtained in less than two hours from irradiation; (c) dosimetric advantages owing to the lack of fading and insensitivity to {beta} or {gamma} radiations. The present work describes the method adopted and the equipment used to set up the dosimeter. Results are reported and briefly discussed. (author) [French] Au cours des dernieres annees on a assiste a un developpement remarquable de l' utilisation d' isolants tels que le mica, les verres et les materiaux plastiques pour l' enregistrement des traces de particules chargees; l' enregistrement des traces de fragments de fission produits dans les materiaux fissiles sous irradiation neutronique est particulierement interessant. Cette methode n'a pas, jusqu a present, ete appliquee a la dosimetrie des neutrons a cause des difficultes que presentent l' observation et le comptage des traces au microscope optique. On a propose recemment une methode qui permet de reduire considerablement la duree de l' operation en comptant electroniquement les decharges electriques qui se produisent entre deux

  10. Kinetic transport in a magnetically confined and flux-constrained fusion plasma; Transport cinetique dans un plasma de fusion magnetique a flux force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmet, G

    2007-11-15

    This work deals with the kinetic transport in a fusion plasma magnetically confined and flux-constrained. The author proposes a new interpretation of the dynamics of zonal flows. The model that has been studied is a gyrokinetic model reduced to the transport of trapped ions. The inter-change stability that is generated allows the study of the kinetic transport of trapped ions. This model has a threshold instability and can be simulated over a few tens confining time for either thermal bath constraint or flux constraint. For thermal baths constraint, the simulation shows a metastable state where zonal flows are prevailing while turbulence is non-existent. In the case of a flux-constraint, zonal flows appear and relax by exchanging energy with system's kinetic energy and turbulence energy. The competition between zonal flows and turbulence can be then simulated by a predator-prey model. 2 regimes can be featured out: an improved confining regime where zonal flows dominate transport and a turbulent regime where zonal flows and turbulent transport are of the same magnitude order. We show that flux as well as the Reynolds tensor play an important role in the dynamics of the zonal flows and that the gyrokinetic description is relevant for all plasma regions. (A.C.)

  11. Thermal, intermediate and fast neutron flux measurements using activation detectors; Mesure des flux de neutrons thermiques, intermediaires et rapides au moyen de detecteurs par activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisbois, J; Lott, M; Manent, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The problem of neutron flux measurements using activation detectors is studied in the particular case of protection research. It is shown how it possible, it is possible, using a known thermal flux, to organise a coherent calibration system for all the detectors. The rapid neutron detectors are calibrated with respect to a reference detector (phosphorus) in a natural uranium converter; the intermediate neutron detectors with respect to gold in the axial channel of ZOE. This method makes it possible to minimise the errors due to the activation cross-sections. A brief description is given of the counting room of the Pile Safety Study Service, as well of the practical utilisation characteristics of the counters employed. (authors) [French] Le probleme de la mesure des flux de neutrons au moyen de detecteurs par activation est etudie dans le cas particulier des etudes de protections. On montre comment, a partir d'un flux thermique connu, on peut organiser un systeme coherent d'etalonnage de tous les detecteurs. Les detecteurs de neutrons rapides sont etalonnes par rapport a un detecteur de reference (phosphore) dans un convertisseur en uranium naturel; les detecteurs de neutrons intermediaires, par rapport a l'or dans le canal axial de ZOE, Cette methode permet de minimiser les erreurs dues aux sections efficaces d'activation. On decrit sommairement la salle de comptage du Service d'Etudes de Protections de Piles et on indique les caracteristiques d'emploi pratique des detecteurs utilises. (auteurs)

  12. Determination of the Antares sensitivity to the cosmic neutrinos diffuse flux using contained showers; Determination de la sensibilite d'Antares au flux diffus de neutrinos cosmiques en utilisant les gerbes contenues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denans, D

    2006-12-15

    The Antares collaboration has chosen to build an underwater telescope in the Mediterranean sea, at a depth of 2500 m, to detect high energy (> 100 GeV) cosmic neutrinos. This detector is composed of 12 vertical lines with 900 photomultipliers. Neutrinos are detected thanks to the Cherenkov light produced in water by charged particles created in neutrino interactions near the detector. The aim of this work is the study of Antares performance for the detection of the electronic neutrino interaction in the instrumented volume using a Monte-Carlo simulation. The method allows the determination of the incident energy with an excellent resolution (20 %) which is much smaller than what is obtained from muons induced by muonic neutrino interactions at several kilometers below the detector. This work has consisted in studying the reconstruction of contained showers of particles in the detector resulting from charged current interactions of electronic neutrinos. This mode of detection has been used for the study of the diffuse neutrino flux, resulting from the neutrino emission of unresolved sources and that can be isolated from the atmospheric neutrino background at high energy. The Antares sensitivity is found to be 5.10{sup -7} GeV.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}.sr{sup -1} after 1 year of data recording for energies above 3 TeV and for a model with an E{sup -2} energy spectrum. (author)

  13. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak; Etude des depots de chaleur dans le tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-15

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length lambda{sub q} (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length lambda{sub q} in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  14. Aspects of biogas utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, L.

    1992-01-01

    Utilisation of biogas has received considerable attention over the last decade, its full potential has not been reached however. The paper discusses various options for utilisation of biogas and the limitations that may occur as far as they are associated with the characteristics of biogas. As a result the prospects for the future are presented. (au)

  15. Thermal neutron flux measurements using neutron-electron converters; Mesure de flux de neutrons thermiques avec des convertisseurs neutrons electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Meur, R; Lecomte, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The operation of neutron-electron converters designed for measuring thermal neutron fluxes is examined. The principle is to produce short lived isotopes emitting beta particles, by activation, and to measure their activity not by extracting them from the reactor, but directly in the reactor using the emitted electrons to deflect the needle of a galvanometer placed outside the flux. After a theoretical study, the results of the measurements are presented; particular attention is paid to a new type of converter characterized by a layer structure. The converters are very useful for obtaining flux distributions with more than 10{sup 7} neutrons cm{sup -2}*sec{sup -1}. They work satisfactorily in pressurized carbon dioxide at 400 Celsius degrees. Some points still have to be cleared up however concerning interfering currents in the detectors and the behaviour of the dielectrics under irradiation. (authors) [French] On examine le fonctionnement de convertisseurs neutrons electrons destines a des mesures de flux de neutrons thermiques. Le principe est de former par activation des isotopes a periodes courtes et a emission beta et de mesurer leur activite non pas en les sortant du reacteur, mais directement en pile, utilisant les electrons emis pour faire devier l'aiguille d'un galvanometre place hors flux. Apres une etude theorique, on indique des resultats de mesures obtenus, en insistant particulierement sur un nouveau type de convertisseur, caracterise par sa structure stratifiee. Les convertisseurs sont tres interessants pour tracer, des cartes de flux a partir de 10{sup 7} neutrons cm{sup -2}*s{sup -1}. Ils sont utilisables pour des flux de 10{sup 14} neutrons cm{sup -2}*s{sup -1}. Ils fonctionnent correctement dans du gaz carbonique sous pression a 400 C. Des points restent cependant a eclaircir concernant les courants parasites dans les detecteurs et le comportement des dielectriques pendant leur irradiation. (auteur)

  16. Control of particles flux in a tokamak with an events structure; Controle des flux de particules dans un Tokamak au moyen d`une structure a events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitrone, E

    1995-12-01

    Two key problems in the development of a controlled fusion reactor are: -the control of the ashes resulting from the fusion reaction (helium) and of the impurities coming from the wall erosion, which affect the central plasma performances by diluting the fuel and dissipating a part of the produced energy by radiation. - the removal of the heat carried to the walls by charged particles, which is highly concentrated (peak values of several tens of MW per m{sup 2}). Two types of systems are generally used for the plasma-wall interface: throat limiter and axisymmetric divertor. Neither is an ideal candidate to control simultaneously the heat and particle fluxes. This thesis investigates an alternative configuration, the vented limiter, tested for the first time on the Tore Supra tokamak. The vented limiter principle lies on the recycling neutrals collection by slots, in such a way that local thermal overload is avoided. It is shown experimentally that the surface temperature of the prototype installed in Tore Supra remains uniform. As far as the particle collection is concerned, even though the pressure in the vented limiter is lower than the pressure in the throat limiter by a factor 3 for deuterium and 4 helium, it is sufficient to control the plasma density. Moreover, as with a throat limiter, the pressure exhibits a quadratic evolution with the plasma density. To interpret these results, a model describing the plasma recycling on the limiter and the pumping by the slots has been developed. The model has been validated by a comparison with the experimental data. It was then used to propose an optimized version of the prototype with reshaped slots. This should improve the pumping efficiency by a factor 2, in deuterium as well as in helium, but without removing the discrepancy between both pumping efficiencies. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Utilisation des "algues-fourrage" en aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Chretiennot-dinet, Marie-josèphe; Robert, Rene; His, Edouard

    1986-01-01

    Les travaux concernant l'utilisation d'algues unicellulaires pour la nutrtion de larves et de juvéniles de bivalves d'intérêt commercial sont analysés. Sur une cinquantaine d'espèces d'algues testées, un dizaine seulement sont produites en grande quantité dans des écloseries commerciales sous le non "d'algues fourrage". Les principales espèces employées sont décrites et leurs caractéristiques majeures illustrées. Les critères permettant de retenir une espèce pour son utilisation en aquacultur...

  18. Optimisation de Capteurs de Diagnostic de Défauts par Réflectométrie dans les Réseaux Filaires Complexes en utilisant les Réseaux Bayésiens

    OpenAIRE

    BEN HASSEN , Wafa; Auzanneau , Fabrice; Pérès , François; Tchangani , Ayeley

    2013-01-01

    Cet article presente une strat ' egie de diagnostic ' distribuee par la m ' ethode de r ' eflectom ' etrie dans un r ' eseau ' filaire complexe. L'idee principale consiste ' a injecter un signal ' de test en plusieurs points du reseau et r ' ecup ' erer, ensuite, le ' signal refl' echi afin d'en d ' eduire les caract ' eristiques du d ' efaut ' detect ' e. L'objectif de cet article est d'optimiser le nombre de ' capteurs a impl ' ementer dans le r ' eseau afin de r ' eduire le co ' ut du ˆ systeme...

  19. A Rapid-Insertion Control-Absorber Mechanism for Use in Hollow Fuel Elements; Mecanisme d'Insertion Rapide d'Absorbants pour Utilisation dans des Elements Creux; Mekhanizm bystrogo vvoda poglotitelya dlya ispol'zovaniya v polykh toplivnykh ehlementakh; Mecanismo para la Insercion Rapida de Absorbentes en Elementos Combustibles Huecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, E. S.F. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1964-06-15

    This report describes the engineering design and performance of a rapid-insertion control absorber mechanism for use within hollow, vertical, fuel elements of the DIDO materials-testing class reactors operating at a thermal flux of 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} s. The initial downward acceleration of the absorber is that of gravity, and the full travel of 161 cm takes 0.4 s. The magnet release time is 5 ms. The absorber weighs 7 kg, has an effective area of 1000 cm{sup 2} of cadmium and controls nearly 3% of reactivity. It can be positioned with an accuracy of 4 x 10{sup -3}cm and withdrawn at speeds of 0.04 cm/s and 0.01 cm/s. The mechanism consists of a vernier stepping-motor which drives a lead-screw and raises or lowers a close-fitting cylindrical shield-plug with an electromagnet at its lower end, which supports a tubular absorber. There are large radial clearances around the absorber, which falls freely when released, except for the viscous drag of the moderator/coolant, until brought to rest by a stop on a central rod passing through the lead-screw to a ring-spring shock-absorber at the top of the mechanism. After release of the absorber, the shield-plug is motored down at fast speed to engage the absorber again. The size of the absorber system is within the overall dimensions of the fuel element and may be removed from the reactor together with the fuel element or separately by means of the fuel-unloading flask. (author) [French] L'auteur indique les caracteristiques techniques et les performances d'un mecanisme d'insertion rapide d'absorbants destine a etre utilise dans des elements creux et verticaux de reacteurs d'essai de materiaux du type DIDO, de flux thermique egal a 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} s. L'acceleration initiale est celle de la pesanteur; le temps de parcours (61 cm) est de 0,4 s. L'aimant se declenche en 5 ms. L'absorbant pese 7 kg; sa surface efficace est de 1000 cm{sup 2} de cadmium et il compense environ 3% de reactivite. Sa position peut etre

  20. Use of cadmium in solution in the EL 4 reactor moderator irreversible fixing of cadmium on the metallic surfaces; Utilisation du cadmium en solution dans le moderateur du reacteur EL 4 - fixation irreversible du cadmium sur les surfaces metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croix, O; Paoli, O; Lecomte, J; Dolle, L; Gallic, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In the framework of research into the poisoning of the EL-4 reactor by cadmium sulphate, measurements have been made by two different methods of the residual amounts of cadmium liable to be fixed irreversibly on the surfaces in contact with the heavy water. A marked influence of the pH has been noticed. The mechanism of the irreversible fixing is compatible with the hypothesis of an ion-exchange in the surface oxide layer. In a sufficiently wide range of pH the cadmium thus fixed causes very little residual poisoning. The stability of the cadmium sulphate solutions is however rather low in the conditions of poisoning. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes sur l'empoisonnement du reacteur EL-4 par le sulfate de cadmium, les quantites residuelles de cadmium susceptibles de se fixer irreversiblement sur les parois que mouillerait l'eau lourde, ont ete mesurees experimentalement par deux methodes differentes. On observe une influence nette du pH. Le mecanisme de la fixation irreversible est compatible avec l'hypothese d'un echange d'ions dans la pellicule d'oxyde superficielle. Dans des limites suffisamment larges de pH, la cadmium ainsi fixe n'occasionne pas d'empoisonnement residuel important. La stabilite des solutions de sulfate de cadmium dans les conditions de l'empoisonnement est cependant mediocre. (auteurs)

  1. 3d Simulation of Di Diesel Combustion and Pollutant Formation Using a Two-Component Reference Fuel Simulation 3D de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans un moteur Diesel à injection directe en utilisant un carburant de référence à deux composants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barths H.

    2006-12-01

    reference fuels. The contributions of the different reaction paths (thermal, prompt, nitrous, and reburn to the NO formation are shown. Finally, the importance of the mixing process for the prediction of soot emissions is discussed. En séparant calculs aérodynamiques et calculs chimiques, le modèle instationnaire de flamelet permet d'introduire des mécanismes chimiques complets qui comprennent plusieurs centaines de réactions. Ceci est indispensable pour décrire les différents processus qui ont lieu dans un moteur Diesel à injection directe (ID tels que l'auto-inflammation, la fin de la phase de prémélange partiel, la transition vers une combustion diffusive et la formation de polluants tels que les NOx et les suies. Il n'est pas nécessaire de simplifier les taux de réactions hautement non linéaires, d'autre part, la structure complète du processus de combustion est conservée. En utilisant le modèle de type Representative Interaction Flamelet (RIF, l'ensemble monodimensionnel instationnaire d'équations différentielles aux dérivées partielles est résolu en interaction avec le code CFD 3D. La solution ainsi obtenue est couplée avec les flux gazeux et le champ de mélange par l'intermédiaire de plusieurs paramètres dépendant du temps (l'enthalpie, la pression, le taux scalaire de dissipation. En retour, le modèle de flamelet fournit les concentrations moyennes des espèces chimiques, qui sont ensuite exploitées par le code CFD 3D pour calculer les champs de températures et les densités. La densité est nécessaire au code CFD 3D pour déterminer les flux turbulents et le champ de mélange. La formation des polluants est déterminée expérimentalement dans un moteur Diesel Volkswagen DI 1900. Le moteur est alimenté avec du gazole et deux carburants de référence. Un des carburants de référence est du n-décane pur. Le second est un carburant bicomposant formé de 70 % (du volume liquide de n-décane et de 30 % d'alpha-méthylnaphtalène (Idea

  2. Chemical Utilisation of CO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 2. Chemical Utilisation of CO2: A Challenge for the Sustainable World. Dinesh Jagadeesan Bhaskar Joshi Prashant Parameswaran. General Article Volume 20 Issue 2 February 2015 pp 165-176 ...

  3. Use of Pulsed Nmr Spectroscopy to Measure the Amount of Solid Deposits As a Function of Temperature in Waxy Crudes Utilisation de la spectroscopie RMN pulsée pour mesurer la quantité de dépôts solides en fonction de la température dans les bruts paraffiniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffier-Meray V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin crystallization in crude oils and in gas condensates is a major problem for petroleum exploitation. Thermodynamic models are used to evaluate the risk. With them, one calculates the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT as well as the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature, for temperatures below the WAT. During development, these models are tested against experimental data. Although different methods for measuring the WAT are available in the literature and at petroleum companies, such methods unfortunately do not exist for measuring the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature. In this work, we have developed a low resolution NMR method for measuring the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature. The method was first evaluated using pure samples and was then applied to crude oils. The results were compared to those obtained both from differential calorimetry and from the model. La cristallisation des paraffines dans les pétroles bruts et même dans les gaz à condensat est un problème majeur dans le domaine de l'exploitation pétrolière. Afin d'évaluer ce risque, on utilise des modèles thermodynamiques. Ils permettent de calculer la température de cristallisation commençante (TCC ou Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT ainsi que la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température (pour des températures inférieures à la TCC. Lors de leur développement, ces modèles doivent être évalués sur des données expérimentales. Il existe dans la littérature et chez les pétroliers différentes méthodes pour mesurer la TCC, malheureusement il n'en est pas de même pour la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température. Dans cet article, nous avons développé une méthode de RMN basse résolution afin de mesurer la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température. Elle a d'abord été évaluée sur des mélanges de corps purs puis elle a été appliquée à des pétroles bruts. Les r

  4. Neutron detection in an atomic reactor core using semi-conductors; Detection des neutrons par semi-conducteur dans un coeur de reacteur atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divoux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this paper, the first part describes the principle of nuclear particle detection by means of semiconductor diodes and the general application of these. The second part describes fabrication of the device used to estimate thermic neutron fluxes in core of a swimming pool type reactor. The useful volume (2.9 mm thickness) is in the light water moderator, between combustible elements plates. The results, principally obtained in the core of Siloette reactor at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble' at low power, are mentioned in the third part. Flux maps have been set and comparison between converter's products: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235 is made. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, une premiere partie porte sur la description du principe de detection des particules nucleaires par diodes a semi-conducteur et sur l'application generale de celles-ci. Une deuxieme partie s'attache a decrire la fabrication du materiel utilise pour evaluer les flux de neutrons thermiques dans un coeur de reacteur type pile piscine. L'espace de mesure (2,9 mm d'epaisseur) se situe entre les plaques des elements combustibles, dans le moderateur eau legere. Les resultats, obtenus principalement dans le coeur du reacteur Siloette du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble aux basses puissances de fonctionnement, sont rapportes dans la troisieme partie. Des cartes de flux ont ete dressees et une comparaison est faite entre les produits 'convertisseurs' suivants: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235. (auteur)

  5. L’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré (Synthèse Bibliographique)

    OpenAIRE

    Bombeck, Pierre-Louis; Hebert, Jacques; Richel, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Dans un monde qui cherche à se défaire de sa dépendance à la pétrochimie, le concept de bioraffinage de la biomasse forestière est de plus en plus étudié. Dans une recherche de valorisation maximale des composants de cette biomasse, la transformation de fibres de cellulose en nanocellulose séduit de plus en plus l’industrie papetière par sa haute valeur ajoutée. Littérature. Le concept de bioraffinage forestier intégré vise l’adaptation des usines de pâte à papier en bioraffi...

  6. The use of probe characteristics in plasma in the presence of a magnetic field (1960); Utilisation des caracteristiques de sondes dans des plasmas en presence de champ magnetique (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, A; Geller, R; Leroy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this article we recall the principal methods of interpretation of probe characteristics in plasma in the presence of magnetic fields. Our purpose is to resume and to present the methods in such a form as to be immediately applicable in a particular case. This article is therefore principally useful to experimenters. Finally we expose our practical view points by comparing of experimental methods. (author) [French] Dans cet article, nous rappelons les principales methodes d'interpretation des caracteristiques de sonde dans des plasmas en presence de champs magnetiques. Notre but est de resumer et de presenter sous forme inmediatement applicable ces methodes. Cet article est donc destine aux experimentateurs. Enfin, nous developpons nos etudes pratiques sur la question en etablissant des comparaisons experimentales entre les methodes. (auteur)

  7. Improvement of Heavy Oil Recovery in the VAPEX Process using Montmorillonite Nanoclays Amélioration de la récupération d’huile lourde par utilisation de nanoargiles de Montmorillonite dans le procédé VAPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourabdollah K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the nanoclay particles were introduced as mobile adsorbents in oil reservoirs to adsorb the asphaltenes, reduce the viscosity and enhance the dispersion. The objective of this paper is experimental investigation of enhanced heavy oil recovery using in situ nanoparticles for the first time. Moreover, two thermal analysis methods (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used to analyze the asphaltene content of residue hydrocarbons in the swept chambers in nano-assisted and conventional VAPEX processes. Experiments were carried out using Iranian heavy oil and propane: the setup consisted of two sand-packed cells; one packed only with glass beads as the oil matrix and the other with glass beads and modified montmorillonite as the nanoclay, while they had similar porosity and permeability. The content of deposited asphaltene in swept matrixes, the propagation pattern of vapor chambers in heavy oil matrixes, and the rates of solvent consumption and oil production were determined. The results elucidated that montmorillonite changed the matrix heterogeneity and led to forming enhanced breakthroughs, to increasing the interfacial surface of vapor/bitumen and to accelerating the oil production. It was found that not only was the rate of vapor injection diminished, but the heavy oil recovery was also markedly enhanced by 30(±4%. Dans cet article, on decrit l’utilisation de particules de nanoargile en tant qu’adsorbant mobile dans des reservoirs d’huile afin d’adsorber les asphaltenes, reduire la viscosite de l’huile et renforcer la dispersion. L’objectif de cet article consiste en la description d’une etude experimentale de recuperation amelioree d’huile lourde par l’utilisation de nanoparticules in situ. Ce qui constitue une premiere. En outre, deux methodes d’analyse thermique (thermogravimetrie et analyse thermique differentielle ont ete utilisees pour analyser la teneur en asphaltene des residus d

  8. Création d'emplois dans l'agriculture africaine | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les chercheurs jetteront de la lumière sur les solutions possibles dans divers contextes politiques. Ils mobiliseront les intervenants clés dans le domaine des politiques afin de promouvoir l'utilisation des données de la recherche dans les programmes d'emploi productifs dans chacun des pays. Leadership du projet

  9. Evaluation de l'efficacité vis-à-vis du ruissellement de surface et des transferts latéraux dans le sol de différentes options de gestion utilisant (ou non) un couvert enherbé : Application en vue de limiter la contamination des eaux par les pesticides dans le contexte du Beaujolais viticole de coteaux

    OpenAIRE

    Gouy, V.; Peyrard, X.; Liger, L.

    2015-01-01

    / Cette étude apporte des éléments de réponse aux questions suivantes dans le contexte du Nord Beaujolais : - dans quelle mesure une zone tampon enherbée rivulaire recevant un ruissellement concentré de surface est-elle capable de réduire significativement le transfert des pesticides associés sans engendrer une contamination de nappe sous-jacente ? - dans quelle mesure une infiltration en amont en parcelle de vigne peut-elle contribuer à l'atténuation des transferts de pesticides ou engendrer...

  10. Systematic study of the use of electrical fields for improving heat exchange in boiling liquids; Etude systematique de l'utilisation de champs electriques pour l'amelioration des echanges thermiques dans des liquides bouillants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochirol, L; Bonjour, E; Lagnier, R; Verdier, J; Weil, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have studied, at the boiling point, for liquids with various electrical properties (hexane, benzene, trichloroethylene, demineralized water, acetone, methyl-ethyl-ketone, etc...) the effect of the application of electric fields on the exchange coefficients and on the maximum dissipative powers before calefaction. We have given the mechanism of the significant improvements obtained (multiplication by a factor of 2 to 10): - in the natural convection zone by showing the role played by the dielectric properties of the liquids under study; - in the zone of nuclear boiling by analysis of the forces acting on the boiling nuclei. Finally we give some experimental results concerning measurements made under pressure until local boiling occurred: they show the possibility of some interesting applications of the method. (author) [French] On a etudie, a l'ebullition, sur des liquides de caracteristiques electriques diverses (hexane, benzene, trichlorethylene, eau demineralisee, acetone, methylethylcetone, etc...) les effets de l'application de champs electriques sur les coefficients d'echanges et les puissances maximales dissipables avant calefaction. On a precise le mecanisme des ameliorations importantes obtenues (multiplication par un facteur 2 a 10): - dans la zone de convection naturelle en mettant en evidence le role des caracteristiques dielectriques des liquides etudies; - dans la zone d'ebullition nucleaire par analyse des forces mises en jeu sur les noyaux d'ebullition. On donne enfin des resultats experimentaux sur des mesures effectuees sous pression jusqu'a l'ebullition locale: ils illustrent des possibilites d'applications interessantes du procede. (auteur)

  11. The use of an experimental device for disposal into the ground at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; Utilisation d'un dispositif experimental de rejet dans le sol au C.E.N. de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amavis, R; Vaccarezza, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report presents the results of the {sup 3}H and {sup 90}Sr percolation tests carried out with Saclay soil, both in the laboratory in the ground itself. The extrapolation using the parameters introduced by Hiester and Vermeulen, as well as by W.J. Kaufman, appear satisfactory when the soil sample is homogeneous. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente les resultats d'essais de percolation de {sup 3}H et de {sup 90}Sr, realises avec le sol de Saclay, en laboratoire et sur le terrain. L'extrapolation utilisant les parametres introduits par Hiester et Vermeulen, ainsi que par W.J. Kaufman, parait satisfaisante lorsque le sol en place est homogene. (auteur)

  12. Potentiel et limites d'utilisation, aux températures élevées, des lubrifiants liquides dans les moteurs Potential and Limitations of Use of Liquid Lubricants in Engines At High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toulhoat H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les possibilités de réponse de la formulation des lubrifiants à une élévation des températures dans les moteurs automobiles de la prochaine décennie; l'accroissement des puissances spécifiques des moteurs, et la réduction de leurs dimensions et de leur poids, la pénétration des turbo-compresseurs et des pots catalytiques, et dans une certaine mesure la tendance à réduire les rejets thermiques à l'échappement, sont des forces motrices pour cette évolution. Une augmentation de la température moyenne à la rampe d'environ 15 à 20°C est attendue pour la plupart des moteurs courants, à essence ou Diesel. Les températures en fond de gorge de segment de feu resteront très probablement dans l'intervalle actuel 250-260°C grâce aux systèmes de refroidissement des pistons. L'évolution des moteurs Diesel de camions dans les cinq dernières années est significative de cette tendance. Une telle évolution n'induira pas de bouleversements majeurs dans la formulation des lubrifiants pour automobiles. Cependant, elle déterminera une demande en VI significativement accrue de façon à maintenir les conditions de la lubrification hydrodynamique aux paliers, aussi bien que le comportement au démarrage à froid. Ceci sera obtenu par une meilleure combinaison des bases, avec une mise en oeuvre accrue des bases hydrotraitées et synthétiques, et un renforcement de l'additivation en épaississants ( règle du pouce: 0. 25 % par incrément de 1°C de température moyenne. Une alternative pourrait provenir de progrès réalisés sur le comportement visco-élastique et la stabilité sous cisaillement de ces polymères additifs de viscosité. Une autre exigence sur les propriétés des lubrifiants afin de faire face à cet accroissement apparemment marginal de température de fonctionnement, sera une meilleure résistance à l'oxydation, et dans cette optique, le recours aux bases non conventionnelles sera à nouveau

  13. Utilisation de l'assistant grammatical Antidote dans le cadre d'activités de révision - Analyse exploratoire de protocoles d'observation Using Antidote in Revision Tasks: An Exploratory Study of Grammar Checker Usage Through Verbal Protocol Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Durel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude examine les opérations mentales d'apprenants utilisant l'assistant grammatical Antidote en phase de révision de leurs productions écrites. Analysant des données obtenues à partir de la méthode des protocoles verbaux, ce travail montre comment ce type d'activité de révision assistée par ordinateur conduit l'apprenant à manipuler, construire, renforcer ou élargir le champ d'application de ses connaissances, qu'elles soient déclaratives ou procédurales. Les éléments dégagés indiquent que l'utilisation d'Antidote peut être vecteur d'apprentissage et offrent quelques pistes permettant de concevoir des activités de révision assistée par ordinateur qui s'inscrivent dans le cadre d'une didactique de la production scripturale.This study explores learners' cognitive processes when using the grammar assistant software Antidote during the revision phase of their composition. Analysing data obtained using a hybrid form of verbal protocols, it shows how computer-assisted revision activity can lead learners to manipulate, build or reinforce declarative and procedural knowledge. We argue that using grammar assistant software can be conducive to learning. The results of the analysis provide an insight into how such a tool can be integrated into classroom activities, contributing to writing quality and the acquisition of revision strategies.

  14. The influence of xenon poisoning in high-flux reactors on the choice of control rod speeds (1961); Influence de l'empoisonnement xenon dans les piles a haut flux sur le choix de la vitesse des barres de controle (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    - The general laws are restated concerning the changes in xenon and iodine concentrations in thermal neutron reactors, assuming an uniform neutron flux distribution in the core. It is shown how the evolution in the xenon poisoning influences the selection of the control rod speed, at start-up. Certain simple methods of calculation are developed making it possible to resolve the problem of the choice of this speed in the case where the xenon poisoning is taken into account. (author) [French] - On rappelle les lois generales relatives aux evolutions de concentration xenon et iode dans les piles atomiques a neutrons thermiques lorsqu'on suppose une repartition uniforme du flux de neutrons dans le coeur. On montre comment l'evolution de l'empoisonnement xenon influe sur le choix de la vitesse des barres de controle en periode de demarrage. On developpe certaines methodes de calculs simples permettant de resoudre le probleme du choix de la vitesse des barres de controle, dans le cas ou l'on tient compte de l'empoisonnement xenon. (auteur)

  15. Influence of the heat flux and of the gas on heat transfer and friction coefficients in a smooth cylindrical tube; Influence du flux de chaleur et de la nature du gaz sur les coefficients d'echange et le frottement dans un tube cylindrique lisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpont, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-12-15

    paroi peut atteindre 430 deg C, le flux de chaleur atteignant 16 watts/cm{sup 2}. Les nombres de Reynolds Re{sub m}, de Margoulis M{sub m} et le coefficient de frottement f sont calcules en evaluant les proprietes physiques du gaz a la temperature moyenne T{sub m}. Pour un nombre de Reynolds Re{sub m} donne, on observe une diminution de M{sub m} et de f lorsque le flux de chaleur augmente: elle peut atteindre 10 pour cent dans les essais presentes. Une formulation est proposee qui permet de traduire cet effet au moyen d'un parametre de flux (T{sub m} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p} utilise comme terme correctif (T{sub p} = temperature de la paroi). Les formules de correlation proposees sont: M{sub m} = 0,0168 Re{sub m}{sup -0,18} P{sub m}{sup -0,6} (1 - 0,4 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour l'air f = f{sub 0} (1 - 0,25 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour l'air M{sub m} 0,0171 Re{sub m}{sup -0,18} P{sub m}{sup -0,6} (1 - 0,2 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour le CO{sub 2} f = f{sub 0} (1 - 0,20 [(T{sub p} - T{sub m}) / T{sub p}]) pour le gaz carbonique avec f{sub 0} coefficient de frottement en ecoulement isotherme. (auteur)

  16. Utilisation de la DSC pour la caractérisation de la stabilité des émulsions eau dans pétrole Use of the Dsc Technique to Characterize Water-In-Crude Oil Emulsions Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmazzone C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La technique DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry a été appliquée à l'étude des émulsions eau dans pétrole, qui se forment naturellement après un déversement de pétrole en mer. Ces émulsions, également appelées mousses au chocolat , peuvent contenir de 50 à 80% d'eau et se présentent souvent sous la forme d'un produit visqueux, difficile à récupérer mécaniquement, à traiter ou à brûler. Il est par conséquent important de pouvoir estimer leur stabilité pour optimiser le choix du traitement. Un grand nombre de techniques, généralement fondées sur l'analyse de la distribution de tailles de gouttes, peuvent être utilisées pour estimer la stabilité d'une émulsion. Malheureusement, la plupart ne sont pas adaptées à l'étude des émulsions eau dans huile opaques. La méthode la plus utilisée pour caractériser la stabilité de ce type d'émulsions est le bottle test. Elle consiste à mesurer la séparation de phases en fonction du temps. Ce test est la source d'une quantité d'informations appréciables quant à la stabilité de l'émulsion et à la qualité de la phase aqueuse séparée, mais il reste très empirique. La technique DSC est généralement utilisée pour déterminer la composition des émulsions eau dans huile, car elle permet de distinguer l'eau libre de l'eau émulsifiée. Cette étude a montré qu'il s'agit d'une technique très utile qui permet à la fois l'étude de l'évolution de la taille des gouttes dans l'émulsion, et une détermination précise de la quantité d'eau. The DSC technique (Differential Scanning Calorimetry was applied to the study of water-in-crude oil emulsions, which naturally form after an oil spill. The resulting emulsions contain between 50 and 80% seawater and they are often heavy materials, hard to recover mechanically, treat or burn. It is therefore important to assess their stability in order to optimize their treatments. A great variety of techniques are available for

  17. La régulation par des tâches médiatisées et scénarisées dans un dispositif hybride utilisant le TBI Regulation through mediated and didactised tasks in a blended learning course in which an interactive whiteboard is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Aguerre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L'auteure présente un dispositif hybride de "formation à distance enrichie par le présentiel" dans lequel le temps en présentiel a pour fonction spécifique la régulation. Cette régulation concerne aussi bien le versant apprentissage que le versant enseignement de la situation. Elle s'attache notamment à situer les tâches et les sous-tâches par rapport à la réalisation d'une tâche globale et par rapport à l'apprentissage, notamment par un travail de décontextualisation et recontextualisation de ces tâches. L'utilisation du TBI lors du temps en présentiel a un effet non seulement sur la médiatisation pendant cette séance, mais aussi sur la scénarisation et la médiatisation (tant dans son aspect humain que technologique des tâches réalisées à distance, en permettant à l'apprenant de prendre part à la scénarisation et à la médiation.The author presents a blended-learning environment in which most learning activities are e-learning activities, and face to face situation is dedicated to regulation. Regulation is a mean to adapt learning as well as teaching; it aims particularly at considering tasks and sub-tasks in relation to a global task, and to learning. This control allows decontextualization and re-contextualization of the tasks. The use of the interactive whiteboard during face to face situation has an effect on task setting and task mediation (technological as well as human, making possible for the learner to take part in these.

  18. Examen de l'utilisation et de la qualité du système de production de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toshiba

    de RFPd sur les plans du processus, de la production des rapports et de leur utilisation. ...... difficulté à utiliser l'outil servant à la préparation du RFPd. .... De plus, c'est l'un des rares instruments utilisés dans le secteur de la philanthropie dont.

  19. Ílion, a Pátria dos Ventos: O uso da Meteorologia e da Astronomia na Ilíada * Ilion, la Patrie des Vents: l'utilisation de la Meteorologie et l'Astronomie dans l'Iliade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL VIRGILIO DE CARVALHO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Na Grécia Antiga o céu era personificado como um dos deuses primordiais do panteão helênico. Como gerador de tudo o que existe, Urano (Céu abrigava em seu bojo as forças naturais que indicavam a presença dos deuses e dos titãs. Nessa direção, a observação de seus objetos - os metéoroi - era de inestimável valor para a cultura homérica. Homero iluminou as ações dos heróis da Ilíada por meio de analogias com os objetos celestes, os quais mais tarde no século IV a.C. mobilizariam os olhares de Platão e de Aristóteles. Os meteóroi, "objetos naturais suspensos no ar", foram descritos pelo poeta através de certas funções narrativas da epopeia, estruturando assim uma protometeorologia homérica. O presente trabalho procura então levantar certos padrões expressivos encontrados durante a leitura da Ilíada e algumas considerações que os problematizam de modo a iluminar o entendimento sobre tema.Palavras-chave: Mundo homérico – Meteorologia e astronomia – Crença – Mecanismos de linguagem. Résumé: Dans la Grèce antique, le ciel était personnifié comme l'un des dieux primordiaux du panthéon hellénique. Comme un générateur de tout ce qui existe, Uranus (le Ciel logé en elle les forces naturelles qui indiquaient la présence des dieux et des Titans. De cette façon, l'observation des ses objets - les meteóroi - a été d'une valeur inestimable à la culture homèrique. Homère éclarait les actions de l'Iliade grâce a des analogies avec les objets célestes, qui, plus tard dans l'IVe siècle av. J.-C., mobiliseraient les regards de Platon et d'Aristote. Les meteóroi, "les objets naturels en suspension dans l'air", ont été décrits par le poète à travers des certaines fonctions narratives de l'histoire, structurant ainsi une proto-météorologie homérique. Cet article cherche alors à soulever certaines normes de description trouvés au cours de la lecture de l'Iliade et quelques consid

  20. Application of a Synthetic Copolymer under Harsh Environment Conditions in the Ploen-Ost Field Utilisation d'un copolymère synthétique dans des conditions d'environnement très dures sur le gisement de Ploen-Ost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuhbauer W.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Ploen-Ost field in northern Germany, a polymer pilot flood is being carried out under harsh reservoir conditions. For the project, it was necessary to develop a synthetic polymer resistant to the high reservoir temperatures of more than 90°C and the brine's total salt content of about 140 kg/m3. To dissolve the powdered polymer to a suitable solution, specially designed mixing facilities were installed on the site. The high retention of the polymer on reservoir material jeopardized the economics of the polymer flood. However, adsorption could be reduced by a specially developed process which uses a low-cost sacrificial agent. Injection of the polymer into Well 32a at Ploen-Ost began in September 1989. By December 1990, 37 t of chemical tracer, 295 t of sacrificial agent, and 150 t of polymer had been injected without significant problems. A response in the first well was observed in May 1990. Sur le gisement de Ploen-Ost, en Allemagne septentrionale, un essai pilote d'injection de polymère est en cours, dans des conditions de terrain très difficiles. Pour ce projet, il a fallu mettre au point un polymère de synthèse résistant aux températures très élevées du gisement, plus de 90°C, et à la teneur totale en sel de la saumure, qui avoisine les 140 kg/m3. Pour dissoudre la poudre de polymère et obtenir la solution voulue, des installations spéciales de brassage ont été construites sur le site. La forte rétention du polymère par le gisement a bouleversé les conditions économiques de l'injection. On a toutefois pu réduire l'adsorption par un procédé spécialement mis au point qui utilise un agent sacrificiel de faible coût. L'injection du polymère dans le puits 32a de Ploen-Ost a débuté en septembre 1989. En décembre 1990, 37 t de marqueur chimique, 295 t d'agent sacrificiel et 150 t de polymères avaient été injectées sans problèmes majeurs. C'est en mai 1990 que l'on a observé pour la première fois une r

  1. Le rendement dans l’utilisation du clavier d’ordinateur pour écrire chez les personnes ayant un trouble du spectre de l’autisme / Performance using a computer keyboard for writing among persons with an autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Dumont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Les personnes ayant un trouble du spectre de l’autisme (TSA ont fréquemment des problèmes graphomoteurs. Ces difficultés ont à leur tour des répercussions sur de nombreuses occupations, le rendement scolaire et le développement de la personne. Dans cette situation, l’écriture avec un clavier peut s’avérer une alternative pertinente. Cette étude vise à décrire le rendement des enfants ayant un TSA dans leur réalisation de tâches avec le clavier d’ordinateur et de le comparer à celui des enfants à développement typique. Le Test du rendement dans l’utilisation de l’ordinateur a été administré à un échantillon de 53 enfants âgés entre six et 15 ans ayant un TSA. Les résultats suggèrent qu’ils peuvent avoir un rendement équivalent, supérieur ou inférieur en fonction de leurs caractéristiques et du type de tâche. Le test permet également d’observer plusieurs particularités de leurs processus d’apprentissage. Des suggestions pour l’amélioration des connaissances et des pratiques en découlent. Persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD frequently have graphomotor problems. These difficulties in turn have repercussions on numerous tasks, on academic performance and on personal development. In this situation, writing using a keyboard can be a relevant alternative. This study aims to describe the performance of children with an ASD in performing tasks using a computer keyboard and to compare it with that of children whose development is typical. The Performance using a computer test was administered to a sample of 53 children with an ASD, aged 6 to 15. Findings suggest that they can offer an equal, superior or inferior performance depending on their characteristics and on the type of task performed. The test also allows the observation of several characteristics in their learning processes. Suggestions for the improvement of the knowledge base and practices follow.

  2. The Use of the Moessbauer Effect in Investigating the Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transmutations in Oxygenous Compounds of Manganese and Tin; Utilisation de l'Effet Moessbauer pour l'Etude des Effets Chimiques des Transformations Nucleaires dans les Composes de Manganese et d'Etain; 0418 0421 0421 041b 0415 0414 ; Empleo del Efecto Moessbauer para Investigar las Transformaciones Nucleares de Compuestos Oxigenados de Estano y de Manganeso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesmejanov, An. N.; Babeshkin, A. M.; Kosev, N. P.; Bekker, A. A.; Lebedev, V. A. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet Im. M.V. Lomonosova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-04-15

    auteurs ont etudie les formes de stabilisation des atomes de recul de 56 Mn des solutions et des echantillons solides irradies de permanganate, ainsi que celles des atomes de recul de {sup 119m}Sn dans l'oxyde et le bioxyde d'etain. Les echantillons de permanganate ont ete irradies dans un bloc de paraffine a l'aide d'une source au polonium-beryllium donnant un flux de neutrons de 10{sup 7} a 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} * s. Les atomes chauds de {sup 56}Mn qui se forment peuvent avoir les valences +7, +4 et inferieures. Les echantillons (SnO et SnO{sub 2}), exposes dans un reacteur a un flux de 2,2 * 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} * s pendant 1800 h, ont ete directement utilises pour la preparation de sources destinees a l'etude de l'absorption par resonance des phonons dans une installation fonctionnant a vitesse constante. Des composes d'etain correspondants ont ete employes comme absorbeurs. On n'a constate la presence d'atomes {sup 119m}Sn de recul qu'a l'etat tetravalent. Sur la base des donnees obtenues, les auteurs examinent le mecanisme de stabilisation des atomes de recul. (author) [Spanish] Los metodos utilizados corrientemente para estudiar el estado quimico de los atomos de retroceso, esto es, aquellos asociados a los cambios de fase (analisis quimico, cromatografia, electroforesis), lo mismo que el recocido, solo permiten conocer indirectamente el mecanismo de estabilizacion de los atomos calientes. Cuando el analisis se efectua por el metodo de absorcion por resonancia de los cuantos gamma sin retroceso, no se introduce en la muestra ninguna modificacion capaz de influir en las formas de estabilizacion, incluso si la estabilidad no es muy grande. Los autores investigaron las formas de estabilizacion de los atomos de retroceso del {sup 56}Mn en soluciones y muestras solidas de permanganato irradiadas, y las de los atomos de retroceso del {sup 119m}Sn en oxido estannico y estannoso. Las muestras del permanganato se irradiaron en un bloque de parafina con un flujo de 10{sup

  3. Les possibilités d'utilisation ciblée des ressources de la Responsabilité Sociale des Entreprises dans le secteur vinier dans le but d'améliorer la durabilité et la spécificité culturelle des régions viticoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdjeva Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ces dernières années, la responsabilité corporative sociale (RCS marque une certaine croissance dans l'intérêt des entreprises envers l'intégration dans des causes d'intérêt social dans leurs pratiques commerciales. L'on note un intérêt accru envers les sujets liés à l'éducation, l'écologie, la santé, l'amélioration de la sensibilisation des consommateurs, l'amélioration des conditions de travail et, tout dernièrement, aux sujets et aux initiatives visant la conservation et la protection du patrimoine culturel matériel et immatériel. Diverses entreprises et producteurs, dans leur plupart de petite et moyenne envergure, dirigent leurs ressources vers un travail avec des groupes et des communautés locales, afin d'améliorer le milieu et de créer une motivation pour la conservation durable des emplois et l'augmentation de l'engagement professionnel et des compétences des personnes employées dans la production. Les secteurs publics ayant contact avec la culture, l'art, la préservation de l'identité et des tra-ditions manquent encore de popularité, y compris les productions spécifiques aux régions, la préservation du milieu et la conservation des phénomènes de la nature, la préservation de la culture des communautés locales et leur intégration dans un échange d'ordre global.

  4. Improving awareness for energy conservation in industry by means of the PINCHLENI computer code; Promotion de l'utilisation rationnelle de l'energie dans l'industrie par PINCHLENI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, F.; Favrat, D.

    2002-07-01

    A computer system for the promotion of the rational use of energy in the industry has been developed. It combines the PINCHLENI software developed by the LENI (Laboratory of Industrial Energy Systems) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne, Switzerland) and the web-based platform EXSYS developed initially by the LASSC (Laboratory for the Analysis and the Synthesis of Chemical Systems) at the University of Liege, Belgium with the support of the European Commission. It represents an efficient platform for solving process integration problems. A web site allowing free download of the tools has been developed. It includes a users' data base, a FAQ (frequently asked questions) and a bug reporting section that will allow a more efficient and easier maintenance of the software tools. The Windows version of PINCHLENI has been stabilized and a communication interface with the EXSYS platform has been developed. This system is an efficient system for computing the process integration including the optimal integration of energy conversion technologies like combustion, gas turbines, steam network, Rankine cycles, heat pumps and refrigeration cycles. This system is particularly well suited for solving site scale problems (as demonstrated in an industrial site application solved during this project). A courseware (in English language) helps learning the utilisation of the software. It is composed of online manuals and teaching materials for the theoretical backgrounds, a FAQ list with a search engine as well as a hypertext tutorial document illustrating the application of the two computer platforms for solving a small example. Results of this research project will be found on the LENI web site at URL http://leniwww.epfl.ch/. (author)

  5. GeneXpert MTB/RIF dans le dépistage de la tuberculose pulmonaire à l’Hôpital Provincial Général de Référence de Bukavu, à l’Est de la République Démocratique du Congo: quelles leçons tirées après 10 mois d’utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupande, David; Kaishusha, David; Mihigo, Carine; Itongwa, Moise; Yenga, Gustave; Katchunga, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction En Afrique subsaharienne, les méthodes de diagnostic de la tuberculose sont insuffisantes et reposent essentiellement sur la microscopie. Elles constituent un réel frein pour le contrôle de la tuberculose. La présente étude voudrait évaluer les performances du GeneXpert MTB/RIF vis à vis de la microscopie classique de Ziehl-Neelsen à l’Hôpital Provincial Général de Référence de Bukavu, à l’Est de la République Démocratique du Congo après 10 mois d’utilisation. Méthodes Les résultats de la coloration au Ziehl-Neelsen et de la biologie moléculaire sur GeneXpert MTB/RIF de 452 patients suspects de tuberculose ont été colligés. La validité d’un test par rapport à l’autre dans la détection de la tuberculose a été étudiée. Résultats Dans le groupe entier, la fréquence de la tuberculose pulmonaire était de 16.3%. La positivité était significativement plus élevée pour le GeneXpert MTB/RIF que pour le Ziehl-Neelsen dans le groupe entier (15.9% vs 9.3%, p= 0.03) et chez les séropositifs pour le VIH (52.0% vs 24.0%; p = 0.007). Cependant, la sensibilité de GeneXpert MTB/RIF comparé au Ziehl-Neelsen n’était pas maximale (95.2%). Enfin, GeneXpert MTB/RIF a détecté 20.8% de résistance à la rifampicine. Conclusion La présente étude confirme la supériorité de GeneXpert MTB/RIF sur la coloration de Ziehl-Neelsen dans la détection de la tuberculose et dans la prédiction de la multi résistance. Son utilisation systématique couplée au Ziehl-Neelsen permettrait de mieux contrôler la tuberculose en Afrique subSaharienne. PMID:29187929

  6. Optimal Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Trucks Using Route Information Optimisation de la gestion de l’énergie dans des véhicules poids lourds électriques hybrides utilisant le guidage d’itinéraire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen T.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To benchmark a hybrid vehicle’s Energy Management Strategy (EMS usually a given, often certified, velocity trajectory is exploited. In this paper it is reasoned that it is also beneficial to optimize the velocity trajectory. Especially optimizing the vehicle braking trajectories, through maximization of energy recuperation, results in considerable fuel savings on the same traveled distance. Given future route (target velocities as function of traveled distance/location, traffic, and possibly weather information, together with the vehicle’s road load parameters, the future power request trajectory can be estimated. Dynamic Programming (DP techniques can then be used to predict the optimal power split trajectory for the upcoming route, such that a desired state-of-charge at the end of the route is reached. The DP solution is re-calculated at a certain rate in order to adapt to changing conditions, e.g., traffic conditions, and used in a lower level real-time EMS to guarantee both battery state-of-charge as well as minimal fuel consumption. Pour évaluer la Stratégie de Gestion de l’Énergie (SGE d’un véhicule hybride, on exploite généralement un cycle de conduite donné, souvent certifié. Dans cet article, l’optimisation de l’itinéraire apparaît aussi comme nécessaire. L’optimisation, en particulier, des conditions de freinage du véhicule, par la maximisation de la récupération d’énergie, permet des économies considérables de combustible sur une même distance parcourue. Pour un itinéraire donné (vitesses cibles en fonction de la distance parcourue et de la position, compte tenu des conditions de circulation, des éventuelles données météorologiques et des paramètres de perte du véhicule, on peut estimer les besoins en puissance nécessaire pour le parcourir. Des techniques de Programmation Dynamique (PD peuvent alors être employées pour prévoir la répartition de puissance optimale pour un parcours donn

  7. Quantitative measurements of small isotopic samples in gaseous mixtures by utilization of some nuclear properties; Etude des possibilites de mesures de faibles quantites de gaz radioactifs dans un melange en utilisant simultanement plusieurs proprietes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragnon, J; Delperie, C

    1967-12-01

    The question is to define the characteristics of a group of measurements allowing the analysis of traces of radioactive rare gases in gas mixtures of different composition. To distinguish the radioactive isotopes from each other and the activity level reaching 10{sup 6} due to their nuclear properties, the method was chosen to use several nuclear properties: gamma radiation energy, beta particle energy, lifetime of excited states. The choice of a plastic scintillator as beta detector allows to answer satisfactorilly to this demand by measurement of nuclear constants because of the short de/excitation time of this detector. Another advantage is that it can be a reservoir for the sample without any destruction nor modification of the sample. The study has been based on the mixture of Kr-85, the analysis of other rare gases follwos immediately from the adopted principle. [French] Les auteurs ont oriente leur recherche vers une solution permettant de distinguer les isotopes radioactifs les uns des autres et dans des rapports d'activite pouvant atteindre 10{sup 6}, grace a plusieurs de leurs proprietes nucleaires, energie de rayonnement gamma, energie de la particule beta, temps de vie des niveaux excites. Le choix d'un scintillateur plastique comme detecteur beta permet de repondre d'une maniere satisfaisante a la mesure des constantes nucleaires en raison du temps de de/excitation rapide de ce scintillateur. Il offre en outre l'avantage de pouvoir servir de reservoir a l'echantillon sans entrainer aucune destruction ni modification de celui-ci. L'etude a ete basee sur la mixture de Kr-85, l'analyse des autre gaz rares decoulant immediatement du principe adopte. (auteur)

  8. Use of X-ray fluorescence in a laboratory for the treatment of uranium ores (1960); Utilisation de la fluorescence X dans un laboratoire de traitements de minerais d'uranium (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A brief description will be given of some aspects of the experience gained over a year during which X-ray fluorescence was used at the laboratory or the present Section Autonome d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications Chimiques of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. First part. - Reproducibility of results. A standard is tested daily. The observations made during the months from december 58 to may 59 are described. Second part. - Study of two chemical treatment processes using X-ray fluorescence, without development of a detailed method of analysis. a) Acid lixiviation of uranium ores. The residues are analysed by X-Ray fluorescence directly in powder form. b) Fixation and elution of vanadium on ion exchange resin. Third part. - Method for the quantitative analysis of the uranium in solution. A method of analysis of the uranium in solution is described for concentrations between 30 {gamma}/cc and 600 {gamma}/cc, whatever may be the impurities present (except for the elements between Zn and Rb, and between Ir and Pa). (author) [French] On se propose de decrire brievement quelques aspects de l'experience acquise en une annee d'utilisation de fluorescence X au laboratoire de l'actuelle Section Autonome d'Etudes, Recherches et Applications chimiques du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. Premiere Partie. - Etude de la reproductibilite des resultats. Un standard est teste quotidiennement. On donne la description des observations faites durant les mois de decembre 58 a mai 59. Deuxieme Partie. - Etude de deux procedes de traitements chimiques au moyen de la fluorescence X sans mise au point de methode d'analyse elaboree. a) Liziviation acide de minerais d'uranium. Les residus sont analyses par fluorescence X directement sous forme pulverulente. b) Fixation et elution du vanadium sur resine echangeuse d'ions. Troisieme partie. - Methode d'analyse quantitative de l'uranium en solution. On decrit une methode d'analyse de l'uranium en solution pour des concentrations allant

  9. Study of irradiation effects in perovskite: use of this matrix for actinides conditioning; Effets de l'irradiation dans une perovskite: utilisation de cette matrice pour un conditionnement des actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabathier, C

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study a specific conditioning matrix (ceramics) for actinides: the strontium titanate. At first, the choice of strontium titanate is discussed as well as its structure and its ability to incorporate actinides. The different studies carried out on the irradiation effects on the strontium titanate are reviewed. The main ion-matter interactions considered in the energy range used during our experiments are given. The different devices and techniques used with ion beams to carry out our experiments according to the type of sample: monocrystal or polycrystal are described. The experimental results on the behaviour of strontium titanate in terms of irradiation, temperature and ion flux used to damage the matrix are presented. The experimental results on the different steps of strontium titanate annealing are given as well as the identifying of the defects by different analyses techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron spectroscopy and x-rays spectroscopy). At last, a model of the behaviour of the strontium titanate in the case of an actinide conditioning is proposed and the evolving of the strontium titanate disorder during the storage is discussed. (O.M.)

  10. Temperature behaviour of photo-emissive films. The case of photo-multipliers used in scintillation counters; Comportement en temperature des couches photoemissives. Cas des photomultiplicateurs utilises dans les compteurs a scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardalan, A H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    This work concerns the changes in the spectral sensitivity of 3 types of normal photo-cathodes (Cs{sub 3}Sb, tri-alkali and bi-alkali without cesium) as a function of temperature. The photo-cathodes of cathodes of commercial photomultipliers (DARIO, E.M.I., R.C.A., A.S.C.O.F.) were used for these tests. The temperature range studied was -25 C to +55 C (except for the bi-alkali photo-cathodes which were tested up to +150 C) and the wave-length range was 3250 to 7000 angstrom. After a brief review of photo-electric effect theories, the experimental device is described and the measurement results presented. Finally, an interpretation of these results is proposed. For the normal range of scintillator emission, i.e. between 3000 and 5000 angstroms (Na I (Tl), plastics, anthracene) the temperature coefficient is always negative: -0.15 % C for Cs{sub 3}Sb and up to -0.5 % C for the most temperature-sensitive photo-cathode. Above 5000 angstrom, the temperature coefficient of Cs{sub 3}Sb films becomes positive: +0.5 % C on the overage. The accuracy of the spectral sensitivity measurements is {+-}4 % in absolute value and {+-}1 % in relative value. (author) [French] Cette etude porte sur la variation de la sensibilite spectrale de 3 types de photocathodes usuelles (Cs{sub 3}Sb, trialcalines et bialcalines sans cesium) en fonction de la temperature. Des photocathodes de photomultiplicateurs du commerce (DARIO, E.M.I., R.C.A., A.S.C.O.P.) ont fait l'objet de ces essais. Le domaine examine s'etendait en temperature de -25 C a +55 C (sauf pour les photocathodes bialcalines qui ont ete portees a une temperature de +150 C) et en longueur d'onde de 3250 a 7000 angstrom. Apres un rappel des theories de l'effet photoelectrique, le dispositif experimental est decrit et les resultats des mesures exposes. Enfin, une interpretation de ces resultats est proposee. Dans le domaine de l'emission des scintillateurs usuels, c'est-a-dire entre 3000 et 5000 angstrom (Na I (Tl), plastiques

  11. Variation horizontale du flux particulaire à micro- et méso-échelle dans la plaine abyssale de Californie (4 100 m de profondeur)

    OpenAIRE

    Crassous, Philippe; Khripounoff, Alexis

    1994-01-01

    Nine sediment traps were assembled in triplicate on a frame and deployed at 100 m above the bottom in the California abyssal plain (4 100 m depth) for ten days. The distances between traps were from 30 cm to 11 km. The main flux measured during this period was 167 mg m(-2) day(-1) with a minimum of 43 mg m(-2) d(-1) and a maximum of 283 mg m(-2) d(-1). This high variation of the particulate flux at the kilometric scale was also observed at a metric scale: for example, the particulate flux mea...

  12. Influence of the flux axial form on the conversion rate and duration of cycle between recharging for ThPu and U{sub nat} fuels in CANDU reactors; Influence de la forme axiale du flux sur le taux de conversion et la duree du cycle entre rechargements pour du combustible ThPu et U{sub nat} dans les reacteurs CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Richard [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2007-01-15

    To face the increasing world power demand the world nuclear sector must be continuously updated and developed as well. Thus reactors of new types are introduced and advanced fuel cycles are proposed. The technological and economic feasibility and the transition of the present power park to a renewed park require thorough studies and scenarios, which are highly dependent on the reactor performances. The conversion rate and cycle span between recharging are important parameters in the scenarios studies. In this frame, we have studied the utilisation of thorium in the CANDU type reactors and particularly the influence of axial form of the flux, i.e. of the recharging mode, on the conversion rate and duration of the cycle between recharging. The results show that up to a first approximation the axial form of the flux resulting from the neutron transport calculations for assessing the conversion rate is not necessary to be taken into account. However the time span between recharging differs up to several percents if the axial form of the flux is taken into consideration in transport calculations. Thus if the burnup or the recharging frequency are parameters which influence significantly the deployment scenarios of a nuclear park an approach more refined than a simple transport evolution in a typical cell/assembly is recommended. Finally, the results of this study are not more general than for the assumed conditions but they give a thorough calculation method valid for any recharging/fuel combination in a CANDU type reactor.

  13. Prevalence de Ia schistosomiase urinaire en milieu scolaire dans un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer la prevalence de la schistosomiase urinaire dans un quartier periurbain de la ville de Ouagadougou. Une enquete malacologique a ete menee dans le barrage de Yamtenga durant le mois de decembre 2011. Le ramassage manuel a ere utilise pour recolter les mollusques. Le test d' ...

  14. Correction Factor Analysis Of Foil Activation And The Effect Of Neglecting The Correction On Neutron Flux And Spectrum Measurement; ANALISIS FAKTOR KOREKSI KEPING AKTIVASI DAN PENGARUH PENGABAIANNYA PADA PENGUKURAN FLUKS DAN SPEKTRUM NEUTRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiyanti, Ita Budi; Hamzah, Amir; Pinem, Surian [Multipurpose Reactor Centre Indonesia, Serpong, (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    Foil activation method is commonly used in flux and neutron spectrum measurement in nuclear reactor and other research. The effect of the thickness, type of foil material and neutron spectrum shape on the self shielding correction and activities correction on the edges of the foil have been analyzed. Also the effect of neglecting those correction factors on neutron flux and spectrum measurement were analyzed. The calculation of the correction factor has been done by using the program which had been verified for several foils. The foils used are Au, In. Cu, Co and Dy of 0.00254 cm -0.127 cm thickness and 1.27 cm diameter. The result showed that the correction factor foils were not similar due to the variation of activation cross section and neutron spectrum shape. For the neutron spectrum in RS-2 multi purpose reactor GAS using foils of 0.00254 cm thick. The effect of neglecting correction factor on thermal flux measurement for Au, In, Co and Cu were less than -6%, for Dy was about -25%. On epithermal flux measurement for Au and In were about -60%, Co and Dy was -12% and -6%, for Cu less than -2%. The effect of neglecting correction factor on spectrum measurement was the change on the neutron flux density values along neutron energy region.

  15. Use of a new ion-detector in the study of the jet plasma injected into a pulsed magnetic mirror configuration (deca I); Utilisation d'un nouveau detecteur d'ions dans l'etude du jet de plasma injecte dans deca I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, C [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, Groupe de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of a high sensitivity ion detector coupled to an electrostatic analyser has permitted a large investigation of the plasma jet injected into a pulsed magnetic mirror configuration. In this detector the positive ions are accelerated through a potential of 30 kV; they strike a metallic target, on which they produce secondary electrons; these, in turn, are accelerated onto a plastic scintillator. The light pulses are detected with a photomultiplier. The gain of this device is about 10{sup 7}. If we make an admission of air into the vacuum system and again we make vacuum, the gain is not modified, since no special activated surfaces are situated in the detector. (author) [French] L'etude d'un detecteur d'ions de grande sensibilite, allie a un analyseur electrostatique a permis une investigation approfondie du jet de plasma injecte dans le dispositif d'Etude de Compression Adiabatique. Dans ce detecteur, les ions positifs sont acceleres par une difference de potentiel voisine de 30 kV, ils bombardent une cible metallique et creent des electrons secondaires qui sont a leur tour acceleres vers un scintillateur plastique. Les impulsions lumineuses sont alors detectees par un photomultiplicateur. Le gain obtenu pour l'ensemble du detecteur est voisin de 10{sup 7}. Le detecteur ne possedant pas de surfaces specialement activees, les remises a l'air n'entrainent pas de variation de gain. (auteur)

  16. Réalisation d'un appareillage a lame vibrante pour l'étude des lignes de flux dans les supraconducteurs à haute température critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woirgard, J.; Salmon, E.; Gaboriaud, R. J.; Rabier, J.

    1994-03-01

    éalisés sur une couche mince épitaxiée de 1000 Å d'épaisseur d'YBaCuO ont permis de mettre en évidence un pic d'amortissement, de grande amplitude, qui pourrait être dû à la fusion du réseau de vortex. Prochainement, cet appareillage sera employé pour l'étude de l'ancrage des lignes de flux sur les défauts du réseau cristallin, défauts naturels ou artificiels créés par implantation ionique dans les films minces ou par déformation plastique dans les échantillons massifs.

  17. Donor Blood Procurement and Utilisation at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les dossiers du service de la transfusion sanguine de l\\'hôpital ont été étudiés pour identifier les méthodes d\\'obtention et d\\'utilisation du sang à partir du 1er janvier 2000 jusqu\\'au 31 décembre 2002. Au total, 11,021 unités de sang ont été obtenu dans le service de transfusion sanguine au cours de la période.

  18. German mires - Utilisation and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderfeld, H.

    1996-01-01

    Mires in Germany are mainly used for agriculture. Peat mining is important regionally, but forest utilisation less so. Twenty years ago in the former West Germany, the first steps from peatland utilisation to peatland protection were taken. Bog protection programmes were developed first. Nowadays research directed to fen protection has begun, prompted by the decreasing importance of agriculture in Central Europe and an increasing environmental awareness. The situation regarding mire protection in Germany is presented for each Federal State individually. A rough estimate suggests 45 000 ha of protected bogs and 25 000 ha of protected fens. These areas include natural and semi-natural mires as well as rewetted mires. (30 refs.)

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of a calorimetric technique for measuring energy deposition in materials caused by complex pile irradiation; Etude theorique et experimentale d'une technique calorimetrique de mesure des depots d'energie dans les materiaux dus au rayonnement complexe de pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, P; Sciers, P; Droulers, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    Calorimetric methods may be used to measure gamma fluxes greater than 10{sup 6} r/h near the cores of swimming pool reactors. The theory, design, and properties of isothermal calorimeters are discussed, and experimental results obtained with two types are presented. Measurement of energy deposition in materials and the long term integration of energy depositions are other uses of these devices. Results of measurements on heat deposition in steel and water are given. Fluxes were also measured. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie traite de la theorie des calorimetres isothermes mis en oeuvre au C.K.N. Grenoble. La puissance deposee dans le calorimetre par les flux de rayonnement echauffe celui-ci. L'echauffement est mesure a l'aide d'un thermocouple. On montre que l'on a ainsi une mesure absolue de cette puissance. Une deuxieme partie traite de l'etude experimentale de: deux types d'appareils utilises: leur construction, les resultats experimentaux, leurs utilisations. Trois de celles-ci sont particulierement interessantes: - la mesure des hauts flux gamma, - la mesure du depot d'energie dans les materiaux, - l'integration pendant une longue duree des depots d'energie (un modele de calorimetre a fonctionne a ce jour 2 500 heures et a integre 9 x 10 puissance 10 rads gamma et 6 x 10 puissance 18 neutrons rapides). La troisieme partie est consacree a l'etude des qualites de l'appareil: robustesse, fidelite, precision, sensibilite, gamme de mesure. Enfin dans la derniere partie sont decrites deux applications de la methode calorimetrique a la mesure du depot d'energie dans un acier special et dans l'eau. (auteurs)

  20. Heat transfer in smooth tubes, between parallel plates, along a semi-infinite plate, in annular spaces and along tube bundles for exponential distribution of the heat flux in forced, laminar or turbulent flow; Transfert de chaleur dans des tubes lisses, entre des plaques planes paralleles, le long d'une plaque plane, dans des espaces annulaires et le long de faisceaux tubulaires pour une repartition exponentielle du flux de chaleur en ecoulement force, laminaire ou turbulent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    champ de temperature ainsi que le nombre de Nusselt en ecoulement laminaire et flux de chaleur constant. En ecoulement turbulent, les lois concernant la repartition de la diffusivite de quantite de mouvement dans un tube, etablies par H. Reichardt et adaptees a l'espace annulaire et au faisceau tubulaire, permettent la determination du champ de vitesse et du coefficient de perte de charge et consequemment la solution des equations de transfert de chaleur. Les resultats du calcul numerique sont rassembles dans des tableaux et representes par des diagrammes pour un domaine etendu des differents parametres et compares avec des resultats experimentaux. Par un procede simple, on peut determiner la valeur minimale de la longueur d'etablissement du regime thermique. (auteur)

  1. Heat transfer in smooth tubes, between parallel plates, along a semi-infinite plate, in annular spaces and along tube bundles for exponential distribution of the heat flux in forced, laminar or turbulent flow; Transfert de chaleur dans des tubes lisses, entre des plaques planes paralleles, le long d'une plaque plane, dans des espaces annulaires et le long de faisceaux tubulaires pour une repartition exponentielle du flux de chaleur en ecoulement force, laminaire ou turbulent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    indiquees les equations pour le calcul explicite du champ de temperature ainsi que le nombre de Nusselt en ecoulement laminaire et flux de chaleur constant. En ecoulement turbulent, les lois concernant la repartition de la diffusivite de quantite de mouvement dans un tube, etablies par H. Reichardt et adaptees a l'espace annulaire et au faisceau tubulaire, permettent la determination du champ de vitesse et du coefficient de perte de charge et consequemment la solution des equations de transfert de chaleur. Les resultats du calcul numerique sont rassembles dans des tableaux et representes par des diagrammes pour un domaine etendu des differents parametres et compares avec des resultats experimentaux. Par un procede simple, on peut determiner la valeur minimale de la longueur d'etablissement du regime thermique. (auteur)

  2. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques; Flux des radionucleides dans les productions agricoles suite a un accident nucleaire: contre-mesures et techniques de rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author).

  3. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques; Flux des radionucleides dans les productions agricoles suite a un accident nucleaire: contre-mesures et techniques de rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author).

  4. Improved Techniques for Low-Flux Measurement of Prompt Neutron Lifetime, Conversion Ratio and Fast Spectra; Methodes Perfectionnees de Mesure de la Duree de Vie des Neutrons Instantanes, du Rapport de Conversion et des Spectres de Neutrons Rapides, dans un Reacteur a Bas Flux; Usovershenstvovannye metody izmereniya vremeni zhizni mgnovennykh nejtronov, koehffitsienta konversii i spektra bystrykh nejtronov pri slabykh potokakh nejtronov; Tecnicas Perfeccionadas para la Determinacion del Periodo de los Neutrones Inmediatos, la Razon de Conversion y los Espectros de Neutrones Rapidos, con Flujos Reducidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armani, R. J.; Bennett, E. F.; Brenner, M. W.; Bretscher, M. M.; Cohn, C. E.; Huber, R. J.; Kaufmann, S. G.; Redman, W. C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-02-15

    been concentrated on the use of pulse shape analysis to reject gamma-ray initiated events in hydrogen recoil proportional counters and the introduction of collimation in Li{sup 6}F solid-state detector ''sandwiches'' to improve the resolution obtained. A number of such instruments have been built and their response to mono-kinetic and reactor neutrons has been investigated. Use of the gamma-ray rejection technique was equivalent to a several hundred-fold effective reduction in gamma-ray sensitivity of the recoil counter and extends the usable range down to at least 30 keV. For the Li{sup 6} solid-state devices, resolutions as low as 70 keV full-width at half maximum (1.5%) have been observed for the sum pulse in thermal neutron irradiation. (author) [French] Dans le programme des reacteurs de puissance zero, on a utilise diverses methodes statistiques pour mesurer le rapport duree de vie des neutrons instantanes/duree de vie des neutrons differes. Les auteurs ont mis au point une methode nouvelle, qui consiste a analyser le bruit du reacteur a l'aide d'un filtre passe-bande, et ont perfectionne d'autres methodes telles que la mesure, a l'aide d'un compteur a impulsions, de la frequence des coincidences retardees en fonction du temps de retard et celle de la variance relative des flux de neutrons integres en fonction du temps d'integration. Ils ont etudie les domaines dans lesquels les differentes methodes peuvent etre utilisees avec le plus d'interet. II se sont aussi preoccupes de l'interpretation des resultats de ces mesures, et montrent que l'interpretation fondee sur un modele cinetique simple peut s'appliquer dans la pratique a une grande diversite de cas. Les auteurs decrivent plusieurs perfectionnements de leur methode d'activation pour la determination du rapport de conversion: application de techniques chimiques tres sensibles pour confirmer les resultats obtenus; correction pour les coups parasites en utilisant, dans la determination de la capture, des

  5. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  6. Idées nouvelles concernant la variable critique de Leloup. Utilisation de cette variable dans le cas des graisses et dans le cas de l'eau New Ldeas About the Leloup Critical Variable. Use of This Variable for Lubricants and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozet J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est essentiellement consacré au fonctionnement. d'un palier lisse en conditions limites, les films édifiés à l'interface étant trop minces pour éviter les interactions de surface. L'auteur montre tout d'abord la relation qui existe entre la variable de Leloup, utilisée par un grand nombre de praticiens, et les caractéristiques du film élasto-hydrodynamique qui se développe aux environs du point critique. Il étudie ensuite le comportement de coussinets graphités lubrifiés à l'eau ; il introduit enfin la lubrification à la graisse de paliers lisses classiques. L'analyse des résultats obtenus au laboratoire permet de conclure à la validité de la variable L pour les deux fluides utilisés. A l'issue de son travail, l'auteur indique que la localisation du point critique relevé expérimentalement dans le cas d'une lubrification à la graisse dépend essentiellement des caractéristiques de l'huile de base, le savon ne jouant qu'un rôle très secondaire. This article mainly deals with the boundary lubrication of journal bearings in which the films at the interfaces are too thin to prevent surface friction. The article first describes the relation existing between the Leloup variable used by a great many technicians and the properties of the elastohydrodynamic film created in the area around the critical point. It then examines the behavior of water-lubricated graphite bearings before going on to the lubrication of conventional journal bearings with grease. An analysis of laboratory results leads to the conclusion that the L variable is valid for both types of fluids. The article concludes by situating the critical point determined experimentally on bearings lubricated with grease. The location of this critical point depends mainly on the properfies of the base oil, in which soap plays only a very secondary role.

  7. The Use of Video in Knowledge Transfer of Teacher-Led Psychosocial Interventions: Feeling Competent to Adopt a Different Role in the Classroom / L’utilisation de la vidéo dans le transfert de connaissances dans les interventions psychosociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Beauregard

    2015-03-01

    psychosociales appuient le transfert de connaissances, car les apprenants peuvent s’identifier à des pairs qui réussissent et peuvent s’imaginer comme ayant la compétence pour reproduire l’intervention et être à l’aise d’adopter un rôle différent dans la salle de classe.

  8. Fast neutron dosimetry in research reactors; Dosimetrie en neutrons rapides dans les reacteurs de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This work chiefly concerns the measurement of fast neutron fluxes by means of threshold detectors. It is shown first that the cross sections to use for measurements by threshold detectors depend largely on the neutron spectrum, that is the position in which the measurement is performed. The spectrum is determined by calculation for several positions in the piles EL2 and EL3; from this can be deduced the cross-sections to be used for the measurements carried out in these positions. In the last part of the report, possible methods for the experimental determination of the spectrum are indicated. (author) [French] On etudie principalement la mesure des flux de neutrons rapides a l'aide de detecteurs a seuil. On montre d'abord que les sections efficaces a utiliser pour les mesures par detecteurs a seuil, dependent grandement du spectre des neutrons, c'est-a-dire de l'emplacement ou s'effectue la mesure. La determination du spectre est effectuee par le calcul pour plusieurs emplacements des piles EL2 et EL3; on en deduit les sections efficaces a utiliser pour les mesures effectuees a ces emplacements. Dans la derniere partie du rapport, on indique quelles methodes sont possibles pour la determination experimentale du spectre. (auteur)

  9. De la problématique des articles synopsis dans la compilation des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autrement dit, au Gabon l'attention doit porter sur l'utilisation des articles synopsis dans la compilation des dictionnaires, en vue de refléter dans ses ouvrages la diversité linguistique et culturelle de ce pays. Ceci est d'autant plus vrai que l'utilisation des articles synopsis ne dépend aucunement de la typologie du ...

  10. Installation for the study of heat transfer with high flux density; Installation d'etude de transmission de chaleur a densite de flux elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M; Schwab, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    As a result of their very low vapor pressure, metals with a low fusion point (sodium, sodium-potassium alloys, etc.) can be used at high temperature, as heating fluids, in installations whose internal pressure is close to atmospheric pressure. Owing to the very high convection coefficients which can be reached with these fluids and to the large temperature differences utilizable, it is possible to produce through the exchange surfaces considerable heat flux densities, of the order of those which exist through the canning of fuel elements in nuclear reactors. The installation described allowed a flux density of more than 200 W/cm{sup 2} to be obtained, the heating fluid being a Na-K alloy (containing 56 per cent by weight of potassium) brought to a temperature around 550 deg. C. (author) [French] Par suite de leur tres faible pression de vapeur, les metaux a bas point de fusion (sodium, alliages sodium-potassium, etc.) peuvent etre utilises a haute temperature, comme fluides de chauffage, dans des installations dont la pression interne est voisine de la pression atmospherique. Grace aux coefficients de convection tres eleves que ces fluides permettent d'atteindre et aux importantes differences de temperature utilisables, il est possible de produire, a travers les surfaces d'echange, des densites de flux de chaleur considerables, de l'ordre de celles qui existent a travers les gaines des elements combustibles des reacteurs nucleaires. L'installation decrite a permis l'obtention d'une densite de flux de plus, de 200 W/cm{sup 2}, le fluide chauffant etant de l'alliage Na-K (a 56 pour cent en poids de potassium) porte a une temperature voisine de 550 deg. C. (auteur)

  11. Control Rods in high-Flux Swimming-Pool Reactors; Les Barres de Controle dans les Piles Piscines a Haut Flux; Reguliruyushchie sterzhni dlya reaktorov bassejnovogo tipa s vysokoj plotnost'yu nejtronnogo potoka; Las Barras de Control en los Reactores Tipo Piscina de Flujo Elevado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageroni, P.; Blum, P.; Denielou, G.; Denis, P.; Meunier, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France)

    1964-06-15

    Control-rod problems in open swimming-pool high-flux and high specific power research reactors are examined in the light of the calibrations and experiments made during the construction of the SILOE reactor. Control-rod operating experience for this reactor at 13 MW is also described. 2. The following are considered in turn: (a) Reactivity balances and reactivity values for the different types of rod tested (cadmium, B4C , rare earths and combinations of these different elements). (b) Flux peaks set up in the core by the presence of the control rods, their incidence on the specific power, the fast fluxes that can be obtained and means of increasing them. (c ) The technological problems involved in constructing the rods. (d) In-pile cooling, vibration, deformation and scram-time problems. 3. In conclusion, current studies on control rods in open swimming-pool reactors operating in the 10 - 30 1W range are briefly summarized. (author) [French] 1. Les problemes poses par les barres de controle dans les reacteurs de recherche de type piscine ouverte a haute puissance specifique et haut flux sont examines a la lumiere des calculs et des experiences effectues pendant la construction du reacteur SILOE. Les resultats de l'experience de fonctionnement a 13 MW de ce reacteur sont egalement presentes en ce qui concerne les barres de controle. 2. On examine successivement: a) les bilans de reactivite et les valeurs en reactivite des differents types de barres qui ont ete essayes (Cadmium, B 4C , terres rares et combinaisons de ces differents elements). b) Les pics de flux crees dans le coeur par la presence de barres de controle, leur incidence sur la puissance specifique, et les flux rapides que l'on peut obtenir ainsi que les moyens correspondants d'accroitre ces flux. c) Les problemes technologiques poses par la construction des barres. d) Les problemes de refrigeration, de vibration, de deformation, de temps de chute en pile. 3. En conclusion on decrit sommairement les

  12. Vinyl Sulfonate/Vinyl Amide Copolymers and Different Surfactants As Suitable Systems in Eorat Higher Temperatures and Salinities Utilisation de mélanges de copolymères vinyl sulfonate/vinyl amide et de différents tensio-actifs en RAP dans des conditions de fortes salinités et de températures élevées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Von Halasz S. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For enhanced oil recovery flooding processes there will be an increasing demand for polymers having high temperature and electrolyte stability. High molecular weight copolymers based on vinyl sulfonate, vinyl amide, and acryl amide show high performances in matching these demanding requirements. Surfactants are also known that are stable under these conditions, resulting in high deoiling rates. The aim of the present article is to demonstrate the influence of alkylphenol ethoxylates and their corresponding ether sulfonates on VS/VA/AM copolymer solutions. Aqueous solutions of such copolymers were added to varying quantities of nonionic and anionic surfactants at different temperatures using salinity scans. This article discusses the results of experiments with solutions of copolymers and surfactants in terms of compatibility, viscosity yield, flow properties, shear stability, injectability, thermostability, and oil recovery. Solutions of alkylphenol ethoxylates and/or ether sulfonates show nearly the same compatibility within a broad range of temperature and salinity, both with and without polymers. Relatively small amounts of surfactants are able to influence the EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery properties of the polymer solutions, giving several interesting aspects for improved oil recovery. L'utilisation des polymères en récupération assistée du pétrole a fait apparaître un besoin croissant de polymères stables à haute température et à forte salinité. Les performances des terpolymères vinyl sulfonate/vinyl amide/acrylamide (VS/VA/VM ont montré que ces polymères remplissent de tels critères d'utilisation. On connaît également des tensio-actifs chimiquement stables dans ces mêmes conditions qui pourraient donc permettre d'obtenir des taux de récupération d'huile élevés. L'objectif de ce travail est de mettre en évidence l'influence de la présence d'alkylphénols éthoxyIates et des éthers sulfonates correspondants sur les

  13. Étude de la possibilité d'utilisation du rônier comme armature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traditionnelles, permettent d'envisager son utilisation comme armature dans le béton. ... Les résultats obtenus permettent de confirmer que le rônier peut être utilisé comme ... Keywords : wood, Borassus palm, framework, concrete, beam.

  14. Localizing by autoradiography at -195 deg radioactive areas in rats exposed to a high flux of thermal neutrons, importance of phosphorus 32 in consecutive internal irradiation; Localisation par autoradiographie a -195 deg des zones radioactives chez le rat expose a un haut flux de neutrons thermiques, importance du phosphore 32 dans l'irradiation interne consecutive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanteur, J; Pellerin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Rats weighing 25 g were exposed for 5 mn to a flux of 6.10{sup 12} thermal neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s. Anatomical autoradiography at -195 deg. C has enabled the radioactive organs to be easily localised, to follow in course of time the decrease of radioactivity, and from it to deduce the probable nature of the numerous emitters in question. In particular, the phosphorus 32 has thus appeared to be one of those responsible for internal irradiation, general, on the one hand, by activating cellular phosphorus, local, on the other, by activating bony phosphates. Owing to this, an accidental irradiation by neutrons might have consequences that are both somatic (elective irradiation of the bone marrow) and genetic (activation of nucleic acids). The gamma spectrometry has confirmed the nature of certain other emitters. (author) [French] Des rats de 25 g ont ete exposes pendant 5 mn a un flux de 6.10{sup 12} neutrons thermiques/cm{sup 2}/s. L'autoradiographie anatomique a -195 deg. C a permis de localiser facilement les organes radioactifs, de suivre dans le temps la decroissance de la radioactivite, et d'en deduire la nature probable des nombreux emetteurs en cause. En particulier, le phosphore 32 est ainsi apparu comme l'un des responsables de l'irradiation interne, d'une part generale par activation du phosphore cellulaire, d'autre part locale par activation des phosphates osseux. Une irradiations accidentelle par neutrons aurait, de ce fait, des consequences a la fois somatiques (irradiation elective de la moelle osseuse) et genetiques (activation des acides nucleiques). La spectrometrie gamma a confirme la nature de certains autres emetteurs. (auteur)

  15. Accès aux TIC et leur utilisation en enseignement supérieur en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les politiques dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur en matière de technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) présument qu'un accès accru aux TIC encourage leur utilisation. Une première collecte de données effectuée en 2004 et 2007 fournit une base des plus nécessaires sur laquelle fonder la ...

  16. Impacts de l'utilisation des Engrais chimiques sur les cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse des résultats a montrée que Solanum macrocarpum et amarantus hybridus sont les légumes les plus cultivés respectivement 69% et 21% à cause de leurs préférences dans l'alimentation des consommateurs.Les proportions des maraîchers utilisant les engrais chimiques ou non ou encore les deux couplés sont ...

  17. Améliorer le rendement des zones urbaines dans le contexte du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... dans la croissance des entreprises, ainsi que dans la question connexe de ... qu'il appellera l'indice de performance des zones urbaines aux fins de cette analyse. ... privé et l'utilisation efficace des ressources publiques limitées du Kenya.

  18. Composition and Vacancy Flux Effects in Tracer Diffusion in Silver-Gold Alloys; Effets de la Composition et du Flux de Lacunes sur la Diffusion des Indicateurs dans les Alliages d'Or et d'Argent; Vliyanie sostava i potoka vakansij pri diffuzii indikatorov v splavakh serebra i zolota; Efectos de la Composicion y del Flujo de Huecos Sobre la Difusion de Indicadores en Aleaciones Plata-Oro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R. O.; Slifkin, L. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1966-02-15

    lorsque la concentration en or augmente. Ces resultats ne s'expliquent pas par des theories fondees sur les etats correspondants, les effets de taille ou les temperatures de dissolution; toutefois, il y a quantitativement une semi-concordance avec la generalisation de la theorie electrostatique de Lazarus, faite par LeClaire. Le fait que les facteurs pre-exponentiels decroissent lorsque la concentration en or augmente indique que l'entropie de migration des lacunes decroit proportionnellement a la composition, la raison etant 1,5 R, lorsqu'on passe de l'argent pur a l'or pur. Pour l'un ou l'autre des indicateurs a une temperature determinee, la courbe du coefficient de diffusion D en fonction de la composition presente un large minimum. Si l'on utilise ces valeurs pour verifier les theories sur l'interaction des lacunes et des impuretes, on constate que celles de Manning et Lidiard sont les seules qui donnent des resultats satisfaisants et concordants. Si l'on ajoute de l'argent plus mobile a de l'or moins mobile, on observe qu'en fait D diminue pour les deux indicateurs; l'analyse montre que si un atome d'argent est adjacent a une lacune et a un atome d'or, la frequence de saut correspondant a l'atome d'or diminue dans la proportion d'environ 0,4. Etant donne le minimum de la courbe du coefficient de diffusion D en fonction de la composition, on peut etudier l'effet d'un flux de lacunes sur la diffusion des indicateurs. On prepare un couple de Kirkendall a partir de compositions placees symetriquement par rapport au minimum. L'interface contient une couche mince d'or indicateur et est {sup m}arquee avec des particules fines d'oxyde d'hafnium radioactif. Au cours du recuit par diffusion, le flux de lacunes provoque un deplacement du centre de masse de la distribution d'or indicateur, qui ne subit pas de distorsion, le coefficient de diffusion D etant presque independant de la position. Les fines particules marquantes inertes indiquent l'emplacement primitif de l

  19. Adaptation au stress hydrique dans le Comahue, en Argentine ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adaptation au stress hydrique dans le Comahue, en Argentine. On prévoit que les changements climatiques entraîneront une diminution des précipitations annuelles dans le Comahue, une région du centre-ouest de l'Argentine. Conjugué à la hausse prévue de la demande en eau et de l'utilisation de la ressource, ...

  20. Biocarburants : la Commission propose d’encourager leur utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis longtemps, la Commission, le Parlement et le Conseil encouragent le développement des sources d’énergie renouvelables, et plus particulièrement des biocarburants. Cela s’est traduit, entre autres, par la publication en novembre 2000 d’un livre vert intitulé « Vers une stratégie européenne de sécurité d’approvisionnement énergétique », qui fixe comme objectif, d’ici 2020, le remplacement de 20% des carburants classiques par des carburants de substitution pour le transport routier. Plus récemment, en juin 2001, au sommet de Göteborg, a été souligné le rôle important des biocarburants dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et le développement des énergies propres. Ces encouragements restaient au niveau de la déclaration d’intention faute de moyens administratifs et fiscaux pour bâtir une véritable stratégie. Depuis le 7 novembre 2001, les choses semblent évoluer : en effet, à cette date, le collège des Commissaires a adopté une communication sur les carburants de substitution pour les transports routiers et une série de mesures visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants. De plus - et c’est ce qui est fondamental - cette communication était assortie de deux propositions de directives, l’une visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants dans les transports, l’autre concernant la possibilité d’appliquer un taux d’accises réduit sur certaines huiles minérales qui contiennent des biocarburants et sur les biocarburants.

  1. Experimental study of heat transfer for parallel flow in tube bundles with constant heat flux and for medium Prandtl numbers; Etude experimentale du transfert de chaleur dans des faisceaux tubulaires en ecoulement parallele pour une densite de flux thermique constante dans le domaine des nombres de Prandtl moyens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The heat transfer parameters were determined experimentally in electrically heated tube bundles for turbulent flow parallel to the axis. The tubes were arranged in a pattern of equilateral triangles. The ratios of the distance between the axes of the tubes to their external diameter were 1.60 and 1.25 in the two test sections studied. The experiments were carried out with distilled water and with a mixture of 60 per cent ethylene glycol and 40 per cent water. The values obtained for the Prandtl numbers in this way fell within the range from 2.3 to 18. The Reynolds numbers were varied between 10{sup 4} and 2.10{sup 5}. The relation between the mean heat transfer coefficients and the friction factor in the tube bundles was found from the experiments as: Nu = [Re Pr {zeta}/8]/[1+{radical}({zeta}/8) 8.8 (Pr-1.3) Pr{sup -0.22}]. The experimentally determined mean Nusselt numbers were also given by the following function: Nu = (0.0122 + 0.00245 p/d) Re{sup 0.86} Pr{sup 0.4}, with a maximum deviation of {+-}4 per cent. For certain local Nusselt numbers, deviations of up to 20 per cent with respect to the relations given were observed. (author) [French] Dans des faisceaux tubulaires a chauffage electrique parcourus par un ecoulement turbulent parallele a l'axe, on a determine experimentalement les parametres du transfert de chaleur. Les centres des sections droites des tubes etaient des sommets de triangles equilateraux. Les rapports de la distance a l'axe des tubes et leur diametre exterieur dans les deux veines de mesure etudiees etaient de 1.60 et 1.25. Des essais furent effectues avec de l'eau distillee ainsi qu'avec un melange de 60 pour cent de glycol ethylenique et 40 pour cent d'eau. Les valeurs des nombres de Prandtl obtenues ainsi etaient situees entre 2.3 a 18. On a fait varier les nombres de Reynolds entre 10{sup 4} et 2.10{sup 5}. La relation entre les nombres caracteristiques de transfert de chaleur moyens et la perte de charge dans les faisceaux tabulaires

  2. Apport de l'echographie dans les contusions abdominales de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : l'échographie joue un rôle déterminant dans le bilan lésionnel dans les contusions abdominales, cependant son utilisation reste limitée dans le domaine pédiatrique au CHU SO de Lomé, d'où la nécessité d'une plus large diffusion de cet outil diagnostic. Mots clés : contusion abdominale, enfant, échographie, ...

  3. Practical guide to dosimetry as applied in the research reactors of the Saclay and Grenoble nuclear research centers; Guide pratique de la dosimetrie mise en oeuvre dans les reacteurs de recherche du C.E.N./G et du C.E.N./S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-07-01

    Since the problems concerning neutron and gamma flux measurements which arise during irradiation experiments in the reactors in the Grenoble and Saclay Centres are of the same type, and since the solutions found are very often adopted in common, we have attempted to describe the methods we use at the present time. A brief description is given of the production of the detectors, the electronic apparatus; the formulae usually used for the interpretation of the measurements are given. A series of technical data cards give the most commonly used detector characteristics. These cards give the physical characteristics of the detectors, their nuclear constants, if any, the most suitable counting methods and the field of application. (authors) [French] Les problemes de mesures de flux de neutrons et de flux gamma qui se posent pour les experiences irradiees dans les reacteurs des Centres de Grenoble et de Saclay etant du meme type et les solutions trouvees, tres souvent adoptees en commun, nous avons cherche a decrire les methodes que nous pratiquons actuellement. On decrit tres brievement la fabrication des detecteurs, l'appareillage electronique; on rappelle les formules usuelles qui servent dans l'interpretation des mesures. Une serie de fiches techniques rassemble les caracteristiques des detecteurs les plus couramment utilises. Ces fiches indiquent les caracteristiques physiques des detecteurs, leurs constantes nucleaires s'il y a lieu, les methodes de comptage les mieux adaptees et le domaine d'utilisation. (auteurs)

  4. Disposal into the Sea and into Geological Structures of Wastes Resulting from the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy; Rejet en Mer et dans les Formations Geologiques de Dechets Provenant des Utilisations Pacifiques de l'Energie Atomique; 0423 0414 ; Eliminacion en el Mar y en Estructuras Geologicas de Desechos Procedentes del Uso Pacifico de la Energia Atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carritt, Dayton E. [Department of Oceanography, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1960-07-01

    procedures d'evacuation que l'on examine aux Etats-Unis sont elaborees pour faire face a un nombre inconnu d'eventalites, et, bien qu'elles soient considerees comme prudentes, elles ne sont pas restrictives outre mesure vu l'activite des dechets produits a l'heure actuelle. L'utilisation plus efficace et moins dangereuse du milieu marin pour l'evacuation des dechets radioactifs ne pourra etre realisee que grace a une connaissance de base plus approfondie: a) des processus de melange turbulent dans les mers; b) des etats physique et chimique des elements composant les dechets lorsqu'ils se trouvent en etat d'equilibre avec l'eau de mer; c) de l'interaction entre les elements de dechets et la faune et flore marines; des taux de concentration ou d'elimination de ces elements par les organismes marins a tous les niveaux trophiques ainsi que de leur periode biologique. (author) [Spanish] Gracias a los procedimientos de evacuacion sin riesgos de desechos radiactivos se consigue que estos lleguen al hombre en un grado de concentracion inferior al maximo admisible, y no se impide el desarrollo de recursos que podrian contribuir en gran medida al bienestar de la humanidad. Actualmente, la preparacion de procedimientos de evacuacion sin riesgos en una zona marina determinada se ve limitada por el escaso conocimiento que poseemos de algunas de las etapas del proceso mediante el cual la radiactividad pasa del lugar de la evacuacion al hombre. A consecuencia de ello, los procedimientos de evacuacion que se estudian en los Estados Unidos de America se caracterizan por un exceso de prudencia y aunque se les considera moderados, no son exageradamente restrictivos con respecto, al nivel actual de acumulacion de desechos. Para llegar a una utilizacion mas eficaz y sin riesgos del mar como lugar de evacuacion de desechos radiactivos sera preciso conocer mejor: a) los procesos de mezcla turbulenta en los oceanos, b) el estado fisico y quimico de los elementos constitutivos de los productos de

  5. Alize 3 - first critical experiment for the franco-german high flux reactor - calculations; Alize 3 - premiere experience critique pour le reacteur a haut flux franco-allemand. Calculs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharmer, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results of experiments in the light water cooled D{sub 2}O reflected critical assembly ALIZE III have been compared to calculations. A diffusion model was used with 3 fast and epithermal groups and two overlapping thermal groups, which leads to good agreement of calculated and measured power maps, even in the case of strong variations of the neutron spectrum in the core. The difference of calculated and measured k{sub eff} was smaller than 0.5 per cent {delta}k/k. Calculations of void and structure material coefficients of the reactivity of 'black' rods in the reflector, of spectrum variations (Cd-ratio, Pu-U-ratio) and to the delayed photoneutron fraction in the D{sub 2}O reflector were made. Measurements of the influence of beam tubes on reactivity and flux distribution in the reflector were interpreted with regard to an optimum beam tube arrangement for the Franco- German High Flux Reactor. (author) [French] Les resultats des experiences faites dans la maquette critique ALIZE III, refrigeree a l'eau legere et reflechie par l'eau lourde, ont ete compares aux calculs. On a utilise un modele de la theorie de diffusion a trois groupes rapides et epithermiques et deux groupes thermiques qui se recouvrent. Ce modele a permis de calculer la distribution de puissance dans le coeur en bon accord avec les mesures, meme dans le cas d'une forte variation du spectre des neutrons dans le coeur. L'erreur entre k{sub eff} calcule et mesure etait inferieure a 0,5 pour cent {delta}k/k. Le coefficient de vide et des materiaux de structure, la reactivite des barres 'noires', les variations du spectre (rapport Cd, rapport Pu/U) et la fraction des photo-neutrons retardes sont egalement calcules. Les mesures de reactivite et de perturbation de flux dans le reflecteur, dues aux canaux, ont ete interpretees du point de vue d'un arrangement optimum des canaux pour le Reacteur a Haut Flux Franco-Allemand. (auteur)

  6. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezovska, M.

    2002-01-01

    The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal contain humic acids but lignite from Novaky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated from of humic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of coals humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water. Oxidised coal with high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture as fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and can help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabilize toxic metal residues already present in soil. (author)

  7. Utilisation of chemically treated coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bežovská Mária

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The numerous application of coal with high content of humic substances are known. They are used in many branches of industry. The complex study of the composition of coal from upper Nitra mines has directed research to its application in the field of ecology and agriculture. The effective sorption layers of this coal and their humic acids can to trap a broad spectrum of toxic harmful substances present in industrial wastes, particularly heavy metals. A major source of humic acids is coal - the most abundant and predominant product of plant residue coalification. All ranks of coal containt humic acids but lignite from Nováky deposit represents the most easily available and concentrated form of humic acids. Deep oxidation of coal by HNO3 oxidation - degradation has been performed to produce water-soluble-organic acids. The possibilities of utilisation of oxidised coal and humic acids to remove heavy metals from waste waters was studied. The residual concentrations of the investigated metals in the aqueous phase were determined by AAs. From the results follows that the samples of oxidised coal and theirs humic acids can be used for the heavy metal removal from metal solutions and the real acid mine water.Oxidised coal with a high content of humic acids and nitrogen is used in agriculture a fertilizer. Humic acids are active component in coal and help to utilize almost quantitatively nitrogen in soil. The humic substances block and stabiliz toxic metal residues already present in soil.

  8. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  9. The direct conversion of heat into electricity in reactors; Conversion directe de la chaleur en electricite dans les piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devin, B; Bliaux, J; Lesueur, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The direct conversion of heat into electricity by thermionic emission in an atomic reactor has been studied with the triple aim of its utilisation: as an energy source for a space device, at the head of a conventional conversion system in power installations, or finally in association with the thermoelectric conversion in very low power installations. The laboratory experiments were mainly orientated towards the electron extraction of metals and compounds and their behaviour at high temperatures. Converters furnishing up to 50 amps at 0. 4 volts with an efficiency close to 10 p. 100 have been constructed in the laboratory; the emitters were heated by electron bombardment and were composed of tungsten covered with an uranium carbide deposit or molybdenum covered with cesium. The main aspects of the coupling between the converter and the reactor have been covered from the point of view of electronics: the influence of the mismatching of the load on the temperature of the emitter and the influence of thermal flux density on the temperature of the emitter and the stability of the converter. Converters using uranium carbide as the electron emitter have been tested in reactors. Tests have been made under dynamic conditions in order to determine the dynamic characteristics. The load matching curves have been constructed and the overall performances of several cells coupled in such a way as to form a reactor rod have been deduced. This information is fundamental to the design of a control system for a thermionic conversion reactor. The problems associated with the reliability of thermionic converters connected in series in the same reactor rod have been examined theoretically. Finally, the absorption isotherms have been drawn at the ambient temperatures for krypton and xenon on activated carbon with the aim of investigating the escape of fission products in a converter. (author) [French] La conversion directe de chaleur en electricite par emission thermionique dans une

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Spontaneous Imbibition in Nanopores and Recovery of Asphaltenic Crude Oils Using Surfactants for EOR Applications Simulations de dynamique moléculaire d’imbibition spontanée dans des nanopores et pour la récupération d’huiles brutes asphalténiques en utilisant des agents tensioactifs pour des applications d’EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stukan M.R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of the imbibition process in nanopores in case of two different mechanisms of the wettability modification. We compare the imbibition of an aqueous surfactant solution into an oil-wet pore driven by surfactant adsorption onto the oil-wet rock surface (coating mechanism and the imbibition of an aqueous surfactants solution driven by surfactants removing the contaminant molecules from the originally water-wet surface (cleaning mechanism. Our results show qualitative difference in the imbibition dynamics in these two cases and indicate that MD simulation is a useful tool to investigate details of the imbibition mechanisms at the pore scale with direct implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR operations. Nous presentons des simulations de Dynamique Moleculaire (DM du processus d’imbibition dans des nanopores dans le cas de deux mecanismes differents de modification de mouillabilite. Nous comparons l’imbibition d’une solution aqueuse d’agent tensioactif dans un pore mouille d’huile entrainee par une adsorption d’agent tensioactif sur la surface de roche mouillee d’huile (mecanisme de revetement et l’imbibition d’une solution aqueuse d’agent tensioactif entrainee par des agents tensioactifs eliminant les molecules contaminantes de la surface originellement mouillee d’eau (mecanisme de nettoyage. Nos resultats montrent une difference qualitative en matiere de dynamique d’imbibition dans ces deux cas et indiquent que la simulation de DM constitue un outil utile pour etudier les mecanismes d’imbibition a l’echelle des pores avec des implications directes pour des operations de recuperation renforcee d’huile (EOR, Enhanced Oil Recovery.

  11. Utilisation du foncier agricole à des fins de culture de Jatropha dans le Bassin arachidier sénégalais: une démarche controversée et des gains pas à la hauteur des attendus du programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminata Ndour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Durant les années 2000, le secteur énergétique mondial a connu un tourment décisif du fait de la diminution des réserves, de la demande importante et surtout de la fluctuation des prix du pétrole. Le Sénégal, pays dépendant encore des énergies fossiles, s’est engagé dans une politique de diversification énergétique. Par conséquent, un programme biocarburant est initié. Le Bassin Arachidier est un des espaces sollicités pour l’application des politiques de promotion des biocarburants. Une zone du production agricole a accueilli une innovation énergétique. Ce fait marquant a guidé nos interrogations sur les problèmes énergétiques qui ont incité la culture de Jatropha dans le Bassin Arachidier. De façon spécifique, notre analyse de la filière Jatropha précise les stratégies déployées. Il est questions dans ce cas d’étudier les effets de Jatropha sur l’espace de production et les conditions de vie des agriculteurs, des risques de réduction des superficies de cultures traditionnelles.

  12. Study of the use of an electric discharge for hollow cathodes used as optical excitation sources in the spectrographic measurement of fluorine in thorium, uranium and plutonium; Etude de l'utilisation de la decharge electrique en cathode creuse comme source d'excitation optique pour le dosage spectrographique du fluor dans le thorium, l'uranium et le plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufpereau, M; Crehange, G; Poublan, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Previous works and phenomena concerned with a hollow cathode excitation are reviewed. Experiments aimed specially on the determination of the best conditions for an analysis of fluorine in oxides-metals and solutions. In that purpose, several factors have been pointed out. One started some researches about others elements that fluorine. Carrying fluorine into discharge and excitation have been more specially studied. A quantitative analysis method is given. The analysis limit is 45 ppm about but the detection limit is 5 ppm about. As a conclusion, various ways for optical excitation of fluorine are reviewed as other analytical possibilities a hollow cathode discharge offers. (authors) [French] On rappelle les travaux effectues jusqu'alors ainsi que les phenomenes mis en jeu dans l'excitation cathode creuse. Les experiences effectuees ont eu pour but essentiel la determination des conditions optima du dosage du fluor dans les oxydes, metaux et solutions. Pour cela de nombreux facteurs ont ete mis en evidence. Certaines etudes concernant d'autres elements que le fluor ont ete amorcees. Le passage du fluor dans la decharge et son excitation ont ete plus particulierement etudies. Une methode d'analyse quantitative est degagee, la limite de dosage est de l'ordre de 45 ppm, la limite de detection de 5 ppm. En conclusion, on passe en revue les differentes methodes d'excitation optique du fluor ainsi que les autres possibilites analytiques que peut offrir la cathode creuse. (auteurs)

  13. Considérations Concernant la Transposition dans la Législation Nationale des Stipulations de la Directive 2005/60/Ce du Parlement Européen et du Conseil, en Date du 26 Octobre 2005 Concernant la Prévention de L’utilisation du Système Financier dans le But du Blanchiment d’argent et du Financement du Terrorisme Relativement à L’obligation des Avocats de Rapporter les Transactions Suspectes de Blanchiment d’argent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupsan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En mars 1997, le Rapport de la Stratégie Internationale de Contrôle des Narcotiques1 a mentionné que le blanchiment d'argent est effectué par des spécialistes, qui vendent leurs services de haute qualité, leur expérience et savoir dans le mouvement des capitaux. Ces services sont offerts sur trois niveaux, à savoir:- Le premier niveau consiste en les conseils financiers, qui écrivent des livres, dirigent des séminaires concernant le bénéfice des taxes dans les centres off-shore. Ils sont dispos à offrir à tout moment des conseils spécifiques pour les personnes qui ont été convaincues que ce mouvement, en partie ou au total des biens financiers vers les centres off-shore, est bénéfique;- Le troisième niveau est formé d'avocats, comptables ou brokers qui détiennent unportefeuille de services offert tant aux clients légaux qu'aux infracteurs;- Le troisième niveau est formé de managers financiers, qui offrent des services spécialisés aux clients spécifiques, engagés en des activités infractionnelles. Le plus souvent, ils sont de connivence avec les infracteurs, dans le but de cacher et de blanchir l'argent de ces derniers.

  14. EVALUATION DE L’IMPACT ENVIRONNEMENTAL : GeneSys-Colza : un modèle des effets à moyen et à long terme des systèmes de culture sur les flux de gènes entre champs de colza et repousses dans un espace agricole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available On a beaucoup parlé, lors de l’examen des demandes d’autorisation de mise en culture de variétés transgéniques de colza, des risques d’hybridation interspécifique du colza avec les crucifères sauvages, et d’introgression de transgènes dans les espèces adventices [1, 2]. Les flux de gènes intraspécifiques ont moins attiré l’attention du grand public; ils sont pourtant bien plus probables. Les transgènes peuvent être disséminés dans le temps, par l’intermédiaire de repousses de colza apparaissant dans les cultures suivant les variétés transgéniques, à cause de la perte d’une partie des graines produites par les cultures de colza avant ou pendant la récolte [3, 4], et dans l’espace, par l’intermédiaire de semences et de pollen disséminés par le vent ou d’autres vecteurs tels que les oiseaux ou les insectes [5-8]. Les semences dispersées peuvent produire directement des repousses de colza dans des champs voisins, tandis que le pollen peut transmettre le transgène en fécondant des plantes de colza présentes dans ces autres champs. Ce flux de gènes peut être à l’origine de différents problèmes tels que l’apparition de repousses de colza résistantes aux herbicides, difficiles à éliminer lorsqu’il s’agit d’un transgène de résistance à un herbicide, ou la pollution de récoltes de colza classique par le transgène, quelle que soit sa nature, et l’impossibilité d’écouler ces récoltes dans une filière « non-OGM ». Il est donc apparu nécessaire et urgent de mieux évaluer ce risque et d’identifier les moyens de le maîtriser. Les premiers éléments de réponse ont été donnés par les plates-formes « plantes transgéniques » des instituts techniques [9, 10]; cependant, ces plates-formes sont limitées dans le temps et l’espace et il n’est pas possible d’y rendre compte de la variabilité régionale des systèmes de culture et de leurs effets sur le devenir des

  15. Effective utilisation of generation Y Quantity Surveyors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together and tested by means of open interview discussions with senior QS professionals. ... employers could better utilise generation Y employees. 2. Literature review .... Literature was reviewed by using search engines (Emerald, Business.

  16. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  17. Enhancing Cloud Resource Utilisation using Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sijin He; Li Guo; Yike Guo

    2014-01-01

    Resource provisioning based on virtual machine (VM) has been widely accepted and adopted in cloud computing environments. A key problem resulting from using static scheduling approaches for allocating VMs on different physical machines (PMs) is that resources tend to be not fully utilised. Although some existing cloud reconfiguration algorithms have been developed to address the problem, they normally result in high migration costs and low resource utilisation due to ignoring the multi-dimens...

  18. Measurements and Application of Partition Coefficients of Compounds Suitable for Tracing Gas Injected Into Oil Reservoirs Mesures et applications des coefficients de partage de composants utilisables comme gaz traceurs injectés dans des réservoirs de pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugstad O.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracing of injection gas in oil reservoirs is a technique used to improve the description of permeability distributions in situ. Results from dynamic laboratory experiments of gas tracers are reported. Gas tracers are delayed when flooding through a reservoir by the partitioning into the oil phase. A knowledge of this effect is important to optimize the interpretation of field tracer tests. The partition is quantified by the partition coefficient K. Two chemical tracers perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP and perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH and the radioactive 14C labelled ethane have been studied here. The two chemical compounds are new as reservoir tracers and no field results with these tracers are reported in the open literature. Our group has, however, recently applied these compound successfully as tracers in a North Sea reservoir. Les traceurs représentent un outil précieux pour améliorer la description des gisements. On les a utilisés pour obtenir des renseignements sur la configuration de l'écoulement des fluides injectés et sur leur vitesse, sur l'instant de percé des venues d'eau et sur leur origine précise, sur les traitements d'amélioration du balayage, sur les hétérogénéités importantes telles que fractures, barrières d'écoulement et stratifications de la perméabilité. Dans les gisements importants comportant plusieurs puits de production et plusieurs puits d'injection, il est donc souhaitable de disposer de plusieurs traceurs afin de pouvoir injecter différents traceurs ou mélanges de traceurs dans les différents puits. L'article présenté ici est une contribution a l'effort fait pour étendre le nombre de gaz traceurs fiables applicables aux gisements. L'article présente les résultats d'essais dynamiques en laboratoires dans lesquels on injecte des traceurs à travers un milieu poreux. Lorsqu'ils traversent un réservoir, les gaz traceurs sont retardés du fait de leur ségrégation dans la phase huile. La

  19. The Problems of Controlling Defects in the Materials Used for the First Czechoslovak Nuclear-Power Station; Problemes de Controle des Defauts dans les Materiaux Utilises a la Premiere Centrale Nucleaire de Tchecoslovaquie; Problemy defektoskopicheskogo kontrolya stroitel'nykh materialov reaktora pervoj chekhoslovatskoj atomnoj ehlektrostantsii; Problemas de Control de Defectos en los Materiales Utilizados en la Primera Central Nuclear de Checoslovaquia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radislav, Filipp [Zavody Im.V.I. Lenina, Pl' zen, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1965-09-15

    cassettes. In radiographing thick welds, betatrons of Czechoslovak manufacture are used. The paper describes the methods used for testing and the results obtained and compares the Czechoslovak 15-MeV betatron with the Siemens' betatron. (author) [French] Le memoire donne une description succincte de la cuve du reacteur de la premiere centrale nucleaire de Tchecoslovaquie. En raison des specifications rigoureuses auxquelles doivent repondre les methodes de construction et d'assemblage de la cuve du reacteur, en acier inoxydable faiblement allie de grande epaisseur (650 mm), il a fallu elaborer une methode de controle non destructif du materiau de base et des soudures, fondes sur l'emploi de ' temoins ' . Pour controler la qualite du materiau de base et des sourdures, on utilise essentiellement des ultrasons puises et une sonde. Le memoire decrit les methodes d'essais et l'evaluation des donnees au cours de l'examen du materiau de base, ainsi que le procede qui permet de verifier la qualite des soudures electriques a scorie, des soudures en atmosphere de gaz carbonique et des soudures a l'arc faites a la main. Le controle des plaques forgees et laminees se fait au moyen d'un dispositif automatique de defectoscopie qui a ete mis au point en Tchecoslovaquie. Ce dispositif se compose de deux parties: un mecanisme mobile et un detecteur a ultrasons du type U1D-A2, de fabrication tchecoslovaque. Il comprend plusieurs elements inedits. On a compense l'effet de la distance sur l'ampleur du signal declenche par un defaut de maniere que cette ampleur reste constante. On a compense aussi l'effet du aux irregularites de la liaison acoustique, les impulsions etant communiquees a un dispositif d'enregistrement a distance. L'importance du defaut est evalue a l'aide d'unattenuateur. On metau point un dispositif automatique pour controler une surface cylindrique verticale. Les soudures d'assemblage circulaire doivent etre verifiees a une temperature elevee. Dans les usines V. I. Lenine de

  20. Caractérisation des différents types de fibres musculaires dans plusieurs espèces : production et utilisation d'anticorps monoclonaux dirigés contre les chaînes lourdes de myosine rapide IIa et IIb

    OpenAIRE

    Société Biocytex; Picard, Brigitte; Lefaucheur, Louis; Fauconneau, Benoit; Rémignon, Hervé; Cherel, Yan; Barrey, Eric; Nédelec, J.

    1998-01-01

    Des anticorps monoclonaux dirigés contre les chaînes lourdes de myosine (MHC : myosin heavy chain) de différentes espèces d’animaux : bovin, porc, poisson, poulet, dinde, cheval ont été produits. Ils ont été testés par immunohistologie sur des coupes de muscle squelettique chez le bovin, le porc, le poisson, le poulet et la dinde et par ELISA chez le cheval. Les différents anticorps retenus dans ce projet permettent de nouvelles applications pour l’étude du muscle squelettique. En particulier...

  1. Comment utiliser les TIC pour s'attaquer aux problèmes de santé ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On appelle souvent cybersanté l'utilisation des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) dans les systèmes de santé. L'importance accordée par le CRDI à la fois au renforcement des capacités et à l'influence exercée sur les politiques façonne depuis plus de dix ans les divers projets de recherche en ...

  2. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed. Based on the results, the undergraduates’ utilisation level of smartphones for communication and collaboration tool was at a high level. Meanwhile, utilisation for operations and concepts tool and research and information fluency tool were at moderate level. Finally, smartphones utilisation as digital citizenship tool and critical thinking, problem solving and creativity tool were both at a low level. Hence, more training and workshops should be given to the students in order to encourage them to fully utilise smartphones in enhancing the higher order thinking skills.

  3. The Application of Non-Metallic Core Materials in a High-Temperature Reactor Experiment; Utilisation de materes non metalliques dans le coeur d'un reacteur experimental a haute temperature; Ispol'zovanie nemetallicheskikh materialov dlya aktivnoj zony vysokotemperaturnogo opytnogo reaktora; Empleo de materiales no metalicos en el nucleo de un reactor experimental de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddle, R. A.U.; Shepherd, L. R. [Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Dragon Project, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    refroidis par un gaz, construire et exploiter, dans le cadre de ce projet, un reacteur experimental de 20 MWth. Le reacteur - dont la construction touche a sa fin - est refroidi a l'helium; la temperature de sortie du coeur est de 750{sup o}C; il emploie de l'uranium-235 comme combustible et du thorium comme matiere fertile. Il est caracterise par l'absence de tout metal dans le coeur du reacteur. En raison'des hautes temperatures, qui peuvent atteindre 1050{sup o}C a la surface des elements combustibles et s'elever au dessus de 1500{sup o}C dans les regions les plus chaudes du combustible, on emploie des materiaux refractaires non metalliques. Le fait que tous les constituants du coeur sont reunis dans l'element combustible permet d'obtenir un rapport eleve entre la surface de transfert de la chaleur et le volume du coeur, d'ou une puissance specifique moyenne elevee pour un ensemble de dimension relativement faible. Chaque element combustible est constitue par un faisceau de tubes de graphite contenant les matieres fissiles et fertiles sous forme de carbure incorpore a des pastilles de graphite. Un courant refroidisseur d'helium traverse le centre de chaque barreau de combustible d'ou il ressort par la base pour etre conduit dans une installation de purification dans laquelle il est debarrasse des produits de fission et autres impuretes avant d'etre achemine de nouveau vers le reacteur. Cette methode permet de reduire la fuite des produits de fission qui, s'echappant du combustible ceramique porte a tres haute temperature, entrent dans le circuit de refroidissement primaire. Les auteurs exposent les problemes lies a la mise au point et a la fabrication du graphite et des elements combustibles ceramiques destines a ce reacteur ainsi que le comportement de ces materiaux dans les conditions de fonctionnement. Ils indiquent les resultats de recherches en pile et dans des boucles d'irradiation. Dans ce programme, tout l'effort se concentre sur la mise au point de reacteurs a

  4. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    from P. stipitis and the endogenous XKS1 gene under control of the PGKI promoter, into the HIS3 locus of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7A. The strain was stable for more than forty generations in continuous fermentation. The metabolic fluxes during xylose metabolism were quantitatively analysed and anaerobic ethanol formation from xylose in recombinant S. cerevisiae was demonstrated for the first time. The xylose uptake rate increased with increasing xylose concentration in the feed. However, with a feed of 15 g/l xylose and 5 g/l glucose, the xylose flux was 2.2 times lower than the glucose flux, indicating that transport limits the xylose flux. The role of mitochondria in ethanol formation from xylose was investigated using cells of recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae with two different respiratory capacities and cells from P. stipitis grown under conditions of optimal ethanol formation. Different inhibitors were used either to inhibit the electron transport chain and simulate oxygen limitation, or to inhibit the tricarboxylic acid cycle while not disturbing the electron transport chain. The response to the inhibitors differed significantly for glucose and xylose and the effect was more pronounced for S. cerevisiae. The results indicate that mitochondria play a significant role in the maintenance of the cytoplasmic redox balance during xylose fermentation, through the action of cytoplasmically directed NADH dehydrogenase activity. Thus, more carbon was directed towards ethanol in chemostat cultivations of xylose/glucose mixtures by S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, in the presence of low amounts of oxygen. P. stipitis possesses a second, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase, the alternative oxidase, which seems to be of particular importance for efficient ethanol formation from xylose. The highest activity of cyanide-insensitive respiration (CIR), the highest ethanol productivity and lowest xylitol formation were all observed with cells grown under oxygen-limited conditions

  5. Measurement of the diffusion length of thermal neutrons in the beryllium oxide; Mesure de la longueur de diffusion des neutrons thermiques dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koechlin, J C; Martelly, J; Duggal, V P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The diffusion length of thermal neutrons in the beryllium oxide has been obtained while studying the spatial distribution of the neutrons in a massive parallelepiped of this matter placed before the thermal column of the reactor core of Saclay. The mean density of the beryllium oxide (BeO) is 2,95 gr/cm{sup 3}, the mean density of the massif is 2,92 gr/cm{sup 3}. The value of the diffusion length, deducted of the done measures, is: L = 32,7 {+-} 0,5 cm (likely gap). Some remarks are formulated about the influence of the spectral distribution of the neutrons flux used. (authors) [French] La longueur de diffusion des neutrons thermiques dans l'oxyde de beryllium a ete obtenue en etudiant la repartition spatiale des neutrons dans un massif parallelepipedique de cette matiere placee devant la colonne thermique de la Pile de Saclay. La densite moyenne de l'oxyde de beryllium (BeO) est de 2,95 gr/cm{sup 3}, la densite moyenne du massif de 2,92 gr/cm{sup 3}. La valeur de la longueur de diffusion, deduite des mesures effectuees est: L 32,7 {+-} 0,5 cm (ecart probable). Des remarques sont formulees quant a l'influence de la repartition spectrale du flux de neutrons utilise. (auteurs)

  6. Neutron density decay constant in a non-multiplying lattice of finite size; Constante de decroissance de la densite neutronique dans un reseau non-multiplicateur de dimensions finies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniz, V C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    This report presents a general theory, using the integral transport method, for obtaining the neutron density decay constant in a finite non-multiplying lattice. The theory is applied to obtain the expression for the diffusion coefficient. The case of a homogeneous medium with 1/v absorption and of finite size in all directions is treated in detail, assuming an isotropic scattering law. The decay constant is obtained up to the B{sup 6} term. The expressions for the diffusion coefficient and for the diffusion cooling coefficient are the same as those obtained for a slab geometry by Nelkin, using the expansion in spherical harmonics of the Fourier transform in the spatial variable. Furthermore, explicit forms are obtained for the flux and the current. It is shown that the deviation of the actual flux from a Maxwellian is the flux generated in the medium, extended to infinity and deprived of its absorbing power, by various sources, each of which has a zero integral over all velocities. The study of the current permits the generalization of Fick's law. An independent integral method, valid for homogeneous media, is also presented. (author) [French] Ce rapport presente une theorie generale, par methode integrale du transport, pour determiner la constante de decroissance de la densite neutronique dans un reseau non-multiplicateur de dimensions finies. La theorie est appliquee pour obtenir l'expression du coefficient de diffusion. Le cas d'un milieu homogene avec absorption en 1/v et de dimensions finies dans toutes les directions est etudie en detail, en admettant une loi de choc isotrope. La constante de decroissance est obtenue jusqu'au terme en B{sup 6}. Les expressions pour le coefficient de diffusion et pour le coefficient de refroidissement par diffusion sont les memes que celles obtenues pour une geometrie 'plaque' par NELKIN qui utilise le developpement en harmoniques spheriques de la transformee de Fourier dans la variable d'espace. De plus, on obtient les

  7. Flux d'énergie dans des systèmes d'élevage laitiers contrastés : élaboration d'indicateurs et analyse de la diversité inter et intra-territoire

    OpenAIRE

    Vigne, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Le doublement futur de la demande mondiale en produits laitiers nécessite de concevoir des systèmes plus productifs mais également écologiquement plus durables. Les objectifs de la thèse étaient i) d'évaluer l'intérêt de la prise en compte de l'ensemble des énergies mobilisées dans un système d'élevage (énergie fossile, énergie calorifique contenue dans les produits, énergie liée au travail humain et animal et énergie solaire) à travers des méthodes existantes ou originales pour développer de...

  8. La détermination de l'âge par scalimétrie chez le saumon atlantique (Salmo salar dans son aire de répartition méridionale : utilisation pratique et difficultés de la méthode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAGLINIÈRE J. L.

    1985-07-01

    Full Text Available Ce rapport confirme les critères d'interprétation scalimétrique utilisés pour âger le saumon atlantique en eau douce et en mer à l'aide d'exemples typiques. Il synthétise également les difficultés rencontrées pour la détermination d'âge des populations naturelles et d'élevage en les illustrant à l'aide d'exemples atypiques. Enfin, il propose un certain nombre de recommandations pour permettre une meilleure connaissance des populations de saumon atlantique dans son aire de répartition méridionale.

  9. Convention internationale sur l’utilisation pacifique du cyberespace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Roche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Les armes cybernétiques sont à présent une extension du pouvoir de l’Etat. Dans l’espoir de gagner un avantage stratégique, un certain nombre de pays, dont les Etats-Unis, la Russie et la Chine sont en train de développer des cyber-capacités offensives afin de perturber les institutions politiques, économiques, et sociales de nations concurrentes. Ces activités ont conduit à une course aux armes cybernétiques qui se développe de manière incontrôlable. L’imminence de cette menace globale incite la communauté internationale à la pro-activité. L’objectif de cet article est de proposer une convention internationale afin de mettre un terme au développement, à la prolifération, et à l’utilisation d’armes cybernétiques avant qu’elles ne causent un Armageddon électronique. Nous commencerons d’abord par l’examen de trois efforts successifs de contrôle des armements, puis en utiliserons les leçons retenues pour rédiger une convention pouvant servir de point de départ à des négociations multilatérales.

  10. Agir dans l'espace

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Frédéric; Allain, Sonia; Amalberti, René; Anderson, David I.; Aurnague, Michel; Baccino, Thierry; Baratgin, Jean; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel; Beauvillain, Cécile; Berthoz, Alain; Beugnon, Guy; Bui, Marc; Bullier, Jean; Bullot, Nicolas J.

    2017-01-01

    Le traitement cognitif de l'espace par un être vivant se décompose en différentes phases : il perçoit l'espace – ce qui implique certains mécanismes de catégorisation et d'abstraction –, se le représente, conserve en mémoire cette représentation qu'il peut rappeler et utiliser pour conduire des actions adaptées et interagir de façon optimale avec l'environnement. Ce traitement ainsi défini a déjà fait l'objet d'un grand nombre de travaux dans le domaine des sciences de la vie et de la psychol...

  11. Energetic utilisation of biomass in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barotfi, I.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic utilisation of biomass has been known since prehistoric times and was only pushed into the background by the technological developments of the last century. The energy crisis and, more recently, environmental problems have now brought it back to the fore, and efforts are being made worldwide to find modern technical applications for biomass and contribute to its advance. (orig.) [de

  12. Missed Opportunities: Emergency Contraception Utilisation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although contraceptives, including emergency contraceptives, are widely available free at public health facilities in South Africa, rates of teenage and unintended pregnancy are high. This paper analyses awareness and utilisation of emergency contraception amongst 193 young women (aged 15-24 years) attending public ...

  13. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  14. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvel A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative

  15. Utilisation de données hydrobiologiques anciennes dans le contexte actuel de la biodiversité : conséquences et limites de l'exercice Consequences and limits to use of historical hydrobiological data in the current biodiversity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Carrel, Alain Dutartre et Marie-Claude Roger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près de deux siècles, on recueille des données sur la faune et la flore aquatique. Ces données anciennes plus ou moins bien conservées sont utilisées pour construire des projets d'évaluation et de conservation de la biodiversité. Que peut-on en attendre ? Quelles précautions prendre pour une utilisation judicieuse ?Data on aquatic flora and fauna have been collected over the last two centuries, whilst human impacts on water and habitat quality have been increasing. Though the data have been used mainly by scientists in applied ecology, contemporary social concerns enhance their value for biodiversity issues and management. However, the appropriate use of historical data requires expert analysis of the various archives, taking into account the historical context and scientific aims at the time of collection. Review of historical data is essential for the conservation and efficient, sustainable management of biodiversity.

  16. Study of transfer reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) in the f-p shell: mechanism and spectroscopic use; Etude des reactions de transfert ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) dans la couche f-p mecanisme et utilisation spectroscopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    We describe an experimental study of ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reactions at 44 MeV using a solid-state identifier, on the target-nuclei {sup 54}Fe and {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. A critical study of optical model and of disturbed wave analysis has been performed. We show the complementarity of different transfer-reactions, the ambiguity of spectroscopic factors, the importance of the problem of the reaction mechanism. (author) [French] On decrit une etude experimentale des reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) a 44 MeV utilisant un systeme identificateur de particules sur les noyaux-cibles {sup 54}Fe et {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. Une etude critique de modele optique et d'analyse en ondes deformees (D.W.B.A.) a ete entreprise. On montre la complementarite des differentes reactions de transfert, l'ambiguite des facteurs spectroscopiques, l'importance du probleme du mecanisme. (auteur)

  17. Heat transfer by liquids in suspension in a turbulent gas stream (1960); Transfert de chaleur par liquides entraines dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Physique-Chimie et basses temperatures, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The introduction of a small volume of liquid into a turbulent gas stream used as cooling agent improves considerably the heat transfer coefficient of the gas. When the turbulent regime is established, one observes in a cylindrical tube two types of flow whether the liquid wets or does not wet the wall. In the first case, one gets on the wall an annular liquid film and droplets in suspension are in the gas stream. In the second case, a fog of droplets is formed without any liquid film on the wall. Experiments were performed with the following mixtures: water-hydrogen, water-nitrogen, ethanol-nitrogen (wetting liquids) introduced into a stainless steel tube of 4 mm ID, electrically heated on 320 mm of length. We varied the gas flow rate (Reynolds until 50000), the rate of the liquid flow rate to gas flow rate (until 15), the pressure (until 10 kg/cm{sup 2}), the temperature (until the boiling point) and the heat flux (until 250 W/cm{sup 2}). Two types of burnout were observed. A formula of correlation of the burnout heat flux is given. Making use of the analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer, a dimensionless formula of correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is established. (author) [French] L'introduction d'un faible volume de liquide dans un ecoulement gazeux turbulent utilise comme fluide refrigerant permet une amelioration considerable des coefficients d'echanges thermiques que l'on aurait si le gaz etait employe seul (nous avons obtenu un facteur d'amelioration superieur a 10). En regime turbulent etabli, on observe dans un tube deux modes d'ecoulements selon que le liquide mouille ou ne mouille pas la paroi. Dans le premier cas, on obtient sur la paroi un film annulaire liquide et des gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur gazeux. Dans le deuxieme cas, il se forme un veritable brouillard sans film liquide sur la paroi. Les etudes experimentales ont ete effectuees avec les melanges eau-hydrogene, eau-azote, ethanol-azote (liquides

  18. Preliminary Note on the Use of Radioisotopes to Study Some Cotton-Plant Pests in Africa; Note preliminaire sur l 'utilisation des radioisotopes dans l 'etude des parasites du cotonnier en afrique; Predvaritel'nye zamechaniya o primenenii radioizotopov dlya izucheniya nekotorykh vreditelej khlopchatnika v afrike.; Nota preliminar sobre el empleo de radioisotopos en el estudio de parasitos del algodonero en africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delattre, R. [Institut de Recherches du Coton et Textiles, Paris (France)

    1963-09-15

    control experiment will now be required, consisting of labelling, during the season, cotton-plants in a field where cotton was also grown the previous year; this time non-diapause chrysalids will be labelled. Similar observations are also being performed on a number of other cotton-plant pests. (author) [French] Le chenille de Diparopsis wacersi Roth est nuisible au cotonnier en detruisant fleurs et capsules. Cette noctuelle, pratiquement monophage, passe l'inter-saison, soit dans le sol sous forme de chrysalides en-diapause a partir du 10 novembre, soit par des generations continues (polyvoltines) sur les plants non arraches. Des etudes de laboratoire ont permis d'elucider les principaux mecanismes declenchant la diapause et y mettant fin. Dans la nature, les pullulations en cours de culture s'etablissent a partir d'individus univoltins venant a eclosion vers avril-mai aussi bien que des generations sans diapause; la participation respective de ces deux souches differentes devrait etre determinee assez exactement pour connaitre les moyens de lutte appropries: arrachage du cotonnier, destruction des pupes en diapause dans le sol, avancement de la campagne, etc. Le marquage par des radioisotopes des chenilles venant a maturite aux epoques critiques devrait permettre de serrer ce probleme sur le plan pratique. Des experiences preliminaires ont eu lieu a Tikem (Republique de Tchad) en vue de determiner des techniques de marquage simples. Dans un premier essai, {sup 32}P a ete applique en pulverisation aqueuse directe sur le feuillage de cotonniers jeunes. Malgre la pluie, l'absorption fut de 10% environ par la plante en quelques heures. Diverses chenilles phyllophages (Sylepta derogata, Prodenia litura) ne retiennent pas de radioactivite, mais les chenilles qui se nourrissent d'organes fructiferes (Heliothis armigera, Earias insulana, Diparopsis watersi, etc.) sont facilement detectable trois mois apres l'application. Dans un deuxieme essai, {sup 32}P et {sup 35}S ont ete

  19. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-01-01

    The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S) among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total ...

  20. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna; Kärrman, Erik; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Magnusson, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suit able for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study. A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach Was Outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as wel...

  1. Inflation and capacity utilisation in Nigeria's manufacturing sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the relationship between inflation and capacity utilisation empirically leaning on the model employed by Baylor (2001). It utilised time series secondary data using least square multiple regression technique. The quarterly data utilised were tested for stationarity using ADF test. The multiple regression ...

  2. Meet EPA's Dan Nelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Dan Nelson is the Director of the Human Research Protocol Office at the National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Dan works to protect the rights and welfare of EPA’s research participants.

  3. Bahasa, Simbol, dan Religi

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyadi, Supriyadi

    1999-01-01

    Manusia sering disebut sebagai makhluk sosial, makhluk berakal, makhluk berseni, dan sebagainya. Tulisan ini secara tidak langsung membicarakan manusia sebagai makhluk berbahasa, bersimbol, dan bereligi . Meskipun demikian, titik tolaknya bukan pada manusia itu sendiri, tetapi pada bahasa, simbol, dan religinya, terutama pada hubungan di antara ketiganya . Hubungan antara bahasa dan simbol tidak diragukan lagi karena bahasa merupakan jenis simbol . Demikian juga hubungan antara simbol dengan ...

  4. Origin and geochemical behavior of uranium in marine sediments. Utilization of the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in marine geochemistry; Origine et comportement geochimique de l`uranium dans les sediments marins. Utilisation du rapport ({sup 234}U/{sup 238}U) en geochimie marine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, Catherine [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-01-20

    The first part of this thesis presents the current situation of knowledge of uranium in marine environment. The second part describes the methods of analysis as well as the material support of the study, i.e., the sediments and marine deposits investigated. The third part is dedicated to the study of uranium mobility in marine sediments characterized by detrital terrigenous composition (pelagic clays). This approach allowed quantifying the entering and leaving flux of uranium after the sediment settling and, to discuss, on this basis, the consequences on the uranium oceanic balance. In the third part the origin and behavior of uranium in zones of high surface productivity is studied. The uranium enrichments observed in the hemi-pelagic sediments of the EUMELI (J.G.O.F.S.-France) programme will constitute a material of study adequate for measuring the variations in the {sup 234}U/2{sup 38U} ratio in solid phase, in response to the oxido-reducing characteristics of the sediment. Thus establishing the origin of the trapped uranium has been possible. Also, the nature of the sedimentary phases related to uranium in bio-genetic sediments in the Austral Ocean was determined. Thus a relationship between the variations in the {sup 234}U/{sup 238} and the diagenetic transformations was possible to establish. Finally in the fifth part a study of the behavior of uranium in a polymetallic shell characteristic for deposits of hydrogenized origin 146 refs., 57 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Institut pour la connectivité dans les Amériques (ICA) - phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Institut pour la connectivité dans les Amériques a mené à bien plus de 70 ... par le truchement des TIC en se concentrant sur trois thèmes : la cyberparticipation des ... ont grandement aidé à mieux faire comprendre l'utilisation et l'intégration.

  6. INFLUENCE DE LA PROPOLIS SUR LA MITOSE DANS LE MERYSTEME DE SECALE CEREALE L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mioara Navrotescu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Cette recherche présente l’influence de propolis sur la mitose dans le merysteme de Secale cereale L. (2n=14. On confirme l’utilisation de plus en plus large de ce produit apicole - propolis - au niveau de la thérapeutique.

  7. Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Elle possède cependant des limitations, dues à l'organisation temporaire d'une .... Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ utilisant le principe de la ... différents types de résidus (soja, luzerne, haricot et maïs) et ...

  8. Substrate utilisation by plant-cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M W

    1982-01-01

    Plant cell cultures have been grown on a wide range of carbon sources in addition to the traditional ones of sucrose and glucose. Biomass yields and growth rates vary greatly between the different carbon sources and there is a variation in response between different cell cultures to individual carbon sources. Some attempts have been made to grow cell cultures on 'waste' and related carbon sources, such as lactose, maltose, starch, molasses and milk whey. Only maltose was found to support growth to anything near the levels observed with glucose and sucrose. In the case of molasses carbon source cell growth was either non-existent or only just measurable. All the data point to glucose as being the most suitable carbon source, principally on the grounds of biomass yield and growth rate. It should be noted, however, that other carbon sources do appear to have a major (positive) influence on natural product synthesis. Uptake into the cell is an important aspect of carbohydrate utilisation. There is strong evidence that from disaccharides upwards, major degradation to smaller units occurs before uptake. In some cases the necessary enzymes appear to be excreted into the culture broth, in others they may be located within the cell wall; invertase that hydrolyses sucrose is a good example. Once the products of carbohydrate degradation and mobilisation enter the cell they may suffer one of two fates, oxidation or utilisation for biosynthesis. The precise split between these two varies depending on such factors as cell growth rate, cell size, nutrient broth composition and carbohydrate status of the cells. In general rapidly growing cells have a high rate of oxidation, whereas cells growing more slowly tend to be more directed towards biosynthesis. Carbohydrate utilisation is a key area of study, underpinning as it does both biomass yield and natural product synthesis. (Refs. 13).

  9. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Bonnet, A; Cohen, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui empeche toute observation. (M.B.)

  10. Description and principles of use of an automatic control device usable, in particular, in analytical chemistry; Description et principes d'utilisation d'un dispositif de commande automatique utilisable, en particulier, en chimie analytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaudiere, Roger; Jeanmaire, Lucien [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Direction de la Protection et de la Surete Radiologiques, Departement de la Protection Sanitaire, Section de Controle Sanitaire (France)

    1969-07-01

    This note describes an automatic control device for the programming of about 20 different functions, chronologically and during a given time. Any voltage can be chosen at the output to perform the different functions. Three examples of utilisation taken in analytical chemistry are given to illustrate the possibilities offered by this device, but its domain of use is much more universal and independent of the type of functions [French] Description d'un dispositif de commande automatique destine a programmer une vingtaine de fonctions differentes dans l'ordre et pendant le temps desire. Aux bornes d'utilisation de ce dispositif, on peut choisir a volonte du 24 V continu, du 220 V alternatif ou un contact de court-circuit pour realiser les fonctions elles-memes. Afin d'illustrer concretement les possibilites de cet appareil, il est donne trois exemples d'utilisation empruntes a la chimie analytique pour laquelle il a ete prevu initialement. En realite, son domaine d'utilisation est beaucoup plus universel, car il est relativement independant de la nature des fonctions. (auteurs)

  11. Cinetique dans un Milieu Photochromique a Base de Thionine Selon Divers Types D'eclairement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Serge

    L'etude porte sur les changements chimiques induits par la lumiere dans un milieu photochromique constitue de thionine et de triethanolamine en solution solide dans l'alcool polyvinylique. Une reaction de photoreduction provoque le blanchiment de ce milieu. Des equations analytiques basees sur la cinetique photochimique ont ete developpees qui decrivent des reactions de photoblanchiment et de photonoircissement pour des milieux ideaux. Pour des milieux quelconques, une approximation utilisant une transformee de Laplace doit etre utilisee. Sous certaines conditions, le milieu etudie suit parfaitement la theorie. Ce milieu peut alors etre utilise pour mesurer la dimension de faisceaux gaussiens focalises. Il peut aussi etre utilise pour etudier l'enregistrement d'hologrammes. Pour cela, des equations a quatre ondes couplees ont ete resolues pour decrire l'enregistrement. Elles permettent d'expliquer le renforcement de la diffraction lorsqu'on passe d'un mode d'ecriture a un mode de lecture. Les resultats concordent avec la theorie.

  12. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles

    Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

  13. The influence of the form of the cells on the buckling and fine structure of the thermal flux in a heterogeneous pile; Influence de la forme des cellules sur le laplacien et structure fine du flux thermique dans une pile heterogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly du Bois, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The elementary diffusion equation and the age equation have been solved for lattices assumed, to be infinite and periodic. In this way the influence of the form of the cells on thermal captures and resonance captures is determined. The solutions obtained are expressed by means of tabulated functions which can be used in the analysis of the f factor measurements. The case of mixed lattices in which different types of rods are regularly arranged is also foreseen. (author) [French] L'equation elementaire de la diffusion et l'equation de l'age ont ete resolues pour des reseaux supposes infinis et periodiques. On determine ainsi quelle est l'influence de la forme des cellules sur les captures thermiques et les captures de resonances. Les solutions obtenues s'expriment au moyen de fonctions tabulees qui peuvent etre utilisees dans le depouillement des mesures du facteur f. Le cas des reseaux mixtes dans lequels des barreaux de types differents sont disposes regulierement est egalement envisage. (auteur)

  14. Utilising UDT to push the bandwidth envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, B.; Davies, B.

    eScience applications, in particular High Energy Physics, often involve large amounts of data and/or computing and often require secure resource sharing across organizational boundaries, and are thus not easily handled by today's networking infrastructures. By utilising the switched lightpath connections provided by the UKLight network it has been possible to research the use of alternate protocols for data transport. While the HEP projects make use of a number of middleware solutions for data storage and transport, they all rely on GridFTP for WAN transport. The GridFTP protocol runs over TCP as the layer 3 protocol by default, however with the latest released of the Globus toolkit it is possible to utilise alternate protocols at the layer 3 level. One of the alternatives is a reliable version of UDP called UDT. This report presents the results of the tests measuring the performance of single-threaded file transfers using GridFTP running over both TCP and the UDT protocol.

  15. Energy analysis of various grassland utilisation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Ržonca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004 was carried out the energy analysis of the different types of permanent grassland utilization on the Hrubý Jeseník locality. There were estimated values of the particular entrances of additional energy. Energy entrances moved according to the pratotechnologies from 2.17 GJ. ha–1 to 22.70 GJ.ha–1. The biggest share on energy entrances had fertilizers. It was 84.93% by the nitrogen fertilisation. The most energy benefit of brutto and nettoenergy was marked by the low intensive utilisation (33.40 GJ.ha–1 NEL and 32.40 GJ.ha–1 NEV on average. The highest value of energy efficiency (13.23% was marked by the low intensive utilization of permanent grassland. By using of higher doses of industrial fertilizers has energy efficiency decreased. From view of energy benefit and intensiveness on energy entrances it appears the most available utilisation of permanent grassland with three cuts per year (first cut on May 31st at the latest, every next after 60 days or two cuts per year (first cut on July 15th, next cuts after 90 days.

  16. Observations on the electronic equipment employed for making measurements on the pile G1; Observations sur le materiel electronique utilise pour les mesures sur la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J; Belin, P; Meunier, A; Tarabella, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The electronic apparatus employed during the manipulations carried out on the pile G1 is briefly described, with the aim of putting on record the inconveniences encountered in the course of the operation of this equipment. (author) [French] On decrit succinctement l'appareillage electronique utilise durant les manipulations effectuees sur la pile G1, dans le but de noter les inconvenients rencontres au cours de l'exploitation de cet appareillage. (auteur)

  17. The LMJ project - status of our knowledge in hohlraum energetics physics: production and control of the radiation flux; Projet laser megajoule - les etudes et activites dans le domaine de la physique de la cavite (hohlraum): production et controle du flux radiatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattolo, E

    2001-09-01

    CEA-DAM in France is working on Inertial controlled Fusion (ICF) since the beginning of nineties. In an indirect drive scheme, the laser light is converted in X-ray in a hohlraum made with an high-Z material. Part of this radiation flux is absorbed by a micro-balloon filled with DT, placed in the center of the hohlraum, and generates its implosion, ignition and burn. This paper gives the status of our knowledge and studies for production and control of the radiation flux in the hohlraum, in the perspective of the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). (authors)

  18. A punctual flux estimator and reactions rates optimization in neutral particles transport calculus by the Monte Carlo method; Mise au point d'un estimateur ponctuel du flux et des taux de reactions dans les calculs de transport de particules neutres par la methode de monte carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authier, N

    1998-12-01

    One of the questions asked in radiation shielding problems is the estimation of the radiation level in particular to determine accessibility of working persons in controlled area (nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants) or to study the dose gradients encountered in material (iron nuclear vessel, medical therapy, electronics in satellite). The flux and reaction rate estimators used in Monte Carlo codes give average values in volumes or on surfaces of the geometrical description of the system. But in certain configurations, the knowledge of punctual deposited energy and dose estimates are necessary. The Monte Carlo estimate of the flux at a point of interest is a calculus which presents an unbounded variance. The central limit theorem cannot be applied thus no easy confidencelevel may be calculated. The convergence rate is then very poor. We propose in this study a new solution for the photon flux at a point estimator. The method is based on the 'once more collided flux estimator' developed earlier for neutron calculations. It solves the problem of the unbounded variance and do not add any bias to the estimation. We show however that our new sampling schemes specially developed to treat the anisotropy of the photon coherent scattering is necessary for a good and regular behavior of the estimator. This developments integrated in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code add the possibility of an unbiased punctual estimate on media interfaces. (author)

  19. A punctual flux estimator and reactions rates optimization in neutral particles transport calculus by the Monte Carlo method; Mise au point d'un estimateur ponctuel du flux et des taux de reactions dans les calculs de transport de particules neutres par la methode de monte carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authier, N

    1998-12-01

    One of the questions asked in radiation shielding problems is the estimation of the radiation level in particular to determine accessibility of working persons in controlled area (nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants) or to study the dose gradients encountered in material (iron nuclear vessel, medical therapy, electronics in satellite). The flux and reaction rate estimators used in Monte Carlo codes give average values in volumes or on surfaces of the geometrical description of the system. But in certain configurations, the knowledge of punctual deposited energy and dose estimates are necessary. The Monte Carlo estimate of the flux at a point of interest is a calculus which presents an unbounded variance. The central limit theorem cannot be applied thus no easy confidencelevel may be calculated. The convergence rate is then very poor. We propose in this study a new solution for the photon flux at a point estimator. The method is based on the 'once more collided flux estimator' developed earlier for neutron calculations. It solves the problem of the unbounded variance and do not add any bias to the estimation. We show however that our new sampling schemes specially developed to treat the anisotropy of the photon coherent scattering is necessary for a good and regular behavior of the estimator. This developments integrated in the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code add the possibility of an unbiased punctual estimate on media interfaces. (author)

  20. Some physics aspects of cermet and ceramic fast systems; Quelques aspects de la physique des reacteurs a neutrons rapides utilisant des cermets et des ceramiques comme combustibles; Nekotorye fizicheskie aspekty kermetnykh i keramicheskikh sistem na bystrykh nejtronakh; Algunos aspectos fisicos de los sistemas rapidos a base de combustibles cermet y ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, J; James, M F; Mann, J E [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Group (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    The characteristics of a system using an iron-based oxide cermet as fuel material are discussed. A transport theory investigation to develop methods of predicting the effect of core heterogeneity on reactivity and flux distribution is described. Some preliminary calculations are also given of resonance self-shielding and Doppler temperature effects in a cermet system. (author) [French] Les auteurs etudient les caracteristique s d'un reacteur utilisant comme combustible un cermet d'oxydes a armature de fer. Ils exposent une application de la theorie du transport a la mise au point des methodes permettant de prevoir l'effet de l'heterogeneite du coeur sur la reactivite et sur la distribution du flux. Ils donnent egalement quelques calculs preliminaires d'effets d'autoprotection due a la resonance et d'effet Doppler du a la chaleur dans un reacteur utilisant un cermet. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute las caracteristicas de un sistema que emplea como combustible un oxido tipo cermet a base de hierro. Describe una investigacion de la teoria de transporte con miras a desarrollar metodos para evaluar el efecto de la heterogeneidad del cuerpo sobre la reactividad y la distribucion de flujo. Tambien da algunos calculos preliminares de los efectos del autoblindaje por resonancia y de la temperatura de Doppler en un sistema de tipo cermet. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdayutsya kharakteristiki sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej v kachestve toplivnogo materiala oksidnye kermety, razrabotannye na osnove zheleza. Opisyvaetsya issledovanie teorii perenosa, chtoby razvit' metody predskazaniya vliyaniya geterogennosti aktivnoj zony na reaktivnost' i raspredelenie potoka. Dayutsya takzhe nekotorye predvaritel'nye raschety ehffektov rezonansnoj samozashchity i temperaturnogo ehffekta Dopplera v kermetnoj sisteme. (author)

  1. Production and use artificial radioelements in France; Production et utilisation des radioelements artificiels en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C; Cassin, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The aim of this report is to give a picture of the French accomplishment in the field of artificial radioelement production, and to review their uses up to march 31, 1958. The Commissariat a l'Energie atomique plays a major role in this work, accounting for practically the whole of the French production, centralising the imports, helping to control the distribution and contributing to research on, and development of, new applications. (author)Fren. [French] Ce rapport a pour but de presenter l'ensemble des realisations francaises dans le domaine de la production des radioelements artificiels et de faire le point, a la date du 31 mars 1958, de leur utilisation. Le Commissariat a l'Energie atomique joue un role preponderant puisqu'il assure la quasi totalite de la production francaise, centralise les importations, participe au controle de la distribution et contribue a l'etude et au developpement de nouvelles applications. (auteur)

  2. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  3. Design of neutron detectors utilising luminescent glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spowart, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Impetus for the development of new neutron detector designs has derived from the worldwide commissioning of neutron spallation sources. The design concepts, and principal methods of utilisation of these major installations, have been recently reviewed. Their principal feature of interest is their broadband neutron emission allowing neutron investigations of all types of structure in materials from biological molecules to steels. Conventional neutron detectors are gas-filled devices, based on BF/sub 3/ or /sup 3/He gas. Their major advantage is their intrinsically low background count. Their principal disadvantage is their slow response time (10-100 μs), high cost and relative lack of flexibility in design to cope with large areas or complex geometry detection. They are, however, long established and the research facilities around the world have a heavy investment in the interpretative hardware for gas detectors

  4. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  5. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m 2 of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation

  6. Optimum utilisation of the uranium resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S. E.; Wilson, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear industry faces many challenges, notably to maximise safety, secure an adequate energy supply, manage wastes satisfactorily and achieve political acceptability. One way forward is to optimise together the various interdependent stages of the fuel cycle - the now familiar 'holistic approach'. Many of the issues will demand large R and D expenditure, most effectively met through international collaboration. Sustainable development requires optimum utilisation of energy potential, to which the most accessible key is recycling uranium and the plutonium bred from it. Realising anything like this full potential requires fast-neutron reactors, and therefore BNFL continues to sustain the UK involvement in their international development. Meanwhile, current R and D programmes must aim to make the nuclear option more competitive against fossil resources, while maintaining and developing the necessary skills for more advanced technologies The paper outlines the strategies being pursued and highlights BNFL 's programmes. (author)

  7. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...... after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...

  8. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  9. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  10. TANGKI SEPTIK DAN MASALAHNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Manusia yang sehat tiap hari membuang tinja yang harus ditampung dan/atau diolah secara saniter. Meskipun Indonesia telah 55 tahun merdeka dan telah memiliki banyak ahli sanitasi/teknik penyehatan baik lulusan dalam maupun luar negeri, namun cara pengelolaan tinja yang ada kebanyakan masih belum memenuhi syarat kesehatan. Tangki septik dianggap sebagai cara penampungan tinja yang terbaik, padahal sebenarnya masih terjadi pencemaran tanah dan air melalui saluran perembesan.Tangki septik (septic tank merupakan salah satu macam sarana pengolahan tinja manusia yang pada garis besarnya terdiri dari sebuah tangki pembusukan lumpur (sludge digester dan saluran perembesan efluen. Tangki pembusukan harus memenuhi syarat mengenai perbandingan panjang dan lebar serta syarat kedalaman maksimum dan minimum, agar pembusukan lumpur dari tinja manusia dapat berjalan sempurna malahan tidak berbau busuk lagi.

  11. Mesure des flux de CO2 et séquestration de carbone dans les écosystèmes terrestres ouest-africains (synthèse bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ago, EE.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 measurement and carbon sequestration in West African terrestrial ecosystems. A review. Introduction. In West Africa, as elsewhere in other parts of the world, preserving terrestrial ecosystems has proven essential to any emissions mitigation policy for greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide. A meaningful assessment of the contribution of a given region to the global carbon cycle implies the need to think in terms of balance, taking into account the totality of the carbon export and import within the ecosystems. Literature. This review, based on the results of a small number of published and unpublished studies focusing on West African ecosystems, has as its main objective the assessment of the importance of carbon exchange. Carbon fluxes appear to be spatially highly variable in the West African region, mainly due to the variability of the types of vegetation, approaches to ecosystem management, and edaphic and climatic conditions. The mean annual precipitation appears to be the main factor controlling plant respiration and photosynthesis in this region. Annual cumulated NEE has been positively correlated with the rate of photosynthesis, and has been shown to account for 71% of its spatial variability at the annual scale. This paper also confirms the presence of carbon sink behavior for considered ecosystems in the West Africa with an annual average carbon sequestration of -2.0 ± 1.5 t C·ha-1 and highlights the need to improve understanding of factors or mechanisms controlling the carbon exchange between the ecosystems and the atmosphere. Conclusions. Based on these results, which were collected on a very limited number of sites, it appears necessary to continue with the measurement of carbon fluxes in the long term at the ecosystem scale in order to better appreciate the temporal and spatial variabilities, especially on a seasonal and inter-annual basis. This paper highlights the need to extend eddy covariance measurements to other

  12. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  13. DEPRESI DAN GANGGUAN TIDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Eko Radityo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Depresi merupakan gangguan mood berupa kesedihan yang intens, berlangsung dalamwaktu lama, dan mengganggu kehidupan normal yang insidennya semakin meningkatseiring dengan meningkatnya tekanan hidup. Tahun 2020, depresi diperkirakanmenempati urutan kedua penyakit di dunia. Gejala-gejala depresi terdiri dari gangguanemosi, gangguan kognitif, keluhan somatik, gangguan psikomotor, dan gangguanvegetatif. Salah satu gejala depresi yang muncul adalah gangguan tidur yang bisaberupa insomnia, bangun secara tiba-tiba, dan hipersomnia. Hal ini disebabkan olehgangguan neurotransmiter dan regulasi hormon. Selain sebagai gejala depresi, gangguantidur juga bisa merupakan penyebab depresi. Beberapa penelitian memberikanhubungan gangguan tidur dapat meningkatkan risiko depresi di kemudian hari.

  14. La diffusion du tourisme dans l'archipel comorien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Gay

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Des considérations politiques ont largement influencé la diffusion du tourisme dans l'archipel comorien. Sa balkanisation explique que deux îles sont concernées par le tourisme, en dépit d'un flux réduit.

  15. Modélisation par éléments finis 3D du champ magnétostatique dans les enroulements des réactances cuirassées de grande puissance. Comparaison avec le calcul en 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngnegueu, Triomphant; Terme, Claude; Mailhot, Michel

    1993-03-01

    In this paper, the finite element method is applied for the computation of the magnetostatic field in the windings of a shell-form reactor. The modeling is carried out in 3D, using FLUX3D, a software developed at the Laboratoire d'Electrotechnique de Grenoble. The results are compared to those obtained in 2D. These calculation results are also compared to some test results. Dans cet article, nous décrivons une application de la méthode des éléments finis pour la modélisation du champ magnétostatique dans les enroulements d'une réactance cuirassée de grande puissance. La modélisation est conduite en 3D, en utilisant le logiciel FLUX3D. Les résultats du calcul sont comparés avec ceux obtenus en 2D. Quelques comparaisons sont aussi effectuées avec des résultats de mesure.

  16. Industrial uses of radioelements in France; Utilisation industrielle des radioelements en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The birth of a nuclear industry has permitted the use of radioelements in an increasing number of domains. Currently, the majority of radioelements applications in industrial problematic are essentially on nondestructive control and on problems of static electricity, as well as in a least way for the use of the intense radiation sources, on agronomic problems, for hydrology or chemical analyses. In order to promote the industrial applications, The CEA took to this purpose several sets of decisions: 1 - institution of teachings and collaboration; 2 - encourage the constructors of devices; 3 - creation of a help service to the users. (M.B.) [French] La naissance d'une industrie nucleaire a permit l'emploi des radioelements dans un nombre croissant de domaines. Actuellement, la majorite des applications industrielles de radioelements porte essentielement sur le controle non destructif et les problemes d'electricite statique, ainsi que dans une moindre mesure l'utilisation des rayonnements intenses, les problemes agronomiques, les questions d'hydrologie, les analyses chimiques. Afin de promouvoir les applications industrielles, Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique a pris a cet effet plusieurs series de mesures: 1- institution d'enseignements et de collaboration; 2- encouragement aux constructeurs d'appareils; 3- creation d'un service de consultation aux usagers. (M.B.)

  17. System factors influencing utilisation of Research4Life databases by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comprehensive investigation of the influence of system factors on utilisation of Research4Life databases. It is part of a doctoral dissertation. Research4Life databases are new innovative technologies being investigated in a new context – utilisation by NARIs scientists for research. The study adopted the descriptive ...

  18. Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. AAG Jimoh. Abstract. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utilisation of antenatal care at the Provincial Specialist Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria, paying close attention to the confounding factors affecting ...

  19. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the influence of globalisation on labour utilisation in Nigeria using the construction industry as a case study. It reveals that the era of globalisation has given rise to profound changes in the way labour is utilised, specifically in terms of employment patterns as well as the related issues of earnings, job ...

  20. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  1. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  2. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  3. Keragaman dan Peran Biologi Arthrophoda pada Sawah Irigasi dan Tegalan

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno, Suwarno

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman arthropoda dan peran biologinya pada tanah sawah irigasi dan tegalan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di daerah persawahan di daerah Sragen pada bulan Maret – Mei 2016. Metode Penelitian dengan menggunakan pitfall trap atau perangkap jebakan yang diletakkan area persawahan dan tegalan. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan purposive sampling. Sampel arthropoda yang diperoleh diidentifikasi dan dianalisis di Laboratorium pendidikan Biologi. ...

  4. Trends, determinants and inequities of 4+ ANC utilisation in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aminur; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Begum, Tahmina; Ahmed, Sayem; Alam, Nurul; Anwar, Iqbal

    2017-01-13

    The objectives of this study are to document the trend on utilisation of four or more (4 + ) antenatal care (ANC) over the last 22 years period and to explore the determinants and inequity of 4 + ANC utilisation as reported by the last two Bangladesh Demographic and Health surveys (BDHS) (2011 and 2014). The data related to ANC have been extracted from the BDHS data set which is available online as an open source. STATA 13 software was used for organising and analysing the data. The outcome variable considered for this study was utilisation of 4 + ANC. Trends of 4 + ANC were measured in percentage and predictors for 4 + ANC were measured through bivariate and multivariable analysis. The concentration index was estimated for assessing inequity in 4 + ANC utilisation. Utilisation of 4 + ANC has increased by about 26% between the year 1994 and 2014. Higher level of education, residing in urban region and richest wealth quintile were found to be significant predictors. The utilisation of 4 + ANC has decreased with increasing parity and maternal age. The inequity indices showed consistent inequities in 4 + ANC utilisation, and such inequities were increased between 2011 and 2014. In Bangladesh, the utilisation of any ANC rose steadily between 1994 and 2014, but progress in terms of 4 + ANC utilisation was much slower as the expectation was to achieve the national set target (50%: 4 + ANC utilisation) by 2016. Socio-economic inequities were observed in groups that failed to attend a 4 + ANC visit. Policymakers should pay special attention to increase the 4 + ANC coverage where this study can facilitate to identify the target groups whom need to be intervened on priority basis.

  5. Utilisation des terres, biocombustibles et développement rural dans l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Soybean and the contribution of oilseeds to biodiesel production in Brazil. 47420. Articles de revue. Changes in hydrology and salinity accompanying a century of agricultural conversion in Argentina. Téléchargez le PDF. Articles de revue. Evaluating the consistency of the 1982-1999 NDVI trends in the Iberian Peninsula ...

  6. Problematique de l'utilisation des tic dans l'enseignement superieur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (TIC), Internet, enseignants chercheurs, étudiants, université. Communication and Information Technologies (TIC) plays today an important part in the sectors of the life. Appearing as a means of supplementing the traditional educational techniques they make ...

  7. Utilisation du laitier granulé broyé des hauts fourneaux dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N.Chelghoum

    qualités nécessaires pour mener à bien ces projets ne sont pas toujours disponibles sur les sites de ..... cet additif, le pourcentage des particules fines diminue provoquant un meilleur renforcement de .... Grouting and Deep Mixing 2012. pp.

  8. Utilisation des analyses multivariées dans la caractérisation de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2013 ... sélectivité des filets de pêche dépend de la nature du filet, de la maille, de la hauteur de chute, du rapport d'armement, de la saison et de la longueur totale du poisson et que d'autre part les FMDS à grandes mailles. (56 à 60mm) sont les plus sélectifs de tous les engins utilisés pour la capture du mulet ...

  9. 232 Les Défis de L'utilisation des Tic dans L'enseignement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    communication; et qu'ils n'ont pas à leur disposition l'infrastructure de base requise. ..... L'Analyse des questionnaires des professeurs de français. Tableau 3 ..... équipé et le plus fonctionnel de tous les autres établissements universitaires ...

  10. Compatibilite deformationnelle des betons autoplacants pour des utilisations dans les reparations des infrastructures routieres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezal, Aicha Fadela

    Concrete structures repairs in Civil Engineering by using a thin bonded overlay is common practice. However the repaired structures are often victim of premature deterioration of the new repair material due to the appearance of restrained shrinkage cracks. In this context, the main objective of this thesis is to identify, through the experimental program called Phase I the principal parameters that significantly influence the creep potential of the evaluated mixtures. Once these parameters identified, the experimental entitled Phase II is conducted under conditions simulating repairs, and emphasis was placed on restrained shrinkage using instrumented ring test. Article 1 summarized the laboratory investigation undertaken to evaluate the potential of flexural creep behavior of several SCC. The results show clearly that the flexural creep potential of SCC varies widely depending on the nature of HRWR in use. In general, the use of naphthalene sulfonate leads to higher creep by comparison to polycarboxylate. It has been shown also that even when belonging to the same A.S.T.M. classification (polycarboxylic family) the magnitude of flexural creep varies also widely depending on the properties of polycarboxylic chemicals admixture. Based on the identified parameters in phase I, namely PNS superplasticizers type and PC2, with two ternary blended cements with fly ash (BTCFA) and slag (BTCS), the second experimental program was undertaken and summarized in articles 2 and 3. As presented in article 2, the results indicate that optimized SCCs produced with blended ternary cement with fly ash (BTCFA) developed at earlier age lower compressive and splitting-tensile strengths than the corresponding SCCs with blended cement with slag (BTCS). Test results also indicated that the drying shrinkage of SCCs based on BTCFA is higher than the corresponding SCCs proportioned with BTCS and attributed in part to higher total pores volume measured at 120 days on SCC BTCFA. The restrained shrinkage of SCC summarized in article 3 show that the resistance of SCC to shrinkage cracks was quite different depending on the nature of HRWR and the binder type in use. The cracking age increases in mixtures proportioned with PC-HRWR comparatively to PNS-HRWR. The SCC mixtures based on blended ternary cement containing Class F fly ash show shorter cracking age than the corresponding SCCs proportioned with ternary blended cement containing slag. Moreover, a data analysis of current research shows that the ratio of tensile strength to free shrinkage and modulus of elasticity, referred as index of dimensional compatibility, is a promising assessment of cracking resistant performance. In this way, only the free shrinkage test (ASTM C157) and basic mechanical properties are required to assess cracking of candidate concrete mixture designs.

  11. problematique de l'utilisation des engrais mineraux dans les zones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    de riz pluvial, une enquête a été réalisée à Saïoua, auprès de 7 associations de riziculteurs ... obtenu les produits par le biais d'Organisations Non Gouvernementales (ONG) à la faveur de projets ... nationale, reste encore de type traditionnel,.

  12. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi dan Teknologi Pengolahan pada Gabah dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  13. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi Dan Teknologi Pengolahan Pada Gabah Dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    1982-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  14. SRUNs - sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemetz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays it cannot be denied that fossil resources will approach or over-run their maximum global production rate within the 21st century. In addition to this resource constraints climate change has to be considered in parallel, requiring a drastic reduction in carbon emissions. These two trends clearly show that a fundamental shift is needed within the next decades, from fossil towards renewable resources. This transition gives rise to a change in the supply chains: while fossil fuels are typically exploited from point sources, nearly all renewable resources depend, either directly or indirectly, on solar radiation and area is required for their provision. This poses a new challenge for political, economic and social actors who can decide about land use. Within this thesis a conceptual framework of so called SRUNs – sustainable resource utilisation networks for regions - is developed. Regions have a responsibility in providing goods and services for the society within sustainable networks and bring the spatial dimension into consideration as well. The way how these networks are constructed is described in detail covering spatial planning, the stakeholder process, drivers and barriers as well as elements and features for SRUNs. Using the Process Network Synthesis (PNS) as an optimisation tool, the economic optimum of a network can be found and different scenarios compared. To show the ecological pressure of an established network an evaluation with the Sustainable Process Index (SPI) is carried out. Both computer tools are described and their application is shown in several case studies which are the versatility of the methods in practical implementation and application. Decision support tools offer the possibility for regional actors to analyse their region and to get a feeling about SRUNs. These tools provide an insight into the necessary changes which are needed to manage the shift towards a low carbon and sustainable society. (author) [de

  15. Quelles pratiques agroécologiques pour contrôler les bioagresseurs dans un système pérenne, le verger de pommiers?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Sylvaine; Marliac, Gaëlle; Capowiez, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Les vergers constituent un habitat pérenne, multi-strate et complexe, potentiellement favorable dans le temps et dans l’espace, au maintien des chaînes trophiques et à la régulation naturelle des ravageurs. Or, ils dépendent fortement de l’utilisation des pesticides, ce qui compromet leur durabilité et l’expression de ce potentiel de régulation. Deux expérimentations en verger de pommiers ont analysé (1) la réduction de l’utilisation des pesticides permise par la combinaison de plusieurs levi...

  16. Measurements of the neutron capture cross sections and incineration potentials of minor-actinides in high thermal neutron fluxes: Impact on the transmutation of nuclear wastes; Mesures des sections efficaces de capture et potentiels d'incineration des actinides mineurs dans les hauts flux de neutrons: Impact sur la transmutation des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O

    2007-10-15

    This thesis comes within the framework of minor-actinide nuclear transmutation studies. First of all, we have evaluated the impact of minor actinide nuclear data uncertainties within the cases of {sup 241}Am and {sup 237}Np incineration in three different reactor spectra: EFR (fast), GT-MHR (epithermal) and HI-HWR (thermal). The nuclear parameters which give the highest uncertainties were thus highlighted. As a result of fact, we have tried to reduce data uncertainties, in the thermal energy region, for one part of them through experimental campaigns in the moderated high intensity neutron fluxes of ILL reactor (Grenoble). These measurements were focused onto the incineration and transmutation of the americium-241, the curium-244 and the californium-249 isotopes. Finally, the values of 12 different cross sections and the {sup 241}Am isomeric branching ratio were precisely measured at thermal energy point. (author)

  17. Comparative emergency department resource utilisation across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Ellen; Martin-Khan, Melinda G; Gray, Leonard C

    2017-12-11

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess comparative emergency department (ED) resource utilisation across age groups. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected in the National Non-admitted Patient Emergency Department Care Database was undertaken to assess comparative ED resource utilisation across six age groups (0-14, 15-35, 36-64, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 years) with previously used surrogate markers of ED resource utilisation. Results Older people had significantly higher resource utilisation for their individual ED episodes of care than younger people, with the effect increasing with advancing age. Conclusion With ED care of older people demonstrated to be more resource intensive than care for younger people, the projected increase in older person presentations anticipated with population aging will have a magnified effect on ED services. These predicted changes in demand for ED care will only be able to be optimally managed if Australian health policy, ED funding instruments and ED models of care are adjusted to take into account the specific care and resource needs of older people. What is known about the topic? Current Australian ED funding models do not adjust for patient age. Several regional studies have suggested higher resource utilisation of ED patients aged ≥65 years. Anticipated rapid population aging mandates that contribution of age to ED visit resource utilisation be further explored. What does this paper add? The present study of national Australian ED presentations compared ED resource utilisation across age groups using surrogate markers of ED cost. Older people were found to have significantly higher resource utilisation in the ED, with the effect increasing further with advancing age. What are the implications for practitioners? The higher resource utilisation of older people in the ED warrants a review of current ED funding models to ensure that they will continue to meet the needs of an aging population.

  18. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...... by combining different strands of this literature....

  19. AIMANTS PS CIRCUITS AUXILIAIRES DES PFW : UTILISATION DES PICK-UPS ET BOUCLES DE TOURS SELON LES TYPES DE CORRECTION

    CERN Document Server

    Ottaviani, J

    2005-01-01

    Les PFW sont des nappes polaires installées sur les pôles des aimants du PS. Elles sont au nombre de 4 par unité d’aimant et constituées d’un circuit principal (dans lequel circule le courant désiré selon le cycle magnétique utilisé) et de circuits auxiliaires. Les circuits auxiliaires sont des enroulements de correction (“pick-ups” brasés sur les enroulements principaux et boucles de tours). Pendant la variation du champ magnétique de l’aimant PS, on utilise des tensions induites dans ces circuits auxiliaires pour corriger les erreurs de champ dues aux pertes par courants de Foucault dans la chambre à vide. Les corrections à amener pour uniformiser le champ magnétique tout au long de la machine PS sont fonction des différents types de chambres à vide. A ce jour, nous utilisons 18 types de correction différents.

  20. Pompes à chaleur dans l'industrie Heat Pumps in Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Benchecroun N.

    2006-01-01

    Les pompes à chaleur pourraient permettre une réduction de la consommation énergétique de l'industrie française estimée à 3,5 Mtep à l'horizon 1990 (300 000 tep en 1982). Ces installations se situeront dans les domaines du chauffage des locaux industriels, du séchage à basse température, du réchauffage de liquides et de certaines opérations de fractionnement. Pour les utilisations dans des procédés industriels les secteurs concernés sont principalement les industries agroalimentaires et, à pl...

  1. Spectrographic determination of lithium in nuclear grade calcium; Determination spectrographique du lithium dans le calcium nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Cittanova, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A method is described for the spectrographic determination of lithium in calcium. The samples are converted directly to CaCO{sub 3}. A method of fractional distillation in the arc, using KCl as carrier, makes it possible to detect and measure the Li content to 0,1 ppm. (author) [French] On decrit une methode de determination spectrographique de Li dans Ca. Les echantillons sont transformes d'une facon simple en CO{sub 3}Ca. Une methode de distillation fractionnee dans l'arc utilisant KCl comme entraineur permet la detection et le dosage de teneurs de Li jusqu'a 0,1 ppm. (auteur)

  2. Diversité et dynamique des Salmonella Lactuca sativa L.) dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Au Niger, l'agriculture maraîchère réalisée dans les zones urbaines et péri-urbaines utilise les eaux usées souvent très souillées par la matière fécale humaine et animale pour l'irrigation. Cette étude a évalué la prévalence et la diversité des Salmonella isolées de la laitue dans différents sites maraichers du Niger.

  3. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    operation. The market is expected to move forward but the available public information is very limited, especially concerning the technologies used and volumes produced. Woody feedstocks will be the main raw material source. The utilisation rate of forest industry residues and by-products is relatively high in the EU and wood supply in Central Europe remains more or less stable, hence the price of the raw material is at a fairly high level. The utilities' capability to pay for the product depends mainly on the national feed-in tariffs of green electricity. The energy price for the user is at least twice as high as that of coal. (orig.)

  4. Pilot study of nitrogen utilisation in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futo, I.; Palcsu, L.; Vodila, G.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In the cooperation between KITE Ltd., Nadudvar, Hungary and the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, the aim was to determine the ideal locations of fertilising, the ideal distance of rows for the ideal production yield. To track the nitrogen utilisation of maize (Zea mays) 15 N enriched NH 4 NO 3 fertiliser was introduced among the usual fertilisers in the maize field of KITE Ltd. Nadudvar, Hungary on 30 th March 2012, before sowing. Four maize samples were taken from different areas of different fertiliser treatment (non-fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and non-labelled, fertilised and labelled between the rows and fertilised and labelled within the rows) and from different development stages of the plant on 22 nd May, 8 th June, 6 th July and 7 th September being sampling periods 1-4, respectively. The plant samples were subsampled based on organs: root, stem and leaf. Samples were dried to constant mass and pulverised. The 15 N measurements were made by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled with an elemental analyser. In case of non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, all the three organs were getting 15 N depleted with time, most intensively the stem and the less intensively the root (Figure 1). For the leaves and stems of the fertilised and non-labelled plants, the tendency in time is very similar to the ones of the non-fertilised and non-labelled plants, however, the roots of the fertilised and non-labelled plants got significantly enriched in the sample of September. In case of the fertilised and labelled between-the-rows samples, labelling is slightly seen as the delta values are positive. These values are significantly lower than the ones for the fertilised and labelled-within-the-rows plants. It is seen that fertiliser got to the vegetation in the largest extent in this layout. Labelling showed its maximum intensity in the second sampling (8 th June) showing that

  5. Recommandation de parcours de formation dans un contexte mobile

    OpenAIRE

    Soualah-Alila , Fayrouz; Nicolle , Christophe; Mendes , Florence

    2013-01-01

    National audience; Les récentes avancées dans les technologies de l'information et de la communication ont vu naître de nouvelles formes d'enseignement. L'apprentissage à distance classique s'enrichit et se transforme pour donner jour à un apprentissage plus flexible, accessible sur de multiples supports, à toute heure et en tout lieu : l'apprentissage mobile. Nos travaux portent sur la conception d'un système de recommandation basé sur le contenu, modélisé en utilisant les technologies du we...

  6. La manipulation du genre dans les pratiques discriminatoires

    OpenAIRE

    Delphy, Christine

    2010-01-01

    La constitution de castes raciales en France a commencé avec la colonisation de l’Afrique par la France au XIXe siècle. Dans le cas de la colonisation du Maghreb, le genre a joué un rôle éminent dans la nécessaire dépréciation des colonisés. La France du XXIe siècle refuse d’intégrer les descendants des immigrés et ex‑colonisés nord‑africains ; elle les constitue en caste inférieure et héréditaire définie par des traits culturels quasiment génétiques, et pour justifier ce traitement utilise u...

  7. A drug utilisation study investigating prescribed daily doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and drug groups. Design. Retrospective drug utilisation study using data .... drugs that were prescribed 20 or fewer times during the period under ... occurs in women and men at different ages and with different severity. group. On average, men ...

  8. Facilitating nurses' knowledge of the utilisation of reflexology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-05-18

    May 18, 2012 ... scientific evidence on the utilisation of reflexology as CAM modality to promote .... reflexology therapy, zone therapy and foot massage and ...... perceived quality of care and cultural beliefs', Family Pracfice 21(6), 654−660.

  9. Exploring the extent to which ELT students utilise smartphones for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zehra

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT) students utilise ... Given the fact that almost all students have a personal smartphone, and use it ..... ears as a disadvantage for smartphones (Kétyi,.

  10. Price and utilisation differences for statins between four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc Phuoc; Vitry, Agnes Isabelle; Moss, John Robert

    2018-02-01

    Australia, England, France and New Zealand use different policies to regulate their medicines market, which can impact on utilisation and price. To compare the prices and utilisation of statins in Australia, England, France and New Zealand from 2011 to 2013. Utilisation of statins in the four countries was compared using Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per year. Pairwise Laspeyres and Paasche index comparisons were conducted comparing the price and utilisation of statins. The results showed that the price of statins in New Zealand was the cheapest. The price of statins in Australia was most expensive in 2011 and 2012 but France was more expensive in 2013. There were large differences between the Laspeyres index and Paasche index when comparing the price and utilisation of England with Australia and France. The policies that regulate the New Zealand and England medicines markets were more effective in reducing the price of expensive statins. The relative utilisation of cheaper statins was greatest in England and had a large effect on the differences between the two index results. The pricing policies in Australia have been only partly effective in reducing the price of statins compared to other countries.

  11. Liever kraanwater dan bronwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Een test in het Restaurant van de Toekomst van de invloed van CO2-labels op het aankoopgedrag van consumenten, heeft nog geen duidelijk beeld opgeleverd. Wel pakten mensen vaker kraanwater dan bronwater.

  12. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  13. Détermination en tridimensionnel des pertes par courant de Foucault dans la cuve d'un transformateur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Christophe; Tanneau, Gérard; Meunier, Gérard; Sakellaris, Ioannis

    1993-03-01

    This paper deals with 3D electromagnetic modelling of a transformer so as to evaluate eddy current losses in the tank. In this purpose, several numerical methods have been used with two 3D softwares, FLUX3D (LEG) and TRIFOU (EDF). These methods use either nodal finite elements with the magnetic vector potential (FLUX3D), or the edge finite elements with the magnetic field as the state variable (TRIFOU). Classical volume elements and several special elements have been used : shell elements with the magnetic vector potential for the modelling of thin conducting regions, and surface elements for conducting regions with a small skin depth. The results given by these methods with several characteristics of the tank and magnetic core have been compared and their validity domain has been verified. The shell elements suit well when the skin depth is larger than the tank thickness, whereas in the opposite case, the surface elements for thin skin depth regions are well adapted. Nous présentons la modélisation tridimensionnelle d'un transformateur pour la détermination des pertes par courants de Foucault dans sa cuve. Pour cela, plusieurs méthodes numériques ont été utilisées à l'aide de deux codes de calcul tridimensionnels : FLUX3D (LEG) et TRIFOU (EDF). Ces méthodes utilisent soit les éléments finis nodaux avec le potentiel vecteur magnétique (FLUX3D), soit les éléments finis d'arête avec le champ magnétique comme variable d'état (TRIFOU). Outre l'utilisation des éléments volumiques, nous avons employé des éléments surfaciques de type coque en potentiel vecteur magnétique pour la modélisation de regions conductrices minces, ainsi que des éléments surfaciques pour les régions conductrices présentant une faible épaisseur de peau. Les résultats obtenus avec ces méthodes pour différentes caractéristiques du matériau de la cuve et du circuit magnétique ont permis de vérifier leur domaine de validité. Les éléments de type coque conviennent

  14. Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R.

    2006-01-01

    During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D 9 = 16.21 ± 0.20 μm) is finer than the CCRs (D 9 = 19.72 ± 0.18 μm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 }and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2Fe 2 O 3 SO 3 .5H 2 O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO 2 }, mullite {3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 } and hematite {Fe 2 O 3 }. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26 ± 0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498 ± 0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66 ± 0.18%), sulphur (12.23 ± 0.2%) and zinc (8.243 ± 0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon ( 27.41 ± 0.74%), aluminium (15

  15. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  16. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  17. Pb and Sr isotopes and trace metals in molluscs: constraints on metal sources and water fluxes in a coastal lagoon (Thau, France); Isotope du Pb, du Sr et metaux traces dans les mollusques: contraintes sur les sources de metaux et les mouvements d'eaux dans une lagune cotiere (Thau, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labonne, M

    1998-07-01

    Because of its unique ability to characterize the origins and quantify the fluxes of waters and their loads, isotopic geochemistry is being increasingly used in environmental problems. On the other hand, molluscs are known to concentrate metals in a very strong manner and equilibrate relatively rapidly with their environment. They are used in many programs of coastal survey (Mussel Watch, RNO,...). The originality of our work is to apply isotopic systems (Pb, Sr) to living organisms, in order to: 1- identify the metal sources; 2- determine their proportions in the lagoon and 3- to trace the water movements. The Thau lagoon (Herault, S. France) presents various potential sources of metals inputs: heavy traffic road, Sete harbour, various industries (cement factory, fertilizers...), agriculture, camping areas and leisure ports, not to mention natural (rock) sources. Our study deals with the metal and alkali, alkali-earth concentrations, Pb and Sr isotopes determined on both mussels implanted in the lagoon and wild mussels. We also compare our mussel results with those determined on clams which live at the water/sediments interface. A first study deals with the metal accumulation in laboratory experiments using mono-isotopic tracers 'spike'. It shows that the new metal is being superimposed to the metals initially present in the organisms; this effect is seen within a few days, although variable depending on elements (Zn, Cd, Pb). We have sampled the introduced mussels 4 times a year and we see that the concentration fluctuations are principally related to animal weight variations. The flesh isotopic compositions usually define nice alignments depending on season, indicative of a progressive mixing between two main components: one natural, one anthropogenic. Depending on winds,two influences of seawater entries orlocal water treatment plants effluents can be shown. We have compared past and present metal levels and origins in the area by analysing also

  18. De la problématique des articles synopsis dans la compilation des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    refléter dans ses ouvrages la diversité linguistique et culturelle de ce pays. Ceci est d'autant plus vrai que l'utilisation des articles synopsis ne dépend aucunement de la typologie du dictionnaire. Cet article à pour but de suggérer les différentes approches méthodologiques à partir des- quelles les lexicographes et ...

  19. UTILISATION DE POUDRES ET D'EXTRAITS TOTAUX ISSUS DE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    EXTRAITS TOTAUX. ISSUS DE PLANTES LOCALES DES GENRES Ocimum sp. ET Mentha sp. COMME BIOPESTICIDES DANS LA LUTTE. CONTRE Callosobruchus maculatus FAB. F. JOHNSON, B. SERI-KOUASSI, L. R. N. ABOUA, K. FOUA-BI.

  20. Techniques d'inspection par ondes guidees ultrasonores d'assemblages brases dans des reacteurs aeronautiques =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comot, Pierre

    L'industrie aeronautique, cherche a etudier la possibilite d'utiliser de maniere structurelle des joints brases, dans une optique de reduction de poids et de cout. Le developpement d'une methode d'evaluation rapide, fiable et peu couteuse pour evaluer l'integrite structurelle des joints apparait donc indispensable. La resistance mecanique d'un joint brase dependant principalement de la quantite de phase fragile dans sa microstructure. Les ondes guidees ultrasonores permettent de detecter ce type de phase lorsqu'elles sont couplees a une mesure spatio-temporelle. De plus la nature de ce type d'ondes permet l'inspection de joints ayant des formes complexes. Ce memoire se concentre donc sur le developpement d'une technique basee sur l'utilisation d'ondes guidees ultrasonores pour l'inspection de joints brases a recouvrement d'Inconel 625 avec comme metal d'apport du BNi-2. Dans un premiers temps un modele elements finis du joint a ete utilise pour simuler la propagation des ultrasons et optimiser les parametres d'inspection, la simulation a permis egalement de demontrer la faisabilite de la technique pour la detection de la quantite de phase fragile dans ce type de joints. Les parametres optimises sont la forme de signal d'excitation, sa frequence centrale et la direction d'excitation. Les simulations ont montre que l'energie de l'onde ultrasonore transmise a travers le joint aussi bien que celle reflechie, toutes deux extraites des courbes de dispersion, etaient proportionnelles a la quantite de phase fragile presente dans le joint et donc cette methode permet d'identifier la presence ou non d'une phase fragile dans ce type de joint. Ensuite des experimentations ont ete menees sur trois echantillons typiques presentant differentes quantites de phase fragile dans le joint, pour obtenir ce type d'echantillons differents temps de brasage ont ete utilises (1, 60 et 180 min). Pour cela un banc d'essai automatise a ete developpe permettant d'effectuer une analyse similaire

  1. PREFERENSI PEMBIAYAAN USAHA MIKRO DAN KECIL : PERSPEKTIF GENDER DAN ENTREPRENEURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaira Amalia Fachrudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferensi pembiayaan dalam perusahaan besar lebih didasarkan pada karakteristik perusahaan tersebut.  Namun dalam usaha mikro dan kecil hal ini mungkin berbeda dan bergantung pada karakteristik pemiliknya seperti gender dan entrepreneurability.   Perbedaan gender mungkin juga membedakan entrepreneurability dan dukungan yang diterima.  Penelitian ini akan menguji apakah terdapat perbedaan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender, entrepreneurability berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan preferensi pembiayaan, serta perbedaan dukungan berdasarkan gender.  Sampel dari usaha mikro dan kecil yang bergerak dalam bidang kuliner  diuji dengan uji beda Independent Sample t Test dan kemudian dengan Crosstabulation untuk lebih memperinci hasilnya.  Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan  entrepreneurability, namun entrepreneurability berbeda signifikan berdasarkan gender dan juga ditemukan bahwa dukungan moral, tenaga, dan modal yang diterima pemilik usaha pria dan wanita tidak berbeda signifikan (p value lebih kecil dari 0.05.   Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat kesetaraan gender dalam pembiayaan usaha dan entrepreneurability lebih tinggi pada pria.  Pria pemilik usaha juga mendapatkan dukungan tenaga kerja yang lebih banyak daripada wanita.  Dukungan tenaga ini adalah salah satu bentuk  financial bootstrapping karena dapat mengurangi pembiayaan usaha

  2. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  3. DETEKSI DAN MANAJEMEN REFEEDING SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Darmadi Darmadi; Riska Habriel Ruslie

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakRefeeding syndrome (RFS) dideskripsikan sebagai perubahan biokimiawi, manifestasi klinis dan komplikasi sebagai konsekuensi pemberian nutrisi pada pasien kurang gizi. Refeeding syndrome ini menyebabkan dampak buruk dan kematian. Sindroma ini lebih sering terjadi pada kelompok risiko. Refeeding syndrome merupakan suatu sindroma yang sering tak terdiagnosis oleh karena itu perlu peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran dari tenaga medis untuk mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas dari RFS. K...

  4. Propagation of thermal neutrons in mock-up screw-shaped steel elements with water protection; Propagation des neutrons thermiques dans des fausses cartouches d'acier en helice dans une protection d'eau. Programme tournesol 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devillers, C L; Lanore, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    This report treats the streaming of thermal neutrons in a cylindrical duct in light water. The duct contains a spiral iron shield. Transmission and reflection matrices are used to describe the probabilities for the thermal neutrons to be absorbed or to be scattered on the surfaces. The neutron paths across the void are represented by geometrical matrices. The numerical resolution is performed by the Monte-Carlo method. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport on traite un probleme de fuites de neutrons thermiques dans un canal cylindrique plonge dans l'eau et obture par un ecran helicoidal en acier. On utilise des matrices de transmission-reflexion pour decrire les probabilites d'absorption et de diffusion des neutrons sur les parois et l'helicoide et des matrices de correspondance geometrique pour representer la propagation dans le vide. La resolution numerique se fait par une methode de Monte-Carlo. (auteur)

  5. INOVASI DAN STRATEGI PENCAPAIANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Ferryanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the way of life of any institution to profitably sustain its life. It starts with empathy, the ability to reach outside of ourselves and walk in someone else’s shoes, and optimal implementation of the newly advanced technology. Innovation shows its results through continuously hard working efforts known as "10 Thousand Hours Rule". As world uncertainty creates complexity we, instead of predicting, should therefore anticipate the future by creating and managing real options on contingent projects or elements of alternative optimal strategies. This should reflect into our portfolio strategy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Inovasi merupakan darah bagi suatu institusi untuk bisa hidup berkelanjutan serta menguntungkan. Inovasi berupa penemuan baru secara sistematis yang berawal dari empati, kemampuan untuk melihat dunia melalui mata orang lain, dan pemanfaatan secara optimal kemajuan teknologi yang ada. Inovasi baru menghasilkan buahnya melalui kerja keras, yaitu dengan mengikuti “Aturan 10 Ribu Jam” secara berkesinambungan. Ketidakpastian, interaksi, keterbatasan dan degradasi menciptakan kompleksitas tentang kebutuhan dan solusi di masa depan. Oleh sebab itu daripada meramalkan risiko yang bakal terjadi, kita sebaiknya memasang strategi berupa skenario untuk mereduksi akibat dari risiko masa depan yang tidak kita mengerti. Skenario ini dapat diperoleh lewat penciptaan dan penanganan beberapa pilihan nyata atas semua proyek antisipatif yang ada. Kata kunci: Inovasi, ketidakpastian dan kompleksitas, aturan 10 ribu jam, paradoks strategi, peta jalan, empati, kerja berkesinambungan.

  6. PENGELOLAAN PENELITIAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN KESEHATAN DI THAILAND, MYANMAR, DAN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital, SKM Anorital, SKM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bulan Januari 1991 yang lalu, Sdr. Anorital, SKM (Ka. Subbag. Pengumpulan dan PengolahanData Badan Litbangkes dan H. Syafwani Mirin, SKM (Ka. Bag. Keuangan Badan Litbangkes memperoleh fellowship dari WHO untuk melakukan studi perbandingan ke institusi-institusi penelitian kesehatan di Thailand,Myanmar, dan India.Berikut di bawah ini tulisan bersangkutan yang menggambarkan secara garis besar pengelolaan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan pada masing-masing negara obyek studi. Semoga informasi yang terkandung pada tulisan ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

  7. Utilisation of phosphate by jute from jute growing soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.; Suiha, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    The uptake and utilisation of phosphate from different jute growing soils of West Bengal viz., Humaipur (24-Parganas), Haripal (Hooghly), Panagarh (Burdwan) and the Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barrackpore (24-Parganas) were studied in pot under fertilizer combination of NP, PK and NPK. The soils from 24-Parganas district behaved in a similar manner with respect to dry matter yield, fertilizer P uptake and per cent utilisation of added P. The P deficient between the two, Humaipur soil, showed comparatively higher P utilisation. Other two soils, Haripal and Panagarh, though of different origin behaved similarly, highest soil P has been contributed by the P rich soil (J.A.R.I.) to the crop, though it showed minimum P fixation. (author)

  8. The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Tauchenová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    This master´s thesis is called The Phenomenon of Youtubers and their Utilisation in Marketing. It presents Youtubers as idols of today´s young people and introduces options of utilization of their power for marketing purposes. The first chapter introduces the reader to the general matters of online marketing and offers basic knowledge about this area. The second chapter is dedicated to social networks and their utilisation in marketing field. The third chapter introduces the topic YouTube. It...

  9. Influence of C-Peptide on Glucose Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, multiple studies demonstrated that C-peptide is not an inert peptide, but exerts important physiological effects. C-peptide binds to cell membranes, stimulates the Na,K-ATPase and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase. Moreover, there is evidence that C-peptide decreases glomerular hyperfiltration and increases glucose utilisation. Nevertheless, there is still limited knowledge concerning mechanisms leading to an increased glucose utilisation either in rats or in humans. The aim of this paper is to give an overview over the published studies regarding C-peptide and glucose metabolism from in vitro studies to longer lasting studies in humans.

  10. Utilisation of geothermal energy by the municipal works in Neubrandenburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, H.

    1994-01-01

    A long distance energy supply plant has been operated on the basis of geothermal energy in Neubrandenburg since September 1988. At present it is still the largest heat generation plant for the utilisation of low thermal pore storage in Germany. The setup and the function of the plant are explained. After the municipal works of Neubrandenburg took over the plant, it was redesigned in order to give a better guarantee for the supply, to improve the economic efficiency and to minimise the environmental impact. At present long distance energy can be provided at a price of 99,00 DM/Mwh for 2000 utilisation hours per year. (BWI) [de

  11. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  12. Relations de Dispersion et Diffusion des Glueballs et des Mesons dans la Theorie de Jauge U(1)(2+1) Compacte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Chaara El Mouez

    Nous avons etudie les relations de dispersion et la diffusion des glueballs et des mesons dans le modele U(1)_{2+1} compact. Ce modele a ete souvent utilise comme un simple modele de la chromodynamique quantique (QCD), parce qu'il possede le confinement ainsi que les etats de glueballs. Par contre, sa structure mathematique est beaucoup plus simple que la QCD. Notre methode consiste a diagonaliser l'Hamiltonien de ce modele dans une base appropriee de graphes et sur reseau impulsion, afin de generer les relations de dispersion des glueballs et des mesons. Pour la diffusion, nous avons utilise la methode dependante du temps pour calculer la matrice S et la section efficace de diffusion des glueballs et des mesons. Les divers resultats obtenus semblent etre en accord avec les travaux anterieurs de Hakim, Alessandrini et al., Irving et al., qui eux, utilisent plutot la theorie des perturbations en couplage fort, et travaillent sur un reseau espace-temps.

  13. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H.; Bonnet, A.; Cohen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui

  14. L'utilisation des eaux usées organiques en pisciculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMIDT G.

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation des eaux usées en pisciculture nécessite un traitement minimum indispensable (lagunage, épuration classique, prédilution, dilution simultanée. Une deuxième condition, non moins importante, est la sélection exclusive des eaux usées domestiques et rurales afin d'éviter la présence de métaux lourds et autres substances toxiques des rejets industriels. Dans un tel milieu enrichi, la production piscicole peut être doublée et même triplée sans nourriture additionnelle. Cependant, même si on arrive à de bons résultats, certains dangers subsistent : possibilité d'anoxie due à la dégradation des matières organiques, présence d'ammoniac, de nitrites, de détergents, risques d'infections virales et bactériennes. Des études ultérieures devraient préciser ces problèmes et tenter de les résoudre.

  15. Kinerja Dan Efisiensi Bank Pemerintah (Bumn) Dan Busn Yang Go Publik Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Sugeng

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis kinerja dan tingkat efisiensi bank-bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go Publik di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Sample penelitian ini mengambil tiga bank BUMN Bank BNI 46, Bank Mandiri dan Bank BRI) dan tiga bank BUSN (Bank BCA, Bank Niaga dan Bank Panin) dengan periode analisis tahun 2005-2011. Varibael yang digunakan meliputi ROA, ROE, LAR. LDR, NPL dan BOPO. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melihat dan menganalisis perbedaan kinerja antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go public di...

  16. Kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Prawira, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Perbedaan pola makan antara vegetarian dan non vegetarian dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada umat vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan. Jenis penelitian adalah survei deskriptif. Sampel terdiri atas 74 vegetarian dan 65 non vegetarian. Pemeriksaan oral higiene dan karies gigi masing-masing menggunakan indeks OHIS Greene dan Vermillion dan indeks DMFT Klein, se...

  17. Use of the model of the pile Siloette; Utilisation de la maquette de pile siloette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The nuclear model Siloette, which was temporarily installed at the rear of the swimming pool of the first reactor at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre (Melusine) and which was then called Melusine II. has made it possible to choose and to study the first core design for Siloe during its construction. We have gathered together the essential results concerning the various designs tried out for determining their minimum critical size, for calibrating the control rods, for comparing the different types of rod and for measuring the thermal and fast fluxes. We have in particular concentrated on the rod calibration methods in order to show the advantages of the method which was finally applied to Siloe. Finally each time that it is possible, we compare the results obtained from Melusine II with those which were afterwards obtained from Siloe itself. (author) [French] Installe provisoirement a l'arriere de la piscine de MELUSINE, premier reacteur du CEN-G, le modele nucleaire SILOETTE, alors appele MELUSINE II, a permis de choisir et d'etudier la premiere configuration du coeur de SILOE pendant sa construction. Nous avons regroupe l'essentiel des resultats obtenus sur les diverses configurations essayees en ce qui concerne la determination de leur taille critique minimum, l'etalonnage des barres de controle, la comparaison de differents types de barres, et la mesure des flux thermique et rapide. Nous avons plus particulierement insiste sur les methodes d'etalonnage des barres afin de montrer les avantages de celle qui a ete finalement appliquee dans SILOE. Enfin, chaque fois que cela est possible, nous comparons les resultats de MELUSINE II avec ceux qui ont ete ensuite obtenus dans SILOE elle-meme. (auteur)

  18. ANALISIS KOMPARATIF DAN EKSPLORATIF TERHADAP KUALITAS PELAYANAN BANK SYARIAH DAN BANK KONVENSIONAL DI KOTA PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalim Nalim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: For the last ten years, the focus for sharia trading industry has shifted from emphasising on price to service quality. Some of the reasons for this are: the rise of banking industry rivalry, stable business environment, more challenges faces, modern technology and the increasing number of service provider systems. Additionally, within the global market, the service quality has become more prominent in surviving the banking industry. Furthermore, the service quality also influences customers' satisfactory level. For these reasons, I am interested in researching further about service quality in banking industry. This study aims at (1 finding out factors that influence customers' banking choice (sharia and conventional banks, finding out service index comparison between sharia and conventional banks, and finding out the service quality difference between sharia and conventional banks. The instrument used to compare the service quality was SERVQUAL. The data was descriptively analysed and comparatively analysed using T-test. Descriptive analysis was employed to find out the emerging patterns within the data while the T-test was utilised to analyse the correlation among variables in the questionnaire. The result of the study indicated that there were four components (tangibleness, assurance, reliability and empathy of the service quality which ranked the highest, scoring 3.69. The similar result of highest score of tangibleness, scoring 3.65, was also indicated for conventional bank. Additionally, the result of the study also indicated that sharia bank scored higher in terms of its quality on the point of 3.53, while conventional bank was on the point of 3.50. Abstrak: Sejak sepuluh tahun terakhir, fokus strategis layanan industri ritel perbankan telah mengalami pergeseran dari harga (price menuju kepada kualitas pelayanan (service quality. Alasannya adalah karena munculnya persaingan, tantangan yang berat, lingkungan bisnis yang stabil

  19. Utilisation of family planning techniques among women: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...

  20. Ethnic Variation in Service Utilisation among Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether service utilisation among children with intellectual disability (ID) varied by ethnic cultural group. Method: Survey carried out in four special schools in London. Information was provided by school teachers using case files, and 242 children aged 7 to 17 years with mild and moderate ID were identified.…

  1. High-performance hybrid-fibre concrete : Development and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Although concrete is the most utilised building material nowdays, this material has a large shortcoming: it has a good resistance against compressive stresses, but a very low resistance against tensile stresses. Usual way to solve this problem is the application of steel reinforcement in concrete

  2. Utilisation of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in Gulu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Results: 35% of pregnant women (95% CI 31% - 38%) had utilised ITNs. Factors that promoted ... 0.050) and being single/widow/divorced (AOR 0.22, p-value 0.000). Conclusion: .... being engaged in business (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.08. - 2.26 ...

  3. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  4. Deterrents on the Over Utilisation of Stand Alone Photovoltaic (PV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At inception of the programme, systems were either undersized, or over utilised as clients did not reveal their usage needs in an attempt to reduce costs. This resulted in battery failures and other system breakdowns. The NPVREP categorised systems in order to alleviate the problem of under sizing and/or over utilization of ...

  5. CERN un physicien dénonce des utilisations militaires

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    André Gsponer, ancien chercheur au CERN, a écrit un rapport qui dénone les utilisations militaires développées par certains Etat, dont l'Irak, sur la base des technologies mises au point au CERN (1 page).

  6. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  7. Optimal environmental benefits of utilising alternative energy technologies in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrayyan, B.

    2004-01-01

    With rapid population growth and increase in industrial activities, more energy is consumed, resulting in environmental pollution and economic difficulties. Therefore, the need for utilising renewable energy resources has emerged. Although Jordan does not have adequate fuel supplies (90% of its crude oil is imported), it is gifted with alternative resources. Because of the political and economical constraints that hinder the import of crude oil from neighbouring countries and of the fact that Jordan has limited fossil fuel resources, strategies to meet energy demand are being addressed and examined together with their consequences and the ways in which they could be utilised. This paper assesses for the first time, the potential of using alternative energy technologies in Jordan, including the utilisation of solar energy for water heating, for wind towers in rural areas and also for biogas production from waste. Approximately 2% of unconventional renewable energy resources are being utilised. The data and scenarios of this study were presented in a manner that would assist decision makers, funding agencies, researchers and other related parties to establish programmes that will be helpful in meeting the energy demand, while preserving the environment and maintaining sustainability. (author)

  8. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, for each extra gram of dietary free amino acid content/kg diet, the rate of lay and egg output decreased by 3.0% and 2.5 g per day, respectively, and the efficiency of methionine utilisation decreased by 4.3%. There was no interaction between frequency of feeding and amino acid supplementation. These results ...

  9. Assessment of frog meat utilisation in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frogs are among the most threatened species of wildlife in IUCN red list. Its utilisation in Ibadan, a major depot in western Nigeria was therefore conducted with the aim of assessing the forms and trend of use; and amongst others, reasons for frog meat consumption. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire, ...

  10. Utilisation of outpatient services at Red Cross War Memorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for outpatient services continues to grow at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RCCH). To determine current utilisation patterns, we conducted a 2-week survey in the outpatient department (OPD). In addition, we reviewed the RCCH Annual Reports for the period 1961 - 1988. Annual outpatient ...

  11. Utilisation of enzyme supplemented groundnut cake based diets by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 300, twenty weeks old laying hens were used in a feeding trial to evaluate the utilisation of Peanut meal popularly called groundnut cake (GNC) based diets supplemented with enzymes by laying hens. Five dietary treatments were formulated to meet standard nutrient requirements of layers viz: 1. maize- soya ...

  12. Acquisition And Utilisation Of Human Resources In Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the acquisition and utilisation of human resources in public secondary schools for students with special needs in Oyo State. The study employed a descriptive research design. The entire 196 teachers and 16 supportive staff formed the sample. The research instrument for the study was a questionnaire ...

  13. Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara nut: A review of utilisation, market potential and crop improvement. ... smallholder households to obtain improved seed and invest more of their land and labour in the crop. ... is to make a greater contribution to household income and rural development in SSA. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Improving the utilisation of management information systems in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support

  15. Paediatric utilisation of a teaching hospital and a community health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to Red Cross Children's Hospital (RXH) that could be more ... better access and perceived quality. S Atr Med ... tertiary resources, low levels of efficiency and staff ... However, central to improved patterns of utilisation is the .... the modei were: (/) age of the child; (it) duration of residence ... There was no significant association.

  16. Policy framework for utilisation. A pillar of better accessibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The goals and frameworks for traffic and transport policy for the Netherlands to 2020 are described in the Mobility Document. Whereas government policy previously viewed mobility as a problem or as something permissible, the assumption is now that mobility is a must. Mobility, for people as well as goods, is a prerequisite for society and the economy to function well. The Mobility Document contains ambitious goals to deal with current and anticipated traffic and transport problems: door to door, faster, cleaner and safer. Three interrelated pillars are to help achieve these goals: Building, Pricing and Utilisation. Work is being done on the Building and Pricing pillars; Utilisation is elaborated further in this policy framework. The Policy Framework for Utilisation is an elaboration of the Mobility Document for the 2008-2020 period and aims for faster, cleaner, safer travel from door to door. The purpose of this policy framework is to describe the direction of development of utilisation, in terms of content as well as process, to indicate actions that are required and to provide perspective on the expected effects. The policy framework is in line with current developments or plans, caters to new opportunities (technological and otherwise), encourages the innovative potential of the market and provides room for joint ventures between the government and the market. It will result in actions for the short term and provide direction for activities and developments for the longer term

  17. Globalisation and Labour Utilisation in Nigeria: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-12-05

    Dec 5, 2007 ... the firms in the industry is determined solely by the dictates of ... L'étude examine l'impact de la mondialisation sur l'utilisation de la .... globalisation has been the most influential in government policy .... social, and has economic implications for both the individual worker ..... with the payment of low wages.

  18. SUPPLY AND UTILISATION OF FOOD CROPS IN GHANA, 1960 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    Due to that much attention has been placed on sustainable management of agricultural ... Supply (import and export) and utilisation (for food, feed, seed, farm manure, waste and other uses) of food crops have ..... Cassava is mainly used in non-poultry livestock production, i.e., for goats, sheep, pigs and some ruminants.

  19. Utilisation of mobile health by medical doctors in a Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mobile Health is the utilisation of mobile devices like cellphones and tablets for the delivery of health care. It is an up and coming intervention promising to benefit health services. Recent mobile health studies have tended to focus on mHealth for data collection and surveillance rather than on actual patient care ...

  20. The significance of climate change in streams utilised by humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the role of climate change in catchments that are already under pressure of human activities one needs to study past, current and future conditions. Therefore, the catchment of the river Vecht (The Netherlands), representative for many human utilised, medium-sized lowland river

  1. Impacts of high utilisation pressure on biodiversity components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the effects of heavy land utilisation, mainly grazing, on plant species richness and diversity, species abundance, vegetation structure and soil characteristics in a communal area in Colophospermum mopane dominated savanna in southern Africa. The treatment was benchmarked ...

  2. Resource Utilisation and Curriculum Implementation in Community Colleges in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigwilu, Peter Changilwa; Akala, Winston Jumba

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated how Catholic-sponsored community colleges in Nairobi utilise the existing physical facilities and teaching and learning resources for effective implementation of Artisan and Craft curricula. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students and 18…

  3. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, L.; Jeppsson, B.; Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A.; Valind, S.; Luts, A.; Wollmer, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of 18 FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. 18 FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  4. IDE DAN DESAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilia Yunita Wijaya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have seen many desain all around our everyday living. Design exist in the form of brochures%2C posters%2C banners%2C signages%2C book covers%2C and etcetera. Some are nice and easy to understand%2C some are ok%2C and some look like they are not fully develop and thought. A word that run across our mind whrn we enjoying a design is idea . A good design almost always associated with a good idea%2C is it tru? This paper is going to discuss about desain and its relationship to idea. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Banyak desain yang diamati dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari. Desain hadir dalam bentuk brosur%2C poster%2C spanduk%2C tanda-tanda%2C sampul buku%2C dan lain sebagainya. Ada beberapa yang bagus dan mudah untuk dimengerti%2C beberapa yang biasa%2C dan beberapa yang tampak asal dibuat. Sebuah kata yang terlintas dalam pemikiran kita dalam menikmati sebuah desain adalah ide . Sebuah desain yang baik selalu di identikan dengan ide yang baik%2C benarkah hal ini? Apakah desain dan apa hubungannya dengan ide akan dibahas pada tulisan ini.

  5. Rational utilisation of a spectrometer detector for leaks; Utilisation rationnelle d'un spectrometre detecteur de fuites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-01

    In this following article, we expose the general problem of the leakage in a vacuum installation. We consider the principles of the detection in general and study especially the conditions of detection by an helium spectrometer. We deduce practical conclusions as for the branching of this last and to its application in the most current cases. (author) [French] Dans l'article qui suit, nous exposons le probleme general des fuites dans une installation a vide. Nous y envisageons les principes de la detection en general et etudions particulierement les conditions de detection par spectrometre a helium. Noue tirons des conclusions pratiques quant au branchement de ce dernier et a son application dans les cas les plus courants. (auteur)

  6. The Spectral Shift Control Reactor as an option for much improved uranium utilisation in single-batch SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, B.A., E-mail: bal29@cam.ac.uk; Parks, G.T.

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A PWR with mixed D{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O moderator/coolant is investigated for SMR applications. • Heavy water concentration varied over the cycle to give ‘spectral shift’ operation. • Much wetter lattice than normal is neutronically favourable. • Taller fuel stack is thus needed to ensure acceptable MDNBR. • 35–43% increase in uranium utilisation for single batch reactor is possible. - Abstract: The Spectral Shift Control Reactor (SSCR) uses a mix of D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O to moderate and cool the reactor. Initially, a high proportion of D{sub 2}O is used, such that the reactor is substantially under-moderated, with excess neutrons being primarily captured in {sup 238}U, breeding {sup 239}Pu. Towards the end of the cycle (EOC), the coolant is predominantly H{sub 2}O, thermalising the neutron spectrum and increasing reactivity. Recently, small modular reactors (SMRs) have gained significant interest as a means of providing a power source that requires little maintenance and refuelling. This motivates long cycles and reduced batch operation. For a single-batch reactor, there is typically a 33% penalty to uranium utilisation compared to a 3-batch reactor. Lattice calculations demonstrate the potential of the SSCR to greatly improve uranium utilisation in single-batch reactors over a range of enrichments. A relatively ‘wet’ lattice is employed which further improves uranium utilisation. Cases with 5% and 15% fissile loading are considered, for which it is respectively possible to achieve 47% and 39% increases in natural uranium utilisation using the SSCR relative to a ‘reference’ light water reactor. In the latter case, if 25% thorium is mixed into the fuel, the improvement in uranium utilisation increases to a total of 49%. Hence, in both cases, it is possible to in effect eliminate the penalty of using a single fuel batch. The ‘wet’ lattice introduces substantial thermal-hydraulic challenges due to the significantly higher fuel

  7. Thermal and hydrodynamic study of a whirling liquid hydrogen layer under high heat flux; Etude thermique et hydrodynamique d'une couche tourbillonnaire d'hydrogenen liquide sous flux de chaleur eleve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    In order to achieve a cold neutrons source ({lambda} {>=} 4.10{sup -10} m) in a high flux reactor ({approx} 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s), a whirling liquid hydrogen layer (145 mm OD, effective thickness 15 mm, height about 180 mm) was formed, out-of-pile, in a cylindrical transparent glass vessel. The whirling motion was obtained by tangential injection of the liquid, near the wall. Thermal and hydrodynamical conditions of formation and laws of similarity of such a layer were studied. The characteristics of this whirling flow were observed as a function of mass flow rate (5 to 27 g/s; 4.3 to 23 l/mn), and of spillway width (18 and 25 mm). Six different nozzles were used : 1.0; 1.5; 1.9; 2.25; 2.65 and 3.0 mm ID. The total heat influx was found between 8.6 and 10.4 kW. The heat flux density was about 9.4 W/cm{sup 2} and the mean layer density around 80 per cent of that of the liquid hydrogen at 20.4 Kelvin. High speed movies were used to analyze the boiling regime. (author) [French] En vue de realiser une source de neutrons froids ({lambda} {>=} 4.10{sup -10} m) dans un reacteur a haut flux ({approx} 10{sup 15} neutrons thermiques/cm{sup 2}.s), on a forme dans un vase cylindrique transparent en verre, hors-pile, une couche tourbillonnaire ('vortex') d'hydrogene liquide (diametre exterieur 145 mm, epaisseur effective 15 mm, hauteur 180 mm environ). Le mouvement giratoire est obtenu par injection tangentielle du liquide pres de la paroi. L'etude porte sur la determination des conditions thermiques et hydrodynamiques de la formation d'une telle couche et sur les regles de similitude de ce phenomene. On a observe les caracteristiques de l'ecoulement giratoire en fonction du debit (de 5 a 27 g/s, soit de 4.3 a 23 1/mn), de la vitesse d'injection (entre 10 et 110 m/s) et de la largeur du deversoir (18 et 25 mm), ceci pour six diametres differents d'injecteur (1.0 ; 1.5; 1.9; 2.25; 2.65 et 3.0 mm). Le flux de chaleur total mesure

  8. Thermal and hydrodynamic study of a whirling liquid hydrogen layer under high heat flux; Etude thermique et hydrodynamique d'une couche tourbillonnaire d'hydrogenen liquide sous flux de chaleur eleve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewald, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    In order to achieve a cold neutrons source ({lambda} {>=} 4.10{sup -10} m) in a high flux reactor ({approx} 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}.s), a whirling liquid hydrogen layer (145 mm OD, effective thickness 15 mm, height about 180 mm) was formed, out-of-pile, in a cylindrical transparent glass vessel. The whirling motion was obtained by tangential injection of the liquid, near the wall. Thermal and hydrodynamical conditions of formation and laws of similarity of such a layer were studied. The characteristics of this whirling flow were observed as a function of mass flow rate (5 to 27 g/s; 4.3 to 23 l/mn), and of spillway width (18 and 25 mm). Six different nozzles were used : 1.0; 1.5; 1.9; 2.25; 2.65 and 3.0 mm ID. The total heat influx was found between 8.6 and 10.4 kW. The heat flux density was about 9.4 W/cm{sup 2} and the mean layer density around 80 per cent of that of the liquid hydrogen at 20.4 Kelvin. High speed movies were used to analyze the boiling regime. (author) [French] En vue de realiser une source de neutrons froids ({lambda} {>=} 4.10{sup -10} m) dans un reacteur a haut flux ({approx} 10{sup 15} neutrons thermiques/cm{sup 2}.s), on a forme dans un vase cylindrique transparent en verre, hors-pile, une couche tourbillonnaire ('vortex') d'hydrogene liquide (diametre exterieur 145 mm, epaisseur effective 15 mm, hauteur 180 mm environ). Le mouvement giratoire est obtenu par injection tangentielle du liquide pres de la paroi. L'etude porte sur la determination des conditions thermiques et hydrodynamiques de la formation d'une telle couche et sur les regles de similitude de ce phenomene. On a observe les caracteristiques de l'ecoulement giratoire en fonction du debit (de 5 a 27 g/s, soit de 4.3 a 23 1/mn), de la vitesse d'injection (entre 10 et 110 m/s) et de la largeur du deversoir (18 et 25 mm), ceci pour six diametres differents d'injecteur (1.0 ; 1.5; 1.9; 2.25; 2.65 et 3.0 mm). Le flux de chaleur total mesure est compris entre 8.6 et 10.4 kW et la

  9. URGENSI DAN PROSPEK PENGATURAN (IUS CONSTITUENDUM UU TENTANG CONTEMPT OF COURT UNTUK MENEGAKKAN MARTABAT DAN WIBAWA PERADILAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mulyadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available UU Contempt of Court merupakan kebutuhan yang bersifat urgent, segera dan mendesak, sehingga perlu dilakukan kajian dan penelitian secara kritis, akademis dan bersifat komprehensif untuk menjaga keluhuran dan menegakkan martabat dan wibawa peradilan.

  10. Epistemologi dan Keterbatasan Teori Gravitasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  11. EPISTEMOLOGI DAN KETERBATASAN TEORI GRAVITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  12. ISLAM DAN RADIKALISME: Upaya Antisipasi dan Penanggulangannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Ruslan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sejak tragedi pemboman WTC tanggal 11 September 2001 yang disusul dengan rangkaian peledakan bom di sejumlah negara, banyak orang non Muslim yang berasumsi bahwa ajaran Islam identik dengan radikalisme. Walaupun assumsi yang berkembang itu dapat dimaklumi, namun keyakinan tersebut tentu saja tidak sepenuhnya benar. Karena meskipun terdapat sekelompok orang Islam yang berbuat radikal, akan tetapi mayoritas Muslim justru bertentangan dengan mereka. Lagi pula, jika dicermati secara mendalam, sesungguhnya Islam sama sekali tidak mentolerir tindakan radikal. Ia adalah agama kasih sayang yang sangat mendodrong penganutnya untuk berbuat baik terhadap orang lain, termasuk kepada orang-orang non-Muslim. Artikel ini menawarkan beberapa upaya strategis dalam mengantisipasi dan menanggulangi bahaya radikalisme-terorisme.

  13. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  14. Atténuation des risques pour la santé dans le secteur de la poterie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En effet, les potiers utilisent un carburant de piètre qualité (de la poussière de coton et du coton mazouté) pour faire fonctionner leurs fours en briques, ce qui engendre une importante pollution atmosphérique, contribuant ainsi aux problèmes de santé majeurs dans les secteurs environnants. Le présent projet vise à ...

  15. Study of problems arising from the use of thermal neutron detectors in a pulsed regime. Application to the development of a digital transferometer adapted to receive signals from these detectors; Etude des problemes poses par l'utilisation des detecteurs de neutrons thermiques fonctionnant en regime impulsionnel. Application a la realisation d'un transferometre numerique adapte aux signaux fournis par ces detecteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Tilly, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-12-01

    The instantaneous value of the counting rate of the pulses given by a fission detector settled in a reactor follows the neutron flux, but it is shown that the counter adds a white noise to the measured signal. This report deals with some possibilities of on line numerical handling afforded by this kind of signals. One considers first the influence of a by N numerical divider and one shows that, acting like a quantifier, it adds to the signal a white noise with the power N{sup 2}/{sub 12}. One, studies afterwards the principle of a digital filter aimed to Fourier analyse the signal. The realization of this device is described. It can be used in transfer function measurements at frequencies below 125 kHz. Some examples of experiments performed with this apparatus are presented. One discusses finally the design, according to the same principle, of a power spectral density analyser in the frequency range 0,01 - 10 000 Hz for random signal of the same kind. (author) [French] La valeur instantanee de la frequence de recurrence des impulsions issues d'un detecteur a fission place dans un reacteur est proportionnelle au flux neutronique. Apres avoir montre que le detecteur ajoute un bruit blanc au signal mesure, on etudie clans ce rapport certaines possibilites de traitement numerique en temps reel offertes par ce type de signaux. On examine d'abord l'influence d'un diviseur numerique par N, et l'on montre que son action, semblable a une quantification, ajoute au signal un bruit blanc de puissance N{sup 2}/{sub 12}. On, etudie ensuite le principe d'un filtre numerique destine a effectuer l'analyse de Fourier du signal, et l'on decrit la realisation de cet appareil qui peut etre utilise pour mesurer des fonctions de transfert a une frequence quelconque inferieure a 10 kHz. Des exemples de mesures faites avec cet appareil sont presentes. On discute enfin la possibilite de realiser suivant le meme principe un analyseur de densite spectrale dans la bande de frequence 0,01 Hz

  16. Sludge utilisation in agriculture: possibilities and prospects in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadakis, A D; Mamals, D; Gavalaki, E; Kampylafka, S

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the prospects for agricultural utilisation of the sludge produced from wastewater treatment plants in Greece and more specifically focuses on a critical review of the legislatory framework, determination of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the produced sludges, examination of possible sludge treatment methods and evaluation of the possibilities and prospects of sludge utilisation on the basis of the above considerations. Landfilling is practically the only route to sludge disposal in Greece. However, in view of the anticipated future restrictions for landfilling within the European Union, this method is clearly a short-term solution and alternative options, including agricultural reuse, must be implemented. The results of a recent survey are presented and discussed in relation to this need.

  17. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  18. Machine utilisation and operation experience with Jet from 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.; Chuilon, P.; Noble, B.; Saunders, R.; Webberley, D.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of JET commenced in June 1983 and is scheduled until the end of 1992. This seemingly long period is actually quite limited when compared with the time needed to implement and commission the planned machine enhancements, and pursue research and developments which result from the experiments. There is an ever-present urgency to make the best use of the machine. 1983-84 was a learning period and only in 1985 was it felt worthwhile to adopt double-shift day working. Data has been compiled and analysed for utilisation of the machine, delays in terms of time lost and systems involved, and number and frequency of machine pulses. This paper presents an overall picture of machine availability and utilisation. It describes the JET operational arrangements and the experience of system faults. Finally, it draws conclusions and identifies lessons learned which may be relevant to the next stage of fusion power development

  19. Machine utilisation and operation experience with JET from 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.; Chuilon, P.; Noble, B.; Saunders, R.; Webberley, D.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of JET commenced in June 1983 and is scheduled until the end of 1992. This seemingly long period is actually quite limited when compared with the time needed to implement and commission the planned machine enhancements, and pursue research and developments which result from the experiments. There is an ever-present urgency to make the use of the machine. 1983-84 was a learning period and only in 1985 was it felt worthwhile to adopt double-shift day working. Data has been compiled and analysed for utilisation of the machine, delays in terms of time lost and system involved, and number and frequency of machine pulses. This paper presents an overall picture of machine availability and utilisation. It describes the JET operational arrangements and the experience of system faults. Finally, it draws conclusions and identifies lessons learned which may be relevant to the next stage of fusion power development. (author). 9 figs

  20. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  1. Utilisation des methodes modernes et reversibles de contraception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude descriptive et transversale de 6 ans, allant du 1er Janvier 1999 au 10 Mai 2005 à la clinique de gynécologie obstétrique de l\\'hôpital Donka du CHU de Conakry, a fait ressortir le niveau d\\'utilisation des méthodes modernes de contraception et a permis d\\'élaboré des recommandations pour l\\'amélioration de la ...

  2. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorová Marína; Pinka Ján; Wittenberger Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from ge...

  3. Determinants of private healthcare utilisation and expenditure patterns in India

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Debasis; Desai, Sonalde

    2014-01-01

    In India, a substantial investment has been made in developing community-based programmes, such as Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), and networks of village-level health workers. In spite of these efforts, growth utilisation of government services has failed to keep pace with the private sector, particularly in the past two decades. The results presented in this paper show that Indian families, even poor families, receive most of their medical care from private practitioners. Mate...

  4. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation classiques destinees aux mesures de puissance. Enfin, nous avons realise deux

  5. The Utilisation of Music by Casino Managers: An Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.

  6. Barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Maria; Woods, Phil; Norman, Ian

    2004-08-01

    This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design to identify barriers to research utilisation among forensic mental health nurses. A postal questionnaire was sent to the total population of 88 registered nurses working in a forensic mental health hospital in the UK. Forty-seven responded representing a response rate of 53%. Results showed that the greatest barriers to research utilisation were those related to the characteristics of the setting in which nurses work or the personal characteristics of nurses themselves, which seems to be consistent with previous studies undertaken in the area. However, the nurses reported it especially difficult to trust what research shows because they feel that it is not always possible to apply those findings to their particular work environment. The main implications for policy are a need for an increase in support from management, programmes of advanced education to provide nurses with research skills, an improvement in accessibility and availability of research reports and an increase in time available to read and implement research. The main suggestions for future research are that qualitative studies should be carried out to attain a better understanding of mental health nurses' attitudes towards research utilisation. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Environmental aspects of the geothermal energy utilisation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Drabik, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Geothermal energy is considered as a strategic and sustainable source of renewable energy that can be effectively managed in several economic sectors. In Poland, despite the abundant potential of such resources, its share in the energy mix of renewable energy sources remains insubstantial. The utilisation of geothermal resources in Poland is related to the hydrogeothermal resources, however, numerous researches related to petrogeothermal energy resources are being performed. The utilisation of each type of energy, including geothermal, has an impact on the natural environment. In case of the effective development of geothermal energy resources, many environmental benefits are pointed out. The primary one is the extraction of clean, green energy that is characterised by the zero-emission rate of pollutants into the atmosphere, what considering the current environmental pollution in many Polish cities remains the extremely important issue. On the other hand, the utilisation of geothermal energy might influence the natural environment negatively. Beginning from the phase of drilling, which strongly interferes with the local landscape or acoustic climate, to the stage of energy exploitation. It should be noted that the efficient and sustainable use of geothermal energy resources is closely linked with the current law regulations at national and European level.

  8. DAKWAH DAN PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurmahyati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Da’wah is an attempt to persuade and influence others in realizing the teachings of Islam, to achieve worldly prosperity and welfare of the hereafter. The success was fueled by propaganda aspects are interrelated, anatara preachers, propaganda material, propaganda strategy, mad’u (target da’wah. The number of women in this country nearly half of people (49.36. therefore, it is important to empower women in da’wah to build their own people in consciousness and religious activities that provide the basics of life prosperous world and hereafter.   Dakwah merupakan suatu upaya untuk mengajak dan mempengaruhi orang lain dalam merealisasikan ajaran Islam, untuk mencapai tujuan kesejahteraan duniawi maupun kesejahteraan ukhrawi. Keberhasilan tersebut pun dipicu oleh berbagai aspek dakwah yang saling terkait, antara juru dakwah, materi dakwah, strategi dakwah, mad’u (sasaran dakwah. Jumlah kaum perempuan di negara ini hampir mencapai separuh dari jumlah masyarakatnya (49,36. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting sekali pemberdayaan perempuan dalam dakwah untuk membangun kaumnya sendiri dalam kesadaran dan aktivitas-aktivitas keagamaan yang memberikan dasar kehidupan sejahtera duniawi dan ukhrawi.

  9. ASIMETRI INFORMASI DAN UNDERPRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tety Anggita Safitri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh asimetri informasi terhadap underpricing. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 63 perusahaan yang melakukan penawaran umum perdana di Bursa Efek Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 2005-2010. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda, yaitu menguji proksi asimetri informasi yang terdiri atas ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan, proporsi saham yang ditawarkan kepada masyarakat, reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor terhadap underpricing. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor berpengaruh terhadap underpricing. Ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan dan proporsi saham yang ditawarkan tidak berpengaruh terhadap underpricing.The aim of this research is to examine the effect of assymetric information on underpricing. This research used a sample of 63 companies that make initial public offering on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2005-2010. The data analysis is using multiple linear regression, which is testing the proxy of asymmetric information which consists of the firm size, the firm age, the proportion of shares offered to the public, underwriter reputation and auditor reputation on underpricing. This research indicates that underwriter reputation and auditor reputation have a significant effect on underpricing. The firm size, the firm age and the proportion of shares offered to the public have no significant effect on underpricing.

  10. Gas loop - continuous measurement of thermal and fast neutron fluxes; Boucle a gaz - mesure continue de flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droulers, Y; Pleyber, G; Sciers, P; Maurin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The measurement method described in this report can be applied both to thermal and fast neutron fluxes. A description is given of two practical applications in each of these two domains. This method is particularly suitable for measurements carried out on 'loop' type equipment. The measurement of the relative flux variations are carried out with an accuracy of 5 per cent. The choice of the shape of the gas circuit leaves a considerable amount of liberty for the adaptation of the measurement circuit to the experimental conditions. (authors) [French] La methode de mesure defrite dans ce rapport s1 applique aussi bien au flux de neutrons thermiques, qu'au flux de neutrons rapides. On donne la description de deux realisations pratiques dans chacun de ces domaines. Cette methode est particulierement adaptee a des mesures effectuees sur des dispositifs du type 'boucle'. La mesure des variations relatives de flux se fait avec une precision de 5 pour cent. Le choix de la configuration du circuit gazeux donne une grande souplesse dans l'adaptation du circuit de mesure aux conditions experimentales. (auteurs)

  11. Fluid Flow in Low Permeable, Porous Media Écoulements fluides dans un milieu poreux peu perméable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta N. C.

    2006-11-01

    kinetic theory of chemical reaction in which the time-temperature history is provided by the solution of an appropriate heat conduction equation. This model of geopressure has a practical application since it deals with the generation and maintenance of abnormally high fluid pressures over geologic time and impacts the hydrocarbon migration in clastic basins. La migration des hydrocarbures traite du déplacement du pétrole consécutif à l'expulsion des roches mères vers les réservoirs saturés en eau ou à travers des zones perméables créées par des fractures ou des failles. Bien que les principes sous-jacents contrôlant les mouvements de fluides dans les milieux poreux (réservoirs soient bien compris des ingénieurs de réservoir, on connaît moins de choses sur les caractéristiques des écoulements dans les milieux poreux peu perméables, comme les argiles et les schistes. En termes d'écoulement, les paramètres principaux sont la porosité, la perméabilité, et les gradients potentiels des fluides. Pour les argiles et les schistes, ces paramètres sont peu connus; et cependant ce sont eux qui contrôlent les périodes pendant lesquelles les écoulements fluides se sont produits dans les bassins sédimentaires (de 100 à 100 millions d'années. Dans cet article, on examine la dépendance paramétrique des constantes temporelles des écoulements fluides dans les sédiments peu perméables par rapport à leur porosité et leur perméabilité. Dans une première partie, on présente une technique d'étude de l'effet d'un écoulement dans les argiles qui produit la sous-compaction et l'augmentation de la pression de fluide par rapport à la pression hydrostatique normale. On se place dans des conditions d'avant-forage ; la technique utilise la méthode des analyses de vitesse par mise en collection de point milieu commun des données sismiques de surface, et est basée sur le concept développé par Hottmann et Johnson (1965 et Pennebaker (1968. Dans une seconde

  12. The study by means of a photomultiplier of the scintillations produced by {alpha} particles striking a zinc sulphide screen; Etude, au photomultiplicateur, des scintillations produites par les particules {alpha} dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Application a la numeration precise des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The object of the study is the accurate counting of {alpha} particles by p-m. detection of their scintillations upon impact with a zinc sulphide screen. The main advantage of the method is the extreme simplicity of the electronics used: the possibility of obtaining a utilizable pulse from the p-m. (EMI5311) without any amplification, and in linear response, is demonstrated. The scintillation produced by an impact on Zn-S has also been studied experimentally. The decrease of light intensity in relation to time may be interpreted by the exponential relation: I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) whereby {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. The relation between scintillation intensity and remaining trajectory after travel through a given air-space has also been determined. Possible suitable applications of this method of {alpha} counting are those where good stability and low background are necessary. Results stated bear on air contamination studies, isotopic composition variation measurement of uranium, bismuth content measurement in alloys by irradiation of specimens in a thermal neutron flux and {alpha} count on the Po formed. (author) [French] Ce travail est consacre a l'etude de la numeration precise des particules {alpha} par detection au photomultiplicateur des scintillations produites par ces particules dans un ecran de sulfure de zinc. Le principal avantage de cette methode reside dans l'extreme simplicite de l'appareillage electronique; il est en effet montre qu'il est possible, tout en convoyant une reponse lineaire, d'obtenir du photomultiplicateur (EMI5311) un signal electrique utilisable sans aucune amplification. La scintillation produite par l'impact des particules {alpha} sur un ecran de Zn-S est etudiee experimentalement. La decroissance de l'intensite lumineuse en fonction du temps est interpretable par la relation exponentielle I = I{sub 0} exp (-t / {tau}) avec {tau} = (39 {+-} 0,1) 10{sup -6} s. La relation entre l'intensite de la scintillation et le

  13. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  14. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  15. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  16. Représentation des flux en C.A.O.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth RENAULT

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available La technologie offerte par l'informatique graphique permet un regard neuf sur un domaine particulier de la cartographie : la représentation des flux. Plusieurs exemples montrent quelques-unes des possibilités envisagées dans la conception d'un logiciel spécialisé.

  17. Life cycle assessment of peat utilisation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental issues related to the production of peat and its use in energy generation have been the subject of public debate and research over the past few years in Finland. Peat is both an indigenous and a locally utilised fuel. Finland has no fossil fuel resources, and the transportation distances of imported fuels into Finland are normally long. In Finland the large peat resources can be utilised locally and peat-burning power plants are situated near the peatlands. Peat production and energy conversion methods are being continuously developed to make use of the environmentally and technically best available technology. In Finland peat formation exceeds peat utilisation and an increase in peat utilisation is therefore sustainable. The life cycle assessment concept gives an opportunity to evaluate and improve the environmental quality of peat utilisation options. The study focuses on an inventory analysis, but some of the most common methods of impact assessment with valuation are also included. The study also includes a comparison of fossil fuels and a discussion part. All the calculated results are based on net emissions. The background emissions of natural peatland are subtracted from the emissions of the utilisation phases. Milled peat and sod peat are reported in this study. Horticultural peat is studied simultaneously, but it will be reported later. The Sod Wave, Haku and Tehoturve methods are studied for the production of peat. The power plants of the study are Kempele heating plant and Rauhalahti cogeneration plant. The functional unit is 1 MWh produced total energy. The temporal boundaries vary from 112 to 128 years, depending on the peat production methods used. The restoration time is 100 years in all options. The emissions of greenhouse gases are based on the reports of The Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change. The water emissions are based on control monitoring reports from 1994 and 1995. The water emissions of the restoration phase are

  18. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  19. Bactériophages et phagothérapie: utilisation de virus naturels pour traiter les infections bactériennes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, F.; Jault, P.; Gabard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’utilisation des bactériophages, prédateurs naturels des bactéries, est une technique pionnière efficace de lutte contre les infections bactériennes. Tombée dans l’oubli depuis un demi-siècle du coté occidental de l’ex-rideau de fer, elle fait toujours partie de l’arsenal thérapeutique des pays de l’ex-Europe de l’Est, au point de constituer une arme de choix dans la politique de santé publique de ces pays. l’émergence de bactéries multirésistantes et le risque de revenir à l’ère pré-antibiotique ont fait ressortir la phagothérapie de l’oubli injuste auquel elle avait été confinée. la biologie et la place du bactériophage dans la nature sont décrites ici. les tenants et les aboutissants de la phagothérapie et les conditions de son retour sur le devant de la scène sont explicitées. PMID:26668557

  20. Impedance de surface dans les supraconducteurs quasi-bidimensionnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkir, Driss Brice

    Ce travail a caractere experimental et theorique vise l'etude de l'etat supraconducteur de trois familles de composes: les supraconducteurs conventionnels, les organiques et les cuprates YBCO. Pour ce faire, nous avons utilise une technique hyperfrequence, a savoir la mesure d'impedance de surface en fonction de la temperature et du champ magnetique. Dans les supraconducteurs conventionnels, nous avons mesure pour la premiere fois le pic de "coherence" dans la partie reelle de la conductivite. Bien que predit par la theorie BCS, ce pic n'avait pas ete clairement observe en raison de difficultes techniques liees a ce type d'experience. D'autre part, la theorie d'Eliashberg appliquee a la partie reelle de la conductivite du niobium nous a revele l'importance des mesures hyperfrequences pour mieux extraire la partie basse frequence de la densite spectrale alphasp2F(omega). Cette possibilite est attrayante puisque c'est precisement la region de frequences de alphasp2F(omega) ou les donnees d'effet tunnel sont imprecises. Les resultats obtenus sur la longueur de penetration dans les organiques et les cuprates ont permis de montrer que le gap presente des lignes de zeros au niveau de Fermi ou qu'il est, a tout le moins, fortement anisotrope. En effet, la dependance en temperature de la longueur de penetration dans les cristaux purs est lineaire a basse temperature et elle devient quadratique dans les cristaux dopes. Pour le cas des supraconducteurs organiques quasi-bidimensionnels (Et)sb2X, nous avons aussi observe un maximum sur la partie reelle de la conductivite qui n'a rien a voir avec un pic de coherence. Pour ces composes, nous avons effectue une des toutes premieres etudes des fluctuations supraconductrices en temperature et en champ magnetique. Nous montrons que la paraconductivite sigmasp' due aux fluctuations presente un comportement de type Aslamazov-Larkin de nature tridimensionnelle. Ces mesures sont appuyees par les resultats theoriques d'un modele Ginzburg

  1. DAMPAK NEGATIF PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMATIKA DAN KOMUNIKASI DAN CARA ANTISIFASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Ratnaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sampai saat ini perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan telah menghantarkan masyarakat menuju babak baru yaitu babak yang memanfaatkan peralatan-peralatan yang merupakan hasil dari teknologi. Penggunaan tenaga manusia yang semakin hari semakin kecil volumenya sering kali menyebabkan orang kehilangan pekerjaannya karena tugasnya telah tergantikan oleh peralatan atau mesin. Sebagai sarana penyampaian informasi dan komunikasi, komputer bisa dipakai sebagai sarana berinternetan. Lewat internet orang bisa mencari bermacam-macam informasi dan berkomunikasi. Peran yang dapat diberikan oleh aplikasi teknologi informasi ini adalah mendapatkan informasi untuk kehidupan pribadi seperti informasi tentang kesehatan, hobi, rekreasi, dan rohani. Selain memberikan keuntungan, ternyata peralatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi juga memberikan dampak negatif bagi penggunanya. Dampak negatif tersebut muncul sebagai akibat dari penggunaan yang salah atau tidak bertanggung jawab dari yang menggunakan. Beberapa dampak negatif tersebut adalah 1. Anak lebih banyak menghabiskan waktu menonton TV ketimbang melakukan hal lainnya (seperti belajar dan olah raga, 2. Anak kehilangan kemampuan berbaur dengan masyarakat dan cenderung nyaman dengan kehidupan online, 3 Adanya pelanggaran hak cipta, 4.  Kejahatan di internet, 5. Penyebaran virus komputer, dan 6. Pornografi, perjudian, penipuan, tayangan kekerasan. Adapun cara mengatasi dampak-dampak negatif tersebut adalah : 1. Gunakan teknologi untuk menjalin hubungan dengan orang yang sudah dikenal, 2. Cari komunitas positif  yang sering melakukan pertemuan didunia nyata, 3. Perlunya penegakkan hukum yang berlaku dengan dibentuknya polisi internet, 4. Menghindari pemakaian telepon seluler yang berfitur canggih oleh anak-anak dibawah umur dan lebih mengawasi penggunaan telepon seluler, 5. Perbanyak membaca buku-buku yang bersifat edukatif dan bersifat keimanan serta aplikasi komputer yang bersifat mendidik, dan 6. Perlunya pengaturan

  2. Utilisation de l'analyse sémantique latente pour tenter d'optimiser l'acquisition par exposition à une langue étrangère de spécialité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Zampa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente l'utilisation de l'analyse sémantique latente (Latent Semantic Analysis dans un prototype d'acquisition de langue étrangère de spécialité. Ce prototype nommé Rafales (Recueil Automatique Favorisant l'Acquisition d'une Langue Étrangère de Spécialité a pour finalité d'optimiser l'acquisition d'une langue étrangère en fournissant des lectures à l'apprenant. Les textes fournis à l'apprenant dépendent de ses connaissances ainsi que des connaissances du domaine de spécialité. L'article est divisé en trois parties, la première présente l'analyse sémantique latente, son fonctionnement et ses utilisations. La seconde partie présente Rafales, son architecture et son fonctionnement. Enfin la dernière partie présente les résultats de l'expérimentation du prototype auprès d'apprenants ainsi que les raisons qui nous ont poussées à utiliser cette analyse dans Rafales.

  3. 394 Les fruits de Cycas (Cycadacea) des Comores : utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ibrahim

    Les Cycas sont des gymnospermes archaïques dont les fruits fournissent des amandes fortement appréciées dans l'alimentation par les populations ancestrales des Comores. Le screening phytochimique réalisé sur les amandes fraiches et sèches de ces fruits a révélé la présence d'alcaloides, de triterpènes et de stérols ...

  4. Utilisation de la telephonie mobile en republique du Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduite au Bénin en 1996, la téléphonie mobile de par ses multiples fonctions et l'accroissement de ses usagers, est devenue de nos jours un outil important dans le développement socioéconomique des populations. En effet, qu'il s'agisse de jeunes comme de vieux, de femmes comme d'hommes, des instruits comme ...

  5. Les fruits de Cycas (Cycadacea) des Comores : utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... gras mono et polyinsaturés. L'analyse des protéines a permis d'identifier une diversité d'acides aminés dans ces amandes. La prédominance glucidique, 89% dont 72% d'amidon, fait du fruit de Cycas une ressource amylacée potentielle. Mots-clés : Cycas, amandes, amidon, analyse nutritionnelle, farine, transformation.

  6. KETERGANTUNGAN ONLINE GAME DAN PENANGANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Syahran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui perilaku yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermaian online game pada siswa SMP Negeri 1 Palu yang meliputi faktor-faktor penyebab kecanduan, keadaan psikologis yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game dan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game.Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan berdasarkan responden dan informan sebagai bahan sumber data. Dalam proses pengumpulan data digunakan teknik observasi dan wawancara, dimana setelah data diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, bahwa subyek (RZ dan (MT, kedua subyek penelitian menjadi ketergantungan atau kecanduan untuk bermain online game yang dikarenakan tersedianya beberapa fasilitas pendukung untuk bermain game di rumah, adanya faktor sosial dari pertemanan dengan teman bermain dan keingintahuan yang sangat besar terhadap suatu jenis game. Penanganan ketergantungan game online dengan bantuan dari berbagai pihak terutama pihak sekolah memberikan kepercayaan kepada konselor sekolah atau guru BK untuk mengadakan seminar kepada orang tua siswa tentang game online dan masalah yang akan ditimbulkan, mengatur waktu belajar dan bermain anak, memasukkan materi tentang game online dan dampaknya kepada siswa serta memberikan penyaluran yang baik dalam memilih game yang edukatif serta Menjalin komunikasi interpersonal agar anak dapat terbuka dengan orang tua.

  7. Oxygen, nitrogen and sulphide fluxes in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. KONOVALOV

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluxes and production/consumption rates of oxygen, nitrate, ammonium and sulphide are estimated in the paper utilising results of the 1.5-dimensional stationary model of vertical exchange in the Black Sea (Samodurov & Ivanov, 1998. The profiles of the vertical flux and rate of production/consumption of these substances have revealed a number of intriguing features in the biogeochemical nature of the Black Sea. An approximate redox balance of the counter-fluxes of nitrate and ammonium into the sub-oxic zone has been revealed confirming that intensive denitrification may be the primary loss of nitrogen in the Black Sea. A low ratio of the nitrate stock to the flux of nitrate from the oxycline confirms the possibility of prominent changes in the distribution of nitrate on the time scale of a year. The ratio of the nitrate to oxygen vertical flux has revealed a lack of nitrate in the oxycline above the nitrate maximum. The lateral (related to the "Bosporus plume" flux of oxygen in the layer of the main pycnocline appears to be very important for the existing biogeochemical structure of the Black sea water column being the reason of sulphide consumption inside the anoxic zone and changes in the ammonium-sulphide stoichiometry of the anoxic zone, the primary reason of the existence of the sub-oxic layer and the basic reason of relative stability of the sulphide onset.

  8. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  9. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  10. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey of radioactive waste disposal technologies used worldwide in terms of their influence upon natural environment. Typical sources of radioactive waste from medicine and industry were presented. In addition, various types of radioactive waste, both liquid and solid, were described. Requirements and conditions of the waste’s storage were characterised. Selected liquid and solid waste processing technologies were shown. It was stipulated that contemporary methods of radioactive waste utilisation enable their successful neutralisation. The implementation of these methods ought to be mandated by ecological factors first and only then economical ones.

  11. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Senkoro, Kesheni P.; Momburi, Romanus

    2016-01-01

    was also found in the provider–client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used......This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents...

  12. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Atta Kuranchie; Sanjay Kumar Shukla; Daryoush Habibi; Alireza Mohyeddin

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength we...

  13. Utilising employee assistance programmes to reduce absenteeism in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Absenteeism in the organisation is a major problem for many South African organisations and it is a financially crippling factor. It is made worse by the fact that organisations have no proper mechanisms in place to deal with the problem of absenteeism. The goal of the study is to show that the utilisation of an EAP programme will effectively manage and reduce absenteeism for organisations. Use was made of a literature review. Recommendations are made on how to implement and manage EAPs in th...

  14. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND UTILISATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work carried out by the University of Cape Town has examined the following questions:
    - are industrial engineering techniques being used in industry?
    - what are the reasons for not using the various techniques?
    - what factors that can be addressed by industrial engineers, are inhibiting the improvement of manufacturing productivity?
    - are industrial engineers being utilised in the most effective t"ay? Investigations in South African and overseas companies have indicated some barriers to acceptance that have to be overcome. This paper identifies key elements which, if implemented or adopted, will improve the effectiveness of both industrial engineers, and the intrOduction of industrial engineering techniques.

  15. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  17. Utilising heat from nuclear waste for space heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A heating unit utilising the decay heat from irradiated material comprises a storage envelope for the material associated with a heat exchange system, means for producing a flow of air over the heat exchange system to extract heat from the material, an exhaust duct capable of discharging the heated air to the atmosphere, and means for selectively diverting at least some of the heated air to effect the required heating. With the flow of air over the heat exchange system taking place by a natural thermosyphon process the arrangement is self regulating and inherently reliable. (author)

  18. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada...... an image of desirability, etc., but not nearly as much on the functionality aspects thereof; for example alternative smaller packaging sizes to the standard 750 ml wine bottle. Originality/value The study uses a multi-dimensional approach to measure the impact of enduring involvement on utilisation...

  19. Continuous magnetic flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A method and means for altering the intensity of a magnetic field by transposing flux from one location to the location desired fro the magnetic field are examined. The device described includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, is dimensioned to be insertable into one of the cavities and to substantially fill the cavity. Magnetic flux is first trapped in the cavities by establishing a magnetic field while the superconducting material is above the critical temperature at which it goes superconducting. Thereafter, the temperature of the material is reduced below the critical value, and then the exciting magnetic field may be removed. By varying the ratios of the areas of the two cavities, it is possible to produce a field having much greater flux density in the second, smaller cavity, into which the flux transposed.

  20. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  1. Flux shunts for undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    Undulators for high-performance applications in synchrotron-radiation sources and periodic magnetic structures for free-electron lasers have stringent requirements on the curvature of the electron's average trajectory. Undulators using the permanent magnet hybrid configuration often have fields in their central region that produce a curved trajectory caused by local, ambient magnetic fields such as those of the earth. The 4.6 m long Advanced Light Source (ALS) undulators use flux shunts to reduce this effect. These flux shunts are magnetic linkages of very high permeability material connecting the two steel beams that support the magnetic structures. The shunts reduce the scalar potential difference between the supporting beams and carry substantial flux that would normally appear in the undulator gap. Magnetic design, mechanical configuration of the flux shunts and magnetic measurements of their effect on the ALS undulators are described

  2. Gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ling

    2016-07-13

    In this thesis, we study the geometry and physics of gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications to four dimensions. Motivated by the phenomenological requirement of chiral matter in realistic model building scenarios, we develop methods for a systematic analysis of primary vertical G{sub 4}-fluxes on torus-fibred Calabi-Yau fourfolds. In particular, we extend the well-known description of fluxes on elliptic fibrations with sections to the more general set-up of genus-one fibrations with multi-sections. The latter are known to give rise to discrete abelian symmetries in F-theory. We test our proposal for constructing fluxes in such geometries on an explicit model with SU(5) x Z{sub 2} symmetry, which is connected to an ordinary elliptic fibration with SU(5) x U(1) symmetry by a conifold transition. With our methods we systematically verify anomaly cancellation and tadpole matching in both models. Along the way, we find a novel way of understanding anomaly cancellation in 4D F-theory in purely geometric terms. This observation is further strengthened by a similar analysis of an SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1){sup 2} model. The obvious connection of this particular model with the Standard Model is then investigated in a more phenomenologically motivated survey. There, we will first provide possible matchings of the geometric spectrum with the Standard Model states, which highlights the role of the additional U(1) factor as a selection rule. In a second step, we then utilise our novel methods on flux computations to set up a search algorithm for semi-realistic chiral spectra in our Standard- Model-like fibrations over specific base manifolds B. As a demonstration, we scan over three choices P{sup 3}, Bl{sub 1}P{sup 3} and Bl{sub 2}P{sup 3} for the base. As a result we find a consistent flux that gives the chiral Standard Model spectrum with a vector-like triplet exotic, which may be lifted by a Higgs mechanism.

  3. Récuperation d'horloge d'un signal OTDM à 640 Gbit/s transmis sur 50 km par boucle à verrouillage de phase opto-électronique utilisant un dispositif en Niobate de Lithium à inversion de domaines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, F.; Ware, Agis C.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2008-01-01

    L'extraction d'horloge d'un signal OTDM à 640 Gbit/s, transmis sur 50 km, à partir d'une boucle à verrouillage de phase utilisant l'effet non-linéaire de mélange à trois ondes dans un composant de niobate de lithium à inversion de domaines a été mise en oeuvre.......L'extraction d'horloge d'un signal OTDM à 640 Gbit/s, transmis sur 50 km, à partir d'une boucle à verrouillage de phase utilisant l'effet non-linéaire de mélange à trois ondes dans un composant de niobate de lithium à inversion de domaines a été mise en oeuvre....

  4. Neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Naotaka.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention greatly saves an analog processing section such as an analog filter and an analog processing circuit. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux detection means for detecting neutron fluxed in the reactor, (2) a digital filter means for dividing signals corresponding to the detected neutron fluxes into predetermined frequency band regions, (3) a calculation processing means for applying a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band regions to the neutron flux detection signals divided by the digital filter means. With such a constitution, since the neutron detection signals are processed by the digital filter means, the accuracy is improved and the change for the property of the filter is facilitated. Further, when a neutron flux level is obtained, a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band region can be conducted without the analog processing circuit. Accordingly, maintenance and accuracy are improved by greatly decreasing the number of parts. Further, since problems inherent to the analog circuit are solved, neutron fluxes are monitored at high reliability. (I.S.)

  5. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro.

    1995-01-01

    In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)

  6. GAMBARAN JENIS DAN JUMLAH KONSUMSI FAST FOOD DAN SOFT DRINK PADA MAHASISWA OBESITAS DI UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanti, Rut; Jafar, Nurhaedar; Syam, Aminuddin

    2013-01-01

    Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink dapat menyebabkan kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran jenis dan jumlah zat gizi makro dari konsumsi fast food dan soft drink pada mahasiswa yang obesitas.Jenis penelitian adalah deskriptif, dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Juni 2013 di Universitas Hasanuddin dengan jumlah responden 60 orang. Instrument penelitian adalah kuesioner identitas diri dan food frekuensiSemiQuantitatif fast food dan soft drink, food pictur...

  7. PERSEPSI DAN TRANSFORMASI VISI DAN MISI PADA CIVITAS AKADEMIKA STAIN PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Khanafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengukur tingkat persepsi visi dan misi civitas akademika STAIN Pekalongan, dan mengukur juga tingkat implementasi sebagai transformasi visi misi tersebut serta menemukan hubungan antara persepsi dengan implementasinya. Kajian ini memiliki signifikan yang strategis dalam konteks manajemen dan pengembangan Pendidikan di STAIN Pekalongan dan lembaga pendidikan lainnya. Hal ini karena posisi visi dan misi sebagai kerangka acuan (frame of reference yang mengarahkan dan menjelaskan kepada keseluruh unsur civitas akademika dalam setiap program kerjanya.

  8. Digitalisation in atomic pile control (1962); La digitalisation dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A brief survey is first given of the general theorems of Boodle's algebra and of sequence systems using D.A. Huffmans theory. Some indications are then given concerning the setting-up and the operation of digital computers and also of the principal codes used in digital techniques. It is then shown how digitalisation in atomic pile control makes it possible to use new techniques having the following advantages in particular: greater working safety, a higher degree of centralisation, and suppression of the linear elements. A few examples are given of the application of these techniques to control, particularly with respect to the measurement of the neutronic power and of the period and also of course, to the treatment of the data and the sequence automatisms. The advantage of using digital techniques in the shutdown channels is also examined. Finally a review is given of the technology and the viability of the control devices used. (author) [French] On rappelle d'abord ici les theoremes generaux de l'algebre de Boole et des systemes a sequences en s'appuyant sur la theorie de D.A. Huffmann. On donne ensuite quelques indications sur l'agencement et le fonctionnement des calculateurs digitaux ainsi que les principaux codes utilises dans les techniques digitales. On montre alors comment la digitalisation dans le controle des piles atomiques permet d'utiliser de nouvelles techniques presentant principalement les avantages suivants: securite de fonctionnement plus grande, centralisation plus elevee et suppression des elements lineaires. Un certain nombre d'exemples sont donnes sur l'application de ces techniques au controle, particulierement en ce qui concerne la mesure de la puissance neutronique, de la periode et aussi bien entendu du traitement des informations et des automatismes a sequences. On analyse aussi l'avantage de l'utilisation des techniques digitales dans les chaines de securite. Enfin, un apercu est donne sur la technologie et la fiabilite des dispositifs

  9. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Energy Efficiency in Logistics: An Interactive Approach to Capacity Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wehner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics operations are energy-consuming and impact the environment negatively. Improving energy efficiency in logistics is crucial for environmental sustainability and can be achieved by increasing the utilisation of capacity. This paper takes an interactive approach to capacity utilisation, to contribute to sustainable freight transport and logistics, by identifying its causes and mitigations. From literature, a conceptual framework was developed to highlight different system levels in the logistics system, in which the energy efficiency improvement potential can be found and that are summarised in the categories activities, actors, and areas. Through semi-structured interviews with representatives of nine companies, empirical data was collected to validate the framework of the causes of the unutilised capacity and proposed mitigations. The results suggest that activities, such as inflexibilities and limited information sharing as well as actors’ over-delivery of logistics services, incorrect price setting, and sales campaigns can cause unutilised capacity, and that problem areas include i.a. poor integration of reversed logistics and the last mile. The paper contributes by categorising causes of unutilised capacity and linking them to mitigations in a framework, providing a critical view towards fill rates, highlighting the need for a standardised approach to measure environmental impact that enables comparison between companies and underlining that costs are not an appropriate indicator for measuring environmental impact.

  11. Utilisation of iron ore tailings as aggregates in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Atta Kuranchie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable handling of iron ore tailings is of prime concern to all stakeholders who are into iron ore mining. This study seeks to add value to the tailings by utilising them as a replacement for aggregates in concrete. A concrete mix of grade 40 MPa was prepared in the laboratory with water–cement ratio of 0.5. The concrete were cured for 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The properties of the concrete such as workability, durability, density, compressive strength and indirect tensile strength were tested. A controlled mix of concrete was also prepared in similar way using conventional materials and the results were compared with the tailings concrete. It was found that the iron ore tailings may be utilised for complete replacement for conventional aggregates in concrete. The iron ore tailings aggregates concrete exhibited a good mechanical strength and even in the case of compressive strength, there was an improvement of 11.56% over conventional aggregates concrete. The indirect tensile strength did not improve against the control mix due high content of fines in the tailings aggregates but showed 4.8% improvement compared with the previous study where the conventional fine aggregates was partially replaced by 20% with iron ore tailings.

  12. Thermal utilisation and disposal of sewage sludge; Thermische Klaerschlammverwertung -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, H.C. [Emscher Genossenschaft/Lippeverband, Essen (Germany). Technischer Vorstand

    2001-07-01

    Sewage sludge combustion - either in an incinerator or for heat or power generation - has always been important and is getting ever more so. From the cost aspect, it makes quite a difference whether sewage sludge is just incinerated or utilised. The author makes it clear that this cost aspect - and what it means to communities and citizens - tends to be neglected by those who favour sewage sludge combustion and utilisation. [German] Die Verbrennung von Klaerschlamm - sei es als Schlammveraschung oder als thermische oder energetische Verwertung - hat schon immer fuer grosse Klaeranlagen einen bedeutenden Stellenwert gehabt. Die Bedeutung der Verbrennung scheint in letzter Zeit sogar zuzunehmen. Unter Kostengesichtspunkten ist es ein grosser Unterschied, ob ein Klaerschlamm nur verascht oder energetisch verwertet wird. Vor dem Hintergrund der allgemeinen Diskussion um die leeren Kassen der Kommunen, um die sogenannte dritte Miete fuer den Buerger und damit die Zumutbarkeit fuer weitere Steigerungen der Abwassergebuehren stoert mich die Bagatellisierung der Kostengesichtspunkte vor allem auf Seiten derer, die die Verbrennung der Klaerschlaemme fordern. (orig.)

  13. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  14. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  15. Utilisation of heat and pressure through the whole fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddowes, T.; Moricca, S.; Webb, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The existence of the earth around us is a result of heat and pressure combined to form the very crust we stand on. With such a good model, scientists working throughout the nuclear fuel cycle have used these principles to optimise each particular step. From the fabrication of fuel rods and running of reactors to the final storage of the waste generated; heat and pressure have proved to be vital resources. At ANSTO the concepts of using heat and pressure to consolidate the waste produced for the nuclear fuel cycle have been extensively investigated. Working with collaborators, it has been demonstrated that the intermediate to high level waste can be incorporated into a ceramic or glass-ceramic matrix and immobilised therein, using heat and pressure via the means of a Hot Isostatic Press. This paper touches on how following the simple principles of heat and pressure utilised in the operation of this planet every day, the nuclear fuel cycle can be most efficient. The main focus has been the utilisation of Hot Isostatic Pressing for the production of various durable wasteforms at ANSTO for both Australian and international wastes

  16. Dosage direct des alcools dans les carburols par chromatographie en phase gazeuse Direct Gas Chromatographie Determination of Alcohols in Gasolines Blended by Oxygenated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroff N.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, on décrit une méthode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse utilisant une colonne remplie ; elle permet de doser, sans préfractionnement, les alcools jusqu'aux butanols dans les carburols (carburants additionnés de composés oxygénés. La phase stationnaire sélectionnée est le glycérol. This report describes a gas chromatographie method using a packed column. It allows the direct determination of alcohols up to butanols in gasolines blended with oxygenated compounds without prefractionation. Glycerol has been selected as stationary phase.

  17. Probes and their application to the study of H.F. plasmoids; Les sondes et leur application dans l'etude des plasmoides H.F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, A; Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the first part of this paper, we study the single Langmuir probe and the double-probe method. In the second part, we describe the probe-technique in connection with R.F. plasmoids. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de cet article, nous rappelons les principes d'utilisation de la sonde simple de Langmuir ainsi que la methode de la sonde double. La seconde partie est consacree a la pratique des sondes dans l'etude des plasmoides H.F. (auteur)

  18. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels improvement and extension of the solvent extraction process; Le traitement des combustibles irradies amelioration et extension du procede utilisant les solvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Chesne, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    . Le traitement au solvant est egalement utilise pour les combustibles de la pile convertisseuse du plutonium (Rapsodie). On expose et commente le schema du traitement, les premiers resultats experimentaux et le projet d'une installation pilote de 1 kg/jour. L'utilisation de la tn-laurylamine dans le cycle de purification du plutonium est envisagee dans l'usine de traitement de La Hague. On presente le schema adopte et les performances du procede. On envisage la vitrification comme traitement definitif des dechets radioactifs concentres des Centres de Marcoule (uranium-irradie) et La Hague (uranium-molybdene irradie). Trois procedes possibles sont decrits et commentes, ainsi que les resultats d'exploitation des installations correspondantes sur elements traceurs. (auteurs)

  19. MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE CHIMIQUE DANS LA REDUCTION DES OXYDES D4AZOTE PAR DECHARGE COURONNE.

    OpenAIRE

    MEDJAHDI, Sarah ines

    2015-01-01

    CE TRAVAIL DE recherche rentre dans le cadre général de modélisation de la réduction des oxydes d'azote . l'utilisation des réacteurs a plasma froid non-thermique généré par des décharges couronnes est actuellement l'une des techniques les puis promettre .ses pour la destruction des oxydes d'azote .en effet , le traitement des gaz pollués par les décharges couronnes est notamment rendu possible par la multiplication des décharges Électriques .

  20. Effets du Cloud computing sur les relations inter-organisationnelles dans la supply chain en France

    OpenAIRE

    AGHHAVANI-SHAJARI, Benyamin

    2016-01-01

    National audience; Le cloud computing (CC) est en train de changer la façon dont les entreprises déploient et exploitent leur système d’information. 55% des entreprises françaises utilisent le Service Cloud type Software as a service (Saas). Les recherches se sont surtout focalisées sur la question de l'adoption du CC (ACC) dans une organisation ou encore sur les difficultés techniques et informatiques. À notre connaissance il existe peu de recherches portant sur l'ACC au niveau de la supply ...

  1. Atelier : La part de fiction dans le cinéma documentaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet atelier du Lhivic a permis d’examiner la dimension fictionnelle du style documentaire. On a abordé ce sujet pragmatiquement et dans une optique interdisciplinaire, à partir d’extraits de films documentaires et de textes (de Baecque, Delage, Kracauer, Ricœur, etc.. Ces problématiques renvoient directement à celles de l’écriture de l’histoire, discipline dont on interroge particulièrement depuis le tournant linguistique les modes de mise en récit. Tout l’enjeu était alors de ne pas utilise...

  2. Correlations in plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium; Les correlations dans un plasma en equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    This paper treats of a fully, ionized plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium. An attempt is made at reviewing the calculation of spatial correlations in such a plasma. The equation of recurrence and the principle of superposition are used. The linear approximation is first treated. The next higher approximation is studied in the case of a neutral homogeneous and isotropic plasma. (author) [French] Un plasma completement ionise est en equilibre thermodynamique. On tente une mise au point du calcul des correlations de position dans ce plasma. On utilise les equations de recurrence et le principe de superposition. On expose d'abord l'approximation lineaire. Dans le cas d'un plasma neutre homogene et isotrope l'etude est poursuivie a l'approximation suivante. (auteur)

  3. The Open Flux Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; Liu, Y.; Derosa, M. L.; Yeates, A.; Owens, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  4. The Open Flux Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Henney, C. J. [Air Force Research Lab/Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Arge, C. N. [Science and Exploration Directorate, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Liu, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Derosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street B/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Yeates, A. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Owens, M. J., E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com [Space and Atmospheric Electricity Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  5. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  6. [Project for] a high-flux extracted neutron beam reactor [for physicists]; Un [projet de] reacteur a haut flux et faisceaux sortis [pour physiciens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    tubes and the experimental equipment which can support doses much higher than the ones which are biologically permissible. The final part of the communication describes the studies carried out on the realization of a liquid hydrogen cold sink, one of the most important experimental devices envisaged. (authors) [French] Les besoins francais en canaux pour sortie de neutrons de differentes energies sont brievement indiques. L'interet bien connu des neutrons froids (plus de 4 Angstroem) est souligne. Les grandes lignes d'un reacteur permettant de satisfaire les physiciens sont esquissees. Ce sont les suivantes: 1 - Flux dans l'eau lourde du reflecteur de l'ordre de 7. 10{sup 14} thermiques. 2 - Souplesse d'emploi maximum obtenue par: - separation physique du coeur et du reflecteur, - independance des experiences entre elles, - possibilite de modification, sans interruption notable du fonctionnement de la pile, des experiences physiques jusqu'a - et y compris - la nature du reflecteur utilise, - reduction au minimum des protections fixes; emploi largement generalise des protections liquides (eau) et fluidisees (sables). 3 - Continuite technologique aussi grande que possible avec les reacteurs de recherche francais existant ou en construction (SILOE, PEGASE, OSIRIS). 4 - Surete de fonctionnement recherche par la simplicite de conception. 5 - Minimisation des frais de construction. La reduction des frais d'exploitation est recherchee plutot indirectement par la simplicite des solutions et la reduction du personnel d'exploitation, que directement par la minimisation des consommations d'elements combustibles et d'energie. La solution preconisee peut etre decrite comme un reacteur de type piscine a coeur clos, non pressurise, tres sous modere par l'eau legere de refroidissement. Entourant le reacteur, se trouvent un certain nombre de 'canaux boucles' comprenant chacun: - une portion du reflecteur (eau lourde dans l'exemple decrit), - une portion de canal d'extraction de neutrons

  7. Einstein dans l'Univers - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Dans le cadre de l'Année internationale de la physique, la section de physique de l'Université de Genève organise une série de conférences pour les non-initiés. Chacune des conférences débute par une démonstration de détection de rayons cosmiques dans l'auditoire et l'utilisation de ces signaux venus du fond de l'Univers pour créer une « musique cosmique », en collaboration avec le Professeur Ellberger du Conservatoire de musique de Genève. La cinquième conférence, donnée par le professeur Michele Maggiore de l'Université de Genève, s'intéresse à l'une des contributions les plus remarquables d'Einstein, la relativité générale. L'une des prédictions de cette théorie est l'existence des ondes gravitationnelles, véritables vibrations de l'espace-temps qui peuve...

  8. Pengaruh Fermentasi Fungi, Bakteri Asam Laktat dan Khamir terhadap Kualitas Nutrisi Tepung Sorgum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Haryo Bimo Setiarto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, food security problem in Indonesia is mainly due to the consumption dependence on rice and wheat, while the utilization of local sources of carbohydrates such as tubers and cereals are still limited. Sorghum is one of local cereal that potential to be developed as source of carbohydrates and protein. However, a problem encountered on utilising sorghum as food is the low protein digestibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fermentation of Rhizopus oligosporus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nutritional quality and digestibility of sorghum flour. The procedure in this research were pre-treatment of sorghum grains, preparations of inoculum, solid state fermentation, liquid state fermentation, mixture solid-liquid fermentation of sorghum grains, flouring (draining and mashing, microbial (total plate count and chemical analysis (proximate analysis, amino acid analysis, and protein digestibilty. Sorghum flour was made with 4 variations of treatments that was performed in triplo, i.e: control (without fermentation, liquid fermentation (with Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, solid fermentation (with Rhizopus oligosporus, solid and liquid fermentation (with addition of Rhizopus oligosporus,Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result showed that the number of microbes in fermented sorghum flour was still within the safety limits in accordance to SNI. The fermentation process did not significantly influence the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and fat of sorghum flour. During the fermentation of sorghum, the levels of the amino acids cysteine and lysine increased while several other amino acids decreased. Fermentation increased significantly the digestibility of sorghum protein up to 3,5-5 fold than control without fermentation. ABSTRAK Masalah ketahanan pangan di Indonesia saat ini diantaranya adalah pola konsumsi masyarakat sangat tergantung pada

  9. Meromorphic flux compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, Cesar [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad de Guanajuato,Carretera Salamanca-Valle de Santiago Km 3.5+1.8 Comunidad de Palo Blanco,Salamanca (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque No. 103 Col. Lomas del Campestre C.P 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2017-04-26

    We present exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein’s equations related to Minkoswki vacuum constructed from Type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. Following https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)187; https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)188 we study a non-trivial flux compactification on a fibered product by a four-dimensional torus and a two-dimensional sphere punctured by 5- and 7-branes. By considering only 3-form fluxes and the dilaton, as functions on the internal sphere coordinates, we show that these solutions correspond to a family of supersymmetric solutions constructed by the use of G-theory. Meromorphicity on functions constructed in terms of fluxes and warping factors guarantees that flux and 5-brane contributions to the scalar curvature vanish while fulfilling stringent constraints as tadpole cancelation and Bianchi identities. Different Einstein’s solutions are shown to be related by U-dualities. We present three supersymmetric non-trivial Minkowski vacuum solutions and compute the corresponding soft terms. We also construct a non-supersymmetric solution and study its stability.

  10. Meromorphic flux compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, Cesar; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    We present exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein’s equations related to Minkoswki vacuum constructed from Type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. Following https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)187; https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)188 we study a non-trivial flux compactification on a fibered product by a four-dimensional torus and a two-dimensional sphere punctured by 5- and 7-branes. By considering only 3-form fluxes and the dilaton, as functions on the internal sphere coordinates, we show that these solutions correspond to a family of supersymmetric solutions constructed by the use of G-theory. Meromorphicity on functions constructed in terms of fluxes and warping factors guarantees that flux and 5-brane contributions to the scalar curvature vanish while fulfilling stringent constraints as tadpole cancelation and Bianchi identities. Different Einstein’s solutions are shown to be related by U-dualities. We present three supersymmetric non-trivial Minkowski vacuum solutions and compute the corresponding soft terms. We also construct a non-supersymmetric solution and study its stability.

  11. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  12. Pengaruh Perebusan, Penggaraman Dan Penjemuran Pada Udang Dan Cumi Terhadap Pembentukan 7 Ketokolesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Riyanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengaruh perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran pada udang dan cumi terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, udang dan cumi masing ­masing dibagi dalam dua kelompok. Pada kelompok pertama diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air, dan pada kelompok kedua diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air garam (3% air garam untuk udang dan 20% air garam untuk cumi. Setelah perebusan, dilakukan pengeringan di bawah matahari (udang dikupas dahulu sebelum dijemur. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan saat kondisi segar, setelah direbus dan setelah dijemur. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kandungan 7‑ketokolesterol, kolesterol, nilai TBA, dan kadar air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol sampai konsentrasi 20,82 ppm pada udang dan 15,05 ppm pada cumi sebagai konsentrasi tertinggi produk hasil oksidasi kolesterol yang terbentuk. Penelitian ini dapat dijadikan bukti bahwa pemanasan (perebusan dan penjemuran, serta penggaraman berpengaruh dalam proses oksidasi kolesterol pada udang dan cumi.

  13. CORPORATE IDENTITY SEJARAH DAN APLIKASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Suharto Cenadi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent globalization era%2C and the developed market%2C many companies compete to attract consumers to buy their products. One of the keys to compete and survive in this developing market is by creating an image and graphic identity. This paper will discuss about corporate identity%2C image%2C its purpose and applications. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam era globalisasi dewasa ini%2C dan dengan berkembangnya pasar (market%2C banyak perusahaan bersaing untuk menarik perhatian konsumen untuk membeli produknya. Salah satu cara untuk bersaing dan dapat bertahan di dalam pasar yang terus berkembang ini adalah dengan menciptakan suatu image dan identitas graphic. Tulisan ini akan membahas tentang corporate identity%2C image%2C fungsi dan aplikasinya

  14. Diffusion and Kirkendall effect in plutonium-zirconium system; Diffusion et effet Kirkendall dans le systeme plutonium-zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    Results are reported for the chemical diffusion in {epsilon}{beta} phase (bcc) over the range 10 - 70 atomic per cent plutonium. Concentration-penetration curves, obtained by using electron microprobe, have been analysed by Hall and Matano methods. Chemical diffusion coefficients, measured from 650 to 900 deg. C., increase with plutonium concentration and follow the Arrhenius law. Activation energies range from 18000 up to 44000 cal/mole for plutonium concentrations from 60 to 20 atomic per cent plutonium. Kirkendall effect has been observed by the shift of inert markers located originally at the Zr-PuZr interface. Analysis of intrinsic diffusion coefficients variation, flux of the two species and lattice velocity has been carried out by the incremental couples technique by using Darken and Heumann equations. It was found that D{sub Pu} > D{sub Zr}; the ratio D{sub Pu}/D{sub Zr} increases from 1 to 6 over the range 15 - 60 atomic per cent Pu. Activation energies for intrinsic diffusion coefficients vary between 25 and 50 Kcal/mole. (author) [French] Nous donnons des resultats sur la diffusion chimique en phase {epsilon}{beta} (cc) de 10 a 70 pour cent atomique en plutonium. Les courbes concentration-penetration, obtenues par microanalyse X ont ete depouillees par les methodes de HALL et de MATANO. Les coefficients de diffusion chimique mesures de 650 deg. C a 900 deg. C., augmentent avec la concentration en plutonium et suivent la loi d'ARRHENIUS. Les energies d'activation passent de 18000 a 44000 calories par mole pour des concentrations de 60 a 20 pour cent atomique en plutonium. L'existence d'un effet KIRKENDALL a ete mis en evidence par le deplacement de fils inertes places initialement dans le plan de soudure. L'analyse de la variation des coefficients de diffusion intrinseques, des flux des deux especes et de la vitesse du reseau a ete faite par la technique des couples incrementaux en utilisant les equations de DARKEN et de HEUMANN. On trouve D{sub Pu} > D

  15. Profil Sensori dan Nilai Gizi Beberapa Jenis Ikan Patin dan Hibrid Nasutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Dwi Suryaningrum

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai profil sensori dan nilai gizi filet patin Siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus, Jambal (Pangasius djambal Bleeker, Pasupati, Nasutus serta hasil silangan Siam dan Nasutus (hibrid Nasutus telah dilakukan. Analisis sensori dilakukan dengan uji pembeda menyeluruh, uji pembeda atribut, uji kesukaan, dan uji rangking. Pengamatan lainnya dilakukan terhadap edible portion dan nilai gizi (proksimat dan profil asam amino. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa filet patin hibrid Nasutus lebih memiliki kesamaan warna dengan filet patin Nasutus daripada filet patin Siam. W arna daging filet patin hibrid Nasutus berbeda nyata dengan induknya yaitu patin Nasutus dan patin Siam. Panelis lebih menyukai warna filet patin hibrid Nasutus dibandingkan dengan patin Pasupati. Patin hibrid Nasutus mempunyai tekstur yang berbeda nyata dengan Nasutus dan Jambal yang kompak dan padat, tetapi mempunyai kesamaan dengan patin Siam dan Pasupati yang agak kompak dan agak padat. Berdasarkan intensitas warna, hasil uji pembeda atribut dan uji kesukaan, maka secara berturut-turut panelis menyukai filet patin Jambal, Nasutus, hibrid Nasutus, Pasupati, dan Siam. Hibrid Nasutus mempunyai edible portionpaling tinggi (49% dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya tetapi mempunyai kadar air, kadar lemak, dan kadar protein yang lebih rendah dan berbeda nyata dengan induknya (patin Siam dan Nasutus. Patin Siam mengandung asam amino esensial paling tinggi di antara berbagai jenis patin yang diteliti. Profil asam amino patin hibrid Nasutus, Jambal, Pasupati, dan Nasutus hampir sama, kecuali pada patin Siam yang mengandung glisin, leusin, isoleusin, histidin, serin, treonin, dan prolin yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya

  16. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Yasushi; Mitsubori, Minehisa; Ohashi, Kazunori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a neutron flux monitoring device for preventing occurrence of erroneous reactor scram caused by the elevation of the indication of a start region monitor (SRM) due to a factor different from actual increase of neutron fluxes. Namely, judgement based on measured values obtained by a pulse counting method and a judgment based on measured values obtained by a Cambel method are combined. A logic of switching neutron flux measuring method to be used for monitoring, namely, switching to an intermediate region when both of the judgements are valid is adopted. Then, even if the indication value is elevated based on the Cambel method with no increase of the counter rate in a neutron source region, the switching to the intermediate region is not conducted. As a result, erroneous reactor scram such as 'shorter reactor period' can be avoided. (I.S.)

  17. MENGENALI GEJALA TINITUS DAN PENATALAKSANAANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Purwita Agustini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telinga berdenging atau dikenal dalam bahasa medis sebagai tinitus, banyak dikeluhkan sebagai suatu bising atau bunyi yang muncul di kepala tanpa adanya rangsangan dari luar. Adapun keluhan yang dialami ini seperti bunyi mendengung, mendesis, menderu, atau berbagai variasi bunyi yang lain. Tinitus bukanlah penyakit atau sindroma, tapi hanya merupakan gejala yang mungkin berasal dari satu atau sejumlah kelainan. Sebetulnya suara yang terdengar oleh telinga tersebut belum tentu bersifat kelainan atau patologis. Jika orang sehat yang terbukti telinganya normal, berada dalam ruang kedap (anehoic chamber, maka ia akan dapat mendengar berbagai macam suara yang berasal dari berbagai organ tubuhnya sendiri yang memang bekerja setiap saat, contohnya: pernapasan, kontraksi jantung, dan aliran darah. Kenyataannya, dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, suasana yang memungkinkan suara fisiologis atau normal tersebut terdengar oleh seseorang sangat jarang tercipta dan bahkan dalam kamar yang sunyi di malam hari sekalipun. Hal ini dikarenakan, bunyi masking dari lingkungan dengan berintensitas bunyi sekitar 25 – 30 dB. Tinitus baru menjadi gejala jika suara organ tubuh intensitasnya melebihi bunyi masking lingkungan tadi. Tinitus kerap diderita terutama orang pada kelompok usia pertengahan dan usia tua. Menurut data statistic dari pusat kesehatan di Amerika, sekitar 32% orang dewasa pernah mengalami tinitus pada suatu saat tertentu dalam hidupnya, dan 6 % nya sangat menganggu dan cukup sulit disembuhkan. Di Inggris, 17% populasi juga memiliki masalah tinitus. Sayangnya di Indonesia belum ada data statistic yang memadai, namun berdasarkan pengalaman empiris, penderita tinitus cukup banyak dan sering ditemui di tempat praktek, klinik, maupun rumah sakit. Meski tinitus bukanlah keadaan yang membahayakan, munculnya gejala ini pada hampir kebanyakan orang sangat mengganggu dan sering mempengaruhi kualitas hidup dan pekerjaannya. Kata Kunci: Tinitus, berdenging, telinga

  18. Le CRDI dans les Philippines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI appuie la recherche dans les. Philippines depuis 1972. Le travail qu'y ont accompli des universités et des instituts de recherche vigoureux et la participation active de la société civile ont entraîné d'importantes améliorations dans les domaines de l'agriculture, du suivi de la pauvreté et de la gestion des forêts.

  19. XML specifications DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now......XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now...

  20. Ketergantungan Online Game Dan Penanganannya

    OpenAIRE

    Syahran, Ridwan

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui perilaku yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermaian online game pada siswa SMP Negeri 1 Palu yang meliputi faktor-faktor penyebab kecanduan, keadaan psikologis yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game dan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game.Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan berdasarkan responden dan informan sebagai bahan sumber data. Dalam proses ...

  1. Ekstraksi Komponen Bioaktif Daun Alpukat dengan Bantuan Ultrasonik pada Berbagai Jenis dan Konsentrasi Pelarut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Rai Widarta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Avocado leaves contain high bioactive components that can be utilised as a source of antioxidants. The purpose of this research was to obtain the appropriate solvent types and concentration to recover high level of bioactive compounds and high antioxidant activity from the avocado leaves’ extract. This study was conducted in two stages. The first stage was the determination of the solvent types and concentration in producing the extract of avocado leaves with the highest antioxidant activity. The research was designed using complete randomised factorial design with the type of solvent (methanol, ethanol, acetone as the first factor and the second factor was the solvent concentration (30%, 50%, 70%. The second stage of this research was the IC50 determination of avocado leaves which has highest antioxidant activity. The result showed that the appropriate solvent used in obtaining the extract of avocado leaves with the highest antioxidant activity was 70% ethanol. The total contents of phenolic, flavonoids, tannins, and DPPH radical inhibition activity of this extract were 23.28 mg/g materials, 93.97 mg/g materials, 9.47 mg/g materials and 90.80%, respectively. Whereas, IC50 value measured using DPPH, Fe2+ chelating, and reducing power were 1870 mg/L, 1180 mg/L and 85.24 mg/L, respectively. ABSTRAK Daun alpukat mengandung komponen bioaktif yang tinggi sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber antioksidan. Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan jenis dan konsentrasi pelarut yang tepat untuk menghasilkan komponen bioaktif dan aktivitas antioksidan yang tinggi dari ekstrak daun alpukat. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahapan. Pada tahap I dilakukan penentuan jenis dan konsentrasi pelarut untuk menghasilkan ekstrak daun alpukat dengan aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan faktor I adalah jenis pelarut (metanol, etanol dan aseton dan faktor II adalah konsentrasi pelarut (30

  2. The nuclear energy use in Space; Utilisation de l'energie nucleaire dans l'espace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, X. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Pempie, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 91 - Evry (France)

    2002-07-01

    Two ways of the nuclear energy use are possible in spatial applications. The first one is the electric power production to supply satellites, space vehicles or electric propulsion. The second one, less obvious, is the thermal-nuclear propulsion where the nuclear reactor is a thermal exchanger for a gas. These two applications are presented in this paper, with two examples of projects realized in collaboration of the CNES and the CEA: ERATO as an electrical generator and MAPS as the nucleo-thermal propulsion. (A.L.B.)

  3. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  4. Radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy in limb edemas; La lymphoscintigraphie dans la pathologie lymphatique des membres: reflexions apres 20 ans d`utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecking, A.P. [Centre Rene Huguenin, 92 - Saint-Cloud (France); Cluzan, R.V. [Hopital Cognacq-Jay, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Indirect radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy is a safe, non-invasive and physiological method for the assessment of the limb lymphatic system. Colloids as antimony or rhenium sulphide labeled with 99m technetium have been widely used for morphological studies. Quantitative studies involving a continuous count rate monitoring of the injection sites followed by a computer analysis of dynamic image sequences have been a new promising step for an objective measurement of the peripheral lymphatic function. The injection site is always bilateral on the first web space of either the hand or the foot using a small volume (<0.2 mL) of the radiocolloid. This method has been validated on 30 young healthy volunteers and normal values established from a group of 125 upper and 141 lower limbs (normal subjects). The normal results showed a slight but continuous decrease in lymphatic function depending on the age of the subject. In pathological situations, we observed dysfunction of the lymphatic system in pure lymphoedemas or so-called lympho-venous edemas as demonstrated on the 1,182 upper and 2,463 lower limbs tested. The radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy may be helpful in cases of unilateral swollen limbs demonstrating a lymphatic dysfunction on a clinically normal contralateral limb at the first stage of a distal edema which appears within a few weeks or days, in a transient edema phase when normal status and oedema alternate. The lymphoscintigraphy gives objective and reproducible parameters necessary to assess the lymphatic variation under therapy (decongestive physiotherapy, surgery, drugs) and may be useful in the selection of new lympho-tonic treatments. This method is only reflecting the lymphatic function and is unable to appreciate the total lymphatic flow of the limb. Its results only reflect what happens at the injection site and it may be necessary to add a second test using a proximal injection in order to assess the occurrence of lymph nodes not visualized by the general method. (authors). 18 refs.

  5. Utilisation des espèces spontanées dans trois villages contigus du Sud du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigma, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of Wild Plants Species in Three Adjoining Village Southern Burkina Faso. Wild species are very important for people in developing countries. To enrich the knowledge of useful wild species, series of ethnobotanical surveys was conducted in three adjoining villages of southern Burkina Faso. This survey has permitted to identify 147 species distributed in 117 genera and 52 families. Woody species represent 60% and grass 40%. Fifty percent of the species used belong to seven families: Poaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Combretaceae, Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae, Fabaceae and Anacardiaceae. Ninety-seven species are used in medicines, 47 for crafts, 46 for cattle feeding, 40 for human nutrition and 21 to provide fire. In all plants use categories, the calculation of index values showed that there are species that are used more than others. Thus, Sarcocephalus latifolius is the species most commonly used in medicines, Parkia biglobosa in human nutrition, Afzelia africana in cattle feeding, Vitellaria paradoxa in crafts and Detarium microcarpum in wood fuel. The evaluation of the diversity of use revealed that wood species have high diversity of uses than herbaceous. V. paradoxa is the species most diversely used. The top five most used species are V. paradoxa, P. biglobosa, Khaya senegalensis, Tamarindus indica and A. africana. The results of this study provide a database to assess the availability and the evolutionary trend of species widely used in the locality.

  6. utilisation des eaux usées dans la Gestion de la Demande d'Eau ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Khalil, M. and Ragab, S., 2006. استعمال المياه غير التقليدية في الزراعة وآثاره علي المحاصيل لإدارة ندرة المياه بالبلاد التونسية . In UNESCO (United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization), Efficient Water Demand Management in Arid Regions, 17-21 September 2006, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt. Ce communiqué ...

  7. Instruments de mesure de l’utilisation de produits phytosanitaires dans un contexte de développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steurbaut W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Instruments aimed to measure pesticide use in the framework of sustainable development. Indicators are proposed in order to be able to measure progress towards sustainability in crop protection strategies requiring the use of pesticides. According to the fixed objectives, such indicators can be either simple (figure easily obtainable or more complex (set of figures obtained using more or less complex algorithms. The most simple indicators are indicators of use (tonnage which has been used in a well defined geographic area, number of treatments during a cropping season. While interesting for their simplicity and for their readily availability, those indicators present some drawbacks because they do not allow to take into account trends in the impact of pesticides on man (as a pesticide applicator, as an agricultural worker or as a consumer of treated foodstuffs or on the environment (harmful effects on soil, water, air and on the organisms living therein. The present paper describes a set of indicators related to the usage (Tonnage, Frequency of application, to the soil and water pressure (SEPTWA and to the impact (Seq, SyPEP, POCER, that has been used in Belgium in order to measure some progress towards sustainable development. Examples of application are provided in the framework of Integrated Pest Management. They deal with the choice of active Ingredients, commercial preparations, application modes and treatment schemes that, using such indicators, are identified as safer for man and for the environment.

  8. Mise en évidence d'un agent coagulant utilisable en fromagerie dans les fruits de Balanites aegyptiaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libouga, DG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of a Suitable Cheese Making Milk-clotting Agent from Balanites aegyptiaca Fruits. As slaughtering of zebu (Bos indicus calves in Cameroon is forbidden, calf abomasa are rare on markets so it is diffi cult to prepare rennet. The aim of this study was to look for other sources of milk clotting extracts, especially from Balanites aegyptiaca fruits. B. aegyptiaca is a widespread tree in northern Cameroon. Its fruit is pulpy with a thin and hard epicarp, a dark brown mesocarp and a hard endocarp enclosing an oil seed. The fruits of B. aegyptiaca were harvested at Pitoa (9°23' N, 13°32 E. Milk clotting, determined by the Berridge method, was only obtained with mesocarp extracts. The experimental design of the extraction was a split-plot (5 4 4 with 5 mesocarp concentrations, 4 temperatures and 4 maceration times. Optimum extraction was performed when macerating 50 g mesocarp in 100 ml water at 4 °C during 9 h. Protein content (91 14 mg. ml-1 was determined by bicinchoninic acid assay. Five proteins of respective molecular masses 27, 30, 42, 44 and 90 kg.mole-1 were observed by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. The force of the extract was determined by comparing its milk clotting time to that obtained with rennet. Proteolytic activity of the extract was measured by hydrolysis of bovine haemoglobin and titration of free NH2 using l'ophthaldialdehyde reagent. Counting of coliforms was carried out on DCL gelose, that of the total aerobic mesophil fl ora on PCA and that of the sulfi to-reducing fl ora on TSN. The extract only contained coliforms and aerobic mesophil fl ora. Fresh cheese was made with zebu milk using rennet or B. aegyptiaca mesocarp extract. Indemnes of Specifi que Pathogen Organism mice were fed with these cheeses then with crude B. aegyptiaca mesocarp extract. No abnormality, nor toxicity were observed on mice. A panel was allowed to appreciate these cheeses. Statistical analysis was conducted using SASsoftware. It was concluded that B. aegyptiaca mesocarp extract is suitable for cheese manufacture.

  9. Optimal Use of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Military Medical Setting (Utilisation optimale de loxygnothrapie hyperbare dans le contexte militaire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    cardiac rhythm abnormalities [115]. The central nervous system is particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of CO poisoning. While petechial hemorrhage...low grade fever , bronzing of the skin, bullae formation, obtunded sensation [164]. A.10.1.1 Benefit of HBO There are only a few studies as to the

  10. Properties of low content uranium-molybdenum alloys which may be used as nuclear fuels; Proprietes des alliages uranium-molybdene de faibles teneurs utilisables comme materiaux combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J; Decours, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    sont presentees les caracteristiques metallurgiques des alliages uranium-molybdene de teneurs comprises entre 0,5 et 3 pour cent en poids de molybdene. Certains de ces alliages etant utilises dans les piles de puissance EdF, nous indiquons brievement les conditions de fonctionnement demandees aux materiaux combustibles: temperature maximum, gradient de temperature et pression externe. Dans une premiere partie sont etudiees les proprietes structurales des alliages en correlation avec les cinetiques des transformations de phases, nous decrivons les incidences de differents facteurs physico-metallurgiques sur la morphologie et sur la structure cristalline des materiaux: - conditions de solidification et heredite de la structure {gamma}, - vitesse de refroidissement au passage des points de transformation - suppression ou non de la transformation intermediaire {gamma} {yields} {beta} Dans une seconde partie, nous indiquons comment la connaissance des processus des transformations de phase a permis de definir les conditions d'elaboration optimales de ces materiaux sous forme de tubes de combustibles destines aux reacteurs EdF: conditions de coulee traitement de refroidissement controle, soudabilite. Dans une troisieme partie, nous etudions la stabilite thermique au cours de paliers de longue duree a haute temperature et de cycles, dans les deux domaines du diagramme d'equilibre {alpha} + {gamma}, {beta} + {gamma}; les influences de la morphologie (en particulier des deux types de pseudo-grains {alpha} observes) et de la vitesse de refroidissement lors du passage des points de transformation sont discutees. Dans une quatrieme partie, les proprietes mecaniques sont discutees resistance a la traction, resistance au fluage, resilience. Ces proprietes peuvent etre egalement influencees par l'heredite de la structure {gamma} et par la vitesse de refroidissement subie par l'alliage. En conclusion, nous developpons les raisons qui ont motive le choix de certains de ces alliages

  11. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kasahara, K.; Hidaka, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    1990-02-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutrino fluxes of atmospheric origin is made taking into account the muon polarization effect on neutrinos from muon decay. We calculate the fluxes with energies above 3 MeV for future experiments. There still remains a significant discrepancy between the calculated (ν e +antiν e )/(ν μ +antiν μ ) ratio and that observed by the Kamiokande group. However, the ratio evaluated at the Frejus site shows a good agreement with the data. (author)

  12. ENERGI DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energi dapat berubah dari satu bentuk ke bentuk yang  lainnya, perubahannya sering mempengaruhi lingkungan dan udara yang kita hirup dengan berbagai cara. Energy kimia dalam bahan bakar fosil diubah menjadi energy panas, mekanik, atau listrik melalui pembakaran dan  ini sebagai penghasil polutan terbesar. Dan dengan demikian pembangkit listrik, kendaraan bermotor, dan kompor adalah penyebab utama terjadinya polusi udara.  Polutan yang dikeluarkan biasanya dikelompokan menjadi  hidrokarbon (HC, nitrogen oksida (NOx, dan  karbon monoksida (CO. Polutan yang dihasilkan pada pembakaran fosil merupakan faktor terbesar terjadinya asap, hujan asam,  pemanasan global dan perubahan iklim.   The conversion of energy from one form to another often affects the environment and the air we breath in many ways. Pollutants are emitted as the chemical energy in fossil fuels is converten to thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy via combustion, and thus power plants, motor vehicles, and even stoves take the blame for air pollution, and  the pollutants released by the vehicles are usually grouped as hydrocarbons (HC, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon monoxide (CO. Pollutans emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels are responsible for smog, acid rain, and global warming and climate change.

  13. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Ralstonia syzygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Danaatmadja

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia syzygii is one of important pathogens of cloves. This study was aimed at obtaining pure culture of R. syzygi from diseased plant tissue samples. The acterium was isolated from infected clove plantations in Ungaran, Central Java. It had the ability to make clove seedlings show symptoms and then die 41 days after inoculation. The reisolated bacterium also showed its ability to kill clove seedlings after 17 days. The bacterium is gram negative, able to ultilize glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannitol, sorbitol, dulcitol, and glycerol, able to hydrolyze starch, grow well at 27oC, able to catalyze and release water and oxygen from hydrogen peroxyde (H2O2 and aerobically.   Ralstonia syzygii merupakan salah satu patogen penting pada tanaman cengkeh. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapakan isolat murni R syzygii dari jaringan tanaman terinfeksi. Bakteri diisolasi dari pertanaman cengkeh sakit yang berasal dari daerah Ungaran, Jawa Tengah. Bakteri menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menyebabkan bibit tanaman cangkeh sakit dan kemudian mati 41 hsi. Bakteri hasil reisolasi juga menunjukkan kemampuannya menyebabkan sakit dan kematian pada bibit tanaman cengkeh setelah 17 hsi. Bakteri yang diperoleh bersifat gram negatif, mampu memanfaatkan glukosa, sukrosa, maltosa, manitol, sorbitol, dulsitol, dan gliserol, mampu menghidrolisis pati, tumbuh baik pada suhu 27o C, mampu mengkatalisis dan melepaskan air dan oksigen dari hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 dan bersifat aerob.

  14. Developments in the utilisation of wind energy in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Glinou, G.L.; Papachristos, D.

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of renewable energy sources, and wind energy in particular, can be described in Greece as a story of high expectations, intense initial entrepreneurial interest, delays in the start-up phase of projects and, some times, disappointments during the implementation procedure. Still, the current situation gives reasons for some optimism. This paper provides a review of the present technological background in wind generators, as found in the Greek market, as well as a detailed analysis of the legislative framework. Moreover, it aims to analyse the development of the process of granting investment and production permissions and their implementation since 1999. Thus, it is possible to identify the main reasons for the problems that occurred since the liberalisation of the electricity market and to account for the interest in wind energy. Finally, comments and proposals are formulated concerning the hidden barriers, the pertinent problems and the promising perspectives of the use of wind energy in Greece. (author)

  15. Hospital Resource Utilisation by Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, S

    2017-09-01

    Little data is available on the resource utilisation of patients admitted with Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Ireland. A retrospective review of 50 randomly-selected patients admitted to Beaumont Hospital with CAP was undertaken. The mean length of stay of patients with CAP was 12 days (+\\/- 16 days). All patients were emergency admissions, all had a chest x-ray, a C-reactive protein blood test, and occupied a public bed at some point during admission. Common antimicrobial therapies were intravenous (IV) amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid and oral clarithromycin; 60% received physiotherapy. The estimated mean cost of CAP per patient was €14,802.17. Costs arising from admission to hospital with CAP are substantial, but efforts can be undertaken to ensure that resources are used efficiently to improve patient care such as discharge planning and fewer in-hospital ward transfers

  16. Current and potential utilisation of biomass energy in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.

    1990-01-01

    Energy from biomass accounts for an average of 43% of the primary energy used in developing countries, with some countries totally dependent on biomass for all their energy needs. The most common use for biomass for energy is the provision of heat for cooking and heating; other uses include steam and electricity generation and crop and food drying. Fiji, a developing country, uses energy from wood and coconut wastes for cooking and copra drying. Bagasse from sugar mills is used to generate process steam as well as some 15 MW of electricity, for mill consumption and for sale to the national grid. Other, relatively small scale uses for biomass include the generation of steam and electricity for industry. This paper attempts to quantify the amount of biomass, in its various forms, available in Fiji and assesses the current potential utilisation of biomass for energy in Fiji. (author)

  17. Obstetrics service utilisation by the community in Lebowa, northern Transvaal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyirwoth, G P; Itsweng, M D; Mpai, S; Nchabeleng, E; Nkoane, H

    1996-02-01

    A cross sectional cluster survey was done in all health wards of Lebowa in May 1992. The study was based on a recall of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal experience during the last pregnancy of 2940 mothers. Only mothers who delivered within 12 months before the date of interview were included. Antenatal coverage was high at 93.5%, the proportion of health facility deliveries was 74.6% while 26.3% of all births occurred at home. Inaccessibility of maternity services, lack of money, negative staff attitudes and lack of privacy were the common reasons given for preference of home delivery. Mothers who delivered at home were more likely to be of higher parity and unbooked than their counterparts who delivered in a health facility. Postnatal coverage was 50.7% with a 25.4% rate of utilisation of a method of childspacing. The proportion of births attended to by trained personnel needs to be increased.

  18. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  19. Montelukast use-a 19-year nationwide drug utilisation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Laursen, Christian B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used in asthma and rhinitis treatment. Despite being marketed nearly two decades ago, little is known about its utilisation pattern. METHODS: Using the Danish National Prescription Registry, we identified subjects filling a montelukast...... montelukast initiators, 60% filled at least one prescription of short-acting beta-2-agonists (SABA) up to a year prior to montelukast initiation, and 49% filled a prescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Only 0.8% (n = 1148) of all individuals initiated montelukast without a redeemed prescription...... of short- or long-term inhalation therapy, systemic antihistamines, or nasal topical anti-allergic treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The usage of montelukast has increased over threefold since its market entry in 1998, mainly driven by an increased number of prevalent users. The majority of individuals who initiated...

  20. Sewage sludge treatment, utilisation and disposal; Schlammbehandlung, -verwertung und -beseitigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In view of recent events and the resulting emotional and political decisions, the issue of sewage sludge treatment and disposal in Germany. must be seen in a new light. First, a new concept for sewage sludge management must be developed as recent legislation interferes with the 'classic' strategy of utilisation in agriculture, dumping and combustion. Scientists and sewage plant owners must find new ways to implement the specifications of the Act on Recycling and Waste Management. This ATV-DVWK training course discusses subjects that may be helpful on the new path. Starting from current legislation, problems, decision criteria and cost of sewage sludge treatment are gone into. Dimensioning fundamentals for sewage treatment plants re presented, and new and established treatment methods, operational problems and pollution problems are discussed. Further subjects are recycling of useful materials from sewage sludge, co-treatment of organic materials in fermenters, and disposal concepts for small and medium-sized communities. (orig.)

  1. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  2. Geothermal energy utilisation in Slowakia and its future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorová Marína

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Owing to favourable geological conditions Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The government of the state sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas, agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing and heating of houses. Effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and hot water supply from geothermal sources are supported. Recently company Slovgeoterm has initiated heating of greenhouses in Podhajska and heating of hospital and 1231 flats in town Galanta. Nowadays, research for the biggest geothermal project in the Middle Europe – construction in Košice basin has started.

  3. High efficiency pool filtering systems utilising variable frequency drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameiri, Z.; Sproul, A.B. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Spooner, T. [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    Over 1 year, private swimming pools in Australia will typically consume 1680 GWh of electricity, producing 2130 kt of CO{sub 2}. Redesigning a pool's filtration system and using it more efficiently can reduce the energy use, and hence the CO{sub 2} production, by a significant amount. This paper describes experimental measurements carried out on a new design of pool pump system. Initial experiments using a variable frequency drive (VFD) with a standard, single phase pump/motor system have achieved energy savings of 40%. Utilising a VFD and a three phase pump/motor energy savings of 61% have been achieved, without degrading the system performance. (author)

  4. L’utilisation du prémélange de monensin chez les vaches laitières : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s’assurer d’une utilisation adéquate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation. PMID:19721781

  5. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  6. Trends in metformin utilisation and dose appropriateness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, J; Kumar, S S; Graham, G G; Baysari, M T; Williams, K M; Chen, W; Viardot, A; Greenfield, J R; Day, R O

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to (1) determine the trends in the utilisation of metformin in Australia, (2) determine the appropriateness of metformin dosing in an Australian teaching hospital and (3) gather the opinions of prescribers on the relationship between metformin dose and renal function. National prescription data between 1990 and 2012 were accessed. A retrospective audit (2008-2012) of metformin doses and patient renal function (20 % random sample of all in-patients prescribed metformin) was conducted at St Vincent's Hospital (SVH), Sydney. Prescribers of metformin were interviewed (semi-structured; consultants at SVH) or surveyed (Australian endocrinologists) to gather their understanding of metformin dosing in relation to renal function. Metformin utilisation increased fivefold nationally between 1995 and 2012. Metformin tended to be under-dosed in SVH patients with normal renal function (83.5 %) and over-dosed in patients with impaired renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) metformin doses needed to be reduced in renal impairment. Most endocrinologists (61 %) were comfortable prescribing metformin down to eGFRs around 30 mL/min. The use of metformin increased greatly over the period of the study. Metformin is prescribed frequently for patients with eGFR values below the minimal level approved in the product label (60 mL/min). While prescribers expressed their understanding of the need to reduce metformin doses in patients with renal impairment, we found that metformin doses were higher than appropriate in patients with impaired renal function. Metformin may be used safely when renal function is poor provided dosage is appropriately reduced.

  7. La santé dans les Caraïbes Contrer l'obésité par la diversité des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    à Saint-Kitts-et-Nevis en raison de la détérioration qui se produit sur les exploitations agricoles, de l'exposition à la lumière solaire, des températures élevées et de la manipulation inappropriée dans les commerces de détail ? • des techniques simples comme l'utilisation de pellicule de plastique peuvent tripler la durée de.

  8. Amélioration de la santé des mères et des enfants dans les régions ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    importants défis et possibilités à l'échelon des États influencent les efforts déployés pour réduire les décès. Ce projet appuiera les efforts déployés par le gouvernement dans l'État du Delta pour améliorer la prestation et l'utilisation des services de ...

  9. Evolution des acides aminés libres dans le moût de raisin sous l'action des levures de fleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. POLO

    1974-03-01

    La plus grande partie des travaux qui existent dans la bibliographie sur la teneur en acides aminés du raisin pendant l'évolution de la maturation ainsi que sur les teneurs des moûts et des vins de différents pays, ont été réalisés par chromatographie sur papier ou en utilisant des méthodes microbiologiques ou colorimétriques.

  10. Relationship between the utilisation profile of individual joints and their susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two subjects were studied for 1 to 3 weeks during the course of their normal domestic activities. Utilisation profiles were derived for ten joints, using a systematic time-series sampling technique adapted from behavioural biology. At each joint the proportion of the available range utilised was noted. The results were compared with the known regional prevalence of primary osteoarthritis. There was a correlation between the degree to which a joint was incompletely utilised, and its susceptibility to osteoarthritis. The hypothesis is advanced that primary osteoarthritis may be due to incomplete joint utilisation. (orig.)

  11. The Social Acceptance of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: A Review and Research Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Olfe-Kräutlein, Barbara; Naims, Henriette; Armstrong, Katy

    2017-01-01

    CO 2 utilisation technologies—also called carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU)—convert CO 2 via physical, chemical, or biological processes into carbon-based products. CO 2 utilisation technologies are viewed as a means of helping to address climate change and broadening the raw material base for commodities that can be sold to generate economic revenue. However, while technical research and development into the feasibility of CO 2 utilisation options are accelerating rapidly; at present, there has been limited research into the social acceptance of the technology and CO 2 -derived products. This review article outlines and explores three key dimensions of social acceptance (i.e., socio-political, market, and community acceptance) pertaining to innovation within CO 2 utilisation. The article highlights the importance of considering issues of social acceptance as an aspect of the research, development, demonstration, and deployment process for CO 2 utilisation and explores how key stakeholders operating on each dimension might affect the innovation pathways, investment, and siting decisions relating to CO 2 utilisation facilities and CO 2 -derived products. Beyond providing a state-of-the-art review of current research into the social acceptance of CO 2 utilisation, this article also outlines an agenda for future research in the field.

  12. The Social Acceptance of Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: A Review and Research Agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Christopher R., E-mail: c.r.jones@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDUUK), University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Environment and Behaviour Research Group (EBRG), Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Olfe-Kräutlein, Barbara; Naims, Henriette [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany); Armstrong, Katy [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation (CDUUK), University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-09

    CO{sub 2} utilisation technologies—also called carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU)—convert CO{sub 2}via physical, chemical, or biological processes into carbon-based products. CO{sub 2} utilisation technologies are viewed as a means of helping to address climate change and broadening the raw material base for commodities that can be sold to generate economic revenue. However, while technical research and development into the feasibility of CO{sub 2} utilisation options are accelerating rapidly; at present, there has been limited research into the social acceptance of the technology and CO{sub 2}-derived products. This review article outlines and explores three key dimensions of social acceptance (i.e., socio-political, market, and community acceptance) pertaining to innovation within CO{sub 2} utilisation. The article highlights the importance of considering issues of social acceptance as an aspect of the research, development, demonstration, and deployment process for CO{sub 2} utilisation and explores how key stakeholders operating on each dimension might affect the innovation pathways, investment, and siting decisions relating to CO{sub 2} utilisation facilities and CO{sub 2}-derived products. Beyond providing a state-of-the-art review of current research into the social acceptance of CO{sub 2} utilisation, this article also outlines an agenda for future research in the field.

  13. L'objectivation et la perfection des femmes dans la publicité. La perception des consommateurs vis-à-vis des femmes représentées dans des campagnes publicitaires et ses effets sur la marque et sur eux-mêmes.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dessel, Sophie; Loir, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Depuis son apparition, la publicité contribue consciemment ou inconsciemment au changement de perception du corps de la femme. Dans la société occidentale, utiliser le corps de la femme pour inciter à l’achat d’un produit est une pratique commune dans le marketing. Un ensemble d’effets en tous genres sont à observer sur la perception des consommateurs à propos du produit et sur la marque, sur leur perception vis-à-vis des mannequins et des femmes en général et finalement sur la perception qu’...

  14. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  15. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  16. Flux vacua and supermanifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio [CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Marescotti, Matteo [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, I-10125, Turin (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several super-extensions and we give a parameterization in a simple case of d bosonic coordinates and two fermionic coordinates. In addition, we comment on the role of the RR field in the construction of the super-metric. We give several examples based on supergroup manifolds and coset supermanifolds.

  17. Flux vacua and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Marescotti, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several super-extensions and we give a parameterization in a simple case of d bosonic coordinates and two fermionic coordinates. In addition, we comment on the role of the RR field in the construction of the super-metric. We give several examples based on supergroup manifolds and coset supermanifolds

  18. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  19. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  20. Évolution de la normalisation dans le domaine des oléagineux et des corps gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinsac Alain

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La normalisation joue un grand rôle dans les échanges économiques en participant à l’ouverture et à la transparence des marchés. La filière des Oléagineux et des Corps Gras a intégré depuis longtemps la normalisation dans sa stratégie. Élaborés à partir des besoins de la profession et notamment au niveau de la relation client-fournisseur, les programmes ont concerné principalement l’échantillonnage et l’analyse. Depuis quelques années, une forte évolution du contexte socio-économique et réglementaire (utilisation non-alimentaire, sécurité alimentaire, assurance qualité, a élargi le champ de la normalisation. La démarche normative adoptée dans le cas des bio-diesels et de la détection des OGM dans les oléagineux est expliquée. Les conséquences de l’évolution de la normalisation et les enjeux pour la profession des oléagineux dans le futur sont évoqués.

  1. Utilisation des mousses et des pâtes syntactiques pour combler les lacunes des poteries archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bechoux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Filling potteries missing parts with plaster raises now complex problems during the de-restoration treatments. Ceramics restorers have recurrently questions on the use of plaster in the field of archaeological ceramics restoration. Some researches point to the choice of other filling materials. At the present time other methods can be devised by proposing plaster replacement by a lightened composite material: syntactic foams and pastes.Le comblement des lacunes des poteries à partir du plâtre pose actuellement des problèmes complexes lors des traitements de dérestauration. Les restaurateurs de céramiques s'interrogent de manière récurrente sur l'utilisation du plâtre dans le domaine de la restauration des céramiques archéologiques. Des recherches s'orientent vers le choix d'autres matériaux d'obturation. Actuellement, d'autres méthodes peuvent être mises en place en proposant le remplacement du plâtre par un matériau composite allégé, les mousses et les pâtes syntactiques.

  2. Penskalaan Butir Format Respons Pilihan dan Respons Bebas Berdasarkan Model Rasch dan Partial Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Hariadi

    2007-01-01

    Penelitian melihat pengaruh jumlah parameter butir, kategori respons bebas (RB), pengaruh sampel terhadap akurasi estimasi parameter kemampuan untuk menghasilkan estimasi yang stabil dan pengaruh pembobotan butir RP dan butir RB terhadap kesalahan baku. Penelitian dalam dua tahap, simulasi menggunakan 30 kondisi dengan replikasi 50 dengan variabel panjang tes, jumlah kategori, dan jumlah parameter butir, dan analisis deskriptif, dilanjutkan penerapan penskalaan gabungan butir tipe res...

  3. Metode Sederhana dan Efektif untuk Penghitungan dan Visualisasi Tiga Dimensi (3D) Biofilm Vibriio Cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Andi; Fadjar, Mohamad; Sukoso, Sukoso; Prihanto, Asep Awaludin

    2015-01-01

    Mikroorganisme yang mampu menghasilkan biofim menimbulkan masalah yang serius dalam bidang kesehatan dan pangan. Penelitian biofim bagi sebagian peneliti sangat identik dengan kerumitan proses penghitungan dan visualisasi penutupan permukaan substrat penempelan bakteri. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui efiiensi metode alternatif untuk menghitung dan memvisualisasikan biofimVibrio cholera. Pada penelitian ini beberapa faktor lingkungan seperti pH, suhu, dan kondisi kultur diujicobakan...

  4. Reactor AQUILON. The hardening of neutron spectrum in natural uranium rods, with a computation of epithermal fissions (1961); Pile AQUILON. Durcissement du spectre des neutrons dans les barreaux d'uranium et calcul des fissions epithermiques (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand -Smet, R; Lourme, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    - Microscopic flux measurements in reactor Aquilon have allowed to investigate the thermal and epithermal flux distribution in natural uranium rods, then to obtain the neutron spectrum variations in uranium, Wescott '{beta}' term of the average spectrum in the rod, and the ratio of epithermal to therma fissions. A new definition for the infinite multiplication factor is proposed in annex, which takes into account epithermal parameters. (authors) [French] - Un certain nombre de mesures effectuees dans la pile Aquilon ont permis d'etablir la distribution fine des flux thermique et epithermique dans les barreaux d'uranium, et d'en deduire les variations du spectre des neutrons dans l'uranium, le terme {beta} du spectre de Wescott moyen dans le barreau et le nombre de fissions epithermiques. En annexe, il est propose une definition nouvelle du coefficient de multiplication infini, qui fait intervenir les parametres epithermiques. (auteurs)

  5. Progrès apportés par l'utilisation des zéolithes en cracking catalytique Advances Resulting from Using Zeolites in Catalytic Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilly Ch.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour but d'exposer les progrès intervenus dans le cracking catalytique depuis l'utilisation des tamis moléculaires. II présente les nouveaux catalyseurs, compare leurs propriétés et leurs performances à celles des catalyseurs traditionnels et décrit les modifications et les progrès technologiques qu'ont entraînés l'utilisation des zéolithes. II se limite au cracking catalytique en lit fluide (FCC qui est le type de mise en oeuvre de loin le plus exploité. The aim of this article is to describe advances made in catalytic cracking since molecular sieves began being used. New catalyts are described, their properties and performances are compared with those of traditional catalysts, and the changes and technological advances resulting from the use of zeolites are explained. The article is limited to fluid catalytic cracking IFCCI which is by far the most widely used procedure.

  6. Biofuels and climate neutrality - system analysis of production and utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Eriksson, Erik; Olsson, Olle; Olsson, Mats; Hillring, Bengt; Parikka, Matti

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate to what extent biofuels can be said to be climate neutral. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the production and utilisation chains of a number of solid biofuels were made based on data available in the literature. The data has been used for making radiative forcing calculations. The study also includes a comparison between imported and domestic solid biofuels. We conclude that none of the investigated biofuel chains are 'climate neutral', since all of them result in net emissions of greenhouse gases. However, all of the chains result in lower emissions than corresponding emissions from the use of fossil fuels. The emission estimates for the fuel chains varies depending on fuels and on how system boundaries have been set in the different studies. The following factors can contribute significantly to the total emissions of greenhouse gases of the production and utilisation chain of a biofuel: impact of production system on soil carbon storage, land use methods (especially use of drained peatlands), the use of fertilisers (both direct and indirect), combustion technology, refining of the fuel (i.e. pelletisation) and storage (especially of comminuted fuels). Other sources that also contribute to the emissions during a production and utilisation chain are; harvesting machines, transportation and waste handling. The climate impacts of the greenhouse gas emissions from one of the biofuels, i.e. forest residues, were compared to the impacts of fossil fuels by the concept of radiative forcing. In the radiative forcing calculations the CO 2 emissions from combustion of biofuels and the CO 2 emissions that would have occurred if the residues had been left in the forest to decompose were included, and their different dynamics taken into consideration. The decomposition results in CO 2 emissions during a long time period and in an amount equalling those that are emitted during combustion. Only a minor part is due to

  7. Purwarupa Sistem Integrasi Quadcopter dan Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmawan, Andi; Lusiarta Putera, Christian Antonia

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakQuadcopter, juga dikenal sebagai quadrotor, adalah helikopter dengan empat motor yang dilengkapi dengan  empat buah propeller pada masing-masing motornya yang digunakan untuk terbang dan bermanuver. Pada quadcopter terdapat 3 variabel sudut yang menjadi element utama dalam pengendaliannya yaitu roll, pitch, dan yaw yang diperoleh dari penggabungan sensor accelerometer, gyroscope dan magnetometer dengan metode Direction Cosine Matrix. Pada sistem integrasi mobile robot dan quadcopter, d...

  8. Review Dendrimer : Definisi, Sintesis, Aplikasi Dan Prospektif

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi, Dwinna

    2013-01-01

    Dendrimer merupakan makrostruktur monodisperse dengan banyak cabang yang homogen dan degree of branching (DB) 100%. Dua cara sintesis dendrimer yaitu convergent dan divergent dilakukan. Convergent dilakukan dengan reaksi kovalen antara dua dan lebih monomer. Divergent dimulai dengan pembentukan inti dilanjutkan dengan pembentukan cabang yang merupakan group fungsional yang aktif. Sejauh ini dendrimer sudah banyak diterapkan pada bidang farmasi yaitu drug delivery dan non farmasi pada proses i...

  9. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Enkripsi dan Dekripsi Email Dengan Menggunakan Algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard Dan Knapsack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy John Pattiasina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan Knapsack adalah dua algoritma enkripsi simetris dan asimetris yang paling sering digunakan. Penelitian ini menganalisa kedua algoritma AES dan algoritma Knapsack. Prototipe aplikasi enkripsi email ini dirancang dengan menggabungkan karateristik algoritma AES dan Knapsack untuk memecahkan masalah keamanan email. Algoritma AES digunakan untuk mengenkripsi dan deskripsi email berupa teks atau file, sedangkan Algoritma Knapsack di gunakan untuk mengenkripsi kunci AES. Enkripsi hybrid yang diterapkan pada aplikasi bertujuan untuk menambah keamanan informasi dalam sebuah jaringan.

  10. Effets Seebeck et Nernst dans les cuprates: Etude de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi sous champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte, Francis

    2010-06-01

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de transport thermoelectrique, les effets Seebeck et Nernst, dans une serie d'echantillons de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Des resultats obtenus recemment au Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses a Grenoble sur La1.7Eu0.2Sr0.1 CuO4, La1.675Eu0.2Sr0.125CuO 4, La1.64Eu0.2Sr0.16CuO4, La1.74Eu0.1Sr0.16CuO4 et La 1.4Nd0.4Sr0.2CuO4 sont analyses. Une attention particuliere est accordee aux equations de la theorie semi-classique du transport et leur validite est verifiee. La procedure experimentale et les materiaux utilises pour concevoir les montages de mesures sont expliques en detail. Enfin, un chapitre est dedie a l'explication et l'interpretation des resultats de transport thermoelectrique sur YBa2Cu3O6+delta publies au cours de l'hiver 2010 dans les revues Nature et Physical Review Letters. Les donnees d'effet Seebeck dans les echantillons de La 1.8-x,Eu0.2SrxCuO 4, ou un changement de signe est observe, permettent de conclure a la presence d'une poche d'electrons dans la surface de Fermi qui domine le transport a basse temperature dans la region sous-dopee du diagramme de phase. Cette conclusion est similaire a celle obtenue par des mesures d'effet Hall dans YBa 2Cu3O6+delta et elle cadre bien dans un scenario de reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. Les donnees d'effet Nernst recueillies indiquent que la contribution des fluctuations supraconductrices est limitee a un modeste intervalle de temperature au-dessus de la temperature critique.

  11. KORELASI ANTARA ISLAM DAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Zainal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CORELATION BETWEEN ISLAM AND ECONOMY. This paper aims to identifies about the correlation between economic and Islam. Islam is the perfect religion that governs all things in life, including the economy. This is evident with the concept of  well-being which is described in the al-Quran and Sunnah. Basically the goal of every human life is to prosper, although humans make sense of  well- being with a different perspective. Most understand economics assume that welfare is the welfare of  earthly material. But to make sense of well-being with the term al-Falah, is meaning holistic wellbeing and balance between material and spiritual dimensions. al-Quran and Sunnah have taught that the human being will be achieved if  living in balance between material and spiritual. This is because human life does not just stop in the life of this world, but there is still a second life that will be faced by humanity in the hereafter, and well-being will be achieved with the truth is that people can balance the needs of the world and the hereafter, and that is what is taught in Islamic economics. Keywords: Islam, Economy, Prosperity. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelasakn tentang korelasi antara ekonomi  dan  Islam.  Islam  adalah  agama  yang  sempurna  yang mengatur segala hal dalam kehidupan ini, termasuk juga ekonomi. Hal ini terbukti dengan konsep kesejahteraan yang dipaparkan dalam al-Quran dan Sunnah. Pada dasarnya tujuan hidup setiap manusia adalah untuk mencapai kesejahteraan, meskipun manusia memaknai kesejahteraan dengan perspektif  yang berbeda-beda. Sebagian besar paham ekonomi menganggap bahwa kesejahteraan adalah kesejahteraan material duniawi. Namun Islam memaknai kesejahteraan dengan istilah  Falah  yang  berarti  kesejahteraan  holistik  dan  seimbang antara dimensi material dan spiritual. Al-Quran dan Sunnah telah mengajarkan bahwa kesejahteraan akan tercapai jika manusia menjalani hidup secara seimbang antara material dan

  12. Karakteristik Dan Spektrum Manajemen Pendidikan Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Jannah, Siti Raudhatul

    2013-01-01

    Artikel ini mendiskusikan mengenai manajemen pendidikan Islam, karakteristik, dan spektrumnya. Karakteristik manajemen pendidikan Islam harus didasarkan pada al-Qur'an dan Hadits serta pemikiran rasional yang telah diuji validitasnya. Spektrum manajemen pendidikan Islam meliputi lingkup manajemen personalia pendidikan Islam, manajemen peserta didik pendidikan Islam, maanjemen kurikulum pendidikan Islam, manajemen keuangan pendidikan Islam, manajemen sarana dan prasarana pendidikan Islam, mana...

  13. PRODUKSI NANOFIBER DAN APLIKASINYA DALAM PENGOLAHAN AIR

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnandika, Vania Elita

    2017-01-01

    Abstrak Kebutuhan air meningkat seiring meningkatnya jumlah penduduk dan taraf kehidupan masyarakat. Pembangunan yang dilakukan secara terus-menerus dan sangat cepat di Indonesia mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas air permukaan. Teknologi membran merupakan salah satu teknologi pengolahan air yang menghasilkan produk dengan kualitas tinggi. Membran berstruktur nano, khususnya nanofiber, saat ini menjadi perhatian karena menjawab kebutuhan teknologi filtrasi yang efektif dan hemat biaya. Pr...

  14. Design of a flux buffer based on the flux shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the design considerations for a flux buffer based on the flux-shuttle concept. Particular attention is given to the issues of flux popping, stability of operation and saturation levels for a large input. Modulation techniques used in order to minimize 1/f noise, in addition to offsets are also analyzed. Advantages over conventional approaches using a SQUID for a flux buffer are discussed. Results of computer simulations are presented

  15. DETEKSI DAN MANAJEMEN REFEEDING SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakRefeeding syndrome (RFS dideskripsikan sebagai perubahan biokimiawi, manifestasi klinis dan komplikasi sebagai konsekuensi pemberian nutrisi pada pasien kurang gizi. Refeeding syndrome ini menyebabkan dampak buruk dan kematian. Sindroma ini lebih sering terjadi pada kelompok risiko. Refeeding syndrome merupakan suatu sindroma yang sering tak terdiagnosis oleh karena itu perlu peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran dari tenaga medis untuk mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas dari RFS. Karena alasan tersebut ditulis tinjauan pustaka ini yang akan membahas mengenai patofisiologi, faktor risiko, manifestasi klinis, dan manajemennya.Kata kunci : refeeding syndrome, kurang gizi, hipofosfatemia, dukungan nutrisiAbstractRefeeding syndrome (RFS describel as biochemical changes, clinical manifestations, and complications that can occur as a consequence of feeding a malnourished individual. RFS can result in serious harm and death. RFS more commonly occurs in at-risk populations. Increased awareness amongst healthcare professionals is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality. This review examines the pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management of RFS.Key word : refeeding syndrome, malnourished, hypophosphatemia, nutritional support

  16. Possiblités de mesure quantitative avec un appareillage de réflectométrie X utilisant le mode angulaire dispersif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihab, J.; Naudon, A.

    1992-12-01

    A normalization procedure for reflectivity curves obtained with a new apparatus using the angle-resolved dispersive mode (J. Appl. Cryst., 1989) is described here. Simulation of spectra with the optical theory of X-rays is then possible. It allows to determine with a good accuracy the density, thickness and interfacial rugosities of layers when their thicknesses are less than about 200 nm. In order to check the normalization procedure a bulk silicon sample and a layer of evaporated nickel are analysed. Dans cet article nous présentons une procédure pour la normalisation des courbes de réflectivité obtenues par un nouvel appareillage de réflectométrie X utilisant le mode angulaire dispersif (J. Appl. Cryst., 1989). La simulation de ces courbes, dans le cadre de la théorie optique, devient alors possible. Pour les dépôts d'épaisseur inférieure à environ 200 nm, elle permet de déterminer précisément l'épaisseur, les rugosités interfaciales et la compacité. Afin de vérifier la validité de notre procédure de normalisation, nous analysons à titre d'exemples le cas d'un échantillon massif de silicium, et celui d'une couche mince de nickel évaporée sur un support en silicium.

  17. Islam, Media, dan Politik : Sebuah Perdebatan dan Kontempelasi Nilai Berdemokrasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infact, press or media is one of pilar democracy. Media in democracy is a public sphere to communi-cation and makes relation, and a same time as public arena to gain information. But, media also could not release from streotypes and tendency that usually bring of interest, either the owner or ideology. It is meaning media can not released from perspective distorsion, values bias and take a side. Media also effective to become propaganda instrument for a political interest and an ideology. It is seen like how media in US, for example, stereotype of Islam in discourses contradiction and glob-al interest opposition. Then, Islam dominantly identified as doctrine teaches radicalism, fundamen-talism and terorism. Thus, it is often be justification for US to operate the military mission in the name of democracy. Tak dipungkiri pers atau media menjadi salah satu pilar bagi demokrasi. Media dalam demokrasi adalah sebagai ruang bagi publik berkomunikasi dan berinteraksi, sekaligus sarana publik mem-peroleh informasi tentang banyak hal. Namun, media juga tak bisa dilepaskan dari stereotip dan kecenderungan-kecenderungan, yang biasanya membawa kepentingan, baik pemilik maupun ide-ologi. Media karenanya tak lepas dari distorsi perspektif, bias nilai dan berpihak. Media juga efektif menjadi alat propaganda bagi sebuah kepentingan politik dan ideologi, seperti bagaimana media di negara Amerika, misalnya, menstereotipkan Islam dalam analisis pertentangan wacana dan kepent-ingan global. Sehingga, dominan Islam diidentikkan dengan sematan sebagai ajaran yang mengajarkan radikalisme, fundamentalisme dan terorisme. Karenanya pula seringkali menjadi alasan pembenar bagi Amerika untuk menjalankan misi militer atas nama demokrasi.

  18. Lobotomy of flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibitetto, Giuseppe [Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, University of Uppsala,Box 803, SE-751 08 Uppsala (Sweden); Guarino, Adolfo [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Roest, Diederik [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    We provide the dictionary between four-dimensional gauged supergravity and type II compactifications on T{sup 6} with metric and gauge fluxes in the absence of supersymmetry breaking sources, such as branes and orientifold planes. Secondly, we prove that there is a unique isotropic compactification allowing for critical points. It corresponds to a type IIA background given by a product of two 3-tori with SO(3) twists and results in a unique theory (gauging) with a non-semisimple gauge algebra. Besides the known four AdS solutions surviving the orientifold projection to N=4 induced by O6-planes, this theory contains a novel AdS solution that requires non-trivial orientifold-odd fluxes, hence being a genuine critical point of the N=8 theory.

  19. Musisi Sekuler dan Gerejawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Cristovel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Menjadi seorang musisi tidak sekedar bermain musik atau menyanyi saja. Ada jenjang-jenjang yang akan dilewatidalam dunia musik, yang pada akhirnya setiap musisi dihadapkan kepada tanggung jawab dalam dunia tersebut. Di jaman ini, jika jenjang seorang musisi sudah tahap profesional, maka musik dan bisnis merupakan hal yang tidak terpisahkan. Jadi tidak heran jika ada banyak orang yang memimpikan untuk berkarier dalam bidang musik, bahkan telah men1adicita-cita sejak kecil.Jadi penting bagi musisi gerejawi benar-benar "mengkotakkan dirinya" terhadap persepsi yang dianut oleh musisi sekuler, bukan mencampurkannya. Hal ini sangat esensial, karena musisi gerejawi bukan melayani manusia melainkan oleh anugerah Tuhan dipercayakan pekerjaan ini. Dengan demikian pelayanan sebagai musisi gerejawi tidak tercemar oleh persepsi dari dunia musik sekuler. Selain itu musisi gerejawi dapat merefleksikan Tuhan yang disembahnya kepada dunia sekuler, karena tujuan dari semua yang dilakukannya adalah untuk kemuliaan nama Tuhan.

  20. Fuel slugs considered for use in the high flux reactor EL3; Elements combustibles envisages pour la pile a haut flux EL 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J A; Caillat, R; Gauthron, M; Montagne, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    EL3 was designed essentially for the study, under irradiation conditions, of materials used in the construction of atomic reactors. The study schedule allocates considerable time and effort to new types of fuel slugs. The present report described the various types of slug being tested or scheduled for tests. After laboratory study, each slug is tested in an experimental cell in the pile. The best are retained and used to charge the reactor (the present charge is purely provisional to permit first criticality and power rise tests)ren. [French] La pile EL3 est essentiellement destinee a l'etude sous irradiation des materiaux utilises dans la construction des reacteurs atomiques. Dans ce programme, une tres large part est reservee a l'etude de nouveaux elements combustibles. Le present rapport decrit les differentes solutions de cartouches dont l'essai est envisage ou en cours. Apres etude en laboratoire, chacune de ces solutions est testee dans une cellule experimentale en pile. Les meilleures seront retenues pour constituer le chargement normal de la pile (le chargement actuel etant essentiellement une solution provisoire qui a permis la divergence de la pile et les premiers essais de montee en puissance). (auteur)

  1. The use and evolution of the CEA research reactors; Utilisation et evolution des reacteurs de recherche du C.E.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossillon, F; Chauvez, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    reacteurs en montrant ce qu'a ete jusqu'a present leur utilisation, et comment certaines modifications ont permis de les adapter a l'evolution des programmes. Ils precisent egalement les raisons qui ont conduit a l'elaboration du projet de la nouvelle pile OSIRIS, La pile ZOE, la plus ancienne du CEA, est en service au Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses depuis 1948. Elle est principalement utilisee pour les mesures de section efficace d'absorption du graphite, et pour diverses irradiations de courte duree ne necessitant que des flux peu eleves. La Pile EL2, en service depuis 1952, a permis les premieres etudes liees au refroidissement par gaz. Elle a ete tres utilisee pour la production des radioisotopes et pour de nombreuses experiences de physique, de metallurgie et de physico-chimie - le vieillissement de certaines parties du reacteur a conduit a decider l'arret prochain de cette installation. La Pile EL. 3 a ete tres utilisee pour les experiences de physique et pour l'etude des combustibles. L'adoption d'une nouvelle structure pour le coeur (solution 'Cristal de neige') va permettre d'accroitre considerablement les possibilites de la pile pour les irradiations en neutrons rapides. La pile TRITON-I, piscine de 2 MW, est surtout utilisee pour les irradiations en neutrons rapides et en gamma. Certaines modifications, actuellement en cours, permettront d'accroitre la puissance du reacteur jusqu'a 4 ou 5 MW. Dans un compartiment voisin de TRITON-I est implantee la Pile TRITON-II, de meme structure generale, mais dont la puissance maximum est de 100 kW. TRITON-II est utilisee exclusivement pour les etudes de protections. MELUSINE, pile piscine de 2 MW est en fonctionnement au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble depuis 1959. Elle a permis l'execution d'un programme important concernant surtout la physique du solide, l'etude fondamentale de combustibles refractaires et de graphites speciaux, et l'etude du comportement des liquides organiques sous radiations. Les installations de

  2. Physics of magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.

  3. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  4. Wastewaters from the bioconversion of biomass. Utilisation and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frings, R.M. (Forest Research Inst. (New Zealand)); Coombs, J. (CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom))

    1992-04-01

    Developed technology for the bioconversion of biomass into energy forms falls into two categories: biogasification and bioliquefaction. Biogasification is the anaerobic fermentation of organic matter by a mixed culture of organisms to produce a gaseous mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Bioliquefaction is the use of a pure culture of organisms (mainly yeasts) to anaerobically ferment sugars into a range of liquid products with acetone, butanol, and ethanol being the most commonly produced. Biological processes have the advantage of occurring at ambient, or relatively low (35-60[sup o]C) temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in dilute substrate, in an aqueous environment. Conversion of raw material to gas or liquid fuel is generally incomplete, leaving the non-convertible residues (organic or inorganic) in solution. Hence, biological processes potentially generate large volumes of wastewater containing significant levels of pollutants. This review briefly describes the two bioconversion process routes and then considers each process separately in relation to the characteristics, utilisation and treatment of the specific wastewaters produced by the process. (author)

  5. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  6. Research utilisation in sonographic practice: Attitudes and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Vicki; Wilson, Stephanie E.; Svensson, Jon; Brennan, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Statutory agents have stipulated that research activity is a fundamental component of the healthcare professional's activity. Whilst the College of Radiographers have emphasised the importance of imaging personnel embracing this research ethos, there is little available data on the level of research activity within sonographic practice or on the factors that influence a sonographer's involvement in research activities. This work attempts to address these deficiencies. A questionnaire was sent to 300 UK-based sonographers of whom 218 responded (72%). The questionnaire was specifically designed to establish the level of involvement in research, the utilisation of research findings, attitudes towards research and perceived barriers to active research involvement. Responses were analysed investigating any correlations with the population demographics. The data collected showed the majority of sonographers (89%) were enthusiastic about research but with only 33% and 60% currently or previously performing research, respectively, and 73% using research findings to modify their clinical practice. Certain barriers to an active research involvement were shown, with 63%, 55% and 40% citing lack of time, education and collegial support, respectively. A range of statistical findings were linked to particular sonographer groups. The importance of good organisational structures and effective support from fellow health professionals was highlighted. The results confirm sonographers' appreciation of the benefits of research and it is suggested that if this enthusiasm is translated into effective research strategies, research output from ultrasound and other clinical departments should be enhanced.

  7. Overall concepts for utilisation of slow pyrolysis products - Hidaspyro II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L.; Kuoppala, E.; Ranta, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: leena.fagernas@vtt.fi; Setaelae, H.; Hagner, M. (University of Helsinki, Lahti (Finland), Dept. of Ecological and Environmental Sciences), e-mail: heikki.setala@helsinki.fi; Tiilikkala, K.; Palojaervi, A.; Lindqvist, B. (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)), e-mail: kari.tiilikkala@mtt.fi

    2011-11-15

    The project aims at developing new distributed biorefineries and comprehensive concepts based on slow pyrolysis for SMEs. The research carried out in the project 'Hidaspyro' will be continued in the new project. The goal is an optimised slow pyrolysis process for new applications of the products. The objective is to determine the effects of biochar and distillates on growth of plants, soil improvement, carbon sequestration and emissions of cultivation, to define the quality criteria of biochar, to determine the potential of distillates in odour prevention and to assess the environmental impacts of the products. Optimal process parameters to produce distillates and biochar of high quality will be determined by well-controlled laboratory-scale slow pyrolysis testing facility to be constructed. The main feedstock material will be birchwood, but comparisons with other biomass feedstocks will also be carried out. The efficacy tests will show the effect of biochars and distillates on growth of plants, use of water and nutrients, and biological activity of soil. Demonstrations of soil improvement and odour prevention will be done in co-operation with the partner enterprises. The environmental effects of different biochars will be compared by following the changes in the activity of microbes and the composition of nematode community. The amount and quality of distillate and biochar safe to the environment will be defined. All the results will be utilised in the techno-economic assessment of different concepts. (orig.)

  8. Novel Wine Yeast for Improved Utilisation of Proline during Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Long

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Proline is the predominant amino acid in grape juice, but it is poorly assimilated by wine yeast under the anaerobic conditions typical of most fermentations. Exploiting the abundance of this naturally occurring nitrogen source to overcome the need for nitrogen supplementation and/or the risk of stuck or sluggish fermentations would be most beneficial. This study describes the isolation and evaluation of a novel wine yeast isolate, Q7, obtained through ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenesis. The utilisation of proline by the EMS isolate was markedly higher than by the QA23 wild type strain, with approximately 700 and 300 mg/L more consumed under aerobic and self-anaerobic fermentation conditions, respectively, in the presence of preferred nitrogen sources. Higher intracellular proline contents in the wild type strain implied a lesser rate of proline catabolism or incorporation by this strain, but with higher cell viability after freezing treatment. The expression of key genes (PUT1, PUT2, PUT3, PUT4, GAP1 and URE2 involved in proline degradation, transport and repression were compared between the parent strain and the isolate, revealing key differences. The application of these strains for efficient conduct for nitrogen-limited fermentations is a possibility.

  9. Resource Utilisation and Curriculum Implementation in Community Colleges in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Changilwa Kigwilu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated how Catholic-sponsored community colleges in Nairobi utilise the existing physical facilities and teaching and learning resources for effective implementation of Artisan and Craft curricula. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to sample 172 students and 18 teachers while four directors of community colleges were purposively selected. Questionnaires were administered to students and teachers, while directors were interviewed. Teaching and learning resources, such as workshops, equipment, lecture rooms, laboratories, raw materials for practical training and reference books, were found to be adequate, although underutilised. However, sports grounds, libraries and course texts were inadequate. Resource inadequacies were often mitigated by signing equipment co-sharing agreements with peer institutions and local firms. Teachers rated highly the influence of physical facilities on curriculum implementation. Both students and teachers rated highly the influence of teaching and learning resources on curriculum implementation. The study concludes that, while some physical facilities and teaching and learning resources are adequate, their underutilisation and the inadequacy of other core facilities and resources, such as libraries and course textbooks, hinder effective teaching and learning in these community colleges.

  10. PENGELOLAAN ZAKAT OLEH NEGARA DAN SWASTA Studi Efektifitas dan Efisiensi Pengelolaan Zakat Oleh BAZ Dan LAZ Kota Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Abidah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstraks: Keberadaan lembaga zakat di Indonesia yang diakui oleh perundang-undangan ada dua, yaitu Badan Amil Zakat (BAZ dan Lembaga Amil Zakat (LAZ. BAZ adalah lembaga zakat yang dikelola oleh pemerintah, sedangkan LAZ adalah lembaga yang dikelola oleh masyarakat. Artikel ini merupakan merupakan hasil penelitian lapangan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Data digali langsung dari BAZ Kota Madiun dan LAZ dalam hal ini ada 2 lembaga, yaitu Lembaga Manajemen Infaq (LMI dan Baitul Maal Hidayatullah (BMH. Hasil penelitian BAZ lebih efektif dibanding LAZ, karena BAZ di bawah naungan Pemerintah Kota Madiun dan didukung dengan kebijakan dalam menjalankan progam kerjanya. Sedangkan pada LAZ (LMI dan BMH karena sifatnya mandiri, maka segala sesuatunya akan efektif jika mereka bekerja keras, dan itulah yang selama ini dilakukan oleh LMI dan BMH, sehingga sampai saat ini mereka masih eksis.

  11. INTERAKSI DAN HARMONI UMAT BERAGAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2012-05-01

    Masyarakat Singkawang adalah masyarakat yang terdiri atas berbagai kelompok suku bangsa dan agama. Secara historis, masyarakat Singkawang mampu mem­pertahankan harmoni antar agama. Model interaksi sosial yang bersifat asosiatif tampaknya potensial untuk mendukung harmoni di dalam masyarakat. Ber­dasarkan paradigma fungsional-struktural, masyarakat diasumsikan sebagai sistem organik yang memiliki huungan antar bagiannya untuk mempertahankan masyarakat. Interaksi sosial di dalam masyarakat Singkawang dikembangkan melalui interaksi di dalam lingkup keluarga, lingkungan sekitar, aktifitas ekonomi, para pimpinan agama, dan hubungan di dalam lingkup budaya dan tradisi. Meskipun demikian, hubungan antar unsur masyarakat masih kosmopolitan, yang di dalamnya anggota masyarakat kurang aktif dalam mengembangkan harmoni masyarakat.

  12. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  13. ETIKA BISNIS AL-GHAZALI DAN ADAM SMITH DALAM PERSPEKTIF ILMU BISNIS DAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. M. Hafidz MS.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi: (1 pembangunan etika bisnis yang telah dirumuskan oleh al-Ghazali dan Adam Smith, (2 persamaan dan perbedaan antara dua etika bisnis pria, dan (3 relevansi bisnis mereka etika bisnis modern dunia dan ekonomi. Bisnis etika dibangun oleh al-Ghazali dan Smith di dataran praksis tidak jauh berbeda. Etika bisnis konstruksi dibangun oleh al-Ghazali didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip seperti orientasi itikad baik tentang dunia dan akhirat, kejujuran, kepentingan pribadi dan social keseimbangan, dan perilaku / perbuatan yang tepat. Di sisi lain, etika bisnis konstruksi dibangun oleh Smith, berdasarkan keadilan, altruisme, keadilan dan liberal (kebebasan ekonomi. Baik etika bisnis yang diperkenalkan oleh kedua sangat relevan untuk menjadi digunakan sebagai bahan pokok acuan dalam etika bisnis modern.

  14. Pengembangan Sistem Otomatisasi AC dan Lampu Menggunakan Fuzzy dan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Otomatisasi AC dan lampu dilakukan untuk menghemat energi yang digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu perlu menerapkan sebuah perangkat yang memiliki fungsi maksimal dengan harga yang minimal. Raspberry Pi merupakan perangkat atau modul dengan harga rendah yang mampu melakukan komunikasi wireless tanpa bantuan modul lain. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu juga diperlukan sebuah metode yang mampu melakukan kontrol terhadap nyala AC dan lampu. Penerapan metode fuzzy dapat dilakukan untuk menghimpun informasi keadaan ruang yang didapat dari sensor untuk menentukan nyala AC dan lampu secara otomatis. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini mengusulkan pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi dan Fuzzy. Otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi yang menerapkan metode Fuzzy dapat menghemat energi hingga 59,87% dalam hal lama waktu nyala AC dan 57,47% untuk lumenasi lampu

  15. Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway di Petshop "PetZone"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Fadhilah Wati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dewasa ini teknologi informasi sangat membantu dalam dunia bisnis. Kemudahan yang ditawarkan akan menjaring lebih banyak konsumen. Namun, perusahan tingkat menengah seperti PetZone saat ini masih jarang yang menawarkan kemudahan berbelanja atau pemesanan layanan secara online. Oleh karena itu diperlukan sebuah sistem berbasis web di perusahaan PetZone yang dapat memudahkan pemilik dan karyawan dalam apenjualan, pelayanan, dan pemasaran, serta memudahkan pelanggan dalam jual-beli barang dan jasa. Atas dasar masalah tersebut dibangun Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway untuk menunjang proses bisnis yang ada. Sistem informasi dibangun menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP framework Codeigniter, javascript untuk tampilan yang dinamis, dan database MySQL. Proses pembuatan dan pengembangan Sistem Informasi Penjualan ini menggunakan metode air terjun. Metode air terjun meliputi kebutuhan pengguna, analisis, rancangan, implementasi dan pengujian. Pemodelan Sistem Informasi yang dibangun menggunakan metode berorientasi objek UML (Unified Modeling Language yang terdiri dari Use case  diagram, Class diagram dan Sequence diagram. Hasil pengujian Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway menunjukkan bahwa semua fitur yang terdapat baik dalam sistem informasi maupun SMS gateway dapat bekerja dengan baikdengan ratusan sample data, dan server SMS gateway dapat memproses lebih dari satu SMS secara bersamaan. Dalam perkembangan ke depannya nanti, Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway masih dapat dikembangkan lagi dengan menambah fitur-fitur pada SMS gateway sehingga lebih memudahkan konsumen.

  16. Pour une comparaison des utilisations atypiques des constructions verbales chez les locuteurs bilingues anglais/français et anglais/allemand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasart, Charles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Au sein du champ du bilinguisme, les études sur le phénomène de l'alternance codique constituent un domaine majeur de la recherche, en pleine expansion depuis trente ans, et qui a autant de visages qu'il peut exister de couples de langues. Par alternance codique, on entend l'utilisation alternée et fluide par les bilingues de leurs deux langues dans la même conversation (GARDNER-CHLOROS 2009. Ce phénomène protéiforme a fait l'objet de milliers d'articles, et constitue pour ainsi dire un carrefour des disciplines de la linguistique : des approches telles que celles de la sociolinguistique, la syntaxe, la sémantique, la pragmatique ou la morphologie sont nécessaires pour en donner une vue qui ne soit pas parcellaire au point d'être irrecevable. C'est cette approche plurielle qui informera nos analyses dans les pages qui viennent, dans la mesure où chacune étant une dimension intégrante de la production de langage, il nous paraît plus producti f de les traiter ensemble que séparément. Une grande partie de la recherche sur l'alternance codique est axée sur le verbe, ses compléments, et le traitement que peut leur réserver le jeu bilingue (MACSWAN, 2005. Dans la mesure où le verbe fournit le " noyau " de la phrase, cela peut se comprendre. Ce qu'il est permis de faire ou non autour d'un syntagme verbal a ainsi été l'objet d'un grand nombre d'hypothèses : on a écrit qu'un locuteur ne pouvait changer de langue entre un verbe et son objet, de par les relations de gouvernement qui les lient (BELAZI et al., 1994, DISCIULLO et al., 1986 ; que les mots grammaticaux ne pouvaient faire l'objet d'un changement de langue, et qu'on ne pouvait donc imaginer un passage d'une langue à l'autre entre un auxiliaire et un verbe lexical (JOSHI, 1985 ; ou, par exemple, que les locuteurs bilingues ne pouvaient changer de langue qu'aux points où les grammaires et syntaxes respectives sont similaires (POPLACK 1980. Quant aux conflagrations dans

  17. Efikasi Kendiri: Perbandingan Antara Islam dan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noornajihan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminologi efikasi kendiri (EK merupakan terminologi yang diperkenalkan dalam ilmu psikologi sekitar tahun 70-an. Namun, istilah ini masih kurang difahami oleh kebanyakan individu terutama mereka yang bukan berlatar belakangkan bidang psikologi. Oleh itu, satu keperluan hasil penulisan ini diketengahkan, memandangkan konsep ini penting dalam diri setiap individu bagi memacu kecemerlangan diri. Justeru, kertas kerja ini akan mengupas serba ringkas mengenai konsep EK dari perspektif Islam dan Barat, dengan melihat kepada beberapa titik persamaan dan perbezaan antara kedua-dua pandangan. Islam dan Barat bersetuju bahawa individu yang memiliki EK yang tinggi merupakan individu yang berfikiran positif, berani mengambil risiko dan tidak mudah berputus. Namun pandangan Islam terhadap konsep ini lebih luas, kerana Islam mengaitkan konsep ini dengan konsep tauhid uluhiyyah dan konsep manusia sebagai ahsan al-taqwim. Oleh demikian, EK dari perspektif Islam lebih bersifat kekal dan umum, di samping individu yang berefikasi tinggi menurut Islam ialah individu yang memiliki sifat sabar, syukur, redha dan redha.

  18. PERANCANGAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN PROTOTYPE SISTEM PARKIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Ayu Septriyaningrum

    2016-10-01

    Abstrak  Sistem parkir manual pada pelayanan parkir mall memerlukan pengelolaan dan pengembangan sistem yang lebih rumit dan jauh dari kata efisien. Informasi yang didapatkan pengelola parkir terkait kondisi parkir di lapangan setiap harinya masih kurang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah merancang dan mengembangkan prototype sistem parkir. Metode pengembangan dan perancangan sistem pada penelitian ini adalah metode Waterfall. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah sistem ini dapat mendeteksi keberadaan mobil pada slot parkir yang tersedia dengan bantuan Intel Galileo Board Gen 2 sebagai kontroler, sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor dan sensor ultrasonik (PING sebagai alat bantu pendeteksi keberadaan mobil. Sistem dapat menampilkan aktifitas parkir pada aplikasi web seperti kondisi lahan parkir kosong, lahan terisi, waktu masuk, waktu keluar, lama parkir dan kapasitas parkir yang tersedia serta grafik pemakaian lahan parkir. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa perancangan dan pengembangan sistem berhasil diimplementasikan. Kata Kunci : Sistem parkir, waterfall, Intel Galileo Board Gen 2,sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor, sensor ultrasonik

  19. Entre subjectivité et narration : la voix-off dans quelques documentaires français contemporains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Fiant

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available À travers l’analyse de sept films documentaires réalisés dans les années 2000 par Chantal Akerman, Vincent Dieutre, Vladimir Léon, Henri-François Imbert et Raymond Depardon, ce texte se propose d’étudier différentes modalités d’utilisation de la voix-off à des fins narratives mais aussi subjectives. Aussi, c’est la fameuse omniscience de la voix-off qui est remise en cause par ces cinéastes qui l’utilisent au contraire pour divulguer leurs doutes et leur fragilité. La voix-off participe alors de l’élaboration de nouvelles formes narratives, en l’occurrence documentaires.

  20. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Efektivitas Weblog dan Facebook Terintegrasi untuk Pembelajaran Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak: Saat ini, banyak mahasiswa menghabiskan waktu mereka di internet. Mereka melakukan kegiatan seperti membuat blog, mengunduh, mengunggah, chatting, dan berinteraksi melalui facebook. Mahasiswa sekarang ini hidup dengan teknologi. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa weblog dan facebook berpotensi mendukung belajar dan mengajar. Guru dan pendidik menggunakan kegiatan tersebut untuk meningkatkan kualitas belajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas weblog dan facebook ketika d...

  2. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  3. Utilisation of prompt fission neutron technology in Greenfields uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutz, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Conventionally, gamma detection technology has been used in uranium exploration programs for the initial detection of uranium as well as for a determination of uranium concentration. Geophysical logging companies use wireline gamma probes to measure uranium within boreholes, and field technicians utilise hand held gamma meters to detect uranium in rock samples, drill cuttings and cores. Borehole geophysical logging equipment typically records the uranium concentration as %eU 3 O8, where e represents an equivalent determination of uranium concentration as opposed to a laboratory assay. This method of uranium determination is an indirect method, as it measures gamma radiation from uranium-238 (U-238) isotope decay chain progeny; principally the bismuth-214 (Bi-214) isotope. Consequently, the uranium determination can be inaccurate due to natural disequilibrium between the U-238 parent and the decay chain progeny. This is especially true in sedimentary hosted uranium deposits, where the uranium and daughter progeny may have been geochemically separated. The gamma detection method for uranium can also be rendered inaccurate by detecting the gamma signature from potassium in clays as well as from thorium; both of which can provide a false (enhanced) eU 3 O8 determination. Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) technology is a geophysical wireline logging technology used in the same manner as conventional gamma logging. The difference is that PFN provides a direct determination of uranium within a borehole, irrespective of natural disequilibrium or the presence of other radioactive elements. This paper provides a brief description of natural uranium and radioactivity as a basis for explaining the conventional use of gamma radiation detectors for the detection and determination of uranium concentration in exploration boreholes, including the potential pitfalls of this technology. A detailed description of prompt fission neutron technology is also presented, along with a discussion

  4. Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C Pitts

    Full Text Available Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal β-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin β-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen.

  5. Radioisotope Power Sources; Sources d'energie utilisant les radiobotopes; Radioizotopnye istochniki ehnergii; Fuentes radio isotopicas de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culwell, J. P. [USAEC, Washington, D.C (United States)

    1963-11-15

    hazards. (author) [French] Le programme de production d'energie au moyen des radioisotopes, execute par la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis, a donne naissance a toute une technologie nouvelle de l'emploi des radioisotopes comme source d'energie dans des generateurs. Les sources d'energie utilisant des radioisotopes conviennent particulierement pour les applications a distance, qui exigent des alimentations de longue duree, de faibles dimensions et de fonctionnement sur. Ces ''batteries nucleaires'', qui peuvent fonctionner de maniere satisfaisante dans des conditions extremes de temperature et d'exposition aux rayons solaires et aux rayonnements electromagnetiques, constituent des sources d'energie interessantes pour differents types d'engins telecommandes tels que ceux qui sont destines a recueillir des renseignements ou a assurer une surveillance ainsi que les satellites et autres vehicules spatiaux. Les radioisotopes utilises comme sources d'energie sont generalement des emetteuis alpha ou beta. Les emetteurs alpha sont preferables, mais ils sont plus couteux et plus rares et on les reserve generalement pour les applications spatiales. A l'heure actuelle les emetteurs beta, obtenus par separation des dechets de la fission nucleaire, sont utilises exclusivement dans les engins terrestres et marins. On peut neanmoins prevoir que des emetteurs beta, comme le strontium-90, seront eventuellement utilises dans l'espace. On fait actuellement des recherches sur des generateurs qui utiliseront comme sources des melanges de produits de fission. Ces sources seront d'un prix de revient moins eleve qile les radioisotopes purs car les couts de la separation et de la purification seront supprimes. Des prototypes de generateurs thermoelectriques, utilisant le strontium-90 et le cesium-137 comme sources, fonctionnent actuellement ou sont mis au point dans des stations meteorologiques, des engins de balisage et des appareils pour la survellance des profondeurs marines. Le

  6. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  7. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-03-22

    While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Determinants of Antenatal Healthcare Utilisation by Pregnant Women in Third Trimester in Peri-Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Asafo Akowuah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to quality healthcare still remains a major challenge in the efforts at reversing maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of established maternal health interventions, the health of the expectant mother and the unborn child remains poor due to low utilisation of interventions. The study examined the socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation in peri-urban Ghana using pregnant women who are in their third trimester. Two-stage sampling technique was used to sample 200 pregnant women who were in their third trimester from the District Health Information Management System software. Well-structured questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data from respondents. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including binary logit regression model were used to analyse the data with the help of SPSS and STATA software. The results showed varying utilisation levels of ANC. From the regression result, age, household size, and occupational status were identified as the important socioeconomic determinants of antenatal care utilisation among the respondents. The important system factors which influence antenatal care utilisation by the respondents are distance to ANC, quality of service, and service satisfaction. The study concludes that socioeconomic and health system factors are important determinants of antenatal care utilisation. Stepping up of interventions aimed at improving the socioeconomic status and addressing health system and proximity challenges could be helpful in improving antenatal care utilisation by pregnant women in Ghana.

  9. Outpatient echocardiography in the evaluation of innocent murmurs in children: utilisation benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Patricio A; Oster, Matthew; Daley, Patricia A; Boris, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-01

    We sought to benchmark the utilisation of echocardiography in the outpatient evaluation of heart murmurs by evaluating two large paediatric cardiology centres. Although criteria exist for appropriate use of echocardiography, there are no benchmarking data demonstrating its utilisation. We performed a retrospective cohort study of outpatients aged between 0 and 18 years at the Sibley Heart Center Cardiology and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology, given a sole diagnosis of "innocent murmur" from 1 July, 2007 to 31 October, 2010. Using internal claims data, we compared the utilisation of echocardiography according to centre, patient age, and physician years of service. Of 23,114 eligible patients (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 12,815, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 10,299), 43.1% (Sibley Heart Center Cardiology: 45.2%, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Division of Cardiology: 40.4%; p1-5 years had the lowest utilisation (32.7%). In two large paediatric cardiology practices, the overall utilisation of echocardiography by physicians with a sole diagnosis of innocent murmur was similar. There was significant and similar variability in utilisation by provider at both centres. Although these data serve as initial benchmarking, the variability in utilisation highlights the importance of appropriate use criteria.

  10. Fast flux measurements by means of threshold detectors on the reactor 'Melusine'; Mesures de flux rapides a l'aide de detecteurs a seuil sur le reacteur 'Melusine'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, P; Sautiez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Using existing data on the (n,p) and (n,{alpha}) threshold reactions we have carried out fast flux measurements on the swimming pool type reactor 'Melusine'. Four common elements: P, S, Mg, Al were chosen because from the point of view of fast spectrum analysis they represent a fairly good energy range from 2.4 MeV to 8 MeV. The fission flux value found in the central element at a power of 1 MW is 1.4 x 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}/s {+-} 0.14. (author) [French] A l'aide des donnees actuelles sur les reactions a seuil (n,p) et (n,{alpha}) nous avons realise des mesures de flux rapide dans le reacteur du type piscine 'Melusine'. Quatre corps courants: P, S, Mg, Al, ont ete choisis parce qu'ils constituent au point de vue de l'analyse du spectre rapide un assez bon etalement en energie de 2,4 MeV A 8 MeV. La valeur du flux de fission trouve dans l'element central a une puissance de 1 MW est de 1,4.10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}/s {+-} 0,14. (auteur)

  11. Lõuka tuuliku restaureerimine / Dan Lukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lukas, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Hiiumaal Pühalepa vallas Vahtrepa külas Lõuka talu maadel asuva pukktuuliku ajaloost, restaureerimise käigust. Teostus: Dan Lukas. Muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: Tõnu Sepp, tema kommentaar. Ill.:pukktuuliku lõiked ja korruste plaanid, 7 värv. fotot

  12. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  13. Asuransi Takaful: Prospek Dan Tantangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Sobirin, Achmad; Muhtar, Muchsin

    1994-01-01

    Dewasa ini perhatian terhadap nilai-nilai syariah Islam terhadap muamalah khususnya di bidang ekonomi menjadi besar. Lembaga perekonomian yang terjalin dengan pranata keagamaan makin menggejala dimana-mana dan kini sedang tumbuh mencari bentuk untuk dapat diterima di tengah-tengah masyarakat.

  14. Impact des changements climatiques sur l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffara sud-est tunisien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Jeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude évalue la vulnérabilité de l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffera sud-est tunisien aux changements climatiques en utilisant la méthode Ricardienne. Cette méthode consiste à exprimer les revenus nets agricoles en fonction des variables climatiques, édaphiques et socio-économiques. Ces modèles ricardiens ont été testés sur la base des données d’une enquête réalisée dans le cadre de projet de développement dans la plaine Jeffera pour la compagne agricole 2002-2003.  Ces modèles ont permis d’exprimer d’une part la relation qui existe entre le revenu agricole et les variables climatiques (température et précipitation et d’autre part, d’analyser la sensibilité des revenus agricoles par rapport à ces variables climatiques. Des simulations ont été faites sur la base de scenario A2 résultat de la projection faite par le modèle HadCM3 à l’échelle nationale et régionale de la Tunisie.Les résultats de l’étude ont montré que la relation entre le revenu agricole et le climat est non linéaire. De même, les effets négatifs de certaines options d’adaptation ont montré que  l’agriculture dans la plaine de Jeffera est une agriculture paysanne basée sur le travail familial qui nécessite aujourd’hui un capital financier important et une marge de modernisation afin d’améliorer l’activité agricole dans les années futures. Tandis que les effets positifs de certaines autres options peuvent être servir comme des points de réflexion dans l’élaboration des stratégies d’adaptation aux changements climatiques comme l’utilisation des nouvelles technologies d’irrigation et l’intégration de l’activité de l’élevage dans l’exploitation agricole.

  15. Critical heat flux evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banner, D.

    1995-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is of importance for nuclear safety and represents the major limiting factors for reactor cores. Critical heat flux is caused by a sharp reduction in the heat transfer coefficient located at the outer surface of fuel rods. Safety requires that this phenomenon also called the boiling crisis should be precluded under nominal or incidental conditions (Class I and II events). CHF evaluation in reactor cores is basically a two-step approach. Fuel assemblies are first tested in experimental loops in order to determine CHF limits under various flow conditions. Then, core thermal-hydraulic calculations are performed for safety evaluation. The paper will go into more details about the boiling crisis in order to pinpoint complexity and lack of fundamental understanding in many areas. Experimental test sections needed to collect data over wide thermal-hydraulic and geometric ranges are described CHF safety margin evaluation in reactors cores is discussed by presenting how uncertainties are mentioned. From basic considerations to current concerns, the following topics are discussed; knowledge of the boiling crisis, CHF predictors, and advances thermal-hydraulic codes. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs

  16. Neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Tai, Ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the measuring accuracy and the reponse time within an allowable range in accordance with the change of neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. Constitution: Neutron fluxes within a nuclear reactor pressure vessel are detected by detectors, converted into pulse signals and amplified in a range switching amplifier. The amplified signals are further converted through an A/D converter and digital signals from the converter are subjected to a square operation in an square operation circuit. The output from the circuit is inputted into an integration circuit to selectively accumulate the constant of 1/2n, 1 - 1/2n (n is a positive integer) respectively for two continuing signals to perform weighing. Then, the addition is carried out to calculate the integrated value and the addition number is changed by the chane in the number n to vary the integrating time. The integrated value is inputted into a control circuit to control the value of n so that the fluctuation and the calculation time for the integrated value are within a predetermined range and, at the same time, the gain of the range switching amplifier is controlled. (Seki, T.)

  17. KETENTUAN TENTANG STANDAR PELAYANAN MINIMAL BIDANG KELUARGA BERENCANA DAN KELUARGA SEJAHTERA BERDASARKAN ASAS PERIKEMANUSIAAN DAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Riyanti

    2017-01-01

    Hasil penelitian, ketentuan tentang standar pelayanan minimal bidang keluarga berencana, keluarga sejahtera dan asas perikemanusiaan dengan hak asasi manusia sangat berhubungan keterbatasan lingkup pelayanan dan standar pelaksanaan Komunikasi Informasi dan Edukasi yang tidak jelasberdampak pada tidak dipenuhinya hak asasi manusia untuk mendapatkan kesetaraan dan kebebasan dalam pelayanan keluarga berencana dan keluarga sejahtera.

  18. SIMULASI KESEIMBANGAN ENERGI PERMUKAAN DI JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA MENGGUNAKAN MODEL NUMERIK MM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yopi Ilhamsyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studi simulasi keseimbangan energi permukaan di Jakarta dan daerah sekitarnya menggunakan model numerik Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 telah dilakukan. Empat domain dengan resolusi spasial 9 km yang menggambarkan daerah Jakarta dan sekitarnya disimulasikan selama 5 hari pada tanggal 04-08 Agustus 2004 untuk memperoleh hubungan radiasi dan keseimbangan energi di wilayah tersebut. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa keseimbangan energi lebih tinggi pada siang hari terjadi di perkotaan dibandingkan daerah lainnya. Sementara itu, komponen energi seperti fluks bahang terindera dan laten di permukaan masing-masing menunjukkan bahwa wilayah laut dan perkotaan lebih tinggi daripada daerah lainnya. Sebaliknya, fluks bahang tanah menunjukkan daerah rural di bagian timur Jakarta lebih tinggi dibandingkan daerah lainnya. Secara umum, keseimbangan radiasi dan energi pada siang hari lebih tinggi daripada malam hari di seluruh daerah. Rasio Bowen di wilayah kota yang mencerminkan kawasan bangunan dan perkotaan lebih tinggi daripada di daerah rural yang didominasi oleh lahan pertanian beririgasi. Hal ini sesuai dengan perubahan sifat fisik tutupan lahan seperti albedo, kelembaban tanah dan karakteristik bahang.    A study of surface energy balance simulation in Jakarta and surrounding areas by using Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5 numerical model was done. Four domains that presented the outermost and the innermost of Jakarta and surrounding areaswere utilized. All domains have spatial resolutions of 9 km. Model was simulated for 5 days on August 4-8, 2004. The relation of radiation and energy balance at the surface were derived from model output. The result showed that energy balance was higher in the city during daytime. Meanwhile, energy component, i.e., surface sensible and latent heat flux showed that sea and city were higher than others, respectively. Moreover, ground flux showed eastern rural areawas higher than others

  19. ANALYSE RIGOUREUSE D’IRIS METALLIQUES EPAIS ET LEUR APPLICATION DANS LES FILTRES A CAVITES RECTANGULAIRES DIRECTEMENT COUPLEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BELMEGUENAI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Une technique générale, basée sur l’analyse modale, est utilisée pour la modélisation de discontinuités et de filtres en guides d’ondes rectangulaires. Dans notre étude où l’épaisseur de l’obstacle métallique (iris épais est prise en compte, nous déterminons d’abord la matrice de diffraction de l’iris par utilisation de l’analyse en modes symétriques et asymétriques, puis en considérant le principe d’association de quadripôles en cascade, nous obtenons la réponse du filtre. Nos différents résultats sont comparés avec ceux publiés dans la littérature.

  20. L’impact de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises sur la politique de distribution des dividendes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoel Mezgani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de ce papier est de tester l’incidence de la participation bancaire dans le capital des entreprises non financières sur la politique de distribution des dividendes. En utilisant des données de panel des trente entreprises tunisiennes durant la période de 1999 à 2004, nous vérifions si en détenant le capital et la dette, la banque a la possibilité de contraindre la distribution des dividendes pour garantir le remboursement de ses fonds prêtés. Les résultats empiriques obtenus ne confirment pas l’impact significatif des banques actionnaires majoritaires et principaux créditeurs sur la distribution des dividendes dans les entreprises tunisiennes. Ces dernières soutiennent surtout la stabilité du niveau des dividendes payés d’une année à une autre.